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Sample records for intubating trauma patients

  1. Designing Technology to Decrease Pneumonia in Intubated Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Swearer, Jillian Nichole; Hammer, Ciara Lucinda; Matthews, Susan Marie; Meunier, Jennifer Lynn; Medler, Krisie Lee; Kamer, Genevieve Stella; Fiedler, Dana Marie; Johnston, Courtney Lynn; Schmitt, Kami Rebekah; Sawyer, Angela Jane

    2015-01-01

    Trauma patients are at increased risk for developing ventilator-associated pneumonia. Sixty adult trauma intensive care unit patients were audited 3 months prepractice change, and 30 were audited postpractice change. Quality improvement interventions included staff education of a redesigned electronic medical record ventilator bundle and chlorhexidine gluconate administration timing practice change. Postpractice change audits revealed 2-hour chlorhexidine gluconate documentation increased from 38.3% to 73.3% and incidence of pneumonia in intubated patients decreased by 62%. Early initiation of chlorhexidine gluconate mouth care utilizing electronic medical record technology may help reduce pneumonia in intubated patients, hospital length of stay, overall health costs, and improve documentation. PMID:26352660

  2. [Patient treated with sub-mental intubation for maxillofacial trauma].

    PubMed

    Ricour, C; Ferri, J; Nunes, F; Wiel, E; Raoul, G

    2014-11-01

    Maxillo-facial traumas are frequent and most often occur in young patients. Naso-tracheal or orotracheal intubation may be contraindicated in case of combined occlusal fracture and nasal or ethmoido-nasal fracture. This study was carried out a clinical case of a patient treated at the Lille University Hospital for a maxillofacial trauma associating fracture of nose and maxilla. The purpose was to assess the reliability of submental intubation as an alternative to tracheotomy. Submental intubation is a reliable single and safe technique allowing an one-stage surgical treatment in case of complex association of fractures without using tracheotomy. Its use should be implemented on a larger scale. PMID:25450733

  3. Prehospital versus Emergency Room Intubation of Trauma Patients in Qatar: A-2-year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Latifi, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Background: The impact of prehospital intubation (PHI) in improving outcome of trauma patients has not been adequately evaluated in the developing countries. Aims: The present study analyzed the outcome of PHI versus emergency room intubation (ERI) among trauma patients in Qatar. Materials and Methods: Data were retrospectively reviewed for all intubated trauma patients between 2010 and 2011. Patients were classified according to location of intubation (PHI: Group-1 versus ERI: Group-2). Data were analyzed and compared. Results: Out of 570 intubated patients; 482 patients (239 in group-1 and 243 in group-2) met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 32 ΁ 14.6 years Head injury (P = 0.003) and multiple trauma (P = 0.004) were more prevalent in group-1, whereas solid organ injury predominated in group-2 (P = 0.02). Group-1 had significantly higher mean injury severity scoring (ISS), lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS), greater head abbreviated injury score and longer activation, response, scene and total emergency medical services times. The mortality was higher in group-1 (53% vs. 18.5%; P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that GCS [odds ratio (OR) 0.78, P = 0.005) and ISS (OR 1.12, P = 0.001) were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: PHI is associated with high mortality when compared with ERI. However, selection bias cannot be ruled out and therefore, PHI needs further critical assessment in Qatar. PMID:24678471

  4. Prehospital intubation of the moderately injured patient: a cause of morbidity? A matched-pairs analysis of 1,200 patients from the DGU Trauma Registry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Hypoxia and hypoxemia can lead to an unfavorable outcome after severe trauma, by both direct and delayed mechanisms. Prehospital intubation is meant to ensure pulmonary gas exchange. Limited evidence exists regarding indications for intubation after trauma. The aim of this study was to analyze prehospital intubation as an independent risk factor for the posttraumatic course of moderately injured patients. Therefore, only patients who, in retrospect, would not have required intubation were included in the matched-pairs analysis to evaluate the risks related to intubation. Methods The data of 42,248 patients taken from the trauma registry of the German Association for Trauma Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie (DGU)) were analyzed. Patients who met the following criteria were included: primary admission to a hospital; Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 13 to 15; age 16 years or older; maximum injury severity per body region (AIS) ≤ 3; no administration of packed red blood cell units in the emergency trauma room; admission between 2005 and 2008; and documented data regarding intubation. The intubated patients were then matched with not-intubated patients. Results The study population included 600 matched pairs that met the inclusion criteria. The results indicated that prehospital intubation was associated with a prolonged rescue time (not intubated, 64.8 minutes; intubated, 82.3 minutes; P ≤ 0.001) and a higher volume replacement (not intubated, 911.3 ml; intubated, 1,573.8 ml; P ≤ 0.001). In the intubated patients, coagulation parameters, such as the prothrombin time ratio (PT) and platelet count, declined, as did the hemoglobin value (PT not intubated: 92.3%; intubated, 85.7%; P ≤ 0.001; hemoglobin not intubated, 13.4 mg/dl; intubated, 12.2 mg/dl; P ≤ 0.001). Intubation at the scene resulted in an elevated sepsis rate (not intubated, 1.5%; intubated, 3.7%; P ≤ 0.02) and an elevated prevalence of multiorgan failure (MOF) and organ

  5. Evaluation of safety and usefulness of submental intubation in panfacial trauma surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Submental intubation has been advocated as an alternative to classical tracheostomy for certain indicated panfacial trauma surgeries. Surgeons should have various options for airway management in maxillofacial trauma patients. Most maxillofacial injuries involve occlusal derangements, which might require intraoperative occlusal corrections; hence, orotracheal intubation is not ideal. Maxillofacial surgeons generally prefer nasotracheal intubation; however, in cases with concomitant skull base fracture or nasal bone fracture, nasotracheal intubation might not be suitable; in these situations, tracheostomy is typically performed. However, the possible complications of tracheostomy are well known. Due to trauma situations and to avoid the complications of tracheostomy, submental intubation would be an ideal alternative procedure in selected maxillofacial trauma surgery patients. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and usefulness of a submental intubation technique for panfacial trauma surgery. Moreover, we intended to share our experience of submental intubation and to recommend this simple, safe procedure for certain panfacial trauma surgeries. Materials and Methods In five panfacial trauma patients, we performed submental intubation for airway management; the mean time required for the procedure was only eight minutes. Results We were able to execute this procedure safely in a short time without any intraoperative or postoperative complications. Conclusion Submental intubation is a safe and simple technique for airway management in indicated panfacial trauma surgery patients. PMID:27162750

  6. Dental trauma prevention during endotracheal intubation--review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mańka-Malara, Katarzyna; Gawlak, Dominika; Hovhannisyan, Anahit; Klikowska, Marta; Kostrzewa-Janicka, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation is a procedure performed during general anaesthesia with the use of an endotracheal tube in order to maintain a patent airway. This routinely used procedure is connected with a risk of complications within the region of the masticatory system. Trauma of teeth, their surrounding structures and the soft tissue of the oral cavity is observed in app. 1.38 per 1000 procedures. The main causes of this damage are the surgical skills and experience of the surgeon, the anatomical conditions present and the mode of conducting the procedure. In order to reduce the risk of postoperative complications, patients with a high risk of sustaining an injury during endotracheal intubation should be equipped with elastic mouthguards, which reduces the possibility of damage. The scoring in a scale of endotracheal intubation difficulty should be used for qualification for the use of such mouthguards. PMID:26401748

  7. Out-of-Hospital Endotracheal Intubation Experience and Patient Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Henry E.; Balasubramani, G. K.; Cook, Lawrence J.; Lave, Judith R.; Yealy, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Study objective Previous studies suggest improved patient outcomes for providers who perform high volumes of complex medical procedures. Out-of-hospital tracheal intubation is a difficult procedure. We seek to determine the association between rescuer procedural experience and patient survival after out-of-hospital tracheal intubation. Methods We analyzed probabilistically linked Pennsylvania statewide emergency medicine services, hospital discharge, and death data of patients receiving out-of-hospital tracheal intubation. We defined tracheal intubation experience as cumulative tracheal intubation during 2000 to 2005; low=1 to 10 tracheal intubations, medium=11 to 25 tracheal intubations, high=26 to 50 tracheal intubations, and very high=greater than 50 tracheal intubations. We identified survival on hospital discharge of patients intubated during 2003 to 2005. Using generalized estimating equations, we evaluated the association between patient survival and out-of-hospital rescuer cumulative tracheal intubation experience, adjusted for clinical covariates. Results During 2003 to 2005, 4,846 rescuers performed tracheal intubation. These individuals performed tracheal intubation on 33,117 patients during 2003 to 2005 and 62,586 patients during 2000 to 2005. Among 21,753 cardiac arrests, adjusted odds of survival was higher for patients intubated by rescuers with very high tracheal intubation experience; adjusted odds ratio (OR) versus low tracheal intubation experience: very high 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15 to 1.89), high 1.13 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.31), and medium 1.02 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.15). Among 8,162 medical nonarrests, adjusted odds of survival were higher for patients intubated by rescuers with high and very high tracheal intubation experience; adjusted OR versus low tracheal intubation experience: very high 1.55 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.22), high 1.29 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.59), and medium 1.16 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.38). Among 3,202 trauma nonarrests, survival was not

  8. Submental intubation: alternative short-term airway management in maxillofacial trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ravi Raja; Vyloppilli, Suresh; Thangavelu, Annamala; Joseph, Benny; Ahsan, Auswaf

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess submental route intubation as an alternative technique to a tracheostomy in the management of the airway in cranio-maxillofacial trauma, along with an assessment of its morbidity and complications. Materials and Methods Submental intubation was performed in 17 patients who had maxillofacial panfacial trauma and management was done under general anesthesia during a period of one year from 2013 to 2014 at Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church Medical College, Kochi, India. Results In all 17 cases, the technique of submental intubation was found to be simple and reliable. Hypertrophic scars were noted in three cases, orocutaneous fistula and mucocele in one case each. All these complications were managed comfortably without significant morbidity to the patient. Conclusion Submental intubation is a good technique that can be used regularly in the management of the airway in cranio-maxillofacial trauma, but with some manageable complications. PMID:27429937

  9. Improving outcome in severe trauma: trauma systems and initial management: intubation, ventilation and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Tim; Davenport, Ross; Hurst, Tom; Jones, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Severe trauma is an increasing global problem mainly affecting fit and healthy younger adults. Improvements in the entire pathway of trauma care have led to improvements in outcome. Development of a regional trauma system based around a trauma centre is associated with a 15-50% reduction in mortality. Trauma teams led by senior doctors provide better care. Although intuitively advantageous, the involvement of doctors in the pre-hospital care of trauma patients currently lacks clear evidence of benefit. Poor airway management is consistently identified as a cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality. Rapid sequence induction/intubation is frequently indicated but the ideal drugs have yet to be identified. The benefits of cricoid pressure are not clear cut. Dogmas in the management of pneumothoraces have been challenged: chest x-ray has a role in the diagnosis of tension pneumothoraces, needle aspiration may be ineffective, and small pneumothoraces can be managed conservatively. Identification of significant haemorrhage can be difficult and specific early resuscitation goals are not easily definable. A hypotensive approach may limit further bleeding but could worsen significant brain injury. The ideal initial resuscitation fluid remains controversial. In appropriately selected patients early aggressive blood product resuscitation is beneficial. Hypothermia can exacerbate bleeding and the benefit in traumatic brain injury is not adequately studied for firm recommendations. PMID:23014941

  10. Intubated, ventilating patients with complete tracheal transection: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Bowley, Douglas M. G.; Plani, Frank; Murillo, Dennis; Smith, Martin; Degiannis, Elias

    2003-01-01

    Tracheal transection is a rare injury after blunt trauma. The presence of complete tracheal transection in the intubated, ventilating patient is even more rare and constitutes a major diagnostic challenge. The liberal use of computed tomography (CT) scans as an adjunct to endoscopy is paramount. PMID:12855026

  11. Fiberoptic intubation with patients in sitting position.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Yung; Chien, Jui-Teng; Huang, Shen-Jer

    2007-09-01

    Flexible fiberoptic endoscope is the most valuable tool for anesthesiologists to manage difficult airways. Correctly positioning of the patient during fiberoptic intubation aids the clinician to rapidly secure the airway, because it not only saves time, but also minimizes the risk of repeated attempts of intubation with possible serious consequences in the wake. In general, fiberoptic intubation is carried out with the patient in the supine position, but there are situations in which the intubation requires the subjects to be in the sitting position. The sitting position also changes the position of performing anesthesiologist relative to the patient, presenting an inverse view contrary to that of traditional laryngoscopy. We can often obtain a superior view from fiberoptic intubation. Fiberoptic intubation in the sitting position can be applied to all patients, as long as there is no contraindication of having a patient be sat. PMID:17972620

  12. Airway management using transmylohyoid oroendotracheal (submental) intubation in maxillofacial trauma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; Sybil, Deborah; Singh, Anurag; Aggarwal, Tarun; Khan, Rizwan

    2014-01-01

    Successful management of airway in complex maxillofacial injuries is quite challenging. The complications and the post-operative care associated with tracheotomy makes it an unpopular choice for airway management meant solely for surgery in these patients. A retrospective analysis of 12 patients from June 2008 to December 2011, seeking treatment for pan facial fractures who underwent transmylohyoid oroendotracheal (submental) intubation is discussed here. The stepwise procedure is explained along with problems of intubation in pan facial fractures. The advantages, disadvantages and complications of transmylohyoid intubation are discussed and compared with alternative methods of air way management in such cases. This reliable, safe and easy method of airway management gives sterile surgical field without a change of tube. PMID:25937722

  13. Minimizing Trauma to the Upper Airway: A Ferret Model of Neonatal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, Sara S; Murray, Len E; Juliano, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether an adult ferret can be intubated as many as 10 times per training session without resulting in trauma to the upper airway. In this program, 8 male ferrets rotated through intubation laboratories, limiting the use of each animal to once every 3 mo. Animals were examined by the veterinary staff after intubations to assess for trauma to upper airway tissue. Each examination was given a trauma grade of 0 for no visible signs of trauma, 1 if erythema of the larynx was present, 2 if visible excoriation of the mucus membranes was present, and 3 if bleeding (frank hemorrhage) was observed. The number of intubation attempts was restricted to 10 per animal per training session. A total of 170 intubations were completed on the ferrets during a 12-mo period. The average number of intubations per laboratory was 8.1 intubations per ferret. In addition, 1.8% of the intubations resulted in erythema (score, 1) after training, and 0.6% of the intubations resulted in excoriation (score, 2). Frank hemorrhage (score, 3) was not noted. The overall percentage of intubations resulting in any trauma during a training session was 0.02%. None of the animals have experienced any major complications to date. This ongoing training program has been used to teach neonatal intubation skills to emergency medicine residents for the past 12 mo. Ensuring the health and safety of the ferrets was paramount. Our results suggest that as many as 10 intubation attempts per session can be performed safely on each ferret without causing excessive trauma. PMID:19930827

  14. Complications of tracheal intubation in critically ill pediatric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Suhail Sarwar; Janarthanan, S.; Harish, M. M.; Chaudhari, Harish; Prabu, R. Natesh; Divatia, Jigeeshu V.; Kulkarni, Atul Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The oncologists are treating cancer more aggressively, leading to increase in number of pediatric admissions to the ICU. Due to anatomical and physiological differences, pediatric patients are at high risk of complications during intubation. We evaluated the incidence of complications during intubations in pediatric patients in our ICU. Subjects and Methods: We performed retrospective analysis of complications occurring during intubation in 42 pediatric patients. All intubations were orotracheal. We recorded number of attempts at intubation, need for use of intubation adjuncts and complications during laryngoscopy and intubation. The incidence of difficult intubation, hypoxia, and severe cardiovascular collapse was also noted. Results: Complications occurred during 13 (31%) intubations. Hypoxia and severe cardiovascular collapse occurred in during 7 (16.7%) intubations each, while 4 patients (9.5%) (n=4) had cardiac arrest during intubation. Thirty three (78.6%) intubations were successful in first attempt and difficult intubation was recorded in 4 patients. Conclusion: Critically ill pediatric cancer patients have a high rate of complications during intubation. PMID:27555695

  15. Distributions of ethanol and intubation-related lidocaine in the brain of a trauma patient who was brain dead for about 5 days.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Fumio; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Akinori

    2003-03-01

    A 48-year-old intoxicated man was admitted to a hospital with an acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from a blow to the head following a drinking session. Lidocaine jelly was used to facilitate intubation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. While his heart resumed beating, he was classified as brain dead and his heart stopped 114 h after admission. His brain was soft and weighed 1.7 kg at autopsy. A small rupture (0.5 by 0.3 cm) of the left vertebral artery and diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed. Ethanol was detected only in the cerebrum, cerebellum and clotted blood in the superior sagittal sinus at 0.29, 0.15 and 0.12 mg/g, respectively. Lidocaine was also found in these areas at levels of 28, 24 and 7 ng/g, respectively. Significant amounts of ethanol were present in his brain because blood flow stopped after the injury. Smaller amounts of intubation-related lidocaine were probably distributed to the brain by limited cerebral circulation and remained there after circulation ceased. Toxicological analysis of the brain after death was useful for evaluating his state during treatment. PMID:12935567

  16. [Awake intubation using Pentax Airway Scope as an alternative to awake fiberoptic intubation in management of anticipated difficult tracheal intubation in major burn patients].

    PubMed

    Fayolle-Pivot, L; Magnin, C; Tissot, S; Bertin-Maghit, M; Allaouchiche, B

    2013-05-01

    Intubating patients with facial burn is difficult to most anesthesiologists. Awake flexible fiberoptic intubation is the gold standard for management of anticipated difficult tracheal intubation. However, serious facial burn and dysmorphic syndrome can make fiberoptic intubation more difficult or impossible. We report the use of awake oral intubation using the Pentax-Airway Scope (AWS) in two major burn patients with facial injury, in whom awake fiberoptic intubation was impossible. As shown in morbidly obese patient and in patients with unstable necks, AWS could be useful to facilitate tracheal intubation in awake, facial burn patients presenting with a potentially difficult airway. Awake AWS intubation seems as a potential alternative to awake fiberoptic intubation. PMID:23453928

  17. Comprehensive Airway Management of Patients with Maxillofacial Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kellman, Robert M.; Losquadro, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Airway management in patients with maxillofacial trauma is complicated by injuries to routes of intubation, and the surgeon is frequently asked to secure the airway. Airway obstruction from hemorrhage, tissue prolapse, or edema may require emergent intervention for which multiple intubation techniques exist. Competing needs for both airway and surgical access create intraoperative conflicts during repair of maxillofacial fractures. Postoperatively, edema and maxillomandibular fixation place the patient at risk for further airway compromise. PMID:22110788

  18. Nasal vs oral intubation.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, L

    2003-05-01

    Both nasal and oral route for intubation have advantages and disadvantages. Oral intubation is easier to perform, faster and less painful than nasal intubation under direct laryngoscopy, while blind nasal intubation represents a good alternative in conscious patient, without sedation. In trauma patient, oral route should be preferred, with cervical immobilisation. By the contrary, nasal intubation can cause bleeding, retro-pharyngeal and turbinate bones injury, but it seems preferable in preventing laryngeal complications. Moreover nasal intubation seem to increase risk for sinusitis while, there is no clear advantage for any of the two routes, concerning nosocomial pneumonia, bacteriemia and otitis. Nevertheless nasal route increases comfort for the patient and decreases injury and necrosis of tongue and lips; tube fastening is simpler thus reducing accidental extubation. PMID:12768165

  19. Hemodynamic Changes Following Endotracheal Intubation With Glidescope® Video-Laryngoscope in Patients With Untreated Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Majid; Amini, Shahram; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Totonchi, Ziae; Hatami, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tracheal intubation can be associated with considerable hemodynamic changes, particularly in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. The GlideScope® video-laryngoscope (GVL) is a novel video laryngoscope that does not need direct exposure of the vocal cords, and it can also produce lower hemodynamic changes due to lower degrees of trauma and stimuli to the oropharynx than a Macintosh direct laryngoscope (MDL). Objectives: The aim of this clinical trial was to compare hemodynamic alterations following tracheal intubation with a GVL and MDL in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients who had uncontrolled hypertension and scheduled for elective surgery requiring tracheal intubation, were randomly assigned to receive intubated with either a GVL (n = 30) or a MDL (n = 30). Intubation time, heart rate, rate pressure product (RPP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), were compared between the two groups at; baseline, following induction of anesthesia, after intubation, and at one minute intervals for 5 minutes. Results: A total of 59 patients finished the study. Intubation time was longer in the GVL group (9.80 ± 1.27 s) than in the MDL group (8.20 ± 1.17 s) (P < 0.05). MAP, pulse rate, and RPP were lower in the GVL than the MDL group after endotracheal intubation (P < 0.05). MAP, heart rate, and RPP returned to pre-intubation values at 3 and 4 minutes after intubation in the GVL and MDL groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Hemodynamic fluctuations in patients with uncontrolled hypertension after endotracheal intubation were lower with the GVL than the MDL technique. PMID:25478537

  20. Paramedic intubation of patients with severe head injury: a review of current Australian practice and recommendations for change.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Stephen A

    2006-06-01

    Secondary brain injury may occur early after severe traumatic brain injury due to hypoxia and/or hypotension. Prehospital care by ambulance paramedics has the goal of preventing and treating these complications and, thus, improving outcomes. In Australia, most ambulance services recommend paramedics attempt endotracheal intubation in patients with severe head injury. Even though most patients with severe head injury retain airway reflexes, most states do not allow the use of appropriate drugs to facilitate intubation. In contrast, recent evidence from trauma registries suggests that this approach may be associated with significantly worse outcomes compared with no intubation. Two states allow intubation facilitated by sedative (but not relaxant) drugs, but this has a low success rate and could worsen brain injury because of a decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure. For road-based paramedics, the role of rapid sequence intubation is uncertain. Given the risks of this procedure and the lack of proven benefit, this procedure should not be introduced without supportive evidence from randomised, controlled trials. In contrast, for safety reasons, comatose patients transported by helicopter should undergo rapid sequence intubation prior to flight. However, this is not authorised in most states, despite good supportive evidence that this can be safely and effectively undertaken by paramedics. Finally, there is evidence that inadvertent hyperventilation is associated with adverse outcome, yet only two ambulance services use waveform capnography in head injury patients who are intubated. Overall, current paramedic airway practice in most states of Australia is not supported by the evidence and is probably associated with worse patient outcomes after severe head injury. For road-based paramedics, rapid transport to hospital without intubation should be regarded as the current standard of care. Rapid sequence intubation should be limited to use within appropriate clinical

  1. Comparison of McGrath Series 3 and Macintosh Laryngoscopes for Tracheal Intubation in Patients With Normal Airway by Inexperienced Anesthetists: A Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-Jia; Yi, Jie; Guo, Wen-Juan; Ma, Chao; Huang, Yu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Difficult and failed intubations account for the major causes of morbidity and mortality in current anesthetic practice. Several devices including McGrath Series 3 videolaryngoscope are available which may facilitate tracheal intubation by improving view of the larynx compared with Macintosh blade laryngoscopy. But no studies demonstrate whether McGrath Series 3 performs better than Macintosh laryngoscope in normal airway intubations by inexperienced anesthetists so far. We therefore designed this randomized controlled study to compare McGrath with Macintosh in routine tracheal intubation performed by inexperienced anesthetists.In total, 180 adult patients with normal-appearing airways requiring orotracheal intubation for elective surgery were randomly allocated to be intubated by 9 inexperienced anesthetists with McGrath or Macintosh. The primary outcome was time to intubation. Ease of intubation was assessed by a 5-point ordinal scale. Intubation attempts/failures, best laryngoscopy view using the Cormack-Lehane grade, associated complications and hemodynamic changes during intubation were recorded.We found that there was no significant difference between McGrath and Macintosh in the median time to intubation (P = 0.46); the Cormack-Lehane views attained using McGrath were superior (P < 0.001); the difference of ease of intubation was statistically significant (P = 0.01). No serious trauma occurred in both groups. And there was statistically significant difference in the systolic blood pressure changes between 2 groups (P < 0.05).We demonstrated that in orotracheal intubation in patients with normal airway by inexperienced anesthetists, McGrath compared with the Macintosh allows superior glottis views, greater ease of intubation, less complications, and hemodynamic changes with noninferior intubation time. And it remained a potential selection for inexperienced anesthetists in uncomplicated intubation. PMID:26765472

  2. Comparison of McGrath Series 3 and Macintosh Laryngoscopes for Tracheal Intubation in Patients With Normal Airway by Inexperienced Anesthetists

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zi-Jia; Yi, Jie; Guo, Wen-Juan; Ma, Chao; Huang, Yu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Difficult and failed intubations account for the major causes of morbidity and mortality in current anesthetic practice. Several devices including McGrath Series 3 videolaryngoscope are available which may facilitate tracheal intubation by improving view of the larynx compared with Macintosh blade laryngoscopy. But no studies demonstrate whether McGrath Series 3 performs better than Macintosh laryngoscope in normal airway intubations by inexperienced anesthetists so far. We therefore designed this randomized controlled study to compare McGrath with Macintosh in routine tracheal intubation performed by inexperienced anesthetists. In total, 180 adult patients with normal-appearing airways requiring orotracheal intubation for elective surgery were randomly allocated to be intubated by 9 inexperienced anesthetists with McGrath or Macintosh. The primary outcome was time to intubation. Ease of intubation was assessed by a 5-point ordinal scale. Intubation attempts/failures, best laryngoscopy view using the Cormack–Lehane grade, associated complications and hemodynamic changes during intubation were recorded. We found that there was no significant difference between McGrath and Macintosh in the median time to intubation (P = 0.46); the Cormack–Lehane views attained using McGrath were superior (P < 0.001); the difference of ease of intubation was statistically significant (P = 0.01). No serious trauma occurred in both groups. And there was statistically significant difference in the systolic blood pressure changes between 2 groups (P < 0.05). We demonstrated that in orotracheal intubation in patients with normal airway by inexperienced anesthetists, McGrath compared with the Macintosh allows superior glottis views, greater ease of intubation, less complications, and hemodynamic changes with noninferior intubation time. And it remained a potential selection for inexperienced anesthetists in uncomplicated intubation. PMID:26765472

  3. [Successful tracheal intubation through the air-Q intubating laryngeal airway in a patient with severe pharyngeal edema].

    PubMed

    Ishio, Junichi; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Nakano, Shoko; Omoto, Haruka; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Tanaka, Motoshige; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    A 68-year-old man was diagnosed with severe pharyngeal edema after neck lymph node dissection for cancer of the external ear canal. He was scheduled for an emergency tracheotomy, but preoperative fiberoptic laryngoscopy revealed airway and glottic obstruction due to severe pharyngeal edema. As difficult mask ventilation and tracheal intubation were anticipated, intubation under spontaneous ventilation was performed to avoid a "can't ventilate, can't intubate" situation. The first attempt to intubate the patient using the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope with a thin Intlock resulted in failure due to hindered visualization of the glottis. Therefore, a size 3.5 air-Q intubating laryngeal airway was inserted using a bronchofiberscope to perform tracheal intubation through a laryngeal mask. Successful tracheal intubation was achieved while maintaining spontaneous ventilation. The air-Q intubating laryngeal airway can be useful in the setting of anticipated difficult mask ventilation and tracheal intubation, as in the case of severe pharyngeal edema. PMID:24558935

  4. Tracheal intubation without neuromuscular relaxants for thymectomy in myasthenic patients.

    PubMed

    Narimatsu, Eichi; Munemura, Yuki; Kawamata, Mikito; Imaizumi, Hitoshi; Namiki, Akiyoshi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in detail the suitability of the combined use of fentanyl and propofol for endotracheal oral intubation without non-depolarizing muscle relaxants (NDMRs) for myasthenic patients. We evaluated orotracheal intubation, without using an NDMR, having induced anesthesia with 2 microg x kg(-1) fentanyl and 2.5 mg x kg(-1) propofol in myasthenic (Osserman's classification: I-IIb) and non-myasthenic patients. Using this technique, intubation was easily performed, the vocal cords remained opened, and any increase in blood pressure was satisfactorily suppressed in both myasthenic and non-myasthenic patients. In non-myasthenic patients, whose train-of-four ratio recorded immediately before intubation was 95-100%, a cough of moderate or severe intensity occurred. In myasthenic patients, no or only a slight cough occurred if the ratio was less than 75%, and a cough of moderate intensity occurred if the ratio was more than 90%. All of th coughing reflexes observed in myasthenic patients were considered to be clinically acceptable. The results indicate that the combined fentanyl and propofol technique, without NDMR, provides satisfactory intubatin conditions in myasthenic patients. PMID:17682311

  5. Awake tracheal intubation using Pentax airway scope in 30 patients: A Case series

    PubMed Central

    Kajekar, Payal; Mendonca, Cyprian; Danha, Rati; Hillermann, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Pentax airway scope (AWS) has been successfully used for managing difficult intubations. In this case series, we aimed to evaluate the success rate and time taken to complete intubation, when AWS was used for awake tracheal intubation. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the use of AWS for awake tracheal intubation in 30 patients. Indication for awake intubation, intubation time, total time to complete tracheal intubation, laryngoscopic view (Cormack and Lehane grade), total dose of local anaesthetic used, anaesthetists rating and patient's tolerance of the procedure were recorded. Results: The procedure was successful in 25 out of the 30 patients (83%). The mean (standard deviation) intubation time and total time to complete the tracheal intubation was 5.4 (2.4) and 13.9 (3.7) min, respectively in successful cases. The laryngeal view was grade 1 in 24 and grade 2 in one of 25 successful intubations. In three out of the five patients where the AWS failed, awake tracheal intubation was successfully completed with the assistance of flexible fibre optic scope (FOS). Conclusion: Awake tracheal intubation using AWS was successful in 83% of patients. Success rate can be further improved using a combination of AWS and FOS. Anaesthesiologists who do not routinely use FOS may find AWS easier to use for awake tracheal intubation using an oral route. PMID:25197114

  6. Endotracheal Intubation in Patients Treated for Prehospital Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joseph B.; Nicholas, Katherine S.; Varelas, Panayiotis N.; Harsh, Donna M.; Durkalski, Valerie; Silbergleit, Robert; Wang, Henry E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Limited data describe the frequency, timing, or indications for endotracheal intubation (ETI) in patients with status epilepticus. A better understanding of the characteristics of patients with status epilepticus requiring airway interventions could inform clinical care. We sought to characterize ETI use in patients with prehospital status epilepticus. Methods This study was a secondary analysis of the Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial, a multi-center, randomized trial comparing intravenous lorazepam to intramuscular midazolam for prehospital status epilepticus treatment. Subjects received ETI in the prehospital, Emergency Department (ED), or inpatient setting at the discretion of caregivers. Results Of 1023 enrollments, 218 (21 %) received ETI. 204 (93.6 %) of the ETIs were performed in the hospital and 14 (6.4 %) in the prehospital setting. Intubated patients were older (52 vs 41 years, p < 0.001), and men underwent ETI more than women (26 vs 21 %, p = 0.047). Patients with ongoing seizures on ED arrival had a higher rate of ETI (32 vs 16 %, p < 0.001), as did those who received rescue anti-seizure medication (29 vs 20 %, p = 0.004). Mortality was higher for intubated patients (7 vs 0.4 %, p < 0.001). Most ETI (n = 133, 62 %) occurred early (prior to or within 30 min after ED arrival), and late ETI was associated with higher mortality (14 vs 3 %, p = 0.002) than early ETI. Conclusions ETI is common in patients with status epilepticus, particularly among the elderly or those with refractory seizures. Any ETI and late ETI are both associated with higher mortality. PMID:25623785

  7. Hemodynamic Changes Following Endotracheal Intubation in Patients Undergoing Cesarean Section With General Anesthesia: Application of Glidescope® Videolaryngoscope Versus Direct Laryngoscope

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Shahram; Shakib, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background Endotracheal intubation is usually associated with hemodynamic changes, especially in patients undergoing cesarean section by general anesthesia. GlideScope® videolaryngoscope (GVL) is a novel video laryngoscope, which does not need direct exposure of vocal cords and produces lesser hemodynamic changes due to lower degrees of trauma and stimuli to oropharynx than the Macintosh direct laryngoscope (MDL). Objectives The aim of this study was to compare hemodynamic changes following endotracheal intubation with GVL and MDL in patients undergoing cesarean section by general anesthesia. Materials and Methods Seventy patients undergoing elective cesarean section by general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation were randomly allocated to be intubated with either GVL (n = 35) or MDL (n = 35). Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), as well as pulse rates, and rate pressure product (RPP) were compared at baseline, after induction of anesthesia, and after intubation at one-minute interval for five minutes between the two groups. The patients were also compared for Mallampati score, sore throat, intubation time and neonates’ Apgar scores. Results The patients were similar regarding systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure. Pulse rate changes were significantly lower only at 1 and 3 minutes in the GVL group. The intubation times were 9.3 ± 1.4 and 10.6 ± 1.7 seconds in the MDL and GVL groups, respectively (P > 0.05). RPP was also lower in the GVL group at 1 and 2 minutes (P < 0.05) and returned to baseline afterwards. There was no significant difference between the groups for Mallampati score, sore throat and Apgar scores. Conclusions Our study revealed that hemodynamic parameters with GVL are only better preserved in the first three minutes after intubation in patients undergoing elective cesarean section and patients are similar regarding intubation time, sore throat and Apgar score. PMID:25866708

  8. Fibreoptic intubation.

    PubMed

    Morris, I R

    1994-10-01

    Although not widely utilized, fibreoptic techniques represent a dramatic advance in the management of the difficult intubation. Particularly suited to the awake patient in the elective setting, fibreoptic intubation can also be useful in selected emergency situations, and can be done under general anaesthesia. In the awake patient fibreoptic intubation maintains a wide margin of safety while producing minimal patient discomfort, but requires adequate local anaesthesia of the airway. Intimate familiarity with the bronchoscope and the anatomy of the upper airway is essential as is careful attention to various aspects of technique. Intubation mannequins can be readily utilized to develop dexterity in bronchoscopic manipulation and intubation workshops are also effective in improving skills. This CME article provides the clinician with a detailed approach to the technique of fibreoptic intubation based on the author's personal experience supplemented by a limited literature review. Fibreoptic intubation is not a difficult skill to master and should be in the armamentarium of all practising anaesthetists. PMID:8001220

  9. TotalTrack video intubating laryngeal mask in super-obese patients – series of cases

    PubMed Central

    Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Background Super-obese patients are at increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and difficult intubation. Therefore, devices that allow for simultaneous ventilation/oxygenation during attempts to visualize the entrance to the larynx, increase patient safety. TotalTrack video intubating laryngeal mask is a new device that allows for ventilation during intubation efforts. Patients and methods Twenty-four super-obese patients (body mass index >50 kg/m2) were divided into two subgroups: intubation efforts using 1) TotalTrack and 2) Macintosh blade standard laryngoscope in induction of general anesthesia. Visualization and successful intubation was evaluated for both groups with ventilation and post-mask complications additionally evaluated for TotalTrack. Results In all cases in the TotalTrack group, the Cormack-Lehane score was 1, ventilation and intubation was successful in 11/12 patients. No hypoxia during intubation efforts was recorded. No serious complications of use of TotalTrack were observed. In the Macintosh blade laryngoscope group, all patients were intubated, but the Cormack-Lehane score was 2 in four cases, and 3 in three cases. Conclusion TotalTrack video intubating laryngeal mask is a device that allows for better visualization of the larynx compared to the standard Macintosh blade laryngoscope, it provides effective ventilation/oxygenation and intubation in super-obese patients. PMID:27042078

  10. Transfusion medicine in trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Murthi, Sarah B; Dutton, Richard P; Edelman, Bennett B; Scalea, Thomas M; Hess, John R

    2011-01-01

    Injured patients stress the transfusion service with frequent demands for uncrossmatched red cells and plasma, occasional requirements for large amounts of blood products and the need for new and better blood products. Transfusion services stress trauma centers with demands for strict accountability for individual blood component units and adherence to indications in a clinical field where research has been difficult, and guidance opinion-based. New data suggest that the most severely injured patients arrive at the trauma center already coagulopathic and that these patients benefit from prompt, specific, corrective treatment. This research is clarifying trauma system requirements for new blood products and blood-product usage patterns, but the inability to obtain informed consent from severely injured patients remains an obstacle to further research. PMID:21083009

  11. A comparison of blind and lightwand-guided tracheal intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask.

    PubMed

    Kihara, S; Watanabe, S; Taguchi, N; Suga, A; Brimacombe, J R

    2000-05-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that intubation success rates, haemodynamic changes, airway complications and postoperative pharyngolaryngeal morbidity differ between blind and lightwand-guided intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask airway. One hundred and twenty paralysed anasthetised adult patients (ASA I-II, no known or predicted difficult airways) were assigned in a random manner to one of two equal-sized groups. In the blind group, patients were intubated blindly through the intubating laryngeal mask airway. In the lightwand group, patients were intubated through the intubating laryngeal mask airway assisted by transillumination of the neck with a lightwand. A standard sequence of adjusting manoeuvres was followed if resistance occurred during intubation or if transillumination was incorrect. The number of adjusting manoeuvres, time to intubation, intubation success rates, haemodynamic changes (pre-induction, pre-intubation, postintubation), oesophageal intubation, mucosal trauma (blood detected), hypoxia (oxygen saturation < 95%) and postoperative pharyngolaryngeal morbidity (double-blinded) were documented. Overall intubation success was similar (blind, 93%; lightwand, 100%), but time to successful intubation was significantly shorter (67 vs. 46 s, p = 0. 027) and the number of adjusting manoeuvres was significantly fewer (p = 0.024) in the lightwand group. There were no significant differences in blood pressure or heart rate between the groups at any time. Oesophageal intubation occurred more frequently in the blind group (18 vs. 0%, p = 0.002). The incidence and severity of mucosal injury, sore throat and hoarseness were similar between the groups. We conclude that lightwand-guided intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask is superior to the blind technique. PMID:10792132

  12. Effect of Thoracentesis on Intubated Patients with Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Matthew B; Serna-Gallegos, Derek; Ault, Mark; Khan, Ahsan; Chung, Rex; Ley, Eric J; Melo, Nicolas; Margulies, Daniel R

    2016-03-01

    Pleural effusions occur frequently in mechanically ventilated patients, but no consensus exists regarding the clinical benefit of effusion drainage. We sought to determine the impact of thoracentesis on gas exchange in patients with differing severities of acute lung injury (ALI). A retrospective analysis was conducted on therapeutic thoracenteses performed on intubated patients in an adult surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary center. Effusions judged by ultrasound to be 400 mL or larger were drained. Subjects were divided into groups based on their initial P:F ratios: normal >300, ALI 200 to 300, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) <200. Baseline characteristics, physiologic variables, arterial blood gases, and ventilator settings before and after the intervention were analyzed. The primary end point was the change in measures of oxygenation. Significant improvements in P:F ratios (mean ± SD) were seen only in patients with ARDS (50.4 ± 38.5, P = 0.001) and ALI (90.6 ± 161.7, P = 0.022). Statistically significant improvement was observed in the pO2 (31.1, P = 0.005) and O2 saturation (4.1, P < 0.001) of the ARDS group. The volume of effusion removed did not correlate with changes in individual patient's oxygenation. These data support the role of therapeutic thoracentesis for intubated patients with abnormal P:F ratios. PMID:27099064

  13. Airway Management of the Patient with Maxillofacial Trauma: Review of the Literature and Suggested Clinical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Michal; Bahouth, Hany; Leiser, Yoav; Abu El-Naaj, Imad

    2015-01-01

    According to the Advanced Trauma Life Support recommendations for managing patients with life-threatening injuries, securing the airway is the first task of a primary caregiver. Airway management of patients with maxillofacial trauma is complex and crucial because it can dictate a patient's survival. Securing the airway of patients with maxillofacial trauma is often extremely difficult because the trauma involves the patient's airway and their breathing is compromised. In these patients, mask ventilation and endotracheal intubation are anticipated to be difficult. Additionally, some of these patients may not yet have been cleared of a cervical spine injury, and all are regarded as having a full stomach and having an increased risk of regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration. The requirements of the intended maxillofacial operation may often preclude the use of an oral intubation tube, and alternative methods for securing the airway should be considered before the start of the surgery. In order to improve the clinical outcome of patients with maxillofacial trauma, cooperation between maxillofacial surgeons, anesthesiologists, and trauma specialists is needed. In this review, we discuss the complexity and difficulties of securing the airway of patients with maxillofacial trauma and present our approach for airway management of such patients. PMID:26161411

  14. Airway management in trauma.

    PubMed

    Langeron, O; Birenbaum, A; Amour, J

    2009-05-01

    Maintenance of a patent and prevention of aspiration are essential for the management of the trauma patient, that requires experienced physicians in airway control techniques. Difficulties of the airway control in the trauma setting are increased by the vital failures, the risk of aspiration, the potential cervical spine injury, the combative patient, and the obvious risk of difficult tracheal intubation related to specific injury related to the trauma. Endotracheal intubation remains the gold standard in trauma patient airway management and should be performed via the oral route with a rapid sequence induction and a manual in-line stabilization maneuver, to decrease the risks previously mentioned. Different techniques to control the airway in trauma patients are presented: improvement of the laryngoscopic vision, lighted stylet tracheal intubation, retrograde technique for orotracheal intubation, the laryngeal mask and the intubating laryngeal mask airways, the combitube and cricothyroidotomy. Management of the airway in trauma patients requires regular training in these techniques and the knowledge of complementary techniques allowing tracheal intubation or oxygenation to overcome difficult intubation and to prevent major complications as hypoxemia and aspiration. PMID:19412149

  15. Hypothermia and the trauma patient

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Chun, Rosaleen; Brown, Ross; Simons, Richard K.

    Hypothermia has profound effects on every system in the body, causing an overall slowing of enzymatic reactions and reduced metabolic requirements. Hypothermic, acutely injured patients with multisystem trauma have adverse outcomes when compared with normothermic control patients. Trauma patients are inherently predisposed to hypothermia from a variety of intrinsic and iatrogenic causes. Coagulation and cardiac sequelae are the most pertinent physiological concerns. Hypothermia and coagulopathy often mandate a simplified approach to complex surgical problems. A modification of traditional classification systems of hypothermia, applicable to trauma patients is suggested. There are few controlled investigations, but clinical opinion strongly supports the active prevention of hypothermia in the acutely traumatized patient. Preventive measures are simple and inexpensive, but the active reversal of hypothermia is much more complicated, often invasive and controversial. The ideal method of rewarming is unclear but must be individualized to the patient and is institution specific. An algorithm reflecting newer approaches to traumatic injury and technical advances in equipment and techniques is suggested. Conversely, hypothermia has selected clinical benefits when appropriately used in cases of trauma. Severe hypothermia has allowed remarkable survivals in the course of accidental circulatory arrest. The selective application of mild hypothermia in severe traumatic brain injury is an area with promise. Deliberate circulatory arrest with hypothermic cerebral protection has also been used for seemingly unrepairable injuries and is the focus of ongoing research. PMID:10526517

  16. Ventilatory strategies in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shubhangi; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Trikha, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Lung injury in trauma patients can occur because of direct injury to lung or due to secondary effects of injury elsewhere for example fat embolism from a long bone fracture, or due to response to a systemic insult such as; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to sepsis or transfusion related lung injury. There are certain special situations like head injury where the primary culprit is not the lung, but the brain and the ventilator strategy is aimed at preserving the brain tissue and the respiratory system takes a second place. The present article aims to delineate the strategies addressing practical problems and challenges faced by intensivists dealing with trauma patients with or without healthy lungs. The lung protective strategies along with newer trends in ventilation are discussed. Ventilatory management for specific organ system trauma are highlighted and their physiological base is presented. PMID:24550626

  17. Orotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Dauphinee, K

    1988-11-01

    The advantages of endotracheal intubations are many: patency of airway is reasonably assured, secretions may be removed easily from the tracheobronchial tree, the airway is better protected against aspiration, ventilation can be regulated, and drugs can be administered. The procedure is the "gold standard" of airway control, and the oral route is the most common used. The patient is assessed for potential difficulties that may arise from abnormalities of face and mouth: large face, large tongue, hypoplastic mandible, prominent or diseased maxillary teeth or facial fractures; or abnormalities of the neck: potential or real cervical spine instability, swelling, or laryngeal trauma. A plan is devised, together with one or more alternatives, should unforeseen difficulties arise, and in adherence to the principle of never removing the compensations of a coping patient. The skill is learned and practiced so that a gentle facility is always present at times of greatest need. PMID:3056706

  18. Transfusion management of trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Shaz, Beth H; Dente, Christopher J; Harris, Robert S; MacLeod, Jana B; Hillyer, Christopher D

    2009-06-01

    The management of massively transfused trauma patients has improved with a better understanding of trauma-induced coagulopathy, the limitations of crystalloid infusion, and the implementation of massive transfusion protocols (MTPs), which encompass transfusion management and other patient care needs to mitigate the "lethal triad" of acidosis, hypothermia, and coagulopathy. MTPs are currently changing in the United States and worldwide because of recent data showing that earlier and more aggressive transfusion intervention and resuscitation with blood components that approximate whole blood significantly decrease mortality. In this context, MTPs are a key element of "damage control resuscitation," which is defined as the systematic approach to major trauma that addresses the lethal triad mentioned above. MTPs using adequate volumes of plasma, and thus coagulation factors, improve patient outcome. The ideal amounts of plasma, platelet, cryoprecipitate and other coagulation factors given in MTPs in relationship to the red blood cell transfusion volume are not known precisely, but until prospective, randomized, clinical trials are performed and more clinical data are obtained, current data support a target ratio of plasma:red blood cell:platelet transfusions of 1:1:1. Future prospective clinical trials will allow continued improvement in MTPs and thus in the overall management of patients with trauma. PMID:19448199

  19. Submental intubation with reinforced tube for intubating laryngeal mask airway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Jun; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Ha, Ji-Young; Park, Hyun; Han, Dong Woo

    2005-08-31

    Submental endotracheal intubation is a simple and secure alternative to either nasoendotracheal intubation or a tracheostomy in the airway management of maxillofacial trauma. However, a submental endotracheal intubation is quite difficult to manage if adverse events such as a tube obstruction, accidental extubation, or a leaking cuff with the endotracheal tube in the submental route occur, which could endanger the patient. This paper describes the use of a LMA-FastrachTMETT in the submental endotracheal intubation of patients suffering from maxillofacial trauma. One of the patients was a 16-year-old male, and the other was a 19-year-old male. They were scheduled for an open reduction and internal fixation of the maxillofacial fracture including naso-orbital-ethmoidal (NOE) complex, and a zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture. A submental intubation with a LMA-FastrachTMETT was performed in both cases, and the operation proceeded without any difficulties. These cases show that the use of the LMA- FastrachTMETT can improve the safety and efficacy of submental endotracheal intubation. This is because the LMA- FastrachTMETT has a freely detachable connector, and is flexible enough to keep the patency despite the acute angle of airway. PMID:16127785

  20. Pentax-AWS videolaryngoscope for awake nasal intubation in patients with unstable necks.

    PubMed

    Asai, T

    2010-01-01

    In patients with unstable necks and at risk of pulmonary aspiration, awake fibreoptic intubation is often appropriate. However, stabilization of the neck can make fibreoptic intubation more difficult. I report the use of awake nasal intubation using the Pentax-Aiway Scope (AWS) in three patients with restricted neck movement, in whom awake fibreoptic intubation had failed. Case 1: a 59-yr-old man, at risk of aspiration, required an emergency cervical laminectomy. Awake fibreoptic intubation was attempted while a Halo vest was being applied, but it was impossible to see the glottis, mainly due to pharyngeal and laryngeal oedema. The Pentax-AWS was easily inserted orally, and nasotracheal intubation was achieved within 20 s. Case 2: an 85-yr-old woman with neck injury required emergency surgical stabilization. A retropharyngeal haematoma prevented a fibreoptic bronchoscope from being advanced beyond the epiglottis. Nasotracheal intubation using the Pentax-AWS (with the aid of a gum elastic bougie) was achieved within 1 min. Case 3: a 22-yr-old man, with partial spinal cord damage, was undergoing cervical laminoplasty. He was at risk of aspiration and had an oedematous larynx. Although it was possible to insert a fibreoptic bronchoscope into the trachea while the neck was stabilized with a Halo vest, it was impossible to advance a tube over the fibrescope. Awake nasotracheal intubation using the Pentax-AWS was achieved within 15 s. The Pentax-AWS may be useful for nasotracheal intubation in awake patients with restricted necks. PMID:19923133

  1. [Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) prevents the pressure responses to tracheal intubation in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Kito, T; Otagiri, T; Ina, H; Harashima, N; Sakaki, J

    1991-11-01

    Forty-five hypertensive patients for elective abdominal surgery were investigated regarding the effects of PGE1 on the cardiovascular responses to tracheal intubation. Administration of PGE1 at the dose of 0.10 or 0.20 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 10 minutes before tracheal intubation significantly reduced the blood pressure responses immediately after the intubation and 2 minutes later. The increases in heart rate were not altered with and without the administration of PGE1. So the increases in rate pressure products were markedly reduced with PGE1 compared with the control values. Plasma concentration of catecholamines was measured before and after tracheal intubation. Norepinephrine was elevated markedly immediately after the intubation and this change was not affected by the infusion of PGE1. These results demonstrate that PGE1 ameliorates the pressure responses by the release of norepinephrine and thus reduces the increases in rate pressure products immediately after tracheal intubation. PMID:1766115

  2. Dexmedetomidine premedication for fiberoptic intubation in patients of temporomandibular joint ankylosis: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kumkum; Jain, Manish; Gupta, Prashant K.; Rastogi, Bhawna; Saxena, Sanjeev K.; Manngo, Aman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fiberoptic intubation is the gold standard technique for difficult airway management in patients of temporomandibular joint. This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine as premedication with propofol infusion for fiberoptic intubation. Methods: Consent was obtained from 46 adult patients of temporomandibular joint ankylosis, scheduled for gap arthroplasty. They were enrolled for thisdouble-blind, randomized, prospective clinical trial with two treatment groups – Group D and Group P, of 23 patients each. Group D patients had received premedication of dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg infused over 10 min followed by sedative propofol infusion and the control Group P patients were given only propofol infusion to achieve sedation. Condition achieved at endoscopy, intubating conditions, hemodynamic changes and postoperative events were evaluated as primary outcome. Results: The fiberoptic intubation was successful with satisfactory endoscopic and intubating condition in all patients. Dexmedetomidine premedication has provided satisfactory conditions for fiberoptic intubation and attenuated the hemodynamic response of fiberoptic intubation than the propofol group. Conclusion: Fiberoptic intubation was found to be easier with dexmedetomidine premedication along with sedative infusion of propofol with complete amnesia of the procedure, hemodynamic stability and preservation of patent airway. PMID:23162393

  3. Hypotensive Resuscitation among Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, Matthew M.; Leonard, Jan; Slone, Denetta S.; Mains, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is a principal cause of death among trauma patients within the first 24 hours after injury. Optimal fluid resuscitation strategies have been examined for nearly a century, more recently with several randomized controlled trials. Hypotensive resuscitation, also called permissive hypotension, is a resuscitation strategy that uses limited fluids and blood products during the early stages of treatment for hemorrhagic shock. A lower-than-normal blood pressure is maintained until operative control of the bleeding can occur. The randomized controlled trials examining restricted fluid resuscitation have demonstrated that aggressive fluid resuscitation in the prehospital and hospital setting leads to more complications than hypotensive resuscitation, with disparate findings on the survival benefit. Since the populations studied in each randomized controlled trial are slightly different, as is the timing of intervention and targeted vitals, there is still a need for a large, multicenter trial that can examine the benefit of hypotensive resuscitation in both blunt and penetrating trauma patients. PMID:27595109

  4. Hypotensive Resuscitation among Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Matthew M; Leonard, Jan; Slone, Denetta S; Mains, Charles W; Bar-Or, David

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is a principal cause of death among trauma patients within the first 24 hours after injury. Optimal fluid resuscitation strategies have been examined for nearly a century, more recently with several randomized controlled trials. Hypotensive resuscitation, also called permissive hypotension, is a resuscitation strategy that uses limited fluids and blood products during the early stages of treatment for hemorrhagic shock. A lower-than-normal blood pressure is maintained until operative control of the bleeding can occur. The randomized controlled trials examining restricted fluid resuscitation have demonstrated that aggressive fluid resuscitation in the prehospital and hospital setting leads to more complications than hypotensive resuscitation, with disparate findings on the survival benefit. Since the populations studied in each randomized controlled trial are slightly different, as is the timing of intervention and targeted vitals, there is still a need for a large, multicenter trial that can examine the benefit of hypotensive resuscitation in both blunt and penetrating trauma patients. PMID:27595109

  5. An unexpected difficult intubation in a patient with myasthenia gravis undergoing video-assisted transcervical thymectomy

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Nadia; Celestre, Chiara; Borrata, Francesco; Migliore, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Although there are different methods to evaluate predictive parameters of difficult intubation in apparently normal patients, sometimes this event is unpredictable.We herein report a clinical case of difficult intubation during anaesthesia for video-assisted thymectomy in non-thymomatous myasthenia gravis. PMID:23749836

  6. Imaging patients with cardiac trauma.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Carlos S; Gutierrez, Fernando R; Marmol-Velez, Juan A; Ocazionez, Daniel; Martinez-Jimenez, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, trauma is the leading cause of death among those who are 1-44 years old, with cardiovascular injuries representing the second most common cause of traumatic death after central nervous system injuries. Evaluation of trauma patients with suspected cardiac injury may be complex and include electrocardiography, measurement of cardiac biomarkers, and imaging examinations. Contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) has become one of the most valuable imaging tools available for evaluating hemodynamically stable patients with suspected cardiac injury. The presence of hemopericardium, with or without cardiac tamponade, is one of the most significant findings of cardiac injury. Other complications that result from blunt cardiac injury, such as pericardial rupture and cardiac herniation, may be readily depicted at multidetector CT. Assessment of patients with cardiac injuries, particularly those with penetrating injuries, is a challenging and time-critical matter, with clinical and imaging findings having complementary roles in the formation of an accurate diagnosis. Patients who are hemodynamically stable, particularly those with penetrating cardiac injuries, also may benefit from a timely imaging examination. In addition to chest radiography, other available modalities such as transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging may play a role in selected cases. PMID:22582351

  7. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted endotracheal intubation in a patient with a large tracheal tumor.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lei; Feng, Yan-Hua; Ma, Hai-Chun; Dong, Su

    2015-04-01

    In the event of a high degree of airway obstruction, endotracheal intubation can be impossible and even dangerous, because it can cause complete airway obstruction, especially in patients with high tracheal lesions. However, a smaller endotracheal tube under the guidance of a bronchoscope can be insinuated past obstructive tumor in most noncircumferential cases. Here we report a case of successful fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted endotracheal intubation in a patient undergoing surgical resection of a large, high tracheal tumor causing severe tracheal stenosis. A 42-year-old Chinese man presented with dyspnea, intermittent irritable cough, and sleep deprivation for one and a half years. X-rays and computed tomography scan of the chest revealed an irregular pedunculated soft tissue mass within the tracheal lumen. The mass occupied over 90% of the lumen and caused severe tracheal stenosis. Endotracheal intubation was done to perform tracheal tumor resection under general anesthesia. After several failed conventional endotracheal intubation attempts, fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted intubation was successful. The patient received mechanical ventilation and then underwent tumor resection and a permanent tracheostomy. This case provides evidence of the usefulness of the fiberoptic bronchoscopy-assisted intubation technique in management of an anticipated difficult airway and suggests that tracheal intubation can be performed directly in patients with a tracheal tumor who can sleep in the supine position, even if they have occasional sleep deprivation and severe tracheal obstruction as revealed by imaging techniques. PMID:25875537

  8. Bench-to-bedside review: early tracheostomy in critically ill trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Shirawi, Nehad; Arabi, Yaseen

    2006-02-01

    A significant proportion of trauma patients require tracheostomy during intensive care unit stay. The timing of this procedure remains a subject of debate. The decision for tracheostomy should take into consideration the risks and benefits of prolonged endotracheal intubation versus tracheostomy. Timing of tracheostomy is also influenced by the indications for the procedure, which include relief of upper airway obstruction, airway access in patients with cervical spine injury, management of retained airway secretions, maintenance of patent airway and airway access for prolonged mechanical ventilation. This review summarizes the potential advantages of tracheostomy versus endotracheal intubation, the different indications for tracheostomy in trauma patients and studies examining early versus late tracheostomy. It also reviews the predictors of prolonged mechanical ventilation, which may guide the decision regarding the timing of tracheostomy. PMID:16356202

  9. Awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation and self-positioning followed by anesthesia induction in prone patients

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Lei; Wang, Ming-Yu; Sun, Hou-Liang; Zhu, Shan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Anesthesia followed by placement in the prone position takes time and may result in complications. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation and self-positioning followed by anesthesia induction in prone-positioned patients under general anesthesia. Sixty-two patients (ASA physical status I–II) scheduled for awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation and prone self-positioning before surgery under general anesthesia were selected. Patient preparation began with detailed preoperative counseling regarding the procedure. Premedication with sedative and antisialagogue was followed by airway anesthesia with topical lidocaine; then, awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation was carried out. The patients then positioned themselves comfortably before induction of general anesthesia. The changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), incidence of coughing or gagging, and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated-measures one-way analysis of variance. Fifty-eight of the 62 patients completed prone self-positioning smoothly. Compared with values before intubation, SBP, DBP, HR, and RPP were slightly increased after intubation, although the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). One patient had moderate coughing and 1 patient had gagging during prone self-positioning, which were tolerable. These findings indicated that awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation and self-positioning followed by induction of anesthesia is safe and feasible alternative to routine prone positioning after induction of general anesthesia. PMID:27512858

  10. Intravenous lidocaine as a suppressant of coughing during tracheal intubation in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Yukioka, H; Hayashi, M; Terai, T; Fujimori, M

    1993-08-01

    The effects of intravenously administered lidocaine on cough suppression in elderly patients over the age of 60 yr during tracheal intubation under general anesthesia were evaluated in two studies. In the first study, 100 patients received a placebo of either 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously 1 min before tracheal intubation. All visible coughs were classified as coughing. The incidence of coughing decreased as the dose of lidocaine increased. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg or more of intravenous lidocaine suppressed the cough reflex significantly (P < 0.01). In the second study, 108 patients received 2 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously or a placebo 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, or 15 min before intubation. The same criteria for determining whether a patient did or did not cough during tracheal intubation were used as in Study 1. The incidence of coughing decreased significantly (P < 0.01) when 2 mg/kg lidocaine was injected intravenously between 1 min and 3 min before attempting intubation. The cough reflex was almost entirely suppressed by plasma concentrations of lidocaine in excess of 4 micrograms/mL. The results suggest that intravenous administration of lidocaine is effective in suppressing the cough reflex during tracheal intubation in elderly patients under general anesthesia, but that relatively high plasma concentrations of lidocaine may be required for suppression of coughing. PMID:8346830

  11. [Awake intubation with landiolol and dexmedetomidine in a patient with anxiety neurosis].

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Tatsunari; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Fujitate, Yasutaka; Kuzukawa, Yosuke; Kitano, Manabu; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-08-01

    We report a successful case of awake intubation in a patient with anxiety neurosis via continuous administration of landiolol and dexmedetomidine. A 52-year-old woman weighing 46.8 kg with anxiety neurosis experienced postoperative bleeding after left-side thyroidectomy and was scheduled for emergent hemostasis under general anesthesia Due to swelling of the neck, we anticipated a difficult airway and decided to perform awake intubation. She showed extreme insecurity and shivering, and initially did not agree to the procedure. To calm her anxiety and panic, we continuously administered 10 microg x kg(-1). min(-1) landiolol and 1.0 microg x kg(-1) hr(-1) dexmedetomidine. After 10 minutes, her shivering disappeared, and she agreed to undergo awake intubation, which was performed with the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope and thin Intlock blade. The patient bucked slightly during intubation but hemodynamic changes were minimal. PMID:25199332

  12. Predictors of Difficult Intubation Among Malay Patients in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Tantri, Aida Rosita; Firdaus, Riyadh; Salomo, Sahat Tumpal

    2016-01-01

    Background Failure to maintain an adequate airway can lead to brain damage and death. To reduce the risk of difficulty in maintaining an airway during general anesthesia, there are several known predictors of difficult intubation. People with a Malay background have different craniofacial structures in comparison with other individuals. Therefore, different predictors should be used for patients of Malay race. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx (DVL) in Malay patients based on several predictors, such as the modified Mallampati test (MMT), thyromental distance (TMD), and hyomental distance ratio (HMDR). Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study included 277 consecutive patients requiring general anesthesia. All subjects were evaluated using the MMT, TMD, and HMDR, and the cut-off points for the airway predictors were Mallampati III and IV, < 6.5 cm, and < 1.2, respectively. During direct laryngoscopy, the laryngeal view was graded using the Cormack-Lehane (CL) classification. CL grades III and IV were considered difficult visualization. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for each predictor were calculated both as sole and combined predictors. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of DVL. Results Difficulty in visualizing the larynx was found in 28 (10.1%) patients. The AUC, sensitivity, and specificity for the three airway predictors were as follows: MMT: 0.614, 10.7%, and 99.2%; HMDR: 0.743, 64.2%, and 74%; and TMD: 0.827, 82.1%, and 64.7%. The combination providing the best prediction in our study involved the MMT, HMDR, and TMD with an AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.835, 60.7%, and 88.8%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the MMT, HMDR, and TMD were independent predictors of DVL. Conclusions The TMD, with a cut-off point of 65 mm, had superior diagnostic value compared with the HMDR and

  13. Direct Versus Video Laryngoscopy for Intubating Adult Patients with Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jestin N.; Crofts, Jason; Walls, Ron M.; Brown, Calvin A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Video laryngoscopy (VL) has been advocated for several aspects of emergency airway management; however, there are still concerns over its use in select patient populations such as those with large volume hematemesis secondary to gastrointestinal (GI) bleeds. Given the relatively infrequent nature of this disease process, we sought to compare intubation outcomes between VL and traditional direct laryngoscopy (DL) in patients intubated with GI bleeding, using the third iteration of the National Emergency Airway Registry (NEARIII). Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected national database (NEARIII) of intubations performed in United States emergency departments (EDs) from July 1, 2002, through December 31, 2012. All cases where the indication for intubation was “GI bleed” were analyzed. We included patient, provider and intubation characteristics. We compared data between intubation attempts initiated as DL and VL using parametric and non-parametric tests when appropriate. Results We identified 325 intubations, 295 DL and 30 VL. DL and VL cases were similar in terms of age, sex, weight, difficult airway predictors, operator specialty (emergency medicine, anesthesia or other) and level of operator training (post-graduate year 1, 2, etc). Proportion of successful first attempts (DL 261/295 (88.5%) vs. VL 28/30 (93.3%) p=0.58) and Cormack-Lehane grade views (p=0.89) were similar between devices. The need for device change was similar between DL [2/295 (0.7%) and VL 1/30 (3.3%); p=0.15]. Conclusion In this national registry of intubations performed in the ED for patients with GI bleeds, both DL and VL had similar rates of success, glottic views and need to change devices. PMID:26759653

  14. Dexmedetomidine for awake intubation and an opioid-free general anesthesia in a superobese patient with suspected difficult intubation

    PubMed Central

    Gaszynski, Tomasz; Gaszynska, Ewelina; Szewczyk, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Super-obese patients (body mass index [BMI] >50 kg/m2) are at a particularly high risk of anesthesia-related complications during postoperative period, eg, critical respiratory events including respiratory arrest, and over-sedation leading to problems with maintaining airway open, hypoxia and hypercapnia. In this paper authors present a case of a 39-year-old super-obese (BMI 62.3 kg/m2) female patient who was admitted for surgical treatment of obesity. Preanesthesia evaluation revealed hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) as comorbidities as well as potential for a difficult intubation– neck circumference of 46 cm, reduced neck mobility and DM type 2. Patient was intubated using “awake intubation” method using topical anesthesia and dexmedetomidine infusion. General anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and dexmedetomidine infusion instead of opioid administration in “opioid-free anesthesia method”. PMID:25045249

  15. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma. PMID:25085805

  16. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway: An alternative to endotracheal intubation in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Lalwani, Jaya; Dubey, Kamta Prasad; Sahu, Bal Swaroop; Shah, Pratibha Jain

    2010-01-01

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a supraglottic airway management device. The LMA is preferred for airway management in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures. The recently introduced ProSeal (PLMA), a modification of Classic LMA, has a gastric drainage tube placed lateral to main airway tube which allows the regurgitated gastric contents to bypass the glottis and prevents the pulmonary aspiration. This study was done to compare the efficacy of ProSeal LMA with an endotracheal tube in paediatric patients with respect to number of attempts for placement of devices, haemodynamic responses and perioperative respiratory complications. Sixty children, ASA I and II, weighing 10-20 kg between 2 and 8 years of age group of either sex undergoing elective ophthalmological and lower abdominal surgeries of 30-60 min duration, randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients each were studied. The number of attempts for endotracheal intubation was less than the placement of PLMA. Haemodynamic responses were significantly higher (P<0.05) after endotracheal intubation as compared to the placement of PLMA. There were no significant differences in mean SpO2 (%) and EtCO2 levels recorded at different time intervals between the two groups. The incidence of post-operative respiratory complications cough and bronchospasm was higher after extubation than after removal of PLMA. The incidence of soft tissue trauma was noted to be higher for PLMA after its removal. There were no incidences of aspiration and hoarseness/sore throat in either group. It is concluded that ProSeal LMA can be safely considered as a suitable and effective alternative to endotracheal intubation in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures. PMID:21224972

  17. Predictors of Silicone Tube Intubation Success in Patients with Lacrimal Drainage System Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Sun; Lee, Saem; Lee, Jung Hye; Choi, Hye Sun; Jang, Jae Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate prognostic factors affecting silicone tube intubation outcomes in Asian patients with lacrimal drainage system stenosis. Methods A retrospective review was conducted on the medical records of 822 patients (1,118 eyes) who had undergone silicone tube intubation to treat lacrimal drainage system stenosis between January 2011 and December 2012. Patients were divided into two groups: a success group and a failure group. Success was defined as the disappearance of epiphora symptoms, normalization of tear meniscus height, and the easy passage of fluid without resistance on the postoperative syringing test. Patient and ocular parameters were compared between the success and failure groups. Results A total of 994 eyes of 727 patients were included in analyses. Patients had a mean follow-up period of 34.11 ± 18.70 weeks. Silicone tube intubation was successful in 67.2% of participants. Significant differences between the success and failure groups were found for age (p < 0.001), history of ipsilateral facial palsy (p = 0.028), follow-up period (p < 0.001), and degree of passage on the preoperative syringing test (p = 0.001). Only age (p < 0.001) and degree of passage on the preoperative syringing test (p = 0.002) remained significantly associated with silicone tube intubation success in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Age was negatively associated with silicone tube intubation success in patients with lacrimal drainage system stenosis. The success rate was higher in patients who showed easy passage of fluid without resistance on the preoperative syringing test. These factors should be considered by surgeons planning silicone tube intubation in patients with lacrimal drainage system stenosis. PMID:27247514

  18. Retrospective evaluation of airway management with blind awake intubation in temporomandibular joint ankylosis patients: A review of 48 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Duraiswamy; Krishnan, Radhika; Veerabahu, Muthusubramanian; Vikraman, Bhaskara Pandian; Nathan, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the morbidity or mortality associated with the blind awake intubation technique in temporomandibular ankylosis patients. Settings and Design: A total of 48 cases with radiographically and clinically confirmed cases of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis were included in the study for evaluation of anesthetic management and its complications. Materials and Methods: Airway assessment was done with standard proforma including Look externally, evaluate 3-3-2 rule, Mallampati classification, Obstruction, Neck mobility (LEMON) score assessment in all TMJ ankylosis patients. The intubation was carried out with the standard departmental anesthetic protocol in all the patients. The preoperative difficulty assessment and postoperative outcome were recorded. Results: Blind awake intubation was done in 92% of cases, 6% of cases were intubated by fiberoptic awake intubation, and 2% patient required surgical airway. Ninety-eight percent of the patients were cooperative during the awake intubation. The frequent complications encountered during the blind awake intubation were epistaxis and sore throat. Conclusion: In an anesthetic setup, where fiberoptic intubation is not available, blind awake intubation could be considered in the anesthetic management algorithm. PMID:27563608

  19. Popliteal vasculature injuries in paediatric trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Jones, S A; Roberts, D C; Clarke, N M P

    2012-10-01

    Popliteal-artery injuries in the paediatric-trauma patient are uncommon, difficult to diagnose and with prolonged ischaemia lead to substantial complications. We report three cases of popliteal-vasculature injury in paediatric-trauma patients with diverse mechanisms of injury: blunt trauma, penetrating injury and a Salter-Harris I fracture. We present a range of the significant sequelae that can result from paediatric popliteal-artery injury, both physically and psychologically. It is imperative that clinicians have a high index of suspicion when confronted with paediatric patients with trauma around the knee and that popliteal-vasculature injuries are diagnosed early. If insufficiencies are detected, further imaging should be considered, but surgical exploration should not be delayed in the presence of ischaemia. PMID:22776610

  20. Survival probability in patients with liver trauma.

    PubMed

    Buci, Skender; Kukeli, Agim

    2016-08-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to assess the survival probability among patients with liver trauma injury using the anatomical and psychological scores of conditions, characteristics and treatment modes. Design/methodology/approach - A logistic model is used to estimate 173 patients' survival probability. Data are taken from patient records. Only emergency room patients admitted to University Hospital of Trauma (former Military Hospital) in Tirana are included. Data are recorded anonymously, preserving the patients' privacy. Findings - When correctly predicted, the logistic models show that survival probability varies from 70.5 percent up to 95.4 percent. The degree of trauma injury, trauma with liver and other organs, total days the patient was hospitalized, and treatment method (conservative vs intervention) are statistically important in explaining survival probability. Practical implications - The study gives patients, their relatives and physicians ample and sound information they can use to predict survival chances, the best treatment and resource management. Originality/value - This study, which has not been done previously, explores survival probability, success probability for conservative and non-conservative treatment, and success probability for single vs multiple injuries from liver trauma. PMID:27477933

  1. The cost and compensability of trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Kate; Dickson, Cara; Black, Deborah; Nau, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Injury in Australia was responsible for 400 000 hospitalisations in 2002. This study aimed to examine the direct costs of trauma patients in a Level 1 trauma centre and determine the compensability of those patients. Data on all admitted patients (206) filling trauma criteria were collected prospectively over a 3-month period (November 2006 to January 2007). A 10-question survey was completed on each patient to record mechanism of injury, third party private health insurance or workers compensation, and direct costs were also obtained. 30% of trauma admissions had an injury severity score (ISS)> 15 (n = 62; median ISS =9; range, 1-56). Median length of stay was 3 days (range, 1-126). Almost half (47%) of the patients were involved in road trauma, and 29% in falls. More than half (53.4%) were eligible for compensation (21.8% of patients had full hospital health insurance cover, 21.4% third party insurance and 9.2% workers compensation). The mechanism of injury with the highest median cost per patient was assault, followed by pedal cyclists, pedestrians then motor vehicle collisions. PMID:19203337

  2. Airway Management in a Patient with Severe Ankylosing Spondylitis Causing Bamboo Spine: Use of Aintree Intubation Catheter.

    PubMed

    Ul Haq, Muhammad Irfan; Shamim, Faisal; Lal, Shankar; Shafiq, Faraz

    2015-12-01

    Management of a case of ankylosing spondylitis can be very challenging as the airway and the central neuraxial blockade are extremely difficult to handle. Fiberoptic intubation may lead to predictable success in the face of difficult airway. We are presenting a new technique of fiberoptic intubation in a young patient, suffering from severe ankylosing spondylitis, came for total hip replacement surgery. There was anticipated difficult airway due to severe limitation in neck movement and it was successfully managed by using Aintree Intubation Catheter (AIC) with intubating fiberoptic bronchoscope. PMID:26691367

  3. GlideScope Video Laryngoscope for Difficult Intubation in Emergency Patients: a Quasi-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Koorosh; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Hashemian, Amir Masoud; Sarshar, Saeed; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-12-01

    Macintosh direct laryngoscope has been the most widely used device for tracheal intubation. GlideScope video laryngoscope (GVL) has been recently introduced as an alternative device for performing intubation; however, its validity in emergency settings has not been thoroughly evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare Macintosh direct laryngoscope versus GVL for emergency endotracheal intubation. This quasi-randomized clinical trial was performed on 97 patients referred to Imam Reza Hospital whom all needed emergency intubation in 2011. Patients were divided into two groups of the easy airway and difficult airway; intubation was performed for patients with direct laryngoscopy or GVL. Then, the patients were evaluated in terms of demographic characteristics, successful intubation rate and intubation time. Data was analyzed by SPSS software 16. There was no significant difference in demographic characteristics of the patients in both easy airway and difficult airway groups who intubated with direct laryngoscopy and GVL methods (P>0.05). In difficult airway group, a significant difference was found in successful intubation at the first attempt (60.9% vs. 87.5%; P=0.036), overall intubation time (32.7 ± 14.58 vs. 22.5±7.88; P<0.001) and first attempt intubation time (28.43 ± 12.51 vs. 21.48±7.8; P=0.001) between direct laryngoscopy and GVL. These variables were not significantly different between two methods in easy airway group. According to the results, GVL can be a useful alternative to direct laryngoscopy in emergency situations and especially in cases with a difficult airway. PMID:26749229

  4. Successful use of nasal BiPAP in three patients previously requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Poponick, J M; Renston, J P; Emerman, C L

    1997-01-01

    Noninvasive mask ventilation may be used to treat patients with impending respiratory failure. In this case series, three patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who required mechanical ventilation in the past, were successfully treated with nasal bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP). All patients tolerated BiPAP well without complications. Therefore, nasal BiPAP may be considered a treatment option for patients with severe COPD who have previously required intubation and mechanical ventilation. PMID:9404794

  5. Parker Flex-Tip and Standard-Tip Endotracheal Tubes: A Comparison During Nasotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Simon; Heaton, Jarom; Jatana, Kris R.; Rashid, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The placement of endotracheal tubes in the airway, particularly through the nose, can cause trauma. Their design might be an important etiologic factor, but they have changed little since their introduction. Recently Parker Medical (Bridgewater, Conn ) introduced the Parker Flex-Tip (PFT) tube, suggesting that it causes less trauma. This study aimed to compare the PFT endotracheal tube to a side-beveled, standard-tip endotracheal tube (ETT) for nasotracheal intubation (Figures 1 and 2). Forty consecutive oral surgery patients requiring nasotracheal intubation were randomized to receive either a standard ETT or the PFT tube. Intubations were recorded using a fiber-optic camera positioned proximal to the Murphy eye of the tube. This allowed visualization of the path and action of the tube tip as it traversed the nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and tracheal airway regions. Video recordings made during intubation and extubation were evaluated for bleeding, trauma, and intubation time. Both bleeding and trauma were recorded using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and by 3 different evaluators. The PFT received significantly better VAS values than the standard tubes from all 3 raters (P < 0.05) in both the extent of trauma and bleeding. Since the intubations were purposefully conducted slowly for photographic reasons, neither tube displayed a time advantage. This study suggests that the PFT tube design may be safer by causing less trauma and bleeding than standard tube designs for nasotracheal intubation. PMID:20331335

  6. HEPBURN - investigating the efficacy and safety of nebulized heparin versus placebo in burn patients with inhalation trauma: study protocol for a multi-center randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary coagulopathy is a hallmark of lung injury following inhalation trauma. Locally applied heparin attenuates lung injury in animal models of smoke inhalation. Whether local treatment with heparin benefits patients with inhalation trauma is uncertain. The present trial aims at comparing a strategy using frequent nebulizations of heparin with standard care in intubated and ventilated burn patients with bronchoscopically confirmed inhalation trauma. Methods The Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Nebulized HEParin versus Placebo in BURN Patients with Inhalation Trauma (HEPBURN) is an international multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm study. One hundred and sixteen intubated and ventilated burn patients with confirmed inhalation trauma are randomized to nebulizations of heparin (the nebulized heparin strategy) or nebulizations of normal saline (the control strategy) every four hours for 14 days or until extubation, whichever comes first. The primary endpoint is the number of ventilator-free days, defined as days alive and breathing without assistance during the first 28 days, if the period of unassisted breathing lasts for at least 24 consecutive hours. Discussion As far as the authors know, HEPBURN is the first randomized, placebo-controlled trial, powered to investigate whether local treatment with heparin shortens duration of ventilation of intubated and ventilated burn patients with inhalation trauma. Trial registration NCT01773083 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov), registered on 16 January 2013. Recruiting. Randomisation commenced on 1 January 2014. PMID:24661817

  7. PATIENT-VENTILATION ASYNCHRONY CAUSING NEGATIVE PRESSURE PULMONARY EDEMA IN AN INTUBATED OBESE PATIENT.

    PubMed

    Siddik-Sayyid, Sahar M; AlFahel, Waseem; El-Khatib, Mohamad F

    2016-02-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary edema is a potentially life-threatening condition that may occur when a large negative intrathoracic pressure is generated against a 'physically' obstructed upper airway during emergence from anesthesia. We report a 35 year old male patient who is morbidly obese and undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass who developed negative pressure pulmonary edema without any evidence of a 'physical' upper airway obstruction. In our patient, the negative pressure pulmonary edema occurred after complete reversal of neuromuscular blockade and during manual positive pressure ventilation with the endotracheal tube still in place and in the presence of an oral airway. Since the patient was still intubated and had an airway in place with no possibility for physical obstruction, we speculate that the occurrence of the negative pressure pulmonary edema was mainly due to a 'functional' obstruction secondary to the severe patient-ventilation asynchrony that ensued upon reversal of the neuromuscular blockade. PMID:27382824

  8. [Intubating laryngeal mask].

    PubMed

    Langenstein, H; Möller, F

    1998-01-01

    To improve the success of blind intubation through a laryngeal mask, Dr. A.I.J. Brain constructed the intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA), marketed under the name Fastrach. The new construction allows blind intubation with highly flexible endotracheal tubes up to 8 mm ID with cuff (straight Woodbridge type), securing the airway around the intubation process and maintaining most of the characteristics of a standard laryngeal mask airway (SLMA), including contraindications. An additional contraindication is the existence of a Zenker diverticle. Up to now, eight working groups reported a success rate of blind intubation through the ILMA of more than 90% in about 1,200 patients, with a success rate of blind intubation of more than 50% for the first intubation attempt. Ten percent of the patients were difficult to intubate with the same success rate for blind intubation as in normal patients. Reduced mouth opening does not seem to hinder the use of the ILMA in spite of its increased outer diameter of 2 cm, as long as it is possible to enlarge the mouth opening to > 2 cm during anaesthesia. The new ILMA more than doubles the success of blind intubation compared to an SLMA, irrespective of a large variety of intubation difficulties. Correct judgement of endotracheal tube position is mandatory. The ILMA has the potential to be used in patients who are difficult to intubate and to substitute the SLMA in "cannot ventilate--cannot intubate" situations. The future will show if the ILMA also will improve emergency airway management by inexperienced personnel, including intubation, as has been shown for the standard laryngeal mask airway in cardiopulmonary resuscitation for ventilation only. PMID:9611362

  9. Monocyte-related immunopathologies in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Laudanski, Krzysztof; Wyczechowska, Dorota

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical trauma is one of the most important causes of morbidity in the developed world. The response of the immune system to mechanical insult is of paramount importance for the patient's recovery. Shortly after trauma, the indiscriminate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is mediated by circulating monocytes (M Øs) and other innate immunity components. Then acquired immunity, limited to the offending pathogen and the site of injury, gradually preponderates. SIRS is followed by the compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS), where the initial inflammatory response is quenched by anti-inflammatory mediators. This precisely regulated process of immune system activation in response to trauma can be easily deviated, resulting in multiorgan failure (MOF) and increased mortality. Excessive activation of inflammatory M Øs in the SIRS phase, premature or exorbitant CARS, a predominance of macrophages (Macs) in the blood stream and peripheral tissues, as well as a depletion of dendritic cells are often seen in trauma patients and contribute to the development of MOF. Here we explore several mechanisms of pathological MØ; activation in patients with severe mechanical traumatic injury without accompanying sepsis. PMID:16088316

  10. Learning and performance of endotracheal intubation by paramedical students: Comparison of GlideScope® and intubating laryngeal mask airway with direct laryngoscopy in manikins

    PubMed Central

    Bahathiq, Adil Omar; Abdelmontaleb, Tharwat Helmy; Newigy, Mohammed Khairt

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: GlideScope video laryngoscope (GVL) and intubating laryngeal mask airway (I-LMA) may be used to facilitate intubation and secure the airway in patients with normal and abnormal airways. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether (GVL) and (I-LMA) facilitate and improve the tracheal intubation success rate and could be learned and performed easily by paramedic students when compared with Macintosh direct laryngoscopy (DL). Methods: This study was a prospective, randomised crossover trial that included 100 paramedic students. Macintosh DL, I-LMA and GVL were tested in both normal and difficult airway scenarios. Each participant was allowed up to three intubation attempts with each device, in each scenario. The time required to perform tracheal intubation, the success rate, number of intubation attempts and of optimisation manoeuvres and the severity of dental trauma were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square, one-way ANOVA, or Kruskal-Wallis test as appropriate, followed by post hoc test. Results: GVL and I-LMA required less time to successfully perform tracheal intubation, showed a greater success rate of intubation, reduced the number of intubation attempts and optimization manoeuvres required and reduced the severity of dental trauma compared to Macintosh DL in both normal and difficult airway scenarios. Conclusion: GVL and I-LMA provide better airway management than Macintosh DL in both normal and difficult airway scenarios. PMID:27212721

  11. Identification of Legionella Pneumophila in Intubated Patients With TaqMan Real Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Divan Khosroshahi, Nader; Naserpour Farivar, Taghi; Johari, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Legionellaceae contains Legionella genus with over 52 species and 64 serogroups. It is one of the most important causes of respiratory disease in human. More than 30% of hospital-acquired pneumonia is caused by Legionella. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an infection acquired in hospital wards, particularly in intensive care unit (ICU). This disease approximately affects 9% to 20% of intubated patients. Mortality in these patients varies between 8% and 76%. Legionella is one of the important factors for infection in intubated patients. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the use of molecular methods in diagnosis of infection caused by Legionella pneumophila. Materials and Methods: In this study, 109 samples of lung secretions collected from intubated patients admitted to ICU wards of four university hospitals in a three-month period were examined. Cultivation and Real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were used to assess L. pneumophila colonization in these samples. Results: Eleven samples had positive results using real time PCR analysis of 16s rRNA gene fragments specific for L. pneumophila, but according to culture method on specific buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium (BCYE), no positive cases were detected. Of the total positive cases, six were males, one female and four infants. The seven adults aged 40-65 years. Conclusions: Using molecular methods in diagnosis of infection caused by L. pneumophila has a great value because of its high specificity and rapid diagnosis potency. PMID:25834717

  12. Warming Endotracheal Tube in Blind Nasotracheal Intubation throughout Maxillofacial Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Hamzeh; Taheri Talesh, Koroush; Golzari, Samad EJ; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Lotfi, Alireza; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Blind nasotracheal intubation is an intubation method without observation of glottis that is used when the orotracheal intubation is difficult or impossible. One of the methods to minimize trauma to the nasal cavity is to soften the endotracheal tube through warming. Our aim in this study was to evaluate endotracheal intubation using endotracheal tubes softened by hot water at 50 °C and to compare the patients in terms of success rate and complications. Methods: 60 patients with ASA Class I and II scheduled to undergo elective jaw and mouth surgeries under general anesthesia were recruited. Results: success rate for Blind nasotracheal intubation in the control group was 70% vs. 83.3% in the study group. Although the success rate in the study group was higher than the control group, this difference was not statistically significant. The most frequent position of nasotracheal intubation tube was tracheal followed by esophageal and anterior positions, respectively. Conclusion:In conclusion, our study showed that using an endotracheal tube softened by warm water could reduce the incidence and severity of epistaxis during blind nasotracheal intubation; however it could not facilitate blind nasotracheal intubation. PMID:24404345

  13. Evaluation of Endotracheal Intubation with a Flexible Fiberoptic Bronchoscope in Lateral Patient Positioning: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Wu; Lu, Ya-Ping; Wang, Yan; Chen, Li-Hua; Lei, Li-Pei; Fang, Xiang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an unmet need for a reliable method of airway management for patients in the lateral position. This prospective randomized controlled two-center study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of intubation using a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope in the lateral position during surgery. Methods: Seventy-two patients scheduled for elective nonobstetric surgery in the lateral decubitus position requiring tracheal intubation under general anesthesia at Lishui Central Hospital of Zhejiang Province and Jiaxing First Hospital of Zhejiang Province from April 1, 2015, to September 30, 2015, were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to the supine position group (Group S, n = 38) and the lateral position group (Group L, n = 34). Experienced anesthetists performed tracheal intubation with a fiberoptic bronchoscope after general anesthesia. The time required for intubation, intubation success rates, and hemodynamic changes was recorded. Between-group differences were assessed using the Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, or Chi-square test. Results: The median total time to tracheal intubation was significantly longer in Group S (140.0 [135.8, 150.0] s) compared to Group L (33.0 [24.0, 38.8] s) (P < 0.01). The first-attempt intubation success rate was significantly higher in Group L (97%) compared to Group S (16%). Hemodynamic changes immediately after intubation were more exaggerated in Group S compared to Group L (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Endotracheal intubation with a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope may be an effective and timesaving technique for patients in the lateral position. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR-IIR-16007814; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=13183. PMID:27569229

  14. A comparison of conventional tube and EndoFlex tube for tracheal intubation in patients with a cervical spine immobilisation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The EndoFlex is a new type of tracheal tube with an adjustable distal tip that can be bent without the use of a stylet. The aim of this study was to compare a standard endotracheal tube with the EndoFlex tracheal tube for intubation in patients with simulated cervical spine injury. Methods A group of 60 patients without any kind of the cervical spine injury, classified as the ASA physiological scale I or II and qualified for elective surgery procedures were intubated with the use of classical Macintosh laryngoscope, and either a standard endotracheal tube with the intubation stylet in it or EndoFlex tube without stylet. The subjects were randomized into two subgroups. All patients have had the cervical collar placed on their neck for the simulation of intubation procedure in case of the spinal injury. Results The intubation procedure was performed by 16 anesthetists with different experience (5-19 yrs). Time of intubation with the use of EndoFlex tube was similar to that with a the use of standard endotracheal tube and intubation stylet: Me (median) 19.5 s [IQR (interquatile range) 18-50] vs. Me 20 s [IQR 17-60] respectively (p = 0.9705). No significant additional maneuvers were necessary during intubation with the use of EndoFlex tube in comparison with standard endotracheal tube (70% vs. 56.6%) (p = 0.4220). Subjective assessment of the usability of both tubes revealed that more anesthesiologists found intubations with the use of EndoFlex more demanding than intubation with conventional tracheal tube and intubation stylet. The assessment of usability: very easy 3.3% vs. 20%, easy 83.4% vs. 56.7%, difficult 10% vs. 20% and very difficult 3.3% vs. 3.3% for standard endotracheal tube with stylet and EndoFlex, respectively. Conclusion In conclusion we asses, that the EndoFlex tube does not improve intubation success rate, in fact it requires more maneuvers facilitating intubation and was found to be more difficult to use. PMID:24267640

  15. Awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation and self-positioning followed by anesthesia induction in prone patients: A pilot observational study.

    PubMed

    Heng, Lei; Wang, Ming-Yu; Sun, Hou-Liang; Zhu, Shan-Shan

    2016-08-01

    Anesthesia followed by placement in the prone position takes time and may result in complications. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation and self-positioning followed by anesthesia induction in prone-positioned patients under general anesthesia.Sixty-two patients (ASA physical status I-II) scheduled for awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation and prone self-positioning before surgery under general anesthesia were selected. Patient preparation began with detailed preoperative counseling regarding the procedure. Premedication with sedative and antisialagogue was followed by airway anesthesia with topical lidocaine; then, awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation was carried out. The patients then positioned themselves comfortably before induction of general anesthesia. The changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), incidence of coughing or gagging, and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated-measures one-way analysis of variance.Fifty-eight of the 62 patients completed prone self-positioning smoothly. Compared with values before intubation, SBP, DBP, HR, and RPP were slightly increased after intubation, although the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). One patient had moderate coughing and 1 patient had gagging during prone self-positioning, which were tolerable.These findings indicated that awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation and self-positioning followed by induction of anesthesia is safe and feasible alternative to routine prone positioning after induction of general anesthesia. PMID:27512858

  16. [Treatment of severely injured patients : Impact of the German Trauma Registry DGU®].

    PubMed

    Bouillon, B; Lefering, R; Paffrath, T; Sturm, J; Hoffmann, R

    2016-06-01

    The German Trauma Registry DGU® started in 1993 as an initiative of five dedicated trauma centers and has evolved significantly since then. Data were obtained at four points of time from the site of the accident until discharge from hospital. In the first year (1993), the registry collected data of 260 patients from 5 hospitals. In 2015 more than 38.000 were included from 640 hospitals.This paper focusses on the impact of the trauma registry on the treatment of severely injured patients. Several authors could show that the data can be used by hospitals for benchmarking. This can help to detect problems in individual hospitals and to find solutions that can be implemented into the process of care and its subsequent reevaluation. Due to structural and process-related changes, the time necessary for the management in the emergency room could be reduced significantly. Various scientific analyses of the Trauma Registry DGU® data were implemented in the treatment of severely injured patients. In the prehospital treatment, this changed the criteria for intubation and led to a reduction of volume replacement. In the hospital setting, the analysis influenced the radiologic work-up and the treatment of coagulopathy of severely injured patients. Moreover, the risk-adjusted mortality of severely injured patients in Germany could be continuously reduced over the past 20 years. PMID:27240850

  17. Special Considerations in Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Michael K; Aquino, Patrick R; Kuo, Dick C

    2015-11-01

    The emergent management of a traumatic injury can be an extremely intense situation. These assessments can be even more difficult when patients have an underlying psychiatric condition. After a protocoled evaluation of the traumatic injuries, the psychological manifestation of diseases can be addressed. The appropriate use of physical or chemical restraints to facilitate the work-up is paramount in the ability of the provider to protect patients and staff from agitated and traumatized patients. The emergency medicine provider should have a low threshold for including psychiatry in the treatment plans, as the long-term sequelae of these entities require specialized treatment. PMID:26493528

  18. Hemodynamic responses to endotracheal intubation performed with video and direct laryngoscopy in patients scheduled for major cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sarkılar, Gamze; Sargın, Mehmet; Sarıtaş, Tuba Berra; Borazan, Hale; Gök, Funda; Kılıçaslan, Alper; Otelcioğlu, Şeref

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare the hemodynamic responses to endotracheal intubation performed with direct and video laryngoscope in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery and to assess the airway and laryngoscopic characteristics. One hundred ten patients were equally allocated to either direct Macintosh laryngoscope (n = 55) or indirect Macintosh C-MAC video laryngoscope (n = 55). Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded prior to induction anesthesia, and immediately and two minutes after intubation. Airway characteristics (modified Mallampati, thyromental distance, sternomental distance, mouth opening, upper lip bite test, Wilson risk sum score), mask ventilation, laryngoscopic characteristics (Cormack-Lehane, percentage of glottic opening), intubation time, number of attempts, external pressure application, use of stylet and predictors of difficult intubation (modified Mallampati grade 3-4, thyromental distance < 6 cm, upper lip bite test class 3, Wilson risk sum score ≥ 2, Cormack-Lehane grade 3-4) were recorded. Hemodynamic parameters were similar between the groups at all time points of measurement. Airway characteristics and mask ventilation were no significant between the groups. The C-MAC video laryngoscope group had better laryngoscopic view as assessed by Cormack-Lehane and percentage of glottic view, and a longer intubation time. Number of attempts, external pressure, use of stylet, and difficult intubation parameters were similar. Endotracheal intubation performed with direct Macintosh laryngoscope or indirect Macintosh C-MAC video laryngoscope causes similar and stable hemodynamic responses. PMID:26379966

  19. Immunonutrition in patients after multiple trauma.

    PubMed

    Bastian, L; Weimann, A

    2002-01-01

    Severe trauma threatens the life of the victim, both directly and indirectly via immunological dysregulation during the subsequent clinical course. Inflammatory or infectious episodes may complicate the clinical course and ultimately result in sepsis and multiple organ failure, which have mortality rates of up to 80%. Immunomodulatory intervention aims to ameliorate the early hyperinflammatory phase (systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SIRS) to avoid the development of sepsis. One of the immunomodulation strategies is enteral feeding supplemented with specific nutrients, such as glutamine, n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, and nucleotides ('immunonutrition'), because changes in the GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue) immune response may contribute to intestinal dysfunction and increase susceptibility to post injury gut-derived sepsis. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study in twenty-nine patients suffering severe trauma we were able to show that immunonutrition (arginine, n-3-fatty acids, and nucleotides) significantly reduces the number of SIRS days per patient, and also lowers the multiple organ failure (MOF) score on day 3 and days 8-11 (P<0.05). Other studies have reported a reduction in septic complications and MOF rates, shortened hospital stay, and reduction in the use of antibiotics in patients randomized to the immune-enhancing diet. This improved clinical outcome was reflected in a reduction in hospital costs. In the recovery period after trauma (1-72 h after injury) a limitation of the inflammatory response of immunocompetent cells must be achieved as quickly as possible (<72 h). The only strategy available to clinicians caring for trauma patients is immunonutrition, and this should be strongly considered as a rational approach improving immune function and reducing septic complications in critically ill or injured patients. PMID:11895149

  20. Awake intubating laryngeal mask airway placement in a morbidly obese patient with ankylosing spondylitis and unstable thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Herman, Abbey G; Mahla, Michael E

    2016-08-01

    Intubating laryngeal mask airways can be used to provide continuous ventilation throughout intubation. This is a case of a morbidly obese (body mass index = 58) 65-year-old woman with T10 and T11 compression fractures. Optimal positioning for airway management was hindered by her unstable spine, minimal neck range of motion, and extreme pain with any movement. An intubating laryngeal mask airway was placed in the awake, topically anesthetized patient, and the laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube combination was left in place throughout surgery. PMID:27290947

  1. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Matthew; Loker, William; Warden, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots) of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic regression. The

  2. Evaluation of the Hemodynamic Response to Endotracheal Intubation Comparing the Airtraq® with Macintosh Laryngoscopes in Cardiac Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilovska-Brzanov, Aleksandra; Jarallah, Mohhamed Al; Cogliati, Andrea; Mojsova-Mijovska, Maja; Mijuskovic, Dragan; Slaveski, Dimce

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac patients are more prone to develop hemodynamic instability on induction of anesthesia and endotracheal intubation. The Airtraq® optical laryngoscope is a single-use rigid video laryngoscope that has been developed to facilitate tracheal intubation. There are limited studies comparing differences in the circulatory responses to Airtraq® and direct Macintosh larynngoscopy in cardiac patients. Aim: The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether there was clinically significant difference between the hemodynamic response to orotracheal intubation guided by either of the two devices (Airtraq® and Macintosh laryngoscopes) in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Material and methods: In this clinical study we analyzed the hemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation performed with Airtraq® or Macintosh laryngoscopes in patients who underwent elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery under general anesthesia. Results: We analyzed: blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, mean), heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation (all notified before induction in anesthesia, immediately after induction, at the time of intubation and thereafter one and five minutes after intubation). We also recorded the maximal values of blood pressure and heart rate, as well as calculated the product of heart rate and systolic blood pressure. There were statistically significant differences in the hemodynamic response between the groups. At the time of intubation, there was significant inter-group difference in heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure. Endotracheal intubation with Macintosh laryngoscope was accompanied by significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate compared to Airtraq® group. Conclusion: The Airtraq® laryngoscope performed better than the Macintosh laryngoscope in terms of hemodynamic to the patient undergoing routine coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:26635435

  3. Associations Between Prolonged Intubation and Developing Post-extubation Dysphagia and Aspiration Pneumonia in Non-neurologic Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jung; Park, Young Sook; Song, You Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the associations between the duration of endotracheal intubation and developing post-extubational supraglottic and infraglottic aspiration (PEA) and subsequent aspiration pneumonia. Methods This was a retrospective observational study from January 2009 to November 2014 of all adult patients who had non-neurologic critical illness, required endotracheal intubation and were referred for videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Demographic information, intensive care unit (ICU) admission diagnosis, severity of critical illness, duration of endotracheal intubation, length of stay in ICU, presence of PEA and severity of dysphagia were reviewed. Results Seventy-four patients were enrolled and their PEA frequency was 59%. Patients with PEA had significantly longer endotracheal intubation durations than did those without (median [interquartile range]: 15 [9-21] vs. 10 [6-15] days; p=0.02). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the endotracheal intubation duration was significantly associated with PEA (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.18; p=0.04). Spearman correlation analysis of intubation duration and dysphagia severity showed a positive linear association (r=0.282, p=0.02). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of endotracheal intubation duration for developing PEA and aspiration pneumonia were 0.665 (95% CI, 0.542-0.788; p=0.02) and 0.727 (95% CI, 0.614-0.840; p=0.001), respectively. Conclusion In non-neurologic critically ill patients, the duration of endotracheal intubation was independently associated with PEA development. Additionally, the duration was positively correlated with dysphagia severity and may be helpful for identifying patients who require a swallowing evaluation after extubation. PMID:26605174

  4. Complete colonoscopy: impact of patients' demographics and anthropometry on caecal intubation time

    PubMed Central

    Akere, Adegboyega; Otegbayo, Jesse Abiodun

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Factors that affect caecal intubation during colonoscopy include age and sex of the patient, quality of bowel preparation, prior abdominal or pelvic surgery and pelvic inflammatory disease, among others. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of patients' demography such as age and sex, as well as anthropometry (height, weight and body mass index (BMI)) on caecal intubation time (CIT). Patients and methods All consecutive patients referred for colonoscopy over a period of 6 months were recruited into the study. Prior to the procedure, patients' demographic data as well as history of prior abdominal or pelvic surgery were recorded. The height and weight of each patient were taken, and the BMI calculated. CIT was measured from the time of insertion of the colonoscope into the anal canal to the time when the base of the caecum was intubated. Results A total of 167 patients comprising 99 (59.3%) males and 68 (40.7%) females were studied. The mean CIT of the procedures was 912.5±477.1 s with a range of 180–3180 s. It was more prolonged in patients older than 65 years of age, in males and in those with prior abdominal/pelvic surgery, although no significant difference was observed among the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that increased BMI and non-usage of additional manoeuvres independently reduced CIT. Conclusions Older age, male gender, prior abdominal/pelvic surgery, use of additional manoeuvres and lower BMI were found to prolong CIT. PMID:27110381

  5. I-gel Laryngeal Mask Airway Combined with Tracheal Intubation Attenuate Systemic Stress Response in Patients Undergoing Posterior Fossa Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chaoliang; Chai, Xiaoqing; Kang, Fang; Huang, Xiang; Hou, Tao; Tang, Fei; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The adverse events induced by intubation and extubation may cause intracranial hemorrhage and increase of intracranial pressure, especially in posterior fossa surgery patients. In this study, we proposed that I-gel combined with tracheal intubation could reduce the stress response of posterior fossa surgery patients. Methods. Sixty-six posterior fossa surgery patients were randomly allocated to receive either tracheal tube intubation (Group TT) or I-gel facilitated endotracheal tube intubation (Group TI). Hemodynamic and respiratory variables, stress and inflammatory response, oxidative stress, anesthesia recovery parameters, and adverse events during emergence were compared. Results. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were lower in Group TI during intubation and extubation (P < 0.05 versus Group TT). Respiratory variables including peak airway pressure and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension were similar intraoperative, while plasma β-endorphin, cortisol, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, malondialdehyde concentrations, and blood glucose were significantly lower in Group TI during emergence relative to Group TT. Postoperative bucking and serious hypertensions were seen in Group TT but not in Group TI. Conclusion. Utilization of I-gel combined with endotracheal tube in posterior fossa surgery patients is safe which can yield more stable hemodynamic profile during intubation and emergence and lower inflammatory and oxidative response, leading to uneventful recovery. PMID:26273146

  6. Orotracheal intubation of morbidly obese patients, comparison of GlideScope® video laryngoscope and the LMA CTrach™ with direct laryngoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, Gamal T.; Abdalgalil, Dief A.; Ibrahim, Tamer H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Morbidly obese patients are at increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and intubation as well as increased risk of hypoxemia during tracheal intubation. Recently, new video-assisted intubation devices have been developed. The GlideScope® videolaryngoscope and LMA CTrach™ (CT) allows continuous video-endoscopy of the tracheal intubation procedure. Objective: this study is to determine whether the GlideScope® videolaryngoscope (GVL) and the LMA CTrach™ (CT) provide the best airway management, measured primarily in intubation difficulty scale (IDS) scores, time and numbers of intubation attempts, and improvement in the intubation success rate of morbidly obese patients when compared with the direct Macintosh laryngoscope (DL). Materials and Methods: After Ethics’ Committee approval, 90 morbidly obese patients (BMI > 35 kg/m2) scheduled for general, gynecological, and bariatric surgery were included in this prospective study. Patients were randomly assigned in three groups: tracheal intubation using direct laryngoscopy (DL), GlideScope® videolaryngoscope (GVL) or the LMA CTrach™ (CT). Characteristics and consequences of airway management were evaluated. The primary outcome was the intubation difficulty scale score (IDS), Secondary outcomes were theintubation time, overall success rate, number of attempts, Cormack–Lehane grade, subjective difficulty of intubation, desaturation and upper airway morbidity. Results: Difficulty in facemask ventilation was similar in the three groups. IDS scores were significantly lower with GVL and CT than with DL. The mean TTI was 14 s faster in patients intubated with the GVL (86 s, IQR: 68-115) compared with DL (100 s, IQR; 80-150), and was 34 s faster when compared with CT (120 s, IQR; 95-180). The success rate of tracheal intubation was lower with the DL (80%) compared with the GVL (100%) or the CT (100%). Six cases of failed intubation occurred in group DL, four patients from the six patients were

  7. [Isolated chest trauma in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Yersin, Bertrand; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Pasquier, Mathieu; Zingg, Tobias

    2015-08-12

    In elderly patients, a blunt trauma of the chest is associated with a significant risk of complications and mortality. The number of ribs fractures (≥ 4), the presence of bilateral rib fractures, of a pulmonary contusion, of existent comorbidities or acute extra-thoracic traumatic lesions, and lastly the severity of thoracic pain, are indeed important risk factors of complications and mortality. Their presence may require hospitalization of the patient. When complications do occur, they are represented by alveolar hypoventilation, pulmonary atelectasia and broncho-pulmonary infections. When hospitalization is required, it may allow for the specific treatment of thoracic pain, including locoregional anesthesia techniques. PMID:26449103

  8. Monitoring of hemostasis in combat trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Carr, Marcus E

    2004-12-01

    Bleeding is clearly a major cause of morbidity and death after trauma. When bleeding is attributable to transection of major vessels, surgical repair is appropriate. Posttraumatic microvascular bleeding attributable to coagulopathy secondary to metabolic derangements, hypothermia, and depletion or dysfunction of cellular and protein components requires a different approach. Although transfusion of blood products may be necessary to replace the blood loss, it does not always correct the problem of microvascular bleeding. The type of injury, mode of care, and treatment objectives differ significantly for combat-wounded soldiers versus civilian trauma patients. Although hemorrhage is responsible for 50% of combat deaths, published information about coagulation monitoring among combat patients is very limited. These articles summarize the appropriate monitoring of hemostasis among combat trauma patients, review the unique nature of combat casualties and the medical system used to treat them, and discuss information available from civilian studies. Because the development of coagulopathy is relatively infrequent in the young, otherwise healthy, military population, the routine screening measures currently used are adequate to guide initial blood product administration. However, as new intravenous hemostatic agents are used for these patients, better laboratory measures will be required. Although hemorrhage is the leading cause of death for combat casualties, catastrophic hemorrhage is rarely a prehospital combat medical management problem because, when it occurs, it tends to cause death before medical care can be provided. In civilian environments, most seriously injured victims can be reached and transported by emergency medical services personnel within minutes; in combat, it often takes hours simply to transport casualties off the battlefield. In combat situations, even if the transport distances are small, the hazardous nature of the forward combat areas frequently

  9. Tracheal laceration as a complication of out-of-hospital emergency tracheal intubation in a patient with COPD.

    PubMed

    Üzümcügil, Filiz; Babaoğlu, Gülçin; Denizci, Ezgi; Sarıcaoğlu, Fatma; Kanbak, Meral

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchial injuries related to emergency endotracheal intubations are reported to be associated with an increased risk of mortality. Many mechanical risk factors may become more frequent in an emergency setting leading to such injuries. Aside from these factors that may complicate endotracheal intubation, this procedure is not recommended a priori for ventilation due to the resulting interruptions in external chest compressions, by 2010 cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and external chest compression guidelines. We present a 78-year-old woman with known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who had a tracheal laceration after emergency endotracheal intubation during CPR. Thorax computed tomography revealed an overinflated tube cuff. The trachea was repaired surgically; however, our patient died on the fourth postoperative day due to multiple-organ failure. Prehospital providers must remain especially vigilant to priorities in airway management during CPR and aware of the dangers associated with field tracheal intubation under less than ideal conditions. PMID:25066906

  10. Scoring systems of severity in patients with multiple trauma.

    PubMed

    Rapsang, Amy Grace; Shyam, Devajit Chowlek

    2015-04-01

    Trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality; hence severity scales are important adjuncts to trauma care in order to characterize the nature and extent of injury. Trauma scoring models can assist with triage and help in evaluation and prediction of prognosis in order to organise and improve trauma systems. Given the wide variety of scoring instruments available to assess the injured patient, it is imperative that the choice of the severity score accurately match the application. Even though trauma scores are not the key elements of trauma treatment, they are however, an essential part of improvement in triage decisions and in identifying patients with unexpected outcomes. This article provides the reader with a compendium of trauma severity scales along with their predicted death rate calculation, which can be adopted in order to improve decision making, trauma care, research and in comparative analyses in quality assessment. PMID:25015031

  11. Patient- and operator-related factors associated with successful Glidescope intubations: a prospective observational study in 742 patients.

    PubMed

    Siu, L W L; Mathieson, E; Naik, V N; Chandra, D; Joo, H S

    2010-01-01

    The Glidescope Video Laryngoscope (Glidescope, Verathon Medical, Bothell, WA, U.S.A.) is a relatively new intubating device. It has been proposed to be useful for securing both routine airways and those where direct laryngoscopy may be difficult. In this prospective observational study, data for 742 intubations using the Glidescope were collected to investigate whether four factors are associated with successful tracheal intubation at first attempt using the Glidescope: previous Glidescope experience, previous direct laryngoscopy experience, level of anaesthesia training and clinical airway assessment. The likelihood of successful tracheal intubation at first attempt using the Glidescope increased with increasing previous Glidescope experience. Similarly, success was more likely in airways that were assessed as normal compared with those where direct laryngoscopies were either predicted or known to be difficult. Subgroup analysis indicated 83% first attempt success by 'experienced' Glidescope users in patients with documented difficult direct laryngoscopies. This supports its use as an adjunct device for management of airways where direct laryngoscopies prove difficult. With regard to the level of anaesthesia training, only medical students were more likely to fail with the Glidescope. Success was not associated with previous experience in direct laryngoscopy. The lack of association with direct laryngoscopy experience and level of anaesthesia training (beyond student level) suggests that expertise with traditional airway tools is not necessary to become proficient with the Glidescope. PMID:20191780

  12. Use of a lighted stylet for guided orotracheal intubation in the prehospital setting.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T P; Stewart, R D; Paris, P M; Ellis, D; Berkebile, P E

    1985-04-01

    Management of the airway in acutely injured patients demands special skills of the emergency physician. A technique of light-guided orotracheal intubation has been described in the literature and was performed under protocol by resident physicians in an urban mobile intensive care system. The method utilizes a flexible lighted stylet to provide a guide to correct placement through transillumination of the soft tissues of the neck. During the 12-month period of the study, 24 intubations were attempted in 21 patients using this technique. Twenty-one attempts (88%) were successful. The average time for intubation was 20 seconds, with none requiring more than 45 seconds. Fourteen intubations (67%) were successful on the first attempt. Of the three unsuccessful procedures, two were attempted in bright sunlight, and all three patients had vomited prior to the attempts. Trauma to the soft tissues in one successfully intubated patient was the only complication reported with the technique. The advantages of this method, including rapidity of intubation, ability to intubate without manipulation of the head or neck, and the apparently few complications, make it particularly attractive to emergency personnel. We conclude that guided orotracheal intubation using a lighted stylet is an effective and safe method of emergency intubation, even in the adverse prehospital environment. PMID:3985444

  13. [PROGNOSTICATION OF "HARD" TRACHEAL INTUBATION IN PATIENTS, SUFFERING PURULENT-INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE JAW-FACIAL REGION].

    PubMed

    Artemenko, V Yu; Budnyuk, O O

    2015-11-01

    Clinical follow-up was conducted in 75 patients, to whom the operation and intensive therapy were performed in 2006-2015 yrs for phlegmon of the neck. Difficulties while providing passability of respiratory ways have occurred in 73.3% patients. It was established, that the predictors of "hard" tracheal intubation in patients, operated on for cervical phlegmon, are follows: the cervical tissues oedema, restriction of the mouth opening lesser than 3 cm, odontogenous phlegmon of oral cavity and the neck, rigid epiglottis, the larynx oedema. Presence of these factors demands application of endoscopic methods for tracheal intubation in such patients. PMID:26939430

  14. Geriatric Trauma: A Radiologist's Guide to Imaging Trauma Patients Aged 65 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Sadro, Claudia T; Sandstrom, Claire K; Verma, Nupur; Gunn, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    Radiologists play an important role in evaluation of geriatric trauma patients. Geriatric patients have injury patterns that differ markedly from those seen in younger adults and are susceptible to serious injury from minor trauma. The spectrum of trauma in geriatric patients includes head and spine injury, chest and rib trauma, blunt abdominal injury, pelvic fractures, and extremity fractures. Clinical evaluation of geriatric trauma patients is difficult because of overall frailty, comorbid illness, and medication effects. Specific attention should be focused on the effects of medications in this population, including anticoagulants, steroids, and bisphosphonates. Radiologists should use age-appropriate algorithms for radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging of geriatric trauma patients and follow guidelines for intravenous contrast agent administration in elderly patients with impaired renal function. Because there is less concern about risk for cancer with use of ionizing radiation in this age group, CT is the primary imaging modality used in the setting of geriatric trauma. Clinical examples are provided from the authors' experience at a trauma center where geriatric patients who have sustained major and minor injuries are treated daily. PMID:26065932

  15. Noninvasive ventilation in trauma.

    PubMed

    Karcz, Marcin K; Papadakos, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Trauma patients are a diverse population with heterogeneous needs for ventilatory support. This requirement depends mainly on the severity of their ventilatory dysfunction, degree of deterioration in gaseous exchange, any associated injuries, and the individual feasibility of potentially using a noninvasive ventilation approach. Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the need to intubate patients with trauma-related hypoxemia. It is well-known that these patients are at increased risk to develop hypoxemic respiratory failure which may or may not be associated with hypercapnia. Hypoxemia in these patients is due to ventilation perfusion mismatching and right to left shunt because of lung contusion, atelectasis, an inability to clear secretions as well as pneumothorax and/or hemothorax, all of which are common in trauma patients. Noninvasive ventilation has been tried in these patients in order to avoid the complications related to endotracheal intubation, mainly ventilator-associated pneumonia. The potential usefulness of noninvasive ventilation in the ventilatory management of trauma patients, though reported in various studies, has not been sufficiently investigated on a large scale. According to the British Thoracic Society guidelines, the indications and efficacy of noninvasive ventilation treatment in respiratory distress induced by trauma have thus far been inconsistent and merely received a low grade recommendation. In this review paper, we analyse and compare the results of various studies in which noninvasive ventilation was applied and discuss the role and efficacy of this ventilator modality in trauma. PMID:25685722

  16. Endotracheal intubation using i-gel® and lightwand in a patient with difficult airway: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chun Gil; Yang, Ki-Hwan; Jung, Jong-Kwon; Han, Jeong Uk; Lee, Choon Soo; Cha, Young-Deog

    2015-01-01

    This case report involves tracheal intubation using i-gel® in combination with a lightwand in a patient with a difficult airway, classified as Cormack-Lehane grade 3. I-gel® was used during anesthesia induction to properly maintain ventilation. The authors have previously reported successful tracheal intubation on a patient with a difficult airway through the use of i-gel® and a fiberoptic bronchoscope. However, if the use of a fiberoptic bronchoscope is not immediately available in a patient with a difficult airway, tracheal intubation may be performed by using i-gel® and a lightwand in a patient with difficult airway, allowing the safe induction of anesthesia. PMID:26495062

  17. A New Injury Severity Score for Predicting the Length of Hospital Stay in Multiple Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Oveis; Tabibzadeh Dezfuli, Seyed Ashkan; Namazi, Seyed Shojaeddin; Dehghan Khalili, Maryam; Saeedi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals under 40 and is the third main cause for death throughout the world. Objectives: This study was designed to compare our modified injury scoring systems with the current injury severity score (ISS) from the viewpoint of its predictive value to estimate the duration of hospitalization in trauma patients. Patients and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was performed at the general referral trauma center of Bandar-Abbas in southern Iran from March 2009 to March 2010. The study population consisted of all the trauma patients referred to the emergency department (ED). Demographic data, type and severity of injury, duration of admission, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and revised trauma score (RTS) were recorded. The injury severity score (ISS) and NISS were calculated. The length of hospital stay was recorded during the patients follow-up and compared with ISS, NISS and modified injury scoring systems. Results: Five hundred eleven patients (446 males (87.3%) and 65 females (12.7%)) were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 22 ± 4.2 for males and 29.15 ± 3.8 for females. The modified NISS had a relatively strong correlation with the length of hospitalization (r = 0.79). The formula below explains the length of hospitalization according to MNISS score. Duration of hospitalization was 0.415 + (2.991) MNISS. Duration of hospitalization had a strong correlation with MISS (r = 0.805, R2: 0.65). Duration of hospitalization was 0.113 + (7.915) MISS. Conclusions: This new suggested scale shows a better value to predict patients’ length of hospital stay compared to ISS and NISS. However, future studies with larger sample sizes and more confounding factors such as prehospital procedures, intubation and other procedures during admission, should be designed to examine these scoring systems and confirm the results of our study. PMID:27218048

  18. Knee injuries in severe trauma patients: a trauma registry study in 3.458 patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Purpose of the presented study is to answer the following questions: Are knee injuries associated with trauma mechanisms or concomitant injuries? Do injuries of the knee region aggravate treatment costs or prolong hospital stay in polytraumatized patients? Methods A retrospective analysis including 29.779 severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score [greater than or equal to] 16) from the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery database (1993-2008) was conducted. Patients were subdivided into two groups; the "Knee" group (n=3.458, 11.6% of all patients) including all multiple trauma patients with knee injuries, and the "Non Knee" group (n=26.321) including the remaining patients. Patients with knee injuries were slightly younger, less often male gender and had a significantly increased ISS. Results Patients in the Knee group suffered significantly more traffic accidents compared to the Non Knee group (82% vs. 52%, p<0.001). These injuries were more often caused by car or motorbike accidents. Severe thoracic and limb injuries (AIS[greater than or equal to]3) were more frequently found in the Knee group (p<0.001) while head injury was distributed equally. The overall hospital stay, ICU stay, and treatment costs were significantly higher for the Knee group (38.1 vs. 25.5 days, 15.2 vs. 11.4 days, 40,116 vs. 25,336 Euro, respectively; all p<0.001). Conclusions Traffic accidents are associated with an increased incidence of knee injuries than falls or attempted suicides. Furthermore, severe injuries of the limbs and chest are more common in polytraumatized patients with knee injuries. At last, treatment of these patients is prolonged and consequently more expensive. PMID:22866995

  19. Characteristics of an ideal nebulized antibiotic for the treatment of pneumonia in the intubated patient.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Matteo; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Nicolau, David P; Pugin, Jérôme

    2016-12-01

    Gram-negative pneumonia in patients who are intubated and mechanically ventilated is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as higher healthcare costs compared with those who do not have the disease. Intravenous antibiotics are currently the standard of care for pneumonia; however, increasing rates of multidrug resistance and limited penetration of some classes of antimicrobials into the lungs reduce the effectiveness of this treatment option, and current clinical cure rates are variable, while recurrence rates remain high. Inhaled antibiotics may have the potential to improve outcomes in this patient population, but their use is currently restricted by a lack of specifically formulated solutions for inhalation and a limited number of devices designed for the nebulization of antibiotics. In this article, we review the challenges clinicians face in the treatment of pneumonia and discuss the characteristics that would constitute an ideal inhaled drug/device combination. We also review inhaled antibiotic options currently in development for the treatment of pneumonia in patients who are intubated and mechanically ventilated. PMID:27090532

  20. Complement Activation in Trauma Patients Alters Platelet Function.

    PubMed

    Atefi, Gelareh; Aisiku, Omozuanvbo; Shapiro, Nathan; Hauser, Carl; Dalle Lucca, Jurandir; Flaumenhaft, Robert; Tsokos, George C

    2016-09-01

    Trauma remains the main cause of death for both civilians and those in uniform. Trauma-associated coagulopathy is a complex process involving inflammation, coagulation, and platelet dysfunction. It is unknown whether activation of complement, which occurs invariably in trauma patients, is involved in the expression of trauma-associated coagulopathy. We designed a prospective study in which we enrolled 40 trauma patients and 30 healthy donors upon arrival to the emergency department of BIDMC. Platelets from healthy individuals were incubated with sera from trauma patients and their responsiveness to a thrombin receptor-activating peptide was measured using aggregometry. Complement deposition on platelets from trauma patients was measured by flow cytometry. Normal platelets displayed hypoactivity after incubation with trauma sera even though exposure to trauma sera resulted in increased agonist-induced calcium flux. Depletion of complement from sera further blocked activation of hypoactive platelets. Conversely, complement activation increased aggregation of platelets. Platelets from trauma patients were found to have significantly higher amounts of C3a and C4d on their surface compared with platelets from controls. Depletion of complement (C4d, C3a) reversed the ability of trauma sera to augment agonist-induced calcium flux in donor platelets. Our data indicate that complement enhances platelet aggregation. Despite its complement content, trauma sera render platelets hypoactive and complement depletion further blocks activation of hypoactive platelets. The defect in platelet activation induced by trauma sera is distal to receptor activation since agonist-induced Ca2+ flux is elevated in the presence of trauma sera owing to complement deposition. PMID:27355402

  1. Regional anesthesia for the trauma patient: improving patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gadsden, Jeff; Warlick, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is a significant health problem and a leading cause of death in all age groups. Pain related to trauma is frequently severe, but is often undertreated in the trauma population. Opioids are widely used to treat pain in injured patients but have a broad range of undesirable effects in a multitrauma patient such as neurologic and respiratory impairment and delirium. In contrast, regional analgesia confers excellent site-specific pain relief that is free from major side effects, reduces opioid requirement in trauma patients, and is safe and easy to perform. Specific populations that have shown benefits (including morbidity and mortality advantages) with regional analgesic techniques include those with fractured ribs, femur and hip fractures, and patients undergoing digital replantation. Acute compartment syndrome is a potentially devastating sequela of soft-tissue injury that complicates high-energy injuries such as proximal tibia fractures. The use of regional anesthesia in patients at risk for compartment syndrome is controversial; although the data is sparse, there is no evidence that peripheral nerve blocks delay the diagnosis, and these techniques may in fact facilitate the recognition of pathologic breakthrough pain. The benefits of regional analgesia are likely most influential when it is initiated as early as possible, and the performance of nerve blocks both in the emergency room and in the field has been shown to provide quality pain relief with an excellent safety profile. PMID:26316813

  2. Regional anesthesia for the trauma patient: improving patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gadsden, Jeff; Warlick, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is a significant health problem and a leading cause of death in all age groups. Pain related to trauma is frequently severe, but is often undertreated in the trauma population. Opioids are widely used to treat pain in injured patients but have a broad range of undesirable effects in a multitrauma patient such as neurologic and respiratory impairment and delirium. In contrast, regional analgesia confers excellent site-specific pain relief that is free from major side effects, reduces opioid requirement in trauma patients, and is safe and easy to perform. Specific populations that have shown benefits (including morbidity and mortality advantages) with regional analgesic techniques include those with fractured ribs, femur and hip fractures, and patients undergoing digital replantation. Acute compartment syndrome is a potentially devastating sequela of soft-tissue injury that complicates high-energy injuries such as proximal tibia fractures. The use of regional anesthesia in patients at risk for compartment syndrome is controversial; although the data is sparse, there is no evidence that peripheral nerve blocks delay the diagnosis, and these techniques may in fact facilitate the recognition of pathologic breakthrough pain. The benefits of regional analgesia are likely most influential when it is initiated as early as possible, and the performance of nerve blocks both in the emergency room and in the field has been shown to provide quality pain relief with an excellent safety profile. PMID:26316813

  3. Alternative intubation techniques vs Macintosh laryngoscopy in patients with cervical spine immobilization: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Suppan, L.; Tramèr, M. R.; Niquille, M.; Grosgurin, O.; Marti, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Immobilization of the cervical spine worsens tracheal intubation conditions. Various intubation devices have been tested in this setting. Their relative usefulness remains unclear. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials comparing any intubation device with the Macintosh laryngoscope in human subjects with cervical spine immobilization. The primary outcome was the risk of tracheal intubation failure at the first attempt. Secondary outcomes were quality of glottis visualization, time until successful intubation, and risk of oropharyngeal complications. Results. Twenty-four trials (1866 patients) met inclusion criteria. With alternative intubation devices, the risk of intubation failure was lower compared with Macintosh laryngoscopy [risk ratio (RR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35–0.80]. Meta-analyses could be performed for five intubation devices (Airtraq, Airwayscope, C-Mac, Glidescope, and McGrath). The Airtraq was associated with a statistically significant reduction of the risk of intubation failure at the first attempt (RR 0.14; 95% CI 0.06–0.33), a higher rate of Cormack–Lehane grade 1 (RR 2.98; 95% CI 1.94–4.56), a reduction of time until successful intubation (weighted mean difference −10.1 s; 95% CI −3.2 to −17.0), and a reduction of oropharyngeal complications (RR 0.24; 95% CI 0.06–0.93). Other devices were associated with improved glottis visualization but no statistically significant differences in intubation failure or time to intubation compared with conventional laryngoscopy. Conclusions. In situations where the spine is immobilized, the Airtraq device reduces the risk of intubation failure. There is a lack of evidence for the usefulness of other intubation devices. PMID:26133898

  4. Can intravenous acetaminophen reduce the needs to more opioids to control pain in intubated patients?

    PubMed Central

    Mahshidfar, Babak; Sameti, Azadeh; Abbasi, Saeed; Farsi, Davood; Mofidi, Mani; Hafezimoghadam, Peyman; Rahimzadeh, Popak; Rezai, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effect of intravenous (IV) acetaminophen on reducing the need for morphine sulfate in intubated patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Settings and Design: Current study was done as a clinical trial on the patients supported by mechanical ventilator. Subjects and Methods: Behavioral pain scale (BPS) scoring system was used to measure pain in the patients. All of the patients received 1 g, IV acetaminophen, every 6 h during the 1st and 3rd days of admission and placebo during the 2nd and 4th days. Total dose of morphine sulfate needed, its complications, and the BPS scores at the end of every 6 h interval were compared. Results: Totally forty patients were enrolled. The mean pain scores were significantly lower in the 2nd and 4th days (4.33 and 3.66, respectively; mean: 4.0) in which the patients had received just morphine sulfate compared to the 1st and 3rd days (7.36 and 3.93, respectively; mean: 5.65) in which the patients had received acetaminophen in addition to morphine sulfate too (P < 0.001). Cumulative dose of morphine sulfate used, was significantly higher in the 1st and 3rd days (8.92 and 3.15 mg, respectively; 12.07 mg in total) compared to the 2nd and 4th days (6.47 mg and 3.22 mg, respectively; 9.7 mg in total) (P = 0.035). Conclusion: In our study, IV acetaminophen had no effect on decreasing the BPSs and need of morphine sulfate in intubated patients admitted to ICU.

  5. Anesthetic management by laryngeal mask airway in a patient with a history of difficult intubation resulting in dental injuries.

    PubMed

    Asahi, Yoshinao; Fujii, Ryosuke; Usui, Naoko; Kagamiuchi, Hajime; Omichi, Shiro; Kotani, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Disabled patients may face respiratory problems during general anesthesia because of head and neck anomalies. We describe a case of dental treatment under general anesthesia using a laryngeal mask airway in a disabled patient who faced difficulty in endotracheal intubation on several occasions, 5 of which resulted in dental injuries. PMID:25849470

  6. Anesthetic Management by Laryngeal Mask Airway in a Patient With a History of Difficult Intubation Resulting in Dental Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Asahi, Yoshinao; Fujii, Ryosuke; Usui, Naoko; Kagamiuchi, Hajime; Omichi, Shiro; Kotani, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Disabled patients may face respiratory problems during general anesthesia because of head and neck anomalies. We describe a case of dental treatment under general anesthesia using a laryngeal mask airway in a disabled patient who faced difficulty in endotracheal intubation on several occasions, 5 of which resulted in dental injuries. PMID:25849470

  7. Respiratory depression in the intoxicated trauma patient: are opioids to blame?

    PubMed

    Shenk, Eleni; Barton, Cassie A; Mah, Nathan D; Ran, Ran; Hendrickson, Robert G; Watters, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Providing effective pain management to acutely intoxicated trauma patients represents a challenge of balancing appropriate pain management with the risk of potential respiratory depression from opioid administration. The objective of this study was to quantify the incidence of respiratory depression in trauma patients acutely intoxicated with ethanol who received opioids as compared with those who did not and identify potential risk factors for respiratory depression in this population. Retrospective medical record review was conducted for subjects identified via the trauma registry who were admitted as a trauma activation and had a detectable serum ethanol level upon admission. Risk factors and characteristics compared included demographics, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Score, serum ethanol level upon arrival, urine drug screen results, incidence of respiratory depression, and opioid and other sedative medication use. A total of 233 patients were included (78.5% male). Patients who received opioids were more likely to have a higher Injury Severity Score and initial pain score on admission as compared with those who did not receive opioids. Blood ethanol content was higher in patients who did not receive opioids (0.205 vs 0.237 mg/dL, P = .015). Patients who did not receive opioids were more likely to be intubated within 4 hours of admission (1.7% vs 12.1%, P = .02). Opioid administration was not associated with increased risk of respiratory depression (19.7% vs 22.4%, P = .606). Increased cumulative fentanyl dose was associated with increased risk of respiratory depression. Increased cumulative fentanyl dose, but not opioid administration alone, was found to be a risk factor for respiratory depression. PMID:26614581

  8. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  9. Early enteral feeding of patients with multiple trauma.

    PubMed

    Cheever, K H

    1999-12-01

    The case study illustrates the recovery of a patient with multiple trauma who was fed a peptide-based formula via the enteral route soon after the trauma. Although the clinical course might have been worse if D.H. had not received this treatment, his generally excellent recovery might be partly attributable to this therapy. Although stress hypermetabolism occurs in most patients with multiple trauma within 48 hours after injury, no known treatment can arrest or reverse this problem. However, the lethal catabolic and septic effects of stress hypermetabolism can be at least partly thwarted through delivery of enteral nutrients within 72 hours after trauma. PMID:10889604

  10. Assessment of injury severity in patients with major trauma.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Penelope; Booth, Nicola; Suckley, Janet; Twelvetree, Timothy; Thomas, Debbie

    2016-08-01

    Major trauma centres provide specialised care for patients who have experienced serious traumatic injury. This article provides information about major trauma centres and outlines the assessment tools used in this setting. Since patients in major trauma centres will be transferred to other settings, including inpatient wards and primary care, this article is relevant for both nurses working in major trauma centres and in these areas. Traumatic injuries require rapid assessment to ensure the patient receives prompt, adequate and appropriate treatment. A range of assessment tools are available to assist nurses in major trauma centres and emergency care to assess the severity of a patient's injury. The most commonly used tools are triage, Catastrophic Haemorrhage Airway to Exposure assessment, pain assessment and the Glasgow Coma Scale. This article summarises the use of these assessment tools in these settings, and discusses the use of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) to determine the severity of patient injuries. PMID:27484568

  11. Parker Flex-It stylet is as effective as GlideRite Rigid stylet for orotracheal intubation by Glidescope

    PubMed Central

    Sheta, Saad A.; Abdelhalim, Ashraf A.; ElZoughari, Ismail A.; AlZahrani, Tariq A.; Al-Saeed, Abdulhamid H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate Parker Flex-It stylet as an alternative to GlideRite Rigid stylet to aid tracheal intubation with the Glidescope. Methods: This prospective randomized trial was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between May and December 2014. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 equal groups receiving intubation by Glidescope using either GlideRite Rigid stylet (Group GS) or Parker Flex-It stylet (Group PS). The total intubation time, ease of intubation, incidences of successful intubation at first attempt, number of intubation attempts, use of optimization maneuvers, and possible complications were recorded. Results: No significant differences between both groups regarding the total intubation time (p=0.08) was observed. Intubation was significantly easier in group PS compared with group GS as measured by visual analogue scale (p=0.001) with no significant differences between the groups regarding the rate of successful tracheal intubation from first attempt (p=0.524). However, the number of attempts at intubation and usage of external laryngeal manipulation were similar in both groups (p>0.05). The incidence of sore throat, dysphagia, hoarseness, and trauma were significantly higher in group GS (p<0.05). Conclusion: Parker Flex-It stylet is as effective as GlideRite Rigid stylet when used by experienced operators in patients with normal airways using Glidescope; however, it is easier and less traumatic. PMID:26620987

  12. The use of the Airtraq® optical laryngoscope for routine tracheal intubation in high-risk cardio-surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Airtraq® optical laryngoscope (Prodol Ltd., Vizcaya, Spain) is a novel disposable device facilitating tracheal intubation in routine and difficult airway patients. No data investigating routine tracheal intubation using the Airtaq® in patients at a high cardiac risk are available at present. Purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and hemodynamic implications of tracheal intubation with the Aitraq® optical laryngoscope, in high-risk cardio-surgical patients. Methods 123 consecutive ASA III patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting were routinely intubated with the Airtraq® laryngoscope. Induction of anesthesia was standardized according to our institutional protocol. All tracheal intubations were performed by six anesthetists trained in the use of the Airtraq® prior. Results Overall success rate was 100% (n = 123). All but five patients trachea could be intubated in the first attempt (95,9%). 5 patients were intubated in a 2nd (n = 4) or 3rd (n = 1) attempt. Mean intubation time was 24.3 s (range 16-128 s). Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and SpO2 were not significantly altered. Minor complications were observed in 6 patients (4,8%), i.e. two lesions of the lips and four minor superficial mucosal bleedings. Intubation duration (p = 0.62) and number of attempts (p = 0.26) were independent from BMI and Mallampati score. Conclusion Tracheal intubation with the Airtraq® optical laryngoscope was feasible, save and easy to perform in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In all patients, a sufficient view on the vocal cords could be obtained, independent from BMI and preoperative Mallampati score. Trial Registration DRKS 00003230 PMID:22011403

  13. Non-intubated video-assisted thoracoscopic lung resections: the future of thoracic surgery?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego; Bonome, Cesar; Fieira, Eva; Aymerich, Humberto; Fernandez, Ricardo; Delgado, Maria; Mendez, Lucia; de la Torre, Mercedes

    2016-03-01

    Thanks to the experience gained through the improvement of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) technique, and the enhancement of surgical instruments and high-definition cameras, most pulmonary resections can now be performed by minimally invasive surgery. The future of the thoracic surgery should be associated with a combination of surgical and anaesthetic evolution and improvements to reduce the trauma to the patient. Traditionally, intubated general anaesthesia with one-lung ventilation was considered necessary for thoracoscopic major pulmonary resections. However, thanks to the advances in minimally invasive techniques, the non-intubated thoracoscopic approach has been adapted even for use with major lung resections. An adequate analgesia obtained from regional anaesthesia techniques allows VATS to be performed in sedated patients and the potential adverse effects related to general anaesthesia and selective ventilation can be avoided. The non-intubated procedures try to minimize the adverse effects of tracheal intubation and general anaesthesia, such as intubation-related airway trauma, ventilation-induced lung injury, residual neuromuscular blockade, and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesthesiologists should be acquainted with the procedure to be performed. Furthermore, patients may also benefit from the efficient contraction of the dependent hemidiaphragm and preserved hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during surgically induced pneumothorax in spontaneous ventilation. However, the surgical team must be aware of the potential problems and have the judgement to convert regional anaesthesia to intubated general anaesthesia in enforced circumstances. The non-intubated anaesthesia combined with the uniportal approach represents another step forward in the minimally invasive strategies of treatment, and can be reliably offered in the near future to an increasing number of patients. Therefore, educating and training programmes in VATS with non-intubated

  14. The Orthopaedic Trauma Patient Experience: A Qualitative Case Study of Orthopaedic Trauma Patients in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Nathan N.; Mugarura, Rodney; Slobogean, Gerard P.; Bouchard, Maryse

    2014-01-01

    The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with injuries have increased by 34% from 1990 to 2010, making it the 10th leading cause of disability worldwide, with most of the burden affecting low-income countries. Although disability from injuries is often preventable, limited access to essential surgical services contributes to these increasing DALY rates. Similar to many other low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), Uganda is plagued by a growing volume of traumatic injuries. The aim of this study is to explore the orthopaedic trauma patient's experience in accessing medical care in Uganda and what affects the injury might have on the socioeconomic status for the patient and their dependents. We also evaluate the factors that impact an individual's ability to access an appropriate treatment facility for their traumatic injury. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients 18 year of age or older admitted with a fractured tibia or femur at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. As limited literature exists on the socioeconomic impacts of disability from trauma, we designed a descriptive qualitative case study, using thematic analysis, to extract unique information for which little has been previously been documented. This methodology is subject to less bias than other qualitative methods as it imposes fewer preconceptions. Data analysis of the patient interviews (n = 35) produced over one hundred codes, nine sub-themes and three overarching themes. The three overarching categories revealed by the data were: 1) the importance of social supports; 2) the impact of and on economic resources; and 3) navigating the healthcare system. Limited resources to fund the treatment of orthopaedic trauma patients in Uganda leads to reliance of patients on their friends, family, and hospital connections, and a tremendous economic burden that falls on the patient and their dependents. PMID:25360815

  15. [Intubation treatment of acute laryngeal obstruction: a case report].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingguang; Liu, Shibo; Li, Huilian

    2015-11-01

    Acute laryngeal obstruction is one of the most common diseases in Department of ENT, and it can cause suffocation without prompt treatment. Methods by using Nasopharyngofiberoscope guided tracheal intubation treatment of a case of acute laryngeal obstruction patients in a timely manner. This method is well tolerated, less trauma, high success rate, in the shortest time to improve the patient's ventilation, for the next step of the treatment to win the time. PMID:26911075

  16. Emergency nursing management of the multiple trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Kosmos, C A

    1989-01-01

    This case study reinforces key principles in caring for multiply injured trauma victims. The Primary Survey is a tool developed to allow those caring for trauma patients to prioritize injuries. Those injuries identified in the Primary Survey will be the most life threatening. PMID:2601995

  17. A rare complication of tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Shukeri, Wan Fadzlina Wan Muhd; Hassan, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan; Nadarajan, Chandran

    2016-05-01

    Accidental endobronchial intubation is a frequent complication in critically ill patients requiring tracheal intubation (TI). If such complication occurs, it is more often the right main bronchus that is intubated due to anatomical reasons. Left main bronchus (LMB) intubation is rare. Here, we report a case with auscultatory, bronchoscopic, and radiographic evidence of accidental LMB intubation in a pregnant woman with dengue shock syndrome. We highlight this case to increase awareness about this possible-but-rare complication of TI. PMID:27275080

  18. A rare complication of tracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Shukeri, Wan Fadzlina Wan Muhd; Hassan, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan; Nadarajan, Chandran

    2016-01-01

    Accidental endobronchial intubation is a frequent complication in critically ill patients requiring tracheal intubation (TI). If such complication occurs, it is more often the right main bronchus that is intubated due to anatomical reasons. Left main bronchus (LMB) intubation is rare. Here, we report a case with auscultatory, bronchoscopic, and radiographic evidence of accidental LMB intubation in a pregnant woman with dengue shock syndrome. We highlight this case to increase awareness about this possible-but-rare complication of TI. PMID:27275080

  19. McGRATH MAC videolaryngoscope versus Macintosh laryngoscope for orotracheal intubation in intensive care patients: the randomised multicentre MACMAN trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Arthur; Le Thuaut, Aurelie; Boisrame-Helms, Julie; Kamel, Toufik; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Ricard, Jean Damien; Lemiale, Virginie; Champigneulle, Benoit; Reignier, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Critically ill patients with acute respiratory, neurological or cardiovascular failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation are at high risk of difficult intubation and have organ dysfunctions associated with complications of intubation and anaesthesia such as hypotension and hypoxaemia. The complication rate increases with the number of intubation attempts. Videolaryngoscopy improves elective endotracheal intubation. McGRATH MAC is the lightest videolaryngoscope and the most similar to the Macintosh laryngoscope. The primary goal of this trial was to determine whether videolaryngoscopy increased the frequency of successful first-pass intubation in critically ill patients, compared to direct view Macintosh laryngoscopy. Methods and analysis MACMAN is a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled superiority trial. Consecutive patients requiring intubation are randomly allocated to either the McGRATH MAC videolaryngoscope or the Macintosh laryngoscope, with stratification by centre and operator experience. The expected frequency of successful first-pass intubation is 65% in the Macintosh group and 80% in the videolaryngoscope group. With α set at 5%, to achieve 90% power for detecting this difference, 185 patients are needed in each group (370 in all). The primary outcome is the proportion of patients with successful first-pass orotracheal intubation, compared between the two groups using a generalised mixed model to take the stratification factors into account. Ethics and dissemination The study project has been approved by the appropriate ethics committee (CPP Ouest 2, # 2014-A00674-43). Informed consent is not required, as both laryngoscopy methods are considered standard care in France; information is provided before study inclusion. If videolaryngoscopy proves superior to Macintosh laryngoscopy, its use will become standard practice, thereby decreasing first-pass intubation failure rates and, potentially, the frequency of intubation

  20. Thoracotomy for tracheal disruption after traumatic intubation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ryan D

    2010-10-01

    Tracheal dissection is an uncommon complication of endotracheal intubation. A large source of morbidity and mortality in anesthesia is associated with airway issues. Several airway complications can be avoided or minimized by proper technique and vigilance. Emergency thoracotomy surgery is required in patients who suffer lower tracheal trauma. A tracheal tear poses additional challenges to traditional airway management, demanding vigilant planning and collaboration among the entire operative team. This case report details the airway management strategies employed during an emergent thoracotomy for a patient who suffered tracheal perforation during endotracheal intubation. A discussion of airway anatomy, airway considerations, intubation complications, and one-lung ventilation techniques is provided. Airway management techniques for one-lung ventilation are highly variable, requiring an extensive knowledge of equipment, clinical implications, and technical challenges. It is important for clinicians to be skilled in the use of several airway devices and to be prepared for any unexpected situation such as the case being presented. PMID:21067088

  1. Management of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paydar, Shahram; Sabetian, Golnar; Khalili, Hosseinali; Fallahi, Javad; Tahami, Mohammad; Ziaian, Bizhan; Abbasi, Hamid Reza; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Ghahramani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PTE) are known as venous thromboembolism (VTE). DVT occurs when a thrombus (a blood clot) forms in deep veins of the body, usually in the lower extremities. It can cause swelling or leg pain, but sometimes may occur with no symptoms. Awareness of DVT is the best way to prevent the VTE. Patients with trauma are at increased risk of DVT and subsequent PE because of coagulopathy in patients with multiple trauma, DVT prophylaxis is essential but the VTE prophylaxis strategy is controversial for the trauma patients. The risk factors for VTE includes pelvic and lower extremity fractures, and head injury. PMID:27162921

  2. Dexmedetomidine provides optimum conditions during awake fiberoptic intubation in simulated cervical spine injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Pooja; Dixit, Madhu Bala; Dang, Aashish; Gupta, Vibhuti

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: We undertook this study to assess if a small-dose of dexmedetomidine (DEX) for conscious sedation during awake fiberoptic intubation (AFOI) in simulated cervical spine injury (CSI) patients provides optimum conditions and fulfills the need of postintubation neurological examination required in such patients. The aim was to assess the efficacy of DEX on arousability and patient's comfort during AFOI in simulated CSI patients. Material and Methods: In this prospective, randomized double-blind study, 100 American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I-II patients aged between 18 and 65 years scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia underwent AFOI under conscious sedation with DEX. After locally anesthetizing the airway and applying a cervical collar, patients either received DEX 1 μg/kg over 10 min followed by 0.7 μg/kg/h maintenance infusion or normal saline in the same dose and rate during AFOI. Targeted sedation (Ramsay sedation score [RSS] ≥2) during AFOI was maintained with midazolam [MDZ] in both groups. Statistical Analysis was performed using unpaired Student's t-test, Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon-w test. Results: The total number of patients requiring MDZ and the mean dose of MDZ required to achieve targeted sedation (RSS ≥2) was significantly less in DEX group compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001). Similarly, patient satisfaction score, heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure and respiratory parameters were significantly better in DEX group (P < 0.001). Postintubation arousability in the two groups was comparable (P = 0.29). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine provides optimum sedation without compromising airway or hemodynamic instability with better patient tolerance and satisfaction for AFOI. It also preserves patient arousability for the postintubation neurological assessment. PMID:27006542

  3. Use of laryngeal mask airway for non-endotracheal intubated anesthesia for patients with pectus excavatum undergoing thoracoscopic Nuss procedure

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaojun; Mao, Songsong; Cui, Jianxiu; Ma, Jue; Zhang, Guangyan; Zheng, Yong; Zhou, Haiyu; Xie, Liang; Zhang, Dongkun; Shi, Ruiqing

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the safety and feasibility of the use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for non-endotracheal intubated anesthesia for patients with pectus excavatum (PE) undergoing thoracoscopic Nuss procedure. Methods Between July 2015 and December 2015, 30 selected patients with PE were planned to undergo a thoracoscopic Nuss procedure using LMA for non-endotracheal intubated anesthesia in the Guangdong General Hospital. The clinical data were analyzed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of this technique. Results Of the 30 selected patients, two were female, the mean age was 16.04±5.09 years and the average Haller index was 3.37±0.88. A total of 27 cases (90%) succeeded at the first attempt, one patient required conversion to an endotracheal tube (ETT) because of continuous air leak. The peripheral O2 saturation (SpO2), end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) values, heart rate (HR), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) remained stable throughout the procedure in all cases. All of the 30 patients were successfully corrected without requiring conversion to an open surgery. Two patients experienced postoperative nausea and one reported a sore throat. Neither gastro-esophageal reflux nor in-hospital mortality occurred. Conclusions The use of LMA for non-endotracheal intubated anesthesia for selected patients with PE undergoing thoracoscopic Nuss procedure is clinically safe and technically feasible. PMID:27621860

  4. Air-Q intubating laryngeal airway: A study of the second generation supraglottic airway device

    PubMed Central

    Attarde, Viren Bhaskar; Kotekar, Nalini; Shetty, Sarika M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Air-Q intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILA) is used as a supraglottic airway device and as a conduit for endotracheal intubation. This study aims to assess the efficacy of the Air-Q ILA regarding ease of insertion, adequacy of ventilation, rate of successful intubation, haemodynamic response and airway morbidity. Methods: Sixty patients presenting for elective surgery at our Medical College Hospital were selected. Following adequate premedication, baseline vital parameters, pulse rate and blood pressure were recorded. Air-Q size 3.5 for patients 50-70 kg and size 4.5 for 70-100 kg was selected. After achieving adequate intubating conditions, Air-Q ILA was introduced. Confirming adequate ventilation, appropriate sized endotracheal tube was advanced through the Air-Q blindly to intubate the trachea. Placement of the endotracheal tube in trachea was confirmed. Results: Air-Q ILA was successfully inserted in 88.3% of patients in first attempt and 11.7% patients in second attempt. Ventilation was adequate in 100% of patients. Intubation was successful in 76.7% of patients with Air-Q ILA. 23.3% of patients were intubated by direct laryngoscopy following failure with two attempts using Air-Q ILA. Post-intubation the change in heart rate was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). 10% of patients were noted to have a sore throat and 5% of patients had mild airway trauma. Conclusion: Air-Q ILA is a reliable device as a supraglottic airway ensuring adequate ventilation as well as a conduit for endotracheal intubation. It benefits the patient by avoiding the stress of direct laryngoscopy and is also superior alternative device for use in a difficult airway. PMID:27212722

  5. Can ultrasound help to manage patients with scrotal trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Adlan, T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the scrotum are uncommon but, when they do occur, frequently lead to serious complications. Early complications include testicular infarction, necrosis and abscess formation; in the longer-term trauma may result in testicular atrophy and subfertility. Early surgical intervention in patients with testicular rupture can significantly improve the clinical outcome and reduce the need for delayed orchidectomy. However, clinical examination of the scrotum following trauma is difficult and frequently inaccurate; this may result in incorrect triage of patients for surgical exploration. Scrotal ultrasound can reliably assess scrotal injuries and diagnose testicular rupture with a high level of accuracy. Additionally, ultrasound can provide important information regarding testicular perfusion, which can further inform decisions on surgical management. This article reviews the sonographic findings that may be encountered in patients with scrotal trauma, with an emphasis on blunt trauma. It describes the pivotal role that ultrasound can play in the accurate triage of these patients to surgical or conservative management.

  6. Estimating alcohol involvement in trauma patients: search for a surrogate.

    PubMed

    Treno, A J; Cooper, K; Roeper, P

    1994-12-01

    This study explores the potential for the development of a surrogate for alcohol-involved traumatic injury. It presents a bivariate probit analysis that simultaneously models likelihoods of patients being tested for blood alcohol content (BAC) and having positive BACs given testing using 17,356 adult trauma cases selected from the California Regional Trauma Registry. It concludes that patient and injury characteristics predict both testing and BAC, and that a weighting scheme may be profitably used to determine changes in levels of alcohol-involved trauma in populations over time in the absence of empirical measurement of BAC. PMID:7695022

  7. RETROGRADE INTUBATION VIA LARYNGEAL MASK AIRWAY IN A PAEDIATRIC PATIENT WITH FALLOT-TYPE VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT AND CLEFT PALATE DEFORMITY.

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Taner; Erbatur, Serkan

    2016-02-01

    We report the case ofa pediatric patient with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and cleft palate deformity with difficult intubation in which a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was used and converted into an endotracheal tube through retrograde intubation. The patient with TOF was scheduled for repair of the congenital bilateral cleft lip and palate. Inhalational induction with 4% sevoflurane was started. Conventional tracheal intubation was impossible because the patient had a difficult airway, and the procedure could cause severe cyanosis and respiratory distress. An LMA was inserted to maintain ventilation and anesthesia and to facilitate intubation. Retrograde intubation and a catheter mount were used to convert the LMA into a conventional endotracheal tube without difficulty. Airway management for patients with TOF and cleft palate deformity is not clear. Retrograde intubation permits replacing an LMA with an endotracheal tube. This method enables maintaining the airway until the LMA is exchanged with an endotracheal tube. This technique seems useful to facilitate difficult airway intubation in pediatric patients with TOF and cleft palate deformity. PMID:27382820

  8. Landiolol reduces hemodynamic responses to bronchoscopy-assisted suctioning in intubated ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Tochikubo, Junpei; Adachi, Yushi U; Ejima, Tadashi; Numaguchi, Atsushi; Matsuda, Naoyuki; Sato, Shigehito; Shiiya, Norihiko

    2014-01-01

    Landiolol is an ultra-short-acting β1-selective antagonist developed in Japan that was recently approved for the treatment of tachycardia in intensive care units (ICUs). This study investigated the protective effects of landiolol against the cardiovascular responses during bronchoscopic endotracheal suctioning. This study enrolled 15 patients requiring orotracheal intubation in an ICU. All of the patients required endotracheal suctioning using fiber bronchoscopy while sedated at a Ramsay Scale of 2-3. All subsequent suctioning procedures were assigned randomly to three groups using a cross-over design: saline as a placebo (group C) or 20 or 40 μg kg(-1) min(-1) landiolol, respectively (groups L20 and L40). The infusion was started 3 min before bronchoscopy and continued for 6 min. The central venous pressure (CVP) heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Fourteen patients completed the investigation, and 30 procedures (n = 10/group) were analyzed. The suctioning significantly increased the CVP, HR, and BP in groups C and L20, although the changes in BP were of shorter duration in group L20. No significant increase in the hemodynamic parameters was observed in group L40. The administration of landiolol 40 μg kg(-1) min(-1) prevented a harmful hyperdynamic circulatory response to bronchoscopic endotracheal suctioning, without obvious decreases in HR or BP after the intervention. PMID:25520823

  9. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock. PMID:26495357

  10. Video consultation for trauma and emergency surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bellal; Hadeed, George; Sadoun, Moutamn; Rhee, Peter M; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2012-01-01

    The saying goes that a picture is worth a thousand words, but what then is the value of video? For the care of trauma and emergency surgical patients, the use of video consultation between medical providers may be worth its weight in gold. Telemedicine has become an important tool in reducing the disparity among the haves and the have not's, in this case facilities with a trauma service and those without. This article presents the use of live video for trauma consultations between the only level 1 trauma center in Southern Arizona and several smaller rural hospitals. We also expand on what we believe the future and direction of telesurgery in the fields of critical care and trauma surgery. PMID:22948367

  11. Prehospital care for multiple trauma patients in Germany.

    PubMed

    Maegele, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For the German speaking countries, Tscherne's definition of "polytrauma" which represents an injury of at least two body regions with one or a combination being life-threatening is still valid. The timely and adequate management including quick referral of the trauma patient into a designated trauma center may limit secondary injury and may thus improve outcomes already during the prehospital phase of care. The professional treatment of multiple injured trauma patients begins at the scene in the context of a well structured prehospital emergency medical system. The "Primary Survey" is performed by the emergency physician at the scene according to the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS)-concept. The overall aim is to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening conditions even in the absence of patient history and diagnosis ("treat-first-what-kills-first"). If no immediate treatment is necessary, a "Secondary Sur- vey" follows with careful and structured body examination and detailed assessment of the trauma mechanism. Massive and life-threatening states of hemorrhage should be addressed immediately even disregarding the ABCDE-scheme. Critical trauma patients should be referred without any delay ("work and go")toTR-DGU® certified trauma centers of the local trauma networks. Due to the difficult pre- hospital environment the number of quality studies in the field is low and, as consequence, the level of evidence for most recommendations is also low. Much information has been obtained from different care systems and the interchangeability of results is limited. The present article provides a synopsis of rec- ommendations for early prehospital care for the severely injured based upon the 2011 updated multi- disciplinary S3-Guideline "Polytrauma/Schwerstverletzten Behandlung", the most recently updated European Trauma guideline and the current PHTLS-algorithms including grades of recommendation whenever possible. PMID:26643236

  12. Airway Pepsin Levels in Otherwise Healthy Surgical Patients Receiving General Anesthesia With Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, J. Kyle; Kor, Daryl J.; Kashyap, Rahul; Gajic, Ognjen; Festic, Emir; He, Zhaoping

    2013-01-01

    Background: Airway pepsin has been increasingly used as a potentially sensitive and quantifiable biomarker for gastric-to-pulmonary aspiration, despite lack of validation in normal control subjects. This study attempts to define normal levels of airway pepsin in adults and distinguish between pepsin A (exclusive to stomach) and pepsin C (which can be expressed by pneumocytes). Methods: We performed a prospective study of 51 otherwise healthy adult patients undergoing elective extremity orthopedic surgery at a single tertiary-care academic medical center. Lower airway samples were obtained immediately following endotracheal intubation and just prior to extubation. Total pepsin and pepsin A concentrations were directly measured by an enzymatic activity assay, and pepsin C was subsequently derived. Pepsinogen/pepsin C was confirmed by Western blot analyses. Baseline characteristics were secondarily compared. Results: In all, 11 (22%; 95% CI = 9.9%-33%) had detectable airway pepsin concentrations. All 11 positive specimens had pepsin C, without any detectable pepsin A. Pepsinogen/pepsin C was confirmed by Western blot analyses. In a multivariate logistic regression, men were more likely to have airway pepsin (OR, 12.71, P = .029). Conclusions: Enzymatically active pepsin C, but not the gastric-specific pepsin A, is frequently detected in the lower airways of patients who otherwise have no risk for aspiration. This suggests that nonspecific pepsin assays should be used and interpreted with caution as a biomarker of gastropulmonary aspiration, as pepsinogen C potentially expressed from pneumocytes may be detected in airway samples. PMID:23117366

  13. Beneficial effect of enhanced macrophage function in the trauma patient.

    PubMed Central

    Browder, W; Williams, D; Pretus, H; Olivero, G; Enrichens, F; Mao, P; Franchello, A

    1990-01-01

    Host immunosuppression after trauma contributes to septic morbidity. The macrophage is a key element in the host immune response. This study evaluated glucan, a macrophage stimulant, in a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of 38 trauma patients undergoing surgery. Glucan (21 patients), 50 mg/m2, or placebo (17 patients) was given intravenously daily for 7 days. Delayed hypersensitivity skin testing was performed on days 1 and 7 after trauma. Serum interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were assayed after trauma. While the total mortality rate was significantly less in the glucan group (0% versus 29%) (p less than 0.05), the mortality rate from sepsis was not statistically different (0% versus 17.6%). Glucan therapy significantly decreased septic morbidity (9.5% versus 49%; p less than 0.05). Serum IL-1 had a greater increase in glucan patients on day 3 after trauma (143.4 +/- 19.3% versus 78.6 +/- 11.7%; p less than 0.05), but there was no difference thereafter. Serum TNF did not vary between groups. Early increase in IL-1 correlated with subsequent skin test conversion to positive. Neither serum IL-1 nor TNF was a reliable indicator of future sepsis. Further clinical trials are indicated to evaluate biologic response modifiers that activate macrophages in the trauma patient. PMID:2111126

  14. Chinese Head Trauma Data Bank: Effect of Hyperthermia on the Outcome of Acute Head Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hyperthermia may accentuate the detrimental consequences of brain injury and worsen the outcome of patients with acute head trauma, especially severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We explored the effect of different magnitudes and durations of hyperthermia in the first 3 days after injury on the outcome of 7145 patients with acute head trauma, including 1626 with severe TBI. The differences in mortality and unfavorable outcome between the normothermia group, mild fever group, moderate fever group, and high fever group were statistically significant (p<0.001). The mortality and unfavorable outcome of severe TBI patients in the groups also differed significantly (p<0.001). The mortality and unfavorable outcome of patients with 1 day, 2 days, and 3 days of high fever were significantly increased (p<0.01). Our data strongly indicate that both degree and duration of early post-trauma hyperthermia are closely correlated with the outcome of acute TBI patients, especially severely injured ones, which indicates that hyperthermia may play a detrimental role in the delayed mechanisms of damage after acute TBI. Prevention of early hyperthermia after acute head trauma is therefore essential to the management of TBI patients. PMID:22026424

  15. Airtraq, LMA CTrach and Macintosh Laryngoscopes in Tracheal Intubation Training: A Randomized Comparative Manikin Study

    PubMed Central

    Saraçoğlu, Ayten; Dal, Didem; Baygın, Ömer; Göğüş, Fevzi Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective Training students on simulators before allowing their direct contact with patients is well accepted. There is no clinical or manikin-based simulation study in the literature comparing tracheal intubation with Airtraq, laryngeal mask airway (LMA) CTrach and Macintosh laryngoscopes performed by medical students having no prior intubation experience. Methods After obtaining written informed consents, 123 participants were included in the study. The participants were asked to intubate the manikin five times with each device randomly. After all the participants had completed their fifth intubations, the measurements were performed. The primary outcome variables were the first-attempt success rate and the time for a successful intubation, while the secondary outcome variables were to determine the scores of dental trauma, the difficulty visual analogue scale and the optimization manoeuvres. Results The LMA CTrach group revealed a significantly higher number of intubation attempts. The mean time for a successful intubation was the longest in the LMA CTrach group (17.66±8.22 s, p<0.05). Students defined the Airtraq as the easiest to use and the Macintosh laryngoscope as the most difficult device to use and learn. Dental trauma severity was significantly lower in the Airtraq group than in the other groups (p<0.05), and it was found to be 0 in 81.1% in the Airtraq group. The head extension optimization manoeuvre rate was significantly higher with the Macintosh laryngoscope than with the Airtraq laryngoscope (p<0.05). Conclusion This study, in which different types of laryngoscopes were compared, revealed that the Airtraq laryngoscope has advantages, such as shorter intubation duration, less additional optimization manoeuvres, less dental trauma intensity and is easier to learn compared with the LMA CTrach and Macintosh laryngoscopes. PMID:27366562

  16. Perioperative management of pediatric trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Ivashkov, Yulia; Bhananker, Sanjay M

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric trauma presents significant challenges to the anesthesia provider. This review describes the current trends in perioperative anesthetic management, including airway management, choice of anesthesia agents, and fluid administration. The review is based on the PubMed search of literature on perioperative care of severely injured children. PMID:23181208

  17. [Spectrum of plasma lipoproteids in patients with severe mechanical trauma].

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, L N; Kravchenko-Berezhnaia, N R; Bessekeev, A A; Molchanova, L V

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the plasma lipoprotein spectrum were studied in patients with severe mechanical trauma. These changes were shown to be associated with the severity of injury and with the age of patients. The steady-state reduction in the plasma concentrations of cholesterol in patients aged under 55 years who have a serious mechanical trauma may be considered to be a poor predictor. In patients above 55 years, the severity of their condition may be judged from the changes in the concentration of high density lipoproteins: the positive changes in this parameter are indicative of a good clinical outcome. PMID:12611151

  18. Benefits and risks of manual hyperinflation in intubated and mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Manual hyperinflation (MH), a frequently applied maneuver in critically ill intubated and mechanically ventilated patients, is suggested to mimic a cough so that airway secretions are mobilized toward the larger airways, where they can easily be removed. As such, MH could prevent plugging of the airways. Methods We performed a search in the databases of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from January 1990 to April 2012. We systematically reviewed the literature on evidence for postulated benefits and risks of MH in critically ill intubated and mechanically ventilated patients. Results The search identified 50 articles, of which 19 were considered relevant. We included 13 interventional studies and six observational studies. The number of studies evaluating physiological effects of MH is limited. Trials differed too much to permit meta-analysis. It is uncertain whether MH was applied similarly in the retrieved studies. Finally, most studies are underpowered to show clinical benefit of MH. Use of MH is associated with short-term improvements in lung compliance, oxygenation, and secretion clearance, without changes in outcomes. MH has been reported to be associated with short-term and probably clinically insignificant side effects, including decreases in cardiac output, alterations of heart rates, and increased central venous pressures. Conclusions Studies have failed to show that MH benefits critically ill intubated and mechanically ventilated patients. MH is infrequently associated with short-term side effects. PMID:22863373

  19. Update on prehospital emergency care of severe trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Tazarourte, K; Cesaréo, E; Sapir, D; Atchabahian, A; Tourtier, J-P; Briole, N; Vigué, B

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of severe trauma patients is determined by the ability of a healthcare system to provide high intensity therapeutic treatment on the field and to transport patients as quickly as possible to the structure best suited to their condition. Direct admission to a specialized center ("trauma center") reduces the mortality of the most severe trauma at 30 days and one year. Triage in a non-specialized hospital is a major risk of loss of chance and should be avoided whenever possible. Medical dispatching plays a major role in determining patient care. The establishment of a hospital care network is an important issue that is not formalized enough in France. The initial triage of severe trauma patients must be improved to avoid taking patients to hospitals that are not equipped to take care of them. For this purpose, the MGAP score can predict severity and help decide where to transport the patient. However, it does not help predict the need for urgent resuscitation procedures. Hemodynamic management is central to the care of hemorrhagic shock and severe head trauma. Transport helicopter with a physician on board has an important role to allow direct admission to a specialized center in geographical areas that are difficult to access. PMID:23916517

  20. Experience in Prehospital Endotracheal Intubation Significantly Influences Mortality of Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bossers, Sebastiaan M.; Schwarte, Lothar A.; Loer, Stephan A.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Boer, Christa; Schober, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at high risk for airway obstruction and hypoxia at the accident scene, and routine prehospital endotracheal intubation has been widely advocated. However, the effects on outcome are unclear. We therefore aim to determine effects of prehospital intubation on mortality and hypothesize that such effects may depend on the emergency medical service providers’ skill and experience in performing this intervention. Methods and Findings PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were searched without restrictions up to July 2015. Studies comparing effects of prehospital intubation versus non-invasive airway management on mortality in non-paediatric patients with severe TBI were selected for the systematic review. Results were pooled across a subset of studies that met predefined quality criteria. Random effects meta-analysis, stratified by experience, was used to obtain pooled estimates of the effect of prehospital intubation on mortality. Meta-regression was used to formally assess differences between experience groups. Mortality was the main outcome measure, and odds ratios refer to the odds of mortality in patients undergoing prehospital intubation versus odds of mortality in patients who are not intubated in the field. The study was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) with number CRD42014015506. The search provided 733 studies, of which 6 studies including data from 4772 patients met inclusion and quality criteria for the meta-analysis. Prehospital intubation by providers with limited experience was associated with an approximately twofold increase in the odds of mortality (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.38, p<0.001). In contrast, there was no evidence for higher mortality in patients who were intubated by providers with extended level of training (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.08, p = 0.126). Meta-regression confirmed that experience is a significant predictor of

  1. Redesigning the response to patients with trauma.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Carla; Seggie, Julie; Murphy, Margaret

    2012-06-01

    In 2008, a multidisciplinary team of nurses, doctors, clerical staff, a social worker and paramedic at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, began a project to redesign the composition and practice of the hospital's trauma team. This article describes the process involved and explains why staff collaboration, the involvement of stakeholders and the sponsorship of the hospital executive team were crucial to the success of the project. These principles can be transferred to other hospitals. PMID:22876507

  2. [Prophylactic use of icatibant before tracheal intubation of a patient with hereditary angioedema type III. (A literature review of perioperative management of patients with hereditary angioedema type III)].

    PubMed

    Iturri Clavero, F; González Uriarte, A; Tamayo Medel, G; Gamboa Setién, P M

    2014-01-01

    Type III hereditary angioedema is a rare familial disorder that has recently been described as a separate condition. Triggers for episodes of angioedema include surgery, dental procedures, and tracheal intubation maneuvers. Since episodes affecting the upper airway are potentially life-threatening, prophylactic treatment is recommended in these situations. The use of icatibant (Firazyr(®)), for prevention of angioedema prior to tracheal intubation, is reported in a patient with type iii hereditary angioedema. A literature review on the anesthetic management of this condition was conducted. PMID:24931134

  3. Randomised controlled trial comparing the Ambu® aScope™2 with a conventional fibreoptic bronchoscope in orotracheal intubation of anaesthetised adult patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, J K; Ng, I; Ang, J P; Koh, S M; Lee, K; Mezzavia, P; Morris, J; Loh, F; Segal, R

    2015-07-01

    Fibreoptic intubation remains an essential skill for anaesthetists to master. In addition to the reusable fibrescope, an alternative disposable videoscope is available (aScope(™)2, Ambu®, Ballerup, Denmark). A total of 60 anaesthetised adult patients were randomised to either having orotracheal intubation using the aScope 2 or a Karl Storz fibrescope. Intubations were performed by experienced operators who were familiar with both devices. The primary outcome was the Global Rating Scale score. Secondary outcomes included intubation success, number of intubation attempts and intubation time. Other subjective outcomes including practicality, useability and image quality were also recorded. There was no significant difference in the Global Rating Scale score, intubation success orintubation time between the aScope 2 or Karl Storz fibrescope. Global Rating Scale scores were three and two in the aScope 2 and Karl Storz groups respectively (P=0.14). All of the other subjective outcomes were similar between the two groups, except that operators found it easier to use the aScope 2 compared to the fibrescope. There was no significant difference in clinical performance between the aScope 2 and the Karl Storz fibreoptic bronchoscope. The aScope's practicality, disposability and recently improved version (aScope(™)3) potentially make it an acceptable alternative to the reusable fibrescope. PMID:26099760

  4. Dexmedetomidine vs. haloperidol in delirious, agitated, intubated patients: a randomised open-label trial

    PubMed Central

    Reade, Michael C; O'Sullivan, Kim; Bates, Samantha; Goldsmith, Donna; Ainslie, William RSTJ; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Agitated delirium is common in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, and is often treated with haloperidol despite concerns about safety and efficacy. Use of conventional sedatives to control agitation can preclude extubation. Dexmedetomidine, a novel sedative and anxiolytic agent, may have particular utility in these patients. We sought to compare the efficacy of haloperidol and dexmedetomidine in facilitating extubation. Methods We conducted a randomised, open-label, parallel-groups pilot trial in the medical and surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. Twenty patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in whom extubation was not possible solely because of agitated delirium were randomised to receive an infusion of either haloperidol 0.5 to 2 mg/hour or dexmedetomidine 0.2 to 0.7 μg/kg/hr, with or without loading doses of 2.5 mg haloperidol or 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, according to clinician preference. Results Dexmedetomidine significantly shortened median time to extubation from 42.5 (IQR 23.2 to 117.8) to 19.9 (IQR 7.3 to 24) hours (P = 0.016). Dexmedetomidine significantly decreased ICU length of stay, from 6.5 (IQR 4 to 9) to 1.5 (IQR 1 to 3) days (P = 0.004) after study drug commencement. Of patients who required ongoing propofol sedation, the proportion of time propofol was required was halved in those who received dexmedetomidine (79.5% (95% CI 61.8 to 97.2%) vs. 41.2% (95% CI 0 to 88.1%) of the time intubated; P = 0.05). No patients were reintubated; three receiving haloperidol could not be successfully extubated and underwent tracheostomy. One patient prematurely discontinued haloperidol due to QTc interval prolongation. Conclusions In this preliminary pilot study, we found dexmedetomidine a promising agent for the treatment of ICU-associated delirious agitation, and we suggest this warrants further testing in a definitive double-blind multi-centre trial. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00505804 PMID:19454032

  5. Embolization of Isolated Lumbar Artery Injuries in Trauma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sofocleous, Constantinos T. Hinrichs, Clay R.; Hubbi, Basil; Doddakashi, Satish; Bahramipour, Philip; Schubert, Johanna

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the angiographic findings and results of embolotherapy in the management of lumbar artery trauma. Methods. All patients with lumbar artery injury who underwent angiography and percutaneous embolization in a state trauma center within a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Radiological information and procedural reports were reviewed to assess immediate angiographic findings and embolization results. Long-term clinical outcome was obtained by communication with the trauma physicians as well as with chart review. Results. In a 10-year period, 255 trauma patients underwent abdominal aortography. Eleven of these patients (three women and eight men) suffered a lumbar artery injury. Angiography demonstrated active extravasation (in nine) and/or pseudoaneurysm (in four). Successful selective embolization of abnormal vessel(s) was performed in all patients. Coils were used in six patients, particles in one and gelfoam in five patients. Complications included one retroperitoneal abscess, which was treated successfully. One patient returned for embolization of an adjacent lumbar artery due to late pseudoaneurysm formation. Conclusions. In hemodynamically stable patients, selective embolization is a safe and effective method for immediate control of active extravasation, as well as to prevent future hemorrhage from an injured lumbar artery.

  6. Prediction of Chronic Subdural Hematoma in Minor Head Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Beom; Song, Shi-Hun; Youm, Jin-Young; Koh, Hyeon-Song; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Kwon, Hyon-Jo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is relatively common in neurosurgical field. However not all patients develop CSDH after minor head trauma. In this study, we evaluate the risk factors of post-traumatic CSDH. Methods Two-hundred and seventy-seven patients were enrolled and analyzed in this study from January 2012 to December 2013. Of those, 20 participants had minor head trauma developed CSDH afterward. We also included 257 patients with minor head trauma who did not develop CSDH during the same follow-up period as the control group. We investigated the risk factors related to the development of CSDH after minor head trauma. Results Old age (p=0.014), preexisting diabetes mellitus (p=0.010), hypertension (p=0.026), history of cerebral infarction (p=0.035), antiplatelet agents (p=0.000), acute subdural hematoma in the convexity (p=0.000), encephalomalacia (p=0.029), and long distance between skull and brain parenchyma (p=0.000) were significantly correlated with the development of CSDH after trauma. Multivariate analysis revealed that only the maximum distance between the skull and the cerebral parenchyma was the independent risk factor for the occurrence of CSDH (hazard ratio 2.55, p=0.000). Conclusion We should consider the possibility of developing CSDH in the post-traumatic patients with the identified risk factors. PMID:27169043

  7. Torso Computed Tomography Can Be Bypassed after Thorough Trauma Bay Examination of Patients Who Fall from Standing.

    PubMed

    Lavingia, Kedar S; Collins, Jay N; Soult, Michael C; Terzian, W Helman; Weireter, Leonard J; Britt, L D

    2015-08-01

    Reliance on CT imaging in the evaluation of low-impact blunt trauma is a major source of radiation exposure, cost, and resource utilization. This study sought to determine if torso (chest and abdomen) CT could be avoided in patients with ground level falls. This was a retrospective chart review of patients admitted to the trauma service between January 2013 and April 2014. The mechanism of injury was ground level fall or fall from sitting. Patient demographics, physical examination (PE) findings, imaging results, length of stay, and complications were reviewed. History and physical data were based on chief resident or attending documentation. A significant thoracic injury was defined as a hemothorax, a pneumothorax, greater than three rib fractures, or aortic injury. A significant abdominal injury was defined as a solid organ injury, an intra-abdominal hematoma, a hollow viscus injury, aortic injury, or a urologic injury. The trauma service evaluated 156 patients. Nine patients were excluded for intubation or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) < 13. Of the 147 remaining, mean age was 69 years, mean GCS was 14.8. A chest CT was obtained in 111 (76%). Eight (7%) had a significant thoracic injury. All patients with significant thoracic injury had positive examination findings. No patient with a normal PE was found to have a significant thoracic injury (negative predictive value of 100%). An abdominal CT was obtained in 86 (59%). Five (6%) were found to have a significant abdominal injury. All patients who had a significant radiographic injury had an abnormal PE (negative predictive value of 100%). In conclusion, thorough history and physical in the trauma bay allow the clinician to obtain selective torso CT imaging. Routine torso CT warrants re-evaluation in low-impact injury mechanisms as there appears to be little benefit compared with the resource utilization and expense. PMID:26215242

  8. Acute ethanol intoxication and the trauma patient: hemodynamic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Bilello, John; McCray, Victor; Davis, James; Jackson, Lascienya; Danos, Leigh Ann

    2011-09-01

    Many trauma patients are acutely intoxicated with alcohol. Animal studies have demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication inhibits the normal release of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and vasopressin in response to acute hemorrhage. Ethanol also increases nitric oxide release and inhibits antidiuretic hormone secretion. This article studies the effects of alcohol intoxication (measured by blood alcohol level, BAL) on the presentation and resuscitation of trauma patients with blunt hepatic injuries. A retrospective registry and chart review was conducted of all patients who presented with blunt liver injuries at an ACS-verified, level I trauma center. Data collected included admission BAL, systolic blood pressure, hematocrit, International Normalized Ratio (INR), liver injury grade, Injury Severity Score (ISS), intravenous fluid and blood product requirements, base deficit, and mortality. From September 2002 to May 2008, 723 patients were admitted with blunt hepatic injuries. Admission BAL was obtained in 569 patients, with 149 having levels >0.08%. Intoxicated patients were more likely to be hypotensive on admission (p = 0.01) despite a lower liver injury grade and no significant difference in ISS. There was no significant difference in the percent of intoxicated patients requiring blood transfusion. However, when blood was given, intoxicated patients required significantly more units of packed red blood cells (PRBC) than their nonintoxicated counterparts (p = 0.01). Intoxicated patients also required more intravenous fluid during their resuscitation (p = 0.002). Alcohol intoxication may impair the ability of blunt trauma patients to compensate for acute blood loss, making them more likely to be hypotensive on admission and increasing their PRBC and intravenous fluid requirements. All trauma patients should have BAL drawn upon admission and their resuscitation should be performed with an understanding of the physiologic alterations associated with acute alcohol

  9. Use of extraglottic airways in patients undergoing ambulatory laparoscopic surgery without the need for tracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Suhitharan, T.; Teoh, Wendy H.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Second generation extraglottic airway devices with gastric access and separate breathing channels have ushered in a new era where their use is increasingly prevalent in surgical patients who would have been traditionally intubated for general anesthesia. New innovations like the i-gel, which is constructed of a thermoplastic elastomer, provide an airtight seal around patient's perilaryngeal anatomy without the inflatable cuff mechanism found in the laryngeal mask airway supreme (LMAS). Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the LMAS with the i-gel in 70 anesthetized paralyzed patients undergoing laparoscopic female sterilization. Our primary outcome measure was the oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP). We studied secondary outcomes of successful first attempt insertion rates, time and ease of the airway and gastric tube insertion, leak fractions and pharyngeal morbidity. Results: We found no difference in the OLP between LMAS and i-gel, 25.9 (4.2) versus 24.4 (4.3) s, P=0.153. Both devices had similar first attempt insertion rates (LMAS 94% vs. i-gel 91%) with similar ease and comparable times to achieve an effective airway, LMAS 14.7 (2.7) versus i-gel 16.5 (9.6) s, P=0.306, although gastric tube insertion was easier and faster for the LMAS, 7.9 (1.9) versus i-gel 14.8 (7.7) s, P<0.005. Intraoperatively, there was a significantly greater leak fraction with the i-gel of 0.06 (0.03) versus 0.04 (0.02) with the LMAS, P=0.013. Three patients (8.6%) with LMAS had mild sore throat; one patient (2.9%) had mucosal injury. No complications were documented in the i-gel group. Conclusions: Both these extraglottic airway devices offer similar OLPs, high insertion success rates at the first attempt with similar ease and insertion times (albeit longer gastric tube insertion with i-gel). Both provided effective ventilation despite a higher leak fraction with i-gel that was clinically inconsequential. PMID:24348297

  10. Altered lower extremity fracture characteristics in obese pediatric trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Paul A.; Backstrom, Ian; Creek, Aaron; Sawyer, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there are differences in fracture patterns and femur fracture treatment choices in obese vs. non-obese pediatric trauma patients. Design Prognostic study, retrospective chart review. Setting Two level I pediatric trauma centers. Patients The trauma registries of two pediatric hospitals were queried for patients with lower extremity long bone fractures resulting from blunt trauma. 2858 alerts were examined and 397 patients had lower extremity fractures. 331 patients with a total of 394 femur or tibia fractures met inclusion criteria, and 70 patients (21%) were obese. Main Outcome Measurements Weight for age >95th percentile was defined as obese. Radiographs were reviewed and fractures were classified according the OTA/AO pediatric fracture classification system. Fracture patterns (OTA subsegment), severity, and choice of intervention for femur fractures were primary outcomes. Results Overall, obese patients were twice as likely (RR=2.20, 95% CI 1.25–3.89) to have fractures involving the physis. Physeal fracture risk was greater for femur fractures (RR=3.25, 95% CI 1.35–7.78) than tibia fractures (RR=1.58, 95% CI 0.76–3.26). Severity did not differ between groups. Obese patients with femur fractures were more likely to be treated with locked nails. Conclusion Obese pediatric trauma patients are more likely to sustain fractures involving the physis than non-obese patients. This could be related to intrinsic changes to the physis related to obesity, or altered biomechanical forces. This is consistent with the observed relationships between obesity and other conditions affecting the physis including Blount’s and slipped capital femoral epiphysis. PMID:24740109

  11. Potential Risk Factors of Death in Multiple Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jelodar, Sina; Jafari, Peyman; Yadollahi, Mahnaz; Sabetian Jahromi, Golnar; Khalili, Hoseynali; Abbasi, Hamidreza; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Paydar, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: rauma has been recognized as one of the leading causes of death in many countries for decades. Reduction in mortality and morbidity rate of trauma cases is one of the most important attitudes in this field. Evaluation of different risk factors have been considered as the main goal of some studies. The purpose of this study was determining potential risk factors of death in trauma patients. Method: In a retrograde study, data of 740 patients admitted during three years (2009-2011) were studied. Demographic data (sex and age), clinical factors (blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, Glasgow coma scale (GCS)), trauma characteristics (location, type of injury, etc.), as well as outcome of patients were evaluated. Data analyses was done using SPSS 18.0. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis was used for recognition of independent predictive factors of death in multiple trauma patients. Results: Of those admitted, majority of patients were male (81.4%), 68% between 18 to 60 years, and 11.2% of them died during the course of treatment. Age; type of trauma; abnormal respiration rate, pulse rate, blood pressure; total GCS ≤8; abnormal pupil size; and head and neck; vertebral, and extremities fractures were obtained as significant predictive factor of death. GCS≤8, head and neck fracture, and abnormal pulse rate were independent death predictors. Conclusion: We identified GCS≤8, head and neck fracture, and abnormal pulse rate as predictive factors of mortality after trauma, which remained independent in the presence of all other factors and potentially treatable. PMID:26495375

  12. Safety and efficacy of nasogastric intubation for gastrointestinal bleeding after myocardial infarction: an analysis of 125 patients at two tertiary cardiac referral hospitals.

    PubMed

    Cappell, Mitchell S

    2005-11-01

    Our purpose was to analyze risks versus benefits of nasogastric (NG) intubation for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding performed soon after myocardial infarction (MI). While NG intubation and aspiration is relatively safe, clinically beneficial, and routinely performed in the general population for recent GI bleeding, its safety after MI is unstudied and unknown. In addition to the usual complications of NG tubes, patients status post-MI may be particularly susceptible to myocardial ischemia or cardiac arrhythmias from anxiety or discomfort during intubation. We studied NG intubation within 30 days of MI in 125 patients at two hospitals from 1986 through 2001. Indications for NG intubation included melena in 55 patients; fecal occult blood with an acute hematocrit decline, severe anemia, or sudden hypotension in 37; hematemesis in 18; bright red blood per rectum in 8; and dark red blood per rectum in 7. The intubation was performed on average 5.3 +/- 7.2 (SD) days after MI. NG aspiration revealed bright red blood in 38 patients, "coffee grounds"-appearing blood in 45, and clear (or bilious) fluid in 42. Among 114 of the patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), EGD revealed the cause of bleeding in 79 (95%) of 83 patients with a grossly bloody NG aspirate versus 12 (39%) of 31 patients with a clear aspirate (P < 0.0001, OR = 31.3, OR CI = 9.4-103.1). Among 85 patients undergoing EGD within 16 hr of NG intubation, stigmata of recent hemorrhage were present in 28 (42%) of 66 with a bloody NG aspirate versus 3 (16%) of 19 with a clear aspirate (P = 0.06, OR = 3.93). Among 35 patients undergoing lower GI endoscopy, lower endoscopy revealed the cause of bleeding in 14 (56%) of 25 patients with a clear NG aspirate versus 1 (10%) of 10 patients with a grossly bloody aspirate (P < 0.04, OR = 11.46, OR CI = 1.55-78.3). The two NG tube complications (epistaxis during intubation and gastric erosions from NG suctioning) were neither cardiac nor major (requiring blood

  13. How we provide thawed plasma for trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, James R; Zielinski, Martin D; Berns, Kathleen S; Badjie, Karafa S; Tauscher, Craig D; Hammel, Scott A; Zietlow, Scott P; Jenkins, Donald

    2015-08-01

    Almost 50% of trauma-related fatalities within the first 24 hours of injury are related to hemorrhage. Improved survival in severely injured patients has been demonstrated when massive transfusion protocols are rapidly invoked as part of a therapeutic approach known as damage control resuscitation (DCR). DCR incorporates the early use of plasma to prevent or correct trauma-induced coagulopathy. DCR often requires the transfusion of plasma before determination of the recipient's ABO group. Historically, group AB plasma has been considered the "universal donor" plasma product. At our facility, the number of AB plasma products produced on an annual basis was found to be inadequate to support the trauma service's DCR program. A joint decision was made by the transfusion medicine and trauma services to provide group A thawed plasma (TP) for in-hospital and prehospital DCR protocols. A description of the implementation of group A TP into the DCR program is provided as well as outcome data pertaining to the use of TP in trauma patients. PMID:26013588

  14. Missed injuries in trauma patients: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Roman; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Background Overlooked injuries and delayed diagnoses are still common problems in the treatment of polytrauma patients. Therefore, ongoing documentation describing the incidence rates of missed injuries, clinically significant missed injuries, contributing factors and outcome is necessary to improve the quality of trauma care. This review summarizes the available literature on missed injuries, focusing on overlooked muscoloskeletal injuries. Methods Manuscripts dealing with missed injuries after trauma were reviewed. The following search modules were selected in PubMed: Missed injuries, Delayed diagnoses, Trauma, Musculoskeletal injuires. Three time periods were differentiated: (n = 2, 1980–1990), (n = 6, 1990–2000), and (n = 9, 2000-Present). Results We found a wide spread distribution of missed injuries and delayed diagnoses incidence rates (1.3% to 39%). Approximately 15 to 22.3% of patients with missed injuries had clinically significant missed injuries. Furthermore, we observed a decrease of missed pelvic and hip injuries within the last decade. Conclusion The lack of standardized studies using comparable definitions for missed injuries and clinically significant missed injuries call for further investigations, which are necessary to produce more reliable data. Furthermore, improvements in diagnostic techniques (e.g. the use of multi-slice CT) may lead to a decreased incidence of missed pelvic injuries. Finally, the standardized tertiary trauma survey is vitally important in the detection of clinically significant missed injuries and should be included in trauma care. PMID:18721480

  15. Toxicology screening in urban trauma patients: drug prevalence and its relationship to trauma severity and management.

    PubMed

    Sloan, E P; Zalenski, R J; Smith, R F; Sheaff, C M; Chen, E H; Keys, N I; Crescenzo, M; Barrett, J A; Berman, E

    1989-12-01

    Although toxicology screening is often used when treating trauma patients, its utility and significance remain controversial. Data from 623 toxicology screens performed in urban trauma center patients with mental status alterations are reported. The study patients were predominantly black and male, with a mean age of 32 (+/- 22) years. Overall, 86% of screens were positive. Substances of abuse, including ethanol, were noted in 525 (84%) of urine toxicology screens. Ethanol, cannabinoids, and cocaine were the drugs most commonly found in urine, with positivity noted in 53%, 37%, and 34% of screens. Serum analysis was 44% positive, with ethanol noted in 41% of patients. In blacks, the odds ratio of illicit drug use before trauma ranged from 1.9 to 4.2 (p less than 0.005), and in those aged 17 to 40 years, the odds ratio for illicit urine drugs ranged from 4.7 to 16.8 (p less than 0.001). In patients older than 40 years, the odds of a positive serum ethanol level were 1.7 times greater than in younger patients, and a level above 300 mg% was 3.8 times more likely in this age group (p less than 0.001). When serum ethanol was detected, the odds ratio of a head injury was 1.4 relative to patients without serum ethanol (p less than 0.06), and the odds ratio for abdominal injury was 1.6 for patients with serum ethanol (p less than 0.03). The odds of a TS less than 12 were 1.8 (p less than 0.05), and the odds of a GCS less than 12 were 3.3 (p less than 0.001) with ethanol levels greater than 100 mg%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2593195

  16. Critical Care for the Patient With Multiple Trauma.

    PubMed

    Radomski, Michal; Zettervall, Sara; Schroeder, Mary Elizabeth; Messing, Jonathan; Dunne, James; Sarani, Babak

    2016-06-01

    Trauma remains the leading cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of death in those less than 44 years old in the United States. Admission to a verified trauma center has been shown to decrease mortality following a major injury. This decrease in mortality has been a direct result of improvements in the initial evaluation and resuscitation from injury as well as continued advances in critical care. As such, it is vital that intensive care practitioners be familiar with various types of injuries and their associated treatment strategies as well as their potential complications in order to minimize the morbidity and mortality frequently seen in this patient population. PMID:25673631

  17. Interdisciplinary Trauma Management in an Elderly Patient, A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Felt, George T; Soolari, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The current report reviews a case of mixed dental trauma consequent to a fall by an older patient. The patient’s teeth were forced out of alignment by the trauma and suffered pulpal necrosis. Treatment involved not only healing the acute injuries, but also attending to some subtle delayed problems that became apparent during treatment. Treatments involving endodontics, periodontics, orthodontics, and restorative dentistry were used to address all of the patient’s concerns. This insured that the traumatic occlusion was corrected, appropriate esthetics was restored and normal speech and function was regained. All signs of trauma were recognized, every treatment step was documented, and appropriate follow-up was provided throughout the recovery period. PMID:25419251

  18. Open abdomen in trauma patients: a double-edged sword.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hua; Li, You-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The use of open abdomen (OA) as a technique in the treatment of exsanguinating trauma patients was first described in the mid-19(th) century. Since the 1980s, OA has become a relatively new and increasingly common strategy to manage massive trauma and abdominal catastrophes. OA has been proven to help reduce the mortality of trauma. Nevertheless, the OA method may be associated with terrible and devastating complications such as enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF). As a result, OA should not be overused, and attention should be given to critical care as well as special management. The temporary abdominal closure (TAC) technique after abbreviated laparotomy was used to improve wound healing and facilitate final fascial closure of OA. Negative pressure therapy (NPT) is the most commonly used TAC method. PMID:27042329

  19. Iatrogenic post-intubation tracheal rupture treated conservatively without intubation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Prunet, Bertrand; Lacroix, Guillaume; Asencio, Yves; Cathelinaud, Olivier; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Goutorbe, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background Tracheal rupture is a rare but life-threatening complication that most commonly occurrs after blunt trauma to the chest, but which may also complicate tracheal intubation. We report a case of post-intubation tracheal rupture after cataract surgery under general anesthesia treated conservatively. Case presentation Four hours after extubation, a 67 year-old woman developed subcutaneous emphysema of the facial, bilateral laterocervical and upper anterior chest. Tracheobronchial fiberendoscopy showed a posterior tracheal transmural rupture 4 cm long located 2.5 cm above the carina that opened in inspiration. The location of the lesion and features of the patient favoured conservative treatment with antibiotic cover. The patient made a full and uncomplicated recovery and was discharged fourteen days after the original injury. Conclusion Two therapeutic strategies are currently employed for post-intubation tracheal rupture: a non-surgical strategy for small injuries and a surgical strategy for larger injuries. This case report presented the non-surgical therapeutic strategy of a large tracheal injury. PMID:18945364

  20. [Tracheal intubation using Airtraq optical laryngoscope in an adult patient with Goldenhar syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sasanuma, Hiromi; Niwa, Yasunori; Shimada, Nobuhiro; Machida, Masanari; Irei, Takeshi; Hayashi, Kenji; Takeuchi, Mamoru

    2013-07-01

    A 23-year-old woman with Goldenhar syndrome and conductive deafness was scheduled for tympanoplasty. Goldenhar syndrome is a developmental disorder characterized by ear malformation, mandibular hypoplasia, and vertebral anomalies. Furthermore, she had micrognathia, trismus, and mandibular hypoplasia. Awake taracheal intubation was attempted to prevent airway obstruction, because we had anticipated her difficult airway (micrognathia, trismus, and mandibular hypoplasia). The vocal cords were visualized with a Cormac and Lehane grade I, using the Airtraq optical laryngoscope Small (Size 2), under sedation. Then, an endotracheal tube was inserted after induction of general anesthesia. This is the first case report on the successful orotracheal intubation using Airtraq in an adult with Goldenhar syndrome. PMID:23905414

  1. Concept formation vs. logistic regression: predicting death in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Hadzikadic, M; Hakenewerth, A; Bohren, B; Norton, J; Mehta, B; Andrews, C

    1996-10-01

    This study compares two classification models used to predict survival of injured patients entering the emergency department. Concept formation is a machine learning technique that summarizes known examples cases in the form of a tree. After the tree is constructed, it can then be used to predict the classification of new cases. Logistic regression, on the other hand, is a statistical model that allows for a quantitative relationship for a dichotomous event with several independent variables. The outcome (dependent) variable must have only two choices, e.g. does or does not occur, alive or dead, etc. The result of this model is an equation which is then used to predict the probability of class membership of a new case. The two models were evaluated on a trauma registry database composed of information on all trauma patients admitted in 1992 to a Level I trauma center. A total of 2155 records. representing all trauma patients admitted for more than 24 h or who died in the Emergency Department, were grouped into two databases as follows: (1) discharge status of 'died' (containing 151 records), and (2) any discharge status other than 'died' (containing 2004 records). Both databases contained the same variables. PMID:8955858

  2. Comparison of propofol–hydromorphone and propofol–dexmedetomidine in patients with intubation after maxillofacial plastic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wei; Zhang, Tiejun; Wang, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the sedation and analgesic effects between propofol–hydromorphone and propofol–dexmedetomidine in patients with postoperative intubation after maxillofacial plastic surgery. Methods Forty-two patients undertaking maxillofacial plastic surgery with intubation were randomly assigned into propofol plus hydromorphone (P–H) group or propofol plus dexmedetomidine (P–D) group, receiving intravenous infusion of P–H or P–D, respectively. Cerebral state index, Ramsay sedation score, arterial blood gas analysis, and physiology indices were recorded before admission (T0), 30 minutes (T1), 1 hour (T2), 2 hours (T3), 6 hours (T4), and 12 hours after admission (T5) to intensive care unit, and 10 minutes after extubation (T6). Blood interleukin-6 was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results There was no significant difference in arterial blood gas analysis, oxygen saturation, mean arterial pressure, and respiratory rate between two groups at all time-points (P>0.05). The changes of heart rate (at T4, T5, and T6), cerebral state index (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5), and Ramsay score (at T3) in P–H group were significantly different from that in P–D group (P<0.05). The plasma interleukin-6 at T4 in P–H group was significantly lower than that in P–D group (P<0.05). Conclusion The P–H approach takes advantages over P–D approach in relieving the pain and discomfort, reducing the overstimulation of sympathetic nerve and the stress level, and enhancing the tolerance of postoperative intubation after maxillofacial plastic surgery. PMID:27022268

  3. A Comparison of Performance of Endotracheal Intubation Using the Levitan FPS Optical Stylet or Lary-Flex Videolaryngoscope in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Tomasz; Gaszynska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The use of videolaryngoscopes is recommended for morbidly obese patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Levitan FPS optical stylet (Levitan) vs Lafy-Flex videolaryngoscope (Lary-Flex) in a group of MO patients. Methods. Seventy-nine MO (BMI > 40 kg m−2) patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were included in the study and randomly allocated to the Levitan FPS or Lary-Flex group. The primary endpoint was time to intubation and evaluation laryngoscopic of glottic view. Anesthesiologists were asked to evaluate the glottic view first under direct laryngoscopy using the videolaryngoscope as a standard laryngoscope (monitor display was excluded from use) and then using devices. The secondary endpoint was the cardiovascular response to intubation and the participant's evaluation of such devices. Results. The time to intubation was 8.572.66 sec. versus 5.790.2 sec. for Levitan and Lary-Flex, respectively (P < 0.05). In all cases of CL grade >1 under direct laryngoscopy, the study devices improved CL grade to 1. The Levitan FPS produced a greater cardiovascular response than the Lary-Flex videolaryngoscope. Conclusion. The Lary-Flex videolaryngoscope and the Levitan FPS optical stylet improve the laryngeal visualization in morbidly obese patients, allowing for fast endotracheal intubation, but Lary-Flex produces less cardiovascular response to intubation attempt. PMID:24967423

  4. Prehospital advanced trauma life support for critical blunt trauma victims.

    PubMed

    Cwinn, A A; Pons, P T; Moore, E E; Marx, J A; Honigman, B; Dinerman, N

    1987-04-01

    The ability of paramedics to deliver advanced trauma life support (ATLS) in an expedient fashion for victims of trauma has been strongly challenged. In this study, the records of 114 consecutive victims of blunt trauma who underwent laparotomy or thoracotomy were reviewed. Prehospital care was rendered by paramedics operating under strict protocols. The mean response time (minutes +/- SEM) to the scene was 5.6 +/- 0.27. On-scene time was 13.9 +/- 0.62. The time to return to the hospital was 8.0 +/- 0.4. On-scene time included assessing hazards at the scene, patient extrication, spine immobilization (n = 98), application of oxygen (n = 94), measurement of vital signs (n = 114), splinting of 59 limbs, and the following ATLS procedures: endotracheal intubation (n = 31), IV access (n = 106), ECG monitoring (n = 69), procurement of blood for tests including type and cross (n = 58), and application of a pneumatic antishock garment (PASG) (n = 31). On-scene times were analyzed according to the number of ATLS procedures performed: insertion of one IV line (n = 46), 14.8 +/- 1.03 minutes; two IV lines (n = 28), 13.4 +/- 0.92; one IV line plus intubation (n = 7), 14.0 +/- 2.94; two IV lines plus intubation (n = 9), 17.0 +/- 2.38; and two IV lines plus intubation plus PASG (n = 13), 12.4 +/- 1.36. Of the 161 IV attempts, 94% were completed successfully. Of 36 attempts at endotracheal intubation, 89% were successful.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3826807

  5. Arytenoid dislocation after uneventful endotracheal intubation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Ryu, Chang Hwan; Park, Yu Na; Kim, Nam Woo

    2016-01-01

    Arytenoid dislocation is an unusual complication of endotracheal intubation. We reported a case of a 48-year-old female with arytenoid dislocation after uneventful endotracheal intubation, which was successfully treated with arytenoid reduction. The patient complained of persistent hoarseness until the fourth day after an uneventful gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia. On laryngoscopic examination, paralyzed left vocal cord with minimal arytenoid movement was observed. An anteromedial dislocation of the left arytenoid cartilage was suspected and surgical reduction was performed by the laryngologist. The hoarseness was immediately resolved after surgical intervention. Anesthesiologists should be careful not to cause laryngeal trauma in anesthetized patients. In addition, early diagnosis and prompt surgical reduction are essential for a better prognosis for arytenoid dislocation. PMID:26885311

  6. Arytenoid dislocation after uneventful endotracheal intubation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Yun, Jung-Yeon; Ryu, Chang Hwan; Park, Yu Na; Kim, Nam Woo

    2016-02-01

    Arytenoid dislocation is an unusual complication of endotracheal intubation. We reported a case of a 48-year-old female with arytenoid dislocation after uneventful endotracheal intubation, which was successfully treated with arytenoid reduction. The patient complained of persistent hoarseness until the fourth day after an uneventful gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia. On laryngoscopic examination, paralyzed left vocal cord with minimal arytenoid movement was observed. An anteromedial dislocation of the left arytenoid cartilage was suspected and surgical reduction was performed by the laryngologist. The hoarseness was immediately resolved after surgical intervention. Anesthesiologists should be careful not to cause laryngeal trauma in anesthetized patients. In addition, early diagnosis and prompt surgical reduction are essential for a better prognosis for arytenoid dislocation. PMID:26885311

  7. Termination of resuscitative efforts: medical futility for the trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, M

    2001-12-01

    Despite years of research on the resuscitation of the patient with critical traumatic injuries, controversy remains surrounding the criteria to waive initiation of resuscitation in the pre-hospital setting or to terminate such efforts in the emergency department. The decision to initiate or continue resuscitation on moribund trauma patients is associated with considerable costs. Ambulance transport using lights and sirens carries potential risk. Emergency department thoracotomy, with exposure to high risk bodily fluids, involvement of numerous staff, and usage precious blood products, is a procedure that has fewer and fewer indications. This review presents guidelines to help determine when to initiate resuscitation for the critically injured trauma patient and when to cease these efforts in the emergency department. Since there are economic, societal, and ethical implications, each system should establish their own criteria, using these guidelines as a basis. PMID:11805549

  8. The Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway Facilitates Tracheal Intubation in the Lateral Position

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Ryu; Nagata, Osamu; Sessler, Daniel I.; Ozaki, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Although the difficulty of tracheal intubation in the lateral position has not been systematically evaluated, airway loss during surgery in a laterally positioned patient may have hazardous consequences. We explored whether the intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) facilitates tracheal intubation in patients with normal airway anatomy, i.e., Mallampati grade ≤ 3 and thyromental distance ≥ 5 cm, positioned in the lateral position. And we evaluated whether this technique can be used as a rescue when the airway is lost mid-case in laterally positioned patients with respect to success rate and intubation time. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, fentanyl, and vecuronium in 50 patients undergoing spine surgery for lumbar disk herniation (Lateral) and 50 undergoing other surgical procedures (Supine). Patients having disk surgery (Lateral) were positioned on their right or left sides before induction of general anesthesia, and intubation was performed in that position. Patients in control group (Supine) were anesthetized in supine position, and intubation was performed in that position. Intubation was performed blindly via an ILMA in both groups. The time required for intubation and number and types of adjusting maneuvers employed were recorded. Data were compared by Mann-Whitney U, Fisher’s exact, chi-square, or unpaired t-tests, as appropriate. Data presented as mean (SD). Demographic and airway measures were similar in the two groups, except for mouth opening which was slightly wider in patients in the lateral position: 5.1 (0.9) vs. 4.6 (0.7) cm. The time required for intubation was similar in each group (≈25 s), as was intubation success (96%). We conclude that blind intubation via an ILMA offers a frequent success rate and a clinically acceptable intubation time (< one min) even in the lateral position. Summary Blind intubation via the intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) offers a high success rate and a clinically acceptable intubation time even in

  9. Systolic Blood Pressure Lower than Heart Rate upon Arrival at and Departure from the Emergency Department Indicates a Poor Outcome for Adult Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wei-Hung; Wu, Shao-Chun; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable trauma death. In this study, we used the reverse shock index (RSI), a ratio of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to heart rate (HR), to evaluate the hemodynamic stability of trauma patients. As an SBP lower than the HR (RSI < 1) may indicate hemodynamic instability, the objective of this study was to assess the associated complications in trauma patients with an RSI < 1 upon arrival at the emergency department (ED) (indicated as (A)RSI) and at the time of departure from the ED (indicated as (L)RSI) to the operative room or for admission. Methods: Data obtained from all 16,548 hospitalized patients recorded in the trauma registry system at a Level I trauma center between January 2009 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 10,234 adult trauma patients aged ≥20 were enrolled and subsequently divided into four groups: Group I, (A)RSI ≥ 1 and (L)RSI ≥ 1 (n = 9827); Group II, (A)RSI ≥ 1 and (L)RSI < 1 (n = 76); Group III, (A)RSI < 1 and (L)RSI ≥ 1 (n = 251); and Group IV, (A)RSI < 1 and (L)RSI < 1 (n = 80). Pearson’s χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, or independent Student’s t-test was conducted to compare trauma patients in Groups II, III, and IV with those in Group I. Results: Patients in Groups II, III, and IV had a higher injury severity score and underwent a higher number of procedures, including intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion, than Group I patients. Additionally, patients of these groups had increased hospital length of stay (16.3 days, 14.9 days, and 22.0 days, respectively), proportion of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (48.7%, 43.0%, and 62.5%, respectively), and in-hospital mortality (19.7%, 7.6%, and 27.5%, respectively). Although the trauma patients who had a SBP < 90 mmHg either upon arrival at or departure from the ED also present a more severe injury and poor outcome, those patients who had a SBP ≥ 90 mmHg but an RSI < 1 had

  10. Submental intubation: An alternative to tracheostomy when nasoendotracheal intubation is unsuccessful - A case report.

    PubMed

    Franco, Johnny; Coppage, Jeffrey; Fallucco, Michael; Ferguson, John Scott

    2009-01-01

    Submental intubation (SI) has been proposed as an alternative to nasoendotracheal intubation when oral endotracheal intubation is contraindicated. In patients who require intubation for maxillofacial reconstruction, this is an alternative to a traditional tracheostomy. The present case report presents an 18-year-old woman who suffered a comminuted mandibular fracture. Two days after her accident, she was taken to the operating room for open reduction with internal fixation of her mandible; however, the anesthesia staff was unable to nasally intubate the patient. A SI was performed. The procedure was completed without complications and the surgery accomplished with the SI. The patient was able to avoid a tracheostomy for an isolated operation. SI avoids the dangers of nasoendotracheal intubation in patients with midfacial fractures and avoids complications related to tracheostomy. Thus, SI may serve as an alternative to tracheostomy in patients without other medical conditions and indications for long-term intubation. PMID:21119832

  11. Endocrine and metabolic response to trauma in hypovolemic patients treated at a trauma center in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bahten, Luiz CV; Mauro, Fernando HO; Domingos, Maria F; Scheffer, Paula H; Pagnoncelli, Bruno H; Wille, Marco AR

    2008-01-01

    Background The metabolic changes in trauma patients with shock contribute directly to the survival of the patient. To understand these changes better, we made a rigorous analysis of the variations in the main examinations requested for seriously polytraumatized patients. Methods Prospective analysis of patients with blunt or penetrating trauma with hypovolemic shock, with systolic arterial pressure (SAP) equal to or lower than 90 mmHg at any time during initial treatment in the emergency room and aged between 14 and 60 years old. The following exams were analyzed: sodium, potassium, blood test, glycemia and arterial gasometry. The tests were carried out at intervals: T0 (the first exam, collected on admission) and followed by T24 (24 hours after admission), T48 (48 hours after admission), T72 (72 hours after admission). Results The test evaluations showed that there was a tendency towards hyperglycemia, which was more evident upon admission to hospital. The sodium in all the patients was found to be normal upon admission, with a later decline. However, no patient had significant hyponatremia; there was no significant variation in the potassium variable; the gasometry, low pH, BE (base excess) and bicarbonate levels when the first sample was collected and increased later with PO2 and PCO2 showing only slight variations, which meant an acidotic state during the hemorrhagic shock followed by a response from the organism to reestablish the equilibrium, retaining bicarbonate. The red blood count, shown by the GB (globular volume) and HB (hemoglobin) was normal upon entry but later it dropped steadily until it fell below normal; the white blood count (leukocytes, neutrophils and band neutrophil) remained high from the first moment of evaluation. Conclusion In this study we demonstrated the main alterations that took place in patients with serious trauma, emphasizing that even commonly requested laboratory tests can help to estimate metabolic alterations. Suitable

  12. Combined use of a McGrath® MAC video laryngoscope and Frova Intubating Introducer in a patient with Pierre Robin syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongsuk; Kim, Jeong Eun; Jeong, Da Hye; Lee, Jaemin

    2014-04-01

    Patients with Pierre Robin syndrome are characterized by micrognathia, retrognathia, glossoptosis, and respiratory obstruction and are prone to have a difficult-to-intubate airway. The McGrath® MAC video laryngoscope provides a better view of the glottis than a Macintosh laryngoscope, but it is not easy to insert an endotracheal tube through the vocal cords because a video laryngoscope has a much greater curvature than that of a conventional direct laryngoscope and an endotracheal tube has a different curvature. The Frova Intubating Introducer is used as a railroad for an endotracheal tube in cases of a difficult airway. We thought that a combination of these two devices would make it easy to insert an endotracheal tube through the vocal cords, as a McGrath® MAC video laryngoscope provides a better glottic view and the Frova Intubating Introducer is a useful device for placing an endotracheal tube through the glottis. We report a successful endotracheal intubation with use of the McGrath® MAC video laryngoscope and Frova Intubating Introducer in a patient with Pierre Robin syndrome. PMID:24851168

  13. [Lateral Approach Tracheal Intubation in a Semi-sitting Position Utilizing a Videolaryngoscope in a Patient with Respiratory Failure due to Septic Shock].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Atsushi; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Nishihara, Isao; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-05-01

    Here we report our success in performing lateral approach tracheal intubation in a patient with severe respiratory failure due to septic shock caused by shoulder joint abscess. A 71-year-old woman presented with severe respiratory difficulty due to sepsis from a shoulder joint abscess and was scheduled for emergent drainage and irrigation. She could not breathe sufficiently in the supine position and thus maintained a semi-sitting position. She was also unable to move from the ward bed to the operating table due to severe shoulder pain. We induced anesthesia in a semi-sitting position in the ward bed. Mask ventilation was performed using the two-hand technique from the lateral approach. Tracheal intubation was also performed with a left lateral approach utilizing the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS). Lateral approach for tracheal intubation utilizing AWS may be useful in patients who present with severe respiratory difficulty. PMID:26422963

  14. Hot Climate and Perioperative Outcome in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhawna; Katyal, Sunil; Gautam, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extreme hot climatic conditions constitute a major public health threat. Recent studies have shown higher rate of perioperative complications during hot weather. Although a lot of researches have been carried out to evaluate effect of hot climatic conditions and its correlation with other medical conditions, but very little has been studied in trauma patients. Aim To evaluate the impact of hot climatic conditions on perioperative morbidity in trauma patients. Materials and Methods We enrolled 100 trauma patients scheduled for surgery after approval by the Hospital and University Ethical Committee. Patients were grouped as Control Group (C) when outdoor temperature ranged in comfortable zone i.e., 20-290C and Study Group (S) when outdoor temperature ranged 400C or more. Patients living in regular air conditioned atmosphere (more than 18 hours per day) and with co-morbid conditions or on drugs interfering with temperature regulation were excluded. Student’s t-test, z-test and chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Results Both groups were comparable in terms of demographics, age (control group C=38.2±12.93 years and in group S= 40.14 ± 15.98 years), sex, socioeconomic status and type of surgery. Mean Trauma Index Score (TIS) were 6.20±1.56 and 5.80±1.31 respectively. All patients were of low risk as per Shoe Maker’s risk criteria. Post Anaesthesia Care Unit (PACU) stay was similar. Mean duration of hospital stay was 12.16 ± 8.50 days in group C and 10.98 ± 6.90 days in group S (p-value 0.21). 20% patients in group C whereas 54% in group S had complications (p= 0.009). There was a higher incidence of infections as well as respiratory distress in group S. On multiple logistic regression analysis peak environmental temperature was found to be the single independent risk factor for predicting perioperative morbidity. Conclusion High ambient temperature adversely affects the outcome of surgery even in low risk young trauma patients

  15. Mucormycosis of the Forehead and Sinuses in a Trauma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nathan; Kimbrough, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection in immunocompetent patients. It is not commonly seen in trauma patients who sustain multisystem injuries and are often exposed to numerous infectious sources. A multidisciplinary approach between medical and surgical specialties is crucial to ensuring timely diagnosis and treatment as morbidity and mortality can be high once acquired. In addition to antifungal therapy, radical debridement and reconstruction by plastic surgery is often necessary. Review of the literature shows that there is no definitive reconstructive technique for mucormycosis of the forehead and sinuses because the amount of tissue destruction may be varied in location and depth, therefore requiring varying extents of debridement. However, other reconstructive techniques commonly used for oncologic and trauma reconstructions can be used to achieve functionality and a satisfactory cosmetic result. Few facial reconstructions after infection with mucormycosis have been documented in the literature. PMID:27536497

  16. Successful nasal intubation with a laryngeal nerve monitoring tube using bronchoscopy in a patient with plunging goiter: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The appropriate positioning of nerve integrity monitoring during thyroid surgery is of relevance. In this case report we describe our experience with accurate placement of a nerve integrity monitoring endotracheal tube, obtained by fiberoptic control, in a patient with expected difficult airway management. Case presentation We report the case of a 70-year-old obese woman scheduled for elective total thyroidectomy due to plunging intrathoracic goiter. The preoperative indirect laryngoscopy pointed out a massive bombè of the hypopharyngeal wall to the right and right vocal cord paralysis. The epiglottis was oedematous and the glottis could not be identified. On physical examination, the tongue was large and a Mallampati’s score of 3 was determined. Hence, due to an expected difficult airway management, a nasal intubation with an electromyographic nerve integrity monitoring endotracheal tube trough fiberoptic bronchoscopy was successfully performed. Conclusion Our experience suggests that nasal intubation can be safely performed by using a nerve integrity monitoring tube with the help of fiberoptic bronchoscopy. PMID:24229430

  17. The advantages of early trauma team activation in the management of major trauma patients who underwent exploratory laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Youngsun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Trauma team activation (TTA) has been shown to have fundamental impact on trauma patients' outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of use of a new TTA protocol in the management of major trauma patients who underwent exploratory laparotomy. Methods The medical records of trauma patients who had been treated by the new TTA protocol (NT) over 18 months were compared with those of trauma patients treated by the old TTA protocol (OT) over 18 months. Comparisons between the two groups in terms of the time interval between accident and emergency room (ER) arrival, between ER arrival and CT scanning, between ER arrival and operating room (OR) presentation, between accident and OR presentation, mean intensive care unit (ICU) stay, mean hospital stay, mortality within 24 hours, mean mortality within one month, and overall mortality were performed using the Pearson chi-squared test and Student t-test. Results The time interval between accident and ER arrival, between ER arrival and CT scanning, between ER arrival and OR presentation, and between accident and OR presentation was found to have decreased significantly with the use of NT compared to OT. However, the mean ICU stay, mean hospital stay, mortality within 24 hours, mortality within one month, and overall mortality were found not to have improved. Conclusion While initiation of early TTA can shorten the time interval in the management of trauma patients, it may not improve patient outcomes. PMID:25485240

  18. Radiation exposure in body computed tomography examinations of trauma patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortesniemi, M.; Kiljunen, T.; Kangasmäki, A.

    2006-06-01

    Multi-slice CT provides an efficient imaging modality for trauma imaging. The purpose of this study was to provide absorbed and effective dose data from CT taking into account the patient size and compare such doses with the standard CT dose quantities based on standard geometry. The CT examination data from abdominal and thoracic scan series were collected from 36 trauma patients. The CTDIvol, DLPw and effective dose were determined, and the influence of patient size was applied as a correction factor to calculated doses. The patient size was estimated from the patient weight as the effective radius based on the analysis from the axial images of abdominal and thoracic regions. The calculated mean CTDIvol, DLPw and effective dose were 15.2 mGy, 431 mGy cm and 6.5 mSv for the thorax scan, and 18.5 mGy, 893 mGy cm and 14.8 mSv for the abdomen scan, respectively. The doses in the thorax and abdomen scans taking the patient size into account were 34% and 9% larger than the standard dose quantities, respectively. The use of patient size in dose estimation is recommended in order to provide realistic data for evaluation of the radiation exposure in CT, especially for paediatric patients and smaller adults.

  19. Oxidative stress in severe pulmonary trauma in critical ill patients. Antioxidant therapy in patients with multiple trauma--a review.

    PubMed

    Bedreag, Ovidiu Horea; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Sarandan, Mirela; Cradigati, Alina Carmen; Papurica, Marius; Dumbuleu, Maria Corina; Chira, Alexandru Mihai; Rosu, Oana Maria; Sandesc, Dorel

    2015-01-01

    Multiple trauma patients require extremely good management and thus, the trauma team needs to be prepared and to be up to date with the new standards of intensive therapy. Oxidative stress and free radicals represent an extremely aggressive factor to cells, having a direct consequence upon the severity of lung inflammation. Pulmonary tissue is damaged by oxidative stress, leading to biosynthesis of mediators that exacerbate inflammation modulators. The subsequent inflammation spreads throughout the body, leading most of the time to multiple organ dysfunction and death. In this paper, we briefly present an update of biochemical effects of oxidative stress and free radical damage to the pulmonary tissue in patients in critical condition in the intensive care unit. Also, we would like to present a series of active substances that substantially reduce the aggressiveness of free radicals, increasing the chances of survival. PMID:26037258

  20. Trauma.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain and spine injury (TBI/TSI) is a leading cause of death and lifelong disability in children. The biomechanical properties of the child's brain, skull, and spine, the size of the child, the age-specific activity pattern, and variance in trauma mechanisms result in a wide range of age-specific traumas and patterns of brain and spine injuries. A detailed knowledge about the various types of primary and secondary pediatric head and spine injuries is essential to better identify and understand pediatric TBI/TSI, which enhances sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, will guide therapy, and may give important information about the prognosis. The purposes of this chapter are to: (1) discuss the unique epidemiology, mechanisms, and characteristics of TBI/TSI in children; (2) review the anatomic and functional imaging techniques that can be used to study common and rare pediatric TBI/TSI and their complications; (3) comprehensively review frequent primary and secondary brain injuries; and (4) to give a short overview of two special types of pediatric TBI/TSI: birth-related and nonaccidental injuries. PMID:27430465

  1. Trichomonal sinusitis in an adolescent patient with multiple trauma.

    PubMed

    Oud, Lavi

    2009-03-01

    Trichomonal disease typically involves the genital and occasionally respiratory tracts. Although exposure of the upper respiratory tract to infected genital secretions is not uncommon with contemporary sexual practices, trichomonal sinus disease has been rarely described. The present report describes the case of a healthy 17-year-old male admitted to an intensive care unit following multiple trauma, who developed purulent sinusitis on the 4th day of hospitalization. Numerous trichomonads were noted on microscopic examination of sinus aspirate. Further investigation revealed orofacial sexual exposure of the patient to a partner with trichomoniasis. The patient's sinusitis resolved following a course of parenteral metronidazole-containing antibiotics. PMID:19204647

  2. Real Money: Complications and Hospital Costs in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hemmila, Mark R.; Jakubus, Jill L.; Maggio, Paul M.; Wahl, Wendy L.; Dimick, Justin B.; Campbell, Darrell A.; Taheri, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Major postoperative complications are associated with a substantial increase in hospital costs. Trauma patients are known to have a higher rate of complications than the general surgery population. We sought to utilize the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) methodology to evaluate hospital costs, length of stay, and payment associated with complications in trauma patients. Study Design Using NSQIP principles, patient data were collected on 512 adult patients admitted to the trauma service for > 24 hours at a Level 1 trauma center (2004–2005). Patients were placed in one of three groups: no complications (none), ≥ 1 minor complication (minor, e.g., urinary tract infection), or ≥ 1 major complication (major, e.g., pneumonia). Total hospital charges, costs, payment, and length of stay associated with each complication group were determined from a cost accounting database. Multiple regression was used to determine the costs of each type of complication after adjusting for differences in age, gender, new injury severity score (nISS), Glasgow coma scale score (GCS), maximum head abbreviated injury scale (AIS), and first emergency department systolic blood pressure. Results 330 (64%) patients had no complications, 53 (10%) had ≥ 1 minor complication, and 129 (25%) had ≥ 1 major complication. Median hospital charges increased from $33,833 (none) to $81,936 (minor) and $150,885 (major). The mean contribution to margin per day was similar for the no complication and minor complication groups ($994 vs $1,115, p=0.7). Despite higher costs, the patients in the major complication group generated a higher mean contribution to margin per day when compared to the no complication group ($2,168, p<0.001). The attributable increase in median total hospital costs when adjusted for confounding variables was $19,915 for the minor complication group (p<0.001), and $40,555 for the major complication group (p<0.001). Conclusion Understanding the costs

  3. [Endotracheal intubation in an adult patient fitted with a Leksell frame using a Pentax Airwayscope with a pediatric-type INTLOCK blade (ITL-P)].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Risa; Hoshijima, Hiroshi; Horikoshi, Yuta; Nakamura, China; Iwase, Yoshinori; Nagasaka, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Several previous reports have established the Pentax Airwayscope (Pentax AWS, S-100, HOYA-PENTAX, Tokyo, Japan) as an efficient tool for tracheal intubation in adult patients. The Pentax AWS is often successfully used with an INTLOCK blade; to date, however, INTLOCK blades have been released for neonatal and pediatric patients only. In this case, we performed tracheal intubation using a Pentax AWS attached to a pediatric-type INTLOCK blade (ITL-P) in an adult patient fitted with a Leksell Stereotactic frame (Elekta, Sweden). The patient weighed 45 kg and was 154 cm tall, and was scheduled for a tumor biopsy due to glioblastoma in the brain stem. The patient was preoperatively fitted with a Leksell frame on her head. The patient was not premedicated and was monitored with electrocardiography (ECG), noninvasive blood pressure, and pulse oximetry. Following pre-oxygenation, general anesthesia was induced using propofol 4.0 microg x ml with target-controlled infusion and remifentanil 0.25 microg x kg(-1) hr(-1). After loss of consciousness, we administered 30-mg rocuronium boluses. We initially attempted tracheal intubation first using a Macintosh laryngoscope and then a Pentax AWS, but we could not achieve tracheal intubation with either of these instruments. Upon switching to a Pentax AWS with an ITL-P, we successfully achieved tracheal intubation without any complications. Anesthesia was maintained uneventfully with 3.0 microg x ml(-1) propofol and remifentanil 0.10 to 0.25 microg x kg(-1) x hr(-1) in oxygen and air. Further study is needed to facilitate the effective use of the Pentax AWS and the ITL-P in such cases. PMID:25199322

  4. Difficult endotracheal intubation secondary to tracheal deviation and stenosis in a patient with severe kyphoscoliosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyun; Jo, Jun-ho

    2016-01-01

    We report on a case of difficult endotracheal intubation in a patient with marked tracheal deviation at an angle of 90 degrees combined with stenosis due to kyphoscoliosis with vertebral body fusion. After induction of general anesthesia, a proper laryngeal view was easily obtained using a videolaryngoscope. But a tracheal tube could not be advanced more than 3 cm beyond the vocal cords due to resistance, despite various attempts, including the use of small size tubes, full rotation of the tube tip, and fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Ultimately, the airway was successfully secured by placing a tube tip above the area of resistance and by additionally packing saline-soaked gauzes around the tracheal inlet to minimize gas leakage and to fasten the tube in the trachea. PMID:27482317

  5. Comparing Clonidine and Lidocaine on Attenuation of Hemodynamic Responses to Laryngoscopy and Tracheal Intubation in Controlled Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blinded Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soltani Mohammadi, Sussan; Maziar, Alireza; Saliminia, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemodynamic fluctuations in response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation and their potential hazards have been well-recognized, especially in hypertensive patients. Many drugs in various combinations have been used to attenuate these adverse responses. Objectives: We conducted a study to compare lidocaine with clonidine on the attenuation of hemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation, in controlled hypertensive patients undergoing general anesthesia. Patients and Methods: Eighty-six patients of American society of anesthesiologists (ASA) class II, who were aged 18 to 65-years-old and were scheduled for elective surgeries under general anesthesia, were included. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups. The clonidine group received 0.2 mg oral clonidine 90 minutes before surgery and the lidocaine group received a placebo tablet at the same time. All patients in both groups were anesthetized with the same technique, including: intravenous fentanyl 3 mcg/kg, sodium thiopental 5 mg/kg, and atracurium 0.5 mg/kg. The lidocaine group received 1.5 mg/kg lidocaine but the clonidine group received the same volume of saline ninety seconds before intubation. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded before intubation and 1, 3, 5, and 10 minutes after endotracheal intubation. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups’ hemodynamic parameters, including heart rate and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures at the measured points. There were also no significant differences within each group in hemodynamic responses at the measured points (P > 0.05). Twenty patients in the clonidine and three patients in the lidocaine group complained of mouth dryness (P = 0.001). Fourteen patients in the clonidine and four patients in the lidocaine group had bradycardia (P = 0.008). Nineteen patients in the clonidine and six patients in the lidocaine group had orthostatic hypotension (P = 0

  6. The application of a trauma index to assess injury severity and prognosis in hospitalized patients with acute trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Hailin; Ge, Wenhan; Li, Bing; Zhu, Yuanqun; Yang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the application value of a trauma index (TI) to assess condition and likelihood of death in hospitalized patients with acute trauma (AT). Methods: Trauma index scores and injury severity scores (ISS) were assessed in 1,802 randomly selected cases of AT-hospitalized patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to compare the clinical values of TI and ISS values to predict outcomes in AT-hospitalized patients. Results: The area under the ROC curve for TI scores was 0.896 (95% CI [0.881, 0.909]), while for ISS, it was 0.792 (95% CI [0.773, 0.811]). This difference was not statistically significant (z = 3.236, P = 0.001). Potentially critical disease conditions in AT-hospitalized patients were best identified when TI scores were ≥ 16 points and ISS values were ≥ 22 points. Conclusions: Trauma Index scores exhibited a higher resolution for outcome prediction in AT-hospitalized patients compared to ISS values. The implementation of this scale was simple, reliable, easy to learn, and could quickly identify disease, which is vital for early detection and treatment of critical trauma patients. PMID:26770541

  7. A survey of a population of anaesthesiologists from South India regarding practices for rapid sequence intubation in patients with head injury

    PubMed Central

    Parida, Satyen; Varadharajan, Ramesh; Bidkar, Prasanna Udupi; Mishra, Sandeep Kumar; Balachander, Hemavathi; Badhe, Ashok Shankar; Kundra, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Evidence and utility of the individual steps of the rapid sequence induction and tracheal intubation protocols have been debated, especially in the setting of traumatic brain injury. The purpose of this survey was to determine preferences in the current approach to rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in head injury patients among a population of anaesthesiologists from South India. Methods: A questionnaire was E-mailed to all the members of the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists’ South Zone Chapter to ascertain their preferences, experience and comfort level with regard to their use of rapid sequence intubation techniques in adult patients with head injury. Participants were requested to indicate their practices for RSI technique for a head-injured patient upon arrival at the Emergency Medical Services department of their hospital. Results: The total response rate was 56.9% (530/932). Of the total respondents, 35% of the clinicians used cricoid pressure routinely, most respondents (68%) stated that they pre-oxygenate the patients for about 3 min prior to RSI, thiopentone (61%) and propofol (34%) were commonly used prior to intubation. Rocuronium was the muscle relaxant of choice for RSI among the majority (44%), compared to succinylcholine (39%). Statistical analyses were performed after the initial entry onto a spreadsheet. Data were summarised descriptively using frequency distribution. Conclusion: In a rapid sequence intubation situation, the practice differed significantly among anaesthesiologists. Owing to disagreements and paucity of evidence-based data regarding the standards of RSI, it is apparent that RSI practice still has considerable variability in clinical practice. PMID:27141109

  8. Attention, heart rate, and startle response during exposure to trauma-relevant pictures: a comparison of recent trauma victims and patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Elsesser, Karin; Sartory, Gudrun; Tackenberg, Axel

    2004-05-01

    Victims of a recent trauma were compared with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients and healthy controls to assess whether a specific anxiety response and an attentional bias were evident initially or only in chronic PTSD. Heart rate (HR) and startle response were measured, and a dot-probe task was carried out using trauma-relevant pictures. Severely affected recent trauma victims and chronic PTSD patients showed HR acceleration to trauma-related material, which was the only significant group difference. A bias away from trauma-related material was related to severity of intrusions in recent trauma victims, and the bias toward trauma-related material increased with amplitude of the HR response in PTSD patients. A specific anxiety reaction is present initially in severely affected trauma victims. PMID:15122949

  9. A pillow of 8 cm height did not improve laryngeal view and alignment of airway axes but increased anesthesiologist discomfort compared to a pillow of 4 cm height during tracheal intubation in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyo Ju; Kim, Sung Hoon; Hwang, Jung Won; Lee, Hyung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background Neck flexion by head elevation using an 8 to 10 cm thick pillow and head extension has been suggested to align the laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axis and facilitate tracheal intubation. Presently, the laryngeal view and discomfort for tracheal intubation were evaluated according to two different degrees of head elevation in adult patients. Methods This prospective randomized, controlled study included 50 adult patients aged 18 to 90 years. After induction of anesthesia, the Cormack Lehane grade was evaluated in 25 patients using a direct laryngoscope while the patient's head was elevated with a 4 cm pillow (4 cm group) and then an 8 cm pillow (8 cm group). In the other 25 patients, the grades were evaluated in the opposite sequence and tracheal intubation was performed. The success rate and anesthesiologist's discomfort score for tracheal intubation, and laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axes were assessed. Results There were no differences in the laryngeal view and success rate for tracheal intubation between the two groups. The discomfort score during tracheal intubation was higher in the 8 cm group when the patient's head was elevated 4 cm first and then 8 cm. The alignment of laryngeal, pharyngeal and oral axes were not different between the two degrees of head elevation. Conclusions A pillow of 8 cm height did not improve laryngeal view and alignment of airway axes but increased the anesthesiologist discomfort, compared to a pillow of 4 cm height, during tracheal intubation in adult patients. PMID:27066204

  10. Effective transport for trauma patients under current circumstances in Korea: a single institution analysis of treatment outcomes for trauma patients transported via the domestic 119 service.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Heo, Yunjung; Lee, John C J; Baek, Sukja; Kim, Younghwan; Moon, Jonghwan; Youn, Seok Hwa; Wang, Heejung; Huh, Yo; Jung, Kyoungwon

    2015-03-01

    In Korea, which still lacks a well-established trauma care system, the inability to transport patients to adequate treatment sites in a timely manner is a cause of low trauma patient survival. As such, this study was conducted to serve as a basis for the establishment of a future trauma transport system. We performed a comparative analysis of the transport time, and treatment outcomes between trauma victims transported by ground ambulance (GAMB) and those transported via the helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) through the National Emergency Management Agency's 119 reporting system, which is similar to the 911 system of the United States, from March 2011 to May 2014. The HEMS-transported patients received treatment instructions, by remote communication, from our trauma specialists from the time of accident reporting; in certain instances, members of the trauma medical staff provided treatment at the scene. A total of 1,626 patients were included in the study; the GAMB and HEMS groups had 1,547 and 79 patients, respectively. The median transport time was different between 2 groups (HEMS, 60 min vs. GAMB, 47 min, P<0.001) but for all patients was 49 min (less than the golden hour). Outcomes were significantly better in the HEMS compared to the GAMB, using the trauma and injury severity score (survival rate, 94.9% vs. 90.5%; Z score, 2.83 vs. -1.96; W score, 6.7 vs. -0.8). A unified 119 service transport system, which includes helicopter transport, and the adoption of a trauma care system that allows active initial involvement of trauma medical personnel, could improve the treatment outcome of trauma patients. PMID:25729259

  11. Nitrogen oxide levels in patients after trauma and during sepsis.

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, J B; Udekwu, A O; Billiar, T R; Curran, R D; Cerra, F B; Simmons, R L; Peitzman, A B

    1991-01-01

    The mediators responsible for maintenance of the hyperdynamic state and the low systemic vascular resistance (SVR) observed in sepsis have not been elucidated. Nitric oxide (.N = O) is a mediator with numerous functions, including regulation of vascular tone and a role in macrophage-mediated cytostasis and microbiostasis. Thirty-nine critically ill trauma and septic patients were studied to determine the relationship between .N = O production and the hyperdynamic state. high plasma levels of NO2-/NO3- (the stable end products of .N = O) were observed in septic patients (p less than 0.02). Low SVR and high endotoxin levels were associated with high NO2-/NO3- values (p = 0.029, p = 0.002). Changes in .N = O levels may mediate the vasodilation seen in sepsis. Low NO2-/NO3- levels were observed in trauma patients (p less than 0.001) and remained low even in the presence of sepsis (p = 0.001). Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1953116

  12. Adverse events and outcomes of procedural sedation and analgesia in major trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Green, Robert S.; Butler, Michael B.; Campbell, Samuel G.; Erdogan, Mete

    2015-01-01

    Context: Trauma patients requiring procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) may have increased risk of adverse events (AEs) and poor outcomes. Aims: To determine the incidence of AEs in adult major trauma patients who received PSA and to evaluate their postprocedural outcomes. Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis of adult patients (age >16) who received PSA between 2006 and 2014 at a Canadian academic tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: We compared the incidence of PSA-related AEs in trauma patients with nontrauma patients. Postprocedural outcomes including Intensive Care Unit admission, length of hospital stay, and mortality were compared between trauma patients who did or did not receive PSA. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results: Overall, 4324 patients received PSA during their procedure, of which 101 were trauma patients (107 procedures). The majority (77%) of these 101 trauma patients were male, relatively healthy (78% with American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status [ASA-PS] 1), and most (85%) of the 107 procedures were orthopedic manipulations. PSA-related AEs were experienced by 45.5% of the trauma group and 45.9% of the nontrauma group. In the trauma group, the most common AEs were tachypnea (23%) and hypotension (20%). After controlling for age, gender, and ASA-PS, trauma patients were more likely than nontrauma patients to develop hypotension (odds ratio 1.79; 95% confidence interval 1.11-2.89). Conclusion: Although trauma patients were more likely than nontrauma patients to develop hypotension during PSA, their outcomes were not worse compared to trauma patients who did not have PSA. PMID:26604527

  13. High Dynamic Range Characterization of the Trauma Patient Plasma Proteome

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tao; Qian, Weijun; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Kaushal, Amit; Monroe, Matthew E.; Varnum, Susan M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Maier, Ronald V.; Davis, Ronald W.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-06-08

    While human plasma represents an attractive sample for disease biomarker discovery, the extreme complexity and large dynamic range in protein concentrations present significant challenges for characterization, candidate biomarker discovery, and validation. Herein, we describe a strategy that combines immunoaffinity subtraction and chemical fractionation based on cysteinyl peptide and N-glycopeptide captures with 2D-LC-MS/MS to increase the dynamic range of analysis for plasma. Application of this ''divide-and-conquer'' strategy to trauma patient plasma significantly improved the overall dynamic range of detection and resulted in confident identification of 22,267 unique peptides from four different peptide populations (cysteinyl peptides, non-cysteinyl peptides, N-glycopeptides, and non-glycopeptides) that covered 3654 nonredundant proteins. Numerous low-abundance proteins were identified, exemplified by 78 ''classic'' cytokines and cytokine receptors and by 136 human cell differentiation molecules. Additionally, a total of 2910 different N-glycopeptides that correspond to 662 N-glycoproteins and 1553 N-glycosylation sites were identified. A panel of the proteins identified in this study is known to be involved in inflammation and immune responses. This study established an extensive reference protein database for trauma patients, which provides a foundation for future high-throughput quantitative plasma proteomic studies designed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie systemic inflammatory responses.

  14. The use of Quantiferon-TB gold in-tube test in screening latent tuberculosis among Saudi Arabia dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Al Wakeel, Jamal Saleh; Makoshi, Ziyad; Al Ghonaim, Mohammed; Al Harbi, Ali; Al Suwaida, Abdulkareem; Algahtani, Farjah; Al Hedaithy, Mogbil; Almogairin, Sultan; Abdullah, Sami

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Screening for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling infection. This study aimed to detect latent TB among dialysis patients. METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh involving hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients aged ≥18 years. Patients were screened for latent TB infection (LTBI) using both TBskin test (TST) and QuantiFERONTB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT). All participants were followed-up clinically and radiologically every 3 months for 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 243 (181 HD and 62 PD) patients were included and 112(46.1%) were males. 45.3% showed positive QFT in HD patients with sensitivity of 91.7%, specificity of 71.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 19.5%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.1%. TST results in HD showed that positive TST was 17.4%, sensitivity was 63.2%, specificity was 95.5%, PPV was 51.5%, and NPV was 91.1%. Five (8.1%) showed positive QFT in PD patients with sensitivity of 7.7%, specificity of 91.8%, PPV of 6.6%, and NPV of 92.3%. TST results in PD showed that positive TST was 9.8%, sensitivity was 35.7%, specificity was 97.9%, PPV was 55.8%, and NPV was 93.3%. Previous TB infection was significantly correlated with QFT only in HD patients, but significantly associated with TST in both HD and PD patients. Also in HD, QFT was significantly associated with TST (P = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Due to high variability of QFT-GIT sensitivity, we recommend its use for its NPV and to use either TST or QFT in screening latent TB. PMID:26664568

  15. Effect of Noninvasive Ventilation Delivered by Helmet vs Face Mask on the Rate of Endotracheal Intubation in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhakti K.; Wolfe, Krysta S.; Pohlman, Anne S.; Hall, Jesse B.; Kress, John P.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with a face mask is relatively ineffective at preventing endotracheal intubation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Delivery of NIV with a helmet may be a superior strategy for these patients. OBJECTIVE To determine whether NIV delivered by helmet improves intubation rate among patients with ARDS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Single-center randomized clinical trial of 83 patients with ARDS requiring NIV delivered by face mask for at least 8 hours while in the medical intensive care unit at the University of Chicago between October 3, 2012, through September 21, 2015. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomly assigned to continue face mask NIV or switch to a helmet for NIV support for a planned enrollment of 206 patients (103 patients per group). The helmet is a transparent hood that covers the entire head of the patient and has a rubber collar neck seal. Early trial termination resulted in 44 patients randomized to the helmet group and 39 to the face mask group. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who required endotracheal intubation. Secondary outcomes included 28-day invasive ventilator–free days (ie, days alive without mechanical ventilation), duration of ICU and hospital length of stay, and hospital and 90-day mortality. RESULTS Eighty-three patients (45% women; median age, 59 years; median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, 26) were included in the analysis after the trial was stopped early based on predefined criteria for efficacy. The intubation rate was 61.5% (n = 24) for the face mask group and 18.2% (n = 8) for the helmet group (absolute difference, −43.3%; 95% CI, −62.4%to −24.3%; P < .001). The number of ventilator-free days was significantly higher in the helmet group (28 vs 12.5, P < .001). At 90 days, 15 patients (34.1%) in the helmet group died compared with 22 patients (56.4%) in the face mask group

  16. Running out of gas but not trauma patients: the effect of the price of gas on trauma admissions.

    PubMed

    Goettler, Claudia E; Schlitzkus, Lisa L; Waibel, Brett H; Edwards, Melinda; Wilhelmsen, Bruce; Rotondo, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    As fuel costs steadily rise and motor vehicle collisions continue to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, we examined the relationship between the price of gasoline and the rate of trauma admissions related to gasoline consumption (GRT). The National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons data of a rural Level I trauma center were queried over 27 consecutive months to identify the rate of trauma admissions/month related to gas utilization compared with the number of nongasoline related trauma admissions, based on season and day of the week. The average price/gallon of regular gas in our region was obtained from the NorthCarolinaGasPrices. com database. A log linear model with a Poisson distribution was created. No significant association exists between the average price/gallon of gasoline and the GRT rate across the months, seasons, and weekday and weekend periods. As the price of gas continues to rise, the rate of rural GRT does not decrease. Over a longer period of time and with skyrocketing prices, this relationship may not hold true. These findings may also be explained by the rural area where limited alternative transportation opportunities exist and a trauma patient population participating in high risk behavior regardless of cost. PMID:20135941

  17. [Successful Intubation in a Patient with Limited Oral Opening by Using a Combination of the Parker Flex-IT™ Stylet and McGRATH® MAC Laryngoscopy].

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Hironobu; Terao, Kazuhisa; Kitamura, Akira

    2015-10-01

    A 74-year-old female patient underwent a coil embolization for an unruptured cerebral aneurysm. A routine anesthetic protocol was devised as there was no risk of a difficult airway. We attempted to intubate by using direct laryngoscopy but were unable to because the mouth only opened approximately one finger-breadth. We then attempted to intubate using Mc-GRATH® MAC laryngoscopy; the McGRATH® MAC laryngoscope could be inserted orally by force, but a tracheal tube and stylet could not been guided into the glottis. We changed the stylet to a Parker Flex-IT™ Stylet (Parker Medical, CO, USA), which can be freely curved by pushing the sum button on the top of the stylet. As a result, easy intubation was possible, and the DLT was maneuvered at a proper angle while examining the vocal cords by using the Parker Flex-IT™ Stylet In conclusion, when a McGRATH® MAC laryngoscope cannot be operated freely in the oral cavity owing to a limited oral opening, we can instead intubate easily and effectively by using a combination of a Parker Flex-IT™ Stylet and the McGRATH® MAC video laryngoscope. PMID:26742408

  18. Can breathing circuit filters help prevent the spread of influenza A (H1N1) virus from intubated patients?

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Jan F.; Crozier, Thomas A.; Howard, Glenn; Quintel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In March 2010, more than 213 countries worldwide reported laboratory confirmed cases of influenza H1N1 infections with at least 16,813 deaths. In some countries, roughly 10 to 30% of the hospitalized patients were admitted to the ICU and up to 70% of those required mechanical ventilation. The question now arises whether breathing system filters can prevent virus particles from an infected patient from entering the breathing system and passing through the ventilator into the ambient air. We tested the filters routinely used in our institution for their removal efficacy and efficiency for the influenza virus A H1N1 (A/PR/8/34). Methods: Laboratory investigation of three filters (PALL Ultipor® 25, Ultipor® 100 and Pall BB50T Breathing Circuit Filter, manufactured by Pall Life Sciences) using a monodispersed aerosol of human influenza A (H1N1) virus in an air stream model with virus particles quantified as cytopathic effects in cultured canine kidney cells (MDCK). Results: The initial viral load of 7.74±0.27 log10 was reduced to a viral load of ≤2.43 log10, behind the filter. This represents a viral filtration efficiency of ≥99.9995%. Conclusion: The three tested filters retained the virus input, indicating that their use in the breathing systems of intubated and mechanically ventilated patients can reduce the risk of spreading the virus to the breathing system and the ambient air. PMID:23967395

  19. Intentional esophageal intubation to improve visualization during emergent endotracheal intubation in the context of massive vomiting: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sorour, Khaled; Donovan, Lucas

    2015-03-01

    Impaired visualization during intubation due to vomitus of gastric contents is a potential cause of failed intubation. An 82-year-old woman was intubated emergently for respiratory distress secondary to aspiration of gastric contents. Her intubation was hindered by the presence of a massive amount of ongoing vomitus that impaired visualization and overwhelmed all suction capabilities. Intentional blind intubation of the esophagus with an endotracheal tube was performed with successful diversion of ongoing vomitus away from the airway. Thereafter, after brief suctioning, the larynx was quickly visualized and the patient was successfully intubated. PMID:25577031

  20. Comparative Efficacy of the Air-Q Intubating Laryngeal Airway during General Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Eun Jin; Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol; Bang, Si Ra

    2016-01-01

    Air-Q® (air-Q) is a supraglottic airway device which can be used as a guidance of intubation in pediatric as well as in adult patients. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of air-Q compared to other airway devices during general anesthesia in pediatric patients by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 10 studies including 789 patients were included in the final analysis. Compared with other supraglottic airway devices, air-Q showed no evidence for a difference in leakage pressure and insertion time. The ease of insertion was significantly lower than other supraglottic airway devices. The success rate of intubation was significantly lower than other airway devices. However, fiberoptic view was better through the air-Q than other supraglottic airway devices. Therefore, air-Q could be a safe substitute for other airway devices and may provide better fiberoptic bronchoscopic view. PMID:27419134

  1. The use of massive transfusion protocol for trauma and non-trauma patients in a civilian setting: what can be done better?

    PubMed Central

    Wijaya, Ramesh; Cheng, Hui Min Gloria; Chong, Chee Keong

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Massive transfusion protocol (MTP) is increasingly used in civilian trauma cases to achieve better haemostatic resuscitation in patients requiring massive blood transfusions (MTs), with improved survival outcomes. However, in non-trauma patients, evidence for MTP is lacking. This study aims to assess the outcomes of a newly established MTP in a civilian setting, for both trauma and non-trauma patients, in an acute surgical care unit. METHODS A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on 46 patients for whom MTP was activated in Changi General Hospital, Singapore. The patients were categorised into trauma and non-trauma groups. Assessment of Blood Consumption (ABC) score was used to identify MTP trauma patients and analyse over-activation rates. RESULTS Only 39.1% of all cases with MTP activation eventually received MTs; 39.8% of the MTs were for non-trauma patients. Mean fresh frozen plasma to packed red blood cells (pRBC) ratio achieved with MTP was 0.741, while mean platelet to pRBC ratio was 0.213. The 24-hour mortality rate for all patients who received an MT upon MTP activation was 33.3% (trauma vs. non-trauma group: 45.5% vs. 14.3%). The ABC scoring system used for trauma patients had a sensitivity and specificity of 81.8% and 41.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION MTP may be used for both trauma and non-trauma patients in acute care surgery. Scoring systems to predict the need for an MT, improved compliance to predefined transfusion ratios and regular reviews of the MTP are necessary to optimise MTPs and to improve the outcomes of patients receiving MTs. PMID:27211577

  2. Factors Associated with the Use of Helicopter Inter-facility Transport of Trauma Patients to Tertiary Trauma Centers within an Organized Rural Trauma System

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Kenneth; Garwe, Tabitha; Bhandari, Naresh; Danford, Brandon; Albrecht, Roxie

    2016-01-01

    Objective A review of the literature yielded little information regarding factors associated with the decision to use ground (GEMS) or helicopter (HEMS) emergency medical services for trauma patients transferred inter-facility. Furthermore, studies evaluating the impact of inter-facility transport mode on mortality have reported mixed findings. Since HEMS transport is generally reserved for more severely injured patients, this introduces indication bias, which may explain the mixed findings. Our objective was to identify factors at referring non-tertiary trauma centers (NTC) influencing transport mode decision. Methods This was a case-control study of trauma patients transferred from a Level III or IV NTC to a tertiary trauma center (TTC) within 24-hours reported to the Oklahoma State Trauma Registry between 2005 and 2012. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine clinical and non-clinical factors associated with the decision to use HEMS. Results A total of 7380 patients met the study eligibility. Of these, 2803(38%) were transported inter-facility by HEMS. Penetrating injury, prehospital EMS transport, severe torso injury, hypovolemic shock, and TBI were significant predictors (p<0.05) of HEMS use regardless of distance to a TTC. Association between HEMS use and male gender, Level IV NTC, and local ground EMS resources varied by distance from the TTC. Many HEMS transported patients had minor injuries and normal vital signs. Conclusions Our results suggest that while distance remains the most influential factor associated with HEMS use, significant differences exist in clinical and non-clinical factors between patients transported by HEMS versus GEMS. To ensure comparability of study groups, studies evaluating outcome differences between HEMS and GEMS should take factors determining transport mode into account. The findings will be used to develop propensity scores to balance baseline risk between GEMS and HEMS patients for use in subsequent studies

  3. Evaluation of Injuries Caused by Penetrating Chest Traumas in Patients Referred to the Emergency Room.

    PubMed

    Aghaei Afshar, M; Mangeli, F; Nakhaei, A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of different injuries caused by penetrating chest traumas, and also the cause and type of trauma and its accompanying injuries. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study, carried out on all patients referred to the emergency room of Shahid Bahonar Hospital, Kerman, from March 2000 to September 2008, due to penetrating chest trauma. The required information including age, sex, cause of trauma, type and site of injury, and accompanying injury was obtained and used to fill out a questionnaire and then was analyzed. 828 patients were included in the study; most of them were in the age range of 20-29. Of the patients, 97.6 % were males. The most frequent cause of trauma was stabbing, and the most frequent injuries following the trauma were pneumothorax and hemothorax. Orthopedic trauma was the most frequent accompanying injury. The most commonly used diagnostic method was plain chest radiography. In 93 % of the patients, the chest tube was placed and thoracotomy was performed for 97 % of the patients. Shahid Bahonar Hospital is a referral Trauma Centre and treats large number of chest trauma patients. Most patients need only chest tube placement as a definitive treatment. PMID:26246700

  4. Anesthetic considerations in orthopedic patients with or without trauma.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Amandeep S

    2010-05-01

    Anesthetic management of orthopedic patients could vary from normal routine management to more challenging critical management depending on the state in which the patient is presented. Multimodal pain management strategies incorporating opioids, which are the mainstay drugs for pain management, along with adjunctive drugs like local anesthetics (eg, lidocaine), dissociative anesthetics (eg, ketamine), and alpha-2 agonists (eg, dexmedetomidine), could improve overall patient comfort and help prevent establishment of chronic pain pathways. Also, use of local nerve blocks can prevent nociception right at the point of origin. Orthopedic patients with multiple organ traumas like head injuries, spinal injuries, pulmonary fat embolism, compartment syndrome, or thoracic injuries are high-risk patients in which any life-threatening organ pathology should be addressed before the patient is put under general anesthesia. Interactions of various drugs like antibiotics and neuromuscular blocking agents used in the perioperative period in orthopedic patients should warrant a careful consideration with respect to their interactions with each other and other anesthetic drugs used. PMID:20515674

  5. Chromoblastomycosis in a Diabetic Patient Without a History of Trauma.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Schneider, Samantha; Villasante, Alexandra; Villada, Gabriel; Patel, Tejas; Hu, Shasa; Romanelli, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a slowly progressive cutaneous and subcutaneous mycosis mostly seen in tropical and subtropical areas and Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the most common cause. The authors describe the case of a diabetic Haitian woman, presenting with a chronic verrucous plaque without any history of trauma. Her histopathologic results showed epidermal hyperplasia and sclerotic bodies, which are diagnostic for CBM. Her therapy began with itraconazole 200 mg tablets twice a day. The unique feature of this patient is the coincidence of diabetes and CBM. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of human CBM in Miami, FL, which develops the awareness regarding this diagnosis among doctors in this area. There should be a close communication between dermatologists and pathologists to make an early diagnosis of CBM and also adequate therapy, which both are fundamental to improve patient's quality of life. PMID:25830721

  6. Case Report: Perioperative management of a pregnant poly trauma patient for spine fixation surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vandse, Rashmi; Cook, Meghan; Bergese, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is estimated to complicate approximately one in twelve pregnancies, and is currently a leading non-obstetric cause of maternal death. Pregnant trauma patients requiring non-obstetric surgery pose a number of challenges for anesthesiologists. Here we present the successful perioperative management of a pregnant trauma patient with multiple injuries including occult pneumothorax who underwent T9 to L1 fusion in prone position, and address the pertinent perioperative anesthetic considerations and management. PMID:26309729

  7. A modified submental orotracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Savitha, Keelara Shivalingaiah; Kujur, Abha Rani; Vikram, M. S.; Joseph, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    In patients with concomitant occurrence of maxillofacial and basilar skull fractures, open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment. It requires intermittent intra operative dental occlusion which precludes oral or nasal intubation. In such cases submental intubation (SMI) is a recognized technique in practice. We describe a modified technique for smooth exteriorization of the endotracheal tube (ETT) during SMI. As the SMI technique is unusual for the performer, emphasis is laid on the applied aspects to minimize probable complications during the procedure. With the modified technique we performed SMI uneventfully on five patients PMID:26957708

  8. A modified submental orotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Savitha, Keelara Shivalingaiah; Kujur, Abha Rani; Vikram, M S; Joseph, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    In patients with concomitant occurrence of maxillofacial and basilar skull fractures, open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment. It requires intermittent intra operative dental occlusion which precludes oral or nasal intubation. In such cases submental intubation (SMI) is a recognized technique in practice. We describe a modified technique for smooth exteriorization of the endotracheal tube (ETT) during SMI. As the SMI technique is unusual for the performer, emphasis is laid on the applied aspects to minimize probable complications during the procedure. With the modified technique we performed SMI uneventfully on five patients. PMID:26957708

  9. [Successful fiberoptic tracheal intubation guided by Airwayscope with a thin Intlock blade in a patient with severe rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Nakao, Kenta; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Kusunoki, Tomohiro; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Soen, Masako; Uda, Rumiko; Akatsuka, Masafumi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-07-01

    We present a case of anticipated difficult airway with severe rheumatoid arthritis in which intubation with fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) assisted by Pentax-AWS Airwayscope with the thin Intlock (AWS T) was effective. A 69-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in a previous hospital. Tracheal intubation with Glidescope or nasal intubation was unsuccessful and abandoned due to mucosal injury and bleeding. Ventilation via several supraglottic airway devices was unsatisfactory, while mask ventilation was easy after induction of anesthesia. She was referred to our hospital for application of veno-arterial extracorporeal life support in case of 'cannot ventilate and cannot intubate'. We planned to perform tracheal intubation preserving spontaneous breathing under intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl. We could visualize the epiglottis, but could not set the target mark to the invisible glottis with AWS-T. Finally, we could accomplish uneventful tracheal intubation with FOB along with the Intlock's guides of AWS-T. PMID:25098142

  10. Factors influencing intensive care nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding ventilator-associated pneumonia and oral care practice in intubated patients in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Ante; Badovinac, Ana; Spalj, Stjepan; Par, Matej; Slaj, Martina; Plančak, Darije

    2014-10-01

    Adequate oral care in intubated patients may reduce occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, and oral care practice in Croatian intensive care units and influencing factors. Nurses' knowledge is insufficient; however, most of them reported positive attitude toward the importance of oral care. Performed oral hygiene measures are mostly inappropriate. There is a need to improve the knowledge of ventilator-associated pneumonia and oral care. PMID:25278406

  11. Is there evidence to support the need for routine surgeon presence on trauma patient arrival?

    PubMed

    Green, Steven M

    2006-05-01

    The trauma center certification requirements of the American College of Surgeons include the expectation that, whenever possible, general surgeons be routinely present at the emergency department arrival of seriously injured patients. The 2 historical factors that originally prompted this requirement, frequent exploratory laparotomies and emergency physicians without trauma training, no longer exist in most modern trauma centers. Research from multiple centers and in multiple varying formats has not identified improvement in patient-oriented outcomes from early surgeon involvement. Surgeons are not routinely present during the resuscitative phase of Canadian and European trauma care, with no demonstrated or perceived decrease in the quality of care. American trauma surgeons themselves do not consistently believe that their use in this capacity is either necessary or an efficient distribution of resources. There is not compelling evidence to support the assumption that trauma outcomes are improved by the routine presence of surgeons on patient arrival. Research is necessary to clarify which trauma patients require either emergency or urgent unique expertise of a general surgeon during the initial phase of trauma management. Individual trauma centers should be permitted the flexibility necessary to perform such research and to use such findings to refine and focus their secondary triage criteria. PMID:16631973

  12. Evaluation of the Truview™ EVO2 laryngoscope for nasotracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Raveendra, U. S.; Mehandale, Sripada G.; Shetty, Sumalatha R.; Kamath, Manjunath R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Truview™ EVO2 laryngoscope, with its unique optical lens system and blade tip angulation, has proved its usefulness in providing adequate laryngeal exposure and intubation via the oral route. However, the same has not been evaluated for nasotracheal intubation. Aim: We evaluated the suitability of the Truview™ EVO2 laryngoscope for nasotracheal intubation. Methods: Fifty ASA grade I and II elective surgical patients were studied. Patients aged below 15 years or having difficult airway were excluded. Under standard anesthesia protocol, nasotracheal intubation was performed using a Truview™ EVO2 laryngoscope and, in cases of inability to complete intubation in three attempts, the Macintosh laryngoscope was used. Time taken for intubation, use of Magill's forceps and need for optimization maneuvers were noted. The primary outcome was percentage of successful intubation, while hemodynamic changes and duration of intubation were taken as secondary outcomes. Results: Majority (94%) could be intubated successfully with the Truview™ EVO2 laryngoscope. Average time taken for intubation was 50.1 s. The hemodynamic changes were not clinically significant. Regression analysis revealed lack of association between duration of intubation and hemodynamic changes. There were no serious complications. Conclusion: The Truview™ EVO2 laryngoscope is a useful tool in performing nasotracheal intubation, ensuring a high level of success rate among patients with normal airway anatomy. PMID:23492842

  13. Pre-Trauma Center Red Blood Cell Transfusion Is Associated with Improved Early Outcomes in Air Medical Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua B; Sperry, Jason L; Fombona, Anisleidy; Billiar, Timothy R; Peitzman, Andrew B; Guyette, Francis X

    2015-01-01

    Background Hemorrhage is the leading cause of survivable death in trauma. Resuscitation strategies including early red blood cell (RBC) transfusion have reduced this. Pre-trauma center (PTC) RBC transfusion is growing and preliminary evidence suggests improved outcomes. The study objective was to evaluate the association of PTC RBC transfusion with outcomes in air medical trauma patients. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of trauma patients transported by helicopter to a level-I trauma center, 2007—2012. Patients receiving PTC RBC transfusion were matched to control patients (receiving no PTC RBC transfusion during transport) in a 1:2 ratio using a propensity-score based on prehospital variables. Conditional logistic regression and mixed-effects linear regression were used to determine the association of PTC RBC transfusion with outcomes. Subgroup analysis was performed for scene transport patients. Results Two-hundred forty treatment patients were matched to 480 control patients receiving no PTC RBC transfusion. PTC RBC transfusion was associated with increased odds of 24-hour survival (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.92; 95%CI 1.51, 16.04, p=0.01), lower odds of shock (AOR 0.28; 95%CI 0.09, 0.85, p=0.03), and lower 24-hour RBC requirement (Coef −3.6 RBC units; 95%CI −7.0, −0.2, p=0.04). Among matched scene patients, PTC RBC was also associated with increased odds of 24-hour survival (AOR 6.31; 95%CI 1.88, 21.14, p<0.01), lower odds of shock (AOR 0.24; 95%CI 0.07, 0.80, p=0.02), and lower 24-hour RBC requirement (Coef −4.5 RBC units; 95%CI −8.3, −0.7, p=0.02). Conclusions PTC RBC was associated with an increased probability of 24-hour survival, decreased risk of shock, and lower 24-hour RBC requirement. PTC RBC appears beneficial in severely injured air medical trauma patients and prospective study is warranted as PTC RBC transfusion becomes more readily available. PMID:25840537

  14. A Genomic Score Prognostic of Outcome in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Warren, H Shaw; Elson, Constance M; Hayden, Douglas L; Schoenfeld, David A; Cobb, J Perren; Maier, Ronald V; Moldawer, Lyle L; Moore, Ernest E; Harbrecht, Brian G; Pelak, Kimberly; Cuschieri, Joseph; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G; Finnerty, Celeste C; Brownstein, Bernard H; Hennessy, Laura; Mason, Philip H; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic injuries frequently lead to infection, organ failure, and death. Health care providers rely on several injury scoring systems to quantify the extent of injury and to help predict clinical outcome. Physiological, anatomical, and clinical laboratory analytic scoring systems (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE], Injury Severity Score [ISS]) are utilized, with limited success, to predict outcome following injury. The recent development of techniques for measuring the expression level of all of a person’s genes simultaneously may make it possible to develop an injury scoring system based on the degree of gene activation. We hypothesized that a peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression score could predict outcome, including multiple organ failure, following severe blunt trauma. To test such a scoring system, we measured gene expression of peripheral blood leukocytes from patients within 12 h of traumatic injury. cRNA derived from whole blood leukocytes obtained within 12 h of injury provided gene expression data for the entire genome that were used to create a composite gene expression score for each patient. Total blood leukocytes were chosen because they are active during inflammation, which is reflective of poor outcome. The gene expression score combines the activation levels of all the genes into a single number which compares the patient’s gene expression to the average gene expression in uninjured volunteers. Expression profiles from healthy volunteers were averaged to create a reference gene expression profile which was used to compute a difference from reference (DFR) score for each patient. This score described the overall genomic response of patients within the first 12 h following severe blunt trauma. Regression models were used to compare the association of the DFR, APACHE, and ISS scores with outcome. We hypothesized that patients with a total gene response more different from uninjured volunteers would tend to have poorer

  15. Trauma in elderly patients evaluated in a hospital emergency department in Konya, Turkey: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Hasan; Bayir, Aysegul; Ak, Ahmet; Akinci, Murat; Tufekci, Necmettin; Degirmenci, Selim; Azap, Melih

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Trauma is a common cause of admission to the hospital emergency department. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cause of admission, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients aged ≥65 years admitted to an emergency department in Turkey because of blunt trauma. Materials and methods Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for 568 patients (314 women and 254 men) aged ≥65 years who were admitted to an emergency department of a tertiary care hospital. Results Trauma was caused by low-energy fall in 379 patients (67%), traffic accident in 79 patients (14%), high-energy fall in 69 patients (12%), and other causes in 41 patients (7%). The most frequent sites of injury were the lower extremity, thorax, upper extremity, and head. The femur was the most frequent fracture site. After evaluation in the emergency department, 377 patients (66%) were hospitalized. There were 31 patients (5%) who died. Risk of hospitalization after trauma was significantly associated with trauma to the lower extremity, thorax, and spine; fractures of the femur and rib; and intracranial injury. Conclusion Emergency department admission after trauma in patients aged ≥65 years is common after low-energy falls, and most injuries occur to the extremities. It is important to focus on prevention of falls to decrease the frequency of trauma in the elderly. PMID:24376346

  16. [Successful awake tracheal intubation in the sitting position using the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope in a patient with hypopharyngeal cancer and gastroesophageal regurgitation].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yu; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Omoto, Haruka; Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Kido, Haruki; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-06-01

    We report the successful awake tracheal intubation in a patient with hypopharyngeal cancer and gastroesophageal regurgitation with the TaperGuard Evac tracheal tube (TaperGuard) and Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS). A 63-year-old man with hypopharyngeal cancer with invasion to the glottis was scheduled for total laryngectomy under general anesthesia. He had undergone thoracic esophagectomy and could not maintain supine position due to severe gastroesophageal regurgitation. To avoid vomiting after induction of anesthesia, we planned awake intubation in the sitting position with the AWS. After topical anesthesia with 8% lidocaine and infusion of fentanyl and continuous dexmedetomidine, the AWS was inserted into his mouth in the sitting position from the cranial side. The AWS allowed visualizing the glottis avoiding the cancer, leading to safe placement of the tracheal tube. PMID:24979861

  17. [Intubation using the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope with an infant-size Intlock in a patient with increased intracranial pressure due to acute hydrocephalus].

    PubMed

    Matsunami, Sayuri; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Nakao, Kenta; Nakano, Shoko; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    We report our experience with the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope with an infant-size Intlock (AWS-I) in a patient with increased intracranial pressure due to acute hydrocephalus. A 12-month-old female infant with increased intracranial pressure due to acute hydrocephalus was scheduled to undergo emergent ventriculoperitoneal shunting under general anesthesia. She had a clonic convulsion and was sedated with midazolam. As her head was enlarged, head-tilting was difficult. Tracheal intubation while preventing an intracranial pressure increase was needed. After induction of general anesthesia with thiamylal and fentanyl the AWS-I was inserted to obtain a laryngoscopic view without excessive force. Under AWS observation, tracheal intubation was uneventful, and no vital sign change was observed. PMID:24783606

  18. [Pentax-AWS Airwayscope for awake tracheal intubation in the face-to-face sitting position in an emergency patient with acute exacerbation of aortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    Seno, Hisayo; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Ohchi, Fumihiro; Miyazaki, Yu; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-08-01

    We report a successful awake tracheal intubation in an emergency patient with acute exacerbation of aortic stenosis using the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS). An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department for severe dyspnea due to exacerbation of aortic stenosis. Her Sp(O2) was 92-93% even after administration of 10 l x min(-1) oxygen through a reservoir-attached face mask. As she could not remain in the supine position, emergency tracheal intubation in the sitting position was required. After topical anesthesia with 8% lidocaine and careful administration of midazolam, the AWS was inserted into her mouth in the sitting, face-to-face position. The AWS allowed for visualization of the glottis and safe placement of the tracheal tube. Sufficient spontaneous ventilation was maintained during interventions with minimum vital sign changes. Awake intubation in the sitting position with the AWS may be helpful in resolving cardiovascular crisis in patients unable to maintain the supine position. PMID:25199329

  19. Assessing Incidence and Risk Factors of Cervical Spine Injury in Blunt Trauma Patients Using the National Trauma Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew J; Wolfe, Luke; Tinkoff, Glenn; Duane, Therese M

    2015-09-01

    Despite the potentially devastating impact of missed cervical spine injuries (CI), there continues to be a large disparity in how institutions attempt to make the diagnosis. To better streamline the approach among institutions, understanding incidence and risk factors across the country is paramount. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of CI using the National Trauma Databank for 2008 and 2009. We performed a retrospective review of the National Trauma Databank for 2008 and 2009 comparing patients with and without CI. We then performed subset analysis separating injury by patients with and without fracture and ligamentous injury. There were a total of 591,138 patients included with a 6.2 per cent incidence of CI. Regression found that age, Injury Severity Score, alcohol intoxication, and specific mechanisms of motor vehicle crash (MVC), motorcycle crash (MCC), fall, pedestrian stuck, and bicycle were independent risk factors for overall injury (P < 0.0001). Patients with CI had longer intensive care unit (8.5 12.5 vs 5.1 7.7) and hospital lengths of stay (days) (9.6 14.2 vs 5.3 8.1) and higher mortality (1.2 per cent vs 0.3%), compared with those without injury (P < 0.0001). There were 33,276 patient with only fractures for an incidence of 5.6 per cent and 1875 patients with ligamentous injury. Just over 6 per cent of patients suffer some form of CI after blunt trauma with the majority being fractures. Higher Injury Severity Score and MVC were consistent risk factors in both groups. This information will assist in devising an algorithm for clearance that can be used nationally allowing for more consistency among trauma providers. PMID:26350665

  20. [Esophageal intubation for palliative treatment in advanced carcinoma of the esophagus and cardia].

    PubMed

    Domene, C E; Cecconello, I; Volpe, P; Zilberstein, B; Sakai, P; Ishioka, S; Pinotti, H W

    1998-01-01

    This is a report of 121 cases of advanced esophageal and cardia cancer managed by endoscopic and surgical esophageal intubation. They were submitted to surgical intubation 69 (53%) patients, and 52 (47%) to endoscopic intubation. There were 32.5% of technical complications in endoscopic intubation and 26.5% in surgical intubation. Perfuration was more frequent (11.5%) in endoscopic intubation than surgical group. Mortality rate was 17.3% for endoscopic and 5.8% for surgical intubation. Perfuration was the main cause of death in endoscopic intubation. Survival rate was 3.5 months for endoscopic and 4.7 months for surgical intubation. The majority of patients died of cancer evolution--caquexia (55.5%), carcinomatosis (4.5%) and brain methastasis (1.1%). The results of endoscopic and surgical intubation in this group of patients recommend its use in patients with advanced esophageal and cardic cancer. PMID:9699358

  1. Vital Signs Strongly Predict Massive Transfusion Need in Geriatric Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Fligor, Scott C; Hamill, Mark E; Love, Katie M; Collier, Bryan R; Lollar, Dan; Bradburn, Eric H

    2016-07-01

    Early recognition of massive transfusion (MT) requirement in geriatric trauma patients presents a challenge, as older patients present with vital signs outside of traditional thresholds for hypotension and tachycardia. Although many systems exist to predict MT need in trauma patients, none have specifically evaluated the geriatric population. We sought to evaluate the predictive value of presenting vital signs in geriatric trauma patients for prediction of MT. We retrospectively reviewed geriatric trauma patients presenting to our Level I trauma center from 2010 to 2013 requiring full trauma team activation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated to assess discrimination of arrival vital signs for MT prediction. Ideal cutoffs with high sensitivity and specificity were identified. A total of 194 patients with complete data were analyzed. Of these, 16 patients received MT. There was no difference between the MT and non-MT groups in sex, age, or mechanism. Systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and shock index all were strongly predictive of MT need. Interestingly, we found that heart rate does not predict MT. MT in geriatric trauma patients can be reliably and simply predicted by arrival vital signs. Heart rate may not reflect serious hemorrhage in this population. PMID:27457863

  2. The effect of introducing a Trauma Network on patient flow, hospital finances and trainee operating.

    PubMed

    Hipps, Daniel; Jameson, Simon; Murty, An; Gregory, Rob; Large, David; Gregson, Jackie; Refaie, Ramsay; Reed, Mike

    2015-02-01

    In April 2012 the National Health Service in England introduced the Trauma Network system with the aim of improving the quality of trauma care. In this study we wished to determine how the introduction of the Trauma network has affected patient flow, hospital finances and orthopaedic trauma training across our region. The overall pattern of trauma distribution was not greatly affected, reflecting the relative rarity of major trauma in the UK. A small decrease in the total number of operations performed by trainees was noted in our region. Trainees at units designated as Major Trauma Centres gained slightly more operative experience in trauma procedures overall, and specifically in those associated with high energy, such as long bone nail insertion and external fixation procedures. However, there have been no significant changes in this pattern since the introduction of the Trauma Networks. Falling operative numbers presents a challenge for delivering high quality training within a surgical training programme, and each case should be seen as a vital educational opportunity. Best practice tariff targets for trauma were delivered for 99% of cases at our MTCs. Future audit and review to analyse the evolving role of the MTCs is desirable. PMID:25697735

  3. Intubation without muscle relaxant: an alternative technique for rapid tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Wong, A K; Teoh, G S

    1996-04-01

    The quality of laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation with propofol augmented by alfentanil was investigated as an alternative technique for rapid tracheal intubation. 119 patients aged between 18 and 60 years (ASA 1 and 2) undergoing elective surgery were prospectively studied in a randomized double-blind controlled fashion. Tracheal intubation facilitated by suxamethonium 1.0 mg/kg alfentanil 15 mu g/kg alfentanil 30 mu g/kg or saline control was compared after propofol induction. The quality of laryngoscopy and intubation were graded according to jaw relaxation, ease of insertion of the endotracheal tube and coughing on intubation. Failure to intubate occurred in 4% and 17% with alfentanil 15 mu g/kg and saline control respectively Tracheal intubation was successful in all patients with alfentanil 30 mu g/kg and suxamethonium 1.0 mg/kg. Alfentanil 15 mu g/kg was not statistically significantly different from saline (P = 0.112). Alfentanil 30 mu g/kg provided similar overall intubating conditions (P = 0.5) to suxamethonium 1.0 mg/kg. Alfentanil in both dosages effectively attenuated the haemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. PMID:9133197

  4. Scene disposition and mode of transport following rural trauma: a prospective cohort study comparing patient costs.

    PubMed

    Cummings, G; O'Keefe, G

    2000-04-01

    This prospective cohort study was performed from 1994 to 1996 to compare the impact of scene disposition on prehospital and hospital costs incurred by rural trauma patients transported to a trauma center by helicopter or ground ambulance. The study included all rural adult injury victims who arrived at the tertiary trauma center by ambulance within 24 h of injury. Inclusion criteria consisted of inpatient admission or death in the emergency department, and any traumatic injury except burns. Data collected included mortality, mode of transport, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and costs from impact to discharge or death. Of 105 study patients, 52 initially went to a rural hospital, while 53 went directly to the trauma center. There was no significant difference in survival in the two groups. The ISS was significantly higher for patients taken directly to the trauma center from the scene. The ISS of trauma patients transported from the rural hospital was highest for patients sent by ground transport. The prehospital transport costs were significantly more for patients transported to a rural hospital first. The costs incurred at the trauma center were highest for those patients transported directly from the scene. Many severely injured patients were initially transported to a rural hospital rather than directly to the trauma center. At both the scene and rural hospital, consistent use of triage criteria appeared to be lacking in determining the severity of injury, appropriate destination, and mode of transport for trauma patients. Since no significant difference in prehospital helicopter and ground transport costs was demonstrated, the decision on mode of transport should be in the best interest of patient care. PMID:10729675

  5. [Chest trauma].

    PubMed

    Freixinet Gilart, Jorge; Ramírez Gil, María Elena; Gallardo Valera, Gregorio; Moreno Casado, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Chest trauma is a frequent problem arising from lesions caused by domestic and occupational activities and especially road traffic accidents. These injuries can be analyzed from distinct points of view, ranging from consideration of the most severe injuries, especially in the context of multiple trauma, to the specific characteristics of blunt and open trauma. In the present article, these injuries are discussed according to the involvement of the various thoracic structures. Rib fractures are the most frequent chest injuries and their diagnosis and treatment is straightforward, although these injuries can be severe if more than three ribs are affected and when there is major associated morbidity. Lung contusion is the most common visceral lesion. These injuries are usually found in severe chest trauma and are often associated with other thoracic and intrathoracic lesions. Treatment is based on general support measures. Pleural complications, such as hemothorax and pneumothorax, are also frequent. Their diagnosis is also straightforward and treatment is based on pleural drainage. This article also analyzes other complex situations, notably airway trauma, which is usually very severe in blunt chest trauma and less severe and even suitable for conservative treatment in iatrogenic injury due to tracheal intubation. Rupture of the diaphragm usually causes a diaphragmatic hernia. Treatment is always surgical. Myocardial contusions should be suspected in anterior chest trauma and in sternal fractures. Treatment is conservative. Other chest injuries, such as those of the great thoracic and esophageal vessels, are less frequent but are especially severe. PMID:21640287

  6. Trauma patterns in patients attending the Emergency Department of Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hokkam, Emad; Gonna, Abdelaziz; Zakaria, Ossama; El-shemally, Amany

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Modern civilization and the sharp rise in living standards have led to dramatic changes in trauma pattern in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to describe the different patterns of injuries of patients attending the Emergency Department of Jazan General Hospital (JGH) in the southwest corner of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A total number of 1 050 patients were enrolled in the study. A pre-organized data sheet was prepared for each patient attended the Emergency Department of JGH from February 2012 to January 2013. It contains data about socio-demographics, trauma data, clinical evaluation results, investigations as well as treatment strategies. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 25.3±16.8 years. Most (45.1%) of the patients were at age of 18–30 years. Males (64.3%) were affected by trauma more common than females. More than half (60.6%) of the patients were from urban areas. The commonest kind of injury was minor injury (60%), followed by blunt trauma (30.9%) and then penetrating trauma (9.1%). The mean time from the incident to arrival at hospital was 41.3±79.8 minutes. The majority (48.2%) of the patients were discharged after management of trivial trauma, whereas 2.3% were admitted to ICU, 7.7% transferred to inpatient wards, and 17.7% observed and subsequently discharged. The mortality rate of the patients was 2.6%. CONCLUSION: Trauma is a major health problem, especially in the young population in Saudi Arabia. Blunt trauma is more frequent than penetrating trauma, with road traffic accidents accounting for the majority. PMID:25802567

  7. Magnitude of Enterococcal Bacteremia in Trauma Patients Admitted for Intensive Trauma Care: A Tertiary Care Experience from South Asian Country

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumari, Nonika; Mathur, Purva; Thanbuana, Bariamtak; Sajan, Swaminathan; Misra, Mahesh C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bloodstream infection (BSI) and bacteremias due to Enterococcus spp. are increasing worldwide with the current need to understand its causes among hospitalized trauma patients. Hence, the study was conducted. Methodology: A 3-year retrospective laboratory cum clinical based study was performed at a level I trauma center in India. Patients with health care associated enterococcal bacteremia were identified using the hospital database, their episodes of BSI/bacteremia calculated and their clinical records and treatment were noted. Results: A total of 104 nonrepetitive Enterococcus spp. was isolated of which Enterococcus faecium was the most common (52%). High-level resistance to gentamicin high-level aminoglycoside resistance was seen in all the Enterococcus spp. causing bacteremia, whereas a low resistance to vancomycin and teichoplanin was observed. Overall mortality was more in patients infected with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (5/11, 46%) compared to those with vancomycin sensitive Enterococcus (9/93, 10%); though no significant association of mortality with Enterococcus spp. bacteremia (P > 0.05) was seen. The rate of bacteremia due to Enterococcus spp. was 25.4 episodes/1,000 admissions (104/4,094) during the study period. Conclusion: Enterococcal bacteremia is much prevalent in trauma care facilities. Here, a microbiologist can act as a sentinel and help in preventing such infections. PMID:25949058

  8. Controversies in the Management of the Trauma Patient.

    PubMed

    Rodman, Regina E; Kellman, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Facial trauma is a significant cause of morbidity in the United States. Despite the large volume of trauma surgeries at most academic institutions, there is still controversy regarding management of many traumatic injuries. The literature lacks clear-cut best practices for most fractures. In orbital trauma, there is debate about the optimal timing of repair, preferred biomaterial to be used, and the utility of evaluation afterward with intraoperative computed tomographic scan. In repair of mandible fractures, there is debate regarding open versus closed reduction of subcondylar fractures, or alternatively, endoscopic repair. PMID:27400843

  9. Encountering unexpected difficult airway: relationship with the intubation difficulty scale

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Wonuk; Kim, Hajung; Kim, Kyongsun; Ro, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background An unexpected difficult intubation can be very challenging and if it is not managed properly, it may expose the encountered patient to significant risks. The intubation difficulty scale (IDS) has been used as a validated method to evaluate a global degree of intubation difficulty. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of unexpected difficult intubation using the IDS. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 951 patients undergoing elective surgery in a single medical center. Patients expected to have a difficult intubation or who had history of difficult intubation were excluded. Each patient was assessed by the IDS scoring system with seven variables. Total prevalence of difficult intubation and the contributing individual factors were further analyzed. Results For the 951 patients, the difficult intubation cases presenting IDS > 5 was 5.8% of total cases (n = 55). The prevalence of Cormack-Lehane Grade 3 or 4 was 16.2% (n = 154). Most of the difficult intubation cases were managed by simple additional maneuvers and techniques such as stylet application, additional lifting force and laryngeal pressure. Conclusions Unexpected difficult airway was present in 5.8% of patients and most was managed effectively. Among the components of IDS, the Cormack-Lehane grade was most sensitive for predicting difficult intubation. PMID:27274369

  10. Epidemiology of Trauma Patients and Analysis of 268 Mortality Cases: Trends of a Single Center in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Chun Sung; Oh, Joong Hwan; Bae, Keum Seok; Lee, Kang Hyun; Lee, Eunbi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is an increasing incidence of mortality among trauma patients; therefore, it is important to analyze the trauma epidemiology in order to prevent trauma death. The authors reviewed the trauma epidemiology retrospectively at a regional emergency center of Korea and evaluated the main factors that led to trauma-related deaths. Materials and Methods A total of 17007 trauma patients were registered to the trauma registry of the regional emergency center at Wonju Severance Christian Hospital in Korea from January 2010 to December 2012. Results The mean age of patients was 35.2 years old. The most frequent trauma mechanism was blunt injury (90.8%), as well as slip-and-fall down injury, motor vehicle accidents, and others. Aside from 142 early trauma deaths, a total of 4673 patients were admitted for further treatment. The most common major trauma sites of admitted patients were on the extremities (38.4%), followed by craniocerebral, abdominopelvis, and thorax. With deaths of 126 patients during in-hospital treatment, the overall mortality (142 early and 126 late deaths) was 5.6% for admitted patients. Ages ≥55, injury severity score ≥16, major craniocerebral injury, cardiopulmonary resuscitation at arrival, probability of survival <25% calculated from the trauma and injury severity score were independent predictors of trauma mortality in multivariate analysis. Conclusion The epidemiology of the trauma patients studied was found to be mainly blunt trauma. This finding is similar to previous papers in terms of demographics and mechanism. Trauma patients who have risk factors of mortality require careful management in order to prevent trauma-related deaths. PMID:25510768

  11. Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults.

    PubMed

    Frerk, C; Mitchell, V S; McNarry, A F; Mendonca, C; Bhagrath, R; Patel, A; O'Sullivan, E P; Woodall, N M; Ahmad, I

    2015-12-01

    These guidelines provide a strategy to manage unanticipated difficulty with tracheal intubation. They are founded on published evidence. Where evidence is lacking, they have been directed by feedback from members of the Difficult Airway Society and based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been informed by advances in the understanding of crisis management; they emphasize the recognition and declaration of difficulty during airway management. A simplified, single algorithm now covers unanticipated difficulties in both routine intubation and rapid sequence induction. Planning for failed intubation should form part of the pre-induction briefing, particularly for urgent surgery. Emphasis is placed on assessment, preparation, positioning, preoxygenation, maintenance of oxygenation, and minimizing trauma from airway interventions. It is recommended that the number of airway interventions are limited, and blind techniques using a bougie or through supraglottic airway devices have been superseded by video- or fibre-optically guided intubation. If tracheal intubation fails, supraglottic airway devices are recommended to provide a route for oxygenation while reviewing how to proceed. Second-generation devices have advantages and are recommended. When both tracheal intubation and supraglottic airway device insertion have failed, waking the patient is the default option. If at this stage, face-mask oxygenation is impossible in the presence of muscle relaxation, cricothyroidotomy should follow immediately. Scalpel cricothyroidotomy is recommended as the preferred rescue technique and should be practised by all anaesthetists. The plans outlined are designed to be simple and easy to follow. They should be regularly rehearsed and made familiar to the whole theatre team. PMID:26556848

  12. Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults†

    PubMed Central

    Frerk, C.; Mitchell, V. S.; McNarry, A. F.; Mendonca, C.; Bhagrath, R.; Patel, A.; O'Sullivan, E. P.; Woodall, N. M.; Ahmad, I.

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines provide a strategy to manage unanticipated difficulty with tracheal intubation. They are founded on published evidence. Where evidence is lacking, they have been directed by feedback from members of the Difficult Airway Society and based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been informed by advances in the understanding of crisis management; they emphasize the recognition and declaration of difficulty during airway management. A simplified, single algorithm now covers unanticipated difficulties in both routine intubation and rapid sequence induction. Planning for failed intubation should form part of the pre-induction briefing, particularly for urgent surgery. Emphasis is placed on assessment, preparation, positioning, preoxygenation, maintenance of oxygenation, and minimizing trauma from airway interventions. It is recommended that the number of airway interventions are limited, and blind techniques using a bougie or through supraglottic airway devices have been superseded by video- or fibre-optically guided intubation. If tracheal intubation fails, supraglottic airway devices are recommended to provide a route for oxygenation while reviewing how to proceed. Second-generation devices have advantages and are recommended. When both tracheal intubation and supraglottic airway device insertion have failed, waking the patient is the default option. If at this stage, face-mask oxygenation is impossible in the presence of muscle relaxation, cricothyroidotomy should follow immediately. Scalpel cricothyroidotomy is recommended as the preferred rescue technique and should be practised by all anaesthetists. The plans outlined are designed to be simple and easy to follow. They should be regularly rehearsed and made familiar to the whole theatre team. PMID:26556848

  13. Comparison of Two Pain Assessment Tools, “Facial Expression” and “Critical Care Pain Observation Tool” in Intubated Patients After Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kiavar, Majid; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Totonchi, Ziae; Tavakoli, Fatemeh; Alizadehasl, Azin; Teymouri, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Critical-care patients are at higher risk of untreated pain, because they are often unable to communicate owing to altered mental status, tracheal intubation and sedation. Objectives: This study compared two pain assessment tools on tracheal intubated critically ill patients in a cardiac post-anesthesia care unit, who were unable to communicate verbally. The studied tools were “critical-care pain observation tool (CPOT)” and “facial expression (FE)”. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study based on diagnostic test evaluation. A sample of 91 intubated patients was selected from cardiac post-anesthesia care unit. Collected data were demographic characteristics, vital signs, FE and CPOT tools’ scale. Pain was assessed with CPOT and FE scores five times. The first assessment was performed in at least 3 hours after admission of patients to ICU. Then, the pain intensity was reassessed every 30 minutes. In addition, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were measured simultaneously. Results: At the first period, the frequency of “severe” pain intensity using the CPOT was 58.2% and with the FE tool was 67% (P = 0.001). Both tools demonstrated reduction in severity of pain on second and third assessment times. Significantly increasing level of pain and blood pressure due to nursing painful procedures (endo-tracheal suctioning, changing patient’s position, etc.), were obtained by CPOT in fourth assessment. FE was not able to detect such important findings (κ = 0.249). In the fifth step, pain intensity was reduced. The most agreement between the two tools was observed when the reported pain was “severe” (κ = 0.787, P < 0.001) and “mild” (κ = 0.851, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The sensitivity of CPOT was higher for detection and evaluation of pain in intubated postoperative patients compared with “Facial Expression”. Best agreement between these tools was observed in two extremes of pain intensity

  14. Pain Assessment and Management in Critically ill Intubated Patients in Jordan: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ayasrah, Shahnaz Mohammad; O’Neill, Teresa Mary; Abdalrahim, Maysoon Saleem; Sutary, Manal Mohammed; Kharabsheh, Muna Suliman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe: (1) pain indicators used by nurses and physicians to assess pain, (2) pain management interventions (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) used by nurses, and (3) indicators used by nurses to verify pain intervention effectiveness. Methodology A total of 301 medical records of currently admitted patients from six different ICUs in Jordan were reviewed using a data collection instrument developed by Gélinas et al. (2004) Pain-related indicators were classified into non-observable (patient’s self-reports of pain) and observable (physiological and behavioral) categories. Results Only 105 (35%) of a total 301 reviewed medical records contained pain assessment data. From these medical records, 15 pain episodes were collected altogether. Observable indicators documented 98% of the 115 pain episodes. Patients’ self-reports of pain were documented only 1.7% of the time. In 78% and 46% of the 115 pain episodes, pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for pain management were documented, respectively. Only 37% of the pain episodes were reassessed with self- report (1%) and observable indicators (36%) to determine the effectiveness of the interventions. Conclusion Pain documentation for assessment, management, and reassessment was lacking and needs improvement. PMID:25505864

  15. Diagnostic imaging of blunt abdominal trauma in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Miele, Vittorio; Piccolo, Claudia Lucia; Trinci, Margherita; Galluzzo, Michele; Ianniello, Stefania; Brunese, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood, and blunt trauma accounts for 80-90 % of abdominal injuries. The mechanism of trauma is quite similar to that of the adults, but there are important physiologic differences between children and adults in this field, such as the smaller blood vessels and the high vasoconstrictive response, leading to the spreading of a non-operative management. The early imaging of children undergoing a low-energy trauma can be performed by CEUS, a valuable diagnostic tool to demonstrate solid organ injuries with almost the same sensitivity of CT scans; nevertheless, as for as urinary tract injuries, MDCT remains still the technique of choice, because of its high sensitivity and accuracy, helping to discriminate between an intra-peritoneal form a retroperitoneal urinary leakage, requiring two different managements. The liver is the most common organ injured in blunt abdominal trauma followed by the spleen. Renal, pancreatic, and bowel injuries are quite rare. In this review we present various imaging findings of blunt abdominal trauma in children. PMID:27075018

  16. Relationship between Obesity and Massive Transfusion Needs in Trauma Patients, and Validation of TASH Score in Obese Population: A Retrospective Study on 910 Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    De Jong, Audrey; Deras, Pauline; Martinez, Orianne; Latry, Pascal; Jaber, Samir; Capdevila, Xavier; Charbit, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Prediction of massive transfusion (MT) is challenging in management of trauma patients. However, MT and its prediction were poorly studied in obese patients. The main objective was to assess the relationship between obesity and MT needs in trauma patients. The secondary objectives were to validate the Trauma Associated Severe Hemorrhage (TASH) score in predicting MT in obese patients and to use a grey zone approach to optimize its ability to predict MT. Methods and Findings An observational retrospective study was conducted in a Level I Regional Trauma Center Trauma in obese and non-obese patients. MT was defined as ≥10U of packed red blood cells in the first 24h and obesity as a BMI≥30kg/m². Between January 2008 and December 2012, 119 obese and 791 non-obese trauma patients were included. The rate of MT was 10% (94/910) in the whole population. The MT rate tended to be higher in obese patients than in non-obese patients: 15% (18/119, 95%CI 9‒23%) versus 10% (76/791, 95%CI 8‒12%), OR, 1.68 [95%CI 0.97‒2.92], p = 0.07. After adjusting for Injury Severity Score (ISS), obesity was significantly associated with MT rate (OR, 1.79[95%CI 1.00‒3.21], p = 0.049). The TASH score was higher in the obese group than in the non-obese group: 7(4–11) versus 5(2–10)(p<0.001). The area under the ROC curves of the TASH score in predicting MT was very high and comparable between the obese and non-obese groups: 0.93 (95%CI, 0.89‒0.98) and 0.94 (95%CI, 0.92‒0.96), respectively (p = 0.80). The grey zone ranged respectively from 10 to 13 and from 9 to 12 in obese and non obese patients, and allowed separating patients at low, intermediate or high risk of MT using the TASH score. Conclusions Obesity was associated with a higher rate of MT in trauma patients. The predictive performance of the TASH score and the grey zones were robust and comparable between obese and non-obese patients. PMID:27010445

  17. New method of preoxygenation for orotracheal intubation in patients with hypoxaemic acute respiratory failure in the intensive care unit, non-invasive ventilation combined with apnoeic oxygenation by high flow nasal oxygen: the randomised OPTINIV study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Samir; Molinari, Nicolas; De Jong, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tracheal intubation in the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with severe life-threatening complications including severe hypoxaemia. Preoxygenation before intubation has been recommended in order to decrease such complications. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV)-assisted preoxygenation allows increased oxygen saturation during the intubation procedure, by applying a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to prevent alveolar derecruitment. However, the NIV mask has to be taken off after preoxygenation to allow the passage of the tube through the mouth. The patient with hypoxaemia does not receive oxygen during this period, at risk of major hypoxaemia. High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) has a potential for apnoeic oxygenation during the apnoea period following the preoxygenation with NIV. Whether application of HFNC combined with NIV is more effective at reducing oxygen desaturation during the intubation procedure compared with NIV alone for preoxygenation in patients with hypoxaemia in the ICU with acute respiratory failure remains to be established. Methods and analysis The HFNC combined to NIV for decreasing oxygen desaturation during the intubation procedure in patients with hypoxaemia in the ICU (OPTINIV) trial is an investigator-initiated monocentre randomised controlled two-arm trial with assessor-blinded outcome assessment. The OPTINIV trial randomises 50 patients with hypoxaemia requiring orotracheal intubation for acute respiratory failure to receive NIV (pressure support=10, PEEP=5, fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2)=100%) combined with HFNC (flow=60 L/min, FiO2=100%, interventional group) or NIV alone (reference group) for preoxygenation. The primary outcome is lowest oxygen saturation during the intubation procedure. Secondary outcomes are intubation-related complications, quality of preoxygenation and ICU mortality. Ethics and dissemination The study project has been approved by the appropriate ethics committee (CPP Sud

  18. Childhood trauma and adult interpersonal relationship problems in patients with depression and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse and neglect in childhood. Methods A total of 325 outpatients diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders completed questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, different forms of childhood trauma, and current interpersonal problems. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to measure five different forms of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect, and sexual abuse) and the short form of the Korean-Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale (KIIP-SC) was used to assess current interpersonal problems. We dichotomized patients into two groups (abused and non-abused groups) based on CTQ score and investigated the relationship of five different types of childhood trauma and interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders using multiple regression analysis. Result Different types of childhood abuse and neglect appeared to have a significant influence on distinct symptom dimensions such as depression, state-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity. In the final regression model, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse during childhood were significantly associated with general interpersonal distress and several specific areas of interpersonal problems in adulthood. No association was found between childhood physical neglect and current general interpersonal distress. Conclusion Childhood emotional trauma has more influence on interpersonal problems in adult patients with

  19. Myocardial contusion in patients with blunt chest trauma as evaluated by thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, L.; Rouby, J.J.; Viars, P.

    1988-07-01

    Fifty five patients suffering from blunt chest trauma were studied to assess the diagnosis of myocardial contusion using thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy. Thirty-eight patients had consistent scintigraphic defects and were considered to have a myocardial contusion. All patients with scintigraphic defects had paroxysmal arrhythmias and/or ECG abnormalities. Of 38 patients, 32 had localized ST-T segment abnormalities; 29, ST-T segment abnormalities suggesting involvement of the same cardiac area as scintigraphic defects; 21, echocardiographic abnormalities. Sixteen patients had segmental hypokinesia involving the same cardiac area as the scintigraphic defects. Fifteen patients had clinical signs suggestive of myocardial contusion and scintigraphic defects. Almost 70 percent of patients with blunt chest trauma had scintigraphic defects related to areas of myocardial contusion. When thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy directly showed myocardial lesion, two-dimensional echocardiography and standard ECG detected related functional consequences of cardiac trauma.

  20. Effects of Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate and Lidocaine on Hemodynamic Variables Following Direct Laryngoscopy and Intubation in Elective Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dehkordi, Masih Ebrahimi; Radpay, Badiozaman; Teimoorian, Hooman; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir

    2013-01-01

    Background Laryngoscopy and intubation incur hemodynamic changes like increase in heart rate, arterial blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, wedge capillary pressure and arrhythmias. Anesthesiologists are continually in search of ways to alleviate such complications. Several medicinal methods have been suggested that serve the purpose including the administration of intravenous magnesium sulfate to minimize these unfavorable responses. This study compares the effects of intravenous administration of lidocaine and magnesium sulfate on unwanted hemodynamic responses following laryngoscopy and intubation in elective surgery candidates. Materials and Methods This randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 60 ASA-I and ASA-II candidates who received 60 mg/kg (based on Lean Body Mass) magnesium sulfate or lidocaine randomly before intubation. Values of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded for both groups during the 5 minutes following administration, and compared with baseline values. Results In both groups, systolic blood pressure increased compared to the baseline value. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups as this increase occurred within the first 3 minutes in the lidocaine group, while within the first minute in the magnesium sulfate group. The increase in diastolic blood pressure was not significant. But there was a significant difference in the mean arterial pressure increase between the two groups since in the magnesium sulfate group this increase occurred in the first minute whereas in the lidocaine group it occurred during the first two minutes. There was no significant difference in the heart rates after intubation between the two groups. Conclusion Magnesium sulfate is more effective than lidocaine in controlling hemodynamics, although it may increase the heart rate. PMID:25191450

  1. Tablets in trauma: using mobile computing platforms to improve patient understanding and experience.

    PubMed

    Furness, Nicholas D; Bradford, Oliver J; Paterson, Maurice P

    2013-03-01

    Tablets are becoming commonplace in the health care setting. Patients often request to view their radiographs after sustaining trauma. This can be challenging, especially if patients are immobile. The authors performed a prospective, questionnaire-based study to assess inpatient desire to view radiographs on tablets and whether viewing images affected patient-rated outcomes of understanding and satisfaction. Enabling trauma patients to view their images on a tablet is a worthwhile practice because it improves patient involvement in decision making, satisfaction, perceived understanding, and overall experience. PMID:23464939

  2. Thoracoscopic tracheal reconstruction without surgical field intubation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kejia; Mei, Jiandong; Hai, Yang; Liu, Chengwu; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A cross‐filed endotracheal intubation is usually applied to maintain single lung ventilation during both open and thoracoscopic tracheal resection and reconstruction. Herein, we report a case of thoracoscopic tracheal resection and reconstruction with interrupted ventilation via transoral endotracheal intubation in a patient with thoracic tracheal adenocarcinoma. Tracheal anastomosis was accomplished using a running suture with a 3‐0 Prolene stitch. PMID:27385994

  3. Sitting Nasal Intubation With Fiberoptic in an Elective Mandible Surgery Under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Seyyed Hassan; Bahrami, Amir; Farahmand, Ali Mohammad; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with mandible deformity may die, as a result of airway management failures. The awake nasal fiberoptic intubation is known as the optimum intubation method, in the mentioned patients, although, in several cases, fiberoptic intubation fails. Case Presentation: The present case discusses a patient with severe deformity of mandible that was admitted for correction with free-flap. The following intubation techniques were used for her airway management, respectively: blind awake nasal intubation, awake oral fiberoptic and awake nasal fiberoptic, which failed all. We therefore decided to perform awake nasal intubation, with fiberoptic, in sitting position. Conclusions: In this case, after failure of awake fiberoptic intubation, awake direct laryngoscopy and blind nasal intubation, finally awake nasal intubation in sitting position, using fiberoptic led to success. PMID:26705521

  4. Collecting core data in severely injured patients using a consensus trauma template: an international multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction No worldwide, standardised definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data from severely injured trauma patients. This study evaluated the feasibility of collecting the data variables of the international consensus-derived Utstein Trauma Template. Methods Trauma centres from three different continents were invited to submit Utstein Trauma Template core data during a defined period, for up to 50 consecutive trauma patients. Directly admitted patients with a New Injury Severity Score (NISS) equal to or above 16 were included. Main outcome variables were data completeness, data differences and data collection difficulty. Results Centres from Europe (n = 20), North America (n = 3) and Australia (n = 1) submitted data on 965 patients, of whom 783 were included. Median age was 41 years (interquartile range (IQR) 24 to 60), and 73.1% were male. Median NISS was 27 (IQR 20 to 38), and blunt trauma predominated (91.1%). Of the 36 Utstein variables, 13 (36%) were collected by all participating centres. Eleven (46%) centres applied definitions of the survival outcome variable that were different from those of the template. Seventeen (71%) centres used the recommended version of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Three variables (age, gender and AIS) were documented in all patients. Completeness > 80% was achieved for 28 variables, and 20 variables were > 90% complete. Conclusions The Utstein Template was feasible across international trauma centres for the majority of its data variables, with the exception of certain physiological and time variables. Major differences were found in the definition of survival and in AIS coding. The current results give a clear indication of the attainability of information and may serve as a stepping-stone towards creation of a European trauma registry. PMID:21992236

  5. Outcome of major trauma patients in a Hong Kong general hospital.

    PubMed

    Kam, C W; Kitchell, A K; Yau, H H; Kan, C H

    1998-09-01

    This is a retrospective study on the outcome using the TRISS methodology of 94 significantly injured patients over a 24-month period, managed by the Hospital Trauma Team in a general hospital since the formation of the Team in August 1994. There were 37 deaths and nine (24.3%) of these were 'potentially preventable' according to TRISS methodology. Seven of these nine 'potentially preventable or unexpected deaths' were transferred from a nearby district hospital where there was no acute operative facilities. There was no significant difference between the sex, age, mode of injury or Injury Severity Score between the direct admission and transfer-in cases and the M-statistic values of the two groups were similar. Five of the nine deaths happened in the first 4 months after the formation of the Trauma Team and the other four were scattered in the subsequent 20 months. The rate of preventable deaths was 50% (five out of 10 deaths) in the first 4 months, and was 15% (four out of 26) in the subsequent period. The probable causes for the 'potentially preventable trauma deaths' were delay owing to interhospital transfer, delay in activation of the trauma team, unidentified intra-peritoneal haemorrhage, failure to control haemorrhage and delayed or inadequate definitive operation. The evident improvement in the reduction of unexpected trauma deaths were likely associated with the success factors of the improvement of the multi-disciplinary cooperation including mutual understanding, simultaneous patient assessment, higher readiness to use diagnostic peritoneal lavage or ultrasonography to evaluate blunt abdominal trauma, earlier senior participation in patient care, shortening in response time of supportive facilities and a gradual cultural change towards dedicated trauma patient care. Further reduction in unexpected deaths can be expected if better prehospital triage by ambulance staff is attained to transfer trauma patients to the most appropriate instead of the nearest

  6. Patterns of Errors Contributing to Trauma Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Russell L.; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; McIntyre, Lisa K.; Foy, Hugh M.; Maier, Ronald V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify patterns of errors contributing to inpatient trauma deaths. Methods: All inpatient trauma deaths at a high-volume level I trauma center from 1996 to 2004 inclusive were audited. Data were collected with daily trauma registry chart abstraction, weekly morbidity and mortality reports, hospital quality assurance reports, and annual trauma registry analyses of risk of death using TRISS and HARM methodology. Deaths that met criteria for low to medium probability of mortality or those with quality of care concerns were analyzed for errors and then subjected to 3-stage peer review at weekly departmental, monthly hospital, and annual regional forums. Patterns of errors were constructed from the compiled longitudinal data. Results: In 9 years, there were 44,401 trauma patient admissions and 2594 deaths (5.8%), of which 601 met low to medium mortality risks. Sixty-four patients (0.14% admissions, 2.47% deaths) had recognized errors in care that contributed to their death. Important error patterns included: failure to successfully intubate, secure or protect an airway (16%), delayed operative or angiographic control of acute abdominal/pelvic hemorrhage (16%), delayed intervention for ongoing intrathoracic hemorrhage (9%), inadequate DVT or gastrointestinal prophylaxis (9%), lengthy initial operative procedures rather than damage control surgery in unstable patients (8%), over-resuscitation with fluids (5%), and complications of feeding tubes (5%). Resulting data-directed institutional and regional trauma system policy changes have demonstrably reduced the incidence of associated error-related deaths. Conclusions: Preventable deaths will occur even in mature trauma systems. This review has identified error patterns that are likely common in all trauma systems, and for which policy interventions can be effectively targeted. PMID:16926563

  7. [Successful nasotracheal intubation with the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope and gum-elastic bougie in a patient with recurrent tongue cancer].

    PubMed

    Kitano, Manabu; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Nakahira, Junko; Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    We report our experience of successful nasotracheal intubation with a spiral tube, by using the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope (AWS) with a gum-elastic bougie (GEB) in a patient with invasive recurrent tongue cancer. The patient was a 55-year-old man who had undergone partial resection of the tongue and cervical lymphadenectomy, and was scheduled for extended resection of the tongue and larynx under general anesthesia. Sufficient mask ventilation with the head-tilt and chin-lift maneuver was achieved. We first inserted AWS gently and visualized the glottis. Next, we inserted the 15 Fr GEB through his nasal aperture and placed it in the trachea under the guidance of the AWS monitor. This allowed us to place the spiral tube uneventfully through the GEB. No evidence of bleeding or damage of the tumor was found. Nasotracheal intubation with the GEB under the guidance of the AWS monitor may be useful in cases such as those involving tongue cancer in which oral space is either narrowed or restricted. PMID:24783605

  8. Myocardial ischaemia during tracheal intubation and extubation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, N D; Alford, A M; Dobson, P M; Peacock, J E; Reilly, C S

    1994-10-01

    The incidence of myocardial ischaemia during tracheal intubation and extubation was compared using ambulatory ECG monitoring in 60 patients undergoing a variety of different surgical operations. Seven patients had myocardial ischaemia after tracheal intubation and seven patients during tracheal extubation. The patients who developed myocardial ischaemia during tracheal extubation had significantly greater rate-pressure products immediately before tracheal extubation (P < 0.05) and 1 min after tracheal extubation (P < 0.01) compared with those patients who did not develop myocardial ischaemia during extubation. PMID:7999498

  9. Psychological Distress After Orthopedic Trauma: Prevalence in Patients and Implications for Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Heather K; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Vincent, Kevin R; Brisbane, Sonya T; Sadasivan, Kalia K

    2015-09-01

    Orthopedic trauma is an unforeseen life-changing event. Serious injuries include multiple fractures and amputation. Physical rehabilitation has traditionally focused on addressing functional deficits after traumatic injury, but important psychological factors also can dramatically affect acute and long-term recovery. This review presents the effects of orthopedic trauma on psychological distress, potential interventions for distress reduction after trauma, and implications for participation in rehabilitation. Survivors commonly experience post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression, and anxiety, all of which interfere with functional gains and quality of life. More than 50% of survivors have psychological distress that can last decades after the physical injury has been treated. Early identification of patients with distress can help care teams provide the resources and support to offset the distress. Several options that help trauma patients navigate their short-term recovery include holistic approaches, pastoral care, coping skills, mindfulness, peer visitation, and educational resources. The long-term physical and mental health of the trauma survivor can be enhanced by strategies that connect the survivor to a network of people with similar experiences or injuries, facilitate support groups, and social support networking (The Trauma Survivors Network). Rehabilitation specialists can help optimize patient outcomes and quality of life by participating in and advocating these strategies. PMID:25772720

  10. Microbiologic characteristics of pathogenic bacteria from hospitalized trauma patients who survived Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Liu, Z; Lin, Z; Zhang, X; Fu, W

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the microbiological characterization of pathogenic bacteria isolated from trauma patients after Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. Most infections were identified in the patients over 60 years of age, with an incidence rate of 78.5%, and more infections in wound (43.3%) and respiratory tract (37.1%) sites were identified. A total of 97 non-duplicated clinical pathogens were isolated from 91 trauma patients. Of those pathogens, 62 (63.9%) were Gram-negative bacilli, 23 (23.7%) were Gram-positive cocci, 9 (9.3%) were fungi, and 3 (3.1%) were anaerobes, such as Clostridium perfringens. The distribution spectrum of pathogens isolated from trauma patients after earthquake was different to that from non-earthquake trauma patients in our hospital at the same time. The most prevalent pathogenic isolates were Escherichia coli (15.4%), Acinetobacter baumannii (14.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.3%), Burkholderia cepacia (11.3%), and Enterococcus spp. (9.3%). The drug susceptibility results showed that most of the Gram-negative bacilli, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia, were susceptible to imipenem, but resistant to the first- and the second-generation cephalosporins. Most of the Gram-positive cocci were susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid, and Synercid/dalfopristin. Characteristics of pathogenic bacterium isolated from trauma patients after earthquake have been demonstrated which play an important role in the appropriate treatment of infections. PMID:22910807

  11. Mortality risk stratification in elderly trauma patients based on initial arterial lactate and base deficit levels.

    PubMed

    Neville, Angela L; Nemtsev, Denis; Manasrah, Raed; Bricker, Scott D; Putnam, Brant A

    2011-10-01

    Elderly trauma patients have worse outcomes than their younger counterparts. Early risk stratification remains difficult, particularly because traditional vital signs are less reliable. We hypothesized that arrival lactate and base deficit (BD) could be used to predict mortality in elderly trauma patients with a normal admission blood pressure. We retrospectively evaluated the prospectively collected trauma registry at our urban Level I trauma center between 2003 and 2009. Patients sustaining blunt trauma, age 55 years or older, with a systolic blood pressure 90 mmHg or higher, and who had arterial lactate and/or BD measured within 4 hours of arrival comprised the study group. Primary outcomes were in-hospital and 24-hour mortality. There were 364 patients with a lactate and 324 with a BD drawn. Patients with a lactate 2.5 mmol or greater were 3.7 times more likely to die than those with a lactate less than 2.5 mmol (95% CI, 1.6 to 8.2; P = 0.0018). The OR for mortality was 5.2 (95% CI, 2.5 to 11.2; P < 0.0001) in patients with a BD -4 or less. Elevated lactate and BD were even stronger predictors of early mortality (within first 24 hours). After increasing the hypotension threshold to a systolic blood pressure 110 mmHg or greater, lactate and BD remained highly predictive of in-hospital and 24-hour mortality. PMID:22127083

  12. Intraoperative Tension Pneumothorax in a Patient With Remote Trauma and Previous Tracheostomy

    PubMed Central

    Mavarez-Martinez, Ana; Soghomonyan, Suren; Sandhu, Gurneet; Rankin, Demicha

    2016-01-01

    Many trauma patients present with a combination of cranial and thoracic injury. Anesthesia for these patients carries the risk of intraoperative hemodynamic instability and respiratory complications during mechanical ventilation. Massive air leakage through a lacerated lung will result in inadequate ventilation and hypoxemia and, if left undiagnosed, may significantly compromise the hemodynamic function and create a life-threatening situation. Even though these complications are more characteristic for the early phase of trauma management, in some cases, such a scenario may develop even months after the initial trauma. We report a case of a 25-year-old patient with remote thoracic trauma, who developed an intraoperative tension pneumothorax and hemodynamic instability while undergoing an elective cranioplasty. The intraoperative patient assessment was made even more challenging by unexpected massive blood loss from the surgical site. Timely recognition and management of intraoperative pneumothorax along with adequate blood replacement stabilized the patient and helped avoid an unfavorable outcome. This case highlights the risks of intraoperative pneumothorax in trauma patients, which may develop even months after injury. A high index of suspicion and timely decompression can be life saving in this type of situation. PMID:27006957

  13. TEFTOM: A Promising General Trauma Expectation/Outcome Measure—Results of a Validation Study on Pan-American Ankle and Distal Tibia Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Michael; Buckley, Richard E.; Paccola, Cleber A. J.; Lorich, Dean G.; Helfet, David L.; Hanson, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Background. In orthopedics, there is no instrument specifically designed to assess patients' expectations of their final surgery outcome in general trauma populations. We developed the Trauma Expectation Factor Trauma Outcome Measure (TEFTOM) to investigate the fulfilment of patients' expectations one year after surgery as a measure of general trauma surgical outcomes. The aim of this paper was to assess the psychometric characteristics of this new general trauma outcome measure. Methods. The questionnaire was tested in 201 ankle and distal tibia fracture patients scheduled for surgery. Patients were followed up for twelve months. The TEFTOM questionnaire was evaluated for its criterion validity, internal consistency, reproducibility, and responsiveness. Results. TOM showed good criterion validity against the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle Scale (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.69–0.77). Internal consistency was acceptable for TEF (Cronbach's alpha = 0.65–0.76) and excellent for TOM (Cronbach's alpha = 0.76–0.85). Reproducibility was moderate to very good (intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) ≥0.67) for TEF and very good (ICC ≥0.92) for TOM. TOM also proved to be responsive to changes in patients' condition over time (Wald test; P < 0.001). Conclusions. TEFTOM is a promising tool for measuring general trauma outcomes in terms of patients' expectation fulfilment that proved to be valid, internally consistent, reproducible, and responsive to change. PMID:24967116

  14. Sphenoid Sinus and Sphenoid Bone Fractures in Patients with Craniomaxillofacial Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cantini Ardila, Jorge Ernesto; Mendoza, Miguel Ángel Rivera; Ortega, Viviana Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sphenoid bone fractures and sphenoid sinus fractures have a high morbidity due to its association with high-energy trauma. The purpose of this study is to describe individuals with traumatic injuries from different mechanisms and attempt to determine if there is any relationship between various isolated or combined fractures of facial skeleton and sphenoid bone and sphenoid sinus fractures. Methods We retrospectively studied hospital charts of all patients who reported to the trauma center at Hospital de San José with facial fractures from December 2009 to August 2011. All patients were evaluated by computed tomography scan and classified into low-, medium-, and high-energy trauma fractures, according to the classification described by Manson. Design This is a retrospective descriptive study. Results The study data were collected as part of retrospective analysis. A total of 250 patients reported to the trauma center of the study hospital with facial trauma. Thirty-eight patients were excluded. A total of 212 patients had facial fractures; 33 had a combination of sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures, and facial fractures were identified within this group (15.5%). Gender predilection was seen to favor males (77.3%) more than females (22.7%). The mean age of the patients was 37 years. Orbital fractures (78.8%) and maxillary fractures (57.5%) were found more commonly associated with sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures. Conclusions High-energy trauma is more frequently associated with sphenoid fractures when compared with medium- and low-energy trauma. There is a correlation between facial fractures and sphenoid sinus and sphenoid bone fractures. A more exhaustive multicentric case-control study with a larger sample and additional parameters will be essential to reach definite conclusions regarding the spectrum of fractures of the sphenoid bone associated with facial fractures. PMID:24436756

  15. Hypothermia as a predictor for mortality in trauma patients at admittance to the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Balvers, Kirsten; Van der Horst, Marjolein; Graumans, Maarten; Boer, Christa; Binnekade, Jan M.; Goslings, J. Carel; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study the impact of hypothermia upon admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) on early and late mortality and to develop a prediction model for late mortality in severely injured trauma patients. Materials and Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed in adult trauma patients admitted to the ICU of two Level-1 trauma centers between 2007 and 2012. Hypothermia was defined as a core body temperature of ≤35° Celsius. Logistic regression analyses were performed to quantify the effect of hypothermia on 24-hour and 28-day mortality and to develop a prediction model. Results: A total of 953 patients were included, of which 354 patients had hypothermia (37%) upon ICU admission. Patients were divided into a normothermic or hypothermic group. Hypothermia was associated with a significantly increased mortality at 24 hours and 28 days (OR 2.72 (1.18-6.29 and OR 2.82 (1.83-4.35) resp.). The variables included in the final prediction model were hypothermia, age, APACHE II score (corrected for temperature), INR, platelet count, traumatic brain injury and Injury Severity Score. The final prediction model discriminated between survivors and non-survivors with high accuracy (AUC = 0.871, 95% CI 0.844-0.898). Conclusions: Hypothermia, defined as a temperature ≤35° Celsius, is common in critically ill trauma patients and is one of the most important physiological predictors for early and late mortality in trauma patients. Trauma patients admitted to the ICU may be at high risk for late mortality if the patient is hypothermic, coagulopathic, severely injured and has traumatic brain injury or an advanced age. PMID:27512330

  16. [Pre-hospital conduct for patients with a severe craniocerebral trauma according to new guidelines].

    PubMed

    Demyda, Iwanna; Maciejewski, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    About 10% of patients with head injury (most common cause of death and persistent disability with patients in young age) are found to develop a severe craniocerebral trauma. The underlying cause of secondary brain damage in such cases is the cerebral ischaemia or hypoxia, which can be effectively prevented by introducing procedures of conduct at the accident site and during the transportation of the patient. Introducing new diagnostic techniques and the right treatment reduces the death rate among diseased with severe craniocerebral trauma by about 20-30%. The article elaborates on a pathophysiological mechanism of head trauma, conduct at the accident site and during the transportation according to BTLS, oxygen therapy, fluid therapy and pharmacological treatment with head injury, direction of the transportation of such patients from the place of accident according to new guidelines. PMID:20229715

  17. Analysis of the incidence of postintubation injuries in patients intubated in the prehospital or early hospital conditions of the hospital emergency department and the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Cierniak, Marcin; Timler, Dariusz; Sobczak, Renata; Wieczorek, Andrzej; Sekalski, Przemyslaw; Borkowska, Natalia; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background Intubation is still one of the best methods to secure the airway. In the case of prehospital or early hospital conditions when factors such as urgency, stress, or inaccuracy of the undertaken activities are involved, the risk of causing complications, for instance, edema or postintubation injuries, increases, especially while dealing with a difficult intubation. The risk of improper inflation of the endotracheal tube cuff also increases, which is considered in this study. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of postintubation complications, such as postintubation injuries or edema, in a research sample, and to examine whether such complications occur more often, for example, while using a guidewire. In this study, we also evaluated the injuries associated with the inflation of the endotracheal tube cuff. Materials and methods This study was performed on a group of 153 patients intubated in prehospital conditions. The tests were carried out in three clinical sites that received patients from prehospital care. Postintubation injuries were revealed and photographed using videolar-yngoscope, such as the C-MAC and the McGrath series 5. The endotracheal tube cuff pressure was measured using a pressure gage manual (VBM Medizintechnik GmbH). The quantitative analyses of differences between incidence of variables were assessed using χ2 test for P<0.05. Analyses have been carried out using the Statistica software. Results In the group of 153 patients, postintubation injuries occurred in 17% of cases. The dependency between using the guidewire and the occurrence of the hematomas and loss of mucosa was statistically significant (P<0.01). In nearly half (42%) of the patients the endotracheal tube cuff pressure was excessively inflated over 30 cm H2O, and in two cases, endotracheal tube displacement was observed on account of poor cuff inflation (<20 cm H2O). Conclusion The highest percentage of overfilled cuffs were observed in the

  18. Diagnosis of abdominal abscesses in patients with major trauma: the use of computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, N.O.; Shatney, C.H.

    1983-04-01

    The usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing abdominal abscesses was evaluated prospectively in 69 septic patients who had suffered massive trauma. For the 82 abdominal CT scans obtained, the accuracy rate was 84%, the sensitivity was 92%, and the specificity was 79%. With the use of abdominal CT, 32 patients were spared a ''blind'' laparotomy in the search for the focus of infection. It is concluded that CT is of significant value in the diagnosis of abdominal abscess in the septic trauma patient.

  19. The efficacy of sequential compression devices in multiple trauma patients with severe head injury.

    PubMed

    Gersin, K; Grindlinger, G A; Lee, V; Dennis, R C; Wedel, S K; Cachecho, R

    1994-08-01

    Thirty-two multiple trauma patients with severe head injury and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or less were prospectively studied to assess the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). All patients required mechanical ventilation. A sequential compression device (SCD) was used in 14 patients and 18 patients received no prophylaxis for thromboembolism. Bilateral lower extremity technetium venoscans and ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scans were performed within 6 days of admission and every week for 1 month or until the patient developed DVT or PE or was discharged from the SICU. Deep venous thrombosis occurred in two patients (6%) at 16 and 28 days following trauma. Twenty-five patients had normal or low probability V/Q scans. Six had high probability V/Q scans confirmed by pulmonary arteriograms (PAGs) at 12.5 +/- 4 days. Clinical signs of PE were absent in all patients with a positive PAG. There were no differences in age, Injury Severity Score (ISS), GCS Score, APACHE II Score, or Trauma Score between the patients who developed DVT or PE and those who did not. A SCD was used in four of the eight patients with DVT or PE. All but one patient with DVT or PE underwent placement of a vena caval filter. Multiple trauma patients with severe head injury (GCS score < or = 8) are at high risk for thromboembolism. The available means of prevention and diagnosis of DVT or PE in multiple trauma patients with severe head injury are not entirely effective. PMID:8064917

  20. Fluid management in patients with trauma: Restrictive versus liberal approach.

    PubMed

    Chatrath, Veena; Khetarpal, Ranjana; Ahuja, Jogesh

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide, and almost 30% of trauma deaths are due to blood loss. A number of concerns have been raised regarding the advisability of the classic principles of aggressive crystalloid resuscitation in traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Some recent studies have shown that early volume restoration in certain types of trauma before definite hemostasis may result in accelerated blood loss, hypothermia, and dilutional coagulopathy. This review discusses the advances and changes in protocols in fluid resuscitation and blood transfusion for treatment of traumatic hemorrhage shock. The concept of low volume fluid resuscitation also known as permissive hypotension avoids the adverse effects of early aggressive resuscitation while maintaining a level of tissue perfusion that although lower than normal, is adequate for short periods. Permissive hypotension is part of the damage control resuscitation strategy, which targets the conditions that exacerbate hemorrhage. The elements of this strategy are permissive hypotension, minimization of crystalloid resuscitation, control of hypothermia, prevention of acidosis, and early use of blood products to minimize coagulopathy. PMID:26330707

  1. Multivariate Analysis of Relationship between Childhood Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chae, Sungun; Sim, Minyoung; Lim, Mijeong; Na, Joonho; Kim, Daeho

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients after controlling for the possible confounding factors, such as depression and dissociative symptoms. Ninety-eight schizophrenic inpatients participated. Childhood trauma was examined using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaires (CTQ), which consists of physical abuse (PA), sexual abuse (SA), emotional abuse (EA), physical neglect (PN), and emotional neglect (EN). Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) were also administered. Data were analyzed by partial correlation and general linear model. The total score of CTQ was positively correlated with positive, general, and total scores of PANSS. All five types of childhood trauma were associated with dissociative symptoms. EA and EN were positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Only SA significantly predicted positive symptoms of schizophrenia after controlling for age, sex, BDI, and DES scores, with a dose-response relationship between SA and positive symptoms. PMID:26207135

  2. Multivariate Analysis of Relationship between Childhood Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Sungun; Lim, Mijeong; Na, Joonho; Kim, Daeho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients after controlling for the possible confounding factors, such as depression and dissociative symptoms. Ninety-eight schizophrenic inpatients participated. Childhood trauma was examined using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaires (CTQ), which consists of physical abuse (PA), sexual abuse (SA), emotional abuse (EA), physical neglect (PN), and emotional neglect (EN). Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) were also administered. Data were analyzed by partial correlation and general linear model. The total score of CTQ was positively correlated with positive, general, and total scores of PANSS. All five types of childhood trauma were associated with dissociative symptoms. EA and EN were positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Only SA significantly predicted positive symptoms of schizophrenia after controlling for age, sex, BDI, and DES scores, with a dose-response relationship between SA and positive symptoms. PMID:26207135

  3. Reduced Mortality by Physician-Staffed HEMS Dispatch for Adult Blunt Trauma Patients in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyoungwon; Huh, Yo; Lee, John Cj; Kim, Younghwan; Moon, Jonghwan; Youn, Seok Hwa; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Tea Youn; Kim, Juryang; Kim, Hyoju

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of domestic physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) for the transport of patients with severe trauma to a hospital. The study included patients with blunt trauma who were transported to our hospital by physician-staffed HEMS (Group P; n = 100) or nonphysician-staffed HEMS (Group NP; n = 80). Basic patient characteristics, transport time, treatment procedures, and medical treatment outcomes assessed using the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) were compared between groups. We also assessed patients who were transported to the hospital within 3 h of injury in Groups P (Group P3; n = 50) and NP (Group NP3; n = 74). The severity of injury was higher, transport time was longer, and time from hospital arrival to operation room transfer was shorter for Group P than for Group NP (P < 0.001). Although Group P patients exhibited better medical treatment outcomes compared with Group NP, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.134 vs. 0.730). However, the difference in outcomes was statistically significant between Groups P3 and NP3 (P = 0.035 vs. 0.546). Under the current domestic trauma patient transport system in South Korea, physician-staffed HEMS are expected to increase the survival of patients with severe trauma. In particular, better treatment outcomes are expected if dedicated trauma resuscitation teams actively intervene in the medical treatment process from the transport stage and if patients are transported to a hospital to receive definitive care within 3 hours of injury. PMID:27550497

  4. Endotracheal tube intubation with the aid of a laryngeal mask airway, a fiberoptic bronchoscope, and a tube exchanger in a difficult airway patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joon Kyung; Kim, Hyung Gon; Kim, Jung Eun; Jang, Myung-Soo; Kang, Jong-Man

    2014-03-01

    A 28-year-old male patient with occipito-atlanto-axial instability underwent a cervical fusion with posterior technique. Post-operatively, the endotracheal tube (ETT) was removed, and the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. After transfer, an upper airway obstruction developed and reintubations with a laryngoscope were attempted but failed. We inserted a #4 proseal laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and passed a 5.0 mm ETT through the LMA with the aid of a fiberoptic bronchoscope. We passed a tube exchanger through the 5.0 mm ETT and exchanged it with a 7.5 mm ETT. This method may be a useful alternative for difficult tracheal intubations. PMID:24729847

  5. Facing the airway challenges in maxillofacial trauma: A retrospective review of 288 cases at a level i trauma center

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Babita; Prasad, Arunima; Ramchandani, Sarita; Singhal, Maneesh; Mathur, Purva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maxillofacial trauma is an apt example of a difficult airway. The anesthesiologist faces challenges in their management at every step from airway access to maintenance of anesthesia and extubation and postoperative care. Methods: A retrospective study was done of 288 patients undergoing surgery for maxillofacial trauma over a period of five years. Demographic data, detailed airway assessment and the method of airway access were noted. Trauma scores, mechanism of injury, duration of hospital stay, requirement of ventilator support were also recorded. Complications encountered during perioperative anaesthetic management were noted. Results: 259 (89.93%) of the patients were male and 188 (62.85%) were in the 21-40 year range. 97.57% of the cases were operated electively. 206 (71.53%) patients were injured in motor vehicular accidents. 175 (60.76%) had other associated injuries. Mean Glasgow coma scale score (GCS), injury severity score (ISS) and revised trauma score (RTS) were 14.18, 14.8 and 12, respectively. Surgery was performed almost nine days following injury. The mean duration of hospitalization was 16 days. ICU admission was required in 22 patients with mean duration of ICU stay being two days. Majority of patients had difficult airway. 240 (83.33%) patients were intubated in the operating room and fibreoptic guided intubation was done in 159 (55.21%) patients. Submental intubation was done in 45 (14.93%) cases. Conclusions: Maxillofacial injuries present a complex challenge to the anaesthesiologist. The fibreoptic bronchoscope is the main weapon available in our arsenal. The submental technique scores over the time-honored tracheostomy. Communication between the anaesthesiologist and the surgeon must be given paramount importance. PMID:25886420

  6. Life-threatening complications of ascariasis in trauma patients: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quan-yue; Zhao, Dong-hai; Qu, Hai-yan; Zhou, Chuan-nong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ascariasis is one of the most common human parasitic infections worldwide. In some rare cases, ascariasis may cause serious consequences even sudden death. This study was undertaken to review the life-threatening complications of ascariasis in trauma patients reported in the literature. DATA SOURCES: Relevant articles about ascariasis and trauma were searched from Pubmed, Google scholar, Scirus, and Wanfang databases. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients with ascariasis were collected from 21 articles searched. Most of these patients were from tropical and subtropical countries. Of the 24 patients, 12 were children. Their major complications occurred in the airway passage and digestive tract. There were 3 fatal cases in these patients. Twelve of the 24 patients described in 10 articles were reported in the last 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis and prompt intervention are essential to minimize the high morbidity and mortality of these serious complications in trauma patients. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of Ascaris infection in a trauma patient from endemic area of ascariasis. History of Ascaris infection and routine examination of feces for Ascaris eggs may be helpful to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:25225578

  7. Utility of cardiac troponins in patients with suspected cardiac trauma or after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Adams, J E

    1997-12-01

    Detection of cardiac injury after blunt chest wall trauma or cardiac surgery is problematic. Previously available biomarkers have been hindered largely by limitations of specifity for myocardial damage. Both cardiac troponin I and T have been evaluated in these patient subgroups. While many questions remain unanswered, it appears that measurement of troponin proteins will facilitate patient care in these difficult situations. PMID:9439875

  8. Trauma in the pregnant patient: an evidence-based approach to management.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kurt A; Bryce, Suzanne

    2013-04-01

    The management of acute trauma in the pregnant patient relies on a thorough understanding of the underlying physiology of pregnancy. This issue reviews the evidence regarding important considerations in pregnant trauma patients, including the primary and secondary survey as well as the possibility for Rh exposure, placental abruption, uterine rupture, and the need for a prompt perimortem cesarean section in the moribund patient. Because ionizing radiation is always a concern in pregnancy, the circumstances where testing provides benefits that outweigh risks to the fetus are discussed. Emergency clinicians are encouraged to advocate for trauma prevention, including proper safety restraints for motor vehicles and screening for domestic violence, as these measures have been shown to be effective in reducing morbidity and mortality in this population. Recommendations for monitoring, admission, discharge, and follow-up are also noted. PMID:23847860

  9. Failed fibreoptic intubation: 70° rigid nasendoscope and Frova introducer to the rescue

    PubMed Central

    Vinayagam, Stalin; Prakash, MVS Satya; Kundra, Pankaj; Gopalakrishnan, Surianarayana

    2016-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation was successfully accomplished with 70° rigid nasendoscope under video guidance in two patients in whom repeated attempts to secure airway with flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope were unsuccessful. Both patients had compromised airway (laryngeal papillomatosis and a huge thyroid swelling) and were uncooperative. Frova intubating introducer was used along with 70° rigid nasendoscope to accomplish tracheal intubation under video guidance. PMID:27512168

  10. Characteristics and visual outcomes of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in central China: 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ying; Zhang, Feng-Yan; Peng, Guang-Hua; Zhu, Yu; Wan, Guang-Ming; Wang, Wen-Zhan; Ma, Jing; Ren, Shi-Jie

    2015-01-01

    AIM To complete the data of ocular trauma in central China, as a well-known tertiary referral center for ocular trauma, we documented the epidemiological characteristics and visual outcomes of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in this region. METHODS A retrospective study of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in central China from 2006 to 2011 was performed. RESULTS This study included 5964 eyes of 5799 patients. The average age was 35.5±21.8y with a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. The most common age was 45-59y age group. Most patients were farmers and workers (51.9%). The most common injuries were firework related (24.5%), road traffic related (24.2%), and work related (15.0%). Among the most common causative agents were firecrackers (24.5%), followed by metal/knife/scissors (21.4%). Most injuries occurred in January (14.2%), February (27.0%), and August (10.0%). There were 8.5% patients with ocular injuries combined with other injuries. The incidence of open ocular injuries (4585 eyes, 76.9%) was higher than closed ocular injuries (939 eyes, 15.7%). The incidences of chemical and thermal ocular injuries were 1.2% and 0.6%. Ocular trauma score (OTS) predicted final visual acuity at non light perception (NLP), 20/200-20/50 and 20/40 with a sensitivity of 100%, and light perception (LP)/hand motion (HM) and 1/200-19/200 with a specificity of 100%. CONCLUSIONS This study provides recent epidemiological data of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in central China. Some factors influencing the visual outcome include time interval between injury and visit to the clinic, wound location, open or closed globe injury, initial visual acuity, and OTS. PMID:25709927

  11. The case against using the APACHE system to predict intensive care unit outcome in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Vassar, M J; Holcroft, J W

    1994-01-01

    The use of outcome indices as a means of evaluating institutional performance for delivery of medical care is at the forefront of federal health policy reforms. Because an enormous number of clinical and financial data are generated by ICU patients, it is inevitable that integrated bedside computers will be necessary to supply the type of information that is being sought by governmental and private insurance agencies involved in assessment of hospital performance. The Health Care Financing Administration already has adopted the APACHE data collection protocols and predictive models for the severity of illness adjustments that were used in assessing the 1986 hospital-specific death rate for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and pneumonia. In our opinion, however, it is unlikely that any single system will be developed that can accurately estimate more than 50% of ICU deaths. The intention of the APACHE III system to include 78 diagnostic categories seems unrealistic. Furthermore, the number of data needed to document outcomes for both low- and high-risk admissions is impractical. We are evaluating APACHE III to determine whether the revisions to the definition for head trauma will represent a significant improvement in predicting outcomes for trauma patients. In the interim, the financial investment in the APACHE III automated bedside data collection system cannot be justified for trauma patients. Neither should it be used in ICUs that admit a large number of trauma patients as a tool for monitoring unit efficiency, guiding triage decisions, allocating staff and ICU beds, identifying risks of iatrogenic or other potential complications, or assessing quality of life, in spite of marketing efforts by the APACHE Corporation. We believe that using any of the APACHE systems for these purposes, at best, is premature, and potentially misrepresents the trauma patient population. Standards for patient classification already are in place for use

  12. Comparison of hemodynamic responses to intubation: Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope versus McCoy laryngoscope in presence of rigid cervical collar simulating cervical immobilization for traumatic cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Nitesh; Purohit, Shobha; Kalra, Poonam; Lall, Tarun; Khare, Avneesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intubation is known to cause an exaggerated hemodynamic response in the form of tachycardia, hypertension, and dysrhythmias. In cervical spine instability, intubation has to be performed using cervical immobilization to prevent exacerbation of spinal cord injuries. Application of rigid cervical collar may reduce cervical spine movements, but it hinders tracheal intubation with a standard laryngoscope. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic responses to fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) and McCoy laryngoscope in patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia with rigid cervical collar simulating cervical spine immobilization in the situation of cervical trauma. Methods: Thirty-two patients in the age range 20–50 years, of American Society of Anaesthesiologist I-II, and of either sex undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into each group. There were two groups according to the technique used for intubation: Group A (flexible FOB) and Group B (McCoy laryngoscope). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded at baseline, intraoperatively, immediately before and after induction, and immediately after intubation. Thereafter, every min for next 5 min. Statistical Analysis: Intergroup comparison of categorical data was done by Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Intergroup comparison of quantitative data was done by the parametric test (unpaired t-test), and probability was considered to be significant if <0.05. Results: Due to intubation response, HR and blood pressure increased significantly (P < 0.05) above preoperative values in McCoy group as compared to the fiberoptic group. Conclusion: We suggest that the flexible FOB is an effective and better method of intubation in a situation like traumatic cervical spine injury and provides stable hemodynamics. PMID:26712970

  13. Nursing Workload in Intensive Care Unit Trauma Patients: Analysis of Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lilia de Souza; Domingues, Cristiane de Alencar; Poggetti, Renato Sérgio; de Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    Background From the perspective of nurses, trauma patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) demand a high degree of nursing workload due to hemodynamic instability and the severity of trauma injuries. This study aims to identify the factors related to the high nursing workload required for trauma victims admitted to the ICU. Methods This is a prospective, cross-sectional study using descriptive and correlation analyses, conducted with 200 trauma patients admitted to an ICU in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The nursing workload was measured using the Nursing Activities Score (NAS). The distribution of the NAS values into tertiles led to the identification of two research groups: medium/low workload and high workload. The Chi-square, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney and multiple logistic regression tests were utilized for the analyses. Findings The majority of patients were male (82.0%) and suffered blunt trauma (94.5%), with traffic accidents (57.5%) and falls (31.0%) being prevalent. The mean age was 40.7 years (±18.6) and the mean NAS was 71.3% (±16.9). Patient gender, the presence of pulmonary failure, the number of injured body regions and the risk of death according to the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II were factors associated with a high degree of nursing workload in the first 24 hours following admission to the ICU. Conclusion Workload demand was higher in male patients with physiological instability and multiple severe trauma injuries who developed pulmonary failure. PMID:25375369

  14. Cranial computed tomography scan findings in head trauma patients in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ohaegbulam, Samuel C.; Mezue, Wilfred C.; Ndubuisi, Chika A.; Erechukwu, Uwadiegwu A.; Ani, Chinenye O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The choice of radiological investigations in head trauma in Africa is influenced by factors such as cost. Some patients who require computed tomography (CT) scan elsewhere are either managed blindly or do not present for it at the appropriate time. This paper evaluates the CT scan findings as they are obtained in cases of head trauma in a region of Nigeria. Methods: Prospectively recorded data of all head injury patients who presented for CT scan between January 2009 and April 2010 at Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery (MHN), Enugu, Nigeria, were analyzed. Mobile CereTom 8-Slice CT was used in all cases. New and follow-up cases were included. Results: There were 204 CT scans for head trauma (171 new, 33 follow-up), accounting for about 34% of all head CT scans performed with this unit. The male to female ratio was 3.5:1. About 33.9% of the patients were in the third and fourth decades of life. In 19.9% cases, CT was unremarkable, while 80.1% cases had abnormal CT findings. The CT diagnosis was not in keeping with the indication of head trauma in 7%, and 13% had more than one finding. The most common CT findings were: subdural hematoma 30%, cerebral contusions and edema 30.7%, skull fractures 23.4% and extradural hematoma 8.0%. About 64% of the CT findings required surgical interventions. The overall mortality was 11.1%, but amongst the 137 patients who had abnormal CT findings, it was 13.9%. Conclusion: The high yield and diversity of CT scan findings in head trauma patients support the indication for the appropriate use of CT in diagnosis and management of head trauma even in developing countries. PMID:22276236

  15. Fibreoptic vs videolaryngoscopic (C-MAC(®) D-BLADE) nasal awake intubation under local anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Müller, D; Pförtner, R; Mohr, C; Groeben, H

    2015-04-01

    Numerous indirect laryngoscopes have been introduced into clinical practice and their use for tracheal intubation under local anaesthesia has been described. However, a study comparing indirect laryngoscopic vs fibreoptic intubation under local anaesthesia and sedation appears lacking. Therefore, we evaluated both techniques in 100 patients with an anticipated difficult nasal intubation time for intubation the primary outcome. We also assessed success rate, glottic view, Ramsey score, and patients' and anaesthetists' satisfaction. The median (IQR [range]) time for intubation was significantly shorter with the videolaryngoscope with 38 (24-65 [11-420]) s vs 94 (48-323 [19-1020]) s (p < 0.0001). There was no difference in the success rate of intubation (96% for both techniques; p > 0.9999) and satisfaction of the anaesthetists and patients. We conclude that in anticipated difficult nasal intubation a videolaryngoscope represents an acceptable alternative to fibreoptic intubation. PMID:25764403

  16. Comparison of intubation attempts and completion times before and after the initiation of a rapid sequence intubation protocol in an air medical transport program.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the initiation of a rapid sequence intubation (RSI) protocol would decrease the number of intubation attempts and completion times. In the summer of 2001, an RSI protocol was implemented using succinylcholine and etomidate. Before the RSI protocol, patients were sedated with versed and fentanyl for intubation and then paralyzed with succinylcholine to complete intubation, if needed. Retrospectively reviewed patient transport charts yielded 70 patients in the pre-RSI group and 70 patients in the RSI group. The number of attempts in the RSI group significantly dropped in the pre-RSI group, and the time from medication administration to intubation statistically decreased. In this study, the implementation of an RSI protocol resulted in fewer intubation attempts and more rapid intubations. PMID:14762994

  17. Causality of injury and outcome in patients admitted in a major trauma center in North India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Devarshi; Meena, Sanjay; Sharma, Vineet; Singh, Girish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Context: Trauma in South Asia is an increasingly significant problem, particularly in light of increasing motorization. Societal changes are resulting in alterations in the epidemiology of trauma. Aims: To assess various epidemiological parameters that influence causation of injury in the patients admitted in a major trauma center in Northern India. Settings and Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, Hospital based study from August 2008 to July 2009. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 748 patients chosen by random assortment was carried out over a period of 1 year (August 2008 to July 2009) and following parameters were noted: Age group, sex, mode of trauma, type of injury, place where the trauma occurred and factors leading to injury. The length of stay of patients, Kampala trauma score (KTS) and mortality depending on the arrival time in emergency department was also noted. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 16. Results: Overall trauma was most common in the age group 15-30 years (Mean age: 29.43 ± 16.87 years), with male constituting 85.29% of the total patients. It was observed that road side injuries were the most frequent (66.71%) site of injuries, whereas household injuries (23.66%), farm site (6.28%), work place (1.60) were the next most common modes of trauma. Mean time of presentation of injured patient was 2.53 ± 4.92 days. About 48.13% patients were admitted after more than 24 h after the injury. Two wheelers (32.09) were found to be the most common mode of injury. Maximum injuries (65.31%) occurred in the rural setting. The overall length of hospital stay ranged from 2 days to 178 days (median15.6 days). Mortality is more in patients who arrive in night (between 9 pm and 5 pm). Conclusions: We conclude that the majority of injuries are preventable and the epidemiological trends differ from that of developed countries. Therefore, preventive strategies should be made on the basis of these epidemiological

  18. The use of the reverse shock index to identify high-risk trauma patients in addition to the criteria for trauma team activation: a cross-sectional study based on a trauma registry system

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Spencer C H; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The presentation of decrease blood pressure with tachycardia is usually an indicator of significant blood loss. In this study, we used the reverse shock index (RSI), a ratio of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to heart rate (HR), to evaluate the haemodynamic status of trauma patients. As an SBP lower than the HR (RSI<1) may indicate haemodynamic instability, the objective of this study was to assess whether RSI<1 can help to identify high-risk patients with potential shock and poor outcome, even though these patients do not yet meet the criteria for multidisciplinary trauma team activation (TTA). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Taiwan. Participants We retrospectively reviewed the data of 20 106 patients obtained from the trauma registry system of a level I trauma centre for trauma admissions from January 2009 through December 2014. Patients for whom a trauma team was not activated (regular patients) and who had RSI<1 were compared with regular patients with RSI≥1. The ORs of the associated conditions and injuries were calculated with 95% CIs. Main outcome measures In-hospital mortality. Results Among regular patients with RSI<1, significantly more patients had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥25 (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.58 to 3.62; p<0.001) and the mortality rate was also higher (2.1% vs 0.5%; OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.10 to 7.08; p<0.001) than in regular patients with RSI≥1. The intensive care unit length of stay was longer in regular patients with RSI<1 than in regular patients with RSI≥1. Conclusions Among patients who did not reach the criteria for TTA, RSI<1 indicates a potentially worse outcome and a requirement for more attention and aggressive care in the emergency department. PMID:27329440

  19. Implementation and Evaluation of a Ward-Based eLearning Program for Trauma Patient Management.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Kate; Wiseman, Taneal; Kennedy, Belinda; Kourouche, Sarah; Goldsmith, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The majority of trauma nursing education is focused on the emergency phases of care. We describe the development and evaluation of a trauma eLearning module for the ward environment. The module was developed using adult learning principles and implemented in 2 surgical wards. There were 3 phases of evaluation: (1) self-efficacy of nurses; (2) relevance and usability of the module and; (3) application of knowledge learnt. The majority indicated they had applied new knowledge, particularly when performing a physical assessment (85.7%), communicating (91.4%), and identifying risk of serious illness (90.4%). Self-efficacy relating to confidence in caring for patients, communication, and escalating clinical deterioration improved (p = .023). An eLearning trauma patient assessment module for ward nursing staff improves nursing knowledge and self-efficacy. PMID:26745537

  20. Prehospital Use of Cervical Collars in Trauma Patients: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Asbjørnsen, Helge; Habiba, Samer; Sunde, Geir Arne; Wester, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The cervical collar has been routinely used for trauma patients for more than 30 years and is a hallmark of state-of-the-art prehospital trauma care. However, the existing evidence for this practice is limited: Randomized, controlled trials are largely missing, and there are uncertain effects on mortality, neurological injury, and spinal stability. Even more concerning, there is a growing body of evidence and opinion against the use of collars. It has been argued that collars cause more harm than good, and that we should simply stop using them. In this critical review, we discuss the pros and cons of collar use in trauma patients and reflect on how we can move our clinical practice forward. Conclusively, we propose a safe, effective strategy for prehospital spinal immobilization that does not include routine use of collars. PMID:23962031

  1. Clinical review: Initial management of blunt pelvic trauma patients with haemodynamic instability

    PubMed Central

    Geeraerts, Thomas; Chhor, Vibol; Cheisson, Gaëlle; Martin, Laurent; Bessoud, Bertrand; Ozanne, Augustin; Duranteau, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Pelvic trauma can lead to severe, uncontrollable haemorrhage and death related to prolonged shock and multiple organ failure. Massive retroperitoneal haematoma should be assumed to be present in cases of post-traumatic haemodynamic instability associated with pelvic fracture in the absence of extrapelvic haemorrhagic lesions. This review describes the pathophysiology of retroperitoneal haematoma in trauma patient with blunt pelvic fracture, considering the roles of venous and arterial bleeding. Efficacy and safety of haemostatic procedures are also discussed, and particular attention is given to the efficacy of pelvic angiographic embolization and external pelvic fixation. A decision making algorithm is proposed for the treatment of trauma patients with pelvic fracture that takes haemodynamic status and associated lesions into account. PMID:17300738

  2. Benchmarking Outcomes in the Critically Injured Trauma Patient and the Effect of Implementing Standard Operating Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Cuschieri, Joseph; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Sperry, Jason; West, Michael A.; Moore, Ernest E.; Minei, Joseph P.; Bankey, Paul E.; Nathens, Avery B.; Cuenca, Alex G.; Efron, Philip A.; Hennessy, Laura; Xiao, Wenzhong; Mindrinos, Michael N.; McDonald-Smith, Grace P.; Mason, Philip H.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Warren, H. Shaw; Cobb, J. Perren; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Davis, Ronald W.; Maier, Ronald V.; Tompkins, Ronald G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine and compare outcomes with accepted benchmarks in trauma care at seven academic Level I trauma centers in which patients were treated based on a series of standard operating procedures (SOPs). Background Injury remains the leading cause of death for those under 45 years of age. We describe the baseline patient characteristics and well-defined outcomes of persons hospitalized in the United States for severe blunt trauma. Methods We followed 1,637 trauma patients from 2003–2009 up to 28 hospital days using SOPs developed at the onset of the study. An extensive database on patient and injury characteristics, clinical treatment, and outcomes was created. These data were compared with existing trauma benchmarks. Results The study patients were critically injured and in shock. SOP compliance improved 10–40% during the study period. Multiple organ failure and mortality rates were 34.8% and 16.7% respectively. Time to recovery, defined as the time until the patient was free of organ failure for at least two consecutive days, was developed as a new outcome measure. There was a reduction in mortality rate in the cohort during the study that cannot be explained by changes in the patient population. Conclusions This study provides the current benchmark and the overall positive effect of implementing SOPs for severely injured patients. Over the course of the study, there were improvements in morbidity and mortality and increasing compliance with SOPs. Mortality was surprisingly low, given the degree of injury, and improved over the duration of the study, which correlated with improved SOP compliance. PMID:22470077

  3. Comparison of hemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and intubation with Truview PCD™, McGrath® and Macintosh laryngoscope in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: A randomized prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Tempe, Deepak K.; Chaudhary, Kapil; Diwakar, Anitha; Datt, Vishnu; Virmani, Sanjula; Tomar, Akhlesh S.; Mohandas, Anoop; Mohire, Vishwanath Bharav

    2016-01-01

    Context: We hypothesized that reduced oropharyngolaryngeal stimulation with video laryngoscopes would attenuate hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. Aim: Comparison of hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation with video laryngoscopes and Macintosh (MC) laryngoscope. Setting and Design: Superspecialty tertiary care public hospital; prospective, randomized control study. Methods: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were randomly allocated to three groups of 20 each: MC, McGrath (MG), and Truview (TV). Hemodynamic parameters were serially recorded before and after intubation. Laryngoscopic grade, laryngoscopy, and tracheal intubation time, ST segment changes, and intra-/post-operative complications were also recorded and compared between groups. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 17 was used, and appropriate tests applied. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Heart rate and diastolic arterial pressure increased at 0 and 1 min of intubation in all the three groups (P < 0.05) while mean arterial pressure increased at 0 min in the MG and TV groups and at 1 min in all three groups (P < 0.05). A significant increase in systolic arterial pressure was only observed in TV group at 1 min (P < 0.05). These hemodynamic parameters returned to baseline by 3 min of intubation in all the groups. The intergroup comparisons of all hemodynamic parameters were not significant at any time of observation. Highest intubation difficulty score was observed with MC (2.16 ± 1.86) as compared with MG (0.55 ± 0.88) and TV (0.42 ± 0.83) groups (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively). However, duration of laryngoscopy and intubation was significantly less in MC (36.68 ± 16.15 s) as compared with MG (75.25 ± 30.94 s) and TV (60.47 ± 27.45 s) groups (P = 0.000 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusions: Video laryngoscopes did not demonstrate any advantage in terms of hemodynamic response in patients with normal airway

  4. Steroids for intubated croup masking airway haemangioma.

    PubMed Central

    Kiff, K M; Mok, Q; Dunne, J; Tasker, R C

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the beneficial role of steroids for acute laryngotracheobronchitis has been more clearly defined for both intubated and unintubated patients. However, corticosteroids also improve the clinical signs of airway haemangiomata. Two patients are described who illustrate how this can be a source of diagnostic confusion. PMID:8660054

  5. Implementation of a Trauma Service Activation and Admission Policy for Very Elderly Trauma Patients: Impact on Hospital Efficiency and Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Very elderly trauma patients (VETs) were routinely admitted to nonsurgical services at our institution; therefore, a trauma service activation and admission policy was implemented. Our goal was to determine policy success and impact on efficiency and outcomes. VETs, defined as trauma patients aged >89 years, admitted before and after policy implementation were reviewed. Demographics included age, gender, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Score, admission diagnosis, mechanism of injury, admission service, and comorbidities. Efficiency included intensive care unit length of stay (ICU-LOS) and hospital length of stay (H-LOS). Outcomes included complications, discharge disposition, and mortality. Statistical analysis included Chi square, Fisher's exact test, and regression analyses, significance denoted by P < 0.05. 375 VETs were investigated. Demographic analysis revealed differences in Injury Severity Score (9.4 + 5.4 vs 7.2 + 4.0, P < 0.001), coronary artery disease (2.1% vs 38.2%, P < 0.001), neurologic disease (7.4% vs 28.24%, P < 0.001), and intracranial hemorrhage (15.6% vs 6.1%, P = 0.01). The most common mechanism of injury and admission diagnosis was fall and femur fracture. VETs admitted to the trauma service increased from 28.3 per cent to 40.5 per cent, P = 0.02. Efficiency analysis revealed differences in ICU-LOS (4.0 + 4.2 days vs 0.7 + 1.3 days, P < 0.001) and H-LOS (7.3 + 4.9 days vs 6.3 + 5.5 days, P = 0.005). Outcomes analysis revealed differences in pneumonia (0.8% vs 5.3%, P = 0.01), acute respiratory distress syndrome (0% vs 2.3%, P = 0.04), discharge to skilled nursing facility (75.8% vs 57.3%, P < 0.001), but no difference in mortality. Regression analyses revealed that trauma service admission was associated with decreased ICU-LOS and H-LOS. The trauma service activation and admission policy for VETs led to improved hospital efficiency. PMID:27305879

  6. Selection of patients for x-ray examinations: skull x-ray examination for trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    From a review of the literature and using data provided by a comprehensive FDA study, referral criteria in the form of an algorithm or strategy were developed for the radiological management of patients with head injuries. The algorithm assigns patients to groups of low, moderate, or high risk, according to the severity of their clinical signs and symptoms and the medical history of the trauma. Radiological management of the patient is then based on the risk group.

  7. Triad of death: the importance of temperature monitoring in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Keane, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Multiple organ failure is a significant complication in traumatic injury, and can be exacerbated by a failure to adequately monitor and control trauma patients' core body temperature in emergency departments (EDs). Nearly half of trauma patients are hypothermic on arrival at emergency departments, often due to factors beyond the control of emergency service responders and during on-scene resuscitation attempts. This article examines the physiology of the 'triad of death' -hypothermia, metabolic acidosis and coagulopathy - to highlight the importance of monitoring and maintaining normothermia, or normal body temperature, which is between 36°C and 37.2°C, in trauma patients to improve outcomes. It also describes some rewarming interventions that can help to save the lives of patients with multiple injuries. Major traumatic injury is the leading cause of death in people under 40 years of age in the UK. Among major trauma patients, 75% are male and 98% of injuries are caused by blunt force such as falls or road traffic incidents ( National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 2015 ). The cost in terms of lost economic output is variously estimated to be between £3.3 billion ( National Audit Office 2010 ) and £3.7 billion a year ( Scott 2016 ). Multiple organ failure is a significant complication of traumatic injury, and is exacerbated by failure to adequately monitor and control the patient's core body temperature in ED. On arrival at ED, 43% of trauma patients are hypothermic ( Allen et al 2010 ), often due to factors beyond the control of emergency service responders, such as complicated extrications in adverse environmental conditions. Initial resuscitative attempts on-scene can further reduce core body temperature, because of prolonged exposure to the environment and administration of cold intravenous (IV) fluids ( Duchesne et al 2010 ). PMID:27615346

  8. Initial assessment and management of pediatric trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    McFadyen, J Grant; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M

    2012-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Each year, almost one in six children in the United States require emergency department (ED) care for the treatment of injuries, and more than 10,000 children die from injuries. Severely injured children need to be transported to a facility that is staffed 24/7 by personnel experienced in the management of children, and that has all the appropriate equipment to diagnose and manage injuries in children. Anatomical, physiological, and emotional differences between adults and children mean that children are not just scaled-down adults. Facilities receiving injured children need to be child and family friendly, in order to minimize the psychological impact of injury on the child and their family/carers. Early recognition and treatment of life-threatening airway obstruction, inadequate breathing, and intra-abdominal and intra-cranial hemorrhage significantly increases survival rate after major trauma. The initial assessment and management of the injured child follows the same ATLS® sequence as adults: primary survey and resuscitation, followed by secondary survey. A well-organized trauma team has a leader who designates roles to team members and facilitates clear, unambiguous communication between team members. The team leader stands where he/she can observe the entire team and monitor the “bigger picture.” Working together as a cohesive team, the members perform the primary survey in just a few minutes. Life-threatening conditions are dealt with as soon as they are identified. Necessary imaging studies are obtained early. Constant reassessment ensures that any deterioration in the child's condition is picked up immediately. The secondary survey identifies other injuries, such as intra-abdominal injuries and long-bone fractures, which can result in significant hemorrhage. The relief of pain is an important part of the treatment of an injured child. PMID:23181205

  9. Battlefield tracheal intubation training using virtual simulation: a multi center operational assessment of video laryngoscope technology.

    PubMed

    Boedeker, Ben H; Boedeker, Kirsten A; Bernhagen, Mary A; Miller, David J; Lacy, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Airway management is an essential skill in providing care in trauma situations. The video laryngoscope is a tool which offers improvement in teaching airway management skills and in managing airways of trauma patients on the far forward battlefield. An Operational Assessment (OA) of videolaryngoscope technology for medical training and airway management was conducted by the Center for Advanced Technology and Telemedicine (at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE) for the US Air Force Modernization Command to validate this technology in the provision of Out of OR airway management and airway management training in military simulation centers. The value for both the training and performance of intubations was highly rated and the majority of respondents indicated interest in having a video laryngoscope in their facility. PMID:21335763

  10. Laryngeal complications by orotracheal intubation: Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Luiz Alberto Alves; de Cavalho, Glauber Barbosa; Brito, Valeska Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Sumamry Introduction: The injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation are common in our way and widely told by literature. Generally the pipe rank of or consequence of its permanence in the aerial ways of the patient is caused by accidents in. It has diverse types of larynx injuries, caused for multiple mechanisms. Objective: To verify, in literature, the main causes of laryngeal complications after- orotracheal intubation and its mechanisms of injury. Revision of Literature: The searched databases had been LILACS, BIREME and SCIELO. Were updated, books and theses had been used, delimiting itself the period enters 1953 the 2009. The keywords used for the search of articles had been: complications, injuries, larynx, intubation, endotracheal, orotracheal, granulomas, stenosis. 59 references had been selected. The used criteria of inclusion for the choice of articles had been the ones that had shown to the diverse types of injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation and its pathophysiology. Final Considerations: This revision of literature was motivated by the comment in the practical clinic of a great number of laryngeal sequels in patients submitted to the orotracheal intubation. Of that is ahead important the knowledge, for the professionals of the area of health, the types of complications and its causes, with intention to prevent them, adopting measured of prevention of these injuries. PMID:25991942

  11. A Consensus-Based Criterion Standard Definition for Pediatric Patients Who Needed the Highest-Level Trauma Team Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Drendel, Amy L.; Falcone, Richard A.; Weitze, Keith C.; Badawy, Mohamed K.; Cooper, Arthur; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Drayna, Patrick C.; Gourlay, David M.; Gray, Matthew P.; Shah, Manish I.; Shah, Manish N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Verbal prehospital reports on an injured patient’s condition are typically used by trauma centers to determine if a trauma team should be present in the emergency department prior to patient arrival (i.e., trauma team activation). Efficacy studies of trauma team activation protocols cannot be conducted without a criterion standard definition for which pediatric patients need a trauma team activation. Objective To develop a consensus-based criterion standard definition for pediatric patients who needed the highest-level trauma team activation. Methods Ten local and national experts in emergency medicine, emergency medical services, and trauma were recruited to participate in a Modified Delphi survey process. The initial survey was populated based on outcomes that had been used in previously published literature on trauma team activation. The criterion standard definition for trauma team activation was refined iteratively based on survey responses until at least 80% agreement was achieved for each criterion. Results After five voting rounds a consensus-based definition for pediatric trauma team activation was developed. Twelve criteria were identified along with a corresponding time interval in which each criterion had to occur. The criteria include receiving specific surgery types, interventional radiology, advanced airway management, thoracostomy, blood products, spinal injury, emergency cesarean section, vasopressors, burr hole or other procedure to relieve intracranial pressure, pericardiocentesis, thoracotomy, and death in the emergency department. All expert panel members voted in all 5 voting rounds, except 1 member missed rounds 1 and 2. Each criterion had greater than 80% agreement from the panel. Conclusion A criterion standard definition for the highest-level pediatric trauma team activation was developed. This criterion standard definition will advance trauma research by allowing investigators to determine the accuracy and effectiveness of

  12. Geriatric Trauma.

    PubMed

    Reske-Nielsen, Casper; Medzon, Ron

    2016-08-01

    Within the next 15 years, 1 in 5 Americans will be over age 65. $34 billion will be spent yearly on trauma care of this age group. This section covers situations in trauma unique to the geriatric population, who are often under-triaged and have significant injuries underestimated. Topics covered include age-related pathophysiological changes, underlying existing medical conditions and certain daily medications that increase the risk of serious injury in elderly trauma patients. Diagnostic evaluation of this group requires liberal testing, imaging, and a multidisciplinary team approach. Topics germane to geriatric trauma including hypothermia, elder abuse, and depression and suicide are also covered. PMID:27475011

  13. [Regional vasoactive and metabolic therapy of patients with severe cranio-cerebral traumas].

    PubMed

    Lapshin, V N; Shakh, B N; Teplov, V M; Smirnov, D B

    2012-01-01

    In patients with severe cranio-cerebral traumas an investigation was performed of the efficiency of using vasoactive therapy in complex treatment directed to earlier recovery of the microcirculatory blood flow and aerobic metabolism in ischemic parts of the brain. PMID:22880433

  14. Redox Changes Induced by General Anesthesia in Critically Ill Patients with Multiple Traumas

    PubMed Central

    Papurica, Marius; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Sandesc, Dorel; Dumache, Raluca; Nartita, Radu; Sarandan, Mirela; Cradigati, Alina Carmen; Luca, Loredana; Vernic, Corina; Bedreag, Ovidiu Horea

    2015-01-01

    The critically ill polytrauma patient is a constant challenge for the trauma team due to the complexity of the complications presented. Intense inflammatory response and infections, as well as multiple organ dysfunctions, significantly increase the rate of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Moreover, due to the physiological and biochemical imbalances present in this type of patients, the bioproduction of free radicals is significantly accelerated, thus installing the oxidative stress. In the therapeutic management of such patients, multiple surgical interventions are required and therefore they are being subjected to repeated general anesthesia. In this paper, we want to present the pathophysiological implications of oxidative stress in critically ill patients with multiple traumas and the implications of general anesthesia on the redox mechanisms of the cell. We also want to summarize the antioxidant treatments able to reduce the intensity of oxidative stress by modulating the biochemical activity of some cellular mechanisms. PMID:26693352

  15. An awake double lumen endotracheal tube intubation using the Clarus Video System in a patient with an epiglottic cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyungseok; Lee, Gunn; Ha, Seung-Il; Song, Jun-Gol

    2014-02-01

    A 54-year-old male patient was scheduled for an elective pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy combined with video-assisted thoracic surgery at our hospital. This patient had a history of intubation failure in other institutions due to an epiglottic cyst. An airway assessment of the patient was normal. A preoperative laryngoscopy revealed a bulging epiglottic mass covering most of the epiglottis and occupying most of the pharyngeal space. The patient was administered intravenous midazolam 1 mg, fentanyl 50 µg, and glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg. A bilateral superior laryngeal nerve block was then performed with 2% lidocaine 2 ml on each side. A 10% lidocaine spray was applied on to the oropharynx. After preoxygenation with 100% oxygen over 10 minutes, a rigid fiberscope with an optical stylet loaded with a 37 Fr double lumen endotracheal tube was inserted orally and passed into the glottic aperture. The patient was fully awakened after surgical procedure and was transferred to the recovery room after extubation. PMID:24624275

  16. Risk factors for false-negative results of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay in non-HIV-infected patients with culture-confirmed tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2011-07-01

    Limited information is available on the risk factors for false-negative results with the new generation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) tests in non-HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis (TB). We sought to identify risk factors for false-negative QFT-GIT results in culture-confirmed TB patients. We reviewed the microbiological, laboratory, radiographic, and clinical data of 362 patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures who received QFT-GIT tests at a Korean tertiary hospital between September 2006 and March 2010. Of these, 311 (85.9%) had true-positive and 51 (14.1%) had false-negative results. The false-negative group was more likely to have immunosuppressant diseases and lower platelet, protein, and albumin levels than the true-positive group. An immunosuppressive condition was an independent risk factor for false-negative QFT-GIT results in non-HIV-infected patients with active TB (odds ratio, 2.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-6.47; P = .006). Careful interpretation of negative QFT-GIT results is thus necessary in immunocompromised patients suspected of having active TB. PMID:21546200

  17. Successful treatment of self-inflicted tongue trauma patient using a special oral appliance.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ik Jae; Kim, Soung Min; Park, Hee Kyung; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho; Lee, Suk Keun

    2015-11-01

    A 7-year-old male presented with a painful ulcerative lesion on the right lateral tongue and left lower buccal mucosa due to self-inflicted trauma. Antibiotic medication and use of a mouthwash agent were not effective. We made a special oral appliance to cover the maxillary arch and teeth to protect the tongue. The patient showed immediate improvement and did not suffer from any complications. Invasive procedures such as biopsy were not needed. We believe that accurate clinical diagnosis is important and treatment with an oral appliance is effective in self-inflicted oral trauma in children. PMID:26315926

  18. Vertebral Artery Transection in Nonpenetrating Trauma: A Series of 4 Patients.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Ezekiel; Lehnert, Bruce; McNeeley, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injury is a common and potentially devastating consequence of nonpenetrating trauma to the head and neck. The degree of injury ranges from minimal intimal disruption to complete transection with free extravasation. Although blunt carotid transection has been well characterized in clinical reports and radiologic studies, the computed tomographic angiography (CTA) features of blunt vertebral artery transection have not been well described. We report a series of 4 patients presenting to our level I trauma center with blunt vertebral artery transection, with an emphasis on their CTA imaging findings at presentation and their respective clinical courses. A brief review of the pertinent literature is provided. PMID:26122415

  19. The Trauma Patient Tracking System: implementing a wireless monitoring infrastructure for emergency response.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Jonathan; C Ng, Thomas; Li, Dustin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Kang; Bergeron, William; Martin, Ron; Budinger, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In mass trauma situations, emergency personnel are challenged with the task of prioritizing the care of many injured victims. We propose a trauma patient tracking system (TPTS) where first-responders tag all patients with a wireless monitoring device that continuously reports the location of each patient. The system can be used not only to prioritize patient care, but also to determine the time taken for each patient to receive treatment. This is important in training emergency personnel and in identifying bottlenecks in the disaster response process. In situations where biochemical agents are involved, a TPTS may be employed to determine sites of cross-contamination. In order to track patient location in both outdoor and indoor environments, we employ both Global Positioning System (GPS) and Television/ Radio Frequency (TVRF) technologies. Each patient tag employs IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi)/TCP/IP networking to communicate with a central server via any available Wi-Fi basestation. A key component to increase TPTS fault-tolerance is a mobile Wi-Fi basestation that employs redundant Internet connectivity to ensure that tags at the disaster scene can send information to the central server even when local infrastructure is unavailable for use. We demonstrate the robustness of the system in tracking multiple patients in a simulated trauma situation in an urban environment. PMID:17282731

  20. [Safe:Trac course series of the German Society for Trauma Surgery on patient safety].

    PubMed

    Burghofer, K; Lackner, C K

    2009-08-01

    Based on crew resource management of the airline industry the German Society for Trauma Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, DGU) was the first scientific community in Germany to develop and implement a training course for patient safety. The S:training courses contain four course formats which focus on the prehospital life support (S:PLS), the operating room (S:OR), the trauma room (S:TR) and the intensive care unit (S:ICU). In the training the importance of the human factor for the management of acute major trauma is developed by means of presentations, training videos, practical training, discussions and realistic case scenarios associated with the special working environment of the participants. A specially developed course manual acts as a work and reference book and course booking is possible at http://www.safe-trac.de. PMID:19644664

  1. Laryngeal Radiation Fibrosis: A Case of Failed Awake Flexible Fibreoptic Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Huitink, Johannes M.; Zijp, Lambert

    2011-01-01

    Awake fibreoptic intubation is accepted as the gold standard for intubation of patients with an anticipated difficult airway. Radiation fibrosis may cause difficulties during the intubation procedure. We present an unusual severe case of radiation induced changes to the larynx, with limited clinical symptoms, that caused failure of the fibreoptic intubation technique. A review of the known literature on radiation fibrosis and airway management is presented. PMID:22606397

  2. Validation of Rules to Predict Emergent Surgical Intervention in Pediatric Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boatright, Dowin H; Byyny, Richard L; Hopkins, Emily; Bakes, Katherine; Hissett, Jennifer; Tunson, Java; Easter, Joshua S; Vogel, Jody A; Bensard, Denis; Haukoos, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    Background Trauma centers use guidelines to determine when a trauma surgeon is needed in the emergency department (ED) on patient arrival. A decision rule from Loma Linda University identified patients with penetrating injury and tachycardia as requiring emergent surgical intervention. Our goal was to validate this rule and to compare it to the American College of Surgeons’ Major Resuscitation Criteria (MRC). Study Design We used data from 1993 through 2010 from two Level 1 trauma centers in Denver, Colorado. Patient demographics, injury severity, times of ED arrival and surgical intervention, and all variables of the Loma Linda Rule and the MRC were obtained. The outcome, emergent intervention (defined as requiring operative intervention by a trauma surgeon within one hour of arrival to the ED or performance of cricothyroidotomy or thoracotomy in the ED) was confirmed using standardized abstraction. Sensitivities, specificities, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results 8,078 patients were included and 47 (0.6%) required emergent intervention. Of the 47 patients, the median age was 11 years (IQR: 7–14), 70% were male, 30% had penetrating mechanisms, and the median ISS was 25 (IQR: 9–41). At the two institutions, the Loma Linda Rule had a sensitivity and specificity of 69% (95% CI: 45%–94%) and 76% (95% CI: 69%–83%), respectively, and the MRC had a sensitivity and specificity of 80% (95% CI: 70%–92%) and 81% (95% CI: 77%–85%), respectively. Conclusions Emergent surgical intervention is rare in the pediatric trauma population. Although precision of predictive accuracies of the Loma Linda Rule and MRC were limited by small numbers of outcomes, neither set of criteria appears to be sufficiently accurate to recommend their routine use. PMID:23623222

  3. Abdominal compartment syndrome in trauma patients: New insights for predicting outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Aisha W.; Crandall, Marie L.; Nicolson, Norman G.; Smith-Singares, Eduardo; Merlotti, Gary J.; Jalundhwala, Yash; Issa, Nabil M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality among trauma patients. Several clinical and laboratory findings have been suggested as markers for ACS, and these may point to different types of ACS and complications. Aims: This study aims to identify the strength of association of clinical and laboratory variables with specific adverse outcomes in trauma patients with ACS. Settings and Design: A 5-year retrospective chart review was conducted at three Level I Trauma Centers in the City of Chicago, IL, USA. Subjects and Methods: A complete set of demographic, pre-, intra- and post-operative variables were collected from 28 patient charts. Statistical Analysis: Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the strength of association between 29 studied variables and eight end outcomes. Results: Thirty-day mortality was associated strongly with the finding of an initial intra-abdominal pressure >20 mmHg and moderately with blunt injury mechanism. A lactic acid >5 mmol/L on admission was moderately associated with increased blood transfusion requirements and with acute renal failure during the hospitalization. Developing ACS within 48 h of admission was moderately associated with increased length of stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), more ventilator days, and longer hospital stay. Initial operative intervention lasting more than 2 h was moderately associated with risk of developing multi-organ failure. Hemoglobin level <10 g/dL on admission, ongoing mechanical ventilation, and ICU stay >7 days were moderately associated with a disposition to long-term support facility. Conclusions: Clinical and lab variables can predict specific adverse outcomes in trauma patients with ACS. These findings may be used to guide patient management, improve resource utilization, and build capacity within trauma centers. PMID:27162436

  4. Blunt Trauma in Paediatric Patients – Experience from a Small Centre

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, I; Slavkovic, A; Marjanovic, Z; Zivanovic, D

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Despite great prevention efforts, blunt abdominal trauma still remains a leading cause of injury, especially in the paediatric population. Abdominal trauma is the main culprit of serious children's injury and the most common area of initially missed diagnosis with a fatal outcome. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, aetiology, grades of abdominal organ injuries, diagnosis, management and outcome of blunt abdominal trauma in a paediatric population. Method: This is a retrospective study of 31 patients with isolated parenchymatous abdominal organs, treated in a single centre. Stable patients with no signs of peritonitis and insignificant changes in laboratory findings were managed conservatively. Unstable patients received surgery. Results: The leading cause of injuries were traffic accidents (64.5%), followed by fall from a height (22.5%), bicycle handlebar injuries (6.45%), contact sport and child abuse (3.22% each). The majority of injured children (90.32%) were managed conservatively. Only three patients (9.68%) were operated on due to complete avulsion and organ smash, or devascularization of the injured organs. Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scan examination was performed on 93.5% of patients. Few patients had grade I and grade V injuries, while the largest proportion of patients had grade III and IV injuries. The most frequently injured organs were the spleen and kidney. There was no mortality. Conclusion: The results emphasize that conservative treatment was appropriate for all stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma regardless of organ injury grade. The success of non-operative management depends upon proper patient selection. The choice of non-operative treatment should be based predominantly on physiological response, rather than grade injury on CT scan. PMID:26360685

  5. Predictive value of the tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test for development of active tuberculosis in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Seyhan, Ekrem Cengiz; Gunluoglu, Gulşah; Gunluoglu, Mehmet Zeki; Tural, Seda; Sökücü, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at increased risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) compared with the general population. QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) for LTBI detection is more promising than tuberculin skin test (TST) in HD patients. AIM: In our study, we evaluated the value of the TST and QFT-G In-Tube (QFG-IT) test in the development of active tuberculosis (TB), in the HD patients, and in healthy controls. METHODS: The study enrolled 95 HD patients and ninety age-matched, healthy controls. The TST and QFG-IT were performed. All the subjects were followed up 5 years for active TB disease. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, a high prevalence of LTBI was found in the HD patients by QFG-IT (41% vs. 25%). However, no significant difference was detected by TST (32% vs. 31%). Four HD patients and one healthy control progressed to active TB disease within the 5-year follow-up. For active TB discovered subjects, QFG-IT was positive in all, but TST was positive in two (one patient and one healthy control). In HD patients; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of QFG-IT, and TST for active TB was 100% and 25%, 62% and 67%, 10%, and 3%, and 100% and 95%, respectively. Receiver operating curve analysis revealed that the results are significantly different (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: QFG-IT test is a more useful diagnostic method than TST for detecting those who will progress to active TB in HD patients. PMID:27168859

  6. Initial Venous Lactate Levels in Patients with Isolated Penetrating Extremity Trauma: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Folkert, Ian W; Sims, Carrie A; Pascual, Jose L; Allen, Steven R; Kim, Patrick K; Schwab, C. William; Holena, Daniel N

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Elevated initial lactate levels have been shown to be associated with severe injury in trauma patients, but some patients who do not appear to be in shock also present with elevated lactate levels. We hypothesized that in hemodynamically stable patients with isolated penetrating extremity trauma, initial lactate level does not predict clinically significant bleeding. METHODS A 5-year institutional database review was performed. Hemodynamically stable patients (HR<101, SBP>90) with isolated penetrating extremity trauma with an initial lactate sent were included. The exposure of interest was captured as a dichotomous variable by initial lactate level Normal (N≤2.2 mEq/l), Elevated (E >2.2. mEq/l). The primary outcome measurement was clinically significant bleeding, defined by need for intervention (operation, angioembolization, or transfusion) or laboratory evidence of bleeding (presenting Hg<7g/dL, or Hg decrease by >2g/dL/24hours). Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare variables. RESULTS A total of 132 patients were identified. There were no differences in demographics or mechanism of injury between the N (n=43, 7%) and E (n=89, 14%) groups. Median lactate levels were 1.6 (IQR 1.2–1.9) mEq/dL vs. 3.8 (IQR 2.8–5.2) in the N and E groups, p<0.001. Lactate was elevated in 89 (67%) patients but was not associated with clinically significant bleeding (37% elevated vs. 39% not elevated p=0.82). CONCLUSIONS In hemodynamically stable patients with isolated penetrating trauma to the extremity, elevated initial venous lactate levels (>2.2mEq/l) are not associated with bleeding or need for interventions. Clinical judgment remains the gold standard for evaluation and management of these patients. PMID:26038266

  7. Immunoinflammatory Response in Critically Ill Patients: Severe Sepsis and/or Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Nada; Djordjevic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Immunoinflammatory response in critically ill patients is very complex. This review explores some of the new elements of immunoinflammatory response in severe sepsis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha in severe acute pancreatitis as a clinical example of immune response in sepsis, immune response in severe trauma with or without secondary sepsis, and genetic aspects of host immuno-inflammatory response to various insults in critically ill patients. PMID:24371374

  8. Alterations in the insulin-like growth factor system in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Wojnar, M M; Fan, J; Frost, R A; Gelato, M C; Lang, C H

    1995-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate changes in the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis in trauma patients throughout their stay in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). The first venous blood sample was obtained within 24 h after admission to the SICU and before the start of nutritional support; the last sample was obtained within 24 h of each patient's discharge from the SICU. All patients were receiving nutritional support at this later time. Control subjects were healthy volunteers, matched for age and sex and fasted approximately 18 h before blood sampling. GH in trauma patients was increased 25-fold on the first day and was still elevated > or = 5-fold on the last day. Trauma decreased circulating levels of both IGF-I (50-60%) and IGF-II (33-45%) throughout the duration of the patients' stay in the SICU. A sustained reduction in plasma IGF-binding protein (BP)-3 (55-75%) was observed in trauma patients throughout the protocol. In contrast, IGFBP-1 levels increased more than threefold during this same period. Furthermore, IGFBP-1 in these patients had undergone posttranslational modification and existed primarily in a highly phosphorylated form. Blood, collected from a cohort (n = 3) of these patients within 24 h of their discharge from the hospital, indicated that IGF-I and IGF-II were still reduced (30%) and that the decrease in IGFBP-3 and the elevation in IGFBP-1 were still evident at this time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7537472

  9. Role of cardiovascular nuclear medicine in evaluating trauma and the postoperative patient

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, T.R.; Parkey, R.W.; Lewis, S.E.

    1983-04-01

    In the patient with cardiac trauma, radionuclide imaging may provide important information about cardiac mechanical function, vascular anatomy and integrity, myocardial perfusion, and myocardial metabolism. Studies require only minimal patient cooperation, can be performed relatively rapidly and often at the bedside, and may be repeated at frequent intervals for serial evaluations. These studies provide valuable adjunctive knowledge when selected and interpreted with knowledge of the mechanism of injury, timing of the examination relative to the time of injury, and most likely differential diagnoses.

  10. Epidemiology of Patients With Multiple Trauma and the Quality of Their Prehospital Respiration Management in Kashan, Iran: Six Months Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Maghaminejad, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Respiration management is an important and critical issue in prehospital transportation phase of multiple trauma patients. However, the quality of this important care has not been assessed in Iran Emergency Medical Services’ (EMS). Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the quality of prehospital respiration management in patients with multiple trauma, referred to the Shahid Beheshti Trauma Center, Kashan, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the first six months of 2013. All the 400 patients with multiple trauma, transferred by EMS to the Shahid Beheshti Medical Center, were recruited. The study instrument was a checklist, which was completed through observation. Descriptive statistics were presented. Results: Out of all included individuals, 301 were males (75.2%) and 99 were females (24.8%). The most common mechanism of trauma was traffic accident (87.25%). Furthermore, 71.7% of the patients were injured in head and neck and chest areas. The quality of consciousness monitoring and airway management was desirable in 95% of the cases. However, the quality of monitoring patients’ respiration was only desirable in 42% of the cases. Only 18.6% of the patients received oxygen therapy during prehospital transportation. Conclusions: The quality of monitoring patients’ respiration and oxygen therapy was undesirable in most patients with multiple trauma. Therefore, the EMS workers should be retrained to apply proper respiration management in patients with multiple trauma. PMID:25147774

  11. Evaluation of Sensorimotor Nerve Damage in Patients with Maxillofacial Trauma; a Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Poorian, Behnaz; Bemanali, Mehdi; Chavoshinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate sensorimotor nerve damage in patients with maxillofacial trauma referring to Taleghani hospital, Tehran, Iran Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during a 2-year period from 2014 to 2012 in Taleghani hospital of Tehran. We included a total number of 495 patients with maxillofacial trauma referring to our center during the study period. The demographic information, type of fracture, location of fracture and nerve injuries were assessed and recorded in each patients. The frequency of sensorimotor injuries in these patients was recorded. Data are presented as frequencies and proportions as appropriate. Results: Overall we included 495 patients with maxillofacial trauma with mean age of 31.5±13.8 years. There were 430 (86.9% men and in 65 (13.1%) women among the patients. The frequency of nerve injuries was 67.7% (336 patients). The mean age of the patients with nerve injuries was 33.4 ± 3.7 years. Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve was the most common involved nerve being involved in 5 patients (1%). Regarding trigeminal nerve, the inferior alveolar branch (194 patients 39.1%) was the most common involved branch followed by infraorbital branch (135 patients 27.2%). Mandibular fracture was the most common injured bone being reported in 376 patient (75.9%) patients followed by zygomatic bone in 100 patient (20%). Conclusion: The most frequent fracture occurred in mandible followed by zygoma and the most injured nerve was inferior alveolar nerve followed by infraorbital branch of trigeminal nerve. In facial nerve the marginal branch was the most involved nerve. The frequency of nerve injury and the male to female ratio was higher in the current study compared to the literature. PMID:27331065

  12. Introduction of a Simple Technique for Partial Splenectomy in Multiple Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarlou, Mehdi; Derakhshanfar, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Background: The spleen is the most commonly injured intraperitoneal organ in multiple trauma patients. Total splenectomy results in immunodeficiency and predisposes patients to certain infections. Objectives: Performing partial splenectomy with a safe, simple, and definite technique in trauma patients with hemodynamic instability and accompanying intra-abdominal injury could play an important role in the preservation of immune function and reducing morbidity. Patients and Methods: From 2006 to 2009, a total of 20 patients underwent partial splenectomy, at Mobasher and Be’sat hospitals. Patients with splenic injuries of up to stage IV and grade 3 shocks underwent partial splenectomy. The operations were performed without vascular isolation and by wedge resection of the injured splenic tissue and repair with chromic 2/0 sutures in two rows. Three months later, patients were evaluated by a Tc99 liver-spleen scan, complete blood count, and blood smear. Results: There were 16 male and four female patients with an age range of 4 to 54 years old. Ten patients had additional intra and extra abdominal injuries. The salvaged spleen tissue was approximately 30% in nine patients, 40 to 50% in two, and more than 50% in another nine patients. The operation time was less than three hours and hospital stay was 3 to 15 days for 90% of the patients. No complications occurred after the surgery or during the follow up. For all patients, the complete blood count, peripheral smear, and liver-spleen scan were normal after six months. Conclusions: Partial splenectomy with preserving at least 30% of the splenic tissue can be performed for trauma patients using wedge resection of the injured splenic tissue and repair by chromic 2/0 sutures in two rows. Using this technique, there is no need for vascular isolation or hemostatic materials. Splenic function is presented and associated intra and extra abdominal injuries are not contraindications for partial splenectomy. PMID:24693413

  13. Epidemiology of Patients Hospitalized for Ocular Trauma in the Chaoshan Region of China, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cao, He; Li, Liping; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden and pattern of ocular trauma in China are poorly known and not well studied. We aimed at studying the epidemiological characteristics of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma at major ophthalmology departments in the largest industrial base of plastic toys in China. Methods A retrospective study of ocular trauma cases admitted to 3 tertiary hospitals in China from 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2010 was performed. Results The study included a total of 3,644 injured eyes from 3,559 patients over the 10-year period: 2,008 (55.1%) open-globe injuries, 1,580 (43.4%) closed-globe injuries, 41 (1.1%) chemical injuries, 15 (0.4%) thermal injuries and 678 (18.6%) ocular adnexal injuries. The mean age of the patients was 29.0±16.8 years with a male-to-female ratio of 5.2∶1 (P = 0.007). The most frequent types of injury were work-related injuries (1,656, 46.5%) and home-related injuries (715, 20.1%). The majority of injuries in males (56.2%) and females (36.0%) occurred in the 15–44 age group and 0–14 age group, respectively. The final visual acuity correlated with the initial visual acuity (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.659; P<0.001). The Ocular Trauma Score also correlated with the final visual acuity (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.655; P<0.001). Conclusions This analysis provides an epidemiological study of patients who were hospitalized for ocular trauma. Preventive efforts are important for both work-related and home-related eye injuries. PMID:23118997

  14. Pseudopancreatitis on computed tomography in a patient with isolated blunt head trauma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Computed tomography is commonly used to exclude occult injuries in patients with trauma, but imaging can reveal findings that are of uncertain etiology or clinical significance. We present a case of unsuspected pancreatic abnormality in a female patient with trauma who sustained an isolated blunt head injury. Case presentation A 25-year-old female Caucasian patient sustained massive blunt and penetrating head trauma, secondary to a large object penetrating through the vehicle windshield. Based on the mechanism of injury and clinical evaluation, it was felt to be an isolated head injury. However, computed tomography of her abdomen revealed an occult, intra-abdominal finding of significant pancreatic enlargement and peripancreatic fluid. There was no computed tomography evidence of parenchymal pancreatic laceration. The appearance of her pancreas on computed tomography was identical to that of acute pancreatitis or low-grade pancreatic injury, but her clinical history and laboratory values were not consistent with this, hence the term ‘pseudopancreatitis’. Later surgery for organ donation confirmed diffuse pancreatic and peripancreatic edema, but no hematoma, contusion or other evidence for direct traumatic injury. This was an isolated intra-abdominal abnormality. Conclusion The routine use of computed tomography in patients who have sustained trauma has led to increasing detection of unexpected findings. Clinical information such as mechanism of injury and blood work, along with careful evaluation of ancillary imaging findings (or lack of), is important for the provision of an appropriate differential diagnosis. We discuss the possible mechanism and differential diagnosis of an isolated pancreatic abnormality in the setting of non-abdominal trauma, which includes shock pancreas, overhydration, traumatic pancreatic injury and pancreatitis secondary to other etiologies. PMID:24529327

  15. Assessment of Truflex™ articulating stylet versus conventional rigid Portex™ stylet as an intubation guide with the D-blade of C-Mac™ videolaryngoscope during elective tracheal intubation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of videolaryngoscopes with angulated blade have been recently introduced into clinical practice. They provide an indirect view of the glottic structures in normal and challenging clinical settings. Despite the very good visualization of the laryngeal structures by these devices, the insertion and advancement of the endotracheal tube may be prolonged and occasionally fail as it does not conform to the enhanced angulation of the blade. To overcome this handicap, it is recommended to use a pre-shaped, styleted tracheal tube during intubation. Unfortunately, these malleable rigid stylets permit only a fixed shape to the advancing endotracheal tube. This may necessitate withdrawal of endotracheal tube-stylet assembly for reshaping, before undertaking a new attempt. This may cause soft tissue injury and hemodynamic disturbance. This single-blinded randomized clinical trial aims to overcome these handicaps using a novel method of dynamically changing the shape of the advancing endotracheal tube by Truflex™ articulating stylet as per need during D-blade C-Mac™ videolaryngoscopy. Methods One hundred and fifty four patients between 18 and 60 years of age belonging to either sex undergoing tracheal intubation under uniform general anesthetic technique will be randomly divided into Portex™ malleable stylet group and Truflex™ articulating stylet group. The primary efficacy variable of success/failure between the two groups will be analyzed using the chi square test. For comparison of intubation times and the Intubation Difficulty Score, ANOVA will be used. Primary efficacy endpoint results will be successful or failed tracheal intubation in the first attempt, total intubation time and the intubation difficulty score. Secondary efficacy endpoints will be overall user satisfaction graded from 1 to 10 (1 = very poor, 10 = excellent), Cormack and Lehane’s grading, glotticoscopy time and ETT negotiation time and total number of intubation

  16. Non-intubated uniportal lung surgery†.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (uniVATS) is currently being used to diagnose and treat several intrathoracic conditions with minimal morbidity and reduced hospital stay compared with standard multiport VATS surgery. The potential advantages of uniVATS can be also enhanced by the adoption of loco-regional anaesthesiological techniques in non-intubated or awake patients yielding the possibility of performing an ever larger proportion of thoracic surgical procedures in an outpatient setting. This review will look at organizational and technical aspects of implementing a non-intubated uniVATS program. PMID:26764415

  17. Progressive Mobility Protocol Reduces Venous Thromboembolism Rate in Trauma Intensive Care Patients: A Quality Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Booth, Kathryn; Rivet, Josh; Flici, Richelle; Harvey, Ellen; Hamill, Mark; Hundley, Douglas; Holland, Katelyn; Hubbard, Sandra; Trivedi, Apurva; Collier, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) trauma population is at high risk for complications associated with immobility. The purpose of this project was to compare ICU trauma patient outcomes before and after implementation of a structured progressive mobility (PM) protocol. Outcomes included hospital and ICU stays, ventilator days, falls, respiratory failure, pneumonia, or venous thromboembolism (VTE). In the preintervention cohort, physical therapy (PT) consults were placed 53% of the time. This rose to more than 90% during the postintervention period. PT consults seen within 24 hr rose from a baseline 23% pre- to 74%-94% in the 2 highest compliance postintervention months. On average, 40% of patients were daily determined to be too unstable for mobility per protocol guidelines-most often owing to elevated intracranial pressure. During PM sessions, there were no adverse events (i.e., extubation, hypoxia, fall). There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the 2 cohorts regarding hospital and ICU stays, average ventilator days, mortality, falls, respiratory failure, or pneumonia overall or within ventilated patients specifically. There was, however, a difference in the incidence of VTE between the preintervention cohort (21%) and postintervention cohort (7.5%) (p = .0004). A PM protocol for ICU trauma patients is safe and may reduce patient deconditioning and VTE complications in this high-risk population. Multidisciplinary commitment, daily protocol reinforcement, and active engagement of patients/families are the cornerstones to success in this ICU PM program. PMID:27618376

  18. Bronchoscopic intubation during continuous nasal positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of hypoxemic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Barjaktarevic, Igor; Berlin, David

    2015-03-01

    Endotracheal intubation is difficult in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure who deteriorate despite treatment with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). Maintaining NIPPV during intubation may prevent alveolar derecruitment and deterioration in gas exchange. We report a case series of 10 nonconsecutive patients with NIPPV failure who were intubated via a flexible bronchoscope during nasal mask positive pressure ventilation. All 10 patients were intubated in the first attempt. Hypotension was the most frequent complication (33%). Mean decrease in oxyhemoglobin saturation during the procedure was 4.7 ± 3.1. This method of intubation may extend the benefits of preoxygenation throughout the whole process of endotracheal intubation. It requires an experienced operator and partially cooperative patients. A prospective trial is necessary to determine the best intubation method for NIPPV failure. PMID:24243561

  19. A Comparison of Functional Outcome in Patients Sustaining Major Trauma: A Multicentre, Prospective, International Study

    PubMed Central

    Rainer, Timothy H.; Yeung, Hiu Hung; Gabbe, Belinda J.; Yuen, Kai Y.; Ho, Hiu F.; Kam, Chak W.; Chang, Annice; Poon, Wai S.; Cameron, Peter A.; Graham, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare 6 month and 12 month health status and functional outcomes between regional major trauma registries in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia. Summary Background Data Multicentres from trauma registries in Hong Kong and the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR). Methods Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Major trauma patients and aged ≥18 years were included. The main outcome measures were Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) functional outcome and risk-adjusted Short-Form 12 (SF-12) health status at 6 and 12 months after injury. Results 261 cases from Hong Kong and 1955 cases from VSTR were included. Adjusting for age, sex, ISS, comorbid status, injury mechanism and GCS group, the odds of a better functional outcome for Hong Kong patients relative to Victorian patients at six months was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.17), and at 12 months was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.12). Adjusting for age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, Hong Kong patients demonstrated comparable mean PCS-12 scores at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.2, 95% CI: −1.2, 3.6) and 12-months (adjusted mean difference: −0.4, 95% CI: −3.2, 2.4) compared to Victorian patients. Keeping age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, there was no difference in the MCS-12 scores of Hong Kong patients compared to Victorian patients at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 0.4, 95% CI: −2.1, 2.8) or 12-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.8, 95% CI: −0.8, 4.5). Conclusion The unadjusted analyses showed better outcomes for Victorian cases compared to Hong Kong but after adjusting for key confounders, there was no difference in 6-month or 12-month functional outcomes between the jurisdictions. PMID:25157522

  20. Presumed latent ocular tuberculosis diagnosed with the positive quantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test in a HLA-A29-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Carlos Mario; Atencia, Cesar; Merayo-Lloves, Jesus; Fernandez-Vega Sanz, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    A 59-year-old Hispanic woman presented with a 3-year history of floaters associated with bilateral reduced visual acuity. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/40. Both anterior segments were without inflammation, but fundoscopy showed mild vitreous inflammation and multiple inflammatory choroidal lesions. Tests for inflammatory and infectious diseases were negative except for human leucocyte antigen A29. The patient was diagnosed with birdshot choroidoretinopathy, and treatment was initiated with cyclosporine A 2.5 mg/kg/day. One year after treatment, the patient reported systemic symptoms with no improvement in visual acuity. Fundus findings remained with vitreal inflammation. QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test was positive, and a diagnosis of presumed latent ocular tuberculosis (TB) was made. We initiated anti-TB treatment for 9 months. At 6 months of anti-TB therapy, there was no active inflammation. The patient was followed for 2 years with no medications and no active inflammation. Her final BCVA was 20/25. PMID:26045521

  1. Endobronchial hemorrhage after intubation with double-lumen endotracheal tube in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura for minimally invasive cardiac surgery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Young; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Nam Won

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) requires lung isolation. Lung isolation is usually achieved with double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLT). Patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) have an increased risk of bleeding events. We suspected endobronchial hemorrhage after exchange of DLT during induction of anesthesia for replacement of mitral valve in a 62-year-old man with a known ITP. The MICS was stopped and bronchial artery embolization was performed in the angiographic room. In the present case, in order to reduce the risk of bronchial arterial injury in ITP patient we intubated with single lumen endotracheal tube. Lung isolation led to achievement of intermittent total lung deflation. Based on the results, we recommend a high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and platelet transfusion prior to cardiac surgery in patients with ITP to increase platelet count. Moreover, it is proposed that in order to clear the vision during the operation, ventilation can be held or made intermittent both prior to cardiopulmonary bypass or at its conclusion to permit exposure. PMID:24567815

  2. Impact of emergency medical helicopter transport directly to a university hospital trauma center on mortality of severe blunt trauma patients until discharge

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of transporting severely injured patients by helicopter remain controversial. This study aimed to analyze the impact on mortality of helicopter compared to ground transport directly from the scene to a University hospital trauma center. Methods The French Intensive Care Research for Severe Trauma cohort study enrolled 2,703 patients with severe blunt trauma requiring admission to University hospital intensive care units within 72 hours. Pre-hospital and hospital clinical data, including the mode of transport, (helicopter (HMICU) versus ground (GMICU), both with medical teams), were recorded. The analysis was restricted to patients admitted directly from the scene to a University hospital trauma center. The main endpoint was mortality until ICU discharge. Results Of the 1,958 patients analyzed, 74% were transported by GMICU, 26% by HMICU. Median injury severity score (ISS) was 26 (interquartile range (IQR) 19 to 34) for HMICU patients and 25 (IQR 18 to 34) for GMICU patients. Compared to GMICU, HMICU patients had a higher median time frame before hospital admission and were more intensively treated in the pre-hospital phase. Crude mortality until hospital discharge was the same regardless of pre-hospital mode of transport. After adjustment for initial status, the risk of death was significantly lower (odds ratio (OR): 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 0.98, P = 0.035) for HMICU compared with GMICU. This result did not change after further adjustment for ISS and overall surgical procedures. Conclusions This study suggests a beneficial impact of helicopter transport on mortality in severe blunt trauma. Whether this association could be due to better management in the pre-hospital phase needs to be more thoroughly assessed. PMID:23131068

  3. Cervical Spinal Injury In Pediatric Blunt Trauma Patients: Management In The Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Spinal injuries from blunt trauma are uncommon in pediatric patients, representing only about 1.5% of all blunt trauma patients. However, the potentially fatal consequences of spinal injuries make them of great concern to emergency clinicians. Clinical goals in the emergency department are to identify all injuries using selective imaging and to minimize further harm from spinal cord injury. Achieving these goals requires an understanding of the age-related physiologic differences that affect patterns of injury and radiologic interpretation in children, as well as an appreciation of high-risk clinical clues and mechanisms. This issue reviews current approaches to prehospital immobilization, identification of low-risk patients who may be clinically cleared from immobilization, a rational approach to the use of radiologic imaging, and the existing evidence for medical management of spinal cord injuries. PMID:26894868

  4. Changing models of care for emergency surgical and trauma patients in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sachin; Goo, Tiong Thye; Tan, T’zu Jen; Tan, Kok Yang; Mak, Kenneth Seck Wai

    2016-01-01

    The last 15 years have seen changing patterns of injury in emergency surgery and trauma patients. The ability to diagnose, treat and manage these patients nonoperatively has led to a decline in interest in trauma surgery as a career. In addition, healthcare systems face multiple challenges, including limited resources, an ageing population and increasing subspecialisation of medical care, while maintaining government-directed standards and managing public expectations. In the West, these challenges have led to the emergence of a new subspecialty, ‘acute care surgery’, with some models of care providing dedicated acute surgical units or separating acute and elective streams with the existing manpower resources. The outcomes for emergency surgery patients and efficiency gains are promising. In Singapore, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital has implemented its first dedicated acute surgical unit. This article outlines the evolution of acute care surgery and its relevance to Asia. PMID:27353030

  5. Increased risks of endotracheal tube cuff colonization after prolonged intubation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Hui; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Shih, Chung-Hung

    2014-06-30

    Mechanical ventilation using endotracheal tube (ETT) intubation is crucial in saving life but may also cause ventilator-associated pneumonia resulting in morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of intubation duration on pathogen colonization rates of ETT cuff region, and its association with the subsequent re-intubation and tracheostomy. We enrolled 92 patients who were successfully weaned from ventilator and were extubated within 20 days of intubation duration. Patients were divided into Group I and II based on intubation for 1-9 days and 10-20 days, respectively. Pathogen colonization over ETT cuff region and extra-cuff region (including sputum and ETT aspirates) were assessed. As compared to Group I patients, Group II patients had a significant higher pathogen colonization rate (100% vs. 69.2%; P < 0.001) in the ETT cuff samples, but not in the extra-cuff samples (92.6% vs. 84.8%; P = 0.442). Further studies demonstrated that there was no difference between Group I and II patients in the percentages of patients with the same pathogen over both the cuff and extra-cuff samples (35.5% vs. 30.8%; P = 0.925), suggesting that the increased pathogen colonization rate over the ETT cuff region was least likely from the extra-cuff region. In addition, the results showed that longer intubation was also associated with increased tracheostomy rate from 9.3% to 28.9% for Group I and Group II respectively (P = 0.025). We conclude that longer intubation has a higher pathogen colonization rate over the ETT cuff region in patients receiving mechanical ventilation support; longer intubation also increases the trend of receiving re-intubation and tracheostomy. Our findings indicate that it is crucial to remove ETT as soon as possible and perform pathogen culture over the ETT cuff regions immediately after extubation. PMID:24826783

  6. Endovascular Treatment of Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in Trauma Patients Using Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Wille, R. Heiss, P.; Herold, T.; Jung, E. M. Schreyer, A. G. Hamer, O. W. Rennert, J. Hoffstetter, P. Stroszczynski, C.; Zorger, N.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the feasibility and efficacy of endovascular embolization with liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) in patients with acute traumatic arterial bleeding. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 13 patients (9 men and 4 women; mean age 45 years) with severe trauma who underwent embolotherapy using Onyx from November 2003 to February 2009. Bleeding was located in the pelvis (5 patients), kidney (3 patients), mesenteric region (2 patients), retroperitoneal space (2 patients), neck (1 patient), and thigh (1 patient). In three cases (23.1%), Onyx was used in conjunction with coils. We evaluate the technical and clinical success, procedural and embolization time, occurrence of rebleeding, and embolotherapy-related complications, such as necrosis or migration of Onyx into nontarget vessels. Results: In all patients, embolotherapy was technically and clinically successful on the first attempt. Control of bleeding could be reached with a mean time of 19 (range, 4-63) min after correct placement of the microcatheter in the feeding artery. No recurrent bleeding was detected. No unintended necrosis or migration of Onyx into a nontarget region was observed. During the follow-up period, three patients (23.1%) died due to severe intracranial hemorrhage, cardiac arrest, and sepsis. Conclusions: Transcatheter embolization with new liquid embolic agent Onyx is technically feasible and effective in trauma patients with acute arterial hemorrhage.

  7. Factors affecting mortality of pediatric trauma patients encountered in Kandahar, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Pannell, Capt Dylan; Poynter, Jeffery; Wales, Paul W.; Tien, Col Homer; Nathens, Avery B.; Shellington, David

    2015-01-01

    Background The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Role 3 Multinational Medical Unit (R3-MMU) is a tertiary care trauma facility that receives casualties, both coalition and civilian, and provides humanitarian medical assistance when able to the Kandahar province in southern Afghanistan. We examined the cohort of pediatric patients evaluated at the facility during a 16-month period to determine the characteristics and care requirements of this unique patient population. Methods A database of Afghan patients younger than 18 years of age admitted to the NATO R3-MMU between January 2010 and April 2011 was developed from the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry. This patient cohort was analyzed to determine demographics, injury mechanism, injury severity, resource utilization and factors associated with mortality. Results A total of 263 children were admitted to the NATO R3-MMU during the study period, representing 12% of all trauma admissions during this time period. The median age was 9 years (range 3 mo–17 yr) with a predominance of male patients (82%). Battle-related trauma was responsible for 62% of admissions, with explosive blast injury constituting the predominant mechanism (42%). The average injury severity score was 12.3 ± 9.3. Overall mortality was 8%. Factors associated with increased risk of death included admission acidosis, coagulopathy, hypothermia and female sex. Conclusion Children represent a significant proportion of traumatic injuries encountered in a modern war zone; many of them are critically injured. Organizations that provide health care in such environments should be prepared to care for this patient population where their mandates and facilities allow for it. PMID:26100774

  8. Epidemiological Analysis of Trauma Patients following the Lushan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhao, Minggang; Fu, Wenhao; Gao, Xinqiang; Shen, Ji; Zhang, Zuyun; Xian, Ming; Jiao, Yunzhi; Jiang, Jian; Wang, Jinqian; Gao, Guomin; Tang, Bin; Chen, Liang; Li, Weimin; Zhou, Changhua; Deng, Shaoping; Gu, Jianwen; Zhang, Dong; Zheng, Ying; Chen, Xiangmei

    2014-01-01

    Background A 7.0-magnitude earthquake hit Lushan County in China’s Sichuan province on April 20, 2013, resulting in 196 deaths and 11,470 injured. This study was designed to analyze the characteristics of the injuries and the treatment of the seismic victims. Methods After the earthquake, an epidemiological survey of injured patients was conducted by the Health Department of Sichuan Province. Epidemiological survey tools included paper-and-pencil questionnaires and a data management system based on the Access Database. Questionnaires were completed based on the medical records of inpatients with earthquake-related injuries. Outpatients or non-seismic injured inpatients were excluded. A total of 2010 patients from 140 hospitals were included. Results The most common type of injuries involved bone fractures (58.3%). Children younger than 10 years of age suffered fewer fractures and chest injuries, but more skin and soft -tissue injuries. Patients older than 80 years were more likely to suffer hip and thigh fractures, pelvis fractures, and chest injuries, whereas adult patients suffered more ankle and foot fractures. A total of 207 cases of calcaneal fracture were due to high falling injuries related to extreme panic. The most common type of infection in hospitalized patients was pulmonary infections. A total of 70.5% patients had limb dysfunction, and 60.1% of this group received rehabilitation. Most patients received rehabilitation within 1 week, and the median duration of rehabilitation was 3 weeks. The cause of death of all seven hospitalized patients who died was severe traumatic brain injuries; five of this group died within 24 h after the earthquake. Conclusions Injuries varied as a function of the age of the victim. As more injuries were indirectly caused by the Lushan earthquake, disaster education is urgently needed to avoid secondary injuries. PMID:24846207

  9. [Application of Non-intubated Anesthesia in VATS].

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaotan; Song, Pingping; Zhang, Baijiang

    2016-05-20

    Tracheal intubation general anesthesia technique is widely used in video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) because it can improve the safety of VATS, but the complications of tracheal intubation can not be avoided. How to develop a "minimally invasive" surgery (including micro anesthesia) has become a hot topic in the field of minimally invasive surgery. Along with the progress of the anesthesia management technology and the risk management in the operation, the technology of non-intubated anesthesia was successfully applied to VATS, namely using local anesthesia to maintain patients intraoperative independent ventilation and intraoperative only mild sedation or fully conscious state of implementation of thoracoscope surgery, therefore is also called awake VATS. The anesthesia method not only reduces the anesthesia injury of tracheal intubation, but also conforms to the idea of rapid rehabilitation surgery. Based on non-intubated anesthesia in VATS in the brief history of development, the anesthesia selection, operation advantages and risks are reviewed in this paper. PMID:27215461

  10. Implementation and Evaluation of a Wiki Involving Multiple Stakeholders Including Patients in the Promotion of Best Practices in Trauma Care: The WikiTrauma Interrupted Time Series Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Alexis F; Witteman, Holly O; Lauzier, François; Moore, Lynne; Lamontagne, François; Horsley, Tanya; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Droit, Arnaud; Weiss, Matthew; Tremblay, Sébastien; Lachaine, Jean; Le Sage, Natalie; Émond, Marcel; Berthelot, Simon; Plaisance, Ariane; Lapointe, Jean; Razek, Tarek; van de Belt, Tom H; Brand, Kevin; Bérubé, Mélanie; Clément, Julien; Grajales III, Francisco Jose; Eysenbach, Gunther; Kuziemsky, Craig; Friedman, Debbie; Lang, Eddy; Muscedere, John; Rizoli, Sandro; Roberts, Derek J; Scales, Damon C; Sinuff, Tasnim; Stelfox, Henry T; Gagnon, Isabelle; Chabot, Christian; Grenier, Richard; Légaré, France

    2015-01-01

    Background Trauma is the most common cause of mortality among people between the ages of 1 and 45 years, costing Canadians 19.8 billion dollars a year (2004 data), yet half of all patients with major traumatic injuries do not receive evidence-based care, and significant regional variation in the quality of care across Canada exists. Accordingly, our goal is to lead a research project in which stakeholders themselves will adapt evidence-based trauma care knowledge tools to their own varied institutional contexts and cultures. We will do this by developing and assessing the combined impact of WikiTrauma, a free collaborative database of clinical decision support tools, and Wiki101, a training course teaching participants how to use WikiTrauma. WikiTrauma has the potential to ensure that all stakeholders (eg, patients, clinicians, and decision makers) can all contribute to, and benefit from, evidence-based clinical knowledge about trauma care that is tailored to their own needs and clinical setting. Objective Our main objective will be to study the combined effect of WikiTrauma and Wiki101 on the quality of care in four trauma centers in Quebec. Methods First, we will pilot-test the wiki with potential users to create a version ready to test in practice. A rapid, iterative prototyping process with 15 health professionals from nonparticipating centers will allow us to identify and resolve usability issues prior to finalizing the definitive version for the interrupted time series. Second, we will conduct an interrupted time series to measure the impact of our combined intervention on the quality of care in four trauma centers that will be selected—one level I, one level II, and two level III centers. Participants will be health care professionals working in the selected trauma centers. Also, five patient representatives will be recruited to participate in the creation of knowledge tools destined for their use (eg, handouts). All participants will be invited to

  11. Comparison of the Sensitivity of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB According to Patient Age.

    PubMed

    Bae, Won; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Eun Young; Kim, Se Joong; Lee, Yeon Joo; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Ho Il; Yim, Jae-Joon; Lee, Choon-Taek; Lee, Jae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are two types of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in use for the detection of tuberculosis (TB) infection, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (GFT-GIT) and T-SPOT.TB. Owing to contradictory reports regarding whether the results of these IGRAs are affected by the age of the patient, we aimed to determine if these two tests have age-related differences in sensitivity. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of diagnosed TB patients who were tested using either QFT-GIT or T-SPOT.TB from February 2008 to December 2013. The positivity of the two tests was analyzed and compared with true TB infection, which was defined as active TB based on either a positive Mycobacterium culture or a positive TB polymerase chain reaction. The QFT-GIT group included 192 TB patients, and the T-SPOT.TB group included 212 TB patients. Of the patients with pulmonary TB, 76 (39.6%) were in the QFT-GIT group and 143 (67.5%) in the T-SPOT.TB group. The overall sensitivity was 80.2% for QFT-GIT and 91.0% for T.SPOT.TB. The sensitivities of QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB according to age group were as follows: <29 years, 93.3% and 96.7%; 30-49 years, 86.5% and 94.7%; 50-69 years, 76.8% and 87.5%; and >70 years, 68.3% and 85.7%, respectively. The trend of age-related changes in sensitivity was significant for both QFT-GIT (p = 0.004) and T.SPOT.TB (p = 0.039). However, only QFT-GIT was significantly related to age in the multivariate analysis. QFT-GIT, but not T-SPOT.TB, was significantly affected by patient age. PMID:27258377

  12. Comparison of the Sensitivity of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB According to Patient Age

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Won; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Eun Young; Kim, Se Joong; Lee, Yeon Joo; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Ho Il; Yim, Jae-Joon; Lee, Choon-Taek; Lee, Jae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are two types of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in use for the detection of tuberculosis (TB) infection, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (GFT-GIT) and T-SPOT.TB. Owing to contradictory reports regarding whether the results of these IGRAs are affected by the age of the patient, we aimed to determine if these two tests have age-related differences in sensitivity. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of diagnosed TB patients who were tested using either QFT-GIT or T-SPOT.TB from February 2008 to December 2013. The positivity of the two tests was analyzed and compared with true TB infection, which was defined as active TB based on either a positive Mycobacterium culture or a positive TB polymerase chain reaction. The QFT-GIT group included 192 TB patients, and the T-SPOT.TB group included 212 TB patients. Of the patients with pulmonary TB, 76 (39.6%) were in the QFT-GIT group and 143 (67.5%) in the T-SPOT.TB group. The overall sensitivity was 80.2% for QFT-GIT and 91.0% for T.SPOT.TB. The sensitivities of QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB according to age group were as follows: <29 years, 93.3% and 96.7%; 30–49 years, 86.5% and 94.7%; 50–69 years, 76.8% and 87.5%; and >70 years, 68.3% and 85.7%, respectively. The trend of age-related changes in sensitivity was significant for both QFT-GIT (p = 0.004) and T.SPOT.TB (p = 0.039). However, only QFT-GIT was significantly related to age in the multivariate analysis. QFT-GIT, but not T-SPOT.TB, was significantly affected by patient age. PMID:27258377

  13. Health Disparities Analysis of Critically Ill Pediatric Trauma Patients in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, LD; Lambropoulos, D; Enters, J; Gourlay, D; Farahzad, M; Lal, DR

    2014-01-01

    Background Injury is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the U.S. The associated costs exceed 20 billion dollars annually. This study examines disparities in disadvantaged populations of critically injured pediatric patients admitted to a level 1 pediatric trauma center. Study Design A retrospective study was conducted of all trauma patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at a level 1 pediatric trauma hospital from 2005-2009. Results Data on 324 patients were analyzed and 45% of patients were Caucasian, 33% African American 12% Hispanic and 10% other. There was no difference in age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) or Injury Severity Score (ISS) across ethnic groups. The mortality rate was 12%. A higher percentage of Caucasians were commercially insured and from the highest income quartile than non-Caucasians (p<0.001). African Americans had the highest rate of penetrating trauma and intentional injury compared to other ethnicities (p<0.001). Nearly 75% of firearm injuries were clustered in 7 zip codes with the lowest median household incomes. The home was the most common location for firearm injuries. Children involved in assaults were more likely to have a single parent (67%) than two parents (26%, p<0.001). Both ethnicity and payer status were significantly associated with mortality. Conclusions Significant disparities in socioeconomic status exist in severely injured pediatric patients treated in the PICU. These disparities were associated with adverse outcome. These results should inform community and public health efforts to identify the areas and populations at highest risk for violence related injuries. PMID:23664140

  14. Thromboelastography Does Not Detect Preinjury Antiplatelet Therapy in Acute Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    Daley, Mitchell J; Trust, Marc D; Peterson, Evan J; Luftman, Kevin; Miller, Andrew H; Ali, Sadia; Clark, Adam; Aydelotte, Jayson D; Coopwood, Thomas B; Brown, Carlos V R

    2016-02-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) with platelet mapping has been proposed as an assay to detect the presence of antiplatelet agents (APA), yet no study has evaluated TEG markers of platelet dysfunction in acute trauma patients stratified by the use of preinjury APA. We hypothesized that patients on preinjury APA would demonstrate prolonged TEG markers of platelet dysfunction compared with those not on preinjury APA. This retrospective review evaluated all trauma patients admitted to a Level I trauma center from February 2011 to April 2013 who received a TEG within the first 24 hours of admission. Patients were classified as receiving preinjury APA or no APA if their documented medications included either aspirin or adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonists, including clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor. A total of 129 patients were included (APA, n = 35; no APA n = 94) in the study. The time from admission to the first TEG was similar (APA 175 ± 289 minutes versus no APA 216 ± 321 minutes, P = 0.5). There was no significant difference in TEG markers of platelet dysfunction, including per cent ADP inhibition (APA 61.7 ± 25.8% versus no APA 62.3 ± 28.8%; P = 0.91) or per cent arachidonic acid inhibition (APA 58.2 ± 31% versus no APA 53.8 ± 34%; P = 0.54). Both groups had similar proportion of severe platelet dysfunction, defined as ADP inhibition greater than 70 per cent (APA 40% versus no APA 40%; P = 0.8) and arachidonic acid inhibition greater than 70 per cent (APA 40% versus no APA 39%; P = 0.89). In conclusion, platelet dysfunction after major trauma is common. Therefore, TEG alone should not be used to evaluate for the presence of APA due to apparent lack of specificity. PMID:26874143

  15. MR intensity measurements of nondenervated muscle in patients following severe forearm trauma.

    PubMed

    Viddeleer, A R; Sijens, P E; van Ooijen, P M A; Kuypers, P D L; Hovius, S E R; Oudkerk, M

    2011-08-01

    Fluid increases resulting in higher MRI signal intensities in T(2) -weighted and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences can be used to diagnose nerve injury. By comparing the signal intensities over time, MRI may become a new method for monitoring the healing process. Muscle edema is assessed by comparing the signal intensity of affected muscle with that of nonaffected muscle. However, in severe forearm trauma, the signal of nondenervated muscle may also be increased by wound edema, thus masking the effect of denervation. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of wound edema on muscle signal intensity in 29 consecutive patients examined on a 1.5-T MRI scanner at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after severe forearm trauma. The long-term course of wound edema and the influence of wound distance were thus investigated using a standardized imaging, calibration and post-processing protocol. The signal intensities of nondenervated intrinsic hand muscles were measured in the affected and contralateral sides. Muscle signal intensities were increased on the trauma side at 1 and 3 months (18% and 7.4%, respectively; p < 0.001) and normalized thereafter. In the contralateral hand, no significant signal changes were seen. No relationship was found between wound distance and the severity of wound edema. This study shows that wound edema influences muscle signal intensity comparisons in patients with forearm trauma. When comparing denervated muscle with nondenervated muscle, an additional scan of the contralateral side is indicated during the first 6 months after trauma to assess the extent of wound edema. After 6 months, the ipsilateral side can be used for muscle signal intensity comparisons. PMID:21834012

  16. Impaired bone healing in multitrauma patients is associated with altered leukocyte kinetics after major trauma.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Okan W; Kuijer, Anne; Koenderman, Leo; Stellato, Rebecca K; van Solinge, Wouter W; Leenen, Luke Ph; Blokhuis, Taco J

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that the systemic inflammatory response to major injury impairs bone regeneration. It remains unclear whether the systemic immune response contributes to impairment of fracture healing in multitrauma patients. It is well known that systemic inflammatory changes after major trauma affect leukocyte kinetics. We therefore retrospectively compared the cellular composition of peripheral blood during the first 2 weeks after injury between multitrauma patients with normal (n=48) and impaired (n=32) fracture healing of the tibia. The peripheral blood-count curves of leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and thrombocytes differed significantly between patients with normal and impaired fracture healing during the first 2 weeks after trauma (P-values were 0.0122, 0.0083, 0.0204, and <0.0001, respectively). Mean myeloid cell counts were above reference values during the second week after injury. Our data indicate that leukocyte kinetics differ significantly between patients with normal and impaired fracture healing during the first 2 weeks after major injury. This finding suggests that the systemic immune response to major trauma can disturb tissue regeneration. PMID:27274302

  17. Impaired bone healing in multitrauma patients is associated with altered leukocyte kinetics after major trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Okan W; Kuijer, Anne; Koenderman, Leo; Stellato, Rebecca K; van Solinge, Wouter W; Leenen, Luke PH; Blokhuis, Taco J

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that the systemic inflammatory response to major injury impairs bone regeneration. It remains unclear whether the systemic immune response contributes to impairment of fracture healing in multitrauma patients. It is well known that systemic inflammatory changes after major trauma affect leukocyte kinetics. We therefore retrospectively compared the cellular composition of peripheral blood during the first 2 weeks after injury between multitrauma patients with normal (n=48) and impaired (n=32) fracture healing of the tibia. The peripheral blood-count curves of leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and thrombocytes differed significantly between patients with normal and impaired fracture healing during the first 2 weeks after trauma (P-values were 0.0122, 0.0083, 0.0204, and <0.0001, respectively). Mean myeloid cell counts were above reference values during the second week after injury. Our data indicate that leukocyte kinetics differ significantly between patients with normal and impaired fracture healing during the first 2 weeks after major injury. This finding suggests that the systemic immune response to major trauma can disturb tissue regeneration. PMID:27274302

  18. A sticky situation: methaemaglobinaemia in a hand trauma patient

    PubMed Central

    Sheena, Yezen; Baston, Emma Louise; Downs, Andrew; Chester, Darren L

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of methaemoglobinaemia (MtHb) in a previously healthy 39-year-old gentleman who presented with a traumatic glass laceration to his right wrist that required emergency surgery to control bleeding and repair his ulnar artery. The MtHb was noted on blood gas analysis by the anaesthetist after the patient had a drop in arterial oxygen saturation under general anaesthetic. We initially suspected the lidocaine local anaesthetic injected proximal to his wound for pain control in the emergency department an hour preoperatively, but then discovered that the patient was a recreational user of ‘poppers’ and had in fact been using these drugs just before his injury and hospitalisation. The patient's condition stabilised overnight with conservative management. Given how commonly hand surgeons and other clinical staff use local anaesthetics, we reviewed the literature on this uncommon, but potentially fatal, complication, its causes and evidence-based management. PMID:23148399

  19. CRASH-2 Study of Tranexamic Acid to Treat Bleeding in Trauma Patients: A Controversy Fueled by Science and Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Binz, Sophia; McCollester, Jonathon; Thomas, Scott; Miller, Joseph; Pohlman, Timothy; Waxman, Dan; Shariff, Faisal; Tracy, Rebecca; Walsh, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of tranexamic acid, an antifibrinolytic, to trauma. CRASH-2, a large randomized controlled trial, was the first to show a reduction in mortality and recommend tranexamic acid use in bleeding trauma patients. However, this paper was not without controversy. Its patient recruitment, methodology, and conductance in moderate-to-low income countries cast doubt on its ability to be applied to trauma protocols in countries with mature trauma networks. In addition to traditional vetting in scientific, peer-reviewed journals, CRASH-2 came about at a time when advances in communication technology allowed debate and influence to be leveraged in new forms, specifically through the use of multimedia campaigns, social media, and Internet blogs. This paper presents a comprehensive view of tranexamic acid utilization in trauma from peer-reviewed evidence to novel multimedia influences. PMID:26448897

  20. [SEPTIC SHOCK IN PATIENT WITH SEVERE HEAD TRAUMA].

    PubMed

    Sichev, A A; Tabasaransky, T Φ; Savin, I A; Gorachev, A S; Tenedieva, V D; Abramov, T A; Oshorov, A V; Polupan, A A; Mazkovsky, I V; Gavrilov, A G; Potapov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The clinical observation illustrates the role of screening of inflammatory markers and advanced hemodynamic monitoring in optimization of the treatment of the patient with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The level of consciousness by the Glasgow Coma Scale at admission was 5 points. From the first day of stay the patient suffered hyperthermia to 39,0° C° The diagnosis of the aspiration pneumonia was determined by radiological signs, bronchoscopy and inflammatory blood markers, C-reactive protein, leukocytosis. From the second day the constant infusion of norepinephrine was necessary to maintain mean ABP above 80 mmHg. On the 10th day the patient's condition deteriorated sharply. Developed hyperthermia to 40, 2° and cardiovascular collapse (in spite of the high level of norepinephrine support a sharp decline in ABP up to 49/20 mmHg). Invasive advanced hemodynamic PiCCO monitoring (transpulmonary thermodilution) was started Septic shock was suspected. Standard laboratory tests did not meet the criteria for septic shock. Witnessed a slight increase in CRP and procalcitonin (PCT) was within normal limits. Diagnostic search was supplemented by a study of interleukins (IL-6 and IL-2R) in the blood plasma. The significant increase in their values, was regarded as the initial manifestations of the systemic inflammatory response. Sepsis was confirmed. The extended antibiotic therapy started Continuous Veno-Venous hemofiltration was used as part of treatment of the inflammatory-toxic condition. In two days of the therapy the patient's condition has stabilized, the patient recovered consciousness in the form of opening the eyes, simple instructions. At discharge, the patient's condition according to the Glasgow outcome scale was estimated at 4 points. PMID:26596036

  1. PTSD Symptom Severities, Interpersonal Traumas, and Benzodiazepines Are Associated with Substance-Related Problems in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guina, Jeffrey; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Goldberg, Adam J.; Farnsworth, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma is commonly associated with substance-related problems, yet associations between specific substances and specific posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSSs) are understudied. We hypothesized that substance-related problems are associated with PTSS severities, interpersonal traumas, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey methodology in a consecutive sample of adult outpatients with trauma histories (n = 472), we used logistic regression to examine substance-related problems in general (primary, confirmatory analysis), as well as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug problems specifically (secondary, exploratory analyses) in relation to demographics, trauma type, PTSSs, and benzodiazepine prescriptions. Results: After adjusting for multiple testing, several factors were significantly associated with substance-related problems, particularly benzodiazepines (AOR = 2.78; 1.99 for alcohol, 2.42 for tobacco, 8.02 for illicit drugs), DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis (AOR = 1.92; 2.38 for alcohol, 2.00 for tobacco, 2.14 for illicit drugs), most PTSSs (especially negative beliefs, recklessness, and avoidance), and interpersonal traumas (e.g., assaults and child abuse). Conclusion: In this clinical sample, there were consistent and strong associations between several trauma-related variables and substance-related problems, consistent with our hypotheses. We discuss possible explanations and implications of these findings, which we hope will stimulate further research, and improve screening and treatment. PMID:27517964

  2. The role of computerised tomography in predicting visual outcome in ocular trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, R; Upendran, M; Campion, N; Yeung, A; Blanch, R; Morgan-Warren, P; Gibb, I; Nelson, T; Scott, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ocular blast injuries in the military setting are particularly associated with significant maxillofacial trauma and/or brain injury. The opportunity to perform a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation is frequently limited in the acute multiple trauma scenario. We aim to describe the relationship between the clinical effects of acute ocular and orbital blast trauma with the findings on computerised tomography (CT). Methods This was a retrospective consecutive case series of all soldiers with facial and/or suspected ocular injuries. A total of 80 eyes that had suffered blast injuries of varying severity were studied. Assessment of orbital and ocular CT images were performed by military consultant radiologists. A comparison was made with actual clinical findings. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Results No pathological findings were described in 37 of the 80 eyes imaged by orbital and ocular CT scans. Clinically, these eyes and orbits were all found to be intact, or had minor trauma. All foreign bodies and penetrating eye injuries were successfully diagnosed by CT. Absence of an orbital fracture did not rule out a globe injury. However, a corneal or scleral defect was less likely when an orbital fracture was absent. Conclusion The eye is a delicate structure prone to injury that requires urgent repair if breached. It is difficult to assess thoroughly in the unconscious or distressed patient. In this context, CT imaging is invaluable to be able to make a relatively confident prediction of clinical findings and decide upon the necessity for acute ophthalmic surgical intervention. PMID:25853401

  3. Pretracheal Abscess Following Two Weeks of Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Narayan; Schmidt, M. Frances; Gulati, Neerja; Perwaiz, Muhammad; Hammoudeh, Fadi; Kennedy, Eneh; Zahir, Mehjabin; Enriquez, Danilo; Quist, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Pretracheal abscess due to endotracheal intubation has not been reported in literature. We present a case of a female patient who was admitted with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Patient was initially managed with noninvasive ventilation but eventually was intubated after sustaining a cardiac arrest. She could not be extubated because of poor weaning parameters, so a tracheostomy was planned. During surgery, a pretracheal abscess was found with destruction of the second, third, and fourth tracheal rings and intact posterior tracheal wall. The possible risk factors, mechanism of injury, and preventive strategy of tracheal complication of intubation are discussed. PMID:21451779

  4. Use of transoesophageal echocardiography during the peri-operative period for trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Smyth, K; Hebballi, R; Peterson, M K

    2010-12-01

    The medical facility at Camp Bastion continues to evolve as a consequence of the increased throughput of battlefield trauma patients. There is a requirement for rapid and accurate diagnosis of haemodynamic instability and continued haemodynamic monitoring throughout the peri-operative period. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) has been used for this purpose in the arena of cardiac anaesthesia since the mid 1980s. It is being introduced to other peri-operative settings where severe haemodynamic instability is expected. The old proverb: 'There are none so blind as those who cannot see' (Jeremiah 5:21) is applicable to this topic, in that TOE is proven to be a rapid, portable, safe and effective tool in the assessment of the haemodynamically unstable patient. This paper explores the application of TOE for the assessment of the major causes of haemodynamic instability in the trauma population. PMID:21302659

  5. The usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnosis of patients after chest trauma – two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Siwiera, Wojciech; Białas, Adam Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultrasound in diagnosing fractures of the ribs and sternum has been confirmed in the literature. The aim of our study was to present two case reports of patients with chest trauma history in whom ultrasound examination proved useful in the diagnostic process. The role of thoracic ultrasound in the diagnosis of ribs and sternal fractures is discussed as well. The authors conclude the following: 1) the examination was easy to perform and assess, and provided clinically useful conclusions; 2) due to the mobility of the ultrasound machine, the examination may be carried out outside of radiology departments, e.g. by the patient's bedside – in departments of surgery; 3) ultrasound should be the examination of choice after chest trauma and can be performed successfully by non-radiologist physicians. PMID:26855659

  6. External iliac artery occlusion in a paediatric patient following handlebar trauma.

    PubMed

    Singla, Animesh A; McPherson, Danielle; Singla, Apresh A; Cross, Jane; Leslie, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Arterial occlusion following blunt trauma is an uncommon occurrence. We report an unusual case of delayed external iliac artery occlusion in a young male following blunt abdominal injury. He was successfully treated with thromboendarterectomy and saphenous vein patch repair. There have only been a handful of documented cases occurring in the paediatric population. All patients presenting with groin injury from this mechanism should be carefully investigated and monitored for risk of vascular injury. PMID:25733671

  7. Objective and personalized longitudinal assessment of a pregnant patient with post severe brain trauma

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Elizabeth B.; Lande, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Following severe trauma to the brain (whether internally generated by seizures, tumors or externally caused by collision with or penetration of objects) individuals may experience initial coma state followed by slow recovery and rehabilitation treatment. At present there is no objective biometric to track the daily progression of the person for extended periods of time. Objective: We introduce new analytical techniques to process data from physically wearable sensors and help track the longitudinal progression of motions and physiological states upon the brain trauma. Setting and Participant: The data used to illustrate the methods were collected at the hospital settings from a pregnant patient in coma state. The patient had brain trauma from a large debilitating seizure due to a large tumor in the right pre-frontal lobe. Main Measures: We registered the wrist motions and the surface-skin-temperature across several daily sessions in four consecutive months. A new statistical technique is introduced for personalized analyses of the rates of change of the stochastic signatures of these patterns. Results: We detected asymmetries in the wrists’ data that identified in the dominant limb critical points of change in physiological and motor control states. These patterns could blindly identify the time preceding the baby’s delivery by C-section when the patient systematically brought her hand to her abdominal area. Changes in temperature were sharp and accompanied by systematic changes in the statistics of the motions that rendered her dominant wrist’s micro-movements more systematically reliable and predictable than those of the non-dominant writst. Conclusions: The new analytics paired with wearable sensing technology may help track the day-by-day individual progression of a patient with post brain trauma in clinical settings and in the home environment. PMID:25852516

  8. External iliac artery occlusion in a paediatric patient following handlebar trauma

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Animesh A.; McPherson, Danielle; Singla, Apresh A; Cross, Jane; Leslie, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Arterial occlusion following blunt trauma is an uncommon occurrence. We report an unusual case of delayed external iliac artery occlusion in a young male following blunt abdominal injury. He was successfully treated with thromboendarterectomy and saphenous vein patch repair. There have only been a handful of documented cases occurring in the paediatric population. All patients presenting with groin injury from this mechanism should be carefully investigated and monitored for risk of vascular injury. PMID:25733671

  9. Two Paradigmatic Approaches to Borderline Patients With a History of Trauma

    PubMed Central

    LEWIS, JUDITH L.

    1996-01-01

    A significant number of patients with the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder have a history of childhood trauma. This article attempts to integrate the treatment approach of Judith Herman to traumatized patients with the psychodynamic approach of Otto Kernberg to borderline patients. To facilitate paradigm shifts between these two approaches, they are presented side by side with one set of terms translated into the other. Aspects of the therapeutic relationship and process are compared and contrasted, and a preliminary attempt is made to integrate these two treatment models. PMID:22700260

  10. Intermittent catheterization in neurologic patients: Update on genitourinary tract infection and urethral trauma.

    PubMed

    Biardeau, X; Corcos, J

    2016-04-01

    Intermittent catheterization is considered the standard of care in most neurologic patients with lower urinary tract disorders. However, in this context, genitourinary tract infection and urethral trauma represent specific challenges. Such conditions have been found to significantly deteriorate quality of life and complicate subsequent treatments. Only optimal prevention associated with appropriate treatment allows for the long-term continuation of such bladder management. Here, we discuss the diagnosis and therapeutic and preventive approaches associated with genitourinary tract infection and urethral trauma in this specific population. This "state-of-the-art" article results from a literature review (MEDLINE articles and scientific society guidelines) and the authors' experience. It was structured in a didactic way to facilitate comprehension and promote the implementation of advice and recommendations in daily practice. Genitourinary tract infection and urethral trauma associated with intermittent catheterization in neurologic patients should be managed with a global approach, including patient and caregiver education, optimal catheterization with hydrophilic-coated or pre-lubricated catheters and adequate use of antibiotic therapy. PMID:27053002

  11. Obesity and the orthopedic trauma patient: a review of the risks and challenges in medical and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Mulcahey, Mary K; Appleyard, Deborah V; Schiller, Jonathan R; Born, Christopher T

    2011-02-01

    The medical and surgical care of obese trauma patients presents a variety of unique and important challenges. Over the past 30 years, this population has increased dramatically in number, and the optimization of their care demands the attention of the medical community. The problems of caring for an obese trauma patient begin before the actual traumatic event occurs due to their substantially higher incidence of serious comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiopulmonary issues. In the setting of trauma, important considerations for the obese patient include careful and expeditious preoperative medical optimization; appropriate deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis; planning for and preventing operative and postoperative challenges (eg, pulmonary and wound complications); and ensuring adequate hospital equipment and staffing resources in the acute and rehabilitative phases of care. This article outlines the scope of the obesity epidemic, reviews the medical consequences of obesity, and highlights surgical considerations specific to the care of orthopedic injuries in the obese trauma patient. PMID:21441770

  12. Factors that Predict Negative Results of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test in Patients with Culture-Confirmed Tuberculosis: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Soo; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jeon, Kyeongman; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Ryu, Yon Ju; Choi, Jae Chol; Kim, Ho Cheol; Koh, Won-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Interferon-γ release assays such as the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QFT-GIT) are designed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, whether latent or manifesting as disease. However, a substantial number of persons with culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) have negative QFT-GITs. Information on host factors contributing to false-negative and indeterminate results are limited. Methods A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed with 1,264 culture-confirmed TB patients older than 18 years who were subjected to the QFT-GIT at one of the six hospitals between May 2007 and February 2014. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection were excluded. Clinical and laboratory data were collected in South Korea. Results Of all patients, 87.6% (1,107/1,264) were diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 12.4% (157/1,264) with extrapulmonary TB. The rate of negative results was 14.4% (182/1,264). The following factors were highly correlated with false-negative results in the QFT-GIT: advanced age (age ≥ 65 years, odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–2.39), bilateral disease as determined by chest radiography (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13–2.72), malignancy (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.30–4.49), and lymphocytopenia (total lymphocyte count < 1.0 × 109/L, OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.21–2.87). Conclusions Consequently, QFT-GIT results need to be interpreted with caution in patients with these host risk factors such as the elderly, bilateral disease on chest radiography, or malignancy, or lymphocytopenia. PMID:26070207

  13. Serum lactate as a predictor of early outcomes among trauma patients in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trauma is the leading cause of death in the developed world. Accurate assessment of severity of injuries is critical in informing treatment choices. Current models of assessing severity of injury are not without limitations. The objective of this study therefore was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of serum lactate assays in assessing injury severity and prediction of early outcomes among trauma patients. Methods This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Consecutive series of all eligible patients had a single venous blood sample drawn for lactate assay analysis (index test) and a concurrent Kampala Trauma Score (KTS) II value determination (reference test). Admitted patients were followed up to assess early outcomes (length of hospital stay and mortality). Results Out of the 502 trauma patients recruited, 108 (22%) were severely injured, 394 (78%) had non-severe injuries, and 183 were admitted. There was a significant difference between median (interquartile range (IQR)) lactate levels among the severely injured (4.3 (2.6, 6.6)) and the non-severely injured (2.4 (1.6, 3.5), p < 0.001). After a 72-h follow-up of the admitted patients, 102 (56%) were discharged, 61 (33%) remained in the hospital, 3 (2%) remained in the ICU, and 17 (3%) had died. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.75 for injury severity. Serum lactate ≥2.0 mmol/l had a hazard ratio of 1.10 (p < 0.001) for emergency department disposition, 4.33 (p = 0.06) for the 72-h non-discharge disposition, and 1.19 (p < 0.001) for 72-h mortality. Serum lactate ≥2.0 mmol/l at admission was useful in discriminating severe from non-severe injuries with a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 38%, PPV of 30%, and NPV of 92%. Conclusion Hyperlactatemia in an emergency trauma patient suggests a high probability of severe injury. PMID:25097669

  14. Teaching tracheal intubation: Airtraq is superior to Macintosh laryngoscope

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tracheal intubation with Macintosh laryngoscope is taught to medical students as it is a lifesaving procedure. However, it is a difficult technique to learn and the consequences of intubation failure are potentially serious. The Airtraq optical laryngoscope is a relatively novel intubation device, which allows visualization of the glottic plane without alignment of the oral, pharyngeal, and tracheal axes, possessing advantages over Macintosh for novice personnel. We introduced a teaching mode featured with a progressive evaluation scheme for preparation and performance of tracheal intubation with medical students in this prospective randomized crossover trial who had no prior airway management experience to find the superior one. Methods Twenty-six medical students of the 8-year programme in the 6th year participated in this trial, when they did their one-week rotation in the department of anaesthesiology. Each of the students intubated 6 patients, who were scheduled for surgeries under general anaesthesia, each laryngoscope for 3 patients respectively. One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients scheduled for surgical procedures requiring tracheal intubation were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to undergo tracheal intubation using Macintosh (n = 75) or Airtraq (n =74) laryngoscope. The progressive evaluation scheme was applied to each intubation attempt. Results Intubation success rate was significantly higher in Airtraq group than Macintosh group (87.8% vs. 66.7%, P < 0.05). Duration of glottis exposure was significantly shorter in Airtraq group compared to Macintosh group (50 ± 19 s vs. 81 ± 27 s, P < 0.001). A grade I Cormack and Lehane glottic view was obtained in 94.6% of patients in the Airtraq group versus 32% of patients in the Macintosh group (P <0.001). Duration of intubation in Airtraq group was significantly shorter (68 ± 21 s vs. 96 ± 22 s, P < 0.05) compared to Macintosh group

  15. Mental Trauma Experienced by Caregivers of patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Syed Hassan, Syed Tajuddin; Jamaludin, Husna; Abd Raman, Rosna; Mohd Riji, Haliza; Wan Fei, Khaw

    2013-01-01

    Context As with care giving and rehabilitation in chronic illnesses, the concern with traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), is that the caregivers are so overwhelmingly involved in caring and rehabilitation of the victim that in the process they become traumatized themselves. This review intends to shed light on the hidden and silent trauma sustained by the caregivers of severe brain injury survivors. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) is the highest contributor of TBI or DAI. The essence of trauma is the infliction of pain and suffering and having to bear the pain (i.e. by the TBI survivor) and the burden of having to take care and manage and rehabilitate the TBI survivor (i.e. by the TBI caregiver). Moreover many caregivers are not trained for their care giving task, thus compounding the stress of care giving and rehabilitating patients. Most research on TBI including DAI, focus on the survivors and not on the caregivers. TBI injury and its effects and impacts remain the core question of most studies, which are largely based on the quantitative approach. Evidence Acquisition Qualitative research can better assess human sufferings such as in the case of DAI trauma. While quantitative research can measure many psychometric parameters to assess some aspects of trauma conditions, qualitative research is able to fully reveal the meaning, ramification and experience of TBI trauma. Both care giving and rehabilitation are overwhelmingly demanding; hence , they may complicate the caregivers’ stress. However, some positive outcomes also exist. Results Caregivers involved in caring and rehabilitation of TBI victims may become mentally traumatized. Posttraumatic recovery of the TBI survivor can enhance the entire family’s closeness and bonding as well as improve the mental status of the caregiver. Conclusions A long-term longitudinal study encompassing integrated research is needed to fully understand the traumatic experiences of

  16. Stimulation of Fas signaling down-regulates activity of neutrophils from major trauma patients with SIRS.

    PubMed

    Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana; Lögters, Tim; Flohé, Sascha; Cinatl, Jindrich; Altrichter, Jens; Windolf, Joachim; Scholz, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Posttrauma apoptosis resistance of neutrophils (PMN) is related to overshooting immune responses, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF). Recently, we have shown that the apoptosis resistance in circulating PMN from severely injured patients which is known to be mediated by high serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines can be overcome by the activation of Fas death receptor. Here, we aimed to study whether stimulation of surface Fas leads to the inactivation of hyperactivated PMN from critically ill patients with SIRS. PMN from 23 multiple trauma patients (mean injury severity score (ISS) 34±1.9) were isolated at day 1 after admission to the trauma center. PMN from 17 volunteer blood donors served as controls. Neutrophil activity has been determined after ex vivo short (1 h) and long-term (4 h) stimulation of freshly isolated PMN with immobilized agonistic anti-Fas antibodies. We found neutrophil chemotactic migration in response to IL-8, phagocytosis and oxidative burst to be significantly inhibited in control cells already after short-term (1 h) Fas stimulation. In contrast, inactivation of trauma PMN by agonistic anti-Fas antibodies was found to be efficient only after long-term (4 h) incubation of cells with agonistic antibodies. Thus, in trauma PMN down-regulation of neutrophil activity seems to be delayed when compared to cells isolated from healthy controls, suggesting impaired susceptibility for Fas stimulation in these cells. Interestingly, whereas Fas-mediated inhibition of phagocytosis and oxidative burst could be prevented by the broad range caspase inhibitor t-butoxycarbonyl-aspartyl(O-methyl)-fluoromethyl ketone (BocD-fmk), the chemotactic activity in response to IL-8 was unaffected. In conclusion, we demonstrate that stimulation of neutrophil Fas does not only initiate apoptosis but also induces inhibition of neutrophil functions, partially by non-apoptotic signaling. PMID:20832139

  17. Retrievable Vena Cava Filters in Major Trauma Patients: Prevalence of Thrombus Within the Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrer, Arie; Zippel, Douglas; Garniek, Alexander; Golan, Gil; Bensaid, Paul; Simon, Daniel; Rimon, Uri

    2008-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of thrombus within a retrievable vena cava filter inserted prophylactically in major trauma patients referred for filter extraction. Between November 2002 and August 2005, 80 retrievable inferior vena cava filters (68 Optease and 12 Gunther-Tulip) were inserted into critically injured trauma patients (mean injury severity score 33.5). The filters were inserted within 1 to 6 (mean 2) days of injury. Thirty-seven patients were referred for filter removal (32 with Optease and 5 with Gunther-Tulip). The indwelling time was 7 to 22 (mean 13) days. All patients underwent inferior vena cavography prior to filter removal. There were no insertion-related complications and all filters were successfully deployed. Forty-three (54%) of the 80 patients were not referred for filter removal, as these patients continued to have contraindications to anticoagulation. Thirty-seven patients (46%) were referred for filter removal. In eight of them (22%) a large thrombus was seen within the filters and they were left in place, all with the Optease device. The other 29 filters (36%) were removed uneventfully.We conclude that the relatively high prevalence of intrafilter thrombi with the Optease filter may be explained by either spontaneous thrombus formation or captured emboli.

  18. Clinician awareness of tetanus-diphtheria vaccination in trauma patients: a questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most trauma patients visit the hospital via the emergency department. They are at high risk for tetanus infection because many trauma patients are wounded. Tetanus immunity in the Korean population has been revealed to be decreased in age groups over 20 years old. It is important for emergency physicians to vaccinate patients with the tetanus booster in wound management. Methods Questionnaires were sent to the directors of the emergency departments of resident training hospitals certified by the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine. Results Two thirds of the emergency department directors surveyed reported applying tetanus prophylaxis guidelines to more than 80% of wounded patients. However, about 45% of clinicians in the emergency departments considered giving less than half of the wounded patient tetanus booster vaccinations, and there were no distinct differences in tetanus booster vaccination rates among different age groups. Most emergency physicians are familiar with tetanus prophylaxis guidelines for wound management. However, more than half of the emergency department directors reported that the major reason for not considering tetanus-diphtheria vaccination was due to assumptions that patients already had tetanus immunity. Conclusion Attitude changes should be encouraged among emergency physicians regarding tetanus prophylaxis. As emergency physicians are frequently confronted with patients that are at a high risk for tetanus infection in emergency situations, they need to be more informed regarding tetanus immunity epidemiology and encouraged to administer tetanus booster vaccines. PMID:22587533

  19. Endotracheal intubation with thiopental/succinylcholine or sevoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia in adults: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Iamaroon, A; Pitimana-aree, S; Prechawai, C; Anusit, J; Somcharoen, K; Chaiyaroj, O

    2001-02-01

    We performed a double-blinded, prospective, randomized controlled trial to compare intubating conditions facilitated by succinylcholine or sevoflurane. One hundred twenty patients were randomized to receive either succinylcholine or sevoflurane for tracheal intubation. For the Succinylcholine group, patients were induced with thiopental 5 mg. kg(-1) and tracheally intubated after administration of succinylcholine 1.5 mg. kg(-1) IV. Patients receiving sevoflurane took three vital capacity breaths of 8% sevoflurane and 66% N(2)O in O(2). At the loss of eyelash reflex, ventilation was assisted to establish end-tidal CO(2) between 25-30 mm Hg, and intubation was performed when end-tidal sevoflurane was approximately 6%. Criteria of jaw relaxation, vocal cords position, and intubating response were used to assess intubation condition. If the intubation score was < or = 6 of 12, it was described as acceptable, otherwise it was described as an unacceptable intubation condition. Tracheal intubation was successful in all patients. Intubator and observer blinded as to patient group judged that four patients (6.7%) in the Sevoflurane group and only one patient (1.7%) in the Succinylcholine group had an unacceptable intubation condition. However, there was no significant difference between groups (P > 0.05). Therefore, the three vital capacity breaths inhalation technique with sevoflurane may be an alternative for endotracheal intubation in adults. PMID:11159262

  20. Negative effect of immunosuppressive therapy in the performance of the QuantiFERON gold in-tube test in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramos, José M; Masiá, Mar; Rodríguez, Juan C; López, Cristina; Padilla, Sergio; Robledano, Catalina; Navarro-Blasco, Francisco J; Matarredona, Jaime; García-Sepulcre, Mariana F; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2013-08-01

    To compare the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFG) for the detection of latent tuberculosis infection among patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases before antitumor necrosis factor-α therapy. A prospective study including 153 consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 53), psoriasis (n = 45), inflammatory bowel disease (n = 25), and spondyloarthropathy (n = 22) were included. QFG and TST were performed simultaneously. TST was positive in 43/153 (28.1 %) patients. QFG (cutoff ≥ 0.35 IU/ml) was positive in 15/153 (9.8 %) patients, and indeterminate in one (0.7 %). QFG (cutoff ≥ 0.10 IU/ml) was positive in 25/153 (16.3 %). 59.5 % of the patients were on immunosuppressive therapy at the time of testing. There was a significant difference in the rate of positive QFG between patients with and without immunosuppressive therapy after adjustment for age and gender (cutoff ≥ 0.35 IU/ml, 4.6 vs. 17.4 %; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.2; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.8; p = 0.03 and cutoff ≥ 0.10 IU/ml, 11.2 vs. 24.2 %; AOR, 0.3; 95 % CI, 0.1-0.93; p = 0.04). Agreement between TST and QFG was 'fair' (κ = 0.354 and κ = 0.365, for cutoffs ≥ 0.35 and ≥0.10 IU/ml, respectively). Among patients without immunosuppressive therapy, the concordance between TST and QFG was 'moderate-substantial' (κ = 0.593 and κ = 0.690, for cutoffs ≥ 0.35 IU/ml and ≥0.10 IU/ml, respectively). By contrast, among patients on immunosuppressive therapy the concordance was 'poor' (κ = 0.085; κ = 0.041, respectively). Immunosuppressive therapy affects negatively QFG performance. In patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, QFG may have a limited role for screening of latent tuberculosis infection. PMID:22736247

  1. Evaluation of a university hospital trauma team activation protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Admission with a multidisciplinary trauma team may be vital for the severely injured patient, as this facilitates rapid diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, patients with minor injuries do not need the trauma team for adequate care. Correct triage is important for optimal resource utilization. The aim of the study was to evaluate our criteria for activating the trauma team, and identify suboptimal criteria that might be changed in the interest of precision. Methods The study is an observational, retrospective cohort-study. All patients admitted with the trauma team (n = 382), all severely injured (Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15) (n = 161), and all undergoing an emergency procedure aimed at counteracting compromised airways, respiration or circulation at our hospital (n = 142) during 2006-2007 were included. Data were recorded from the admission records and the electronic patient records. The trauma team activation protocol was evaluated against the occurrence of severe injury and the occurrence of emergency procedures. Results A total of 441 patients were included. The overtriage was 71% and undertriage 32% when evaluating against ISS >15 as the standard of reference. When occurrence of emergency procedures was held as the standard of standard of reference, the over- and undertriage was 71% and 21%, respectively. Mechanism of injury-criteria for trauma team activation contributed the most to overtriage. The emergency procedures performed were mostly endotracheal intubation and external fixation of fractures. Less than 3% needed haemostatic laparotomy or thoracotomy. Approximately 2/3 of the overtriage represented isolated head or cervical spine injuries, and/or interhospital transfers. Conclusions The over- and undertriage of our protocol are both too high. To decrease overtriage we suggest omissions and modifications of some of the criteria. To decrease undertriage, transferred patients and patients with head injuries should be more thoroughly

  2. The influence of controlled mandatory ventilation (CMV), intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) and biphasic intermittent positive airway pressure (BIPAP) on duration of intubation and consumption of analgesics and sedatives. A prospective analysis in 596 patients following adult cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, J; Schorn, B; Falk, V; Kazmaier, S; Spiegel, T; Burchardi, H

    1997-11-01

    The aim of the study was the determination of the influence of ventilation modes on the consumption of analgesics and sedatives, duration of intubation and pulmonary gas exchange. Assist/controlled mandatory ventilation (S-CMV, 123 patients), synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (S-IMV, 431 patients) and biphasic positive airway pressure ventilation (BIPAP, 42 patients) were compared in a prospective, controlled, open clinical trial over an 18-month period. Five hundred and ninety-six adult patients with normal pulmonary function before surgery and uneventful course following coronary artery bypass graft surgery were studied. Patients ventilated with BIPAP had a significantly shorter mean duration of intubation (10.1 h, P < 0.05) than patients treated with S-IMV (14.7 h) and S-CMV (13.2 h). In the S-CMV group, 39.9% of the patients required single or multiple doses of midazolam, but only 13.5% in the S-IMV group and 9.5% in the BIPAP group. The mean total amount of midazolam administered to these patients was significantly higher in the S-CMV group (8.8 mg) than in the S-IMV group (6.6 mg, P < 0.05) and in the BIPAP group (4.3 mg, P < 0.05). The consumption of pethidine and piritramide did not differ between S-CMV and S-IMV, but was significantly lower during BIPAP (P < 0.05). After extubation the patients' PaCO2 was highest in the S-CMV group. We conclude that ventilatory support with BIPAP reduces the consumption of analgesics and sedatives, and the duration of intubation. The possibility of unrestricted spontaneous breathing in all phases of the respiratory cycle is considered to be the reason. BIPAP seems to be an alternative to S-CMV and S-IMV in short-term ventilated patient. PMID:9466092

  3. The contribution of opiate analgesics to the development of infectious complications in trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Oppeltz, Richard F; Holloway, Travis L; Covington, Cody J; Schwacha, Martin G

    2015-01-01

    Trauma-related pain is a natural consequence of injury and its surgical management; however, the relationship between opiates and complications in trauma patients is unknown. To study this a retrospective chart review of selected subjects following traumatic injury with admission to the SICU for > 3 days was performed, and opiate administration data was collected for the first 3 days of admission. Associated data from each subject’s chart was also collected. Analysis of the data revealed that increased opiate intake after admission to the SICU was associated with significantly increased SICU and hospital LOS independent of injury severity. This increase in LOS was independent of mechanical ventilation in the moderate ISS group. Infectious complications were also more prevalent in the moderate ISS group with higher opiate use. These findings suggest that increased doses of opiate analgesics in trauma patients may contribute to an increased overall LOS and associated infectious complications. Analgesic regimes that minimize opiate intake, while still providing adequate pain relief, may be advantageous in reducing LOS, complications and reduce hospitalization costs. PMID:26309777

  4. [ANALYSIS OF A LETHAL OUTCOME RISK AFTER TRAUMA IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN POLYSYSTEMIC INJURY].

    PubMed

    Guryev, S O; Solovyov, O S; Tanasiyenko, P V

    2016-02-01

    Abstract The data, concerning clinic--epidemiologic and clinic--nosological characteristic of a HIV-infected injured persons in polytrauma were adduced. There was established, that polysystemic injuries (PSI) in a HIV-infected persons occur in a younger injured patients, a trauma environment is quite a speciphic one (criminal trauma prevails), as well as mechanism of the injury occurrence (falling down is much more freqent), and the risk of a lethal outcome is determined by predominantly cranial, thoracic and abdominal components of injury. A lethal outcome occurrence risk in HIV-infected injured persons in PSI in accordance to the age signs and traumagenesis is lesser, than in a control body. It is necessary to prolong the investigations, concerning studying this phenomenon and other peculiarities of a traumatic disease in HIV-infected injured persons in polytrauma. PMID:27244924

  5. Ruptured intercostal artery pseudoaneurysm in a patient with blunt thoracic trauma: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez Romero, Diego Felipe; Barrufet, Marta; Lopez-Rueda, Antonio; Burrel, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Intercostal artery pseudoaneurysm is an extremely unusual condition, with less than 10 reported cases to our knowledge. Most of them have been associated with surgical interventions or blunt thoracic trauma. The bleeding risk in this kind of lesions is considerable, the majority of them presenting as haemothorax. We present a case of an intercostal artery pseudoaneurysm detected after a blunt thoracic trauma in a patient with signs of acute bleeding. The identification of a small artery pseudoaneurysm as the cause of haemothorax requires knowledge of this possible aetiology as well as detailed attention to the CT technique. Embolisation is considered to be the first therapeutic method in the management of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm. To reduce the risk of failure, the anatomic features and adjacent vessels providing collateral branches must be studied and embolised if needed, with important attention to collateral blood supply arising from the musculophrenic and anterior intercostal arteries. PMID:24966257

  6. Ward round documentation in a major trauma centre: can we improve patient safety?

    PubMed Central

    Green, Gemma; Aframian, Arash; bernard, jason

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to improve documentation and patient safety in a major trauma centre. A retrospective audit was undertaken in March 2014. Ward round entries for each orthopaedic patients on three dates were assessed against standards and analysed. The audit was repeated in April 2014, and again in August 2014. Thorough documentation is paramount in a major trauma centre. It forms a useful record of the patients hospital stay, is a legal document and is highlighted in national guidelines. It provides a basis for good handover, ensuring continuation of care and maintaining patient safety. Resultant poor compliance with Royal College guidelines in the initial audit led to the production of a new electronic based note keeping system. A meeting was held with all staff prior to introduction. Our initial results gained 75 entries, and none showed full compliance. Mean compliance per entry was 59% (0–81%). The second attempt gained 90 entries, with 30 from the weekend. Mean compliance per entry 97%. Third attempt received 61 entries, with 27 from the weekend. Mean compliance was 96%, meaning that the improvement was being maintained. Recent distressing reports regarding patient highlighted the importance of patient. Our initial audit proved there were many areas lacking in our documentation and improvement was necessary. Prior to introducing electronic systems, the implemented change has produced improvement in documentation, and provides a useful handover tool for staff. PMID:26734307

  7. Mini-plate removal in maxillofacial trauma patients during a five-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of indications for the removal of mini-plates over a five-year period in maxillofacial trauma patients. Materials and Methods The medical records of 530 patients who underwent treatment with mini-plate fixation after maxillofacial trauma were reviewed for a five-year period (May 2007 to May 2012). Patients were evaluated concerning the number of mini-plates removed, age and gender distributions, time between insertion and removal, indication for removal, and site of removal. Results The plates of 120 patients were removed (26 females and 94 males). The removal rate was 22.6%. The most frequent indication for removal was patient demand (81.7%), followed by tooth extraction (7.5%), and pain (3.3%). The most frequent removal site was the mandible (95.0%). Conclusion The number of mini-plates removed was small, and the most common indication for removal was patient demand. There is no evidence to support a recommendation for the routine removal of titanium mini-plates. PMID:27595084

  8. Transforming Trauma: The Relational Unconscious and "Chemistry" in the Treatment of a Paraplegic Patient.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Claire Beth

    2014-06-01

    Therapeutic action with a traumatized paraplegic patient highlights the evocative-and transformative-influence of the relational unconscious. The patient's triumphant resolution suggests that formative bipersonal dynamics (including transference, countertransference, and mutual projective identifications) create an ongoing intersubjective enactment and relational chemistry pivotal to psychic shift. A broad systems perspective highlights contextual communication and the interweaving of the analyst's etiological contributions and subjective experience of trauma. Ultimately, an unconscious, co-created dynamic challenges traumatic fixations, supporting a reintegration of narcissistic, gender, and erotic representations and ego capacities. An eclectic perspective that illuminates the analyst's role-receptivity encompasses classical, object relations, relational, systems, and self psychological paradigms. PMID:24913551

  9. A cohort study on the incidence and outcome of pulmonary embolism in trauma and orthopedic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to determine the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in trauma and orthopedic patients within a regional tertiary referral center and its association with the pattern of injury, type of treatment, co-morbidities, thromboprophylaxis and mortality. Methods All patients admitted to our institution between January 2010 and December 2011, for acute trauma or elective orthopedic procedures, were eligible to participate in this study. Our cohort was formed by identifying all patients with clinical features of PE who underwent Computed Tomography-Pulmonary Angiogram (CT-PA) to confirm or exclude the clinical suspicion of PE, within six months after the injury or the surgical procedure. Case notes and electronic databases were reviewed retrospectively to identify each patient’s venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors, type of treatment, thromboprophylaxis and mortality. Results Out of 18,151 patients admitted during the study period only 85 (0.47%) patients developed PE (positive CT-PA) (24 underwent elective surgery and 61 sustained acute trauma). Of these, only 76% of the patients received thromboprophylaxis. Hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disease were the most commonly identifiable risk factors. In 39% of the cases, PE was diagnosed during the in-hospital stay. The median time of PE diagnosis, from the date of injury or the surgical intervention was 23 days (range 1 to 312). The overall mortality rate was 0.07% (13/18,151), but for those who developed PE it was 15.29% (13/85). Concomitant deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was identified in 33.3% of patients. The presence of two or more co-morbidities was significantly associated with the incidence of mortality (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.34, 18.99), P = 0.034). Although there was also a similar clinical effect size for polytrauma injury on mortality (unadjusted OR = 1.90 (0.38, 9.54), P = 0.218), evidence was not statistically

  10. Selective lung intubation during paediatric thoracic surgeries.

    PubMed

    Mixa, V; Nedomova, B; Rygl, M

    2016-01-01

    Selective lung intubation is a necessary prerequisite for the completion of most interventions comprising thoracotomy and thoracoscopy. In paediatric care, our site uses Univent tubes for children up to the age of three years and double-lumen tubes (DLT) for children from 6-8 years of age. In younger children, we usually use regular endotracheal intubation, with the lung being held in the hemithorax position being operated on using a surgical retractor. The article presents the analysis of 860 thoracic surgeries, of which 491 comprised selective intubation (Univent 57 cases, DLT 434 cases). The use of the aforementioned devices is connected with certain complications. Univent tube can be connected with intraoperative dislocation of the obturating balloon (29.8%) and balloon perforation (5.2%). DLT insertion may be connected with failure of tube fitting. In 84 cases we had to repeat DLT insertion (20.6%). In 8 cases we were not able to insert DLT at all (1.8%). Standard use of selective intubation methods in paediatric patients from two years of age improved the conditions for surgical interventions (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 19). PMID:27546541

  11. Factors Associated with Intubation Time and ICU Stay After CABG

    PubMed Central

    Flegler, Suzanny; Paro, Flavia Marini

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with intubation time and intensive care unit stay after coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS This was a retrospective study, whose data collection was performed in the hospital charts of 160 patients over 18 years, who underwent surgery from September 2009 to July of 2013 in a hospital in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 61.44±8.93 years old and 68.8% were male. Subjects had a mean of 5.17±8.42 days of intensive care unit stay and mean intubation time of 10.99±8.41 hours. We observed statistically significant positive correlation between the following variables: patients' age and intubation time; patients' age and intensive care unit stay; intubation time and intensive care unit stay. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the study showed that older patients had longer intubation time and increased intensive care unit stay. Furthermore, patients with longer intubation time had increased intensive care unit stay. PMID:26934403

  12. Comparing the Antiemetic Effects of Ondansetron and Metoclopramide in Patients with Minor Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Majid; Namdar, Behnam; Azizkhani, Reza; Ahmadi, Omid; Esmailian, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nausea and vomiting are the most common complications after minor head trauma that increases the risk of intracranial pressure rising. Therefore, the present study was aimed to compare the antiemetic effects of metoclopramide and ondansetron in the treatment of post-traumatic nausea and vomiting. Methods: The study was a controlled, randomized, double blind clinical trial, which was conducted in the first 6 months of 2014 in emergency department Al-Zahra and Kashani Hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. The patients with minor head trauma associated with nausea and vomiting were randomly divided into 2 groups: treatment with metoclopramide (10mg/2ml, slow injection) and treatment with ondansetron (4mg/2ml, slow injection). The comparison between the 2 groups was done regarding antiemetic efficacy and side effects using SPSS 21 statistical software. Results: 120 patients with minor head trauma were distributed and studied into two groups of 60 patients (mean age 35.6±14.1 years; 50.0% male). Administration of both ondansetron and metoclopramide significantly reduced the severity of nausea (P<0.001). Changes in the severity of nausea in both groups before and after the treatment revealed that nausea had been decreased significantly in both groups (P < 0.001). The incidence of fatigue (p=0.44), headache (p=0.58) and dystonia (p=0.06) had no significant difference in the two groups but the incidence of drowsiness and anxiety in the metoclopramide group was significantly higher (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study indicated that the treatment effectiveness of ondansetron and metoclopramide are similar. However, incidence of drowsiness and anxiety in the metoclopramide was considerably higher. Since these complications can have adverse effects on the treatment of patients with brain injury, it is suggested that it may be better to use ondansetron in these patients. PMID:26495402

  13. Influence of prehospital fluid resuscitation on patients with multiple injuries in hemorrhagic shock in patients from the DGU trauma registry

    PubMed Central

    Huβmann, Björn; Lefering, Rolf; Taeger, Georg; Waydhas, Christian; Ruchholtz, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Severe bleeding as a result of trauma frequently leads to poor outcome by means of direct or delayed mechanisms. Prehospital fluid therapy is still regarded as the main option of primary treatment in many rescue situations. Our study aimed to assess the influence of prehospital fluid replacement on the posttraumatic course of severely injured patients in a retrospective analysis of matched pairs. Materials and Methods: We reviewed data from 35,664 patients recorded in the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU). The following patients were selected: patients having an Injury Severity Score >16 points, who were ≥16 years of age, with trauma, excluding those with craniocerebral injuries, who were admitted directly to the participating hospitals from the accident site. All patients had recorded values for replaced volume and blood pressure, hemoglobin concentration, and units of packed red blood cells given. The patients were matched based on similar blood pressure characteristics, age groups, and type of accident to create pairs. Pairs were subdivided into two groups based on the volumes infused prior to hospitalization: group 1: 0-1500 (low), group 2: ≥2000 mL (high) volume. Results: We identified 1351 pairs consistent with the inclusion criteria. Patients in group 2 received significantly more packed red blood cells (group 1: 6.9 units, group 2: 9.2 units; P=0.001), they had a significantly reduced capacity of blood coagulation (prothrombin ratio: group 1: 72%, group 2: 61.4%; P≤0.001), and a lower hemoglobin value on arrival at hospital (group 1: 10.6 mg/dL, group 2: 9.1 mg/dL; P≤0.001). The number of ICU-free days concerning the first 30 days after trauma was significantly higher in group 1 (group 1: 11.5 d, group 2: 10.1 d; P≤0.001). By comparison, the rate of sepsis was significantly lower in the first group (group 1: 13.8%, group 2: 18.6%; P=0.002); the same applies to organ failure (group 1: 36.0%, group 2: 39

  14. Changes in the patterns, presentation and management of penetrating chest trauma patients at a level II trauma centre in southern Pakistan over the last two decades.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Umer Muhammad; Faruque, Ahmad; Ansari, Hamza; Ahmad, Mansoor; Rashid, Umar; Perveen, Shazia; Sharif, Hasanat

    2011-01-01

    Penetrating chest trauma can be used as an indicator of violence in the country. We aimed to look at the changes in its incidence and management at a major trauma centre in the country. We also wanted to look at any effect of prehospital time on surgical intervention and outcome of the victim. In this retrospective descriptive study, we observed the presentation and management of 191 penetrating chest injury patients at a level II trauma hospital in Pakistan in the last 20 years. The study sample was divided into two groups: Group 1, 1988-1998 and Group 2, 1999-2009. No significant change in incidence of trauma was observed between the two groups. The delay in the time between event and arrival showed an increase in the number of surgical procedures performed. Also the number of thoracotomies performed went up significantly in the second decade from 5.7 to 16.5% with a P<0.05. Six (3.1%) mortality cases were observed in 20 years. It was seen that the greater the prehospital time, the greater the chances of surgery. Also seen was the increase in mortality as critical cases could make it to the hospital alive in recent times due to improved transportation services. PMID:20923826

  15. [Geriatric trauma centers - requirements catalog. An initiative to promote and guarantee the quality of care of elderly trauma patients receiving inpatient care].

    PubMed

    Gogol, M; van den Heuvel, D; Lüttje, D; Püllen, R; Reingräber, A C; Schulz, R-J; Veer, A; Wittrich, A

    2014-06-01

    For the care of the elderly, specific geriatric care facilities in hospitals and specialized rehabilitation centers have been established in the last 20 years throughout Germany. In addition, trauma surgery departments in hospitals and clinics also provide comprehensive care for trauma patients. The present requirements catalog was developed with the aim to ensure the standardization and quality assurance of these care facilities. Thus, the structural basics and, in particular, the structured cooperation between geriatrics and trauma surgery are described and defined in terms of structure, process, and outcome quality. The Bundesverband Geriatrie, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geriatrie, and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gerontologie und Geriatrie offer documentation for external and internal use and evaluation of the structures and processes for certification of geriatric trauma centers. Prerequisite for certification is to meet the technical requirements defined in the requirements catalogue or documents derived from it, and proof of a quality management system according to ISO 9001. PMID:25088386

  16. Measuring trauma and stressful events in childhood and adolescence among patients with first-episode psychosis: initial factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist.

    PubMed

    Cristofaro, Sarah L; Cleary, Sean D; Ramsay Wan, Claire; Broussard, Beth; Chapman, Colby; Haggard, Patrick J; Jananeh, Sara; Myers, Neely L; Compton, Michael T

    2013-12-15

    Past trauma and stressful events, especially in childhood and adolescence, are common among individuals with serious mental illnesses like schizophrenia. Traumatic experiences are thought to be a socio-environmental risk factor not only for poorer outcomes, but also potentially for the onset of these disorders. Because improved measurement tools are needed, we developed and studied, among 205 first-episode psychosis patients, the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and initial validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist (TEC), our measure of trauma and stressful events during childhood/adolescence. We assessed validity of subscales using correlations with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, Parental Harsh Discipline, Violence Exposure, and TEC-Informant Version scores. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in two internally consistent subscales (Cronbach's α=0.79 and 0.80, respectively), interpersonal abuse and family stress, and violence, death, and legal involvement. Scores from the former subscale were substantially associated with CTQ-SF physical, emotional, and sexual abuse (r=0.42-0.57, all p<0.001) and Violence Exposure (r=0.49, p<0.001). On the other hand, violence, death, and legal involvement scores were most highly correlated with Violence Exposure (r=0.49, p<0.001), and not with most CTQ-SF subscales. The TEC is a potentially useful tool in assessing diverse traumatic life events across various social contexts during childhood and adolescence. PMID:23850437

  17. [Anesthesiological care in orthogeriatric co-management. Perioperative treatment of geriatric trauma patients].

    PubMed

    Luger, Thomas J; Luger, Markus F

    2016-04-01

    Elderly patients increasingly need to undergo surgery under anesthesia, especially following trauma. A timely interdisciplinary approach to the perioperative management of these patients is decisive for the long-term outcome. Orthogeriatric co-management, which includes geriatricians and anesthesiologists from an early stage, is of great benefit for geriatric patients. Patient age, comorbidities and self-sufficiency in activities of daily life are decisive for an anesthesiological assessment of the state of health and preoperative risk stratification. If necessary additional investigations, such as echocardiography must be carried out, in order to guarantee optimal perioperative anesthesiological management. Certain medical factors can delay the initiation of anesthesia and it is absolutely necessary that these are taken into consideration for surgical management. Not every form of anesthesia is equally suitable for every geriatric patient. PMID:27090913

  18. Analyzing patient's waiting time in emergency & trauma department in public hospital - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslan, Shazwa; Tahir, Herniza Md; Nordin, Noraimi Azlin Mohd; Zaharudin, Zati Aqmar

    2014-09-01

    Emergency and Trauma Department (ETD) is an important element for a hospital. It provides medical service, which operates 24 hours a day in most hospitals. However overcrowding is not exclusion for ETD. Overflowing occurs due to affordable services provided by public hospitals, since it is funded by the government. It is reported that a patient attending ETD must be treated within 90 minutes, in accordance to achieve the Key Performance Indicator (KPI). However, due to overcrowd situations, most patients have to wait longer than the KPI standard. In this paper, patient's average waiting time is analyzed. Using Chi-Square Test of Goodness, patient's inter arrival per hour is also investigated. As conclusion, Monday until Wednesday was identified as the days that exceed the KPI standard while Chi-Square Test of Goodness showed that the patient's inter arrival is independent and random.

  19. Improve the Communication, Decrease the Distance: The Investigation into Problematic Communication and Delays in Inter-Hospital Transfer of Rural Trauma Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avtgis, Theodore A.; Polack, E. Phillips; Martin, Matthew M.; Rossi, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Time delays in the treatment and transfer of trauma patients is a contributing factor responsible for many fatalities. Time delays are more characteristic of rural trauma systems due to factors such as greater distance, and delays in accident reporting. Efforts to reduce the trauma transfer process have resulted in many changes in protocol and use…

  20. S-100 B Concentrations Are a Predictor of Decreased Survival in Patients with Major Trauma, Independently of Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pfortmueller, Carmen Andrea; Drexel, Christian; Krähenmann-Müller, Simone; Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt; Fiedler, Georg Martin; Lindner, Gregor; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background Major trauma remains one of the principle causes of disability and death throughout the world. There is currently no satisfactory risk assessment to predict mortality in patients with major trauma. The aim of our study is to examine whether S-100 B protein concentrations correlate with injury severity and survival in patients with major trauma, with special emphasis on patients without head injury. Methods Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients admitted to our emergency department between 1.12. 2008 and 31.12 2010 with a suspected major trauma. S-100 B concentrations were routinely assessed in major trauma patients. Results A total of 27.7% (378) of all patients had major trauma. The median ISS was 24.6 (SD 8.4); 16.6% (63/378) of the patients died. S-100 B concentrations correlated overall with the ISS (p<0.0001). Patients who died had significantly higher S-100 B concentrations than survivors (8.2 μg/l versus 2.2 μg/l, p<0.0001). Polytraumatised patients with and without head trauma did not differ significantly with respect to S-100 B concentration (3.2 μg/l (SD 5.3) versus 2.9 μg/l (SD 3.8), respectively, p = 0.63) or with respect to Injury Severity Score (24.8 (SD 8.6) versus 24.2 (SD 8.1), respectively, p = 0.56). S-100 B concentrations correlated negatively with survival (p<0.0001) in all patients and in both subgroups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively) Conclusions S-100 concentrations on admission correlate positively with greater injury severity and decreased survival in major trauma patients, independently of the presence of a head injury. S-100 B protein levels at admission in patients with major trauma may therefore be used to assess outcome in all polytraumatised patients. These measurements should be subject to further evaluation. PMID:27031106

  1. The Quality of Pre-hospital Circulatory Management in Patients With Multiple Trauma Referred to the Trauma Center of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran, in the First Six Months of 2013

    PubMed Central

    Maghaminejad, Farzaneh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulatory management is a critical issue in pre-hospital transportation phase of multiple trauma patients. However, the quality of this important care did not receive enough attention. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of pre-hospital circulatory management in patients with multiple trauma. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2013. The study population consisted of all patients with multiple trauma who had been transferred by emergency medical services (EMS) to the central trauma department in Kashan Shahid Beheshti medical center, Kashan, Iran. We recruited a convenience sample of 400 patients with multiple trauma. Data were collected using the circulatory assessment questionnaire and controlling hemorrhage (CAQCH) that were designed by the researchers and were described by using frequency tabulations, central tendency measures, and variability indices. The chi-square test was used to analyze the data. Results The study sample consisted of 263 males (75.2%); 57.75% had lower levels of education and 28.75% were workers. The most common mechanism of trauma was traffic accident (85.4%). We found that the quality of circulatory management was unfavorable in 61% of the cases. A significant relationship was observed between the quality of circulatory management and type of trauma and staff’s employment status. Conclusions The quality of pre-hospital circulatory management provided to patients with multiple trauma was unfavorable. Therefore, establishment of in-service training programs on circulatory management is recommended. PMID:27556056

  2. Patients with detectable cocaethylene are more likely to require intensive care unit admission after trauma.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Sage E; Sutijono, Darrell; Moon, Cynthia H; Subramanian, Ramanand A; Calaycay, Jim; Rushbrook, Julie I; Zehtabchi, Shahriar

    2010-11-01

    Cocaethylene (CE) is a toxic metabolite that is formed after simultaneous consumption of cocaine and ethanol. This potent stimulant is more toxic than cocaine and has a longer half-life. The deleterious hemodynamic and cardiovascular effects of CE have been proven in animal models. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of CE on clinical outcomes after trauma. We prospectively enrolled adult (≥13 years) trauma patients requiring admission. Predictor variables were age, sex, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score, base deficit, and toxicology groups (ethanol alone, cocaine alone, CE, and none). The outcomes examined were mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and length of hospital stay (LOS). We used nonparametric tests to compare continuous variables and χ² test to compare categorical data. We constructed a logistic regression to identify variables that could predict mortality and ICU admission. We enrolled 417 patients (74% male; 70% blunt injury; median age, 40 [range, 13-95]; overall mortality, 2.2%). Urine toxicology and serum ethanol level screens classified patients into the following groups: 13.4% ethanol only, 4.1% cocaine only, 8.9% CE, and 46% none. Mortality and LOS were not statistically different among the groups. In logistic regression analysis, none of the variables were statistically significant in predicting mortality. However, the presence of CE significantly increased the likelihood of ICU admission (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-22). The presence of detectable CE in the urine does not increase the mortality or LOS in trauma patients requiring admission but does increase the likelihood of ICU admission. PMID:20825763

  3. Trauma scores and neuron-specific enolase, cytokine and C-reactive protein levels as predictors of mortality in patients with blunt head trauma.

    PubMed

    Sogut, O; Guloglu, C; Orak, M; Sayhan, M B; Gokdemir, M T; Ustundag, M; Akkus, Z

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), cytokine and high-sensitivity C-reactive-protein (hs-CRP) levels, along with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Revised Trauma Score (RTS), as predictors of mortality in the early posttraumatic period, in 100 Turkish patients with blunt head trauma. Overall patient mortality was 27%. There was a significant association between age and mortality, and mortality was negatively correlated with GCS and RTS. Head injury severity (GCS) was significantly related to NSE, hs-CRP, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels. Mortality correlated positively with IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha and hs-CRP levels. NSE, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha levels were significantly higher in non-survivors compared with survivors. GCS score < or =8, younger age and NSE levels were significant independent predictors of mortality. During the early post-traumatic period, NSE may be an objective alternative criterion to the GCS, in the management of patients with blunt head trauma. PMID:21309485

  4. The Quality of Pre-Hospital Oxygen Therapy in Patients With Multiple Trauma: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Maghaminejad, Farzaneh; Paravar, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trauma is a major healthcare challenge worldwide. In developing countries, most road deaths happen during the pre-hospital phase; consequently, pre-hospital trauma care has received considerable attention during the past decades. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of pre-hospital oxygen therapy in patients with multiple trauma. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2013. The study population consisted of all patients with multiple trauma who had been transferred by emergency medical services to the central trauma department in Shahid Beheshti Medical Center, Kashan, Iran. The data collection instrument had three parts including demographic, a trauma assessment, and an oxygen therapy quality assessment questionnaires that were designed by the researchers. In total, 350 patients with multiple trauma were recruited from March through July 2013. Data were described by using frequency tables, central tendency measures, and variability indices. Moreover, we analyzed data by using the Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and the logistic regression analysis. Results: The study sample consisted of 263 (75.1%) male and 87 (24.9%) female patients. Overall, 211 patients needed oxygen therapy during the pre-hospital phase; however, only 35 (16.60%) patients had received oxygen. The quality of oxygen therapy was undesirable in 92.42% of cases. In addition, 83.4% of patients, whose pre-hospital records indicated the administration of oxygen, reported that they had not received oxygen therapy. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the place of accident and the level of patients' education were significant predictors for administration of oxygen during the pre-hospital phase (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The quality of pre-hospital oxygen therapy had been provided for the patients with multiple trauma was poor while these patients, particularly patients with chest traumas and head injuries, were in

  5. Association Between the Pancreatic Enzyme Level and Organ Failure in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Arulselvi; Albert, Venencia; Mishra, Biplab; Sanoria, Shilpi; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Background The literature suggests an association of pancreatic enzymes with systemic inflammation resulting in secondary organ injury and dysfunction following trauma. Elevation in serum enzymes may not always be predictive of pancreatic disease, and can reflect extra pancreatic production. Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate the rise in serum pancreatic enzyme levels with the incidence of organ failure following trauma. Patients and Methods A retrospective review was performed on critically injured patients from December 2009 to March 2010. Patient’s clinical demographics, routine laboratory investigations along with amylase and lipase levels were also extracted from the patients' records. Patients with pancreatic or duodenal injuries were excluded from the study. Results From a total of 296 patients (mean age, 31 years), 85% were males. Blunt injury was seen in 91.6% of the cases and 8.4% had penetrating injury. One hundred and fifty-three patients had single organ failure, 96 had multiple organ failure and 47 had no organ failure. There was a significant difference in lipase levels (P = 0.04), potassium levels (P = 0.05) and hemoglobin levels (P = -0.004), among the three patient groups. There was no significant difference in amylase levels among the three patient groups. The observed independent predictors of mortality included coagulopathy (OR = 1.7), Glasgow coma scale (OR = 1.1, 4.7), pulmonary failure (OR = 0.0004), hepatic failure (OR = 0.048), renal failure (OR = 5.5), organ failure (OR =149.8), lipase levels (OR = 1.3), and infection (OR = 3.0). Conclusions There was a significant correlation between elevated lipase levels and the incidence of multiple organ failure. Moreover, No significant association was found between the elevated amylase levels and organ failure. However, on admission, measurement of these enzymes coupled with routine laboratory investigations can be a powerful tool in the early detection of patients progressing

  6. Prevention of delirium in trauma patients: Are we giving thiamine prophylaxis a fair chance?

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, Christopher; Ouellet, Jean-Francois; Niven, Daniel; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Ball, Chad G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Delirium is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in injured patients. Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is delirium linked to malnutrition and chronic alcoholism. It is prevented with administration of thiamine. Our primary goal was to evaluate current blood alcohol level (BAL) testing and thiamine prophylaxis in severely injured patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 1000 consecutive severely injured patients admitted to hospital between Mar. 1, 2009, and Dec. 31, 2009. We used the patients’ medical records and the Alberta Trauma Registry. Results Among 1000 patients (mean age 48 yr, male sex 70%, mean injury severity score 23, mortality 10%), 627 underwent BAL testing at admission; 221 (35%) had a BAL greater than 0 mmol/L, and 189 (30%) had a BAL above the legal limit of 17.4 mmol/L. The mean positive BAL was 41.9 mmol/L. More than 4% had a known history of alcohol abuse. More patients were assaulted (20% v. 9%) or hit by motor vehicles (10% v. 6%) when intoxicated (both p < 0.05). Most injuries occurred after falls (37%) and motor vehicle collisions (33%). Overall, 17% of patients received thiamine prophylaxis. Of the 221 patients with elevated BAL, 44% received thiamine prophylaxis. Of those with a history of alcohol abuse, 77% received thiamine prophylaxis. Conclusion Despite the strong link between alcohol abuse, trauma and WE, more than one-third of patients were not screened for alcohol use. Furthermore, a minority of intoxicated patients received adequate prophylaxis against WE. Given the low risk and cost of BAL testing and thiamine prophylaxis and the high cost of delirium, standard protocols for prophylaxis are essential. PMID:24666443

  7. Inappropriate preinjury warfarin use in trauma patients: A call for a safety initiative

    PubMed Central

    HH, Hon; Elmously, A; Stehly, CD; Stoltzfus, JC; Granson, MA; Stawicki, SP; Hoey, BA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Warfarin continues to be widely prescribed for a variety of conditions. It has been shown that preinjury warfarin may worsen outcomes in trauma patients. We hypothesized that a substantial proportion of injured patients seen at our institution were receiving preinjury warfarin for inappropriate indications and that a significant number of such patients had subtherapeutic or supratherapeutic international normalized ratios as well as increased mortality. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of registry data from a Level I trauma center was conducted for the period from January 2004 to July 2013. Included were patients aged ≥22 years (based on the youngest recorded patient on warfarin in this study). Abstracted variables included patient age, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Maximum Abbreviated Injury Score for Head (MAISH), mortality, hospital length of stay (HLOS), indication(s) for anticoagulant therapy, admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and admission international normalized ratio (INR). Suitability of warfarin indication(s) was determined using the most recent American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) Guidelines. Inappropriate warfarin administration was defined as use inconsistent with these guidelines. For outcome comparisons, a case-control design with 1:1 ratio was used, matching patients taking preinjury warfarin to a random sample of trauma patients who were not taking warfarin. Severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) was defined as MAISH ≥4. Results: A total of 700 out of 14,583 patients aged ≥22 years were receiving preinjury warfarin (4.8% incidence, WG). This group was age- and ISS-matched with 700 patients (4.8% total sample) who were not taking warfarin (NWG) in a total case-control sample of 1,400. The two groups were similar in age, gender, ISS, and initial GCS. According to the ACCP guidelines, 115/700 (16.4%) patients in the warfarin group were receiving anticoagulation for inappropriate indications. Nearly 65% of the

  8. Immunesenescence and inflammaging: A contributory factor in the poor outcome of the geriatric trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Hazeldine, Jon; Lord, Janet M; Hampson, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Compared to younger patients, traumatic injury in older patients is associated with increased mortality and a range of adverse outcomes such as higher rates of infectious episodes, longer length of hospital stay and poor functional outcome at follow up. Data emerging from human and murine-based studies suggest age-related changes in immune function, collectively termed immunesenescence, and the chronic sub-clinical systemic inflammatory state of older adults, termed inflammaging, may contribute to these poor outcomes. Here, we review the findings of these studies, whose results demonstrate that the geriatric trauma patient elicits an immune response to injury that is distinct to that of younger adults, being characterised by reduced immune cell activation, impaired function and abnormal haematopoiesis, defects that are accompanied by an altered inflammatory response that fails to return to a homeostatic baseline in the days following injury. Although considerable evidence is accumulating that demonstrates clear and significant age-related differences in the immune and inflammatory response to traumatic injury, our current understanding of the mechanism(s) that underlie these changes is limited. Future studies that provide a mechanistic explanation for the unique immune and inflammatory response of older adults to traumatic injury are therefore essential if we are to determine whether manipulation of the immune system has potential as a future therapeutic strategy by which to improve the outcome of the geriatric trauma patient. PMID:26484895

  9. Acute effects of physiotherapeutic respiratory maneuvers in critically ill patients with craniocerebral trauma

    PubMed Central

    de Cerqueira Neto, Manoel Luiz; Moura, Álvaro Vieira; Cerqueira, Telma Cristina Fontes; Aquim, Esperidião Elias; Reá-Neto, Álvaro; Oliveira, Mirella Cristine; da Silva Júnior, Walderi Monteiro; Santana-Filho, Valter J.; Herminia Scola, Rosana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of physiotherapeutic respiratory maneuvers on cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics and blood gas variables. METHOD: A descriptive, longitudinal, prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial that included 20 critical patients with severe craniocerebral trauma who were receiving mechanical ventilation and who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Each patient was subjected to the physiotherapeutic maneuvers of vibrocompression and increased manual expiratory flow (5 minutes on each hemithorax), along with subsequent airway suctioning with prior instillation of saline solution, hyperinflation and hyperoxygenation. Variables related to cardiovascular and cerebral hemodynamics and blood gas variables were recorded after each vibrocompression, increased manual expiratory flow and airway suctioning maneuver and 10 minutes after the end of airway suctioning. RESULTS: The hemodynamic and blood gas variables were maintained during vibrocompression and increased manual expiratory flow maneuvers; however, there were increases in mean arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, heart rate, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary capillary pressure during airway suctioning. All of the values returned to baseline 10 minutes after the end of airway suctioning. CONCLUSION: Respiratory physiotherapy can be safely performed on patients with severe craniocerebral trauma. Additional caution must be taken when performing airway suctioning because this technique alters cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics, even in sedated and paralyzed patients. PMID:24141836

  10. Variation in emergency department use of cervical spine radiography for alert, stable trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Stiell, I G; Wells, G A; Vandemheen, K; Laupacis, A; Brison, R; Eisenhauer, M A; Greenberg, G H; MacPhail, I; McKnight, R D; Reardon, M; Verbeek, R; Worthington, J; Lesiuk, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To, assess the emergency department use of cervical spine radiography for alert, stable adult trauma patients in terms of utilization, yield for injury and variation in practices among hospitals and physicians. DESIGN: Retrospective survey of health records. SETTING: Emergency departments of 6 teaching and 2 community hospitals in Ontario and British Columbia. PATIENTS: Consecutive alert, stable adult trauma patients seen with potential cervical spine injury between July 1, 1994, and June 30, 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total number of eligible patients, referral for cervical spine radiography (overall, by hospital and by physician), presence of cervical spine injury, patient characteristics and hospitals associated with use of radiography. RESULTS: Of 6855 eligible patients, cervical spine radiography was ordered for 3979 (58.0%). Only 60 (0.9%) patients were found to have an acute cervical spine injury (fracture, dislocation or ligamentous instability); 98.5% of the radiographic films were negative for any significant abnormality. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were similar across the 8 hospitals, and no cervical spine injuries were missed. Significant variation was found among the 8 hospitals in the rate of ordering radiography (p < 0.0001), from a low of 37.0% to a high of 72.5%. After possible differences in case severity and patient characteristics at each hospital were controlled for, logistic regression analysis revealed that 6 of the hospitals were significantly associated with the use of radiography. At 7 hospitals, there was significant variation in the rate of ordering radiography among the attending emergency physicians (p < 0.05), from a low of 15.6% to a high of 91.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite considerable variation among institutions and individual physicians in the ordering of cervical spine radiography for alert, stable trauma patients with similar characteristics, no cervical spine injuries were missed. The

  11. Paramedics' and pre-hospital physicians' assessments of anatomic injury in trauma patients: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The pre-hospital assessment of a blunt trauma is difficult. Common triage tools are the mechanism of injury (MOI), vital signs, and anatomic injury (AI). Compared to the other tools, the clinical assessment of anatomic injury is more subjective than the others, and, hence, more dependent on the skills of the personnel. The aim of the study was to estimate whether the training and qualifications of the personnel are associated with the accuracy of prediction of anatomic injury and the completion of pre-hospital procedures indicated by local guidelines. Methods Adult trauma patients met by a trauma team at Helsinki University Trauma Centre during a 12-month period (n = 422) were retrospectively analysed. To evaluate the accuracy of prediction of anatomic injury, clinically assessed pre-hospital injuries in six body regions were compared to injuries assessed at hospital in two patient groups, the patients treated by pre-hospital physicians (group 1, n = 230) and those treated by paramedics (group 2, n = 190). Results The groups were comparable in respect to age, sex, and MOI, but the patients treated by physicians were more severely injured than those treated by paramedics [ISS median (interquartile range) 16 (6-26) vs. 6 (2-10)], thus rendering direct comparison of the groups ineligible. The positive predictive values (95% confidence interval) of assessed injury were highest in head injury [0,91 (0,84-0,95) in group 1 and 0,86 (0,77-0,92) in group 2]. The negative predictive values were highest in abdominal injury [0,85 (0,79-0,89) in group 1 and 0,90 (0,84-0,93) in group 2]. The measurements of agreement between injuries assessed pre- and in-hospitally were moderate in thoracic and extremity injuries. Substantial kappa values (95% confidence interval) were achieved in head injury, 0,67 (0,57-0,77) in group 1 and 0,63 (0,52-0,74) in group 2. The rate of performing the pre-hospital procedures as indicated by the local instructions was 95-99%, except for

  12. Impact of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on radiation dose in evaluation of trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Mark W.; Schuster, Kevin M.; McGillicuddy, Edward A.; Young, Calvin J.; Ghita, Monica; Bokhari, S.A. Jamal; Oliva, Isabel B.; Brink, James A.; Davis, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A recent study showed that computed tomographic (CT) scans contributed 93% of radiation exposure of 177 patients admitted to our Level I trauma center. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) is an algorithm that reduces the noise level in reconstructed images and therefore allows the use of less ionizing radiation during CT scans without significantly affecting image quality. ASIR was instituted on all CT scans performed on trauma patients in June 2009. Our objective was to determine if implementation of ASIR reduced radiation dose without compromising patient outcomes. METHODS We identified 300 patients activating the trauma system before and after the implementation of ASIR imaging. After applying inclusion criteria, 245 charts were reviewed. Baseline demographics, presenting characteristics, number of delayed diagnoses, and missed injuries were recorded. The postexamination volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP)reported by the scanner for CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis and CT scans of the brain and cervical spine were recorded. Subjective image quality was compared between the two groups. RESULTS For CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis, the mean CTDIvol(17.1 mGy vs. 14.2 mGy; p < 0.001) and DLP (1,165 mGy·cm vs. 1,004 mGy·cm; p < 0.001) was lower for studies performed with ASIR. For CT scans of the brain and cervical spine, the mean CTDIvol(61.7 mGy vs. 49.6 mGy; p < 0.001) and DLP (1,327 mGy·cm vs. 1,067 mGy·cm; p < 0.001) was lower for studies performed with ASIR. There was no subjective difference in image quality between ASIR and non-ASIR scans. All CT scans were deemed of good or excellent image quality. There were no delayed diagnoses or missed injuries related to CT scanning identified in either group. CONCLUSION Implementation of ASIR imaging for CT scans performed on trauma patients led to a nearly 20% reduction in ionizing radiation without compromising outcomes or image quality

  13. Intensive care management of children intubated for croup: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Gelbart, B; Parsons, S; Sarpal, A; Ninova, P; Butt, W

    2016-03-01

    Croup remains the commonest reason for acute upper airway obstruction in children, yet there are scarce contemporary data of airway management in those requiring intubation. We performed a retrospective analysis of the intensive care management of children intubated for croup in two quaternary Paediatric Intensive Care Units: Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, Australia and Alberta Children's Hospital Calgary, Canada. Patients intubated for less than three days were compared with those intubated for greater than three days. Patients less than 10 kg body weight were compared to those greater than 10 kg. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were recorded. Seventy-seven cases of croup requiring intubation were identified. The median duration of intubation was 60 hours. Parainfluenza was the most common viral aetiology, detected in 30% of cases. Antibiotics were prescribed in 51% of patients. Corticosteroids were prescribed pre intubation in two-thirds of patients and all post intubation, with the median dose being prednisolone 3 mg/kg/day. Primary extubation failure occurred in 6.5% of patients. Neither the duration of intubation nor patient size were associated with extubation failure. An air leak test was performed in 69% of patients and poorly predicted extubation success. One non-urgent tracheostomy was performed and there was one death from hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Endotracheal tube leak is poorly recorded and may not predict successful extubation. PMID:27029657

  14. Submental intubation in maxillofacial fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It can be challenging to create a safe airway in maxilla facial fracture and some skull surgeries. In this case study, the patient experienced jaw fractures that disturbed the dental occlusion and associated fracture of the base of the skull. Neither nasal nor oral intubation was possible based on the side effects of tracheotomy; therefore, submental intubation was applied successfully. The procedure and results are presented in the text. PMID:27429940

  15. How do clinical features help identify paediatric patients with fractures following blunt wrist trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Webster, A P; Goodacre, S; Walker, D; Burke, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective Wrist injuries are a common presentation to the emergency department (ED). There are no validated decision rules to help clinicians evaluate paediatric wrist trauma. This study aimed to identify which clinical features are diagnostically useful in deciding the need for a wrist radiograph, and then to develop a clinical decision rule. Methods This prospective cohort study was carried out in the ED of Sheffield Children's Hospital. Eligible patients were recruited if presenting within 72 hours following blunt wrist trauma. A standardised data collection form was completed for all patients. The outcome measure was the presence or absence of a fracture. Univariate analysis was performed with the χ2 test. Associated variables (p<0.2) were entered into a multivariate model. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to derive the clinical decision rule. Results In total, 227 patients were recruited and 106 children were diagnosed with fractures (47%). Of 10 clinical features analysed, six were found by univariate analysis to be associated with a fracture. CART analysis identified the presence of radial tenderness, focal swelling, or an abnormal supination/pronation as the best discriminatory features. Cross fold validation of this decision rule had a sensitivity of 99.1% (95% confidence interval 94.8% to 100%) and a specificity of 24.0% (17.2% to 32.3%). The radiography rate would be 87%. Conclusions Radial tenderness, focal swelling, and abnormal supination/pronation are associated with wrist fractures in children. The clinical decision rule derived from these features had a high sensitivity, but low specificity, and would not substantially alter our current radiography rate. The potential for a clinical decision rule for paediatric wrist trauma appears limited. PMID:16627835

  16. Cervical sympathetic block regulates early systemic inflammatory response in severe trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Hua; Tian, Jun; Su, Yong-Ping; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Qiang; Wen, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Background This aim of this study was to investigate the effects of one-side cervical sympathetic block on early inflammatory response in severe trauma patients. Material/Methods Thirty severe trauma patients with injury severity score (ISS) of 16 to 25 were randomly divided into treatment and control groups (n=15 each). Patients in the treatment group underwent a right-side stellate ganglion block (SGB) using 8 mL 0.75% ropivacaine for 4 times, with the first injection within 12 hr of admission and the other 3 injections were 12 hr, 24 hr and 48 hr later. The same procedures were performed for the control group except that normal saline was injected instead of ropivacaine. Blood was collected before injection and at 6 hr, 24 hr, and 72 hr after the first SGB for serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α measurement. Results The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α between 24 hr to 72 hr after SGB were all significantly lower than those in the control group (all P values <0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the concentrations of anti-inflammatory IL-4 and IL-10 between treatment and control groups. There was no obvious impact of SGB on breathing and circulation except for a slower heart rate 10 to 50 min after injection (P<0.01). Conclusions SGB regulates early inflammatory response through inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α during severe trauma. SGB has no impact on the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. PMID:23492458

  17. Readability of Trauma-Related Patient Education Materials From the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Eltorai, Adam E. M.; P. Thomas, Nathan; Yang, Heejae; Daniels, Alan H.; Born, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Context: According to the american medical association (AMA) and the national institutes of health (NIH), the recommended readability of patient education materials should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. The online patient education information produced by the american academy of orthopaedic surgeons (AAOS) may be too complicated for some patients to understand. This study evaluated whether the AAOS’s online trauma-related patient education materials meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. Evidence Acquisition: Ninety-nine articles from the “Broken Bones and Injuries” section of the AAOS-produced patient education website, orthoinfo.org, were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, a widely-used and validated tool to evaluate the text reading level. Results for each webpage were compared to the AMA/NIH recommended sixth-grade reading level and the average reading level of U.S. adults (eighth-grade). Results: The mean (SD) grade level readability for all patient education articles was 8.8 (1.1). All but three of the articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level. The readability of the articles exceeded this level by an average of 2.8 grade levels (95% confidence interval, 2.6 - 3.0; P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the average readability of the articles exceeded the average reading skill level of U.S. adults (eighth grade) by nearly an entire grade level (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.0; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The majority of the trauma-related articles from the AAOS patient education website have readability levels that may make comprehension difficult for a substantial portion of the patient population. PMID:27218045

  18. Intractable epilepsy and craniocerebral trauma: analysis of 163 patients with blunt and penetrating head injuries sustained in war.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Hadi; Hashemi-Fesharaki, Sohrab; Razaghi, Soodeh; Najafi, Masomeh; Kolivand, Peir Hossein; Kovac, Stjepana; Gorji, Ali

    2012-12-01

    Post-traumatic epileptic seizure is a common complication of brain trauma including military injuries. We present clinical characteristics and correlates of post-traumatic epilepsy in 163 head-injured veterans suffering from intractable epilepsy due to blunt or penetrating head injuries sustained during the Iraq-Iran war. The medical records of 163 war veterans who were admitted by the Epilepsy Department of the Shefa Neuroscience Center between 2005 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up period after developing epilepsy was 17.2 years. The time interval between the trauma and the first seizure was shorter and the seizure frequency was higher in epileptic patients suffering from penetrating head trauma. There was no difference in seizure type between epileptic patients traumatised by blunt or penetrating injury. Patients with seizure frequency of more than 30 per month mostly had simple partial seizure. Frontal and parietal semiologies were observed more frequently in patients with penetrating trauma, whereas patients with blunt trauma showed a higher temporal semiology. The most common brain lesion observed by CT scan was encephalomalacia followed by porencephaly and focal atrophy. There was no association between intracerebral retained fragments and different characteristic features of epilepsy. Patients with military brain injury carry a high risk of intractable post-traumatic epilepsy decades after their injury, and thus require a long-term medical follow-up. PMID:22763317

  19. Lightwand intubation: I--a new lightwand device.

    PubMed

    Hung, O R; Stewart, R D

    1995-09-01

    Tracheal intubation under direct vision using a laryngoscope can be challenging and difficult even in experienced hands. Transillumination of the soft tissues of the neck using a lighted-stylet (lightwand) is one of many effective alternative intubating techniques developed during the past several decades. While many versions of lightwand have been available, each has its limitations. A newly developed lightwand (Trachlight) has incorporated many design modifications. It has a brighter bulb, permitting intubation under ambient light in most cases. A retractable stiff wire within the wand adds flexibility to facilitate both oral and nasal intubation. The flexible wand also allows visual (transillumination) guide to proper placement of the tip of the tracheal tube in the trachea. The Trachlight does have some limitations. It is a light-guided technique in which there is no direct visualization of the upper airway structures. It should be avoided in patients with known anatomical abnormalities of the upper airway and used with caution in patients in whom transillumination of the anterior neck may not be achieved adequately. As with any intubating technique, successful intubation using the Trachlight relies on the preparation of the patient and the operator's skill and experience. PMID:7497567

  20. Submental intubation: A journey over the last 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sabyasachi; Das, Tara Pada; Ghosh, Pralay S.

    2012-01-01

    Airway management in patients with faciomaxillary injuries is challenging due to disruption of components of upper airway. The anesthesiologist has to share the airway with the surgeons. Oral and nasal routes for intubation are often not feasible. Most patients have associated nasal fractures, which precludes use of nasal route of intubation. Intermittent intraoperative dental occlusion is needed to check alignment of the fracture fragments, which contraindicates the use of orotracheal intubation. Tracheostomy in such situations is conventional and time-tested; however, it has life-threatening complications, it needs special postoperative care, lengthens hospital stay, and adds to expenses. Retromolar intubation may be an option, But the retromolar space may not be adequate in all adult patients. Submental intubation provides intraoperative airway control, avoids use of oral and nasal route, with minimal complications. Submental intubation allows intraoperative dental occlusion and is an acceptable option, especially when long-term postoperative ventilation is not planned. This technique has minimal complications and has better patients’ and surgeons’ acceptability. There have been several modifications of this technique with an expectation of an improved outcome. The limitations are longer time for preparation, inability to maintain long-term postoperative ventilation and unfamiliarity of the technique itself. The technique is an acceptable alternative to tracheostomy for the good per-operative airway access. PMID:22869933

  1. RBC AGE AND POTENTIATION OF TRANSFUSION RELATED PATHOLOGY IN TRAUMA PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Jordan A.; Barnum, Scott R.; Patel, Rakesh P.

    2011-01-01

    The specific negative clinical manifestations associated with the transfusion of stored red blood cells (RBCs) and the corresponding mechanisms responsible for such phenomena remain poorly defined. Our recent studies document that leukodepleted older RBC units potentiate transfusion-related toxicity in trauma patients. It is our hypothesis that the transfusion of relatively older blood impedes microvascular perfusion. The central mechanisms proposed to mediate this microcirculatory alteration include: i) the loss of RBC-dependent control of nitric oxide mediated homeostasis concerning vasodilation, and ii) immune cell and complement activation. In this review, we outline the background for our hypothesis and detail our current investigations toward the understanding of this pathophysiology. PMID:21496048

  2. [Progress on neuropsychology and event-related potentials in patients with brain trauma].

    PubMed

    Dong, Ri-xia; Cai, Wei-xiong; Tang, Tao; Huang, Fu-yin

    2010-02-01

    With the development of information technology, as one of the research frontiers in neurophysiology, event-related potentials (ERP) is concerned increasingly by international scholars, which provides a feasible and objective method for exploring cognitive function. There are many advances in neuropsychology due to new assessment tool for the last years. The basic theories in the field of ERP and neuropsychology were reviewed in this article. The research and development in evaluating cognitive function of patients with syndrome after brain trauma were focused in this review, and the perspectives for the future research of ERP was also explored. PMID:20232746

  3. An Abdominal CT may be Safe in Selected Hypotensive Trauma Patients with Positive FAST Exam

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Mackenzie R.; Holcomb, John B.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Alarcon, Louis H.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Brasel, Karen J.; Schreiber, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Positive Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) and hypotension often indicates urgent surgery. An abdomen/pelvis CT (apCT) may allow less invasive management but the delay may be associated with adverse outcomes. Methods Patients in the Prospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion study with hypotension and a positive FAST (HF+) who underwent a CT (apCT+) were compared to those who did not. Results Of the 92 HF+ identified, 32(35%) underwent apCT during initial evaluation and apCT was associated with decreased odds of an emergency operation, OR 0.11 95% CI (0.001–0.116) and increased odds of angiographic intervention, OR 14.3 95% CI (1.5–135). There was no significant difference in 30 day mortality or need for dialysis. Conclusion An apCt in HF+ patients is associated with reduced odds of emergency surgery, but not mortality. Select HF+ patients can safely undergo apCT to obtain clinically useful information. PMID:25805456

  4. Whole-body CT-based imaging algorithm for multiple trauma patients: radiation dose and time to diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gordic, S; Hodel, S; Simmen, H-P; Brueesch, M; Frauenfelder, T; Wanner, G; Sprengel, K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the number of imaging examinations, radiation dose and the time to complete trauma-related imaging in multiple trauma patients before and after introduction of whole-body CT (WBCT) into early trauma care. Methods: 120 consecutive patients before and 120 patients after introduction of WBCT into the trauma algorithm of the University Hospital Zurich were compared regarding the number and type of CT, radiography, focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST), additional CT examinations (defined as CT of the same body regions after radiography and/or FAST) and the time to complete trauma-related imaging. Results: In the WBCT cohort, significantly more patients underwent CT of the head, neck, chest and abdomen (p < 0.001) than in the non-WBCT cohort, whereas the number of radiographic examinations of the cervical spine, chest and pelvis and of FAST examinations were significantly lower (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between cohorts regarding the number of radiographic examinations of the upper (p = 0.56) and lower extremities (p = 0.30). We found significantly higher effective doses in the WBCT (29.5 mSv) than in the non-WBCT cohort (15.9 mSv; p < 0.001), but fewer additional CT examinations for completing the work-up were needed in the WBCT cohort (p < 0.001). The time to complete trauma-related imaging was significantly shorter in the WBCT (12 min) than in the non-WBCT cohort (75 min; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Including WBCT in the initial work-up of trauma patients results in higher radiation doses, but fewer additional CT examinations are needed, and the time for completing trauma-related imaging is shorter. Advances in knowledge: WBCT in trauma patients is associated with a high radiation dose of 29.5 mSv. PMID:25594105

  5. Elderly trauma.

    PubMed

    Holleran, Renee Semonin

    2015-01-01

    Across the world, the population is aging. Adults 65 years and older make up one of the fastest growing segments of the US population. Trauma is a disease process that affects all age groups. The mortality and morbidity that result from an injury can be influenced by many factors including age, physical condition, and comorbidities. The management of the elderly trauma patient can present some unique challenges. This paper addresses the differences that occur in the management of elderly patient who has been injured. This paper also includes a discussion of how to prevent injury in the elderly. PMID:26039652

  6. Preparing to perform an awake fiberoptic intubation.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, M. E.; Shorten, G. D.

    1998-01-01

    Fiberoptically guided tracheal intubation represents one of the most important advances in airway management to occur in the past thirty years. Perhaps its most important role is in management of the anticipated difficult airway. This is a situation in which the dangers of encountering the life-threatening "can't intubate, can't ventilate" situation can be avoided by placement of an endotracheal tube while the patient is awake. Although skill at the procedure of endoscopy is obviously necessary in this setting, these authors hold that success or failure of the technique frequently depends on the adequacy of preparation. These measures include 1) pre-operative assessment of the patient; 2) careful explanation of what lies in store; 3) "setting the stage"; 4) preparing the equipment to be used; and 5) preparing the patient (antisialogue, sedation, application of topical anesthesia to the upper airway). If these preparatory measures are carried out meticulously, the likelihood of performing a successful and comfortable awake fiberoptic tracheal intubation is greatly increased. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10604785

  7. [Successful tracheal intubation using the GlideScope AVL in a pediatric patient with Pierre Robin syndrome].

    PubMed

    Iwai, Hidetaka; Mouri, Hideyuki; Hirabayashi, Yoshihiro; Takeuchi, Mamoru

    2014-06-01

    We report a successful use of GlideScope AVL in a pediatric patient with Pierre Robin syndrome. A 36-day-old boy weighing 2.8 kg with Pierre Robin syndrome presented for tracheostomy after several weeks of trial airway management in prone position, who had failed to relieve his obstructive apnea. The Pentax-AWS videolaryngoscope equipped with the neonate Introck could not visualize his glottic opening. The GlideScope AVL single-use video laryngoscope equipping the #1 stat captured the view of the vocal cords. A tracheal tube (2.5 mm ID) with 90 degrees angled stylet, however, did not advance into the glottic opening, colliding with the anterior wall of the larynx and/or the laryngeal ventricle. Bending the tip of the stylet in a direction opposite to the inherent memory of the tube facilitated the placement of the tube into the trachea PMID:24979857

  8. Prognostic value of circulating DNA levels in critically ill and trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Edison Moraes; Ikuta, Nilo; Simon, Daniel; Regner, Andrea Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The number of studies investigating circulating nucleic acids as potential biomarkers has increased in recent years. The detection of such biomarkers is a minimally invasive alternative for the diagnosis and prognosis of various clinical conditions. The value of circulating DNA levels as a predictive biomarker has been demonstrated in patients suffering from numerous acute pathologies that have a high risk of intensive care needs and in-hospital deaths. The mechanism by which circulating DNA levels increase in patients with these conditions remains unclear. In this review, we focused on the potential use of this biomarker for prognosis prediction in critically ill and trauma patients. The literature review was performed by searching MedLine using PubMed in the English language. PMID:25295826

  9. The management of trauma victims with head injury: a study by the national confidential enquiry into patient outcome and death

    PubMed Central

    Smith, NCE; Findlay, GP; Weyman, D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2006 the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death undertook a large prospective study of trauma care, which revealed several findings pertaining to the management of head injuries in a sample of 493 patients. Methods Case note data were collected for all trauma patients admitted to all hospitals accepting emergencies in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Channel Islands over a three-month period. Severely injured patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of ≥16 were included in the study. The case notes for these patients were peer reviewed by a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, who rated the overall level of care the patient received. Results Of the 795 patients who met the inclusion criteria for the study, 493 were admitted with a head injury. Room for improvement in the level of care was found in a substantial number of patients (265/493). Good practice was found to be highest in high volume centres. The overall head injury management was found to be satisfactory in 84% of cases (319/381). Conclusions This study has shown that care for trauma patients with head injury is frequently rated as less than good and suggests potential long-term remedies for the problem, including a reconfiguration of trauma services and better provision of neurocritical care facilities. PMID:23484990

  10. Evaluation of circulating haematopoietic progenitor cells in patients with Trauma Haemorrhagic shock and its correlation with outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Subramanian, Arulselvi; Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Mohanty, Sujata; Rao, DN; Galwankar, Sagar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Haemorrhagic shock accounts up to 50% of early trauma deaths. Hematopoietic failure has been observed in experimental animals and human following shock and injury. One of the facets of bone marrow failure is multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and is commonly seen in patients recovering from severe trauma and hemorrhagic shock. Bone Marrow (BM) dysfunction is associated with mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) into peripheral blood. Present study explored the association of peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) with mortality in trauma haemorrhagic shock patients (T/HS). Materials and Methods: Prospective cohort studies of patients presenting within 8 hrs of injury with T/HS to the Department of Emergency Medicine, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, All India Institute of Medical Sciences were recruited. Peripheral blood samples were collected in each patient for measurement of peripheral blood HPCs. Peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) quantification was performed by measuring HPCs counts using the haematology analyzer (Sysmex XE-2100). Clinical and laboratory data were prospectively collected after consent. Ethical approval was taken and data was analysed by Stata 11.2. Results: 39 patients with trauma hemorrhagic shock and 30 normal healthy controls were recruited. HPCs were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the T/HS as compared to control. Among study group, 14 patients died within 24 h. at the hospital admission, and found HPCs concentrations were highly significant (<0.001) in non-survivors (n = 14) when compared with survivors (n = 25) among T/HS patients. Conclusions: Our studies suggest the peripheral blood HPCs may be early prognostic marker for mortality among patients who presented with trauma hemorrhagic shock on admission. But the exact molecular mechanism and signalling pathway involved in the change of the behaviour of bone marrow microenvironment is still unclear. PMID:27308251

  11. The Effect of Trauma Intervention on the Satisfaction of Patients Admitted to the Emergency Department: A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Zakerimoghadam, Masoumeh; Sadeghi, Somayeh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient satisfaction is a key determinant of the quality of medical care. Moreover, satisfaction can be used as a criterion for examining the adequacy of the care, health, and competency of personnel. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the satisfaction of patients receiving trauma care in the emergency department of a hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods This simple clinical trial was performed on 104 patients admitted for traumatic injury to an emergency department in Iran. Given that patients frequently enter an emergency department for care, the sampling of patients in the department was done on days that were randomly assigned to the study group. The experimental group received trauma intervention in four areas from their admission to the emergency department to their discharge from the hospital, and the control group received routine nursing care. The data were collected through a questionnaire that asked for demographic characteristics and then went on to ask about patient satisfaction. The satisfaction questionnaire was completed after the trauma intervention at the end of patients’ stay in the hospital. The data were analyzed using SPSS 22 software and descriptive statistical tests and analytical tests (independent t and Chi-square). Results The mean score for total satisfaction after trauma intervention in the experimental group (45.6 ± 3.69) was significantly different from that of the control group (32.01 ± 7.78) (P < 0.001). Therefore, the levels of total satisfaction in the experimental and control group were favorable and relatively favorable, respectively. Conclusions In this study, trauma intervention increased satisfaction in patients admitted to the emergency department. Therefore, managers and personnel of hospitals and healthcare training centers are urged to implement trauma intervention in their hospitals or healthcare training centers. PMID:27433350

  12. Rural trauma management.

    PubMed

    Wayne, R

    1989-05-01

    Rural trauma is a major problem in the United States. Up to 70 percent of trauma fatalities occur in rural areas, even though 70 percent of the population live in urban areas. Over the past 3 decades, numerous studies have defined the concept of preventable trauma death in both rural and urban populations. With the development of a regional trauma care system in Oregon, preventable trauma mortality should decrease. An effort was made to improve the quality of trauma care in Clatsop County, Oregon, a community of 30,000 people with 2 small rural hospitals. To obtain this goal, four steps were taken: (1) physician and nurse education was improved, (2) trauma protocols promoting prompt resuscitation and stabilization of patients were established, (3) regular trauma case reviews were conducted, and (4) emergency medical technician and prehospital management were coordinated. This study reviews the trail from sporadic, uncoordinated rural trauma care to the designation process. PMID:2712202

  13. Accuracy of continuous noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring for the prediction of blood transfusions in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, Samuel M; Hu, Peter; Yang, Shiming; Gao, Cheng; Hanna, David; Shackelford, Stacy; Mackenzie, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Early detection of hemorrhagic shock is required to facilitate prompt coordination of blood component therapy delivery to the bedside and to expedite performance of lifesaving interventions. Standard physical findings and vital signs are difficult to measure during the acute resuscitation stage, and these measures are often inaccurate until patients deteriorate to a state of decompensated shock. The aim of this study is to examine a severely injured trauma patient population to determine whether a noninvasive SpHb monitor can predict the need for urgent blood transfusion (universal donor or additional urgent blood transfusion) during the first 12 h of trauma patient resuscitation. We hypothesize that trends in continuous SpHb, combined with easily derived patient-specific factors, can identify the immediate need for transfusion in trauma patients. Subjects were enrolled if directly admitted to the trauma center, >17 years of age, and with a shock index (heart rate/systolic blood pressure) >0.62. Upon admission, a Masimo Radical-7 co-oximeter sensor (Masimo Corporation, Irvine, CA) was applied, providing measurement of continuous non-invasive hemoglobin (SpHb) levels. Blood was drawn and hemoglobin concentration analyzed and conventional pulse oximetry photopletysmograph signals were continuously recorded. Demographic information and both prehospital and admission vital signs were collected. The primary outcome was transfusion of at least one unit of packed red blood cells within 24 h of admission. Eight regression models (C1-C8) were evaluated for the prediction of blood use by comparing area under receiver operating curve (AUROC) at different time intervals after admission. 711 subjects had continuous vital signs waveforms available, to include heart rate (HR), SpHb and SpO2 trends. When SpHb was monitored for 15 min, SpHb did not increase AUROC for prediction of transfusion. The highest ROC was recorded for model C8 (age, sex, prehospital shock index, admission

  14. Cuff inflation to aid nasotracheal intubation using the C-MAC videolaryngoscope.

    PubMed

    Baddoo, H K; Phillips, B J

    2011-06-01

    A preliminary report is presented of a technique for using the C-MAC videolaryngoscope to carry out nasopharyngeal intubations. The main thrust of the technique is that cuff inflation of the endotracheal tube is used to lift the endotracheal tube off the posterior pharyngeal wall and thus direct it towards the glottis. The technique was used successfully in 5 consecutive patients needing nasotracheal intubation. Indeed a couple of these patients might have been difficult to intubate using conventional laryngoscopy. The full technique is described together with pictures at the various stages of intubation. PMID:21857727

  15. Evaluation of the Effect of Tracheal Tube Orientation on Success of Intubation through Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway

    PubMed Central

    Chhatrapati, Swati; Auti, Subhhash Sadashiv; Aswar, Swapnil Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Polyvinyl Chloride Endotracheal Tube (PVC ETT) can be used as an alternative to Fastrach Silicone Wire-Reinforced Tube (FTST) for intubation through Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) as the latter is expensive and has low volume high pressure cuff. Aim To evaluate the effects of orientation of PVC ETT (normal curve and reverse curve) on the success of intubation through ILMA, haemodynamic response and postoperative sore throat. Materials and Methods Sixty healthy adult patients of ASA physical status I & II scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation were randomly divided into two groups. In Normal (N) group (n=30), the tracheal tube was inserted with its natural curve following the 90° curvature of ILMA. In Reverse (R) group (n=30), the tracheal tube was inserted with its natural curve directed opposite to the curvature of ILMA. The time taken to intubate, number of attempts, and maneuvers required for successful endotracheal intubation along with haemodynamics and oxygen saturation were noted. Postoperative sore throat was evaluated using a Verbal Analogue Scale (VAS) (0-10). Qualitative data was analysed by Chi-Square test and Fisher’s exact test. Quantitative data was analysed by unpaired t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results Placement of ILMA was successful in all patients. Total Intubation Time (mean±SD) in Group N was 12.53±1.78 seconds and in Group R was 11.97±1.33 seconds (p>0.05). Tracheal intubation through ILMA was successful in all patients. First attempt success rate in R Group (26 patients, 86.7%) was higher than N Group (22 patients, 73.3%) (p>0.05). Four patients (13.3%) in R Group and 8 patients (26.7%) in N Group required 2nd step of Chandy’s maneuver during second attempt for successful intubation. Incidence of sore throat 6 hours postoperatively was statistically significant (median value 2.00 in N Group vs. 0.00 in R Group) between two groups. Conclusion PVC ETT with

  16. A Derivation and Validation Study of an Early Blood Transfusion Needs Score for Severe Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Umejiego, Johnbosco; Robinson, Richard D.; Schrader, Chet D.; Leuck, JoAnna; Barra, Michael; Buca, Stefan; Shedd, Andrew; Bui, Andrew; Zenarosa, Nestor R.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no existing adequate blood transfusion needs determination tool that Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel can use for prehospital blood transfusion initiation. In this study, a simple and pragmatic prehospital blood transfusion needs scoring system was derived and validated. Methods Local trauma registry data were reviewed retrospectively from 2004 through 2013. Patients were randomly assigned to derivation and validation cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the independent approachable risks associated with early blood transfusion needs in the derivation cohort in which a scoring system was derived. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operational characteristic (AUC) were calculated and compared using both the derivation and validation data. Results A total of 24,303 patients were included with 12,151 patients in the derivation and 12,152 patients in the validation cohorts. Age, penetrating injury, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) were risks predictive of early blood transfusion needs. An early blood transfusion needs score was derived. A score > 5 indicated risk of early blood transfusion need with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 80%. A sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 80% were also found in the validation study and their AUC showed no statistically significant difference (AUC of the derivation = 0.87 versus AUC of the validation = 0.86, P > 0.05). Conclusions An early blood transfusion scoring system was derived and internally validated to predict severe trauma patients requiring blood transfusion during prehospital or initial emergency department resuscitation. PMID:27429680

  17. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA): a population based gap analysis of trauma patients in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Edward Benjamin Graham; Morrison, Jonathan James; Madureira, Ricardo Mondoni; Lendrum, Robbie; Fragoso-Iñiguez, Marisol; Edwards, Antoinette; Lecky, Fiona; Bouamra, Omar; Lawrence, Thomas; Jansen, Jan Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-compressible torso haemorrhage (NCTH) carries a high mortality in trauma as many patients exsanguinate prior to definitive haemorrhage control. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an adjunct that has the potential to bridge patients to definitive haemostasis. However, the proportion of trauma patients in whom REBOA may be utilised is unknown. Methods We conducted a population based analysis of 2012–2013 Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) data. We identified the number of patients in whom REBOA may have been utilised, defined by an Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥3 to abdominal solid organs, abdominal or pelvic vasculature, pelvic fracture with ring disruption or proximal traumatic lower limb amputation, together with a systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg. Patients with non-compressible haemorrhage in the mediastinum, axilla, face or neck were excluded. Results During 2012–2013, 72 677 adult trauma patients admitted to hospitals in England and Wales were identified. 397 patients had an indication(s) and no contraindications for REBOA with evidence of haemorrhagic shock: 69% men, median age 43 years and median Injury Severity Score 32. Overall mortality was 32%. Major trauma centres (MTCs) received the highest concentration of potential REBOA patients, and would be anticipated to receive a patient in whom REBOA may be utilised every 95 days, increasing to every 46 days in the 10 MTCs with the highest attendance of this injury type. Conclusions This TARN database analysis has identified a small group of severely injured, resource intensive patients with a highly lethal injury that is theoretically amenable to REBOA. The highest density of these patients is seen at MTCs, and as such a planned evaluation of REBOA should be further considered in these hospitals. PMID:26598631

  18. Imbalance between macrophage migration inhibitory factor and cortisol induces multiple organ dysfunction in patients with blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Katabami, Kenichi; Wada, Takeshi; Minami, Yousuke; Sugano, Masahiro; Shimojima, Hidekazu; Kubota, Nobuhiko; Uegaki, Shinji; Sawamura, Atsushi; Gando, Satoshi

    2011-06-01

    Migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is associated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Our purposes were to determine the serum MIF, cortisol, and tumor narcosis factor-α (TNF-α) and to investigate the influences of the balance between the levels of MIF and cortisol in patients with blunt trauma. The cortisol levels were identical between the patients with and without MODS. However, the MIF and TNF-α levels in the patients with MODS were statistically higher than those of the patients without MODS. The cortisol/MIF ratios in the patients with MODS were statistically higher than those of the patients without MODS. The results show that MIF and TNF-α play an important role together in posttraumatic inflammatory response. An excessive serum MIF elevation overrides the anti-inflammatory effects of cortisol and leads to persistent SIRS followed by MODS in blunt trauma patients. PMID:20499270

  19. The Relation Between Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome and Trauma Severity in Patients With Distal Tibia Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Bahador, Reza; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Arbab, Sara; Derakhshan, Pooya; Gholizadeh, Amirmohammad; Abedi, Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Background Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) syndrome is a multifactorial disorder with clinical features of neurogenic inflammation that causes hypersensitivity to pain or severe allodynia as well as blood flow problems, swelling, skin discoloration and maladaptive neuroplasticity due to vasomotor disorders. Patients with major trauma are prone to homeostasis leading to inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ distress syndrome. Several studies have investigated the etiology of this condition, but the cause remains unknown. The role of associated factors such as the limb immobilization technique and genetics has been reported in the development of this complication, but, so far, there is no information regarding the effect of trauma severity on the risk of RSD occurrence. Objectives Given the importance of diagnosing and treating this condition, we aimed to study the effect of trauma severity on the prevalence of RSD. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we examined patients with distal tibial fracture who visited Rasht Poursina hospital from 2010 to 2013. Exclusion criteria included associated fractures, underlying musculoskeletal diseases and mental and cognitive problems. To assess the severity of the initial injury in patients, the Hannover Fracture Scale 98 (HFS98) scoring checklist was used. The diagnosis of RSD was made on the basis of the IASP criterion. Demographic data, HFS98 scores, and information regarding RSD prevalence were analyzed using SPSS version 20. The Mann Whitney U nonparametric test was used for variables that were not normally distributed; the chi-square test was used to compare the qualitative variables. Results Among the 488 patients, 292 (59.83%) were male. The mean age of the study population was 44 ± 9.82 years. During the 6-month follow-up, RSD occurred in 45 patients, of whom 28 (62.22%) were female and 17 (37.77%) were male; there was thus a significant difference in the prevalence of RSD in terms of

  20. Difficult Ventilation After Successful Intubation in the Emergency Setting due to a Ball Valve Clot.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Justin S; Weigel, Wade; Neal, Joseph M

    2016-05-15

    The inability to ventilate a patient after successful intubation is a rare but emergent situation and may be caused by obstruction of the endotracheal tube, bilateral tension pneumothorax, esophageal intubation, severe bronchospasm, or mainstem bronchus intubation. We describe an increase in mean airway pressure, inability to ventilate, and loss of cardiac output secondary to a blood clot acting as a ball valve at the end of an endotracheal tube. PMID:26934604

  1. Intubation methods by novice intubators in a manikin model.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Darragh C; Barnes, Robert L; Aratani, Ashley K; Lee, Dane C; Lau, Christopher A; Morton, Paul N; Yamamoto, Loren G; Berg, Benjamin W

    2013-10-01

    Tracheal Intubation is an important yet difficult skill to learn with many possible methods and techniques. Direct laryngoscopy is the standard method of tracheal intubation, but several instruments have been shown to be less difficult and have better performance characteristics than the traditional direct method. We compared 4 different intubation methods performed by novice intubators on manikins: conventional direct laryngoscopy, video laryngoscopy, Airtraq® laryngoscopy, and fiberoptic laryngoscopy. In addition, we attempted to find a correlation between playing videogames and intubation times in novice intubators. Video laryngoscopy had the best results for both our normal and difficult airway (cervical spine immobilization) manikin scenarios. When video was compared to direct in the normal airway scenario, it had a significantly higher success rate (100% vs 83% P=.02) and shorter intubation times (29.1 ± 27.4 sec vs 45.9 ± 39.5 sec, P=.03). In the difficult airway scenario video laryngoscopy maintained a significantly higher success rate (91% vs 71% P=0.04) and likelihood of success (3.2 ± 1.0 95%CI [2.9-3.5] vs 2.4 ± 0.9 95%CI [2.1-2.7]) when compared to direct laryngoscopy. Participants also reported significantly higher rates of self-confidence (3.5 ± 0.6 95%CI [3.3-3.7]) and ease of use (1.5 ± 0.7 95%CI [1.3-1.8]) with video laryngoscopy compared to all other methods. We found no correlation between videogame playing and intubation methods. PMID:24167768

  2. AIRTRAQ8 OPTICAL LARYNGOSCOPE FOR TRACHEAL INTUBATION IN A PATIENT WITH AN UNCOMMON GIANT LIPOMA ON THE POSTERIOR ASPECT OF NECK AND ADDITIONAL RISK FACTORS OF ANTICIPATED DIFFICULT AIRWAY: A CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Vassilios; El Kouny, Amr; Al Harbi, Mohammed; Wambi, Freddie; Tawfeeq, Nasser; Tanweer, Aziz; Al Atassi, Abdulallem; Geldhof, Georges

    2015-10-01

    Patients with restricted neck movement present a difficult airway situation because of improper positioning and inadequate extension of the atlanto-occipital joint. The Airtraq optical laryngoscope is a new single use device that permits an indirect view of the glottis without the need to achieve a direct line of sight by conventional use of the 'sniffing position'. We present and discuss a case of uncommon giant lipoma (16 x 12 x 10 cm) in the posterior aspect of the neck in addition with other independent factors of anticipated difficult airway, intubated successfully in the semi-lateral position with the use of Airtraq. PMID:26860029

  3. Comparison of Medical Adhesive Tapes in Patients at Risk of Facial Skin Trauma under Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Sui An; Chong, Shin Yuet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Adhesive tapes are used for taping eyelids closed and securing endotracheal tubes during general anesthesia. These tapes can cause facial skin injury. We compared the incidence of facial skin injury and patient satisfaction with different tapes used. Methods. A total of 60 adult patients at risk of skin trauma were randomized to use 3M™ Kind Removal Silicone Tape or standard acrylate tapes: 3M Durapore (endotracheal tube) and Medipore (eyelids). Patients were blinded to tape used. Postoperatively, a blinded recovery nurse assessed erythema, edema, and denudation of skin. Anesthesiologist in charge also assessed skin injury. On postoperative day 1, patients rated satisfaction with the condition of their skin over the eyelids and face on a 5-point Likert scale. Results. More patients had denudation of skin with standard tapes, 4 (13.3%) versus 0 with silicone tape (p = 0.026) and in anesthesiologist-evaluated skin injury 11 (37%) with standard versus 1 (3%) with silicone (p = 0.002). No significant differences were found in erythema and edema. Patient satisfaction score was higher with silicone tape: over eyelids: mean 3.83 (standard) versus 4.53 (silicone), Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.001; over face: mean 3.87 (standard) versus 4.57 (silicone) (p < 0.001). Conclusion. Silicone tape use had less skin injury and greater patient satisfaction than standard acrylate tapes. PMID:27382368

  4. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia in a patient taking anticoagulant drugs who has sustained facial trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kamiński, Bartłomiej; Olek-Hrab, Karolina; Sokalski, Jerzy; Witmanowski, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 41-year-old patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), who in the past had an aortic valve replacement surgery, currently takes anticoagulant drugs and has sustained an extensive trauma to the nose as a result of a dog bite. The HHT is diagnosed basing on the presence of at least three out of four symptoms or signs: spontaneous epistaxis, vascular lesions in the internal organs, skin telangiectasias and a family history of the disease. The presented patient showed hepatic angioma, history of recurrent bleeding from the tongue and spontaneous epistaxis as well as numerous skin telangiectasias. In his case, HHT coincided with chronic treatment with coagulants implemented after an implantation of the artificial aortic replacement valve, what substantially modified the clinical picture and course of treatment. PMID:24278075

  5. The Impact of Trauma Exposure and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on Healthcare Utilization Among Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kartha, Anand; Brower, Victoria; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Keane, Terence M.; Liebschutz, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background Trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increase healthcare utilization in veterans, but their impact on utilization in other populations is uncertain. Objectives To examine the association of trauma exposure and PTSD with healthcare utilization, in civilian primary care patients. Research Design Cross-sectional study. Subjects English speaking patients at an academic, urban primary care clinic. Measures Trauma exposure and current PTSD diagnoses were obtained from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Outcomes were nonmental health outpatient and emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and mental health outpatient visits in the prior year from an electronic medical record. Analyses included bivariate unadjusted and multivariable Poisson regressions adjusted for age, gender, income, substance dependence, depression, and comorbidities. Results Among 592 subjects, 80% had ≥1 trauma exposure and 22% had current PTSD. In adjusted regressions, subjects with trauma exposure had more mental health visits [incidence rate ratio (IRR), 3.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1–14.1] but no other increased utilization. After adjusting for PTSD, this effect of trauma exposure was attenuated (IRR, 3.2; 95% CI, 0.9–11.7). Subjects with PTSD had more hospitalizations (IRR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4–3.7), more hospital nights (IRR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4–5.0), and more mental health visits (IRR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1–4.1) but no increase in outpatient and emergency department visits. Conclusions PTSD is associated with more hospitalizations, longer hospitalizations, and greater mental healthcare utilization in urban primary care patients. Although trauma exposure is independently associated with greater mental healthcare utilization, PTSD mediates a portion of this association. PMID:18362818

  6. Is radiography justified for the evaluation of patients presenting with cervical spine trauma?

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Chatzakis, Georgios; Damilakis, John

    2009-10-15

    Conventional radiography has been for decades the standard method of evaluation for cervical spine trauma patients. However, currently available helical multidetector CT scanners allow multiplanar reconstruction of images, leading to increased diagnostic accuracy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative benefit/risk ratio between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography and between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography, followed by CT as an adjunct for positive findings. A decision analysis model for the determination of the optimum imaging technique was developed. The sensitivity and specificity of CT and radiography were obtained by dedicated meta-analysis. Lifetime attributable risk of mortal cancer from CT and radiography was calculated using updated organ-specific risk coefficients and organ-absorbed doses. Patient organ doses from radiography were calculated using Monte Carlo techniques, simulated exposures performed on an anthropomorphic phantom, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. A prospective patient study was performed regarding helical CT scans of the cervical spine. Patient doses were calculated based on the dose-length-product values and Monte Carlo-based CT dosimetry software program. Three groups of patient risk for cervical spine fracture were incorporated in the decision model on the basis of hypothetical trauma mechanism and clinical findings. Radiation effects were assessed separately for males and females for four age groups (20, 40, 60, and 80 yr old). Effective dose from radiography amounts to 0.050 mSv and from a typical CT scan to 3.8 mSv. The use of CT in a hypothetical cohort of 10{sup 6} patients prevents approximately 130 incidents of paralysis in the low risk group (a priori fracture probability of 0.5%), 500 in the moderate risk group (a priori fracture probability of 2%), and 5100 in the high risk group (a priori fracture probability of 20%). The expense of this CT-based prevention is 15-32 additional

  7. Differences in trauma history and psychopathology between PTSD patients with and without co-occurring dissociative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wabnitz, Pascal; Gast, Ursula; Catani, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Background The interplay between different types of potentially traumatizing events, posttraumatic symptoms, and the pathogenesis of PTSD or major dissociative disorders (DD) has been extensively studied during the last decade. However, the phenomenology and nosological classification of posttraumatic disorders is currently under debate. The current study was conducted to investigate differences between PTSD patients with and without co-occurring major DD with regard to general psychopathology, trauma history, and trauma-specific symptoms. Methods Twenty-four inpatients were administered the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV (CAPS) and the Mini-Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (MINI-SKID-D) to assess DD and PTSD. Additionally, participants completed questionnaires to assess general psychopathology and health status. Results Symptom profiles and axis I comorbidity were similar in all patients. Traumatic experiences did not differ between the two groups, with both reporting high levels of childhood trauma. Only trauma-specific avoidance behavior and dissociative symptoms differed between groups. Conclusion Results support the view that PTSD and DD are affiliated disorders that could be classified within the same diagnostic category. Our results accord with a typological model of dissociation in which profound forms of dissociation are specific to DD and are accompanied with higher levels of trauma-specific avoidance in DD patients. PMID:24298325

  8. Pentax Airway Scope® vs Macintosh laryngoscope for tracheal intubation in adult patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoshijima, H; Kuratani, N; Hirabayashi, Y; Takeuchi, R; Shiga, T; Masaki, E

    2014-08-01

    The Pentax Airway Scope(®) is a single-use optical videolaryngoscope designed to assist with difficult tracheal intubation. We systematically reviewed the efficacy of the Pentax Airway Scope with that of a conventional laryngoscope for tracheal intubation in adults with 'normal' and 'difficult' airways. We included 17 randomised controlled trials with a total of 1801 participants. We used the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model to calculate pooled relative risk or weighted mean differences. The relative risk (95% CI) of a Cormack-Lehane grade-1 laryngeal view was 2.40 (1.76-2.49) with the Pentax Airway Scope compared with the Macintosh laryngoscope, p < 0.00001. We found no other differences between the two laryngoscopes. Despite a superior laryngeal view, the Pentax Airway Scope provides little clinical benefit over the conventional laryngoscope. PMID:24820205

  9. 78 FR 6820 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Ryder Trauma Center

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Relinquishment From Ryder Trauma Center AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... accepted a notification of voluntary relinquishment from Ryder Trauma Center of its status as a PSO, and... PSOs. AHRQ has accepted a notification from Ryder Trauma Center, PSO number P0019, which is a...

  10. Tracheobronchial injury due to blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Mahmodlou, Rahim; Sepehrvand, Nariman

    2015-01-01

    Tracheobronchial avulsion resulting from blunt trauma is a very rare and serious condition, mostly due to high-speed traffic crashes. In this article, we briefly report the case of an 18-year-old man who was injured in a car accident and because of massive persistent air leakage (despite appropriate chest tube drainage), deemed to have a deep tracheobronchial injury. Due to a rapid drop in the patient's O2 saturation, he underwent an anterolateral thoracotomy. Endotracheal intubation was performed under direct visualization. The right mainstem bronchus was disrupted from the carina with a 1.5-cm stump remaining on the carina, and the remainder was crushed to the origin of the right superior lobe bronchus. Hence, a right superior lobectomy was performed and the postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:26157657

  11. The efficacy of combined regional nerve blocks in awake orotracheal fiberoptic intubation

    PubMed Central

    Chatrath, Veena; Sharan, Radhe; Jain, Payal; Bala, Anju; Ranjana; Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Aims of Study: To evaluate the efficacy, hemodynamic changes, and patient comfort during awake fiberoptic intubation done under combined regional blocks. Materials and Methods: In the present observational study, 50 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists ( ASA) Grade I–II, Mallampati Grade I–IV were given nerve blocks - bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve block, bilateral superior laryngeal nerve block, and recurrent laryngeal nerve block before awake fiberoptic intubation using 2% lidocaine. Results: Procedure was associated with minimal increases in hemodynamic parameters during the procedure and until 3 min after it. Most of the intubations were being carried out within 3 min. Patient comfort was satisfactory with 90% of patients having favorable grades. Discussion: The most common cause of mortality and serious morbidity due to anesthesia is from airway problems. One-third of all anesthetic deaths are due to failure to intubate and ventilate. Awake flexible fiberoptic intubation under local anesthesia is now an accepted technique for managing such situations. In awake patient's anatomy, muscle tone, airway protection, and ventilation are preserved, but it is essential to sufficiently anesthetize the upper airway before the performance of awake fiberoptic bronchoscope-guided intubation to ensure patient comfort and cooperation for which in our study we used the nerve block technique. Conclusion: A properly performed technique of awake fiberoptic intubation done under combined regional nerve blocks provides good intubating conditions, patient comfort and safety and results in minimal hemodynamic changes. PMID:27212757

  12. Tertiary survey of the trauma patient in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M D; Born, C

    2000-06-01

    The issues surrounding the arrival of trauma patients to the ICU have been defined. By necessity, many of these topics are dealt with elsewhere in greater detail. The basic framework within which this phase of care could be optimized has been provided. Pitfalls related to patients' mode of arrival to the ICU affect subsequent management and should direct specific clinical activity. The tertiary survey is a complete summation and cataloguing of a patient's injuries. The need for ongoing resuscitation determines how much attention can be paid to the tertiary survey. Clinical suspicion based on mechanism and pattern of injury and thorough, repeated, complete physical examination are the essential elements of the tertiary survey. The survey is affected by factors that alter patients' mental status because examination is most reliable in patients who can localize pain. Medications, intoxication, and head injuries are common factors that interfere with the reliability of the tertiary survey for variable periods. Radiographic assessment is used to identify injuries suspected on the basis of mechanism of injury, injury pattern, and findings on physical examination. Some studies may be done portably; others require transport within the hospital. The intensivist must prioritize these ongoing diagnostic studies based on patient stability and the need for ongoing resuscitation. PMID:10897262

  13. Chiropractic Care for a Patient with Spasmodic Dysphonia Associated with Cervical Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, Roger K.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss the diagnosis and response to treatment of spasmodic dysphonia in a 25-year-old female vocalist following an auto accident. Clinical Features The voice disorder and neck pain appeared after the traumatic incident. Examination of the cervical spine revealed moderate pain, muscle spasm and restricted joint motion at C-1 and C-5 on the left side. Cervical range of motion was reduced on left rotation. Bilateral manual muscle testing of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles, which share innervation with the laryngeal muscles by way of the spinal accessory nerve, were weak on the left side. Pre and post accident voice range profiles (phonetograms) that measure singing voice quality were examined. The pre- and post-accident phonetograms revealed significant reduction in voice intensity and fundamental frequency as measured in decibels and hertz. Intervention and Outcome Low-force chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy to C-1 and C-5 was employed. Following a course of care, the patient's singing voice returned to normal, as well as a resolution of her musculo- skeletal complaints. Conclusion It appears that in certain cases, the singing voice can be adversely affected if neck or head trauma is severe enough. This case proposes that trauma with irritation to the cervical spine nerve roots as they communicate with the spinal accessory, and in turn the laryngeal nerves, may be contributory in some functional voice disorders or muscle tension dysphonia. PMID:19674642

  14. Mortality Patterns in Patients with Multiple Trauma: A Systematic Review of Autopsy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Roman; Teuben, Michel; Andruszkow, Hagen; Barkatali, Bilal M.; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A high percentage (50%-60%) of trauma patients die due to their injuries prior to arrival at the hospital. Studies on preclinical mortality including post-mortem examinations are rare. In this review, we summarized the literature focusing on clinical and preclinical mortality and studies included post-mortem examinations. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed/Medline database for relevant medical literature in English or German language published within the last four decades (1980–2015). The following MeSH search terms were used in different combinations: “multiple trauma”, “epidemiology”, “mortality “, “cause of death”, and “autopsy”. References from available studies were searched as well. Results Marked differences in demographic parameters and injury severity between studies were identified. Moreover, the incidence of penetrating injuries has shown a wide range (between 4% and 38%). Both unimodal and bimodal concepts of trauma mortality have been favored. Studies have shown a wide variation in time intervals used to analyze the distribution of death. Thus, it is difficult to say which distribution is correct. Conclusions We have identified variable results indicating bimodal or unimodal death distribution. Further more stundardized studies in this field are needed. We would like to encourage investigators to choose the inclusion criteria more critically and to consider factors affecting the pattern of mortality. PMID:26871937

  15. Dural arteriovenous fistula discovered in patient presenting with recent head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Chad J.; Said, Sarmad; Nunez, Angelica; Quansah, Raphael; Khalillullah, Sayeed; Hernandez, German T.

    2013-01-01

    Patient Male, 32 Final Diagnosis: Dural arterio-venous fistula Symptoms: Eye redness • post-trauma headache • tinnitus Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Fistula embolization Specialty: Neurology Objective: Mistake in diagnosis Background: A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), is an abnormal direct connection (fistula) between a meningeal artery and a meningeal vein or dural venous sinus. The pathogenesis of DAVF still remains unclear. Sinus thrombosis, head trauma, chronic central nervous system, hypercoagulable state, surgery, and hormonal influence are the pre-disposing factors that initiate this disease. The symptoms experienced by the patient will depend on the location of the fistula. Case Report: Thirty-two year old Hispanic male who presented one day after a rear ended motor vehicle collision (MVC) with a severe throbbing headache in the left parietal region, left eye redness but no retro-orbital pain and tinnitus in the left ear. He was initially misdiagnosed to have a carotid-cavernous fistula but upon cerebral angiogram was actually diagnosed with a dural arterio-venous fistula in the posterior fossa venous system followed by successful embolization of the fistula. Conclusions: A cerebral angiography is the gold standard for detection and characterization of a DAVF and will distinguish it from a CCF. Endovascular surgery involves a catheter-based technique for embolization of the lumen of arteries feeding the DAVF, or directly into the vein draining the DAVF. It is very important to recognize the typical findings of patients presenting with a DAVF then quickly proceeding with a cerebral angiogram to determine the exact location of the fistula and the appropriate treatment plan. By diagnosing and treating a DAVF as early as possible, the associated fatal complications can be averted. PMID:24194975

  16. The Tanzanian trauma patients' prehospital experience: a qualitative interview-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kuzma, Kristin; Lim, Andrew George; Kepha, Bernard; Nalitolela, Neema Evelyne; Reynolds, Teri A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to characterise the prehospital experience of Tanzanian trauma patients, and identify barriers and facilitators to implement community-based emergency medical systems (EMS). Settings Our study was conducted in the emergency department of an urban national referral hospital in Tanzania. Participants A convenience sample of 34 adult trauma patients, or surrogate family members, presenting or referred to an urban referral emergency department in Tanzania for treatment of injury, participated in the study. Interventions Participation in semistructured, iteratively developed interviews until saturation of responses was reached. Outcomes A grounded theory-based approach to qualitative analysis was used to identify recurrent themes. Results We characterised numerous deficiencies within the existing clinic-to-hospital referral network, including missed/delayed diagnoses, limited management capabilities at pre-referral facilities and interfacility transfer delays. Potential barriers to EMS implementation include patient financial limitations and lack of insurance, limited public infrastructure and resources, and the credibility of potential first aid responders. Potential facilitators of EMS include communities’ tendency to pool resources, individuals’ trust of other community members to be first aid responders, and faith in community leaders to organise EMS response. Participants expressed a strong desire to learn first aid. Conclusions The composite themes generated by the data suggest that there are myriad structural, financial, institutional and cultural barriers to the implementation of a formal prehospital system. However, our analysis also revealed potential facilitators to a first-responder system that takes advantage of close-knit local communities and the trust of recognised leaders in society. The results suggest favourable acceptability for community-based response by trained lay people. There is significant opportunity for care

  17. The Champions League - Improving the quality of in-patient antibiotic prescription in Trauma and Orthopaedics

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan; Saxby, Clair; Armstrong, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A Trust level audit demonstrated that the trauma and orthopaedic department did not reach its own standards in adhering to Trust antibiotic prescribing guidelines. Junior doctors are the main prescribers of antibiotics during inpatient stays. Local policy states that for all inpatients on antibiotics, the start date, duration, and indication for antibiotics must be documented on the drug card. Each patient drug card was reviewed by the department pharmacist and it was recorded whether the documentation was in line with Trust policy. A monthly league table, coined ‘The Champions League’, was created. It was published monthly and displayed in the doctors' office and other clinical areas to highlight which doctors had or had not adhered to the prescribing guidelines. In August 2012 the monthly audit for the trauma and orthopaedic department included 74 patients. The total number of antibiotic courses prescribed was 28; of these courses only 15 (53.5%) had an indication documented and 15 (53.5%) had a review/stop date documented. In December 2012, after two published league tables, 61 patients were reviewed. A total of 19 antibiotic courses were prescribed; 18 (94.7%) had the indication documented and 16 (84.2%) had the review/stop date documented. The standards of prescribing improved within the department and good prescribing practice became ingrained into each doctor's practice. The league table proved to be a novel tool that helped to raise the profile of antibiotic prescribing and change doctor prescribing habits. It created a competitive spirit within the department which improved morale. Doctors responded positively to feedback if they were not achieving the desirable standards, and enjoyed the challenge of improving the standard of prescribing. PMID:26734266

  18. Blunt urogenital trauma in prepubescent female patients: more than meets the eye!

    PubMed

    Lynch, J M; Gardner, M J; Albanese, C T

    1995-12-01

    Blunt traumatic injury to the urogenital region in the prepubescent girl is commonly evaluated in pediatric emergency departments (ED). The purpose of this study is: 1) to establish recommendations for an accurate, painless (both physically and psychologically), and timely diagnosis, and 2) to determine whether the ED examination can accurately determine the extent of the injury. Over a 24-month period (January 1991 through December 1992), 22 girls with blunt trauma to the urogenital region (mean age 5.7 years, range 2-9 years) were retrospectively evaluated. Initial ED evaluations were by both an emergency physician and a pediatric surgeon. All 22 patients underwent an examination under anesthesia (EUA) in the operating room to evaluate the extent of the injury and to repair the injury as needed. Follow-up was obtained in all patients and averaged 18 months. The findings at EUA demonstrated a significant disagreement with the preoperative ED evaluation. In only five patients was there agreement between the preoperative ED assessment and the findings during the EUA (24% concurrence). Thus, 16 patients (76%) had injuries of greater extent than was appreciated during the preoperative examination in the ED. Partial or complete disruption of the perianal sphincters occurred in six patients (27%) and was unrecognized preoperatively in each. Twenty-one of the 22 patients required suture repair of lacerations, the remaining patient did not require surgical therapy. Three patients had contusions or lacerations to the urethral area requiring repair and/or prolonged bladder catheter drainage for two to 14 days (average seven days). The average hospital stay was 19.3 hours. There were three minor wound complications following surgery: two required repeat EUA with suturing or cauterization, and one required no further therapy. This study clearly demonstrates that the ED examination, by both emergency physicians and pediatric surgeons, of young girls who have suffered blunt

  19. [Correction of neurotrophic disorders in patients, suffering consequences of a spinal cord and peripheral nerves trauma].

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    On clinical base of cathedra of the disasters medicine, military medicine, anesthesiology and reanimatology in 2010 - 2013 yrs 62 patients were treated for neurotrophic disorders, in 12 of them the method was applied, elaborated in the clinic. For neurotrophic ulcers in 5 patients autodermoplasty was performed, using splitted cutaneous flap, in 1 for the wound defect on a forearm--plasty, using rotational cutaneo-adipose flap, based on axial blood supply. In 44 patients after a spinal cord trauma a neurotrophic defects degree III - IV have formed. The kind of operative intervention was selected depending on size of the defect, the wound depth and functional peculiarities of the injured area. Introduction of a new method of treatment of neurotrophic ulcers of the lower extremities, using preparation of hyaluronic acid with sodium succinate, expands the perspectives of treatment in patients, suffering defects of cover tissues. Differentiated approach to choice of the wound closure method, caused by damage of central and peripheral neural system, have permitted to achieve positive results in 98.1% of patients. PMID:25507021

  20. [Correction of neurotrophic disorders in patients, suffering consequences of a spinal cord and peripheral nerves trauma].

    PubMed

    Ponomarenko, O V

    2014-08-01

    On clinical base of cathedra of the disasters medicine, military medicine, anesthesiology and reanimatology in 2010 - 2013 yrs 62 patients were treated for neurotrophic disorders, in 12 of them the method was applied, elaborated in the clinic. For neurotrophic ulcers in 5 patients autodermoplasty was performed, using splitted cutaneous flap, in 1 for the wound defect on a forearm--plasty, using rotational cutaneo-adipose flap, based on axial blood supply. In 44 patients after a spinal cord trauma a neurotrophic defects degree III - IV have formed. The kind of operative intervention was selected depending on size of the defect, the wound depth and functional peculiarities of the injured area. Introduction of a new method of treatment of neurotrophic ulcers of the lower extremities, using preparation of hyaluronic acid with sodium succinate, expands the perspectives of treatment in patients, suffering defects of cover tissues. Differentiated approach to choice of the wound closure method, caused by damage of central and peripheral neural system, have permitted to achieve positive results in 98.1% of patients. PMID:25417293

  1. Clinical results of patients with subaxial cervical spine trauma treated according to the SLIC score

    PubMed Central

    Joaquim, Andrei F.; Ghizoni, Enrico; Tedeschi, Helder; da Cruz, Halisson Y. F.; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Subaxial Injury Classification (SLIC) system has been developed to improve injury classification and guide surgical decision making yet clinical validation remains necessary. Methods We evaluated the validity and safety of the SLIC system prospectively in patients treated for subaxial cervical spine trauma (SCST) between 2009 and 2012. Patients with four or more points were surgically treated, whereas patients with less than 4 points were conservatively managed. Outcome measures Neurological status was assessed as the primary outcome of successful treatment. Results Non-surgical group – Twenty-three patients were treated non-surgically, 14 (61%) of them with some follow-up at our institution. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 5 months (mean of 4.42; median 4). The SLIC score ranged from 0 to 6 points (mean and median of 1). One patient with a SLIC of 6 points refused surgery. Surgical group: Twenty-five patients were operated, but follow-up after hospital discharge was obtained in 23 (92%) patients (range from 1 to 24 months, mean of 5.82 months). The SLIC score in this group ranged from 4 to 9 points (mean and median of 7). No patients had neurological worsening. Eight of 13 patients with incomplete deficits had some improvement in American Spinal Injury Association score. Conclusions This is the first prospective application of the SLIC system. With regard to our primary outcome, neurological status, the SLIC system was found to be a safe and effective guide in the surgical treatment of SCST. PMID:24090539

  2. [The use of enerion in the treatment of asthenic disorders in patients after mild cranio-cerebral trauma].

    PubMed

    Levin, O S; Slizkova, Iu B

    2007-01-01

    Asthenia is a key symptom of posttraumatic disorders (postcommotion syndrom). The dynamics of the symptom developing after mild cranio-cerebral trauma was studied during the treatment of 36 patients with enerion (20 patients) and piracetam (16 patients - control group). The authors present the results of the complex study, which includes neuropsychological tests and scales. It was shown that enerion was more effective as compared with paracetam. PMID:18379496

  3. Determination of Tetanus Antibody Levels in Trauma Patients Referred To Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Afzali, Hasan; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Mousavi, Shamsaddin

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable difference in serologic immune status against tetanus among different age and social groups in various countries due to different national vaccination policies and methods. Objectives: Considering that the immunization status of trauma patients against tetanus is not-known or uncertain and they may need to receive the vaccine and tetabulin, this study was conducted to determine the tetanus antibody levels in patients referred to the trauma emergency ward of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan City, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 204 trauma patients referred to the trauma emergency ward of Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kashan City, Iran, in 2014. After obtaining a written informed consent from the patients, a questionnaire consisted of demographic information and tetanus vaccination record was completed by the patients. Afterwards, a 4 - 5 mL venous blood sample was taken from each patient and the tetanus antibody level (IgG) was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The tetanus antibody levels equal or more than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective. Data were analyzed using chi-square test, independent t-test and one-way ANOVA with SPSS software version 16. Results: From a total of 204 patients, 35 cases (16.7%) were females and 169 (83.2%) were males with the mean age of 40.9 ± 3.7 years. There was no statistically significant difference in the tetanus antibody levels between both sexes (P = 0.09). Moreover, there was no significant difference in immunization status between the patients who had a history of tetanus vaccination and those who had not received the vaccine before (P = 0.67). The antibody levels were significantly reduced with the passage of time since the last vaccination (P < 0.001). Also, 87.3% of the patients had the high protective level of immunity to tetanus. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show a high level of tetanus antibody among

  4. Peripartum general anasthesia without tracheal intubation: incidence of aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ezri, T; Szmuk, P; Stein, A; Konichezky, S; Hagai, T; Geva, D

    2000-05-01

    This study estimated the incidence of pulmonary aspiration during general anasthesia for obstetric procedures performed in the peripartum period (Caesarean sections were not studied). The records of 1870 patients anasthetised without tracheal intubation were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis of aspiration was based on the anasthetist's written remarks and the postoperative course. Eighty per cent of patients received ketamine and a benzodiazepine, and the remaining 20% received methohexital or thiopental and fentanyl. No cricoid pressure or tracheal intubation was performed. A single case of mild aspiration was detected in a woman anasthetised with methohexital (an incidence of 0.053%). These results suggest that the risk of aspiration during general anasthesia without tracheal intubation, during and immediately after delivery, may not be higher in obstetric patients in the peripartum period, as has been reported previously. PMID:10792131

  5. Intravenous lidocaine as a suppressant of coughing during tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Yukioka, H; Yoshimoto, N; Nishimura, K; Fujimori, M

    1985-12-01

    Effects of intravenously administered lidocaine on cough suppression during tracheal intubation under general anesthesia were evaluated in two studies. In study 1, 100 patients received either a placebo or 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously 1 min before tracheal intubation. All visible coughs were classified as coughing. The incidence of coughing decreased as the dose of lidocaine increased. A dose of 1 mg/kg or more of intravenous lidocaine suppressed the cough reflex significantly (P less than 0.01). Coughing was suppressed completely by 2 mg/kg of intravenous lidocaine. In study 2, 108 patients received 2 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously or a placebo 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, or 15 min before intubation. The same criteria for determining whether a patient did or did not cough during tracheal intubation were used as in study 1. The incidence of coughing decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) when 2 mg/kg of lidocaine was injected intravenously between 1 and 5 min before our attempting intubation. Cough reflex was suppressed completely by plasma concentrations of lidocaine in excess of 3 micrograms/ml. PMID:4061901

  6. Conditions for endotracheal intubation after atracurium and suxamethonium.

    PubMed

    Famewo, C E

    1986-06-01

    Intubating conditions following 2 different dosage levels of atracurium, a new non-depolarising muscle relaxant was compared with suxamethonium. The dosage levels of atracurium were 0.5 mg/kg and 0.7 mg/kg while the dosage of suxamethonium chloride was 1 mg/kg. A total of 60 patients with 20 patients in each of the three groups were studied. Premedication was with oral diazepam 10 mg. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl 1 microgram/kg and thiopentone 5 mg/kg and intubation performed in all cases by the same operator. Excellent intubation conditions were obtained in all patients within 60 seconds in the suxamethonium group, 90 seconds in the atracurium 0.7 mg/kg group, and 120 seconds in the atracurium 0.5 mg/kg group. No side effects were observed and there was circulatory stability. It is concluded that atracurium in a dose of 0.7 mg/kg allows more rapid intubation than the 0.5 mg/kg dose. It is however not as rapid as suxamethonium which remains the drug of choice when very rapid intubation is crucial. PMID:3755796

  7. Evaluation of the safety of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) therapy in blunt thoracic trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Casandra A; Palmer, Cassandra A; Ney, Arthur L; Becker, Brian; Schaffel, Steven D; Quickel, Robert R

    2008-01-01

    Background Airway clearance is frequently needed by patients suffering from blunt chest wall trauma. High Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation (HFCWO) has been shown to be effective in helping to clear secretions from the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, asthma, primary ciliary dyskinesia, emphysema, COPD, and many others. Chest wall trauma patients are at increased risk for development of pulmonary complications related to airway clearance. These patients frequently have chest tubes, drains, catheters, etc. which could become dislodged during HFCWO. This prospective observational study was conducted to determine if HFCWO treatment, as provided by The Vest™ Airway Clearance System (Hill-Rom, Saint Paul, MN), was safe and well tolerated by these patients. Methods Twenty-five blunt thoracic trauma patients were entered into the study. These patients were consented. Each patient was prescribed 2, 15 minute HFCWO treatments per day using The Vest® Airway Clearance System (Hill-Rom, Inc., St Paul, MN). The Vest® system was set to a frequency of 10–12 Hz and a pressure of 2–3 (arbitrary unit). Physiological parameters were measured before, during, and after treatment. Patients were free to refuse or terminate a treatment early for any reason. Results No chest tubes, lines, drains or catheters were dislodged as a result of treatment. One patient with flail chest had a chest tube placed after one treatment due to increasing serous effusion. No treatments were missed and continued without further incident. Post treatment survey showed 76% experienced mild or no pain and more productive cough. Thirty days after discharge there were no deaths or hospital re-admissions. Conclusion This study suggests that HFCWO treatment is safe for trauma patients with lung and chest wall injuries. These findings support further work to demonstrate the airway clearance benefits of HFCWO treatment. PMID:18837992

  8. Readability of Patient Education Materials on the American Association for Surgery of Trauma Website

    PubMed Central

    Eltorai, Adam E. M.; Ghanian, Soha; Adams, Charles A.; Born, Christopher T.; Daniels, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because the quality of information on the Internet is of dubious worth, many patients seek out reliable expert sources. As per the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommendations, readability of patient education materials should not exceed a sixth-grade reading level. The average reading skill of U.S. adults is at the eighth-grade level. Objectives: This study evaluates whether a recognized source of expert content, the American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) website’s patient education materials, recommended readability guidelines for medical information. Materials and Methods: Using the well-validated Flesch-Kincaid formula to analyze grade level readability, we evaluated the readability of all 16 of the publicly-accessible entries within the patient education section of the AAST website. Results: Mean ± SD grade level readability was 10.9 ± 1.8 for all the articles. All but one of the articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level. Readability of the articles exceeded the maximum recommended level by an average of 4.9 grade levels (95% confidence interval, 4.0-5.8; P < 0.0001). Readability of the articles exceeded the eighth-grade level by an average of 2.9 grade levels (95% confidence interval, 2.0-3.8; P < 0.0001). Only one of the articles had a readability score below the eighth-grade level. Conclusions: The AAST’s online patient education materials may be of limited utility to many patients, as the readability of the information exceeds the average reading skill level of adults in the U.S. Lack of patient comprehension represents a discrepancy that is not in accordance with the goals of the AAST’s objectives for its patient education efforts. PMID:25147778

  9. Video-assisted thoracoscopic