Science.gov

Sample records for intrinsically safe laboratory

  1. 46 CFR 111.105-11 - Intrinsically safe systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intrinsically safe systems. 111.105-11 Section 111.105-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-11 Intrinsically safe systems. (a) Each system required by this subpart to be...

  2. An intrinsically safe mechanism for physically coupling humans with robots.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Gerald; Patel, Harshil; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2013-06-01

    Robots are increasingly used in tasks that include physical interaction with humans. Examples can be found in the area of rehabilitation robotics, power augmentation robots, as well as assistive and orthotic devices. However, current methods of physically coupling humans with robots fail to provide intrinsic safety, adaptation and efficiency, which limit the application of wearable robotics only to laboratory and controlled environments. In this paper we present the design and verification of a novel mechanism for physically coupling humans and robots. The device is intrinsically safe, since it is based on passive, non-electric features that are not prone to malfunctions. The device is capable of transmitting forces and torques in all directions between the human user and the robot. Moreover, its re-configurable nature allows for easy and consistent adjustment of the decoupling force. The latter makes the mechanism applicable to a wide range of human-robot coupling applications, ranging from low-force rehabilitation-therapy scenarios to high-force augmentation cases. PMID:24187325

  3. Intrinsically safe 5-V, 4-A rechargeable power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammarco, John J.

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a regulated, intrinsically safe, rechargeable power supply for portable electronic equipment for underground use. The regulated output is ideal for microprocessor power requirements and is suited for operation in hazardous environments. Two rechargeable, sealed batteries are contained within the power supply. Provisions are made to use an external source of power if these batteries fail. Provisions are also made to charge these internal batteries when needed. The circuit is composed of three main circuits: the main regulator circuit, the input protection circuit, and the output protection circuit. The main regulator circuit provides remote voltage sensing, current sensing, fault monitoring, and internal thermal protection. The input protection circuit checks for excessive input current and low battery conditions. The output protection circuit contains two overvoltage detection devices. Schematics, a parts list, and a calibration procedure are provided in the report to enable readers to fabricate the power supply.

  4. Intrinsically safe 5-V, 4-A rechargeable power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Sammarco, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The author reports on a regulated, intrinsically safe, rechargeable power supply for portable electronic equipment for underground use. The regulated output is ideal for microprocessor power requirements and is suited for operation in hazardous environments. Two rechargeable, sealed batteries are contained within the power supply. Provisions are made to use an external source of power if these batteries fail. Provisions are also made to charge these internal batteries when needed. The circuit is composed of three main circuits: the main regulator circuit, the input protection circuit, and the output protection circuit. The main regulator circuit provides remote voltage sensing, current sensing, fault monitoring, and internal thermal protection. The input protection circuit checks for excessive input current and low battery conditions. The output protection circuit contains two overvoltage detection devices. Schematics, a parts list, and a calibration procedure are provided.

  5. Integral Battery Power Limiting Circuit for Intrinsically Safe Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Bradley M.; Blalock, Norman N.

    2010-01-01

    A circuit topology has been designed to guarantee the output of intrinsically safe power for the operation of electrical devices in a hazardous environment. This design uses a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) as a switch to connect and disconnect power to a load. A test current is provided through a separate path to the load for monitoring by a comparator against a preset threshold level. The circuit is configured so that the test current will detect a fault in the load and open the switch before the main current can respond. The main current passes through the switch and then an inductor. When a fault occurs in the load, the current through the inductor cannot change immediately, but the voltage drops immediately to safe levels. The comparator detects this drop and opens the switch before the current in the inductor has a chance to respond. This circuit protects both the current and voltage from exceeding safe levels. Typically, this type of protection is accomplished by a fuse or a circuit breaker, but in order for a fuse or a circuit breaker to blow or trip, the current must exceed the safe levels momentarily, which may be just enough time to ignite anything in a hazardous environment. To prevent this from happening, a fuse is typically current-limited by the addition of the resistor to keep the current within safe levels while the fuse reacts. The use of a resistor is acceptable for non-battery applications where the wasted energy and voltage drop across the resistor can be tolerated. The use of the switch and inductor minimizes the wasted energy. For example, a circuit runs from a 3.6-V battery that must be current-limited to 200 mA. If the circuit normally draws 10 mA, then an 18-ohm resistor would drop 180 mV during normal operation, while a typical switch (0.02 ohm) and inductor (0.97 ohm) would only drop 9.9 mV. From a power standpoint, the current-limiting resistor protection circuit wastes about 18 times more power than the

  6. 30 CFR 18.44 - Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered... Construction and Design Requirements § 18.44 Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment. (a) Battery-powered equipment shall use battery assemblies approved under Part 7 of this chapter, or...

  7. 30 CFR 18.44 - Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered... Construction and Design Requirements § 18.44 Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment. (a) Battery-powered equipment shall use battery assemblies approved under Part 7 of this chapter, or...

  8. 30 CFR 18.44 - Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered... Construction and Design Requirements § 18.44 Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment. (a) Battery-powered equipment shall use battery assemblies approved under Part 7 of this chapter, or...

  9. 30 CFR 18.44 - Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered... Construction and Design Requirements § 18.44 Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment. (a) Battery-powered equipment shall use battery assemblies approved under Part 7 of this chapter, or...

  10. 30 CFR 18.44 - Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered... Construction and Design Requirements § 18.44 Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment. (a) Battery-powered equipment shall use battery assemblies approved under Part 7 of this chapter, or...

  11. 46 CFR 111.105-11 - Intrinsically safe systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... system must meet ISA RP 12.6 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except Appendix A.1. ...-11 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Each electric cable of an intrinsically...-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING...

  12. 46 CFR 111.105-11 - Intrinsically safe systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system must meet ISA RP 12.6 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except Appendix A.1. ...-11 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Each electric cable of an intrinsically...-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING...

  13. 46 CFR 111.105-11 - Intrinsically safe systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... system must meet ISA RP 12.6 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except Appendix A.1. ...-11 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Each electric cable of an intrinsically...-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING...

  14. 46 CFR 111.105-11 - Intrinsically safe systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... system must meet ISA RP 12.6 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1), except Appendix A.1. ...-11 (both incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Each electric cable of an intrinsically...-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING...

  15. Design and Performance Analysis of an Intrinsically Safe Ultrasonic Ranging Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dong; Jin, Baoquan

    2016-01-01

    In flammable or explosive environments, an ultrasonic sensor for distance measurement poses an important engineering safety challenge, because the driving circuit uses an intermediate frequency transformer as an impedance transformation element, in which the produced heat or spark is available for ignition. In this paper, an intrinsically safe ultrasonic ranging sensor is designed and implemented. The waterproof piezoelectric transducer with integrated transceiver is chosen as an energy transducing element. Then a novel transducer driving circuit is designed based on an impedance matching method considering safety spark parameters to replace an intermediate frequency transformer. Then, an energy limiting circuit is developed to achieve dual levels of over-voltage and over-current protection. The detail calculation and evaluation are executed and the electrical characteristics are analyzed to verify the intrinsic safety of the driving circuit. Finally, an experimental platform of the ultrasonic ranging sensor system is constructed, which involves short-circuit protection. Experimental results show that the proposed ultrasonic ranging sensor is excellent in both ranging performance and intrinsic safety. PMID:27304958

  16. Design and Performance Analysis of an Intrinsically Safe Ultrasonic Ranging Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dong; Jin, Baoquan

    2016-01-01

    In flammable or explosive environments, an ultrasonic sensor for distance measurement poses an important engineering safety challenge, because the driving circuit uses an intermediate frequency transformer as an impedance transformation element, in which the produced heat or spark is available for ignition. In this paper, an intrinsically safe ultrasonic ranging sensor is designed and implemented. The waterproof piezoelectric transducer with integrated transceiver is chosen as an energy transducing element. Then a novel transducer driving circuit is designed based on an impedance matching method considering safety spark parameters to replace an intermediate frequency transformer. Then, an energy limiting circuit is developed to achieve dual levels of over-voltage and over-current protection. The detail calculation and evaluation are executed and the electrical characteristics are analyzed to verify the intrinsic safety of the driving circuit. Finally, an experimental platform of the ultrasonic ranging sensor system is constructed, which involves short-circuit protection. Experimental results show that the proposed ultrasonic ranging sensor is excellent in both ranging performance and intrinsic safety. PMID:27304958

  17. Design and Implementation of an Intrinsically Safe Liquid-Level Sensor Using Coaxial Cable

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Baoquan; Liu, Xin; Bai, Qing; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Real-time detection of liquid level in complex environments has always been a knotty issue. In this paper, an intrinsically safe liquid-level sensor system for flammable and explosive environments is designed and implemented. The poly vinyl chloride (PVC) coaxial cable is chosen as the sensing element and the measuring mechanism is analyzed. Then, the capacitance-to-voltage conversion circuit is designed and the expected output signal is achieved by adopting parameter optimization. Furthermore, the experimental platform of the liquid-level sensor system is constructed, which involves the entire process of measuring, converting, filtering, processing, visualizing and communicating. Additionally, the system is designed with characteristics of intrinsic safety by limiting the energy of the circuit to avoid or restrain the thermal effects and sparks. Finally, the approach of the piecewise linearization is adopted in order to improve the measuring accuracy by matching the appropriate calibration points. The test results demonstrate that over the measurement range of 1.0 m, the maximum nonlinearity error is 0.8% full-scale span (FSS), the maximum repeatability error is 0.5% FSS, and the maximum hysteresis error is reduced from 0.7% FSS to 0.5% FSS by applying software compensation algorithms. PMID:26029949

  18. Design and implementation of an intrinsically safe liquid-level sensor using coaxial cable.

    PubMed

    Jin, Baoquan; Liu, Xin; Bai, Qing; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Real-time detection of liquid level in complex environments has always been a knotty issue. In this paper, an intrinsically safe liquid-level sensor system for flammable and explosive environments is designed and implemented. The poly vinyl chloride (PVC) coaxial cable is chosen as the sensing element and the measuring mechanism is analyzed. Then, the capacitance-to-voltage conversion circuit is designed and the expected output signal is achieved by adopting parameter optimization. Furthermore, the experimental platform of the liquid-level sensor system is constructed, which involves the entire process of measuring, converting, filtering, processing, visualizing and communicating. Additionally, the system is designed with characteristics of intrinsic safety by limiting the energy of the circuit to avoid or restrain the thermal effects and sparks. Finally, the approach of the piecewise linearization is adopted in order to improve the measuring accuracy by matching the appropriate calibration points. The test results demonstrate that over the measurement range of 1.0 m, the maximum nonlinearity error is 0.8% full-scale span (FSS), the maximum repeatability error is 0.5% FSS, and the maximum hysteresis error is reduced from 0.7% FSS to 0.5% FSS by applying software compensation algorithms. PMID:26029949

  19. Safe handling and disposal of laboratory animal waste.

    PubMed

    Hill, D

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory animal handlers have a strict obligation to consider the safe handling and disposal of their animal waste streams. It is their responsibility to evaluate the hazards, assess the risks, and choose an appropriate strategy. Potential hazards include chemicals, such as commonly used sterilants and disinfectants; physical risks, such as heavy or repetitive lifting activities; hazardous micro-organisms or allergens; and radiologic agents. Furthermore, many animal studies involve compounds with unknown toxicity, which may require special precautions. Animal handlers must protect themselves by using appropriate engineering controls of work practice to minimize their exposure, adding the use of personal protective equipment when necessary. In addition, compliance with institutional waste handling procedures that meet federal, state, and local environmental requirements is essential to ensure the safe transport and disposal of animal waste streams. PMID:10329914

  20. Intrinsically safe laser-based system for continuous measurement of low-frequency vibration of mine shaft installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szade, Adam; Passia, Henryk; Lipowczan, Adam; Bochenek, Wojciech

    1998-06-01

    Proper condition of the mine shaft equipment is of vital importance both in view of production and safety. In some cases, this state can be adversely by the changing geological conditions in the shaft surroundings so that special precautions are necessary for reliable operation of the shaft. In the paper, an intrinsically-safe measuring system, approved for gassy mine use, based on the laser vibration sensor has been presented including its construction and operational characteristics. Examples of application have also been given related to measurements of low-frequency vibration events and of displacements both in the surface and underground parts of the shafts.

  1. Safe use of wire rope at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Stinnett, L.

    1982-08-01

    The safety of wire-rope cables used in hoists and cranes for heavy equipment handling at the Sandia National Laboratories, one experience with cable failure, and the inspection and servicing procedures used as safety precautions when dealing with wire rope are discussed. (LCL)

  2. Study of an intrinsically safe infrastructure for training and research on nuclear technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripani, Marco; Frambati, Stefano; Mansani, Luigi; Bruzzone, Maurizio; Reale, Marco; Monti, Stefano; Ciotti, Marco; Barbagallo, Massimo; Colonna, Nicola; Celentano, Andrea; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ricco, Giovanni; Saracco, Paolo; Viberti, Carlo Maria; Frasciello, Oscar; Boccaccio, Pasquale; Esposito, Juan; Lombardi, Augusto; Maggiore, Mario; Piazza, Leandro A. C.; Prete, Gianfranco; Alba, Rosa; Calabretta, Luciano; Cosentino, Gianluigi; Del Zoppo, Antonio; Di Pietro, Alessia; Figuera, Pierpaolo; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Maiolino, Cettina; Santonocito, Domenico; Schillaci, Maria; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Sisti, Monica; Kostyukov, Alexander; Cammi, Antonio; Bortot, Sara; Lorenzi, Stefano; Ricotti, Marco; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero; Lomonaco, Guglielmo; Rebora, Alessandro; Alloni, Daniele; Borio di Tigliole, Andrea; Cagnazzo, Marcella; Cremonesi, Riccardo; Magrotti, Giovanni; Manera, Sergio; Panza, Fabio; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Within European Partitioning & Transmutation research programs, infrastructures specifically dedicated to the study of fundamental reactor physics and engineering parameters of future fast-neutron-based reactors are very important, being some of these features not available in present zero-power prototypes. This presentation will illustrate the conceptual design of an Accelerator-Driven System with high safety standards, but ample flexibility for measurements. The design assumes as base option a 70 MeV, 0.75 mA proton cyclotron, as the one which will be installed at the INFN National Laboratory in Legnaro, Italy and a Beryllium target, with Helium gas as core coolant. Safety is guaranteed by limiting the thermal power to 200 kW, with a neutron multiplication coefficient around 0.94, loading the core with fuel containing Uranium enriched at 20% inserted in a solid-lead diffuser. The small decay heat can be passively removed by thermal radiation from the vessel. Such a system could be used to study, among others, some specific aspects of neutron diffusion in lead, beam-core coupling, target cooling and could serve as a training facility.

  3. Effective, Safe, and Inexpensive Microscale Ultrasonic Setup for Teaching and Research Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana, Angel M.; Grima, Pedro M.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a homemade, safe, effective, and inexpensive reactor vessel for ultrasonic horns with applications in microscale experiments in teaching and research laboratories. The reactor vessel is designed for an ultrasonic probe that allows reactions to be run at the microscale level at a wide range of temperatures and under inert atmosphere.…

  4. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — General description of the system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansani, L.; Bruzzone, M.; Frambati, S.; Reale, M.

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of research on generation-IV reactors, it is very important to have infrastructures specifically dedicated to the study of fundamental parameters in dynamics and kinetics of future fast-neutron reactors. Among various options pursued by international groups, Italy focused on lead-cooled reactors, which guarantee minimal neutron slowdown and capture and efficient cooling. In this paper it is described the design of a the low-power prototype generator, LEADS, that could be used within research facilities such as the National Laboratory of Legnaro of the INFN. The LEADS has a high safety standard in order to be used as a training facility, but it has also a good flexibility so as to allow a wide range of measurements and experiments. A high safety standard is achieved by limiting the reactor power to less than few hundred kW and the neutron multiplication factor k eff to less than 0.95 (a limiting value for spent fuel pool), by using a pure-uranium fuel (no plutonium) and by using solid lead as a diffuser. The proposed core is therefore intrinsically subcritical and has to be driven by an external neutron source generated by a proton beam impinging in a target. Preliminary simulations, performed with the MCNPX code indicated, for a 0.75mA continuous proton beam current at 70MeV proton energy, a reactor power of about 190kW when using a beryllium converter. The enriched-uranium fuel elements are immersed in a solid-lead matrix and contained within a steel vessel. The system is cooled by helium gas, which is transparent to neutrons and does not undergo activation. The gas is pumped by a compressor through specific holes at the entrance of the active volume with a temperature which varies according to the operating conditions and a pressure of about 1.1MPa. The hot gas coming out of the vessel is cooled by an external helium-water heat exchanger. The beryllium converter is cooled by its dedicated helium gas cooling system. After shutdown, the decay is

  5. Plan for Safe Laser Beam Propagation from the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, K. E.; Roberts, W. T.; Garkanian, V.; Battle, F.; Leblanc, R.; Hemmati, H.; Robles, P.

    2002-10-01

    JPL is building a state-of-the-art Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to perform research and development of laser beam propagation and signal detection technologies to meet NASA's future needs for high-bandwidth communications from Earth-orbiting and deep-space probes. Laser beam propagation between ground and space is regulated by several government agencies -- regulation that is significant when propagating high-brightness, Q-switched laser beams that will be used for uplinking commands to deep-space probes and as an acquisition, pointing, and tracking beacon for downlink optical communication. To ensure safe laser operation and beam propagation from the OCTL, JPL has identified a four-tier safety system. The safety system starts with safe beam propagation within the OCTL, extends to safe beam propagation through the air and into space, and is designed to meet the requirements of State (California Occupational Safety and Health Administration) and Federal agencies (Federal Aviation Administration and the U.S. Space Command's Laser Clearinghouse).

  6. Laparoscopic kidney transplant by extra peritoneal approach: the safe transition from laboratory to the clinic.

    PubMed

    He, B; Mou, L; Sharpe, K; Swaminathan, R; Hamdorf, J; Delriviere, L

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel laparoscopic surgery by extra-peritoneal approach for kidney transplant and pave the way of safe transition from laboratory to the clinic. The study was established to explore the feasibility and safety of human laparoscopic kidney transplant. The experiment was first conducted on the deceased animals, then live animals and human cavader before human kidney transplant was approved. The study patient was a 49-year-old male who received the kidney for laparoscopic kidney transplant by extra-peritoneal approach. The control patient received the contralateral kidney for open kidney transplant. The estimated blood loss was minimal during surgery. Both kidneys experienced delayed graft function but the kidneys started function on Day 6 postoperation. The analgesia consumption was significantly less in the study patient. There is no surgical complication during 6-month follow-up. This study has developed a new technique for laparoscopic kidney transplant by extra-peritoneal approach. It has retained the advantages of open kidney transplant, which allows the graft located in the extra-peritoneal space without violating peritoneum. This study has also paved the way of safe transition for a novel laparoscopic surgery from laboratory to the clinic. PMID:25040557

  7. Methods for the Safe Storage, Handling, and Disposal of Pyrophoric Liquids and Solids in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Quigley, David; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Simmons, Fred; Freshwater, David; Bigger, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Due to the inherent nature of pyrophoric substances to ignite spontaneously upon exposure to air, special precautions must be taken to ensure their safe handling and use. Pyrophoric gases (such as diborane, dichloroborane, phosphine, etc.) are typically the easiest class of pyrophoric substances to handle since the gas can be plumbed directly to the application and used remotely. Pyrophoric solids and liquids, however, require the user to physically manipulate them when transferring them from one container to another. Failure to follow proper safety precautions could result in serious injury or unintended consequences to laboratory personnel.12 Because of this danger, pyrophorics should be handled only by experienced personnel. Users with limited experience must be trained on how to handle pyrophoric reagents and consult with a knowledgeable staff member prior to performing the experimental task. The purpose of this article is three fold: 1) to provide guidelines and general safety precautions to avoid accidents, 2) describe proper techniques on how to successfully handle, store, and dispose of pyrophoric liquids and solids, and 3) illustrate best practices for working with this class of reactants in a laboratory environment.

  8. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies —Neutron yield from Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipenko, M.; Ripani, M.; Ricco, G.; Celentano, A.; Viberti, C. M.; Alba, R.; Schillaci, M.; Cosentino, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Boccaccio, P.; Esposito, J.; Kostyukov, A.

    2014-04-01

    We describe a dedicated experiment to measure the neutron yield produced by a 62MeV proton beam impinging on a beryllium thick target. The energy was chosen as close as possible to the 70MeV considered for the ADS layout described in this Focus Point. The neutron yield and energy spectra were measured at several angles with respect to the beam direction. The experiment was performed at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania, Italy, using the proton beam delivered by the Superconducting Cyclotron (CS).

  9. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — An example of accelerator: the SPES cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiore, M.; Lombardi, A.; Piazza, L. A. C.; Prete, G.

    2014-04-01

    The SPES project, under construction at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, is a research facility for nuclear and applied physics, based on a high-current H- cyclotron with two exits. One exit will be devoted to supply an ISOL facility for the production of radioactive beams, the second one can be used as driver for the ADS system. The main characteristics of the cyclotron are described together with the main building designed to operate high-current proton beams according to radioprotection rules.

  10. Intrinsic degradation of volatile fatty acids in laboratory-compacted clayey soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrapovic, L.; Rowe, R. K.

    2002-10-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) represent the major organic constituent of landfill leachate and provide the greatest potential for leachate induced organic contamination of groundwater (e.g. as represented by an increase in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand). Long-term diffusion tests were performed for laboratory-compacted clayey soil plugs exposed to continuous supply of synthetic leachate containing VFAs. Significant microbial activity developed upon exposure of the soil's indigenous microorganisms to these degradable contaminants. The growth of heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (HAB, which include facultative anaerobes), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic bacteria carrying out fermentation and mineralization of the VFAs became evident after 30-50 days of testing. The maximum microbial counts of (2-8)×10 8 and (0.1-1)×10 8 cfu/g for HAB and SRB were localized in the soil layer at the interface with the source of organic and inorganic nutrients. Regardless of this rapid growth in microbial population, the VFA consumption was small and measurable only after a lag of 140-180 days. It is considered that this lag of otherwise readily degradable organic compounds (such as VFAs) persisted due to a combination of the effects of a high initial concentration of these acids (2.4 g/l as dissolved organic carbon, DOC) applied to carbon starved soil microorganisms and the small pore size of the compacted clay. Once the significant amounts of gas were generated from fermentation, conditions developed for improved mass transport and exchange of the nutrients and bacteria and the outcome of the intrinsic degradation was more apparent. The breakdown of VFAs that followed after the lag was localized near the top of the soil and was characterized by a short half-life of 0.75-5 days for DOC (total VFAs as dissolved organic carbon).

  11. METHODS FOR THE SAFE STORAGE, HANDLING, AND DISPOSAL OF PYROPHORIC LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS IN THE LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F.; Kuntamukkula, M.; Alnajjar, M.; Quigley, D.; Freshwater, D.; Bigger, S.

    2010-02-02

    Pyrophoric reagents represent an important class of reactants because they can participate in many different types of reactions. They are very useful in organic synthesis and in industrial applications. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) define Pyrophorics as substances that will self-ignite in air at temperatures of 130 F (54.4 C) or less. However, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) uses criteria different from the auto-ignition temperature criterion. The DOT defines a pyrophoric material as a liquid or solid that, even in small quantities and without an external ignition source, can ignite within five minutes after coming in contact with air when tested according to the United Nations Manual of Tests and Criteria. The Environmental Protection Agency has adopted the DOT definition. Regardless of which definition is used, oxidation of the pyrophoric reagents by oxygen or exothermic reactions with moisture in the air (resulting in the generation of a flammable gas such as hydrogen) is so rapid that ignition occurs spontaneously. Due to the inherent nature of pyrophoric substances to ignite spontaneously upon exposure to air, special precautions must be taken to ensure their safe handling and use. Pyrophoric gases (such as diborane, dichloroborane, phosphine, etc.) are typically the easiest class of pyrophoric substances to handle since the gas can be plumbed directly to the application and used remotely. Pyrophoric solids and liquids, however, require the user to physically manipulate them when transferring them from one container to another. Failure to follow proper safety precautions could result in serious injury or unintended consequences to laboratory personnel. Because of this danger, pyrophorics should be handled only by experienced personnel. Users with limited experience must be trained on how to handle pyrophoric reagents and consult with a knowledgeable staff member prior

  12. Intrinsically safe moisture blending system

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

    2012-09-11

    A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

  13. Field and laboratory evidence for intrinsic biodegradation of vinyl chloride contamination in a Fe(III)-reducing aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Wilson, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Intrinsic bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in anaerobic aquifers previously has not been considered feasible, due, in large part, to 1) the production of vinyl chloride during microbial reductive dechlorination of higher chlorinated contaminants and 2) the apparent poor biodegradability of vinyl chloride under anaerobic conditions. In this study, a combination of field geochemical analyses and laboratory radiotracer ([1,2-14C] vinyl chloride) experiments was utilized to assess the potential for intrinsic biodegradation of vinyl chloride contamination in an Fe(III)-reducing, anaerobic aquifer. Microcosm experiments conducted under Fe(III)-reducing conditions with material from the Fe(III)-reducing, chlorinated-ethene contaminated aquifer demonstrated significant oxidation of [1,2-14C] vinyl chloride to 14CO2 with no detectable production of ethene or other reductive dehalogenation products. Rates of degradation derived from the microcosm experiments (0.9-1.3% d-1) were consistent with field-estimated rates (0.03-0.2% d-1) of apparent vinyl chloride degradation. Field estimates of apparent vinyl chloride biodegradation were calculated using two distinct approaches; 1) a solute dispersion model and 2) a mass balance assessment. These findings demonstrate that degradation under Fe(III) reducing conditions can be an environmentally significant mechanism for intrinsic bioremediation of vinyl chloride in anaerobic ground-water systems.

  14. Simple and safe short-range lidar system for undergraduate laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posyniak, M.; Stacewicz, T.; Miernecki, M.; Jagodnicka, A. K.; Chudzynski, S.

    2010-11-01

    A simple and safe lidar system based on a nitrogen laser (337.1 nm) is described. The setup permits undergraduates to learn the principles and applications of the lidar technique. The apparatus is used for exercises about measurements of distance to objects, the determination of light velocity as well as about retrieving the back-scatter coefficient of a water aerosol cloud. The system may also be used for demonstrating the principle of fluorescence lidar.

  15. Projectile Activity for the Laboratory: A Safe and Inexpensive Approach to Several Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple laboratory activity for introductory-level physics students which involves rolling balls down pipes and analysing their subsequent flight trajectories. Using balls of equal size but different mass allows students to confront their misconceptions of a mass dependence of the exit speed of the balls from the pipes. The concepts of…

  16. Development of a safe ground to space laser propagation system for the optical communications telescope laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Janet P.

    2003-01-01

    Furthering pursuits in high bandwidth communications to future NASA deep space and neat-Earth probes, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is building the Optical communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) atop Table Mountain in Southern California. This R&D optical antenna will be used to develop optical communication strategies for future optical ground stations. Initial experiments to be conducted include propagating high-powered, Q-switched laser beams to retro-reflecting satellites. Yet laser beam propagation from the ground to space is under the cognizance of various government agencies, namely: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (ISHA) that is responsible for protecting workforce personnel; the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) responsible for protecting pilots and aircraft; and the Laser Clearinghouse of Space Command responsible for protecting space assets. To ensure that laser beam propagation from the OCTL and future autonomously operated ground stations comply with the guidelines of these organizations, JPL is developing a multi-tiered safety system that will meet the coordination, monitoring, and reporting functions required by the agencies. At Tier 0, laser operators will meet OSHA safety standards for protection and access to the high power lasers area will be restricted and interlocked. Tier 1, the area defined from the telescope dome out to a range of 3.4-km, will utilize long wave infrared camera sensors to alert operators of at risk aircraft in the FAA controlled airspace. Tier 2, defined to extend from 3.4-km out to the aircraft service ceiling in FAA airspace, will detect at risk aircraft by radar. Lastly, beam propagation into space, defined as Tier 3, will require coordination with the Laser Clearinghouse. A detailed description of the four tiers is presented along with the design of the integrated monitoring and beam transmission control system.

  17. Are fish fed with cyanobacteria safe, nutritious and delicious? A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hualei; Zhou, Wenshan; Zhang, Yulei; Qiao, Qin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2015-01-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms, which produce cyclic heptapeptide toxins known as microcystins, are worldwide environmental problems. On the other hand, the cyanobacteria protein (30-50%) has been recommended as substitute protein for aquaculture. The present laboratory study verified the feasibility of cyanobacteria protein substitution and risk assessment. Goldfish were fed diets supplemented lyophilised cyanobacteria powder for 16 weeks with the various doses: 0% (control), 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Low doses (10% and 20%) promoted growth whereas high doses (30% and 40%) inhibited growth. In cyanobacteria treated fish, the proximate composition of ash, crude fat content and crude protein content decreased in 16 weeks; the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content significantly increased; the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, collagen content and muscle pH significantly decreased; cooking loss percents increased significantly. Muscle fiber diameter and myofibril length were negatively correlation. Additionally, flavour compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and carnosine) changed significantly in the treated fish, and odour compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol increased significantly. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of microcystins in muscle was close to or exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake (TDI), representing a great health risk. Cyanobacterie is not feasible for protein sources use in aquaculture. PMID:26470644

  18. Are fish fed with cyanobacteria safe, nutritious and delicious? A laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hualei; Zhou, Wenshan; Zhang, Yulei; Qiao, Qin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2015-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms, which produce cyclic heptapeptide toxins known as microcystins, are worldwide environmental problems. On the other hand, the cyanobacteria protein (30-50%) has been recommended as substitute protein for aquaculture. The present laboratory study verified the feasibility of cyanobacteria protein substitution and risk assessment. Goldfish were fed diets supplemented lyophilised cyanobacteria powder for 16 weeks with the various doses: 0% (control), 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Low doses (10% and 20%) promoted growth whereas high doses (30% and 40%) inhibited growth. In cyanobacteria treated fish, the proximate composition of ash, crude fat content and crude protein content decreased in 16 weeks; the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content significantly increased; the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, collagen content and muscle pH significantly decreased; cooking loss percents increased significantly. Muscle fiber diameter and myofibril length were negatively correlation. Additionally, flavour compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and carnosine) changed significantly in the treated fish, and odour compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol increased significantly. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of microcystins in muscle was close to or exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake (TDI), representing a great health risk. Cyanobacterie is not feasible for protein sources use in aquaculture.

  19. Are fish fed with cyanobacteria safe, nutritious and delicious? A laboratory study

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hualei; Zhou, Wenshan; Zhang, Yulei; Qiao, Qin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2015-01-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms, which produce cyclic heptapeptide toxins known as microcystins, are worldwide environmental problems. On the other hand, the cyanobacteria protein (30–50%) has been recommended as substitute protein for aquaculture. The present laboratory study verified the feasibility of cyanobacteria protein substitution and risk assessment. Goldfish were fed diets supplemented lyophilised cyanobacteria powder for 16 weeks with the various doses: 0% (control), 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Low doses (10% and 20%) promoted growth whereas high doses (30% and 40%) inhibited growth. In cyanobacteria treated fish, the proximate composition of ash, crude fat content and crude protein content decreased in 16 weeks; the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content significantly increased; the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, collagen content and muscle pH significantly decreased; cooking loss percents increased significantly. Muscle fiber diameter and myofibril length were negatively correlation. Additionally, flavour compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and carnosine) changed significantly in the treated fish, and odour compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol increased significantly. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of microcystins in muscle was close to or exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake (TDI), representing a great health risk. Cyanobacterie is not feasible for protein sources use in aquaculture. PMID:26470644

  20. Tests of an environmental and personnel safe cleaning process for Brookhaven National Laboratory accelerator and storage ring components

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C.; Lee, R.; Mitchell, G.; Quade, W.

    1997-05-01

    A large measure of the successful operation of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for over a decade can be attributed to the cleaning of its ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components during and after construction. A new UHV cleaning process, which has to be environmentally and personnel safe, is needed to replace the harsh, unfriendly process which is still in use. Dow Advanced Cleaning Systems was contracted to develop a replacement process without the use of harsh chemicals and which must clean vacuum surfaces as well as the existing process. Acceptance of the replacement process was primarily based on photon stimulated desorption (PSD) measurements of beam tube samples run on NSLS beam line U10B. One meter long beam tube samples were fabricated from aluminum, 304 stainless steel, and oxygen-free copper. Initially, coupon samples were cleaned and passed preliminary testing for the proposed process. Next, beam tube samples of each material were cleaned, and the PSD measured on beam line U10B using white light with a critical energy of 487 eV. Prior to cleaning, the samples were contaminated with a mixture of cutting oils, lubricants, vacuum oils, and vacuum grease. The contaminated samples were then baked. Samples of each material were also cleaned with the existing process after the same preparation. Beam tube samples were exposed to between 10{sup 22} and 10{sup 23} photons per meter for a PSD measurement. Desorption yields for H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}O are reported for both the existing cleaning and for the replacement cleaning process. Preliminary data, residual gas scans, and PSD results are given and discussed. The new process is also compared with new cleaning methods developed in other laboratories. After modification, the new UHV cleaning process was accepted by BNL.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of an ozone-safe nonazeotropic refrigerant mixture in a Lorenz-Meutzner refrigerator freezer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, J. R.; Vineyard, E. A.; Baxter, V. D.

    The Lorenz-Meutzner refrigerator freezer (RF) circuit has been proposed as a design which would operate with nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMS) and significantly increase the thermodynamic efficiency of household refrigerators. Several ozone-safe and more environmentally acceptable refrigerants are known which could be blended into a NARM to replace R-12 for this domestic refrigeration application. Laboratory tests were performed on a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) RF using an R-32/R-124 NARM. Comparisons are made between the baseline performance of the refrigerator with R-12 before it was modified to the L-Ni design and that of the L-M circuit operating with R-12 and the NARM. Circuiting and component changes resulting from initial testing of this unit are described. Computer modeling and compressor calorimeter results for R-12 and the NARM used in the test unit are also presented. Small performance gains (approximately 3 percent) are seen for the NARM over R-12 in the same refrigerator freezer circuit. Modeling results and steady-state data suggest larger improvements (approximately 15 percent) are possible. It is felt that the larger improvements predicted from modeling and compressor calorimetry data are not being realized due to poor heat transfer and refrigerant circuiting arrangements.

  2. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVIDENCE FOR INTRINSIC BIODEGRADATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE CONTAMINATION IN A FE(III)-REDUCING AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intrinsic bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in anaerobic aquifers previously has not been considered feasible, due, in large part, to 1) the production of vinyl chloride during microbial reductive dechlorination of higher chlorinated contaminants and 2) the apparent poor biod...

  3. Safe Schools, Safe Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Julie E.; Pickett, Dean; Pulliam, Janet L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; St. Germaine, Anne-Marie; Underwood, Julie; Worona, Jay

    Schools must work together with agencies, groups, and individuals to eliminate the forces leading children to violence. Chapter 1, "School Safety: Working Together to Keep Schools Safe," stresses the importance of community collaboration in violence prevention. Effective prevention requires sharing information about students, consistent with…

  4. Guidelines for safe work practices in human and animal medical diagnostic laboratories. Recommendations of a CDC-convened, Biosafety Blue Ribbon Panel.

    PubMed

    Miller, J Michael; Astles, Rex; Baszler, Timothy; Chapin, Kimberle; Carey, Roberta; Garcia, Lynne; Gray, Larry; Larone, Davise; Pentella, Michael; Pollock, Anne; Shapiro, Daniel S; Weirich, Elizabeth; Wiedbrauk, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of injuries and occupational infections in U.S. laboratories has been a concern for many years. CDC and the National Institutes of Health addressed the topic in their publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, now in its 5th edition (BMBL-5). BMBL-5, however, was not designed to address the day-to-day operations of diagnostic laboratories in human and animal medicine. In 2008, CDC convened a Blue Ribbon Panel of laboratory representatives from a variety of agencies, laboratory organizations, and facilities to review laboratory biosafety in diagnostic laboratories. The members of this panel recommended that biosafety guidelines be developed to address the unique operational needs of the diagnostic laboratory community and that they be science based and made available broadly. These guidelines promote a culture of safety and include recommendations that supplement BMBL-5 by addressing the unique needs of the diagnostic laboratory. They are not requirements but recommendations that represent current science and sound judgment that can foster a safe working environment for all laboratorians. Throughout these guidelines, quality laboratory science is reinforced by a common-sense approach to biosafety in day-to-day activities. Because many of the same diagnostic techniques are used in human and animal diagnostic laboratories, the text is presented with this in mind. All functions of the human and animal diagnostic laboratory--microbiology, chemistry, hematology, and pathology with autopsy and necropsy guidance--are addressed. A specific section for veterinary diagnostic laboratories addresses the veterinary issues not shared by other human laboratory departments. Recommendations for all laboratories include use of Class IIA2 biological safety cabinets that are inspected annually; frequent hand washing; use of appropriate disinfectants, including 1:10 dilutions of household bleach; dependence on risk assessments for many activities

  5. Towards intrinsically safe light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hannerz, K

    1983-07-01

    Most of the present impediments to the rational use of the nuclear option have their roots in the reactor safety issue. The approach taken to satisfy the escalating safety concerns has resulted in excessively complex and expensive plant designs but has failed to create public confidence. This paper describes a new approach based on the principle of Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS). With the PIUS principle, ultimate safety is obtained by guaranteeing core integrity under all credible conditions. This is accomplished on the basis of the laws of gravity and thermohydraulics alone, interacting with the heat extraction process in an intact or damaged primary circuit, without recourse to engineered safety systems that may fail or dependence on error-prone human intervention. Application of the PIUS principle to the pressurized water reactor involves a substantial redesign of the reactor and primary system but builds on established PWR technology where long-term operation is needed for verification.

  6. Are Lithium Ion Cells Intrinsically Safe?

    PubMed Central

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health researchers are studying the potential for Li-ion-battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment approved as permissible for use in underground coal mines. Researchers used a plastic wedge to induce internal short circuits for thermal runaway susceptibility evaluation purposes, which proved to be a more severe test than the flat plate method for selected Li-ion cells. Researchers conducted cell crush tests within a 20-L chamber filled with 6.5% CH4–air to simulate the mining hazard. Results indicate that LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO2 cells pose a CH4 explosion hazard from a cell internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 Systems 26650 LiFePO4 cells were safer than the LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO2 cells at a conservative statistical significance level. PMID:26166911

  7. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  8. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  9. Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automated system, is designed to meet all biological safety standards. To create an internal chamber environment that is completely isolated from the exterior, variable frequency drive blowers are used in the air-intake and air-exhaust system, precisely controlling the filtered air flow and providing an air-barrier protection. A double door transfer port is used to transfer material between the interior of the isolation chamber and the outside. A peracetic acid sterilizer and its associated pipeline allow for complete disinfection of the isolation chamber. All of the isolation chamber parameters can be automatically controlled by a programmable computerized menu, allowing for work with different animals in different-sized cages depending on the research project. The large-scale multi-functional isolation chamber provides a useful and safe system for working with infectious medium-sized laboratory animals in high-level bio-safety laboratories. PMID:20872984

  10. 30 CFR 18.68 - Tests for intrinsic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... power for intrinsically safe circuits shall be housed in explosion-proof enclosures and be provided with... intermingled with wiring for intrinsically safe circuits. (4) Transformers that supply power for intrinsically... cover power line voltage variations. (6) In investigations of alternating current circuits a minimum...

  11. 30 CFR 18.68 - Tests for intrinsic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... power for intrinsically safe circuits shall be housed in explosion-proof enclosures and be provided with... intermingled with wiring for intrinsically safe circuits. (4) Transformers that supply power for intrinsically... cover power line voltage variations. (6) In investigations of alternating current circuits a minimum...

  12. 30 CFR 18.68 - Tests for intrinsic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... power for intrinsically safe circuits shall be housed in explosion-proof enclosures and be provided with... intermingled with wiring for intrinsically safe circuits. (4) Transformers that supply power for intrinsically... cover power line voltage variations. (6) In investigations of alternating current circuits a minimum...

  13. Good practice statements on safe laboratory testing: A mixed methods study by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Paul; Forrest, Eleanor; Price, Julie; Verstappen, Wim; Cunningham, David; Halley, Lyn; Grant, Suzanne; Kelly, Moya; Mckay, John

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The systems-based management of laboratory test ordering and results handling is a known source of error in primary care settings worldwide. The consequences are wide-ranging for patients (e.g. avoidable harm or poor care experience), general practitioners (e.g. delayed clinical decision making and potential medico-legal implications) and the primary care organization (e.g. increased allocation of resources to problem-solve and dealing with complaints). Guidance is required to assist care teams to minimize associated risks and improve patient safety. Objective: To identify, develop and build expert consensus on ‘good practice’ guidance statements to inform the implementation of safe systems for ordering laboratory tests and managing results in European primary care settings. Methods: Mixed methods studies were undertaken in the UK and Ireland, and the findings were triangulated to develop ‘good practice’ statements. Expert consensus was then sought on the findings at the wider European level via a Delphi group meeting during 2013. Results: We based consensus on 10 safety domains and developed 77 related ‘good practice’ statements (≥ 80% agreement levels) judged to be essential to creating safety and minimizing risks in laboratory test ordering and subsequent results handling systems in international primary care. Conclusion: Guidance was developed for improving patient safety in this important area of primary care practice. We need to consider how this guidance can be made accessible to frontline care teams, utilized by clinical educators and improvement advisers, implemented by decision makers and evaluated to determine acceptability, feasibility and impacts on patient safety. PMID:26339831

  14. Safe Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Though most art materials are safe for children (and labelled accordingly), parents and teachers should follow recommended safety guidelines, such as those presented in this article, when choosing, using, and storing children's art materials. (SM)

  15. Safe sex

    MedlinePlus

    Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from ... the skin around the genital area. Before having sex: Get to know your partner and discuss your ...

  16. Safe sex.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K

    1994-01-01

    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths. PMID:8207282

  17. Intrinsic n

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. B.; Wei, S.-H.; Zunger, Alex

    2001-02-15

    ZnO typifies a class of materials that can be doped via native defects in only one way: either n type or p type. We explain this asymmetry in ZnO via a study of its intrinsic defect physics, including Zn{sub O}, Zn{sub i}, V{sub O}, O{sub i}, and V{sub Zn} and n-type impurity dopants, Al and F. We find that ZnO is n type at Zn-rich conditions. This is because (i) the Zn interstitial, Zn{sub i}, is a shallow donor, supplying electrons; (ii) its formation enthalpy is low for both Zn-rich and O-rich conditions, so this defect is abundant; and (iii) the native defects that could compensate the n-type doping effect of Zn{sub i} (interstitial O, O{sub i}, and Zn vacancy, V{sub Zn}), have high formation enthalpies for Zn-rich conditions, so these ''electron killers'' are not abundant. We find that ZnO cannot be doped p type via native defects (O{sub i},V{sub Zn}) despite the fact that they are shallow (i.e., supplying holes at room temperature). This is because at both Zn-rich and O-rich conditions, the defects that could compensate p-type doping (V{sub O},Zn{sub i},Zn{sub O}) have low formation enthalpies so these ''hole killers'' form readily. Furthermore, we identify electron-hole radiative recombination at the V{sub O} center as the source of the green luminescence. In contrast, a large structural relaxation of the same center upon double hole capture leads to slow electron-hole recombination (either radiative or nonradiative) responsible for the slow decay of photoconductivity.

  18. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  19. Approaching Suspicious Substances Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.

  20. Intrinsically safe oxygen and hydrogen optical leak detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshay, Manal; Garon, Simona; Ruiz, David; Kempen, Lothar U.

    2011-06-01

    Cryogenic leak detection is critical to space missions, particularly for avoiding launch delays. The real-time, multi-location, early leak detection of oxygen and hydrogen down to ppm levels is extremely important for safety, reliability, and economic reasons. One of the significant challenges in meeting these requirements has been the drift effect that is caused by the exposure to extreme temperatures. This paper discusses the effect of the development of a sensor supporting matrix to improve the overall behavior of oxygen and hydrogen optical sensors at cryogenic temperatures. These achievements offer great advances in the fiber optic leak detection of cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen, specifically for space applications. Emphasis on operational conditions such as -150 K and vacuum environments, in addition to performance characteristics such as sensitivity (10 ppm) and response time (~ 3 sec), are addressed in this paper.

  1. Geometric intrinsic symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Gozdz, A. Szulerecka, A.; Pedrak, A.

    2013-08-15

    The problem of geometric symmetries in the intrinsic frame of a many-body system (nucleus) is considered. An importance of symmetrization group notion is discussed. Ageneral structure of the intrinsic symmetry group structure is determined.

  2. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  3. Nuclear weapon safety: How safe is safe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The safety criteria that have been specified for modern nuclear weapons are very demanding. The majority of the weapons in the current stockpile will have to be modified to meet them, unless they are retired. Moreover, for some weapons we still lack necessary data to perform credible safety analyses. Although plutonium dispersal is a much less threatening danger than a sizable nuclear yield, it is nevertheless a potentially serious hazard, particularly if the plutonium is aerosolized in a chemical detonation. The panel recommended the following actions: (1) equip all stockpiled weapons with Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety, and build all aircraft-launched bombs and cruise missiles with insensitive high explosive and fire-resistant cores; (2) began an immediate review of the acceptability of retaining missile systems without IHE, fire-resistant cores, or 1.3 class propellant in close proximity to the warheads; (3) continue safety studies and allocate necessary resources to weapons and military laboratories; (4) affirm enhanced safety as the top priority goal of the US nuclear weapons program, and design all future weapons to be as safe as practically achievable, consistent with reasonable military requirements.

  4. Use Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ...

  5. Use Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Take these simple steps to avoid problems with medicines. Follow the directions on the medicine label carefully. ...

  6. Aflatoxins and safe storage.

    PubMed

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  7. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Choosing Safe Baby Products KidsHealth > For Parents > Choosing Safe Baby Products Print A A A Text Size Even though ... nothing small or simple about their accessories! Selecting products for your baby can be confusing, especially with ...

  8. Intrinsic time quantum geometrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ita, Eyo Eyo; Soo, Chopin; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2015-08-01

    Quantum geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl curvature hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational "arrows of time" point in the same direction. Ricci scalar potential corresponding to Einstein's general relativity emerges as a zero-point energy contribution. A new set of fundamental commutation relations without Planck's constant emerges from the unification of gravitation and quantum mechanics.

  9. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the extent to…

  10. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  11. Stay Safe at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print This Topic En español Stay Safe at Work Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Injuries ... need to take steps to prevent injuries at work? All types of jobs – even desk jobs – can ...

  12. Taking multiple medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why you may Need More Than one Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  13. Creating a Safe Haven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    Examines security issues that planners must address at the programming and schematic design phase in key areas of the school building. They include the front door, safe halls and stairs, positive classrooms, and secure assembly. (EV)

  14. Medicines: Use Them Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Track of Your Medicines Taking Medicines Safely Saving Money on Medicines, Shopping Online For More Information about ... half doses of a prescription drug to save money. ( Talk with your doctor or pharmacist if you ...

  15. Using Medications Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... health systems play an important role in preventing medication errors. To make sure you use medicines safely and effectively, ASHP recommends that you: Keep a list of all medications that you take (prescribed drugs, nonprescription medicines, herbal ...

  16. Safe Hazmat Storage Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Angela

    1996-01-01

    Provides a list of recommendations for safely managing hazardous waste containers. Encourages training of employees on the hazards of the wastes they handle and the correct procedures for managing containers. (DDR)

  17. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Sue I.; Fergenson, David P.; Srivastava, Abneesh; Bogan, Michael J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Frank, Matthias

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  18. Intrinsic remediation of an industrial waste impoundment

    SciTech Connect

    Swindoll, C.M.; Lee, M.D.; Wood, K.N.; Hartten, A.S.; Bishop, A.L.; Connor, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Intrinsic remediation, also known as natural restoration, was evaluated as a potential corrective action alternative for an industrial surface impoundment previously used for the disposal of waste treatment biosolids, organic wastes, and fly ash. Organic waste constituents included chlorobenzene, aniline, xylenes, benzene, toluene, acetone, p-cresol, 2-butanone, fluorene, and ethylbenzene. The evaluation demonstrated that the impoundment contains an active microbial community including aerobic, denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microbes, and that environmental conditions were favorable for their growth. Laboratory studies confirmed that these microbes could biodegrade the organic waste constituents under varying redox conditions. The sorptive properties of the residual biosolids and fly ash contribute to the immobilization of chemical constituents and may enhance biodegradation by sequestering chemicals onto surfaces where microbes grow. Based on this field and laboratory evaluation, it was concluded that intrinsic remediation offers significant environmental benefits over other corrective action alternatives that would not allow these natural restoration processes to continue in the surface impoundment.

  19. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2015-07-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic stressors in the causation of aging leads to the recognition that aging is not inevitable, but malleable through the environment. PMID:25916736

  20. Safe Handling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 Compugraphic Corporation was experiencing an unacceptable failure rate on microelectronic chips. Company engineers suspected that static electricity was causing the trouble because some electronic components are highly susceptible to damage by electrostatic charge. From a NASA Tech Brief, they learned that Rockwell International had prepared a report on safe handling practices for electronic components. NASA provided a Technical Support Package detailing 50 safe handling procedures affecting workers, work areas, equipment and packaging materials. Where poor practices were discovered, re-education of employees and other corrective measures were undertaken.

  1. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  2. Keeping Campuses Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Describes how colleges and universities are using technology, as well as traditional methods, to keep campuses safe and reduce crime. Topics include using free pizza in a successful contest to teach students about campus safety, installing security cameras, using access-control cards, providing adequate lighting, and creating a bicycle patrol…

  3. A Safe Haven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupinacci, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Presents four key steps in planning for school security and creating a safe, secure environment for students: deterring the possibility of crime; detecting when something potentially troublesome has occurred; delaying criminals in order to give law enforcement officials the additional time needed to catch them; and recovering and continuing the…

  4. Safe Manual Jettison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Jay

    2008-01-01

    In space, the controlled release of certain cargoes is no less useful than the maritime jettisons from which they take their name but is also much more dangerous. Experience has shown that jettisons can be performed safely, but the process is complicated with the path to performing a jettison taking months or even years. In the background, time is also required to write procedures, train the crew, configure the vehicle, and many other activities. This paper outlines the current process used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for manual jettisons, detailing the methods used to assure that the jettisons and the jettisoned objects are as safe as achievable and that the crew is adequately trained to be able to affect the safe jettison. The goal of this paper is not only to capture what it takes to perform safe jettisons in the near Earth environment but to extrapolate this knowledge to future space exploration scenarios that will likely have Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and International Partner (IP) interfaces.

  5. Safe Entry, Easy Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    After violent episodes too numerous to list and too terrible to forget, schools and universities have been focused for several years on enhancing security in their facilities. Doors are among the most critical points of concern for school personnel responsible for keeping buildings safe. Education institutions want doors that let the right people…

  6. The safe home project.

    PubMed

    Arphorn, Sara; Jiraniratisai, Sopaphan; Rungtakul, Rungsri; Phutta, Nikom

    2011-12-01

    The Thai Health Promotion Foundation supported the Improvement of Quality of Life of Informal Workers project in Ban Luang District, Amphur Photaram, Ratchaburi Province. There were many informal workers in Ban Luang District. Sweet-crispy fish producers in Ban Luang were the largest group among the sweet-crispy fish producers in Thailand. This project was aimed at improving living and working conditions of informal workers, with a focus on the sweet-crispy fish group. Good practices of improved living and working conditions were used to help informal workers build safe, healthy and productive work environments. These informal workers often worked in substandard conditions and were exposed to various hazards in the working area. These hazards included risk of exposure to hot work environment, ergonomics-related injuries, chemical hazards, electrical hazards etc. Ergonomics problems were commonly in the sweet-crispy fish group. Unnatural postures such as prolonged sitting were performed dominantly. One hundred and fifty informal workers participated in this project. Occupational health volunteers were selected to encourage occupational health and safety in four groups of informal workers in 2009. The occupational health volunteers trained in 2008 were farmers, beauty salon workers and doll makers. The occupational health and safety knowledge is extended to a new informal worker group: sweet-crispy fish producer, in 2009. The occupational health and safety training for sweet-crispy fish group is conducted by occupational health volunteers. The occupational health volunteers increased their skills and knowledge assist in to make safe home and safe community through participatory oriented training. The improvement of living and working condition is conducted by using a modified WISH, Work Improvement for Safe Home, checklist. The plans of improvement were recorded. The informal workers showed improvement mostly on material handling and storage. The safe uses and safe

  7. Predicting intrinsic brain activity.

    PubMed

    Craddock, R Cameron; Milham, Michael P; LaConte, Stephen M

    2013-11-15

    Multivariate supervised learning methods exhibit a remarkable ability to decode externally driven sensory, behavioral, and cognitive states from functional neuroimaging data. Although they are typically applied to task-based analyses, supervised learning methods are equally applicable to intrinsic effective and functional connectivity analyses. The obtained models of connectivity incorporate the multivariate interactions between all brain regions simultaneously, which will result in a more accurate representation of the connectome than the ones available with standard bivariate methods. Additionally the models can be applied to decode or predict the time series of intrinsic brain activity of a region from an independent dataset. The obtained prediction accuracy provides a measure of the integration between a brain region and other regions in its network, as well as a method for evaluating acquisition and preprocessing pipelines for resting state fMRI data. This article describes a method for learning multivariate models of connectivity. The method is applied in the non-parametric prediction accuracy, influence, and reproducibility-resampling (NPAIRS) framework, to study the regional variation of prediction accuracy and reproducibility (Strother et al., 2002). The resulting spatial distribution of these metrics is consistent with the functional hierarchy proposed by Mesulam (1998). Additionally we illustrate the utility of the multivariate regression connectivity modeling method for optimizing experimental parameters and assessing the quality of functional neuroimaging data. PMID:23707580

  8. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium. PMID:25999294

  9. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium.

  10. Intrinsically disordered energy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such 'intrinsically disordered' landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an α-helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium. PMID:25999294

  11. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  12. Safe Motherhood Initiative.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, staff of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)/Macro International met with WHO to discuss the prospect of collecting data on maternal health and morbidity so DHS could set up an international database. The database's purpose would be to gauge the progress of Safe Motherhood programs worldwide and to determine their strengths and weaknesses. WHO and Marc wrote a proposal for the development of a core data collection questionnaire and the implementation of Safe Motherhood Surveys in 3 countries. They recommended that these surveys be follow-up surveys to DHS surveys. The Rockefeller Foundation provided Macro funding for the development of the core questionnaire and documentation, for technical assistance to the Philippines, and for a meeting to develop the best possible questionnaire. 20 international specialists attended the December 1992 meeting at the World Bank. The USAID-funded Mothercare Project took care of local costs of the Philippines Safe Motherhood Survey. Between March and June 1993, Macro along with the Philippines Department of Health, the National Statistics Office, and the Clinical Epidemiology Unit of the Philippines General Hospital collected data for the validation study and conducted qualitative research on women's perceptions when informed about obstetric complications. They next pretested the questionnaire. Training of trainers was in September 1993 and interviewer training followed in early October. The actual Safe Motherhood survey began in mid-October, 5-6 months after the Philippines DHS survey ended. Macro expected preliminary results in early 1994. The questionnaire concentrated on prenatal and postnatal care, delivery, and potentially fatal complications (especially their treatment). Other topics included morbidity, sexually transmitted diseases, domestic violence, and nutritional status. Macro will use the results of the Philippine survey to revise the questionnaire. PMID:12287321

  13. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over timemore » can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.« less

  14. Intrinsic anion oxidation potentials.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Patrik

    2006-11-01

    Anions of lithium battery salts have been investigated by electronic structure calculations with the objective to find a computational measure to correlate with the observed (in)stability of nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes vs oxidation often encountered in practice. Accurate prediction of intrinsic anion oxidation potentials is here made possible by computing the vertical free energy difference between anion and neutral radical (Delta Gv) and further strengthened by an empirical correction using only the anion volume as a parameter. The 6-311+G(2df,p) basis set, the VSXC functional, and the C-PCM SCRF algorithm were used. The Delta Gv calculations can be performed using any standard computational chemistry software. PMID:17078600

  15. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  16. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  17. From Barrier Free to Safe Environments: The New Zealand Experience. Monograph #44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrightson, William; Pope, Campbell

    Intrinsically safe design is presented as a logical extension of the principles of barrier free design, and as a higher level design strategy for effecting widespread implementation of the basic accessibility requirements for people with disabilities. Two fundamental planning procedures are proposed: including principles of safe and accessible…

  18. Safe venting of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.F.; Dewart, J.M.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal of hydrogen is often required in the operation of an experimental facility that contains hydrogen. Whether the vented hydrogen can be discharged to the atmosphere safely depends upon a number of factors such as the flow rate and atmospheric conditions. Calculations have been made that predict the distance a combustible mixture can extend from the point of release under some specified atmospheric conditions. Also the quantity of hydrogen in the combustible cloud is estimated. These results can be helpful in deciding of the hydrogen can be released directly to the atmosphere, or if it must be intentionally ignited. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Asymptotically safe Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-10-01

    We construct a new inflation model in which the standard model Higgs boson couples minimally to gravity and acts as the inflaton. Our construction of Higgs inflation incorporates the standard model with Einstein gravity which exhibits asymptotic safety in the ultraviolet region. The slow roll condition is satisfied at large field value due to the asymptotically safe behavior of Higgs self-coupling at high energies. We find that this minimal construction is highly predictive, and is consistent with both cosmological observations and collider experiments.

  20. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  1. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  2. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  3. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  4. Flame Tests Performed Safely: A Safe and Effective Alternative to the Traditional Flame Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogancay, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    The trend toward inquiry-based learning is providing today's students with a more enriching education. When implementing inquiry it is important to recognize the great number of safety concerns that accompany this paradigm shift. Fortunately, with some consideration, teachers can shape students' laboratory experiments into safe and valuable…

  5. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  6. Inserting IUDs safely.

    PubMed

    Burnhill, M S

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of safe insertion of IUDs in the contemporary U.S. setting, when any IUD complication may provoke litigation, includes explanations of complications listed on package inserts, what to look for in the pelvic exam, now to handle the inserter, whether to give prophylactic antibiotics or a cervical block, follow-up management, and advice on safe sex and hygiene. The similarities and differences in listed contraindications for the ParaGard and Progestasert IUDs are analyzed. It is important to know these listed contraindications to avoid being the sole defendant in a court case. Neither explicitly rules out nulliparas, and some women who have completed childbearing may be willing to risk ectopic pregnancy. The physician must be sure to avoid any possible risks of pelvic infection, however. It is important to postpone IUD insertion if there is any suggestion of lower genital tract infection. Similarly, IUD insertion is intended to last for years, so a paracervical block is recommended if access is difficult. Tips for ensuring scrupulous asepsis are suggested. Women for whom prophylactic antibiotics are advised include diabetics, those with heart valve disease or transplants. IUD patients should be clearly identified when they call in with complaints, and seen urgently. Finally, a sexual history should be taken to avoid candidates who engage in anal sex practices. PMID:12284992

  7. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and ... from other foods. Cook —Cook to the right temperature. Chill —Refrigerate food promptly. Cook all food to ...

  8. Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santarelli, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)

  9. Safe Science: Be Protected!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2006-01-01

    More science laboratories are being built because of larger enrollments in academics and schools. There is an increase in hands-on/process science effected by the renewed interest in and priority of science education. New science curricula like Biotechnology and Advanced college type program courses are being introduced with the use of exotic…

  10. Safe pill-dispensing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured. PMID:17901607

  11. Strategies for safe motherhood.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1995-02-01

    The Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched in 1988 as a global effort to halve maternal mortality and morbidity by the year 2000. The program uses a combination of health and nonhealth strategies to emphasize the need for maternal health services, extend family planning services, and improve the status of women. The maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) is 390 for the world, 20-30 for developed countries, 450 for developing countries, and 420 for Asia. This translates into 308,000 maternal deaths in Asia, of which 100,000 occur in India. The direct causes of maternal mortality include sepsis, hemorrhage, eclampsia, and ruptured uterus. Indirect causes occur when associated medical conditions, such as anemia and jaundice, are exacerbated by pregnancy. Underlying causes are ineffective health services, inadequate obstetric care, unregulated fertility, infections, illiteracy, early marriage, poverty, malnutrition, and ignorance. India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program seeks to achieve immediate improvements by improving health care. Longterm improvements will occur as nutrition, income, education, and the status of women improve. Improvements in health care will occur in through the provision of 1) essential obstetric care for all women (which will be essentially designed for low-risk women), 2) early detection of complications during pregnancy and labor, and 3) emergency services. Services will be provided to pregnant women at their door by field staff, at a first referral hospital, perhaps at maternity villages where high risk cases can be housed in the latter part of their pregnancies, and through the continual accessibility of government vehicles. In addition, family planning services will be improved so that fertility regulation can have its expected beneficial effect on the maternal mortality rate. The professional health organizations in India will also play a vital role in the success of this effort to reduce maternal mortality. PMID

  12. Safety in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents 12 amendments to the second edition of Safety in Science Laboratories. Covers topics such as regular inspection of equipment, wearing safety glasses, dating stock chemicals, and safe use of chemicals. (MA)

  13. Separating Scattering from Intrinsic Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, K.; Scales, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    The subsurface appears disordered at all length-scales. Therefore, wave propatation at seismic or ultrasonic frequencies is subject to complicated scatterings. A pulse propagating in the subsurface loses energy at each scattering off an impedance contrast, but also decreases in amplitude as the impulse interacts with fluids in the rock. We call the latter non-elastic effect "intrinsic Q", while the former is "scattering Q". It is often the fluids in the rocks that are of interest, but conventional reflection and transmission of the incident pulse only cannot deceipher the individual components of Q due to scattering and fluid movement in the pore-space. We present an approach that can unravel these two mechanisms, allowing a separate estimate of absorption. This method treats the propagation of the average intensity in the framework of radiative transfer (RT); the arrival of (what is left of) the incident pulse is modeled as the coherent energy, whereas the later arriving multiply scattered events form the incoherent intensity. The coherent pulse decays exponentially due to a combination of scattering and absorption, and so does the incoherent intensity. However, multiple scattering can re-direct energy back to the receiver, supplying a gain-term at later times that makes up the incoherent intensity. Strictly speaking, one can invert for scattering and absorption from the intensity at late times only, often modeled with the late-time equivalent of RT, diffusion. However, we will show that fitting both early- and late-time signal with RT constrains absorption and scattering constants more rigorously. These ideas are illustrated by laboratory and sonic-logging measurements.

  14. Intrinsic Negative Mass from Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mei, F.; Caramazza, P.; Pierangeli, D.; Di Domenico, G.; Ilan, H.; Agranat, A. J.; Di Porto, P.; DelRe, E.

    2016-04-01

    We propose and provide experimental evidence of a mechanism able to support negative intrinsic effective mass. The idea is to use a shape-sensitive nonlinearity to change the sign of the mass in the leading linear propagation equation. Intrinsic negative-mass dynamics is reported for light beams in a ferroelectric crystal substrate, where the diffusive photorefractive nonlinearity leads to a negative-mass Schrödinger equation. The signature of inverted dynamics is the observation of beams repelled from strongly guiding integrated waveguides irrespective of wavelength and intensity and suggests shape-sensitive nonlinearity as a basic mechanism leading to intrinsic negative mass.

  15. On safe motherhood.

    PubMed

    Mahler, H

    1988-05-01

    After a general discussion of the factors contributing to maternal mortality and morbidity, a solution to both of these problems is suggested for India: an initiative at the district level to improve support, supervision, training, essential midwifery and obstetric care. The general causes of the 200 or more times higher maternal morality risks in developing countries act throughout the woman's lifetime: powerlessness, illiteracy, malnutrition, deficiency of calcium, vitamin D and iron, heavy physical labor, unchecked fertility, lack of prenatal and obstetric care and illegal abortion. The most common causes of maternal morality and morbidity, eclampsia, obstructed labor, hemorrhage and sepsis, have been prevented in developed countries and in China. We know how to prevent them, by technical support and management at the district level. 4 elements are required: 1) adequate primary health care, food and universal family planning; 2) prenatal care and nutrition with referral if needed; 3) assistance of a trained person at every childbirth; 4) access to obstetric care for those at high risk. Rather than spend money or urban specialized hospital centers, half to 2/3 of all fatal complications of childbirth can be eliminated by local hospitals with the ability to do basic obstetrics such as caesareans and blood transfusions. There is a need for further health systems research in the given locale, but what we need now is an initiative on making pregnancy and childbirth safe for all women. PMID:3420000

  16. Injections--how safe.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh

    2005-04-01

    Injection, is a skin-piercing event performed by a syringe and needle with the purpose of introducing a curative substance or vaccine in a patient. According to WHO, safe injection is one which does not harm to the recepient, does not expose the health worker to any risk and does not result in waste that is dangerous for the community. To achieve this injection should be prepared on a clean workspace, provider should clean his hands appropriately, sterility of the syringe and needle to be maintained, skin of the recipient should be cleaned and above all sharps waste should be managed appropriately. Common danger of unsafe injection is infection. Most medication used in primary care can be administered orally. So firstly the behaviour of healthcare providers and patients must be changed so as to decrease overuse of injections, secondly provision of sufficient quantities of appropriate injection equipment and infection control supplies should be made available and thirdly a sharp waste management system should be set up. PMID:16173426

  17. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  18. Intrinsically disordered proteins and biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Boskey, Adele L; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, biomineralization is controlled by the cell and the proteins they produce. A large number of these proteins are intrinsically disordered, gaining some secondary structure when they interact with their binding partners. These partners include the component ions of the mineral being deposited, the crystals themselves, the template on which the initial crystals form, and other intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides. This review speculates why intrinsically disordered proteins are so important for biomineralization, providing illustrations from the SIBLING (small integrin binding N-glycosylated) proteins and their peptides. It is concluded that the flexible structure, and the ability of the intrinsically disordered proteins to bind to a multitude of surfaces is crucial, but details on the precise-interactions, energetics and kinetics of binding remain to be determined. PMID:26807759

  19. MRI endoscopy using intrinsically localized probes

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Shashank; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is traditionally performed with fixed externally applied gradient magnetic fields and is hence intrinsically locked to the laboratory frame of reference (FoR). Here a method for high-resolution MRI that employs active, catheter-based, tiny internal probes that utilize the spatial properties of the probe itself for localization is proposed and demonstrated at 3 T. Because these properties are intrinsic to the probe, they move with it, transforming MRI from the laboratory FoR to the FoR of the device itself, analogous to an endoscope. The “MRI endoscope” can utilize loop coils and loopless antennas with modified sensitivity, in combination with adiabatic excitation by the device itself, to restrict the MRI sensitivity to a disk-shaped plane a few mm thick. Excitation with the MRI endoscope limits the eddy currents induced in the sample to an excited volume whose size is orders of magnitude below that excited by a conventional body MRI coil. Heat testing shows maximum local temperature increases of <1 °C during MRI, within regulatory guidelines. The method is demonstrated in a kiwifruit, in intact porcine and rabbit aortas, and in an atherosclerotic human iliac artery specimen, with in-plane resolution as small as 80 μm and 1.5–5 mm slice thickness. PMID:19378751

  20. Intrinsic magnetization of antiferromagnetic textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveten, Erlend G.; Müller, Tristan; Linder, Jacob; Brataas, Arne

    2016-03-01

    Antiferromagnets (AFMs) exhibit intrinsic magnetization when the order parameter spatially varies. This intrinsic spin is present even at equilibrium and can be interpreted as a twisting of the homogeneous AFM into a state with a finite spin. Because magnetic moments couple directly to external magnetic fields, the intrinsic magnetization can alter the dynamics of antiferromagnetic textures under such influence. Starting from the discrete Heisenberg model, we derive the continuum limit of the free energy of AFMs in the exchange approximation and explicitly rederive that the spatial variation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter is associated with an intrinsic magnetization density. We calculate the magnetization profile of a domain wall and discuss how the intrinsic magnetization reacts to external forces. We show conclusively, both analytically and numerically, that a spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field can move and control the position of domain walls in AFMs. By comparing our model to a commonly used alternative parametrization procedure for the continuum fields, we show that the physical interpretations of these fields depend critically on the choice of parametrization procedure for the discrete-to-continuous transition. This can explain why a significant amount of recent studies of the dynamics of AFMs, including effective models that describe the motion of antiferromagnetic domain walls, have neglected the intrinsic spin of the textured order parameter.

  1. Intrinsic disorder in transcription factors†

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangang; Perumal, Narayanan B.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Su, Eric W.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Dunker, A. Keith

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is highly abundant in eukaryotes, which reflect the greater need for disorder-associated signaling and transcriptional regulation in nucleated cells. Although several well-characterized examples of intrinsically disordered proteins in transcriptional regulation have been reported, no systematic analysis has been reported so far. To test for a general prevalence of intrinsic disorder in transcriptional regulation, we used the Predictor Of Natural Disorder Regions (PONDR) to analyze the abundance of intrinsic disorder in three transcription factor datasets and two control sets. This analysis revealed that from 94.13% to 82.63% of transcription factors posses extended regions of intrinsic disorder, relative to 54.51% and 18.64% of the proteins in two control datasets, which indicates the significant prevalence of intrinsic disorder in transcription factors. This propensity of transcription factors for intrinsic disorder was confirmed by cumulative distribution function analysis and charge-hydropathy plots. The amino acid composition analysis showed that all three transcription factor datasets were substantially depleted in order-promoting residues, and significantly enriched in disorder-promoting residues. Our analysis of the distribution of disorder within the transcription factor datasets revealed that: (a) The AT-hooks and basic regions of transcription factor DNA-binding domains are highly disordered; (b) The degree of disorder in transcription factor activation regions is much higher than that in DNA-binding domains; (c) The degree of disorder is significantly higher in eukaryotic transcription factors than in prokaryotic transcription factors; (d) The level of α-MoRFs (molecular recognition feature) prediction is much higher in transcription factors. Overall, our data reflected the fact that the eukaryotes with well-developed gene transcription machinery require transcription factor flexibility to be more efficient. PMID:16734424

  2. Microsurgical anatomy of safe entry zones to the brainstem.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Preul, Mark C; Kalani, M Yashar S; Spetzler, Robert F

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT The aim of this study was to enhance the planning and use of microsurgical resection techniques for intrinsic brainstem lesions by better defining anatomical safe entry zones. METHODS Five cadaveric heads were dissected using 10 surgical approaches per head. Stepwise dissections focused on the actual areas of brainstem surface that were exposed through each approach and an analysis of the structures found, as well as which safe entry zones were accessible via each of the 10 surgical windows. RESULTS Thirteen safe entry zones have been reported and validated for approaching lesions in the brainstem, including the anterior mesencephalic zone, lateral mesencephalic sulcus, intercollicular region, peritrigeminal zone, supratrigeminal zone, lateral pontine zone, supracollicularzone, infracollicularzone, median sulcus of the fourth ventricle, anterolateral and posterior median sulci of the medulla, olivary zone, and lateral medullary zone. A discussion of the approaches, anatomy, and limitations of these entry zones is included. CONCLUSIONS A detailed understanding of the anatomy, area of exposure, and safe entry zones for each major approach allows for improved surgical planning and dissemination of the techniques required to successfully resect intrinsic brainstem lesions. PMID:26452114

  3. Adventure Programming: Keeping It Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spacht, Roger J.; Hirsch, Jude

    1995-01-01

    Addresses issues related to administration of adventure programs, including liability, hiring well-trained staff, conducting safe activities, supervising safe adventure programs, maintaining appropriate facilities and equipment, keeping accurate records, posting information about potentially unsafe sites and activities, carrying adequate insurance…

  4. Safe genetically engineered plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  5. Environmentally safe aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberio, Patricia D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the Air Force directive to remove Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) from military specifications and Defense Logistics Agency's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, we are faced with how to ensure a quality aviation fuel without using such chemicals. Many of these chemicals are found throughout the fuel and fuel related military specifications and are part of test methods that help qualify the properties and quality of the fuels before they are procured. Many years ago there was a directive for military specifications to use commercially standard test methods in order to provide standard testing in private industry and government. As a result the test methods used in military specifications are governed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). The Air Force has been very proactive in the removal or replacement of the ODC's and hazardous materials in these test methods. For example, ASTM D3703 (Standard Test Method for Peroxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels), requires the use of Freon 113, a known ODC. A new rapid, portable hydroperoxide test for jet fuels similar to ASTM D3703 that does not require the use of ODC's has been developed. This test has proved, in limited testing, to be a viable substitute method for ASTM D3703. The Air Force is currently conducting a round robin to allow the method to be accepted by ASTM and therefore replace the current method. This paper will describe the Air Force's initiatives to remove ODC's and hazardous materials from the fuel and fuel related military specifications that the Air Force Wright Laboratory.

  6. Phylogeny of major intrinsic proteins.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Jonas A H; Johanson, Urban

    2010-01-01

    Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) form a large superfamily of proteins that can be divided into different subfamilies and groups according to phylogenetic analyses. Plants encode more MIPs than o ther organisms and se ven subfamilies have been defined, whereofthe Nodulin26-like major intrinsic proteins (NIPs) have been shown to permeate metalloids. In this chapter we review the phylogeny of MIPs in general and especially of the plant MIPs. We also identify bacterial NIP-like MIPs and discuss the evolutionary implications of this finding regarding the origin and ancestral transport specificity of the NIPs. PMID:20666221

  7. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Susan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated intrinsic-extrinsic model of motivation for smoking cessation using two samples (Ns=1,217 and 151) of smokers. Analysis on Reasons for Quitting scale supported intrinsic-extrinsic motivation distinction, defining four-factor model with two intrinsic and two extrinsic dimensions. Found that smokers with higher levels of intrinsic relative…

  8. Implantable medical devices MRI safe.

    PubMed

    Dal Molin, Renzo; Hecker, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Pacemakers, ICDs, neurostimulators like deep brain stimulator electrodes, spiral cord stimulators, insulin pumps, cochlear implants, retinal implants, hearing aids, electro cardio gram (ECG) leads, or devices in interventional MRI such as vascular guide wires or catheters are affected by MRI magnetic and electromagnetic fields. Design of MRI Safe medical devices requires computer modeling, bench testing, phantom testing, and animal studies. Implanted medical devices can be MRI unsafe, MRI conditional or MRI safe (see glossary). In the following paragraphs we will investigate how to design implanted medical devices MRI safe. PMID:23739365

  9. Reading: Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Much debate centers on motivating student in reading achievement. Should students feel motivated from within (intrinsic motivation), or is it better to have extrinsic motivation whereby external stimuli are used to help learners achieve optimally in reading? This paper aims to analyze the two points of view about motivating students in reading…

  10. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  11. Individual Patterns in Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Harry L., Jr.; Maxwell, Frederick R.

    The effects of extrinsic reward on students' intrinsic interest was investigated using a single-subject design in a behavior disorders classroom. Baseline measures of the interest level of five children (ages 9-11 years) were collected for academic and non-academic tasks. Assessment was then made of each subject's response hierarchy or level of…

  12. Exercising Safely in Hot Weather

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising Safely in Hot Weather Many people enjoy outdoor activities—walking, gardening, ... older adults and people with health problems. Being hot for too long can cause hyperthermia—a heat- ...

  13. Is Rinsing Your Sinuses Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... water that is used with nasal rinsing devices. Tap water that is not filtered, treated, or processed in ... safe for use as a nasal rinse. Some tap water contains low levels of organisms, such as bacteria ...

  14. Safe drinking during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... care provider about special care you should take. Tap Water Tap water is water from your faucet. It should be ... Reverse osmosis filtration Distillation or distilled Water Filters Tap water should be safe when it comes from a ...

  15. Keep Safe When Temperatures Soar

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159527.html Keep Safe When Temperatures Soar Everyone's at risk of heat-related illness, ... THURSDAY, June 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With high temperatures moving across the United States this weekend, one ...

  16. How to Safely Give Acetaminophen

    MedlinePlus

    ... up a dose of acetaminophen within the first 20 minutes, it's usually safe to give your child another ... holds the first dose down for longer than 20 minutes before spitting up, you should wait 4 hours ...

  17. Portable eye-safe ceilometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryuchkov, A. V.; Grishin, A. I.; Gricuta, A. N.

    2014-11-01

    Developed and tested a simplified version of the definition of the cloud base height of the backscatter signal obtained in the laser meter height of the cloud base with eye-safe level of radiation intensity.

  18. Keep Safe When Temperatures Soar

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159527.html Keep Safe When Temperatures Soar Everyone's at risk of heat-related illness, ... THURSDAY, June 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With high temperatures moving across the United States this weekend, one ...

  19. The ABCs of Safe BBQing

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158343.html The ABCs of Safe BBQing National Fire Protection Association offers tips for outdoor cooking To ... well-seasoned meats also comes a risk of fires and burns, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) ...

  20. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — Core design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viberti, C. M.; Ricco, G.

    2014-04-01

    The core of a subcritical, low-power research reactor in a lead matrix has been designed using the MCNPX code. The main parameters, like geometry, material composition in the fuel assembly and reflector size, have been optimized for a k eff ˜ 0.95 and a thermal power around 200 Kw. A 70 Mev, 1 mA proton beam incident on a beryllium target has been assumed as neutron source and the corresponding thermal power distribution and neutron fluxes in the reactor have been simulated.

  1. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansani, L.; Monti, S.; Ricco, G.; Ricotti, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this short paper the motivations for the development of fast spectrum lead-cooled reactors are briefly summarized. In particular the importance of subcritical research reactors, like the one described in this Focus Point, for the investigation of various scientifical and technological aspects and the training of students, is discussed.

  2. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — ADS shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasciello, O.; Ciotti, M.

    2014-04-01

    A detailed study of a very simple Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) shielding concept is carried out by means of the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The design of a multilayer shielding scheme, together with an underground reactor host room sketch, is shown to be very effective for the exposure levels to ionizing radiations, in the upside experimental building and in the ground all around the reactor host room, being fully negligible. Transient heat is also estimated, founding that no residual radiation leaks out through ADS structures in the host room after shutdown.

  3. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — Kinetics and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracco, P.; Bortot, S.; Cammi, A.; Lorenzi, S.; Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P.; Rebora, A.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper the current status of the study of the dynamical behaviour of the proposed ADS is presented; it is a complex multi-physics problem which, in the present case of a very low k eff system, is conveniently analyzed because the characteristic time scales of the problem are well separated. To be more specific, time scales of the neutronic (prompt) response of the system are so short to be negligible when studying thermal, mechanical and hydraulic aspects.

  4. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — Target profile optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotti, Marco

    2014-04-01

    A simple 1D algorithm for a spallation target profile optimization is presented. The profile efficacy is tested considering different real particle beams profiles impinging on the target. The results are commented in terms of power non-homogeneity for unit length for different beam/profile choices, showing a non-trivial parameters selection. In details, target shaping optimization is possible knowing the beam parameters with a large benefit for surface power homogeneity, but results of the simulations show that a small increase of the beam dimension, or a beam shift with respect to the assumed one, could rapidly erase the advantages.

  5. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — Burnup and transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomonaco, G.; Frasciello, O.; Osipenko, M.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.

    2014-04-01

    The currently dominant open fuel cycles have resulted in the gradual accumulation of (relatively) large quantities of highly radioactive or fertile materials in the form of depleted uranium, plutonium, minor actinides (MA) and long-lived fission products (LLFP). For low-activity wastes a heavily shielded surface repository is required. Spent fuel can be instead directly buried in deep geological repositories or reprocessed in order to separate U and Pu and eventually also MA and LLFP from other materials. These elements can be further burnt by modern reactors but not yet in sufficient quantities to slow down the steady accumulation of these materials in storage. Using ADS, the residual long-lifetime isotopes can be transmuted by nuclear reactions into shorter-lifetime isotopes again storable in surface repositories. However, in order to perform transmutations at a practical level, high-power reactors (and consequently high-power accelerators) are required; particularly, a significant transmutation can be reached not only by increasing the beam current to something of the order of a few tens of mA, but also by increasing the beam energy above 500MeV in order to reach the spallation regime. Such high-power infrastructures require intermediate test facilities with lower power and higher safety level for the investigation of their dynamics and transmutation capabilities: the ADS proposed in this study could accomplish many of these constraints.

  6. Chemistry laboratory safety manual available

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsbrock, R. G.

    1968-01-01

    Chemistry laboratory safety manual outlines safe practices for handling hazardous chemicals and chemistry laboratory equipment. Included are discussions of chemical hazards relating to fire, health, explosion, safety equipment and procedures for certain laboratory techniques and manipulations involving glassware, vacuum equipment, acids, bases, and volatile solvents.

  7. [Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells].

    PubMed

    Skorkovská, K; Skorkovská, Š

    2015-06-01

    Recently discovered intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells contribute to circadian photoentrainment and pupillary constriction; recent works have also brought new evidence for their accessory role in the visual system in humans. Pupil light reaction driven by individual photoreceptors can be isolated by means of the so called chromatic pupillography. The use of chromatic stimuli to elicit different pupillary responses may become an objective clinical pupil test in the detection of retinal diseases and in assessing new therapeutic approaches particularly in hereditary retinal degenerations like retinitis pigmentosa. In advanced stages of disease, the pupil light reaction is even more sensitive than standard electroretinography for detecting residual levels of photoreceptor activity. This review summarizes current knowledge on intrinsically photosensitive retinal cells and highlights its possible implications for clinical practice. PMID:26201360

  8. Intrinsic Control of Axon Regeneration.

    PubMed

    He, Zhigang; Jin, Yishi

    2016-05-01

    A determinant of axon regeneration is the intrinsic growth ability of injured neurons, which dictates a battery of injury responses in axons and cell bodies. While some of these regulatory mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved, others are unique to the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) where spontaneous regeneration usually does not occur. Here we examine our current understanding of these mechanisms at cellular and molecular terms and discuss their potential implications for promoting axon regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injury. PMID:27151637

  9. Quasar redshifts: the intrinsic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    The large observed redshift of quasars has suggested large cosmological distances and a corresponding enormous energy output to explain the brightness or luminosity as seen at earth. Alternative or complementary sources of redshift have not been identified by the astronomical community. This study examines one possible source of additional redshift: an intrinsic component based on the plasma characteristics of high temperature and high electron density which are believed to be present.

  10. Supporting the Development of Intrinsic Motivation in the Middle School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oginsky, Terri

    This study took place in a sixth grade math class at Webber Middle School in Saginaw, Michigan. A literature review indicated that a classroom that students perceive as safe, supportive of their autonomy, and of their learning increases intrinsic motivation. With this in mind, the author created a study, which would look for connections between…

  11. Decoherence: Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Environmental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamp, Philip

    2012-02-01

    Environmental decoherence times have been difficult to predict in solid-state systems. In spin systems, environmental decoherence is predicted to arise from nuclear spins, spin-phonon interactions, and long-range dipolar interactions [1]. Recent experiments have confirmed these predictions quantitatively in crystals of Fe8 molecules [2]. Coherent spin dynamics was observed over macroscopic volumes, with a decoherence Q-factor Qφ= 1.5 x10^6 (the upper predicted limit in this system being Qφ= 6 x10^7). Decoherence from dipolar interactions is particularly complex, and depends on the shape and the quantum state of the system. No extrinsic ``noise'' decoherence was observed. The generalization to quantum dot and superconducting qubit systems is also discussed. We then discuss searches for ``intrinsic'' decoherence [3,4], coming from non-linear corrections to quantum mechanics. Particular attention is paid to condensed matter tests of such intrinsic decoherence, in hybrid spin/optomechanical systems, and to ways of distinguishing intrinsic decoherence from environmental and extrinsic decoherence sources. [4pt] [1] Morello, A. Stamp, P. C. E. & Tupitsyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 207206 (2006).[0pt] [2] S. Takahashi et al., Nature 476, 76 (2011).[0pt] [3] Stamp, P. C. E., Stud. Hist. Phil. Mod. Phys. 37, 467 (2006). [0pt] [4] Stamp, P.C.E., Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A (to be published)

  12. Troponins, intrinsic disorder, and cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Na, Insung; Kong, Min J; Straight, Shelby; Pinto, Jose R; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac troponin is a dynamic complex of troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T (TnC, TnI, and TnT, respectively) found in the myocyte thin filament where it plays an essential role in cardiac muscle contraction. Mutations in troponin subunits are found in inherited cardiomyopathies, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The highly dynamic nature of human cardiac troponin and presence of numerous flexible linkers in its subunits suggest that understanding of structural and functional properties of this important complex can benefit from the consideration of the protein intrinsic disorder phenomenon. We show here that mutations causing decrease in the disorder score in TnI and TnT are significantly more abundant in HCM and DCM than mutations leading to the increase in the disorder score. Identification and annotation of intrinsically disordered regions in each of the troponin subunits conducted in this study can help in better understanding of the roles of intrinsic disorder in regulation of interactomes and posttranslational modifications of these proteins. These observations suggest that disease-causing mutations leading to a decrease in the local flexibility of troponins can trigger a whole plethora of functional changes in the heart. PMID:27074551

  13. OSHA Laboratory Standard: Driving Force for Laboratory Safety!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Laboratory Safety Standards as the major driving force in establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for teachers and students. (Author)

  14. Localization of intrinsic factor and complement fixing intrinsic factor–intrinsic factor antibody complex in parietal cell of man

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Elizabeth; Glass, G. B. J.

    1971-01-01

    In an attempt to localize intrinsic factor in the human parietal cell, and to study its intracellular union with the intrinsic factor antibody and complement, intrinsic factor antibody was separated from coexisting parietal cell antibody in pernicious anaemia sera by gel filtration. Intrinsic factor antibody of both `binding' and `blocking' type was also produced in rabbits by immunization with semi-purified human intrinsic factor–[57Co]B12 complex. Intrinsic factor antibody obtained from both sources produced fluorescence in the human parietal cells in the indirect Coons' test in the presence of fluoresceinated anti-human IgG. The fluorescence was localized peripherally, at the cell membrane. When instead of the fluoresceinated anti-human IgG a fluoresceinated anti-human complement (C) serum and normal complement containing serum were used, intrinsic factor antibody from both sources produced fluorescence of the entire parietal cell cytoplasm of the human mucosa. Thus, intrinsic factor was localized at highest concentration at the membrane of the parietal cell in man, the intrinsic factor antibody–intrinsic factor complex was demonstrated within the human parietal cell, and evidence was obtained that this antigen–antibody complex fixes complement (C). The possible role of the intrinsic factor–intrinsic factor antibody–complement complex in the development of gastric atrophy in pernicious anaemia has been considered. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4995933

  15. FAIL-SAFE TRANSFER LINE FOR HAZARDOUS FLUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design principles, development, laboratory testing, fabrication and field testing of a fail-safe transfer line for hazardous liquids are described. The system provides a 2-inch-ID flexible hose line for off-loading tank cars or trucks and detects leaks by monitoring flow inve...

  16. Safe Finger Tourniquet--Ideas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin-Gwei; Chen, Chieh-Feng; Hwang, Chun-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Kuan; Li, Chun-Chang; Wang, Hsian-Jenn

    2016-03-01

    Tourniquets are often needed for optimized phalangeal surgeries. However, few surgeons forget to remove them and caused ischemic injuries. We have a modified method to create a safe finger tourniquet for short duration finger surgeries, which can avoid such tragedy. It is done by donning a glove, cutting the tip of the glove over the finger of interest, and rolling the glove finger to the base. From 2010 to 2013, approximately 54 patients underwent digital surgical procedures with our safe finger tourniquet. Because the glove cannot be forgotten to be removed, the tourniquet must be released and removed. This is a simple and efficient way to apply a safe finger tourniquet by using hand rubber glove for a short-term bloodless finger surgery and can achieve an excellent surgical result. PMID:26855166

  17. How Safe Are Kid-Safe Search Engines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson-Krum, Hope

    2001-01-01

    Examines search tools available to elementary and secondary school students, both human-compiled and crawler-based, to help direct them to age-appropriate Web sites; analyzes the procedures of search engines labeled family-friendly or kid safe that use filters; and tests the effectiveness of these services to students in school libraries. (LRW)

  18. Environmental applications for an intrinsic germanium well detector

    SciTech Connect

    Stegnar, P.; Eldridge, J.S.; Teasley, N.A.; Oakes, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    The overall performance of an intrinsic germanium well detector for /sup 125/I measurements was investigated in a program of environmental surveillance. Concentrations of /sup 125/I and /sup 131/I were determined in thyroids of road-killed deer showing the highest activities of /sup 125/I in the animals from the near vicinity of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This demonstrates the utility of road-killed deer as a bioindicator for radioiodine around nuclear facilities. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Intraday Variability: Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma Kuchibhotla, Huthavahana; Lister, Matthew; Homan, Dan; Kellermann, Ken; Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo; Agudo, Ivan; Arshakian, Tigran; Kovalev, Yuri; Lobanov, Andrew; Pushkarev, Alexander; Ros, Eduardo; Savolainen, Tuomas; Zensus, Tony; Kadler, Matthias; Vermeulen, Rene; Gehrels, Neil; McEnery, Julie; Sambruna, Rita; Tueller, Jack; Cohen, Marshall; Hovatta, Talvikki; Kharb, Preeti; Cooper, Nathan; Hogan, Brandon; Cara, Mihai

    A significant fraction of flat spectrum AGN exhibit rapid variability both in total intensity as well as polarization at cm wavelengths, on time scales ranging from a few hours to a few days, a phenomenon termed Intra Day Variability (IDV). The physical process responsible for this behavior is not well understood, though various models ranging from source-intrinsic (e.g., shock-in-jet) to source-extrinsic (e.g., scintillation due to electron density fl uctuations in the interstellar medium) have been proposed. The absence of multi-epoch data (especially at 2 cm) further exacerbates the situation. We present the results of analysis of archival VLBA data for a flux density limited sample of bright, flat spectrum AGN located predominantly in the north-ern sky, collected under the MOJAVE program. We find a clear detection of IDV in 25% of the 365 sources analyzed. We find significant differences in the IDV properties of quasars and true BL Lacs. Intermediate BL Lac objects, so classified due to the presence of broad lines in their optical spectra, have IDV characteristics similar to those of quasars. As expected, the presum-able weakly beamed CSS/GPS sources show no IDV. We find IDV properties to be correlated with source intrinsic properties such as Brightness temperature/Doppler factor and apparent speed. Episodes of IDV activity associated with radio flaring and/or component ejection have also been observed, suggesting an intrinsic mechanism at work. However, we also find IDV to be strongly correlated with the galactic latitude position of the source, indicative of a scintil-lation mechanism. However, we find no correlation between IDV and the observing day of the year, IDV and redshift of the source. We propose a qualitative model to explain all these results. The program is supported under the NSF grant 080786-AST and NASA grant NNX08AV67G.

  20. How Safe Are Our Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Matthew J.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Schools are basically safe places for children. School violence and disruption, although in decline through the mid- to late 1990s, remains a concern. National surveys that inform research, policy, and practice have been designed for different purposes and can present conflicting findings. Common standards of risk and harm that could advance…

  1. Making Cyberspace Safe for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Joyce; McLaughlin, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Despite the 1998 Children's Online Privacy Act's supposed protections, most web sites still collect personal information and post no privacy statements. Internet-filtering software packages are described and suggestions given for creating a safe environment, dismantling "cookies," informing parents and teachers, and checking "history" submenus on…

  2. Developing a Safe Cycling Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Amy Backus

    1983-01-01

    A cycling course can take advantage of students' interests, teach safe cycling, and give students a fuller appreciation of a lifetime sport. Suggestions for planning and scheduling a cycling course, covering safety procedures, and considering other elements necessary for a successful course are given. (PP)

  3. Finding a Safe Way Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Steven M.; Derby, Joel

    1996-01-01

    Building designers, owners, and managers are morally responsible for providing persons with disabilities with a safe way out of multistory buildings. Although codes, standards, and elevator features may make the job more complicated, all of the difficulties can be overcome. Four figures illustrate elevator egress. (MLF)

  4. 99 Tips for Safe Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufer, Steve

    This pamphlet highlights 99 tips for maintaining safe schools. Areas of interest include: alarm systems and control of access, vandalism, parent education, transportation, school design, personnel training, and graffiti. The majority of the pointers deal with maintaining and implementing various forms of electronic surveillance and strategies for…

  5. Planning and Designing Safe Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidler, Todd

    2006-01-01

    Those who manage physical education, athletic, and recreation programs have a number of legal duties that they are expected to carry out. Among these are an obligation to take reasonable precautions to ensure safe programs and facilities for all participants, spectators, and staff. Physical education and sports facilities that are poorly planned,…

  6. How Safe Are Our Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younghusband, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a study she conducted in Newfoundland to determine the level of abuse and/or violence experienced by teachers, the nature of that abuse/violence, its personal impact, and whether Newfoundland teachers feel safe in their workplaces. The experiences presented are those of a focus group of eight teachers,…

  7. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products made from plants, animal parts, algae, seafood, or yeasts. The information here can ...

  8. Exercising in a Safe Environment

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the early morning or evening. l Put lights on the front and back of your bike. Walk safely in rural areas. l Be sure drivers can see you. l Always walk facing oncoming traffic. l Look for a smooth, stable surface alongside ...

  9. Pair breaking and ``intrinsic`` {Tc}

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S.A.; Kresin, V.Z.; Ovchinnikov, Y.N.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis of the temperature dependence of the upper critical field in several cuprate families leads to the conclusion that magnetic impurities are present even in samples with the maximum observed value of T{sub c}. A new parameter, intrinsic T{sub c} (T{sub c;intr}) which is its value in the absence of magnetic impurities, is introduced. The maximum value of T{sub c;intr}, which corresponds to the maximum doping level, appears to be similar for different cuprates and to be equal to 160--170 K. This is an upper limit of T{sub c} in the cuprates.

  10. Nuclear Filtering of Intrinsic Charm

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-11-12

    Nuclei are transparent for a heavy intrinsic charm (IC) component of the beam hadrons, what leads to an enhanced nuclear dependence of open charm production at large Feynman x{sub F}. Indeed, such an effect is supported by data from the SELEX experiment published recently [1]. Our calculations reproduce well the data, providing strong support for the presence of IC in hadrons in amount less than 1%. Moreover, we performed an analysis of nuclear effects in J/{Psi} production and found at large x{sub F} a similar, albeit weaker effect, which does not contradict data.

  11. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Keith E.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  12. Microbes safely, effectively bioremediate oil field pits

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B. ); Block, C.S. ); Mills, C.H. )

    1995-01-30

    Natural and augmented bioremediation provides a safe, environmental, fast, and effective solution for removing hydrocarbon stains from soil. In 1992, Amoco sponsored a study with six bioremediation companies, which evaluated 14 different techniques. From this study, Amoco continued using Environmental Protection Co.'s (EPC) microbes for bioremediating more than 145 sites near Farmington, NM. EPC's microbes proved effective on various types of hydrocarbon molecules found in petroleum stained soils from heavy crude and paraffin to volatiles such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) compounds. Controlled laboratory tests have shown that these microbes can digest the hydrocarbon molecules with or without free oxygen present. It is believed that this adaptation gives these microbes their resilience. The paper describes the bioremediation process, environmental advantages, in situ and ex situ bioremediation, goals of bioremediation, temperature effects, time, cost, and example sites that were treated.

  13. Intrinsic cylindrical and spherical waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, I. K.

    2008-02-01

    Intrinsic waveforms associated with cylindrical and spherical Bessel functions are obtained by eliminating the factors responsible for the inverse radius and inverse square radius laws of wave power per unit area of wavefront. The resulting expressions are Riccati-Bessel functions for both cases and these can be written in terms of amplitude and phase functions of order v and wave variable z. When z is real, it is shown that a spatial phase angle of the intrinsic wave can be defined and this, together with its amplitude function, is systematically investigated for a range of fixed orders and varying z. The derivatives of Riccati-Bessel functions are also examined. All the component functions exhibit different behaviour in the near field depending on the order being less than, equal to or greater than 1/2. Plots of the phase angle can be used to display the locations of the zeros of the general Riccati-Bessel functions and lead to new relations concerning the ordering of the real zeros of Bessel functions and the occurrence of multiple zeros when the argument of the Bessel function is fixed.

  14. Safe Haven roadway is tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A mobile launcher platform atop a crawler-transporter, moves into the Vehicle Assembly Building high bay 2. As part of the Safe Haven project, a once-buried portion of the crawlerway was restored to enable rollout of a Shuttle from this third stacking area. The primary goal of the Safe Haven construction project was to strengthen readiness for hurricane season by expanding the VAB's storage capacity. The new area, in high bay 2, will allow NASA to preassemble stacks and still have room in the VAB to pull a Shuttle back from the pad if severe weather threatens. Potential rollouts of the Space Shuttle to the launch pad from high bay 2 will involve making a turn around the north side of the VAB in contrast to the straight rollouts from high bays 1 and 3, on the east side of the VAB facing the launch pads.

  15. Safe Haven roadway is tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A mobile launcher platform atop a crawler-transporter, heads to the open door of the Vehicle Assembly Building high bay 2. As part of the Safe Haven project, a once-buried portion of the crawlerway was restored to enable rollout of a Shuttle from this third stacking area. The primary goal of the Safe Haven construction project was to strengthen readiness for hurricane season by expanding the VAB's storage capacity. The new area, in high bay 2, will allow NASA to preassemble stacks and still have room in the VAB to pull a Shuttle back from the pad if severe weather threatens. Potential rollouts of the Space Shuttle to the launch pad from high bay 2 will involve making a turn around the north side of the VAB in contrast to the straight rollouts from high bays 1 and 3, on the east side of the VAB facing the launch pads.

  16. Safe Haven roadway is tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A crawler-transporter with mobile launcher platform on top moves along a portion of the once-buried crawlerway toward the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The road was restored as part of KSC's Safe Haven project. High bay 2 provides a third stacking area. The primary goal of the Safe Haven construction project was to strengthen readiness for hurricane season by expanding the VAB's storage capacity. The new area, in high bay 2, will allow NASA to preassemble stacks and still have room in the VAB to pull a Shuttle back from the pad if severe weather threatens. Potential rollouts of the Space Shuttle to the launch pad from high bay 2 will involve making a turn around the north side of the VAB in contrast to the straight rollouts from high bays 1 and 3, on the east side of the VAB facing the launch pads.

  17. Safe-haven locking device

    DOEpatents

    Williams, J.V.

    1984-04-26

    Disclosed is a locking device for eliminating external control of a secured space formed by fixed and movable barriers. The locking device uses externally and internally controlled locksets and a movable strike, operable from the secured side of the movable barrier, to selectively engage either lockset. A disengagement device, for preventing forces from being applied to the lock bolts is also disclosed. In this manner, a secured space can be controlled from the secured side as a safe-haven. 4 figures.

  18. Intrinsic rotation with gyrokinetic models

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Catto, Peter J.; Calvo, Ivan

    2012-05-15

    The generation of intrinsic rotation by turbulence and neoclassical effects in tokamaks is considered. To obtain the complex dependences observed in experiments, it is necessary to have a model of the radial flux of momentum that redistributes the momentum within the tokamak in the absence of a preexisting velocity. When the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation is used, a symmetry of the model precludes this possibility, making small effects in the gyroradius over scale length expansion necessary. These effects that are usually small become important for momentum transport because the symmetry of the lowest order gyrokinetic formulation leads to the cancellation of the lowest order momentum flux. The accuracy to which the gyrokinetic equation needs to be obtained to retain all the physically relevant effects is discussed.

  19. Practical Tips for the Safe Handling of Micro-organisms in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, G.

    1974-01-01

    Outlines safe laboratory procedures for the handling of micro-organisms including aseptic technique, manipulation of cultures, and treatment of contaminated equipment. Identifies the principal hazard as the microbial aerosol, explains its possible effects, and describes the appropriate precautions. (GS)

  20. Making processing fail-safe

    SciTech Connect

    Freiburghouse, R.

    1982-05-01

    The author describes the Stratus/32 multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant system for commercial applications which supports on-line transaction processing, batch processing, word processing and interactive program development. It uses a combination of hardware and software that provides continuous processing of user programs during computer failure without checkpoint/restart programming at the user or system level. Central to the system's fail-safe operation are processing modules, each of which has redundant logic and communication paths, logic and CPU boards and main and disk memory. Twin components operate in parallel with each other; when one fails, its partner carries on.

  1. SafeNet: a methodology for integrating general-purpose unsafe devices in safe-robot rehabilitation systems.

    PubMed

    Vicentini, Federico; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Malosio, Matteo; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Robot-assisted neurorehabilitation often involves networked systems of sensors ("sensory rooms") and powerful devices in physical interaction with weak users. Safety is unquestionably a primary concern. Some lightweight robot platforms and devices designed on purpose include safety properties using redundant sensors or intrinsic safety design (e.g. compliance and backdrivability, limited exchange of energy). Nonetheless, the entire "sensory room" shall be required to be fail-safe and safely monitored as a system at large. Yet, sensor capabilities and control algorithms used in functional therapies require, in general, frequent updates or re-configurations, making a safety-grade release of such devices hardly sustainable in cost-effectiveness and development time. As such, promising integrated platforms for human-in-the-loop therapies could not find clinical application and manufacturing support because of lacking in the maintenance of global fail-safe properties. Under the general context of cross-machinery safety standards, the paper presents a methodology called SafeNet for helping in extending the safety rate of Human Robot Interaction (HRI) systems using unsafe components, including sensors and controllers. SafeNet considers, in fact, the robotic system as a device at large and applies the principles of functional safety (as in ISO 13489-1) through a set of architectural procedures and implementation rules. The enabled capability of monitoring a network of unsafe devices through redundant computational nodes, allows the usage of any custom sensors and algorithms, usually planned and assembled at therapy planning-time rather than at platform design-time. A case study is presented with an actual implementation of the proposed methodology. A specific architectural solution is applied to an example of robot-assisted upper-limb rehabilitation with online motion tracking. PMID:24750989

  2. Midwifery education for safe motherhood.

    PubMed

    O'Heir, J M

    1997-09-01

    A series of new safe motherhood midwifery education modules was evaluated in nursing and midwifery education institutions, regional training centers, acute care hospitals, and community settings in Ethiopia, Fiji, Lesotho, Mozambique, and Nepal in 1995. The series was developed by the World Health Organization's Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Program. A total of 36 teachers, 82 midwives or nurse-midwives, and 60 post-basic midwifery students were enrolled in a 2-week clinical skills course and an 8-day training in module use. In subsequent questionnaires and focus group discussions, participants indicated the modules were understandable, relevant, easy to use, and of high quality and the guidelines for assessing competence were adequate. Difficulties encountered included insufficient recommended time frames for some of the sessions, a limited availability of clinical cases for teaching the specific skills in the modules, difficulties obtaining data for a community profile, and a lack of resources to support application of skills learned. Participants indicated they would benefit from having copies of the technical material used in the modules for reference after the course. Overall, these findings indicate the modules have the potential to strengthen the education of midwives in developing countries and thereby to make motherhood safer. Weak health system infrastructures, including regulatory measures, represent the major obstacle to successful program application. PMID:9362851

  3. Intrinsic ductility of glassy solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunfeng; Luo, Jian; Yuan, Fenglin; Huang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Glasses are usually brittle, seriously limiting their practical usage. Recently, the intrinsic ductility of glass was found to increase with the Poisson's ratio (v), with a sharp brittle-to-ductile (BTD) transition at vBTD = 0.31-0.32. Such a correlation between far-from-equilibrium fracture and near-equilibrium elasticity is unexpected and not understood. Molecular dynamics simulations, on three families of glasses (metallic glasses, amorphous silicon, and silica) with controlled bonding, processing, and testing conditions, show that glasses with low covalency and high structural disorder have high v and ductility, and vice versa. The BTD transitions triggered by the aforementioned causes in each system correspond to a unified vBTD value, which increases with its average coordination number (CN). The vBTD-CN relation can be comprehended by recognizing v as a measure of covalency and disorder, and the BTD transition as a competition between shear and cleavage. Our results provide guidelines for developing new recipes and processes for tough glasses.

  4. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid α/β protein at 300 K and at 380 K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380 K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  5. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Do, Michael Tri Hoang; Yau, King-Wai

    2010-10-01

    Life on earth is subject to alternating cycles of day and night imposed by the rotation of the earth. Consequently, living things have evolved photodetective systems to synchronize their physiology and behavior with the external light-dark cycle. This form of photodetection is unlike the familiar "image vision," in that the basic information is light or darkness over time, independent of spatial patterns. "Nonimage" vision is probably far more ancient than image vision and is widespread in living species. For mammals, it has long been assumed that the photoreceptors for nonimage vision are also the textbook rods and cones. However, recent years have witnessed the discovery of a small population of retinal ganglion cells in the mammalian eye that express a unique visual pigment called melanopsin. These ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive and drive a variety of nonimage visual functions. In addition to being photoreceptors themselves, they also constitute the major conduit for rod and cone signals to the brain for nonimage visual functions such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex. Here we review what is known about these novel mammalian photoreceptors. PMID:20959623

  6. Intelligent Viscoelastic Polyurethane Intrinsic Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal Khan, M.

    2010-04-01

    Polyurethanes are multiphase systems comprising intrinsically variant nanodomains. The material properties can be tailored by adjusting the relative proportions and organizing the structure of the hard and soft segments akin to the spring-dashpot system in an automobile. This article describes how an intelligent polyurethane (PU) system is created to offer smart response to mechanical and vibration stimuli. In this work, unidirectional, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), acoustic, and impact testing results are qualified with the unique viscoelastic character that determines the rate-temperature response of the nanocomposite. Attenuated total reflection- infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and DMTA offer a logical explanation of the observed viscoelastic behavior in terms of the nanodomains. Enhanced nanophase segregation between the polymer building blocks (hard and soft segments) is the primary mechanism that leads to a higher loss tangent peak in DMTA at a lower glass transition temperature ( T g ) for greater energy dissipation in the polymer matrix. Acoustic and impact attenuation are correlated with the mechanical modulus and loss tangent of the polymer. Finally, autodyne simulation reveals the unique shock absorbent behavior of the material layer when retrofitted to concrete structure. Typically, shock overpressure spikes of the order of 9.97 × 104 MPa experienced by the unprotected surface are entirely evened out at a lower overpressure threshold.

  7. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid α/β protein at 300 K and at 380 K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380 K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  8. Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159627.html Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients But further ... June 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists report that stem cell therapy appears to be safe for people ...

  9. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers short-term protection to ... News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new study indicates. The researchers also ...

  10. Dementia - keeping safe in the home

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000031.htm Dementia - keeping safe in the home To use the ... make sure the homes of people who have dementia are safe for them. Safety Tips for the ...

  11. Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159627.html Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients But further research ... June 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists report that stem cell therapy appears to be safe for people with ...

  12. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers ... MONDAY, May 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new ...

  13. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  14. 30 CFR 56.11001 - Safe access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe access. 56.11001 Section 56.11001 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways § 56.11001 Safe access. Safe means of access shall be provided and maintained to all working places....

  15. 30 CFR 57.11001 - Safe access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe access. 57.11001 Section 57.11001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11001 Safe access. Safe means of access shall be provided...

  16. 30 CFR 56.11001 - Safe access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safe access. 56.11001 Section 56.11001 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways § 56.11001 Safe access. Safe means of access shall be provided and maintained to all working places....

  17. 30 CFR 57.11001 - Safe access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safe access. 57.11001 Section 57.11001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11001 Safe access. Safe means of access shall be provided...

  18. Developing Safe Schools Partnerships with Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosiak, John

    2009-01-01

    Safe schools are the concern of communities throughout the world. If a school is safe, and if children feel safe, students "are better able to learn. But what are the steps to make" this happen? First, it is important to understand the problem: What are the threats to school safety? These include crime-related behaviors that find their way to…

  19. How safe is Seattle's water?

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    According to Seattle Public Utilities, the cysts that can cause cryptosporidiosis (crypto) have been found in the city water supply periodically. Crypto can cause symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and a low-grade fever, and can be fatal in people with CD4 counts below 200. It is very difficult to rid water of these cysts. To make sure drinking water is safe, people should boil the water for 1 to 3 minutes, depending on what altitude they are at. Also, the Centers for Disease Control suggests three methods for filtering water: microstraining with filters that remove particles smaller than one micron; reverse osmosis; and filtration with equipment that meets National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Standard 53 for "cyst reduction". Washing hands before eating, avoiding raw or undercooked food, and wearing gloves when gardening are also ways to avoid contact with cysts. Contact information is provided. PMID:11366754

  20. Safe handling of large animals.

    PubMed

    Grandin, T

    1999-01-01

    The major causes of accidents with cattle, horses, and other grazing animals are: panic due to fear, male dominance aggression, or the maternal aggression of a mother protecting her newborn. Danger is inherent when handling large animals. Understanding their behavior patterns improves safety, but working with animals will never be completely safe. Calm, quiet handling and non-slip flooring are beneficial. Rough handling and excessive use of electric prods increase chances of injury to both people and animals, because fearful animals may jump, kick, or rear. Training animals to voluntarily cooperate with veterinary procedures reduces stress and improves safety. Grazing animals have a herd instinct, and a lone, isolated animal can become agitated. Providing a companion animal helps keep an animal calm. PMID:10329901

  1. Is herniography useful and safe?

    PubMed

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, Gregor R; Kidambi, Ananta V

    2011-11-01

    117 consecutive herniograms were reviewed for patients who had symptoms suggestive of hernia but with no evidence or inconclusive findings on physical examination. The traditional approach has been to explore patients with suspected occult hernias. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of herniography in minimizing needless groin exploration and to evaluate its safety. Thirty-three herniograms were positive and showed unilateral and bilateral inguinal hernias. There were no false positive examinations and two false negative examinations. No complications were present. Patients with positive herniograms were explored, and operative findings correlated well with herniographic findings. Twenty-four patients were referred to other specialities. Follow-up in clinic and telephone interviews showed symptomatic improvement in the majority of patients. Herniography is useful in evaluating obscure groin pain and occult hernias. It is a safe procedure and more cost effective than a negative exploration or diagnostic laparoscopy. PMID:20833494

  2. Enabling the On-Line Intrinsic Evolution of Analog Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic evolution of analog controllers to provide closed-loop control of the speed of a DC motor has been previously demonstrated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A side fleet of the evolutionary process is that during evolution there are necessarily poor configurations to be evaluated that could cause damage to the plant. This paper concern the development and implementation of a safe Evolvable Analog Controller (EAC) architecture able to evolve controllers on-line even in the presence of these poor configurations. The EAC concept is discussed and experimental results are presented that show the feasibility of the approach This EAC architecture represents the first in a series of steps required to make deployment of an evolvable controller a reality.

  3. Enabling the On-line Intrinsic Evolution of Analog Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic evolution of analog controllers to provide closed-loop control of the speed of a DC motor has been previously demonstrated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A side effect of the evolutionary process is that during evolution there are necessarily poor configurations to be evaluated that could cause damage to the plant, This paper concerns the development and implementation of a safe Evolvable Analog Controller (EAC) architecture able to evolve controllers on-line even in the presence of these poor configurations, The EAC concept is discussed and experimental results are presented that show the feasibility of the approach This EAC architecture represents the first in a series of steps required to make deployment of an evolvable controller a reality.

  4. Safe teleradiology: information assurance as project planning methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collmann, Jeff R.; Alaoui, Adil; Nguyen, Dan; Lindisch, David

    2003-05-01

    This project demonstrates use of OCTAVE, an information security risk assessment method, as an approach to the safe design and planning of a teleradiology system. By adopting this approach to project planning, we intended to provide evidence that including information security as an intrinsic component of project planning improves information assurance and that using information assurance as a planning tool produces and improves the general system management plan. Several considerations justify this approach to planning a safe teleradiology system. First, because OCTAVE was designed as a method for retrospectively assessing and proposing enhancements for the security of existing information management systems, it should function well as a guide to prospectively designing and deploying a secure information system such as teleradiology. Second, because OCTAVE provides assessment and planning tools for use primarily by interdisciplinary teams from user organizations, not consultants, it should enhance the ability of such teams at the local level to plan safe information systems. Third, from the perspective of sociological theory, OCTAVE explicitly attempts to enhance organizational conditions identified as necessary to safely manage complex technologies. Approaching information system design from the perspective of information security risk management proactively integrates health information assurance into a project"s core. This contrasts with typical approaches that perceive "security" as a secondary attribute to be "added" after designing the system and with approaches that identify information assurance only with security devices and user training. The perspective of health information assurance embraces so many dimensions of a computerized health information system"s design that one may successfully deploy a method for retrospectively assessing information security risk as a prospective planning tool. From a sociological perspective, this approach enhances the

  5. Intrinsic structure in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, N.

    2015-10-01

    Saturn's rings are the most prominent in our Solar system and one example of granular matter in space. Dominated by tides and inelastic collisions the system is highly flattened being almost 300000km wide while only tens of meters thick. Individual particles are composed of primarily water ice and range from microns to few tens of meters in size. Apparent patterns comprise ringlets, gaps, kinematic wakes, propellers, bending waves, and the winding spiral arms of density waves. These large-scale structures are perturbations foremost created by external as well as embedded moons. Observations made by the Cassini spacecraft currently in orbit around Saturn show these structures in unprecedented detail. But high-resolution measurements reveal the presence of small-scale structures throughout the system. These include self-gravity wakes (50-100m), overstable waves (100-300m), subkm structure at the A and B ring edges, "straw" and "ropy" structures (1-3km), and the C ring "ghosts". Most of these had not been anticipated and are found in perturbed regions, driven by resonances with external moons, where the system undergoes periodic phases of compression and relaxation that correlate with the presence of structure. High velocity dispersion and the presence of large clumps imply structure formation on time scales as short as one orbit (about 10 hours). The presence of these intrinsic structures is seemingly the response to varying local conditions such as internal density, optical depth, underlying particle size distribution, granular temperature, and distance from the central planet. Their abundance provides evidence for an active and dynamic ring system where aggregation and fragmentation are ongoing on orbital timescales. Thus a kinetic description of the rings may be more appropriate than the fluid one. I will present Cassini Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVIS) High Speed Photometer (HSP) occultations, Voyager 1 and 2 Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and high

  6. A case study of the intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver Basin operated by Amoco Production Co. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways including aerobic oxidation, Fe{sup 3+} reduction, and sulfate reduction. In laboratory experiments the addition of gas condensate hydrocarbons to saturated soil from the gas production site stimulated sulfate reduction under anaerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions, and nitrate and Fe{sup 3+} reduction under oxygen-limiting conditions, compared to biotic controls that lacked hydrocarbon and sterile controls. The sulfate reduction corresponded to a reduction in the amount of toluene relative to other hydrocarbons. These results confirmed that subsurface soils at the gas production site have the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons.

  7. Intrinsic operators for the electromagnetic nuclear current

    SciTech Connect

    J. Adam, Jr.; H. Arenhovel

    1996-09-01

    The intrinsic electromagnetic nuclear meson exchange charge and current operators arising from a separation of the center-of-mass motion are derived for a one-boson-exchange model for the nuclear interaction with scalar, pseudoscalar and vector meson exchange including leading order relativistic terms. Explicit expressions for the meson exchange operators corresponding to the different meson types are given in detail for a two-nucleon system. These intrinsic operators are to be evaluated between intrinsic wave functions in their center-of-mass frame.

  8. Are nuclear shipments really safe?

    PubMed

    Brobst, W A

    1975-01-01

    The transportation of nuclear materials is on the increase. Although nuclear shipments are only a very small fraction of the Nation's hazardous materials shipments, they attract a great deal of public attention. Shipments of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear wastes are a particular concern. One of the many fears that people have about nuclear energy is the possibility that a nuclear shipment might somehow go awry and cause a serious public hazard. Primarily, they are worried that a shipment of spent reactor fuel or highly radioactive waste could be involved in serious rail or highway accident and dump its contents all over the countryside. Is that really possible? How safe are those shipments? How many are there? What do they look like? Are the packages tested? These and other questions are answered in this paper. Since public risk is the product of the consequences of an accident and its probability, both aspects are presented so that each of us can make up his own mind whether the risk from nuclear shipments is acceptable. PMID:1193025

  9. Safe disposal of prescribed medicines.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Phillip J; Hussainy, Safeera Y; George, Johnson; Kong, David Cm; Kirkpatrick, Carl Mj

    2015-06-01

    The National Return and Disposal of Unwanted Medicines Program provides a free and safe method for the disposal of unwanted and expired medicines. This stops drugs being dumped in landfill and waterways. An audit showed that over 600 tonnes of medicines are returned through the program. A substantial proportion of these medicines were still within their expiry dates. Salbutamol, insulin and frusemide are the most commonly discarded medicines. More than $2 million of public money is wasted each year. Hoarding and non-adherence to treatment contribute to waste. Health professionals may be able to help minimise waste by informing patients about the importance of completing prescribed courses of treatment, and discouraging them from hoarding medicines after reaching the safety net threshold on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Prescribe no more than the required quantity of medicines. When starting a new therapy, prescribe a minimal quantity in case the drug is unsuitable for the patient. Advise patients to return all unwanted medicines to a pharmacy for disposal. PMID:26648628

  10. Safe testing nuclear rockets economically

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S. D.; Travis, B. J.; Zerkle, D. K.

    2002-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the RoverMERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M.

  11. Time to prioritise safe walking.

    PubMed

    Toroyan, Tami; Khayesi, Meleckidzedeck; Peden, Margie

    2013-01-01

    This study draws on information from two recently published documents on pedestrian safety and global status of road safety to draw attention to the need to prioritize safe walking in planning and policy at local, national and international levels. The study shows that each year, more than 270 000 pedestrians lose their lives on the world's roads. The study argues that this situation need not persist because proven pedestrian safety interventions exist but do not attract the merit they deserve in many locations. The study further shows that the key risk factors for pedestrian road traffic injury such as vehicle speed, alcohol use by drivers and pedestrians, lack of infrastructure facilities for pedestrians and inadequate visibility of pedestrians are fairly well documented. The study concludes that pedestrian collisions, like all road traffic crashes, should not be accepted as inevitable because they are, in fact, both predictable and preventable. While stressing that reduction or elimination of risks faced by pedestrians is an important and achievable policy goal, the study emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive, holistic approach that includes engineering, enforcement and education measures. PMID:23701478

  12. Fail-safe electric actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.J.

    1988-07-19

    In combination with a control mechanism characterized by the ability to be moved from inoperative to operative position and back, a fail-safe actuator device for automatically returning the control mechanism to inoperative position when interruption of electric power occurs is described which comprises: a fluid-driven vaned torque actuator: electric-motor-driven fluid power means for operating the torque actuator; electrically operated valve means for controlling the power fluid flow between the torque actuator and the fluid power generating means; at least one shaft projecting from the torque actuator; coupling means for operatively connecting the shaft to the control mechanism to be operated by the failsafe actuator device; reversible means for storing energy, the reversible means being operatively connected to the shaft; a limit-switch operating cam mounted on and rotable with the shaft; a limit switch positioned for activation by the limit-switch operating cam; and electric circuitry means for interconnecting the motordriven fluid power generating means, the valve means, and the limit switch.

  13. Staying Safe While Consuming Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Donna Elise; Griffin, Melinda; Boekeloo, Bradley; Lake, Kristin; Bellows, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Objective In this qualitative study, the authors examined how students attempt to minimize harm to themselves and others when drinking. Participants The authors recruited freshmen at a large, mid-Atlantic US public university during the fall semester of 2005 to participate in 8 focus groups. Methods The moderator’s guide was developed through an iterative process that included input from experts and pilot testing. The researchers audiotaped focus group conversations, transcribed them, and subjected them to an interrater reliability check. Analysis was based on the framework of Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model and a phenomenological approach. Results College students have a repertoire of coping strategies they use in an attempt to safeguard themselves and their friends from harm when drinking. Strategies encompass planning a safe context for drinking, using safety measures to minimize harm when drinking, and taking care of someone who has consumed too much alcohol. Conclusions A harm-reduction focus that acknowledges and builds on existing protective strategies may be a promising avenue for alcohol interventions. PMID:18089505

  14. Safe disposal of prescribed medicines

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Phillip J; Hussainy, Safeera Y; George, Johnson; Kong, David CM; Kirkpatrick, Carl MJ

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The National Return and Disposal of Unwanted Medicines Program provides a free and safe method for the disposal of unwanted and expired medicines. This stops drugs being dumped in landfill and waterways. An audit showed that over 600 tonnes of medicines are returned through the program. A substantial proportion of these medicines were still within their expiry dates. Salbutamol, insulin and frusemide are the most commonly discarded medicines. More than $2 million of public money is wasted each year. Hoarding and non-adherence to treatment contribute to waste. Health professionals may be able to help minimise waste by informing patients about the importance of completing prescribed courses of treatment, and discouraging them from hoarding medicines after reaching the safety net threshold on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Prescribe no more than the required quantity of medicines. When starting a new therapy, prescribe a minimal quantity in case the drug is unsuitable for the patient. Advise patients to return all unwanted medicines to a pharmacy for disposal. PMID:26648628

  15. Inflation from asymptotically safe theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund; Sannino, Francesco; Svendsen, Ole

    2015-05-01

    We investigate models in which inflation is driven by an ultraviolet safe and interacting scalar sector stemming from a new class of nonsupersymmetric gauge field theories. These new theories, different from generic scalar models, are well defined to arbitrary short distances because of the existence of a controllable ultraviolet interacting fixed point. The scalar couplings at the ultraviolet fixed point and their overall running are predicted by the geometric structure of the underlying theory. We analyze the minimal and nonminimal coupling to gravity of these theories and the consequences for inflation. In the minimal coupling case the theory requires large nonperturbative quantum corrections to the quantum potential for the theory to agree with the data, while in the nonminimal coupling case the perturbative regime in the couplings of the theory is preferred. Requiring the theory to reproduce the observed amplitude of density perturbations constrains the geometric data of the theory such as the number of colors and flavors for generic values of the nonminimal coupling.

  16. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  17. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Jorge; Bernardini, Alejandra; Garcia-Leon, Guillermo; Corona, Fernando; B. Sanchez, Maria; Martinez, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyze recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice. PMID:23641241

  18. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective ‘titanic’. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the ‘Seven C's’. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. PMID:22738396

  19. The Effects of a Transition to Minimalist Shoe Running on Intrinsic Foot Muscle Size.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Myrer, J W; Mitchell, U H; Hunter, I; Ridge, S T

    2016-02-01

    A proposed benefit of minimalist shoe running is an increase in intrinsic foot muscle strength. This study examined change in intrinsic foot muscle size in runners transitioning to Vibram FiveFingers™ minimalist shoes compared to a control group running in traditional running shoes. We compare pre-transition size between runners who developed bone marrow edema to those who did not. 37 runners were randomly assigned to the Vibram FiveFingers™ group (n=18) or control group (n=19). Runners' bone marrow edema and intrinsic foot muscle size were measured at baseline and after 10 weeks. Total running volume was maintained by all runners. A significant increase in abductor hallucis cross-sectional area of 10.6% occurred in the Vibram FiveFingers™ group compared to the control group (p=0.01). There was no significant change in any of the other muscles examined (p>0.05). 8 of the Vibram FiveFingers™ runners, and 1 control runner developed bone marrow edema. Those who developed bone marrow edema, primarily women, had significantly smaller size in all assessed muscles (p≤0.05). Size of intrinsic foot muscles appears to be important in safely transitioning to minimalist shoe running. Perhaps intrinsic foot muscle strengthening may benefit runners wanting to transition to minimalist shoes. PMID:26509371

  20. LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With advent of deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has furnished guidelines for microbiological...

  1. An Overview of Pharmaceutical Excipients: Safe or Not Safe?

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Cátia G; Duarte, Dinah; Reis, Catarina P

    2016-07-01

    A medicine consists of 2 fundamental parts: the active pharmaceutical ingredient and the excipient. Most, if not all, medicines could not be made without the use of excipients. In the early times, the safety of excipients was overlooked and no specific safety tests were generally conducted. This fact has been changed over times and is currently being recognized that the excipient's toxicity is not negligible, because its direct interaction with the active pharmaceutical ingredient or between other excipients may occur, leading to a potential change in the relationship between effectiveness and toxicity. This review is intended to address the general status of the pharmaceutical excipients and to describe the safety assessment. As a summary, this review suggests the interest of simplifying the formulations as much as possible and the interest of reducing the number of excipients necessary to strictly meet the required functions. The risk/benefit ratio of an excipient should be always evaluated on the basis of not only its production and quality but also of its safety. Further research according to Good Manufacturing Practices, Guiding Principles in Toxicology Assessment, Good Laboratory Practices, and Good Distribution Practices requirements are needed and are fundamental for health safety, contributing to a comprehensive picture of this matter. PMID:27262205

  2. The Inversion Potential of Ammonia: An Intrinsic Reaction Coordinate Calculation for Student Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Ramachandran, B. R.; Glendening, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    A report is presented to describe how students can be empowered to construct the full, double minimum inversion potential for ammonia by performing intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations. This work can be associated with the third year physical chemistry lecture laboratory or an upper level course in computational chemistry.

  3. Reactions of human and hog intrinsic factors with type I antibody to intrinsic factor

    PubMed Central

    Gullberg, R.

    1970-01-01

    A simple and rapid small-scale gel filtration method was applied in studies of type I antibody to intrinsic factor using radioactive vitamin B12 of high specific activity and purified human and hog intrinsic factor preparations, taking into account the unsaturated B12-binding capacity of the individual pernicious anaemia sera. This procedure allows the use of small amounts of reagents. Evidence was obtained for a close antigenic similarity of determinants of human and hog intrinsic factor. The use of purified intrinsic-factor preparations is important. PMID:4097742

  4. A fail-safe CMOS logic gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to make Complex CMOS Gates fail-safe for a class of faults. Two classes of faults are defined. The fail-safe design presented has limited fault-tolerance capability. Multiple faults are also covered.

  5. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  6. Safe Haven Laws and School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopels, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    "Safe haven" laws are designed to protect infants from being killed or otherwise harmed. This article examines the safe haven laws from the states that comprise the Midwest School Social Work Council and the variations between these laws regarding the age of the infant, where the infant can be left, who is allowed to leave the infant, whether…

  7. Review of "Successful, Safe, and Healthy Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.; Barnett, Steven; Welner, Kevin G.

    2010-01-01

    The research summary "Successful, Safe, and Healthy Students" presents the research background for the Obama administration's proposals for comprehensive, community-wide services in high-poverty neighborhoods, extended learning time, family engagement and safe schools. While these policies have broad and common-sense appeal, the research…

  8. Child Care Provider's Guide to Safe Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... consultant to create a policy that fits your child care center or home. Safe Sleep Practices Practice SIDS reduction ... questions about safe sleep practices please contact Healthy Child Care America at the American Academy of Pediatrics at childcare@aap.org or 888/227-5409. Remember, if ...

  9. 31 CFR 212.10 - Safe harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safe harbor. 212.10 Section 212.10... PAYMENTS § 212.10 Safe harbor. (a) Protection during examination and pending review. A financial... failing to honor a garnishment order, for account activity during: (1) The two business days following...

  10. 31 CFR 212.10 - Safe harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safe harbor. 212.10 Section 212.10... PAYMENTS § 212.10 Safe harbor. (a) Protection during examination and pending review. A financial... failing to honor a garnishment order, for account activity during: (1) The two business days following...

  11. Safe Haven Laws as "Crime Control Theater"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K.; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of "crime control theater", a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially…

  12. Safe Schools: The Threat from within?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Donn

    2011-01-01

    Safe school policies in many urban schools in Ontario have featured security guards, electronic surveillance, student identification tags, discipline, and zero tolerance. In 2000, the Ontario Ministry of Education passed the Safe Schools Act, which set out a list of offences that could trigger expulsion, suspension, and other disciplinary…

  13. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  14. Safe Homes: Is It Worth the Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSena, A.D.; Murphy, R.A.; Douglas-Palumberi, H.; Blau, G.; Kelly, B.; Horwitz, S.M.; Kaufman, J.

    2005-01-01

    .001). Conclusion:: Improvements in outcomes related to continuity of care can be attained through staff training. The SAFE Home model of care is not cost-effective for first-time placements.Objective:: To evaluate the SAFE Homes (SH) program, a short-term group care program for children between 3 and 12 years of age who enter care for the first…

  15. Intrinsic delay of permeable base transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenchao; Guo, Jing; So, Franky

    2014-07-28

    Permeable base transistors (PBTs) fabricated by vacuum deposition or solution process have the advantages of easy fabrication and low power operation and are a promising device structure for flexible electronics. Intrinsic delay of PBT, which characterizes the speed of the transistor, is investigated by solving the three-dimensional Poisson equation and drift-diffusion equation self-consistently using finite element method. Decreasing the emitter thickness lowers the intrinsic delay by improving on-current, and a thinner base is also preferred for low intrinsic delay because of fewer carriers in the base region at off-state. The intrinsic delay exponentially decreases as the emitter contact Schottky barrier height decreases, and it linearly depends on the carrier mobility. With an optimized emitter contact barrier height and device geometry, a sub-nano-second intrinsic delay can be achieved with a carrier mobility of ∼10 cm{sup 2}/V/s obtainable in solution processed indium gallium zinc oxide, which indicates the potential of solution processed PBTs for GHz operations.

  16. Microcosm procedure for determining safe levels of chemical exposure in shallow-water communities

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining safe levels of chemical exposure in shallow-water communities, using laboratory microcosms as test subjects. The safe level is considered to be the maximum exposure that causes no persistent, ecologically significant changes in the ecosystem. In experiments completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, microcosm-derived estimates of safe exposure levels were confirmed using outdoor artificial ponds, which suggests that the microcosm procedure can be an efficient and economical means of determining safe levels for shallow-water communities. Details of microcosm construction, techniques for monitoring ecological variables in microcosms, and an experimental design for determining safe exposure levels are provided here. The microcosms are assembled by transferring components of natural ecosystems to 80-litre aquaria in a controlled laboratory environment. The communities that develop in these systems are typically dominated by common, cosmopolitan littoral species of macrophytes, algae, and invertebrates. Methods are described for measuring changes in water chemistry, phytoplankton, periphyton, macrophytes, zooplankton, and ecosystem production and respiration. By monitoring these variables over a gradient of pollutant exposure levels, the safe level can be determined accurately and precisely. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  18. Design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sherohman, J.W.; Roberts, D.H.; Levine, B.H.

    1982-05-05

    The design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory for deuterium-tritium fuel processing for laser fusion targets has been accomplished with the intent of providing redundant safeguard systems. The design of the tritium laboratory is based on a combination of tritium handling techniques that are currently used by experienced laboratories. A description of the laboratory in terms of its interrelated processing systems is presented to provide an understanding of the design features for safe operation.

  19. Intrinsic and extrinsic switching in molecular devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Sense Jan; Trouwborst, Marius L.

    2015-01-01

    The details of metal-molecule coupling play a pivotal role in the functionality of molecular junctions. Molecules that have intrinsic switchable properties may lose this capability after coupling to electrodes. On the other hand, connecting passive molecules to electrodes may lead to a switchable molecular device ('extrinsic switching'). Here, we first discuss this general matter, and then focus on two specific cases, one of intrinsic switching (for photochromic diarylethenes) and one of extrinsic switching (for hydrogen molecules) in gold-molecule-gold structures.

  20. Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.

    1987-01-01

    The use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process, and the fact that this function has to be estimated from the data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the ''bootstrap'' in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as of their ''kriging variance,'' provide a reasonable picture of the variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.

  1. Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.

    1988-08-01

    Use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process. The fact that this function has to be estimated from data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the bootstrap in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as their kriging variance, provide a reasonable picture of variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.

  2. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  3. The unfoldomics decade: an update on intrinsically disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dunker, A Keith; Oldfield, Christopher J; Meng, Jingwei; Romero, Pedro; Yang, Jack Y; Chen, Jessica Walton; Vacic, Vladimir; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2008-01-01

    Background Our first predictor of protein disorder was published just over a decade ago in the Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (Romero P, Obradovic Z, Kissinger C, Villafranca JE, Dunker AK (1997) Identifying disordered regions in proteins from amino acid sequence. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, 1: 90–95). By now more than twenty other laboratory groups have joined the efforts to improve the prediction of protein disorder. While the various prediction methodologies used for protein intrinsic disorder resemble those methodologies used for secondary structure prediction, the two types of structures are entirely different. For example, the two structural classes have very different dynamic properties, with the irregular secondary structure class being much less mobile than the disorder class. The prediction of secondary structure has been useful. On the other hand, the prediction of intrinsic disorder has been revolutionary, leading to major modifications of the more than 100 year-old views relating protein structure and function. Experimentalists have been providing evidence over many decades that some proteins lack fixed structure or are disordered (or unfolded) under physiological conditions. In addition, experimentalists are also showing that, for many proteins, their functions depend on the unstructured rather than structured state; such results are in marked contrast to the greater than hundred year old views such as the lock and key hypothesis. Despite extensive data on many important examples, including disease-associated proteins, the importance of disorder for protein function has been largely ignored. Indeed, to our knowledge, current biochemistry books don't present even one acknowledged example of a disorder-dependent function, even though some reports of disorder-dependent functions are more than 50 years old. The results from genome-wide predictions of intrinsic disorder and the

  4. Safe Use of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maes, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This is a viewgraph presentation that is a course for teaching the safe use of hydrogen. The objectives of the course are 1. To familiarize the student with H2 safety properties 2. To enable the identification, evaluations and addressing of H2 system hazards 3. To teach: a. Safe practices for, b. Design, c. Materials selection, d. H2 system operation, e. Physical principles and empirical observations on which these safe practices are based, f. How to respond to emergency situations involving H2, g How to visualize safety concepts through in-class exercises, h. Identify numerous parameters important to H2 safety.

  5. [Safe Handling of Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs].

    PubMed

    Yasui, Hisateru

    2016-05-01

    In Japan, JSCN/JSMO/JASPO Joint Guidelines for Safe Handling of Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs was published in July, 2015. Occupational exposure of hazardous drugs (HD) should be prevented and safely managed by comprehensive team approaches throughout all processes of cancer chemotherapy; preparation, delivery, administration to abandonment of HD. All medical stuffs who deal with HD occupationally should acquire knowledge and skills for safe handling of HD. Understanding of hierarchy control and practical use of BSC, CSTD, PPE are keys for prevention of HD exposure. PMID:27210078

  6. Transient Approximation of SAFE-100 Heat Pipe Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Reid, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have designed several heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, ranging in power from 15 kWt to 800 kWt, for both surface power systems and nuclear electric propulsion systems. The Safe, Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) is now being developed in a collaborative effort between LANL and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC). NASA is responsible for fabrication and testing of non-nuclear, electrically heated modules in the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) at MSFC. In-core heat pipes must be properly thawed as the reactor power starts. Computational models have been developed to assess the expected operation of a specific heat pipe design during start-up, steady state operation, and shutdown. While computationally intensive codes provide complete, detailed analyses of heat pipe thaw, a relatively simple. concise routine can also be applied to approximate the response of a heat pipe to changes in the evaporator heat transfer rate during start-up and power transients (e.g., modification of reactor power level) with reasonably accurate results. This paper describes a simplified model of heat pipe start-up that extends previous work and compares the results to experimental measurements for a SAFE-100 type heat pipe design.

  7. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization.

  8. Intrinsic germanium detector used in borehole sonde for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Boynton, G.R.; Philbin, P.W.; Baicker, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A borehole sonde (~1.7 m long; 7.3 cm diameter) using a 200 mm2 planar intrinsic germanium detector, mounted in a cryostat cooled by removable canisters of frozen propane, has been constructed and tested. The sonde is especially useful in measuring X- and low-energy gamma-ray spectra (40–400 keV). Laboratory tests in an artificial borehole facility indicate its potential for in-situ uranium analyses in boreholes irrespective of the state of equilibrium in the uranium series. Both natural gamma-ray and neutron-activation gamma-ray spectra have been measured with the sonde. Although the neutron-activation technique yields greater sensitivity, improvements being made in the resolution and efficiency of intrinsic germanium detectors suggest that it will soon be possible to use a similar sonde in the passive mode for measurement of uranium in a borehole down to about 0.1% with acceptable accuracy. Using a similar detector and neutron activation, the sonde can be used to measure uranium down to 0.01%.

  9. Intrinsic Motivation, Organizational Justice, and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannam, Kalli; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    For employees to generate creative ideas that are not only original, but also useful to their company, they must interact with their workplace environment to determine organizational needs. Therefore, it is important to consider aspects of the individual as well as their environment when studying creativity. Intrinsic motivation, a predictor of…

  10. Intrinsic Factors Affecting Overseas Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; MacKay, Brenda B.; Firmin, Ruth L.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative research study involving 13 undergraduate students who completed their student-teaching in overseas contexts. Participants completed two waves of interviews immediately after returning to campus from their multicultural experiences. Three intrinsic factors were found to have the greatest impact on students' overseas…