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Sample records for invasoras melanoides tuberculata

  1. Toxicity of Metals to a Freshwater Snail, Melanoides tuberculata

    PubMed Central

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Nadzifah, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Adult freshwater snails Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropod, Thiaridae) were exposed for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT50) and concentrations (LC50) were calculated. LT50 and LC50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. The LC50 values for the 96-hour exposures to Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, and Mn were 0.14, 1.49, 3.90, 6.82, 8.46, 8.49, 68.23, and 45.59?mg?L?1, respectively. Cu was the most toxic metal to M. tuberculata, followed by Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Al (Cu > Cd > Zn > Pb > Ni > Fe > Mn > Al). Metals bioconcentration in M. tuberculata increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cu has the highest accumulation (concentration factor) in the soft tissues. A comparison of LC50 values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater gastropods reveals that M. tuberculata is equally sensitive to metals. PMID:22666089

  2. TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE OF RED-RIMMED MELANIA MELANOIDES TUBERCUATA, (GASTROPODA: PROSOBRANCHIA: THIARIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata is an exotic aquatic snail of the family Thiaridae that is spreading across the southern United States and in geothermal waters in several midwestern and northwestern states. In addition to its potential to displace native mollusks it is known to harbor...

  3. THERMAL LIMITS OF RED-RIMMED MELANIA MELANOIDES TUBERCUATA, (GASTROPODA: PROSOBRANCHIA: THIARIDAE): IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTROL AND DISTRIBUTION OF A SNAIL THAT VECTORS A GILL TREMATODE CAUSING SERIOUS INFECTIONS IN FISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata, an exotic aquatic snail of the family Thiaridae, is spreading across the southern United States and through geothermal waters in several midwestern and northwestern states. There is little specific information on the temperature tolerance of M. tubercu...

  4. Cannibalism and food availability in the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C.; Jaramillo, E.; Contreras, H.; Acuña, K.

    2010-10-01

    The availability of limiting resources can potentially influence the intensity of intra- and interspecific interactions. Stranded macroalgae exported from adjacent coastal ecosystems supports abundant intertidal consumers on oceanic sandy beaches, including talitrid amphipods, which can be one of the numerically dominant invertebrates of the upper shore. The allochthonous nature of this donor-controlled food subsidy and its unpredictable delivery by waves and currents, results in highly variable and potentially limiting resource availability for these consumers. In Chile, adults of the talitrid amphipod, Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet, can influence the survival of juvenile conspecifics through cannibalism, a type of intraspecific interaction we hypothesized could be affected by the availability of macroalgal resources. We experimentally investigated the potential influence of food availability on cannibalism between age classes in O. tuberculata in laboratory mesocosms. Juvenile mortality in presence of conspecific adults was significantly higher when juveniles and adults were maintained without food. However, adult mortality was neither density dependent or food dependent. Further, juveniles did not influence adult mortality, either with or without food. The strong effect of food limitation on juvenile mortality from cannibalism by adults of O. tuberculata found here, supports our hypothesis that food resource availability on beaches can affect this intraspecific interactions. In addition these results provide evidence of the potential importance of biological interaction in the population dynamics of intertidal consumers on oceanic sandy beaches.

  5. Carnosine protects against the neurotoxic effects of a serotonin-derived melanoid.

    PubMed

    Brownrigg, Tanner D; Theisen, Christopher S; Fibuch, Eugene E; Seidler, Norbert W

    2011-03-01

    Anesthesia-related postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) leads to morbidity in the elderly. Lipid peroxidative byproducts (i.e. acrolein) accumulate in aging and may play a role. Sevoflurane, an inhaled anesthetic, sequesters acrolein and enhances the formation of a serotonin-derived melanoid (SDM). SDM may be a biologically relevant polymeric melanoid that we previously showed exhibits redox activity and disrupts lipid bilayers. In this study, we examined the toxicity of SDM in cell culture and looked at protection using L-carnosine. SDM's toxic effects were tested on neuronal-like SH-SY5Y cells, causing an exponential decrease in viability, while human dermal fibroblasts were completely resistant to the toxic effects. SDM brought about morphological changes to differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, particularly to neuronal processes. Co- but not pre-treatment with L-carnosine protected differentiated SH-SY5Y cells exposed to SDM. Our mechanism suggests focal sevoflurane-induced sequestration of age-related acrolein leading to SDM synthesis and neuronal impairment, which is prevented by L-carnosine. PMID:21153702

  6. Characterization of the adhesive areas in Sepia tuberculata (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    von Byern, Janek; Scott, Robyn; Griffiths, Charles; Micossi, Andrea; Grunwald, Ingo; Cyran, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Adhesion in cephalopods is either mechanical, involving a reduced-pressure system of the arm and tentacle suckers, or is chemically mediated by special adhesive gland structures (as proposed for Euprymna, Idiosepius, and Nautilus). Four species of Sepia (S. typica, S. papillata, S. pulchra, and S. tuberculata) possess grooved structures on the ventral mantle surface and on the fourth arm pair, which are used to attach mechanically to the substratum. Because these areas are often partly covered with sand or debris, it has been hypothesized that chemical substances were involved in this attachment process. This study provides a histochemical and ultrastructural description of the glandular epithelium in the adhesive area of Sepia tuberculata. Two specific glandular cells (Type 1 and Type 2) are present in the epithelium, which differ clearly in their granule size and cellular structure. The aggregation of both cell types and their simultaneous secretion suggest that the secretions of both cell types work synergistically providing a two-component adhesive system which supports the primarily mechanical sucker adhesion by making the arm surface sticky. PMID:21688295

  7. Red-Rimmed Melania (Melanoides tuberculatus) - A Snail in Biscayne National Park, Florida - Harmful Invader or Just a Nuisance?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wingard, G. Lynn; Murray, James B.; Schill, W. Bane; Phillips, Emily C.

    2008-01-01

    Potentially harmful to humans and other animals, the red-rimmed melania snail (Melanoides tuberculatus; family Thiaridae) was discovered in Biscayne National Park, Florida, in 2003 by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers. The discovery raised concerns for park managers because this aquatic non-native snail is present in significant numbers in areas frequently used by park visitors and poses a risk of exposure. Researchers are addressing questions such as: Is this species a danger to human health? How widespread is it within the park? What factors control the distribution of the species? Is its presence a threat to native animals?

  8. The effect of chemical treatments on Melanoides tuberculatus, and exotic snails that serve as vectors of trematodes to fish and other species in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus is an exotic aquatic snail that serves as a vector of several trematodes and may displace native mollusks. It has been documented in 16 states in the USA, and is spreading. The snail has an operculum that can protect it from desiccation and it can remain...

  9. Use of ice water and salt treatments to eliminate an exotic snail, red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus, from small immersible fisheries equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ice water and salt treatments were evaluated for disinfection of fisheries equipment contaminated with a non-indigenous tropical snail, the red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus. The snail can displace native snails and can transmit trematodes directly to fishes and indirectly to other animals, i...

  10. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Paradynomene tuberculata Sakai, 1963 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Dynomenidae): Synapomorphies with dromiid sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, B. G. M.; Guinot, D.; de Forges, B. Richer

    1993-10-01

    The dynomenid spermatozoon, exemplified here by Paradynomene tuberculata, resembles the spermatozoa of the Dromiidae, Homolidae and lyreidine raninoids and differs markedly from those of other crabs (the heterotreme, thoracotremes, raninines and raninoidines) in the depressed, discoidal form of the acrosome and the capitate form of the perforatorium. Four or five apparent dynomenid—dromiid sperm synapomorphies are recognizable. (1) Dynomenids ( P. tuberculata) and dromiids differ from homolids and lyreidines in the greater depression of the acrosome (ratio of length to width=0.3); (2) the capitate head of the perforatorium is bilaterally prolonged in P. tuberculata as in dromiids though symmetrical in homolids; (3) dynomenid and dromiid sperm lack the—albeit variably developed—posterior median process of the nucleus seen in homolids, anomurans, raninoids and lower heterotremes; (4) P. tuberculata, like dromiids and less distinctly homolids, has an apical protuberance of subopercular material through the opercular perforation, unknown in other crabs, being distinct from the apical button of thoracotreme sperm; (5) a less certain synapomorphy is the anterolateral electron-pale peripheral zone of the acrosome. These synapomorphies endorse a sister-group relationship of dynomenids and dromiids, P. tuberculata sperm differs notably from the sperm of dromiids in the more complex zonation of the acrosome. The perforatorium lacks the radial rays (“spiked wheel”) of homolid sperm and does not show the “amoeboid” form seen in lyreidines. Absence of internal corrugations of the perforatorial chamber is a major difference from all examined raninids. Centrioles are only very tentatively identifiable. Nuclear arms are absent in glutaraldehyde fixed spermatozoa of P. tuberculata and have not been observed in the dromiid Petalomera lateralis but are present as three small radial vertices in the dromiid Dromidiopsis edwardsi and in homolids. P. tuberculata resembles Petalomera lateralis in the large size of the sperm nucleus relative to the acrosome compared with D. edwardsi and homolids.

  11. Terrestrial locomotion of the New Zealand short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata and the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Daniel K; Parsons, Stuart; Schutt, William A; Carter, Gerald G; Hermanson, John W

    2006-05-01

    Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move terrestrially the way other quadrupeds do, or whether they possess altogether different patterns of movement on the ground than are observed in quadrupeds that do not fly. Using high-speed video analyses of bats moving on a treadmill, we observed that both species possess symmetrical lateral-sequence gaits similar to the kinematically defined walks of a broad range of tetrapods. At high speeds, D. rotundus use an asymmetrical bounding gait that appears to converge on the bounding gaits of small terrestrial mammals, but with the roles of the forelimbs and hindlimbs reversed. This gait was not performed by M. tuberculata. Many animals that possess a single kinematic gait shift with increasing speed from a kinetic walk (where kinetic and potential energy of the centre of mass oscillate out of phase from each other) to a kinetic run (where they oscillate in phase). To determine whether the single kinematic gait of M. tuberculata meets the kinetic definition of a walk, a run, or a gait that functions as a walk at low speed and a run at high speed, we used force plates and high-speed video recordings to characterize the energetics of the centre of mass in that species. Although oscillations in kinetic and potential energy were of similar magnitudes, M. tuberculata did not use pendulum-like exchanges of energy between them to the extent that many other quadrupedal animals do, and did not transition from a kinetic walk to kinetic run with increasing speed. The gait of M. tuberculata is kinematically a walk, but kinetically run-like at all speeds. PMID:16621953

  12. Rhogocytes (pore cells) as the site of hemocyanin biosynthesis in the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, U; Keller, H; Gebauer, W; Markl, J

    2001-06-01

    Rhogocytes (pore cells) are specific molluscan cell types that are scattered throughout the connective tissues of diverse body parts. We have identified rhogocytes in large numbers in tissue taken from mantle, foot and midgut gland of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Vetigastropoda). Within cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, particles are visible that resemble, in shape and size, hemocyanin molecules, the respiratory protein of many molluscs. Immunohistochemical experiments using hemocyanin-specific antibodies demonstrated that these cells contain hemocyanin. In situ hybridization with a cDNA probe specific for Haliotis hemocyanin showed that hemocyanin-specific mRNA is present in rhogocytes, which confirmed that they are the site of hemocyanin biosynthesis in this gastropod. A possible path of hemocyanin release into the hemolymph is discussed. Also in the vetigastropod Megathura crenulata, many rhogocytes could be detected. However, they lacked hemocyanin molecules which, together with published data, indicates a seasonal expression of hemocyanin in this animal. PMID:11456421

  13. Characterization of abalone Haliotis tuberculata-Vibrio harveyi interactions in gill primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Delphine; Cudennec, Benoit; Huchette, Sylvain; Djediat, Chakib; Renault, Tristan; Paillard, Christine; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie

    2013-10-01

    The decline of European abalone Haliotis tuberculata populations has been associated with various pathogens including bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Following the summer mortality outbreaks reported in France between 1998 and 2000, Vibrio harveyi strains were isolated from moribund abalones, allowing in vivo and in vitro studies on the interactions between abalone H. tuberculata and V. harveyi. This work reports the development of primary cell cultures from abalone gill tissue, a target tissue for bacterial colonisation, and their use for in vitro study of host cell-V. harveyi interactions. Gill cells originated from four-day-old explant primary cultures were successfully sub-cultured in multi-well plates and maintained in vitro for up to 24 days. Cytological parameters, cell morphology and viability were monitored over time using flow cytometry analysis and semi-quantitative assay (XTT). Then, gill cell cultures were used to investigate in vitro the interactions with V. harveyi. The effects of two bacterial strains were evaluated on gill cells: a pathogenic bacterial strain ORM4 which is responsible for abalone mortalities and LMG7890 which is a non-pathogenic strain. Cellular responses of gill cells exposed to increasing concentrations of bacteria were evaluated by measuring mitochondrial activity (XTT assay) and phenoloxidase activity, an enzyme which is strongly involved in immune response. The ability of gill cells to phagocyte GFP-tagged V. harveyi was evaluated by flow cytometry and gill cells-V. harveyi interactions were characterized using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. During phagocytosis process we evidenced that V. harveyi bacteria induced significant changes in gill cells metabolism and immune response. Together, the results showed that primary cell cultures from abalone gills are suitable for in vitro study of host-pathogen interactions, providing complementary assays to in vivo experiments. PMID:23756730

  14. The use of cold water to kill the exotic snail, red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus, a vector of the fish gill trematode Centrocestus formosanus, caught in dip nets and small seines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A non-indigenous tropical snail, the red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus, has become established and is spreading in the United States. This parthenogenic snail can brood young internally, has the potential to displace native snail populations, and can transmit trematodes directly to fish and i...

  15. Extract from the Zooxanthellate Jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata Modulates Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Human Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Piraino, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean “fried egg jellyfish” Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed. PMID:23697954

  16. Ascorbic acid and salicylic acid mitigate nacl stress in Caralluma tuberculata Calli.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Riaz Ur; Zia, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Lu, Gang; Chaudhary, Muhammad Fayyaz

    2014-06-01

    Plants exposed to salt stress undergo biochemical and morphological changes even at cellular level. Such changes also include activation of antioxidant enzymes to scavenge reactive oxygen species, while morphological changes are determined as deformation of membranes and organelles. Present investigation substantiates this phenomenon for Caralluma tuberculata calli when exposed to NaCl stress at different concentrations. Elevated levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) in NaCl-stressed calli dwindled upon application of non-enzymatic antioxidants; ascorbic acid (AA) and salicylic acid (SA). Many fold increased enzymes concentrations trimmed down even below as present in the control calli. Electron microscopic images accentuated several cellular changes upon NaCl stress such as plasmolysed plasma membrane, disruption of nuclear membrane, increased numbers of nucleoli, alteration in shape and lamellar membrane system in plastid, and increased number of plastoglobuli. The cells retrieved their normal structure upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants. The results of the present experiments conclude that NaCl aggravate oxidative molecules that eventually alleviate antioxidant enzymatic system. Furthermore, the salt stress knocked down by applying ascorbic acid and salicylic acid manifested by normal enzyme level and restoration of cellular structure. PMID:24744157

  17. First data on trace elements in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) from southern Italy: Safety issues.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the concentrations of 10 metals in wild specimens of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata (Ht) (Linnaeus, 1758) from three sites along the southern Italian coast: Gulf of Catania (CT), the Northern Coast of Messina (ME) and the harbor of Villa San Giovanni (VSG). The species is commonly found in the area and has significant commercial value. Additionally, it is long lived, thus suitable as bioindicator of the environmental monitoring. The potential human health risks due to consumption of Ht have been assessed by estimated average daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) of metals, respectively. In particular arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) were quantified in the edible tissue of specimens by acid digestion of the samples and ICP-MS determination. The highest concentrations were found in CT sample area for most metals analyzed. Mean values for Pb, Cd and Hg were lower than the maximum levels (MLs) set for bivalve mollusks by Regulation (CE) no. 1881/2006 in all sites, and average intake values below the risk levels for human consumption. PMID:25912965

  18. Metal bioaccumulation pattern by Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; García, Gregorio; García-Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems highly vulnerable to human impacts because of their situation between terrestrial and marine environment. Mar Menor coastal lagoon is one of the largest lagoons of the Mediterranean Sea, placed in SE Spain and subjected to major human impacts, in particular the mining of metal sulphides. As a consequence, metal concentration in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, the present study has assessed the ability of Cotylorhiza tuberculata for bioaccumulating metals from sea water. Up to 65 individuals were sampled at 8 different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentration values for different elements considered were moderate (Pb: 0.04-29.50 ppm, Zn: 2.27-93.44 ppm, Cd: 0-0.67 ppm, As: 0.56-130.31 ppm) by dry weight of the jellyfish tissues (bell and oral arms combined), bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content because of their potential environmental and health implications. PMID:26250818

  19. Ultrastructure, chemistry and mineralogy of the growing shell of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Badou, Aïcha; Gaume, Béatrice; Berland, Sophie; Helléouet, Marie-Noëlle; Milet, Christian; Huchette, Sylvain

    2010-09-01

    An integrated study of shell formation was initiated covering the entire life cycle of the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. Shell microstructure, chemistry and mineralogy were investigated by polarized microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. SEM images of trochophore and veliger larvae showed the different stages of shell growth from the initial shell field to the late calcified protoconch. Cross-sections revealed the microstructural arrangement of biominerals, showing the progressive mineralization of the organic protoconch prior to metamorphosis. To gain more information on mineralogical composition, EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy were performed along the development stages. The results demonstrated that early protoconch was mostly composed of amorphous calcium carbonate, while veliger stages showed a gradually crystallization under the form of aragonite. Post-metamorphic shell contained two distinct parts, the original protoconch supporting the new juvenile shell characterized by a marked sculptural pattern. The shells from post-larval and juvenile abalones were essentially made of aragonite. PMID:20553887

  20. The introduced snail Melanoides Tuberculatus (Muller, 1774) (Mollusca: Thiaridae) in aquatic ecosystems of the Brazilian semiarid Northeast (Piranhas-Assu River basin, State of Rio Grande do Norte).

    PubMed

    Santos, C M; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

    2010-02-01

    Records of the gastropod Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774), family Thiaridae, in the Piranhas-Assu River basin in Rio Grande do Norte reveal the dispersal of this native Southeast Asian and East African species into aquatic environments of the Brazilian semiarid region, including artificial environments (reservoirs) and lotic systems. The eutrophic conditions of the local waterbodies appear to favor the present situation, where this invasive species reaches extremely high densities, sometimes over 10,000 ind x m(-2) as in Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves Reservoir. These observations indicate the immediate need for new studies on the spatial distribution of the species and its potential impact on the biodiversity and water quality of the waterbodies of the semiarid region of the state. Implantation of regular and systematic monitoring of the aquatic resources of the region is urgently required. PMID:20231954

  1. Biosynthesis and Functions of a Melanoid Pigment Produced by Species of the Sporothrix Complex in the Presence of l-Tyrosine

    PubMed Central

    Frases, Susana; Araújo, Glauber de Sousa; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Gerfen, Gary J.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2012-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii is the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, the main subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America. Melanin is an important virulence factor of S. schenckii, which produces dihydroxynaphthalene melanin (DHN-melanin) in conidia and yeast cells. Additionally, l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) can be used to enhance melanin production on these structures as well as on hyphae. Some fungi are able to synthesize another type of melanoid pigment, called pyomelanin, as a result of tyrosine catabolism. Since there is no information about tyrosine catabolism in Sporothrix spp., we cultured 73 strains, including representatives of newly described Sporothrix species of medical interest, such as S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, and S. globosa, in minimal medium with tyrosine. All strains but one were able to produce a melanoid pigment with a negative charge in this culture medium after 9 days of incubation. An S. schenckii DHN-melanin mutant strain also produced pigment in the presence of tyrosine. Further analysis showed that pigment production occurs in both the filamentous and yeast phases, and pigment accumulates in supernatants during stationary-phase growth. Notably, sulcotrione inhibits pigment production. Melanin ghosts of wild-type and DHN mutant strains obtained when the fungus was cultured with tyrosine were similar to melanin ghosts yielded in the absence of the precursor, indicating that this melanin does not polymerize on the fungal cell wall. However, pyomelanin-producing fungal cells were more resistant to nitrogen-derived oxidants and to UV light. In conclusion, at least three species of the Sporothrix complex are able to produce pyomelanin in the presence of tyrosine, and this pigment might be involved in virulence. PMID:23042177

  2. Trichostrongylina parasites of Dasypodidae (Xenarthra) from Argentina; a new species of Macielia (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae) in Chaetophractus vellerosus and redescription of Trichohelix tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2013-10-01

    Macielia jorgei n. sp. is described from Chaetophractus vellerosus from La Rioja, Argentina. Also Trichohelix tuberculata is redescribed in detail. The new species is characterized by parasitizing the small intestine, possessing a bursal membrane and telamon, having complex and sclerotized spicules distally divided into 2 processes, a simple, poorly sclerotized gubernaculum, and synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 12 cuticular ridges. This is the second report of a species of Macielia in Argentina. The synlophe of Trichohelix tuberculata is asymmetric and is characterized by 3 ventral ridges, oriented to the left. The size of these ridges decreases until they disappear at midbody. PMID:23617773

  3. Intra-plant differences in seaweed nutritional quality and chemical defenses: Importance for the feeding behavior of the intertidal amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Karin; Navarro, Jorge M.; Gómez, Iván

    2011-10-01

    As a result of their morphological complexity, large macroalgae show intra-thallus variations in their nutritional composition and secondary metabolite content, which influences the trophic ecology of herbivorous invertebrates, and ultimately their fitness. In this study, we evaluated for the first time the variability in nutritional quality (protein content, carbohydrates, lipids, and total organic matter), secondary metabolites (phlorotannins), and structure (shape and toughness) between blades and stipes of the macroalgae Durvillaea Antarctica. Specifically, we looked at their effect on feeding preference, rate of consumption, absorption efficiency, and growth rate of the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata, one of the most abundant organisms on Chilean sandy beaches. Proteins, carbohydrates, total organic matter and phlorotannin contents were significantly higher in blades than in stipes. Preference experiments revealed that the amphipods preferred blades when fresh pieces of blades and stipes were offered at the same time. Similar results were found when artificial food (in which structures of both parts of the alga were standardized) was offered, suggesting that shape and toughness of the two different parts of the alga did not influence preference patterns of O. tuberculata. Absorption efficiency of O. tuberculata was higher on blades compared to stipes. When the amphipods were kept with each of the algal parts separately (i.e. no choice), they consumed a significantly higher amount of stipe, which suggests that O. tuberculata used food quantity to compensate for the lower nutritional quality of stipes. The higher nutritional values of blades compared to stipes appears to explain observed preference patterns by O. tuberculata. Phlorotannin content did not appear to inhibit blade consumption, suggesting that the nutritional quality of the food could be more important than chemical defense in determining food choice in O. tuberculata. Growth did not differ between the amphipods maintained with either blades or stipes (i.e. no choice), which is consistent with the hypothesis of compensatory feeding. To conclude, O. tuberculata can actively select specific parts of an alga and this selection appears to be based on nutritional quality. The capacity for using different feeding strategies allow O. tuberculata, in some cases, to successfully exploit food types with different nutritional qualities.

  4. Does a short-term exposure to cadmium chloride affects haemocyte parameters of the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata?

    PubMed

    Ladhar-Chaabouni, Rim; Machreki-Ajmi, Monia; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a model based on primary cultured haemocytes from the gastropod mollusc Haliotis tuberculata was established to investigate the effects of cadmium chloride in vitro. Cells were exposed for 24 h to CdCl2 concentrations of 0, 1 and 100 ?g ml(-1). The effects of cadmium on haemocyte parameters were investigated using morphological, spectrophotometric and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that cadmium has no significant effects on cell viability and phagocytotic activity under the tested conditions. However, haemocytes became more rounded after cadmium exposure, which could explain the significant decrease of cell area beginning at 1 ?g ml(-1) of CdCl2. PMID:25131679

  5. Nontarget mortality of New Zealand lesser short-tailed bats (Mystacina tuberculata) caused by diphacinone.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Gillian C; Gartrell, Brett D

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary poisoning of nontarget wildlife with second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides has led to restrictions on their use and to increased use of first-generation anticoagulants, including diphacinone. Although first-generation anticoagulants are less potent and less persistent than second-generation compounds, their use is not without risks to nontarget species. We report the first known mortalities of threatened New Zealand lesser short-tailed bats (Mystacina tuberculata) caused by diphacinone intoxication. The mortalities occurred during a rodent control operation in Pureora Forest Park, New Zealand, during the 2008-09 Austral summer. We observed 115 lesser short-tailed bat deaths between 9 January and 6 February 2009, and it is likely that many deaths were undetected. At necropsy, adult bats showed gross and histologic hemorrhages consistent with coagulopathy, and diphacinone residues were confirmed in 10 of 12 liver samples tested. The cause of mortality of pups was diagnosed as a combination of the effects of diphacinone toxicity, exposure, and starvation. Diphacinone was also detected in two of 11 milk samples extracted from the stomachs of dead pups. Eight adults and 20 pups were moribund when found. Two adults and five pups survived to admission to a veterinary hospital. Three pups responded to treatment and were released at the roost site on 17 March 2009. The route of diphacinone ingestion by adult bats is uncertain. Direct consumption of toxic bait or consumption of poisoned arthropod prey could have occurred. We suggest that the omnivorous diet and terrestrial feeding habits of lesser short-tailed bats make them susceptible to poisoning with the bait matrix and the method of bait delivery used. We recommend the use of alternative vertebrate pesticides, bait matrices, and delivery methods in bat habitat. PMID:25375946

  6. Variable feeding behavior in Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet 1849): Exploring the relative importance of macroalgal traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Karin; Navarro, Jorge M.; Gómez, Iván; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Quijón, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    The feeding behavior of algal consumers inhabiting sandy beaches and the consequences of this behavior on their performance are poorly understood. Food quality has been shown to influence the food preference of algal consumers. However, food preference can often be altered or subordinated to habitat choice. This study analyzes the feeding behavior (preference and consumption rate), absorption efficiency and growth rates of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet, 1849) in relation to the nutritional characteristics of two of the most common macroalgae stranded in the Chilean north-central region. Our experiments show that these amphipods prefer Macrocystis integrifolia over Lessonia nigrescens when presented with fresh fragments of both algae simultaneously. However, this preference did not match the performance of the amphipods when reared on diets of a single algal species: in that growth rates were not different. These results suggest that M. integrifolia is not a superior food item compared to L. nigrescens. The lower content of proteins and total organic matter found in M. integrifolia supports this interpretation. The preference of the amphipods for L. nigrescens over M. integrifolia when dry powdered algae of each species were provided (artificial food), suggested that some aspect of the physical structure of these two algae determined food preference. When the amphipods were maintained with each of the algal species in no choice experiments, they consumed 2 times more M. integrifolia, but showed higher absorption efficiency on L. nigrescens. These results suggest that food quantity and not absorption efficiency was used to compensate for the lower nutritional quality of M. integrifolia. The feeding behavior documented in this study differs significantly from that observed in populations of the same species inhabiting southern Chile, cautioning against generalizing results obtained even within a single species. Our results suggest that physical features rather than chemical characteristics of the food drive feeding preferences, including the potential (indirect) roles played by the fronds of these seaweeds as refuges against competition and desiccation.

  7. Nutritional value of the marine invertebrates Anemonia viridis and Haliothis tuberculata and effects on serum cholesterol concentration in ratsopen star

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, M; Caride, B; Lamas, A; Taboada, C

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional value of diets with protein from two marine species (Haliotis tuberculata and Anemonia viridis) as compared to a high-quality protein reference based on casein or casein supplemented with olive oil. We also investigated the effects of these diets on serum lipid levels. Male rats were fed these diets for 23 days. Protein quality indicators (true digestibility, net protein utilization, biological value) were similar to those obtained for casein-based feeds except for lower true digestibility and net protein utilization values for the Anemonia viridis feed. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the groups fed marine species or casein supplemented with olive oil than in the casein group. Total-cholesterol level was higher in the group fed Haliotis tuberculata fed than in the other groups. These results suggest that these marine species are a good protein source, and that they may have positive effects on serum cholesterol level. PMID:11834211

  8. Assessment of cytotoxic and immunomodulatory properties of four antidepressants on primary cultures of abalone hemocytes (Haliotis tuberculata).

    PubMed

    Minguez, Laetitia; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Costil, Katherine; Bureau, Ronan; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-08-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds like antidepressants found in surface waters raise concerns due to their potential toxicity on non-target aquatic organisms. This study aimed at investigating the in vitro cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory properties of four common antidepressants, namely Amitriptyline, Clomipramine, Citalopram and Paroxetine, on primary cultures of abalone hemocytes (Haliotis tuberculata), after 48 h-exposure. Effects on immunocompetence (phagocytosis, levels of reactive oxygen species, esterase activity and lysosomal membrane destabilization) were assessed. Results obtained by MTT assays revealed that acute toxicity is unlikely to occur in the environment since the LC50s of the four antidepressants are at the mg/L level. The different immunological endpoints displayed a biphasic response, with an increase at the lowest concentration (i.e. 1 μg/L) followed by a decrease at higher concentrations. Overall, Amitriptyline and Clomipramine, the two tricyclic antidepressants, had higher immunomodulatory capacities than the two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Citalopram and Paroxetine. Amitriptyline was the most potent and Citalopram the least potent drug in altering immune function in H. tuberculata. PMID:24210974

  9. Growth of the European abalone ( Haliotis tuberculata L.) in situ: Seasonality and ageing using stable oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, Sabine; Huchette, Sylvain; Clavier, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    The ormer, Haliotis tuberculata is the only European abalone species commercially exploited. The determination of growth and age in the wild is an important tool for fisheries and aquaculture management. However, the ageing technique used in the past in the field is unreliable. The stable oxygen isotope composition ( 18O/ 16O) of the shell depends on the temperature and oxygen isotope composition of the ambient sea water. The stable oxygen isotope technique, developed to study paleoclimatological changes in shellfish, was applied to three H. tuberculata specimens collected in north-west Brittany. For the specimens collected, the oxygen isotope ratios of the shell reflected the seasonal cycle in the temperature. From winter-to-winter cycles, estimates of the age and the annual growth increment, ranging from 13 to 55 mm per year were obtained. This study shows that stable oxygen isotopes can be a reliable tool for ageing and growth studies of this abalone species in the wild, and for validating other estimates.

  10. Habitat preference of freshwater snails in relation to environmental factors and the presence of the competitor snail Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774).

    PubMed

    Giovanelli, Alexandre; da Silva, Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres Coelho; Leal, Geórgia Borges Eccard; Baptista, Darcílio Fernandes

    2005-04-01

    Our objective is to evaluate the habitat preference of freshwater snails in relation to environmental factors and the presence of the competitor snail Melanoides tuberculatus. In the first phase, snails was collected at 12 sites. This sampling sites presented a degree of organic input. In the second phase 33 sampling sites were chosen, covering a variety of lotic and lentic environments. The snail species found at Guapimirim, state of Rio de Janeiro, displayed a marked habitat preference, specially in relation to the physical characteristics of each environment. Other limiting factors for snail distribution at the studied lotic environments were the water current velocity and the amount of organic matter, mainly to Physa marmorata, M. tuberculatus, and Biomphalaria tenagophila. The absence of interactions between M. tuberculatus and another snails could be associated to the distinct spatial distribution of those species and the instability of habitats. This later factor may favor the coexistence of M. tuberculatus with B. glabrata by reduction of population density. In areas of schistosomiasis transmission some habitat modification may add to the instability of the environment, which would make room for the coexistence of M. tuberculatus and Biomphalaria spp. In this way, some of the usual measures for the control of snail hosts would prevent the extinction of populations of Biomphalaria spp. by M. tuberculatus in particular habitats. PMID:16021304

  11. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition blocks skeletogenesis and echinochrome production in Paracentrotus lividus and Heliocidaris tuberculata embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Zito, Francesca; Koop, Demian; Byrne, Maria; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-09-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of widely distributed metalloenzymes, involved in diverse physiological processes. These enzymes catalyse the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide to protons and bicarbonate. At least 19 genes encoding for CAs have been identified in the sea urchin genome, with one of these localized to the skeletogenic mesoderm (primary mesenchyme cells, PMCs). We investigated the effects of a specific inhibitor of CA, acetazolamide (AZ), on development of two sea urchin species with contrasting investment in skeleton production, Paracentrotus lividus and Heliocidaris tuberculata, to determine the role of CA on PMC differentiation, skeletogenesis and on non-skeletogenic mesodermal (NSM) cells. Embryos were cultured in the presence of AZ from the blastula stage prior to skeleton formation and development to the larval stage was monitored. At the dose of 8 mmol/L AZ, 98% and 90% of P. lividus and H. tuberculata embryos lacked skeleton, respectively. Nevertheless, an almost normal PMC differentiation was indicated by the expression of msp130, a PMC-specific marker. Strikingly, the AZ-treated embryos also lacked the echinochrome pigment produced by the pigment cells, a subpopulation of NSM cells with immune activities within the larva. Conversely, all ectoderm and endoderm derivatives and other subpopulations of mesoderm developed normally. The inhibitory effects of AZ were completely reversed after removal of the inhibitor from the medium. Our data, together with new information concerning the involvement of CA on skeleton formation, provide evidence for the first time of a possible role of the CAs in larval immune pigment cells. PMID:26108341

  12. Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana, Gundlachia radiata Helisoma (= Planorbella) trivolvis, Melanoides tuberculata, Neritina punctulata, and Physa marmorata. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as Gundlachia radiata and Hel...

  13. Discovery of novel virus sequences in an isolated and threatened bat species, the New Zealand lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Moore, Nicole E.; Murray, Zak L.; McInnes, Kate; White, Daniel J.; Tompkins, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Bats harbour a diverse array of viruses, including significant human pathogens. Extensive metagenomic studies of material from bats, in particular guano, have revealed a large number of novel or divergent viral taxa that were previously unknown. New Zealand has only two extant indigenous terrestrial mammals, which are both bats, Mystacina tuberculata (the lesser short-tailed bat) and Chalinolobus tuberculatus (the long-tailed bat). Until the human introduction of exotic mammals, these species had been isolated from all other terrestrial mammals for over 1 million years (potentially over 16 million years for M. tuberculata). Four bat guano samples were collected from M. tuberculata roosts on the isolated offshore island of Whenua hou (Codfish Island) in New Zealand. Metagenomic analysis revealed that this species still hosts a plethora of divergent viruses. Whilst the majority of viruses detected were likely to be of dietary origin, some putative vertebrate virus sequences were identified. Papillomavirus, polyomavirus, calicivirus and hepevirus were found in the metagenomic data and subsequently confirmed using independent PCR assays and sequencing. The new hepevirus and calicivirus sequences may represent new genera within these viral families. Our findings may provide an insight into the origins of viral families, given their detection in an isolated host species. PMID:25900137

  14. Discovery of novel virus sequences in an isolated and threatened bat species, the New Zealand lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Moore, Nicole E; Murray, Zak L; McInnes, Kate; White, Daniel J; Tompkins, Daniel M; Hall, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    Bats harbour a diverse array of viruses, including significant human pathogens. Extensive metagenomic studies of material from bats, in particular guano, have revealed a large number of novel or divergent viral taxa that were previously unknown. New Zealand has only two extant indigenous terrestrial mammals, which are both bats, Mystacina tuberculata (the lesser short-tailed bat) and Chalinolobus tuberculatus (the long-tailed bat). Until the human introduction of exotic mammals, these species had been isolated from all other terrestrial mammals for over 1 million years (potentially over 16 million years for M. tuberculata). Four bat guano samples were collected from M. tuberculata roosts on the isolated offshore island of Whenua hou (Codfish Island) in New Zealand. Metagenomic analysis revealed that this species still hosts a plethora of divergent viruses. Whilst the majority of viruses detected were likely to be of dietary origin, some putative vertebrate virus sequences were identified. Papillomavirus, polyomavirus, calicivirus and hepevirus were found in the metagenomic data and subsequently confirmed using independent PCR assays and sequencing. The new hepevirus and calicivirus sequences may represent new genera within these viral families. Our findings may provide an insight into the origins of viral families, given their detection in an isolated host species. PMID:25900137

  15. Identification of two carbonic anhydrases in the mantle of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda, Haliotidae): phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    LE Roy, Nathalie; Marie, Benjamin; Gaume, Béatrice; Guichard, Nathalie; Delgado, Sidney; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Sire, Jean-Yves; Marin, Frédéric

    2012-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) represent a diversified family of metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide. They are involved in a wide range of functions, among which is the formation of CaCO(3) skeletons in metazoans. In the shell-forming mantle tissues of mollusks, the location of the CA catalytic activity is elusive and gives birth to contradicting views. In the present paper, using the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a key model gastropod in biomineralization studies, we identified and characterized two CAs (htCA1 and htCA2) that are specific of the shell-forming mantle tissue. We analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. Combining various approaches, including proteomics, activity tests, and in silico analyses, we showed that htCA1 is secreted but is not incorporated in the organic matrix of the abalone shell and that htCA2 is transmembrane. Together with previous studies dealing with molluskan CAs, our findings suggest two possible modes of action for shell mineralization: the first mode applies to, for example, the bivalves Unio pictorum and Pinctada fucata, and involves a true CA activity in their shell matrix; the second mode corresponds to, for example, the European abalone, and does not include CA activity in the shell matrix. Our work provides new insight on the diversity of the extracellular macromolecular tools used for shell biomineralization study in mollusks. PMID:22711568

  16. Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Haliotidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bravo Portela, I.; Martinez-Zorzano, V. S.; Molist- Perez, I.; Molist García, P.

    2012-01-01

    The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium. PMID:22645482

  17. Vibrio harveyi adheres to and penetrates tissues of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata within the first hours of contact.

    PubMed

    Cardinaud, Marion; Barbou, Annaïck; Capitaine, Carole; Bidault, Adeline; Dujon, Antoine Marie; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic epidemics generally associated with massive mortalities in many marine organisms, including the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The aim of this study was to identify the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection of V. harveyi in the European abalone. The results indicate that the duration of contact between V. harveyi and the European abalone influences the mortality rate and precocity. Immediately after contact, the epithelial and mucosal area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland was colonized by V. harveyi. Real-time PCR analyses and culture quantification of a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain of V. harveyi in abalone tissues revealed a high density of bacteria adhering to and then penetrating the whole gill-hypobranchial gland tissue after 1 h of contact. V. harveyi was also detected in the hemolymph of a significant number of European abalones after 3 h of contact. In conclusion, this article shows that a TaqMan real-time PCR assay is a powerful and useful technique for the detection of a marine pathogen such as V. harveyi in mollusk tissue and for the study of its infection dynamics. Thus, we have revealed that the adhesion and then the penetration of V. harveyi in European abalone organs begin in the first hours of contact. We also hypothesize that the portal of entry of V. harveyi in the European abalone is the area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland. PMID:25107972

  18. Vibrio harveyi Adheres to and Penetrates Tissues of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata within the First Hours of Contact

    PubMed Central

    Barbou, Annaïck; Capitaine, Carole; Bidault, Adeline; Dujon, Antoine Marie; Moraga, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic epidemics generally associated with massive mortalities in many marine organisms, including the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The aim of this study was to identify the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection of V. harveyi in the European abalone. The results indicate that the duration of contact between V. harveyi and the European abalone influences the mortality rate and precocity. Immediately after contact, the epithelial and mucosal area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland was colonized by V. harveyi. Real-time PCR analyses and culture quantification of a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain of V. harveyi in abalone tissues revealed a high density of bacteria adhering to and then penetrating the whole gill-hypobranchial gland tissue after 1 h of contact. V. harveyi was also detected in the hemolymph of a significant number of European abalones after 3 h of contact. In conclusion, this article shows that a TaqMan real-time PCR assay is a powerful and useful technique for the detection of a marine pathogen such as V. harveyi in mollusk tissue and for the study of its infection dynamics. Thus, we have revealed that the adhesion and then the penetration of V. harveyi in European abalone organs begin in the first hours of contact. We also hypothesize that the portal of entry of V. harveyi in the European abalone is the area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland. PMID:25107972

  19. Summer immune depression associated with increased susceptibility of the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata to Vibrio harveyi infection.

    PubMed

    Travers, Marie-Agnès; Le Goïc, Nelly; Huchette, Sylvain; Koken, Marcel; Paillard, Christine

    2008-12-01

    Haliotis tuberculata mortality outbreaks have occurred in France since 1998 and were attributed to a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. These mortalities were recorded in September, a month with abalone reproduction and characterised by high seawater temperatures. The importance of gonadal maturation and temperature increase on abalone immunity and susceptibility to V. harveyi infection needed to be clarified. Therefore, an immune survey analyzing a large panel of parameters was performed from June to September 2007 on abalone from the Bay of Brest. The data obtained were put in relation with abalone reproductive status and its susceptibility to V. harveyi. Most parameters showed clear patterns from early to late summer and during gametogenesis, phagocytosis and phenoloxidase activity were reduced, whereas basal reactive oxygen species production and agglutination titres were significantly increased. Total haemocyte counts went up after the partial spawning event at the end of June, and cell complexity diminished. Using a Principal Component Analysis, the "haemolymph profile" was shown to decrease in parallel with spawning and gonadal maturation processes, and reached a minimum just after total spawning. A significant correlation between this "haemolymph profile" and disease susceptibility allowed us to establish for the first time in abalone, a clear concordance between maturation and spawning processes, immune status and abalone susceptibility to V. harveyi. PMID:18786640

  20. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride.

    PubMed

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithé; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Serpentini, Antoine

    2012-03-01

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 μgL(-1) of CdCl2 for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 μgL(-1) as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 μgL(-1), which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses. PMID:22018399

  1. The effect of different polychlorinated biphenyls on two aquatic models, the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Abbaszadeh Fard, Elham; Latire, Thomas; Ferard, Jean-François; Costil, Katherine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Bureau, Ronan; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the toxicity of different polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Using the algal growth inhibition test, the green algae median Effective Concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.34μM for PCB28 to more than 100μM for PCBs 101 and 153. Considering the MTT viability test, the abalone EC50 values ranged from 1.67μM for PCB153 to 89μM for PCB28. Our results in contrast to previous observation in vertebrates did not show significant differences between the dioxin like- and non dioxin like-PCBs toxicities regardless of the model used. However, our results demonstrated that the toxicities of PCBs were species dependent. For example, PCB28 was the most toxic compound for P. subcapitata whereas PCBs 1, 180 and 153 were less toxic for that species. On the contrary, PCB153 was reported as the most toxic for H. tuberculata haemocytes and PCB28 the least toxic. To investigate the mode of action of these compounds, we used an in silico method. Our results suggested that PCBs have a non-specific mode of action (e.g., narcosis) on green algae, and another mode of action, probably more specific than narcosis, was reported for PCBs on the abalone haemocytes. PMID:24630249

  2. Gene structure and hemocyanin isoform HtH2 from the mollusc Haliotis tuberculata indicate early and late intron hot spots.

    PubMed

    Altenhein, Benjamin; Markl, Jürgen; Lieb, Bernhard

    2002-11-13

    We have cloned and sequenced cDNAs coding for the complete primary structure of HtH2, the second hemocyanin isoform of the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. The deduced protein sequence comprises 3399 amino acids, corresponding to a molecular mass of 392 kDa. It shares only 66% of structural identity with the previously analysed first isoform HtH1, and according to a molecular clock, the two isoforms of Haliotis hemocyanin separated ca. 320 million years ago. By genomic polymerase chain reaction and 5' race, we have also sequenced the complete gene of HtH2 (18,598 bp), except of the 5' region in front of the secreted protein. It encompasses 15 exons and 14 introns and shows several microsatellite-rich regions. It mirrors the modular structure of the encoded hemocyanin subunit, with a linear arrangement of eight different functional units separated and bordered by seven phase 1 'linker introns'. In addition, within regions encoding three of the functional units, the HtH2 gene contains six 'internal introns'. Comparison to previously sequenced genes of Octopus dofleini hemocyanin and Haliotis hemocyanin isoform (HtH1) suggests Precambrian and Palaeocoic hot spot of intron gains, followed by 320 million years of absolute stasis. PMID:12490323

  3. Ecdysteroids in Sida tuberculata R.E. Fries (Malvaceae): chemical composition by LC-ESI-MS and selective anti-Candida krusei activity.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Hemerson Silva; de Camargo, Vanessa Brum; Camargo, Graziela; Garcia, Cássia V; Fuentefria, Alexandre M; Mendez, Andreas S L

    2015-09-01

    Sida tuberculata is found in a region of South America and has traditionally been consumed as an infusion or tea. The chemical composition and antifungal activity of aqueous infusions from leaves and roots were investigated. LC-ESI-MS mass spectra were successfully obtained and used to identify four ecdysteroids: 20-hydroxyecdysone-3-O-β-D-glycopyranoside, 20-hydroxyecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone-3-O-β-D-xylose and a hydroxyecdysterone derivative. The in vitro antifungal activity was studied, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established against Candida krusei isolates. The antibiofilm activity was evaluated by the determination of the biofilm removal efficiency in contaminated central venous catheter (CVC) coupons. The preparations exhibited antifungal activity against the species tested, with MICs ranging from 3.90 to 62.50 μg/ml. The infusion removed the C. krusei biofilm after 90 min of exposure. The observed bioactivity and composition of ecdysteroids will contribute to the future development of antifungal substances for clinical use or as food additives. PMID:25842327

  4. THE PREFERENCE OF MOLLUSK EATING FISH FOR THREE AQUATIC SNAILS THAT VECTOR FISH TREMATODES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melanoides tuberculata, Planorbella trivolvis and Physella heterostropha are three aquatic snails which host trematodes that can infect both cultured and wild populations of fish causing serious problems. These three snail species were offered to black carp Mylopharngodon pisceus, redear sunfish Le...

  5. The complete sequences and gene organisation of the mitochondrial genomes of the heterodont bivalves Acanthocardia tuberculata and Hiatella arctica – and the first record for a putative Atpase subunit 8 gene in marine bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Hermann; Steiner, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement is highly variable among molluscs and especially among bivalves. Of the 30 complete molluscan mt-genomes published to date, only one is of a heterodont bivalve, although this is the most diverse taxon in terms of species numbers. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of Acanthocardia tuberculata and Hiatella arctica, (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Heterodonta) and describe their gene contents and genome organisations to assess the variability of these features among the Bivalvia and their value for phylogenetic inference. Results The size of the mt-genome in Acanthocardia tuberculata is 16.104 basepairs (bp), and in Hiatella arctica 18.244 bp. The Acanthocardia mt-genome contains 12 of the typical protein coding genes, lacking the Atpase subunit 8 (atp8) gene, as all published marine bivalves. In contrast, a complete atp8 gene is present in Hiatella arctica. In addition, we found a putative truncated atp8 gene when re-annotating the mt-genome of Venerupis philippinarum. Both mt-genomes reported here encode all genes on the same strand and have an additional trnM. In Acanthocardia several large non-coding regions are present. One of these contains 3.5 nearly identical copies of a 167 bp motive. In Hiatella, the 3' end of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit (nad)6 gene is duplicated together with the adjacent non-coding region. The gene arrangement of Hiatella is markedly different from all other known molluscan mt-genomes, that of Acanthocardia shows few identities with the Venerupis philippinarum. Phylogenetic analyses on amino acid and nucleotide levels robustly support the Heterodonta and the sister group relationship of Acanthocardia and Venerupis. Monophyletic Bivalvia are resolved only by a Bayesian inference of the nucleotide data set. In all other analyses the two unionid species, being to only ones with genes located on both strands, do not group with the remaining bivalves. Conclusion The two mt-genomes reported here add to and underline the high variability of gene order and presence of duplications in bivalve and molluscan taxa. Some genomic traits like the loss of the atp8 gene or the encoding of all genes on the same strand are homoplastic among the Bivalvia. These characters, gene order, and the nucleotide sequence data show considerable potential of resolving phylogenetic patterns at lower taxonomic levels. PMID:16948842

  6. [Ecology of river mollusks of medical and veterinary importance in 3 sites in La Habana province].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Perera, Antonio Alejandro; Gutiérrez Amador, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    An ecological research study was carried out in freshwater mollusk populations of medical and veterinary importance, in order to determine the biotic and abiotic factors that affect their dynamics. It was observed that the principal abiotic factors influencing abundance of mollusks were total hardness, salinity, acidity, alkalinity and CO2 concentration. Both aquatic plants and specific relations among mollusk groups were the principal biotic factors that affected the molluskan fauna. Species like Fossaria cubensis and Tarebia granifera appeared affected when the site diversity increased whereas the tiarid Melanoides tuberculata prevailed in almost all the ecosystems. PMID:23427449

  7. Ecotoxicological effect characterisation of widely used organic UV filters.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, D; Sieratowicz, A; Zielke, H; Oetken, M; Hollert, H; Oehlmann, J

    2012-04-01

    Chemical UV filters are used in sun protection and personal care products in order to protect consumers from skin cancer induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of three common UV filters butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (B-MDM) ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OCR) on aquatic organism, focussing particularly on infaunal and epibentic invertebrates (Chironomus riparius, Lumbriculus variegatus, Melanoides tuberculata and Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Due to their life habits, these organism are especially affected by lipophilic substances. Additionally, two direct sediment contact assays utilising zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryos and bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) were conducted. EHMC caused a toxic effect on reproduction in both snails with lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) of 0.4 mg/kg (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and 10 mg/kg (Melanoides tuberculata). At high concentrations sublethal effects could be observed for D. rerio after exposure to EHMC (NOEC 100 mg/kg). B-MDM and OCR showed no effects on any of the tested organism. PMID:22325435

  8. Trematode Fluke Procerovum varium as Cause of Ocular Inflammation in Children, South India

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Lalan Kumar; Rathinam, Sivakumar R.; Lalitha, Prajna; Kim, Usha R.; Ghatani, Sudeep

    2016-01-01

    Trematodes are recognized as a group of emerging parasites in tropical countries. We identified a trematode as a cause of ocular granulomas that developed in children who bathed in ponds or rivers in South India. DNA was isolated from patients’ surgically excised granulomas and from the trematode cercariae (larvae) released by the snail Melanoides tuberculata in water in which the children bathed. Real-time and conventional PCRs were performed that targeted ribosomal DNA regions spanning the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S sequences of this trematode. The PCR-amplified products were subjected to bidirectional sequencing. Analysis of sequences for the granuloma samples and the trematode cercariae showed maximum sequence similarity with Procerovum varium (family Heterophyidae). Our results confirmed the etiology of the ocular infection, implicating snail vectors as environmental risk factors for ocular parasitosis. PMID:26812231

  9. Trematode Fluke Procerovum varium as Cause of Ocular Inflammation in Children, South India.

    PubMed

    Arya, Lalan Kumar; Rathinam, Sivakumar R; Lalitha, Prajna; Kim, Usha R; Ghatani, Sudeep; Tandon, Veena

    2016-02-01

    Trematodes are recognized as a group of emerging parasites in tropical countries. We identified a trematode as a cause of ocular granulomas that developed in children who bathed in ponds or rivers in South India. DNA was isolated from patients' surgically excised granulomas and from the trematode cercariae (larvae) released by the snail Melanoides tuberculata in water in which the children bathed. Real-time and conventional PCRs were performed that targeted ribosomal DNA regions spanning the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S sequences of this trematode. The PCR-amplified products were subjected to bidirectional sequencing. Analysis of sequences for the granuloma samples and the trematode cercariae showed maximum sequence similarity with Procerovum varium (family Heterophyidae). Our results confirmed the etiology of the ocular infection, implicating snail vectors as environmental risk factors for ocular parasitosis. PMID:26812231

  10. Consequences of physical disturbance by tadpoles and snails on chironomid larvae.

    PubMed

    Pal, Gargi; Aditya, Gautam; Hazra, Niladri

    2014-01-01

    Indirect interactions among community members impact on organisms. The effects of two snails, banded pond snail, Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck), and Red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller), and tadpoles of Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider), on nonbiting midge larvae, Chironomus striatipennis Kieffer, were observed in experimental microcosm. Decrease in tube number and tube length of midge larvae was observed compared to control condition due to introduction of selected above mentioned organisms. The direct effects of non-predator organisms on the midge larvae are due to physical disturbance that destroys their tubes. This may result in vulnerability of midge larvae to predators in the wild. So the community structure may be altered by indirect effects, where one or more species, through their direct disturbance, indirectly change the abundance of other species. PMID:24672384

  11. Consequences of Physical Disturbance by Tadpoles and Snails on Chironomid Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Gargi; Aditya, Gautam; Hazra, Niladri

    2014-01-01

    Indirect interactions among community members impact on organisms. The effects of two snails, banded pond snail, Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck), and Red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller), and tadpoles of Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider), on nonbiting midge larvae, Chironomus striatipennis Kieffer, were observed in experimental microcosm. Decrease in tube number and tube length of midge larvae was observed compared to control condition due to introduction of selected above mentioned organisms. The direct effects of non-predator organisms on the midge larvae are due to physical disturbance that destroys their tubes. This may result in vulnerability of midge larvae to predators in the wild. So the community structure may be altered by indirect effects, where one or more species, through their direct disturbance, indirectly change the abundance of other species. PMID:24672384

  12. Freshwater mollusks of medical importance in Kalasin Province, northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Butraporn, Piyarat; Limsomboon, Jaremate; Kerdpuech, Yupa; Kaewpoolsri, Manus; Kiatsiri, Songtham

    2005-05-01

    A snail survey was performed in six districts around irrigation areas of Lampao Dam, in Kalasin Province. The survey caught a total of 5,479 live snails and classed them into five families, 12 genera and 15 species, of which 7 species are suspected of transmitting human parasitic diseases. The seven species were Pila polita, Pomacea canaliculata, Filopaludina (S.) m. martensi, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) siamensis goniomphalos, Melanoides tuberculata, Radix rubiginosa, and Indoplanorbis exustus. Of these, B. (D.) s. goniomphalos and I. exustus were found to harbor emergent cercariae. Only B. (D.) s. goniomphalos hosted several types of cercariae--Opisthorchis viverrini, unidentified species of intestinal flukes, echinostomes, xyphidio and furcocercous cercariae. Indoplanorbis exustus shed only echinostome cercariae. B. (D.) s. goniomphalos showed a rather high natural infection rate with O. viverrini, 1.3% in Yang Talat district, and 0.61% in Kamalasai district, in Kalasin Province. PMID:16124433

  13. Freshwater mollusks at designated areas in eleven provinces of Thailand according to the water resource development projects.

    PubMed

    Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Butraporn, Piyarat; Limsoomboon, Jareemate; Kaewpoolsri, Manus; Chusongsang, Yupa; Charoenjai, Prasasana; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Numnuan, Suthep; Kiatsiri, Songtham

    2007-03-01

    The study was conducted at 75 collecting loci in 15 districts of 11 provinces in Thailand during 1999-2004. A total of 12,079 live mollusks were collected, 11,874 were snails and 205 were clams. The snails were comprised of 39 species and classified into 9 families: Ampullariidae, Bithyniidae, Buccinidae, Potamiopsidae, Stenothyridae, Thiaridae, Viviparidae, Planorbidae and Lymnaeidae. The clams were comprised of 14 species classified into 2 families: Amblemidae and Corbiculidae. Fifteen species were medically important snails: Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea, P. pesmei, P. polita, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) funiculata, B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos, B. (D.) s. siamensis, Filopaludina (Siamopaludina) martensi martensi, F. (Filopaludina) sumatrensis polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Indoplanorbis exustus and Radix rubiginosa. Of these 3 snail species harbored trematode cercariae. I. exustus harbored Echinostoma malayanum, Xiphidio and Schistosoma spindale, and R. rubiginosa and B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos harbored Xiphidio and intestinal flukes, respectively. PMID:17539279

  14. Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima

    2010-01-01

    The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio. PMID:20578482

  15. Current advances on the study of snail-snail interactions, with special emphasis on competition process.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, J R; dos Santos, M B

    1995-01-01

    Field work research on population dynamic of snails from the regions of Belo Horizonte and Lagoa Santa give much information about interactions among two or more species of mollusks: Pomacea haustrum, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila, B. straminea and Melanoides tuberculata. Data ranging from two years to several decades ago suggest that the Pampulha reservoir is like a cemetery of B. glabrata and B. straminea, species that coexist for more than 14 years in a small part of a stream, whereas only B. glabrata lives in all the streams of the basin. In the last ten to twenty years B. tenagophila has coexisted with P. haustrum and M. tuberculata in the Serra Verde ponds and in the Pampulha dam. However these species have not settled in any of the brooks, except temporarily. The data suggest that the kind of biotope and the habitat conditions are decisive factors for the permanence of each species in its preferencial biotope. B. glabrata, natural from streams and riverheads, quickly disappears from the reservoirs and ponds where it coexists with other species for a short time, independently of the competitive process. Competition needs to be better studied, since in Central America and Caribean islands this kind of study has favored the biological control of planorbid species. PMID:8531669

  16. Volatile oil from Guarea macrophylla ssp. tuberculata: seasonal variation and electroantennographic detection by Hypsipyla grandella.

    PubMed

    Lago, João Henrique G; Soares, Marisi G; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Silva, M Fátima G F; Corrêa, Arlene G; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; Roque, Nídia F

    2006-03-01

    GC and GC-MS analyses of the volatile oils from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae) collected during three different periods in one year (February, June and October) indicated a seasonal variation in chemical composition. Whilst sesquiterpenes were the predominant class of components present in the leaf oil, a seasonal dependent variation in the degree of oxygenation of these compounds was detected, which seemed to be associated with phenological factors. The leaf oil, and fractions thereof, were subjected to GC coupled with electroantennographic detection employing antennae of females of Hypsipyla grandella, an insect pest that attacks several meliaceous species. Five compounds elicited significant responses and these were identified as ledol, 1-cubenol, guai-6-en-10beta-ol, 1-epi-cubenol, and tau-muurolol. The results suggest that these components could be responsible for the attraction of H. grandella to G. macrophylla. PMID:16434069

  17. REACTION OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) CULTIVARS TO PENETRATION AND INFECTION BY CURVULARIA TUBERCULATA AND C. ORYZAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolates of Curvularia species were collected from weedy Cyperaceae species and are being evaluated as possible biocontrol agents of sedge weeds in rice (Oryza sativa). Curvularia species have been reported from rice; thus cultivars of rice were tested to determine rice seedling responses to these ...

  18. Deriving Freshwater Quality Criteria for Iron, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc for Protection of Aquatic Life in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nadzifah, Y.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Umirah, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC50 values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9??g L?1, respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4??g?L?1 and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7??g?L?1, respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358

  19. Associations between trematode infections in cattle and freshwater snails in highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nzalawahe, Jahashi; Kassuku, Ayub A; Stothard, J Russell; Coles, Gerald C; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiology of trematode infections in cattle was investigated within highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, in southern Tanzania. Fecal samples were collected from 450 cattle in 15 villages at altitudes ranging from 696 to 1800 m above the sea level. Freshwater snails were collected from selected water bodies and screened for emergence of cercariae. The infection rates in cattle were Fasciola gigantica 28·2%, paramphistomes 62·8% and Schistosoma bovis 4·8%. Notably, prevalence of trematode infections in cattle was much higher in highland (altitude > 1500 m) as compared with lowland (altitude < 1500 m) areas and was statistically significant (P-value = 0·000) for F. gigantica and paramphistomes but not for S. bovis. The snails collected included Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus forskali, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata and Bellamya constricta with a greater proportion of highland (75%) than lowland (36%) water bodies harbouring snails. Altitude is a major factor shaping the epidemiology of F. gigantica and paramphistomes infections in cattle in Iringa Rural District with greater emphasis upon control needed in highland areas. PMID:26152614

  20. Predation of Biomphalaria and non-target molluscs by the crayfish Procambarus clarkii: implications for the biological control of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hofkin, B V; Hofinger, D M; Koech, D K; Loker, E S

    1992-12-01

    The North American crayfish Procambarus clarkii was examined under laboratory conditions for its ability to prey on Biomphalaria pfeifferi and B. glabrata, molluscan intermediate hosts of human schistosomiasis, and other, non-target gastropod species. Both male and female adult crayfish significantly reduced survival of neonate snails, even though alternative animal and plant foods were both available. In subsequent experiments, no differences in snail consumption were detected, for either adult or juvenile crayfish, in the presence or absence of a plant food alternative. Both adult and juvenile crayfish were able to consume small (2.5 mm) and large (17.5 mm) B. glabrata, suggesting that no size refuge from predation exists. Both adult and juvenile crayfish consumed Biomphalaria egg masses, although this consumption was significantly greater for juveniles. Procambarus clarkii adults were unable to consume substantial numbers of the relatively thick-shelled prosobranch snails Pila ovata and Lanistes carinatus. Crayfish did consume a third prosobranch, Melanoides tuberculata, and the pulmonate snail Physa acuta, but at a lower rate relative to consumption of Biomphalaria. Physa acuta, itself of North American origin, responded to the presence of crayfish by rapidly leaving the water and thereby avoided predation. Implications of these results for the biological control of schistosome-transmitting snails in East Africa are discussed. PMID:1304709

  1. The early stages of the immune response of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata to a Vibrio harveyi infection.

    PubMed

    Cardinaud, Marion; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone mortalities in France, Japan and Australia. In the European abalone, V. harveyi invades the circulatory system in a few hours after exposure and is lethal after 2 days of infection. In this study, we investigated the responses of European abalone immune cells over the first 24 h of infection. Results revealed an initial induction of immune gene expression including Rel/NF-kB, Mpeg and Clathrin. It is rapidly followed by a significant immuno-suppression characterized by reduced cellular hemocyte parameters, immune response gene expressions and enzymatic activities. Interestingly, Ferritin was overexpressed after 24 h of infection suggesting that abalone attempt to counter V. harveyi infection using soluble effectors. Immune function alteration was positively correlated with V. harveyi concentration. This study provides the evidence that V. harveyi has a hemolytic activity and an immuno-suppressive effect in the European abalone. PMID:25766281

  2. Studies on the effect of pollution on Lake Manzala ecosystem in Port-Said, Damietta and Dakahlia Governorates Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Mahmoud, Kadria M A; Gaber, Hanan S; Abdel-Hamid, Hoda; Abu Taleb, Hoda M A

    2015-04-01

    This work studied how pollution impacts the ecosystem of Lake Manzala by determination of physicochemical parameters, studying biodiversity of aquatic plants and macroinvertebrates, and determining bioaccumulation of Pb, Cu, Cd & Zn in some major organisms, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Melanoides tuberculata snails and Oreochromis niloticus fish. The more near to Mediterranean Sea and to the industrial area, Port-Said and Damietta sites showed higher dissolved oxygen and conductivity than Dakahlia sites. Distribution percentage of Eichhornia crassipes is high among Port-Said and Dakahlia sites of 100 and 88%, respectively, while Lemna giba is the most abundant among Damietta sites of 60%. The maximum macroinvertebrate taxa richness was obtained at Gammalya, Dakahlia of 16 species while the maximum abundance was registered at Annanya, Damietta of 591 organisms. Gastropoda are the most distributed organisms in Lake Manzala followed by Hemiptera and Plecoptera then shrimps and scud. All the medically important snails, B. alexandrina, B. truncatus and L. natalensis were recorded in Dakahlia, but only B. alexandrina was in Damietta and Port-Said sites. The collected water samples from Damietta sites showed the highest significant Cu & Cd concentration while Port-Said samples showed the highest Pb concentration and Dakahlia showed the highest Zn concentration. The metals concentrations were higher in snail tissue and in fish liver, kidney and most of muscle samples as compared in surface water. The higher metal bioaccumulation was determined in snails collected from sites showed higher water metals concentrations. Fish muscle showed the least residues than liver and kidney for all the measured metals. Pb and Cd were more accumulated in kidneys, Cu was more accumulated in liver and Zn was accumulated in all examined fish parts in descending order as follows Kidney > liver > muscle. PMID:26012230

  3. Import of exotic and zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae: Centrocestus sp.) in Xiphophorus maculatus: implications for ornamental fish import control in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

    2014-06-01

    Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 ?m and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 ?m) contained a bent metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. PCR amplification of a rDNA region (5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2, 28S rRNA gene) and subsequent sequencing confirmed the diagnosis. Metacercariae were found in gill filaments adjacent to the cartilage associated with cartilage hypertrophy, epithelial and mucous cell hyperplasia, clubbing and lamellar fusion. Host cell encapsulation of cysts comprised several layers of leucocytes, chondroblast-like and fibroblast-like cells. The observations raise concerns with regard to veterinary inspection and quarantine procedures. The zoonotic potential of these trematodes and a possible spread of the parasites in natural habitats in Europe should be regarded as a public health issue. So far, several cases of human infections have been reported only in Asia, but the potential intermediate host snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has been recorded in Germany. Accordingly, establishment of the parasite in Europe with climate changes should be considered a risk. PMID:24827099

  4. Trematode metacercariae of fishes as sentinels for a changing limnological environment.

    PubMed

    Dzikowski, R; Diamant, A; Paperna, I

    2003-07-01

    Trematode metacercaria populations infecting cichlids in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) were used as sentinels for the changing limnological environment. Parasitological data from 0+ cichlid fingerlings (Tilapia zillii, Oreochromis aureus, Sarotherodon galilaeus) were collected from the northwest shore of the lake during 1999 to 2001 and compared with data obtained from 1982 to 1984. The results show that the composition of the metacercarial populations changed significantly between the 2 samplings periods. The total number of metacercarial species found in the Kinneret cichlids was lower in 1999 to 2001 than in 1982 to 1984. Metacercariae transmitted by the snail Bulinus truncatus (Clinostomum tilapiae, Euclinostomum heterostomum, Bolbophorus levantinus and Neascus-type metacercariae--black spot and others) that were commonly found in 1982 to 1984 were absent from the fishes sampled during 1999 to 2001. The other trematode metacercariae (Centrocestus sp. and Haplorchis sp. transmitted by Melanoides tuberculata, Pygidiopsis genata transmitted by Melanopsis costata, as well as Phagicola longa, Strigeidae sp.1, an unidentified metacercaria typically found in the liver, and glochidia) increased in abundance in fishes sampled during 1999 to 2001. The calculated 'true' species richness of the habitat, extrapolated as a function of sampling effort, was significantly lower in the 1999 to 2001 versus 1982 to 1984 samples, while significantly fewer fishes needed to be sampled ('sampling effort') during 1999 to 2001 in order to reach the 'true' species richness. The higher calculated values of species richness and diversity for the 1999 to 2001 samples despite the overall decline in species number is explained by the overall increase in metacercariae prevalence. PMID:12911062

  5. Life cycle stages of heterophyid trematodes in Vietnamese freshwater fishes traced by molecular and morphometric methods.

    PubMed

    Skov, Jakob; Kania, Per W; Dalsgaard, Anders; Jørgensen, Thomas R; Buchmann, Kurt

    2009-03-01

    A survey of digenean zoonotic trematodes infecting snails and fishes in a North Vietnamese freshwater fish culture system revealed shedding of three types of parapleurolophocercous cercariae from the snail host Melanoides tuberculata and the presence of metacercariae within the genus Haplorchis (H. pumilio and H. taichui) and Procerovum sp. in tissues of cultured fishes (silver carp, Indian carp and climbing perch). No morphological characters were able to link the different cercariae specifically to any of the metacercariae. Subsequent molecular work including PCR and sequencing of ribosomal DNA (the ITS2 region) in cercariae and metacercariae associated only one type of the cercariae to the recovered H. pumilio metacercariae. Further, full identity (100%) was found with regard to the ITS sequence of adult H. pumilio obtained from the same North Vietnamese region. None of the cercariae showed sequence identities with H. taichui but more than 99% identity was found between one cercaria type and the Procerovum sp. metacercaria. It was indicated that trematode parasites of farmed fishes may originate from sources outside the fish ponds and may be introduced as free-swimming cercariae when pond water is being replenished by river water. Likewise, cercariae from the ponds may not always result in metacercarial infections of the farmed fishes. The present study frames the needs for including molecular techniques as auxiliary tools when conducting ecological studies of cercariae in complex ecosystems. The parasites recorded in the fish ponds are not only known to affect the health of aquacultured fishes but also the documented zoonotic potential of the diagnosed metacercaria calls for alerts regarding human consumption of raw or inadequately processed fish dishes. PMID:19056180

  6. Population Structure of an Invasive Parthenogenetic Gastropod in Coastal Lakes and Estuaries of Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Nelson A. F.; Perissinotto, Renzo; Appleton, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Estuaries and coastal lakes receive little attention despite being heavily invaded by non-indigenous invasive species (NIS). In these situations, studies of population dynamics in invaded habitats can provide valuable insights into how NIS interact with new environments. Tarebia granifera is a prosobranch gastropod from south-east Asia which has invaded other sub-tropical parts of the world. This study addresses whether a small number of key environmental factors influences gastropod communities, and specifically how the population density and size structure of T. granifera were influenced by environmental change in estuaries and coastal lakes in southern Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings T. granifera's density, number of brooded juveniles and size structure were measured at the St. Lucia Estuary, Mgobozeleni Estuary, Lake Sibaya and Lake Nhlange. Size structure was classified according to shell height (SH). All dissected individuals were found to be female and free from trematode infection. Salinity, water depth, temperature, and pH were the main factors correlated with population density of gastropod communities. T. granifera often reached densities well over 1000 ind. m?2, displacing indigenous gastropods and becoming a dominant component of the benthic community. T. granifera successfully invaded estuaries despite frequent exposure to high salinity and desiccation, which could together eliminate >97% of the population. The persistence of T. granifera was ensured due to its high fecundity and the environmental tolerance of large adults (20–30 mm SH) which carried an average of 158±12.8 SD brooded juveniles. Repeat introductions were not essential for the success of this parthenogenetic NIS. Conclusion/Significance There is a need for a broader study on the reproductive biology of T. granifera (including the previously overlooked “brood pouch ecology”), which affects population dynamics and may be relevant to other parthenogenetic NIS, such as Melanoides tuberculata and Potamopyrgus antipodarum. PMID:21904629

  7. First Record of Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Digenea) from the Americas, with Comments on the Taxonomy of Transversotrema patialense (Soparkar, 1924) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960, and an Updated List of Its Hosts and Geographic Distribution.

    PubMed

    Womble, Matthew R; Cox-Gardiner, Stephanie J; Cribb, Thomas H; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    Specimens of Transversotrema patialense (sensu lato) ( Soparkar, 1924 ) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960 (Digenea: Transversotrematidae) infected the skin (epidermal spaces beneath scales near pectoral fins) of 4 of 126 (prevalence 3%; mean intensity 1.8) zebrafish ( Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822) [Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae]) purchased in 2009 and cultured by a California (USA) fish supplier. These fish were sold as "laboratory-reared" and "specific pathogen free," purportedly raised in a recirculating aquaculture system that included zebrafish only. We herein describe the morphological features of this transversotrematid using light and scanning electron microscopy, provide a comprehensive list of hosts (snails and fishes) and geographic locality records for specimens reported as T. patialense, which is perhaps a species complex, and provide a brief historical synopsis of the taxonomic and life history research that has been conducted on this fluke. No species of Transversotrema previously had been reported from the Americas; however, this discovery is not surprising given that: (1) a suitable intermediate host (red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) [Cerithioidea: Thiaridae]) has been established in California and elsewhere in North America, (2) the zebrafish is a susceptible definitive host, and (3) T. patialense reportedly matures on a broad ecological and phylogenetic spectrum of freshwater fishes. To our knowledge, this is the northern-most geographic locality record for a species of this genus. We suspect this case study represents an example of a parasite that may now be established in North America by the fortuitous co-occurrence of a susceptible, exotic snail host (the red-rimmed melania) and a susceptible, widely distributed, exotic fish host (the zebrafish). PMID:26335181

  8. Diversity of mollusks in the Lam Ta Khong reservoir, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tesana, Smarn

    2002-12-01

    Sampling surveys to study the diversity of mollusks in the Lam Ta Khong reservoir, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, northeast Thailand, were carried out in the hot, rainy and cold seasons. The study area was divided into: Area I--the upper part where the Lam Ta Khong river drains; Area II--the mid-section of the reservoir; Area III--behind the dam. Mollusks were collected from four locations on each bank (to the right and left) of each area. Each location was sampled to include 6 cross-sectional stations; in total, 144 stations were sampled. In the deep water, an Ekman dredge was used to collect samples; the scoop or manual method was used at the water's edge. Ten species of snails and four species of clams were found. The dominant species of snails were: Clea helena, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and Melanoides tuberculata; clams were dominated by Corbicula sp. The intermediate host of the human blood fluke was not found. The population of most mollusk species increased during the cold season while that of clams and that of some species of snails increased during the rainy season. Clams and operculate snails predominated in Areas II and III. Pulmonate snails were mostly found close to the bank and on aquatic plants especially in Areas I and II. Operculate snails and clams mainly inhabited water 1 to 10 m deep. Two species of edible mollusks were found: Filopaludina martensi martensi and large numbers of Corbicula. Neither shedding light nor digestion with pepsin A revealed any human parasites in the mollusks sampled. PMID:12757219

  9. Stable Isotope Evidence for Dietary Overlap between Alien and Native Gastropods in Coastal Lakes of Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Nelson A. F.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822) is originally from South-East Asia, but has been introduced and become invasive in many tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In South Africa, T. granifera is rapidly invading an increasing number of coastal lakes and estuaries, often reaching very high population densities and dominating shallow water benthic invertebrate assemblages. An assessment of the feeding dynamics of T. granifera has raised questions about potential ecological impacts, specifically in terms of its dietary overlap with native gastropods. Methodology/Principal Findings A stable isotope mixing model was used together with gut content analysis to estimate the diet of T. granifera and native gastropod populations in three different coastal lakes. Population density, available biomass of food and salinity were measured along transects placed over T. granifera patches. An index of isotopic (stable isotopes) dietary overlap (IDO, %) aided in interpreting interactions between gastropods. The diet of T. granifera was variable, including contributions from microphytobenthos, filamentous algae (Cladophora sp.), detritus and sedimentary organic matter. IDO was significant (>60%) between T. granifera and each of the following gastropods: Haminoea natalensis (Krauss, 1848), Bulinus natalensis (Küster, 1841) and Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774). However, food did not appear to be limiting. Salinity influenced gastropod spatial overlap. Tarebia granifera may only displace native gastropods, such as Assiminea cf. ovata (Krauss, 1848), under salinity conditions below 20. Ecosystem-level impacts are also discussed. Conclusion/Significance The generalist diet of T. granifera may certainly contribute to its successful establishment. However, although competition for resources may take place under certain salinity conditions and if food is limiting, there appear to be other mechanisms at work, through which T. granifera displaces native gastropods. Complementary stable isotope and gut content analysis can provide helpful ecological insights, contributing to monitoring efforts and guiding further invasive species research. PMID:22363764

  10. Response of the North Island brown kiwi, Apteryx australis mantelli and the lesser short-tailed bat, Mystacina tuberculata to a measured dose of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Buddle, B M; de Lisle, G W; McColl, K; Collins, B J; Morrissy, C; Westbury, H A

    1997-06-01

    Four North Island brown kiwis and six lesser short-tailed bats were inoculated intramuscularly with 300 000 rabbit lethal doses of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus. No clinical abnormalities were observed in the kiwis and bats throughout the study period. Although no viraemia was detected in any of the kiwis, all four birds produced a serological response to RHD virus above the positive cut-off by 14 days after inoculation, and in two of the birds, antibodies persisted for over 5 months. Two kiwis were killed 48 days after inoculation. Their tissues were examined for lesions, and for the presence of persistent virus by both reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and by inoculation of tissue suspensions into rabbits. No gross or histological lesions suggestive of a viral infection were detected and tests for detection of virus were negative. The serological response in the kiwis was probably due to the birds responding to viral antigen in the inoculum rather than to multiplication of the virus. None of the bats showed a serological response to RHD virus above the positive cut-off by 14 days after inoculation and the results of the pathological and virological examinations were negative. PMID:16031964

  11. Distribution of freshwater snails in family-based VAC ponds and associated waterbodies with special reference to intermediate hosts of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dung, Bui Thi; Madsen, Henry; The, Dang Tat

    2010-10-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes, such as Clonorchis sinensis, heterophyids and others, constitute a public health concern in parts of northern Vietnam and infections with these trematodes are often thought to be linked to fish culture. One common fish culture system is the integrated fish-livestock (VAC) ponds where individual households have 1 or more ponds. Fish fry, mainly of various carp species, produced in hatcheries, not necessarily local, are introduced into nursery ponds and after approximately 6 weeks, juvenile fishes are transferred to household ponds, referred to as grow-out ponds. Grow-out ponds are usually fertilized with organic debris, including animal excreta, to stimulate algal growth and subsequently fish growth. This paper describes the distribution of freshwater snails and occurrence of trematode infections in these in VAC ponds and associated habitats as part of a major study on risk factors of FZT infections in cultured fish in two communes, Nghia Lac and Nghia Phu, Nghia Hung District, Nam Dinh Province. The area is under intense rice cultivation with an extensive canal network supplying fields and also household VAC ponds. A total of 16 snail species was found and four were widely distributed i.e. Angulyagra polyzonata, Melanoides tuberculata, Bithynia fuchsiana and Pomacea insularum. Snail diversity and counts were higher in nursery ponds than in grow-out ponds. Species of the families Thiaridae and Viviparidae were more abundant than other species in VAC ponds while species of the Bithyniidae, Stenothyridae and Planorbidae dominated in rice fields and small canals. Trematode infections were found in eight snail species and among these M. tuberculata had the highest overall prevalence of infection (13.28%). No trematode infections were found in species of the Viviparidae and Ampullaridae except for metacercariae. Parapleurolophocercous and pleurolophocercous cercariae constituted the most common type of cercariae recovered, contributing 40.6% of all infections followed by echinostome cercariae (35.0%) and xiphidiocercariae (17.3%). Bithynia fuschiana and M. tuberculata had the most diverse trematode fauna. C. sinensis was not recorded in this study. The VAC pond system in this area, is very important for transmission of minute intestinal trematodes while they play little role in transmission of C. sinensis as its intermediate hosts, bithynid snails, rarely occur in these ponds. From a public health perspective this is positive as the effects of infections with intestinal trematodes are considered mild. On the other hand it is possible that even such subtle effects could have importance in public health as transmission is very intense in the area. And this in combination with the aquaculture importance, reduced marketability of fishes with high metacercariae loads, warrants that control efforts against these trematodes are initiated to reduce transmission in this production system. PMID:20457118

  12. Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wepener, V.; van Vuren, J. H. J.; Chatiza, F. P.; Mbizi, Z.; Slabbert, L.; Masola, B.

    Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise to effects at the individual level and is manifested in reduced ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction and survival, and ultimately at the ecosystem level. By integrating multiple endpoints at different ecologically relevant levels of organization within one test organism, it should be possible to gain understanding in how different levels of organization within this organism respond to toxic exposure and how responses at these different levels are interrelated. This paper presents results from a field study in the Rietvlei Wetland system, Gauteng, South Africa using the freshwater mollusk ( Melanoides tuberculata) and freshwater fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) as bioindicator organisms. Active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures were conducted where organisms were exposed for 28 days in an effluent dominated river during high flow conditions in April 2003. The river receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial complex, so that up to 75% of the total flow of the river is effluent-based. Effects of field exposure were determined using cellular biomarkers e.g. DNA damage, HSP 70, metallothionein, acetylcholine esterase, lactate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity. The results clearly indicate that although the traditional mortality-based whole effluent toxicity testing did not indicate any toxicity, the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. A multivariate statistical approach was particularly useful for integrating the biomarker responses and highlighting sites at which more detailed analysis of chemical contamination would be useful. Based on the individual biomarker results’ contributing towards the distinct groupings it is possible to conclude that Site 1 is subjected to organic pollutants, whereas Sites 2 and 3 undergo a combination of metallic and organic pollutant stress. However, it is essential that a rapid and sensitive biomarker that is representative of the responses of a suite of biomarkers be tested before ABM can be implemented as a routine biomonitoring practice in water resource management.

  13. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes and crayfish at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nye County, Nevada, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Johnson, D.M.; Hereford, M.E.; Rissler, Peter; Fabes, Mark; Salgado, Antonio; Shea, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (AMNWR) was established by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (with the assistance of The Nature Conservancy) in 1984 to protect one of the highest concentrations of endemic flora and fauna in North America (Pister, 1985; Sada, 1990). Prior to federal acquisition, Ash Meadows had been anthropogenically altered, and non-native species had been introduced to the detriment of native species; reports and published literature document the negative effects to the Ash Meadows flora and fauna (Deacon and others, 1964; U.S. Department of the Interior, 1971; Landye, 1973; Pister, 1974; Soltz and Naiman, 1978; Taylor, 1980; Williams and others, 1985; Williams and Sada, 1985; Baugh and others, 1986; Hershler and Sada, 1987; Knight and Clemmer, 1987; Sada, 1990; Deacon and Williams, 1991; Scoppettone and others, 2005; Kennedy and others, 2006). Such activities led to the extinction of the endemic Ash Meadows poolfish (Empetrichthyes merriami) (Miller, 1961; Soltz and Naiman, 1978), and subsequently the federal government listed three local endemic fish as endangered pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1989)—Warm springs pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis pectoralis), Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes), and Ash Meadows speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus nevadensis). Public ownership of a large portion of Ash Meadows provided the opportunity to restore the landscape to some semblance of its historical condition. Elimination of invasive aquatic species may be more difficult than landscape restoration, and their persistence can cause additional native fish decline or extirpation (Taylor and others, 1984; Moyle and others, 1986; Miller and others, 1989; Minckley and Deacon, 1991; Olden and Poff, 2005). Chemical treatment to remove invasive fishes is often unsuccessful (Meffe, 1983; Rinne and Turner, 1991; Meronek and others, 1996). In Ash Meadows, there has been some success in chemical eradication of localized populations of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) (St. George, 1998, 1999; Weissenfluh, 2008b), as well as convict cichlid (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) (Weissenfluh,2008a). However, there has been less success in removing western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) from Ash Meadows's larger spring systems, and sailfin molly maintains strongholds in several spring systems (Scoppettone and others, 2011b). Perhaps the more destructive invasive species are two invertebrates: red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and red-rim melania (Melanoides tuberculata). Following the appearance of red swamp crayfish within the Warm Springs Complex, Warm Springs pupfish was believed to be extirpated from one spring system (St. George, 2000) and near extirpation in two others (Darrick Weissenfluh, Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, oral commun., 2008, 2011). Crayfish also were demonstrated to greatly suppress the Bradford Springs population of Ash Meadows speckled dace population (McShane and others, 2004). Red-rim melania is known to displace native snail populations (Mitchell and others, 2007), and has been implicated as an agent of extinction of native Ash Meadows spring-snails (Donald Sada, Desert Research Institute, oral commun., 2011). Both invasive invertebrates are difficult to control or eradicate (Mitchell and others, 2007; Freeman and others, 2010). Habitat restoration that favors native species can help control non-native species (McShane and others, 2004; Scoppettone and others, 2005; Kennedy and others, 2006). Restoration of Carson Slough and its tributaries present an opportunity to promote habitat types that favor native species over non-natives. Historically, the majority of Ash Meadows spring systems were tributaries to Carson Slough. In 2007 and 2008, a survey of Ash Meadows spring systems was conducted to generate baseline information on the distribution of fishes throughout AMNWR (Scoppettone and others, 2011b). In this study, we conducted a follow-up survey with emphasis on upper Carson Slough. This permitted us to gauge the early effects of spring system restoration on fish populations and to generate further baseline data relevant to future restoration efforts.

  14. Dietary effects of marine food intake on intestinal and hepatic enzyme activities in rats.

    PubMed

    González, M; Caride, B; Lamas, A; Taboada, C

    2001-03-01

    Dietary effects of two diets high in protein from two marine species (Haliotis tuberculata and Anemonia viridis) as compared to a high-quality patron protein such as casein (or casein supplemented with olive oil) on intestinal and hepatic enzymes were studied. After 23 days, the two marine species as diet compared to casein increased the disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Feeding Haliotis tuberculata meal produced a decrease on intestinal leucine aminopeptidase activity. The hepatic gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity decreased slightly in animals fed Haliotis tuberculata meal. Supplementation of casein with olive oil tended to decrease the intestinal and hepatic enzyme activity. PMID:11339110

  15. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO EARTHWORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisentia fetida, Allolobophora tuberculata, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. eibull function is used to summarize these data for ea...

  16. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF TEN ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO FOUR EARTHWORM SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were t...

  17. Two new species of Asellota (Crustacea, Isopoda) from coral reefs on Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Michitaka; Naruse, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Pleurocope iriomotensis sp. n. and Prethura tuberculata sp. n. are described from Iriomote Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan. These are the first records of Pleurocope from the Pacific and of Prethura from the Asian Pacific coast. Pleurocope iriomotensis differs from its congeners in having lateral spine-like processes on pereonite 4 and coxal plates of pereonite 7. Prethura tuberculata can be distinguished from its single congener in having a lateral short projection of protopod of pleopod 2. PMID:26448712

  18. Two new species of Asellota (Crustacea, Isopoda) from coral reefs on Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Michitaka; Naruse, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pleurocope iriomotensis sp. n. and Prethura tuberculata sp. n. are described from Iriomote Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan. These are the first records of Pleurocope from the Pacific and of Prethura from the Asian Pacific coast. Pleurocope iriomotensis differs from its congeners in having lateral spine-like processes on pereonite 4 and coxal plates of pereonite 7. Prethura tuberculata can be distinguished from its single congener in having a lateral short projection of protopod of pleopod 2. PMID:26448712

  19. Major carbon-14 deficiency in modern snail shells from southern Nevada springs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon-14 contents as low as 3.3 ?? 0.2 percent modern (apparent age, 27,000 years) measured from the shells of snails Melanoides tuberculatus living in artesian springs in southern Nevada are attributed to fixation of dissolved HCO3- with which the shells are in carbon isotope equilibrium. Recognition of the existence of such extreme deficiencies is necessary so that erroneous ages are not attributed to freshwater biogenic carbonates.

  20. Major carbon-14 deficiency in modern snail shells from southern Nevada springs

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, A.C.

    1984-04-06

    Carbon-14 contents as low as 3.3 +/- 0.2% modern (apparent age, 27,000 years) measured from the shells of snails Melanoides tuberculatus living in artesian springs in southern Nevada are attributed to fixation of dissolved HCO/sub 3//sup -/ with which the shells are in carbon isotope equilibrium. Recognition of the existence of such extreme deficiencies is necessary so that erroneous ages are not attributed to fresh water biogenic carbonates. 2 figures, 1 table.

  1. Earthworm effects on movement of water and solutes in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Trojan, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine and model the effects of earthworms on water and solute movement in soil. Microrelief and rainfall effects on water and solute movement were determined in packed buckets inoculated with earthworms (Aporrectodea tuberculata). A solution of Br[sup [minus

  2. Marine tumor vaccine carriers: structure of the molluscan hemocyanins KLH and htH.

    PubMed

    Markl, J; Lieb, B; Gebauer, W; Altenhein, B; Meissner, U; Harris, J R

    2001-10-01

    Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a well-established immune stimulant and hapten carrier, and Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin (HtH) is a related product. Biologically, KLH and HtH are blue copper proteins which serve as oxygen carriers in the blood of the keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata and the abalone H. tuberculata, respectively, two marine gastropods. Both hemocyanins occur as two distinct isoforms, termed KLH1 KLH2, HtH1, and HtH2. Each of these molecules is based on a very large polypeptide chain, the subunit (molecular mass ca 400 kDa), which is folded into a series of eight globular functional units (molecular mass ca 50 kDa each). Twenty copies of this subunit form a cylindrical quaternary structure (molecular mass ca 8 MDa). This article reviews the recent data on the biosynthesis, quaternary structure, subunit architecture, amino acid sequence, gene structure, and recombinant production of KLH and HtH. PMID:11768622

  3. Interactions among symbionts of Oropsylla spp. (Siphonoptera: Ceratophyllidae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan T; Bernhardt, Scott A; Martin, Andrew P; Gage, Kenneth L

    2012-05-01

    We used high-throughput DNA sequencing to explore bacterial communities of three species of Oropyslla fleas [Oropsylla hirsuta (Baker), Oropsylla montana (Baker), and Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris (Jellison)] and detected seven bacterial lineages related to known insect symbionts. No significant co-occurrence patterns were detected among bacterial lineages, but relative abundance data suggest that the two most common lineages (Bartonella and Rickettsiales) interact negatively. Furthermore, presence of these two lineages significantly reduced bacterial diversity within fleas. PMID:22679855

  4. Diversity and Localization of Bacterial Endosymbionts from Whitefly Species Collected in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is the first survey of whitely populations collected in Brazil, and provides further insights into the complexity of infection with secondary endosymionts in whiteflies. PMID:25259930

  5. 3D reconstruction of the hemocyanin subunit dimer from the chiton Acanthochiton fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Robin; Meissner, Ulrich; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Markl, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Procedures are presented for the purification of the subunit dimer from Acanthochiton fasicularis hemocyanin. Electron microscopy of negatively stained specimens revealed a uniform population of macromolecules possessing the characteristic "boat shape". A 3D reconstruction from this EM data generated a approximately 3 nm resolution model that correlates well with earlier data of the purported subunit dimer, extracted from the 3D reconstruction of the didecamer of Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin type 1. PMID:15036283

  6. Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is the first survey of whitely populations collected in Brazil, and provides further insights into the complexity of infection with secondary endosymionts in whiteflies. PMID:25259930

  7. Permanent Genetic Resources added to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2010-31 March 2010.

    PubMed

    Aurelle, D; Baker, A J; Bottin, L; Brouat, C; Caccone, A; Chaix, A; Dhakal, P; Ding, Y; Duplantier, J M; Fiedler, W; Fietz, J; Fong, Y; Forcioli, D; Freitas, T R O; Gunnarsson, G H; Haddrath, O; Hadziabdic, D; Hauksdottir, S; Havill, N P; Heinrich, M; Heinz, T; Hjorleifsdottir, S; Hong, Y; Hreggvidsson, G O; Huchette, S; Hurst, J; Kane, M; Kane, N C; Kawakami, T; Ke, W; Keith, R A; Klauke, N; Klein, J L; Kun, J F J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Li, J-J; Loiseau, A; Lu, L-Z; Lucas, M; Martins-Ferreira, C; Mokhtar-Jamaï, K; Olafsson, K; Pampoulie, C; Pan, L; Pooler, M R; Ren, J-D; Rinehart, T A; Roussel, V; Santos, M O; Schaefer, H M; Scheffler, B E; Schmidt, A; Segelbacher, G; Shen, J-D; Skirnisdottir, S; Sommer, S; Tao, Z-R; Taubert, R; Tian, Y; Tomiuk, J; Trigiano, R N; Ungerer, M C; Van Wormhoudt, A; Wadl, P A; Wang, D-Q; Weis-Dootz, T; Xia, Q; Yuan, Q-Y

    2010-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 228 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anser cygnoides, Apodemus flavicollis, Athene noctua, Cercis canadensis, Glis glis, Gubernatrix cristata, Haliotis tuberculata, Helianthus maximiliani, Laricobius nigrinus, Laricobius rubidus, Neoheligmonella granjoni, Nephrops norvegicus, Oenanthe javanica, Paramuricea clavata, Pyrrhura orcesi and Samanea saman. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Apodemus sylvaticus, Laricobius laticollis and Laricobius osakensis (a proposed new species currently being described). PMID:21565086

  8. Are Cristaria herculea (Middendorff, 1847) and Cristaria plicata (Leach, 1815) (Bivalvia, Unionidae) separate species?

    PubMed Central

    Klishko, Olga K.; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Froufe, Elsa; Bogan, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The number of species in the freshwater mussel genus Cristaria Schumacher, 1817 recognized from Far East Russia has varied over the last several decades. While some authors consider the occurrence of only one species, Cristaria plicata (Leach, 1815), widespread in East Asia, others, recognize two separate species Cristaria herculea (Middendorff, 1847) and Cristaria tuberculata Schumacher, 1817 from Far East Russia, distinct from C. plicata. ?For the present study, freshwater mussels, identified as C. herculea,? were collected in the Upper Amur basin (Transbaikalia, Russia). The shell morphology and the whole soft body anatomy were analysed in detail and compared with previously published information on other Cristaria spp.. Additionally, a cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene fragment was sequenced from foot tissue samples of selected animals, collected from the same region, and compared with published data. Based upon morphological similarities of glochidia and adult morphology and anatomy as well as the mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis, we consider C. herculea as a synonym of C. plicata. ?Further analysis of Far East Russia C. herculea and C. tuberculata specimens using both molecular and morphological characters should be carried in the future to enhance our knowledge about the taxonomy within the Cristaria genus. Moreover, a comprehensive revision of the genus Cristaria is needed, restricting the type locality and comparing topotypic specimens for both C. plicata and C. tuberculata, and including all recognized Cristaria species. PMID:25197215

  9. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Meli, Federica; Piraino, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest. PMID:26230703

  10. Distribution of Sargassum natans and some of its epibionts in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niermann, U.

    1986-12-01

    Sargassum was collected during the Sargasso Sea Eel Expedition in Spring 1979. On average, the morphological form type Sargassum natans (I) made up 85 % of the total wet weight of the samples. South of the thermal front, larger amounts of weeds were observed. Here, the bladder size of S. natans (I) was significantly smaller (surface 47±7 mm2) than in the northern part (surface: 64±15 mm2), while phylloids showed no differences. The composition and density of some epibionts were examined. Membranipora tuberculata (Bryozoa), Clytia noliformis (Hydrozoa) and the calcarious algae “ Melobesia sp.” (Rhodophyta) were studied quantitatively according to different features at 17 stations. M. tuberculata was the most abundant epibiont followed by C. noliformis. Compared with these species, " Melobesia sp." occurred in considerably lower quantities. M. tuberculata showed a preference for bladders rather than phylloids; C. noliformis was found more frequently on phylloids than on bladders. " Melobesia sp." did not show any preference. Frequency and abundance of these epibionts were higher north of the thermal front than south of this front. North of the front S. natans (I) was less abundant but bladders were larger.

  11. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Meli, Federica; Piraino, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ?-3 and ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest. PMID:26230703

  12. A study on biological control of six fresh water snails of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Abd-Allah, Karim F; Negm-Eldin, Mohsen M; Saleh, Mohamed H; El-Hamshary, Azza M S; El-Gozamy, Bothina M R; Aly, Nagwa S M

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated the molluscicidal effect of Commiphora mnolmol oil extract (Myrrh), on control of six fresh water snails (Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Physa acuta, Melania tuberculata and Cleopatra bulimoides). Also, the extract effect on the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta was evaluated. Snails and egg masses were exposed at 16-20 degrees C to various concentrations (conc.). LD50 after 24 hours expo-sure were 264/132, 283/195, 230/252, 200/224, 241/246 & 241/246 ppm for young/adult of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata and C. bulimnoides respectively. LDtoo after 24 hours exposure were 400/400 for L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, M. tuberculata and C. bulimoides, and 300/300 for Ph. acuta. Also, complete mortality (100%) was achieved for the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta at concentrations of 300, 200, 300 & 400 ppm respectively. Lower concentrations gave the same results after longer exposure. LD100 of C. molmol oil extract (Myrrh) had a rapid lethal effect on the six snail species and their egg masses in high conc. of 300 & 400 ppm. Commiphora molmol is a promising plant to be included with the candidate plant molluscicides. The oil extract of this plant showed a remarkable molluscicidal activity against used snail species. PMID:19530615

  13. Early development of congeneric sea urchins (Heliocidaris) with contrasting life history modes in a warming and high CO2 ocean.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Natasha A; Byrne, Maria

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of ocean change stressors - warming and acidification - on marine invertebrate development have emerged as a significant impact of global change. We investigated the response of early development to the larval stage in sympatric, congeneric sea urchins, Heliocidaris tuberculata and Heliocidaris erythrogramma with contrasting modes of development to ocean warming and acidification. Effects of these stressors were assessed by quantifying the percentage of normal development during the first 24 h post fertilization, in cross-factorial experiments that included three temperature treatments (control: 20 °C; +4: 24 °C; +6: 26 °C) and four pHNIST levels (control: 8.2; -0.4: 7.8; -0.6: 7.6; -0.8: 0.4). The experimental treatments were designed in context with present day and near-future (∼2100) conditions for the southeast Australia global warming hotspot. Temperature was the most important factor affecting development of both species causing faster progression through developmental stages as well as a decrease in the percentage of normal development. H. erythrogramma embryos were less tolerant of increased temperature than those of H. tuberculata. Acidification impaired development to the larval stage in H. tuberculata, but this was not the case for H. erythrogramma. Thus, outcomes for the planktonic life phase of the two Heliocidaris species in response to ocean warming and acidification will differ. As shown for these species, single-stressor temperature or acidification studies can be misleading with respect to determining species' vulnerability and responses to global change. PMID:25115741

  14. Bats that walk: a new evolutionary hypothesis for the terrestrial behaviour of New Zealand's endemic mystacinids

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Suzanne J; Weisbecker, Vera; Beck, Robin MD; Archer, Michael; Godthelp, Henk; Tennyson, Alan JD; Worthy, Trevor H

    2009-01-01

    Background New Zealand's lesser short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata is one of only two of c.1100 extant bat species to use a true walking gait when manoeuvring on the ground (the other being the American common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus). Mystacina tuberculata is also the last surviving member of Mystacinidae, the only mammalian family endemic to New Zealand (NZ) and a member of the Gondwanan bat superfamily Noctilionoidea. The capacity for true quadrupedal terrestrial locomotion in Mystacina is a secondarily derived condition, reflected in numerous skeletal and muscular specializations absent in other extant bats. The lack of ground-based predatory native NZ mammals has been assumed to have facilitated the evolution of terrestrial locomotion and the unique burrowing behaviour of Mystacina, just as flightlessness has arisen independently many times in island birds. New postcranial remains of an early Miocene mystacinid from continental Australia, Icarops aenae, offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Results Several distinctive derived features of the distal humerus are shared by the extant Mystacina tuberculata and the early Miocene Australian mystacinid Icarops aenae. Study of the myology of M. tuberculata indicates that these features are functionally correlated with terrestrial locomotion in this bat. Their presence in I. aenae suggests that this extinct mystacinid was also adapted for terrestrial locomotion, despite the existence of numerous ground-based mammalian predators in Australia during the early Miocene. Thus, it appears that mystacinids were already terrestrially-adapted prior to their isolation in NZ. In combination with recent molecular divergence dates, the new postcranial material of I. aenae constrains the timing of the evolution of terrestrial locomotion in mystacinids to between 51 and 26 million years ago (Ma). Conclusion Contrary to existing hypotheses, our data suggest that bats are not overwhelmingly absent from the ground because of competition from, or predation by, other mammals. Rather, selective advantage appears to be the primary evolutionary driving force behind habitual terrestriality in the rare bats that walk. Unlike for birds, there is currently no evidence that any bat has evolved a reduced capacity for flight as a result of isolation on islands. PMID:19615105

  15. Tanaidaceans (Crustacea) from the Central Pacific Manganese Nodule Province. I. The genera Collettea, Robustochelia and Tumidochelia

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of are described from the manganese nodule province between the Clarion and the Clipperton Fracture Zone of the equatorial North Pacific Ocean, and collected during the Nodinaut expedition on board the r/v l´Atalante in the summer of 2004. The new species belongs to three genera as: Collettea (Collettea longisetosa), Robustochelia (Robustochelia pacifica), and Tumidochelia (Tumidochelia tuberculata). A key to the genus Tumidochelia is presented and the validity of the genera Robustochelia and Collettea is discussed. PMID:21594100

  16. First records of Croatian and Serbian Tetrigidae (Orthoptera: Caelifera) with description of a new subspecies of Tetrix transsylvanica (Bazyluk & Kis, 1960).

    PubMed

    Skejo, Josip; Rebrina, Fran; Buzzetti, Filippo Maria; Ivković, Slobodan; Rašić, Alan; Tvrtković, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    A review of the Croatian and Serbian Tetrigidae is given and first records of Tetrix undulata (Sowerby, 1806) for Croatia and Serbia as well as Tetrix tuerki (Krauss, 1876) and Tetrix transsylvanica (Bazyluk & Kis, 1960) comb. nov. for Croatia are presented. The status of the genus Uvarovitettix Bazyluk & Kis, 1960 and the taxonomic position of T. transsylvanica comb. nov. are discussed. The genus Uvarovitettix Bazyluk & Kis, 1960 syn. nov. is synonymised with the genus Tetrix Latreille, 1802. A new subspecies from Croatia and Slovenia, Tetrix transsylvanica hypsocorypha Skejo, 2014 subspecies nova, is described. Tetrix pseudodepressa (Ingrisch, 2006) comb. nov. and Tetrix depressa (Brisout de Barneville, 1848) comb. nov. are moved to the genus Tetrix and the genus Depressotetrix Karaman, 1960 syn. nov. is synonymised with the genus Tetrix. Tetrix gibberosa (Wang & Zheng, 1993) inc. sed. and T. nodulosa (Fieber, 1853) inc. sed. are now considered to be species of uncertain placement within the genus Tetrix. New combination is also given to Paratettix tuberculata (Zheng & Jiang, 1997), primarily placed within the genus Mishtshenkotetrix: Tetrix tuberculata (Zheng & Jiang, 1997) comb. nov., but its placement within the genus Tetrix is also uncertain.  PMID:25284667

  17. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A.; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:26798295

  18. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-10-23

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

  19. Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R

    2015-01-01

    The ability to predict which alien plants will transition from naturalized to invasive prior to their introduction to novel regions is a key goal for conservation and has the potential to increase the efficacy of weed risk assessment (WRA). However, multiple factors contribute to plant invasion success (e.g., functional traits, range characteristics, residence time, phylogeny), and they all must be taken into account simultaneously in order to identify meaningful correlates of invasion success. We compiled 146 pairs of phylogenetically paired (congeneric) naturalized and invasive plant species in Australia with similar minimum residence times (i.e., time since introduction in years). These pairs were used to test for differences in 5 functional traits (flowering duration, leaf size, maximum height, specific leaf area [SLA], seed mass) and 3 characteristics of species’ native ranges (biome occupancy, mean annual temperature, and rainfall breadth) between naturalized and invasive species. Invasive species, on average, had larger SLA, longer flowering periods, and were taller than their congeneric naturalized relatives. Invaders also exhibited greater tolerance for different environmental conditions in the native range, where they occupied more biomes and a wider breadth of rainfall and temperature conditions than naturalized congeners. However, neither seed mass nor leaf size differed between pairs of naturalized and invasive species. A key finding was the role of SLA in distinguishing between naturalized and invasive pairs. Species with high SLA values were typically associated with faster growth rates, more rapid turnover of leaf material, and shorter lifespans than those species with low SLA. This suite of characteristics may contribute to the ability of a species to transition from naturalized to invasive across a wide range of environmental contexts and disturbance regimes. Our findings will help in the refinement of WRA protocols, and we advocate the inclusion of quantitative traits, in particular SLA, into the WRA schemes. Diferencia de Características entre Especies de Plantas Naturalizadas e Invasoras Independientes del Tiempo de Residencia y de la Filogenia Resumen La habilidad para predecir cuáles plantas exóticas harán la transición de naturalizadas a invasoras antes de su introducción a regiones nuevas es un objetivo clave para la conservación y tiene el potencial de incrementar la eficiencia de la evaluación de riesgo de hierbas (ERH). Sin embargo, múltiples factores contribuyen al éxito invasor de las plantas (p. ej.: características funcionales, características de cobertura, tiempo de residencia, filogenia) y todos deben considerarse simultáneamente para poder identificar correlaciones significativas del éxito invasor. Recopilamos en Australia 146 parejas de especies de plantas invasoras y naturalizadas emparejadas filogenéticamente (congéneres) y con tiempos de residencia mínima similares (es decir, el tiempo transcurrido desde su introducción en años). Estas parejas se usaron para probar diferencias en cinco características funcionales (duración de la floración, tamaño de la hoja, altura máxima, área específica de la hoja [AEH], masa de la semilla) y en tres características de cobertura nativa de las especies (ocupación de bioma, temperatura media anual y amplitud de pluviosidad) entre especies invasoras y naturalizadas. Las especies invasoras, en promedio, tuvieron una mayor AEH, periodos de floración más largos y fueron más altas que sus parientes congéneres naturalizadas. Las invasoras también exhibieron una mayor tolerancia a diferentes condiciones ambientales en su cobertura nativa, donde ocuparon más biomas y una mayor amplitud de pluviosidad y condiciones de temperatura que sus congéneres naturalizadas. Sin embargo, ni la masa de la semilla ni el tamaño de hoja difirieron entre las parejas de especies naturalizadas e invasoras. Un hallazgo relevante fue el papel de la AEH en la distinción entre las parejas naturalizadas e invasoras. Las especies con valores altos de AEH estuvieron asociadas típicamente con tasas mayores de crecimiento, pérdida rápida de volumen de material de hojas y periodos de vida más cortos que aquellas especies con AEH baja. Este conjunto de características puede contribuir a la habilidad de las especies para llevar a cabo la transición de naturalizada a invasora a lo largo de una amplia cobertura de contextos ambientales y regímenes de perturbación. Nuestros hallazgos ayudarán en la mejora de los protocolos de ERH, y abogamos por la inclusión de las características cuantitativas, en particular la AEH, en los esquemas de ERH. PMID:25369762

  20. Pentaplex PCR as screening assay for jellyfish species identification in food products.

    PubMed

    Armani, Andrea; Giusti, Alice; Castigliego, Lorenzo; Rossi, Aurelio; Tinacci, Lara; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

    2014-12-17

    Salted jellyfish, a traditional food in Asian Countries, is nowadays spreading on the Western markets. In this work, we developed a Pentaplex PCR for the identification of five edible species (Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculentum, Rhizostoma pulmo, Pelagia noctiluca, and Cotylorhiza tuberculata), which cannot be identified by a mere visual inspection in jellyfish products sold as food. A common degenerated forward primer and five specie-specific reverse primers were designed to amplify COI gene regions of different lengths. Another primer pair targeted the 28SrRNA gene and was intended as common positive reaction control. Considering the high level of degradation in the DNA extracted from acidified and salted products, the maximum length of the amplicons was set at 200 bp. The PCR was developed using 66 reference DNA samples. It gave successful amplifications in 85.4% of 48 ready to eat products (REs) and in 60% of 30 classical salted products (CPs) collected on the market. PMID:25393326

  1. Loss of helminth species diversity in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus on the Tierra del Fuego Island, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, M C; Abba, A M; Navone, G T

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the taxonomic diversity of parasite species of the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus in its native range and in another recently introduced population (Tierra del Fuego island), and to evaluate whether the isolation of the latter determines a decrease in its parasitic diversity. Forty specimens from Buenos Aires and Tierra del Fuego Provinces were collected and examined for helminths. Eleven parasite species were found in the native population, and only one species was present in Tierra del Fuego (Trichohelix tuberculata). This may be explained because isolation and climatic conditions prevent encounters between potential host species and infective forms of parasites. Further sampling will be needed throughout the entire Patagonia steppe to confirm how the characteristic parasitic fauna of C. villosus behaves across the armadillo's southern distribution. PMID:25673233

  2. Reinstatement of Distantasca Dworakowska (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Empoascini) as a valid genus with new species and new combinations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Fletcher, Murray J; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Distantasca Dworakowska originally established as a genus but more recently has been treated as a subgenus of Empoasca Walsh. Here we reinstate Distantasca as a valid genus and provide a revised diagnosis. New combinations created are Distantasca atika (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca barawa (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca bulbosa (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca latava (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca latibasis (Zhang & Liu), n. comb., Distantasca paraterminalis (Qin & Zhang), n. comb., Distantasca riora (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca rokasa (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca serratipenis (Qin & Zhang), n. comb., Distantasca tiaca (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca tna (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca tuberculata (Zhang & Liu), n. comb., all from Empoasca (Distantasca). Distantasca terminalis (Distant) and D. faciata Dworakowska are reinstated from Empoasca (Distantasca). Two new species, Distantasca longihamatilis Zhang & Liu and Distantasca ricina Zhang & Liu spp. nov. are described and illustrated. Empoasca (Empoasca) smithi Fletcher & Donaldson, 1992 is transferred into the genus as Distantasca smithi (Fletcher & Donaldson). PMID:25283902

  3. Mapping nanomechanical properties of freshly grown, native, interlamellar organic sheets on flat pearl nacre.

    PubMed

    Launspach, Malte; Gries, Katharina I; Heinemann, Fabian; Hübner, Anja; Fritz, Monika; Radmacher, Manfred

    2014-09-01

    We imaged surfaces of freshly grown flat pearl nacre (Haliotis tuberculata) in different stages of growth in seawater using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Characteristic mineral phases of nacre, such as aragonitic stacks of coins, as well as the associated organic sheets, could be detected. Apart from imaging, the acquisition of force volumes on freshly grown organic surface areas on flat pearl nacre was conducted with the AFM. The evaluation of the force volumes with the Hertz-Sneddon model resulted in Young's moduli in the MPa range. The presented values are considerably smaller than values previously determined from macroscopic tensile tests. This might reflect the anisotropy of the organic nacre layers. PMID:24607419

  4. Evaluation of Mycelial Nutrients, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidants of Five Himalayan Entomopathogenic Ascomyceteous Fungi from India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sapan Kumar; Gautam, Nandini; Atri, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    In this study, using standard methods, mycelial nutrients, bioactive compounds, and antioxidants were analyzed for the first time for five fungal species: Isaria sinclairii (Berk.) Lloyd, I. tenuipes Peck, I. japonica Yasuda, I. farinosa (Holmsk) Fr. and Cordyceps tuberculata (Lebert) Maire. All of these species were low in fat content and rich in protein, fiber, ash, and carbohydrates. Mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Cu, Mn, and Ca) were detected in appreciable amounts. All three types of fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated) as well as bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, ?-carotene, lycopene, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharides) were detected for each species. The investigated species showed high ferric-reducing antioxidant power as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Although differences were observed in the values of each species, each species showed richness in one or more components. PMID:26559700

  5. New insights on the phylogeny and biology of the fungal ant pathogen Aegeritella.

    PubMed

    Wrzosek, Marta; Dubiel, Grzegorz; Gorczak, Michał; Pawłowska, Julia; Tischer, Marta; Bałazy, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the phylogenetic position of the ectoparasitic fungus Aegeritella tuberculata Bałazy & Wiśniewski, and broadly discusses its presence on ants in southern Poland. Field work was conducted in the Silesian Beskid Mountains in 2011-2013. The fungus was found on four species of ants: Lasius niger L., Lasius brunneus Latr., Formica lemani Bondr. and Formica fusca L. The first three species have not been noted previously in the literature as hosts of Aegeritella fungi. The infection rate ranged from 1% for Formica lemani to 21% for L. brunneus. Molecular analysis based on ITS and SSU rDNA sequences revealed close relationships between Aegeritella and Trichosporon isolates. We conclude that the genus Aegeritella-inceratae sedis until now, should be placed within the fungal group Basidiomycota, Tremellomycetes, Tremellomycetidae, Tremellales, Trichosporonaceae. PMID:26585300

  6. Bdelloid Rotifers from Lakes above 1700 m in Western Italian Alps, with Taxonomic Notes on Dissotrocha macrostyla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaneto, Diego; Melone, Giulio

    2003-11-01

    Benthic and periphytic bdelloid communities from 16 alpine lakes from 1700 to 2850 m above sea level in Sesia Valley (Piedmont region, North-western Italy), sampled during summer 2001 and 2002, were analyzed. Seventeen species were identified from these species-poor communities, with 1 to 6 species each. Dissotrocha macrostyla and Philodina citrina were the most common species, present in 10 lakes while 9 species were collected from one lake only. New morphological details from S.E.M. pictures of Dissotrocha macrostyla revealed that Dissotrocha macrostyla tuberculata (Gosse, 1886) is only a seasonal morphotype. Its different appearance is due to the presence of locally distributed microscopic mucous bubbles (diameter 1.41 +/- 0.18 m) on the trunk surface, produced by the rotifer itself under stressful conditions.

  7. Metal content of earthworms in sludge-amended soils: uptake and loss

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Malecki, M.R.; Cukic, Z.V.

    1985-11-01

    The widespread practice of landspreading of sludge has raised concern about increasing concentrations of potentially toxic metals in soils, with the possibility of these metals adversely impacting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Earthworms, as one of the largest components of the soil biota, are useful indicators of potentially toxic soil metal concentrations. The study describes the metal content of five metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in one earthworm species, Allolobophora tuberculata, as a function of varying soil metal concentrations in the same soil type and the ability of the earthworms to bioconcentrate the five metals. The rate of uptake of the five metals in earthworms with initially low concentrations of metals placed in a soil with high metal concentrations was evaluated for a 112 day period. The rate of loss of the five metals in earthworms with initially high metal concentrations placed in soil with low metal concentrations was also examined.

  8. Revision of the Oriental species of Apsilocera Bou?ek (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), with description of twelve new species.

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan; Van Achterberg, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The Oriental species of Apsilocera Bou?ek, 1956 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are revised and the limits of the genus are reevaluated. Bulolosa Bou?ek, 1990 and Kratinka Bou?ek, 1988 are treated as synonyms of Apsilocera, syn. n. Bulolosa bidens Bou?ek and Kratinka brevis Bou?ek are transferred to Apsilocera as A. bidens (Bou?ek) and A. brevis (Bou?ek) comb. n., respectively. Twelve new species (all Mitroiu & van Achterberg) are described in Apsilocera: A. acuticristata sp. n., A. bicristata sp. n., A. cornuta sp. n., A. dentata sp. n., A. dupla sp. n., A. elongata sp. n., A. fulvipennis sp. n., A. longicornis sp. n., A. maculata sp. n., A. obtusicristata sp. n., A. palliclava sp. n., and A. tuberculata sp. n. An illustrated key to the females and males of Oriental species is provided. PMID:26176118

  9. Deep-water octocorals (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) from Brazil: Family Chrysogorgiidae Verrill, 1883.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Ralf T S; Castro, Clovis B; Pérez, Carlos D

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge about the Brazilian deep-water octocoral fauna remains scarce, fragmented, and mostly based on unpublished, regional scale surveys. The present work provides the first comprehensive study of the family Chrysogorgidae Verrill, 1883 in Brazil, based on morphological analysis of specimens collected in the last decade and those currently placed in museums. Members of this family are common mainly at great depths and remarkable for the iridescent aspect of their colonies. In Brazil, to the present, only four species were reported: Chrysogorgia elegans (Verrill, 1883), Chrysogorgia multiflora Deichmann, 1936, Stephanogorgia rattoi Castro, Medeiros & Loiola, 2010 and Trichogorgia brasiliensis Castro, Medeiros & Loiola, 2010-the last two are shallow-water species. In this study, three new deep-water species are described, Chrysogorgia tuberculata, Chrysogorgia upsilonia and Radicipes kopelatos, and a new record to Brazil is reported, Chrysogorgia fewkesii Verrill, 1883, as well as latitudinal expansions in distributions of Chrysogorgia elegans and Chrysogorgia multiflora are presented. PMID:26701508

  10. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, K F A

    2014-06-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust National Cancer Institute botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through put microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015-0.5 mg/mL) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % of the extracts tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50 ) properties <0.0183 mg/mL. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao [symbol: see text] Speranskia herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite clay, Bunge root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi [symbol: see text] root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone root (Collinsonia Canadensis), and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun, and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth root (Trillium Pendulum), and alkanet root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (S. tuberculata), which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis, leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of anti-mitotic natural plants that are effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

  11. Bryozoans as indicators of global change: predictable shifts in morphology and carbonate mineralogy in response to warming and ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swezey, D. S.; Bean, J. R.; Ninokawa, A. T.; Sanford, E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have documented variation in skeletal structure and carbonate mineralogy across a broad range of marine invertebrate taxa. Intraspecific changes in growth, morphology, and carbonate composition may occur in response to local and global changes in temperature, carbonate saturation state, and nutrient availability. Recurring upwelling along the west coast of the United States creates an alongshore mosaic of Ocean Acidification (OA), which may induce plastic responses and/or select for adaptive skeletal construction that can withstand pCO2 and temperature changes. Calcifying bryozoans provide a unique study system for investigating carbonate precipitation under variable conditions. Using a newly constructed flow-through CO2 control apparatus, we tested whether three laboratory-reared populations of the bryozoans Membranipora serrilamella, M. tuberculata and Celleporella cornuta showed differences in growth, calcification, and skeletal composition in response to simulated future OA conditions. Under elevated pCO2 (1200 μatm), bryozoans showed no significant differences in growth rate (new zooids added) compared to clones reared under current atmospheric values. However, C. cornuta colonies raised under high CO2 were significantly lighter, with less carbonate per zooid compared to colonies grown in present-day conditions (400 μatm). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that elevated pCO2 led to dissolution of bryozoan skeletons, which did not occur at 400 μatm. Structural changes in M. tuberculata and C. cornuta colonies may be related to the dissolution of high magnesium calcite skeletal components. Analyses of bryozoan morphological responses along with environmental proxies (δ13C, δ18O, and Mg/Ca ratios) could yield high resolution records of temperature and pH, which could be used to help reconstruct environmental variation along the California coast.

  12. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, KFA

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust NCI botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015–0.5 mg/ml) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50) properties <0.0183 mg/ml. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja Twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao Speranskia Herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite Clay, Bunge Root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea Fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder Root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane Root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi Root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree Fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone Root (Collinsonia Canadensis) and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth-root (Trillium Pendulum) and alkanet-root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (Speranskia tuberculata) which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of natural anti-mitotic resources effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

  13. Flea abundance, diversity, and plague in Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in northern New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Friggens, Megan M; Parmenter, Robert R; Boyden, Michael; Ford, Paulette L; Gage, Kenneth; Keim, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Plague, a flea-transmitted infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a primary threat to the persistence of prairie dog populations (Cynomys spp.). We conducted a 3-yr survey (2004-2006) of fleas from Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico. Our objectives were to describe flea communities and identify flea and rodent species important to the maintenance of plague. We live-trapped prairie dogs and conducted burrow sweeps at three colonies in spring and summer of each year. One hundred thirty prairie dogs and 51 golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) were captured over 3,640 trap nights and 320 burrows were swabbed for fleas. Five flea species were identified from prairie dogs and ground squirrels and four were identified from burrow samples. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most abundant species found on prairie dogs and in burrows. Oropsylla idahoensis was most common on ground squirrels. Two colonies experienced plague epizootics in fall 2004. Plague-positive fleas were recovered from burrows (O. hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata tuberculata) and a prairie dog (O. hirsuta) in spring 2005 and summer 2006. Three prairie dogs collected in summer 2005 and 2006 had plague antibody. We found a significant surge in flea abundance and prevalence, particularly within burrows, following plague exposure. We noted an increased tendency for flea exchange opportunities in the spring before O. hirsuta reached its peak population. We hypothesize that the role of burrows as a site of flea exchange, particularly between prairie dogs and ground squirrels, may be as important as summer conditions that lead to buildup in O. hirsuta populations for determining plague outbreaks. PMID:20688629

  14. Sleep under extreme environments: effects of heat and cold exposure, altitude, hyperbaric pressure and microgravity in space.

    PubMed

    Buguet, Alain

    2007-11-15

    Human sleep is sensitive to the individual's environment. The present review examines current knowledge of human sleep patterns under different environments: heat exposure, cold exposure, altitude, high pressure and microgravity in space. Heat exposure has two effects. In people living in temperate conditions, moderate heat loads (hot bath, sauna) prior to sleep provoke a delayed reaction across time (diachronic reaction) whereby slow-wave sleep (SWS) augments in the following night (neurogenic adaptive pathway). Melanoids and Caucasians living in the Sahel dry tropical climate experience diachronic increases in SWS throughout seasonal acclimatization. Such increases are greater during the hot season, being further enhanced after daytime exercise. On the contrary, when subjects are acutely exposed to heat, diachronic decreases in total sleep time and SWS occur, being often accompanied by synchronic (concomitant) diminution in REM sleep. Stress hormones increase. Nocturnal cold exposure provokes a synchronic decrease in REM sleep along with an activation of stress hormones (synchronic somatic reaction). SWS remains undisturbed as it still occurs at the beginning of the night before nocturnal body cooling. Altitude and high pressure are deleterious to sleep, especially in non-acclimatized individuals. In their controlled environment, astronauts can sleep well in microgravity. Exercise-induced sleep changes help to understand environmental effects on sleep: well-tolerated environmental strains may improve sleep through a neurogenic adaptive pathway; when this "central" adaptive pathway is overloaded or bypassed, diachronic and synchronic sleep disruptions occur. PMID:17706676

  15. ESR dating of Soma (Manisa, West Anatolia Turkey) fossil gastropoda shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engin, Birol; Kapan-Ye?ilyurt, Sevinç; Taner, Güler; Demirta?, Hayrünnisa; Eken, Mahmut

    2006-02-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy technique has been employed to date the aragonitic fresh-water gastropod shells ( Melanoides curvicosta) collected from Soma (Manisa) district (West Anatolia) of Turkey. The influence of the annealing temperature and ?-radiation dose on dating signal at g = 2.0016 is investigated. The thermal stability and dose response of the ESR signals were found to be suitable for an age determination using a signal at g = 2.0016. The activation energy ( E), frequency factor ( s) and mean-lifetime ( ?) at 15 °C of the g = 2.0016 center were calculated to be 1.67 ± 0.01 eV, (3.6 ± 0.7) × 10 13 s -1 and 2.02 × 10 8 years, respectively. The ESR signal growth curve on additional ?-irradiation has been best fitted by an exponential saturation function. Based on this model, accumulated dose (AD) value for dating is obtained. We have determined the ESR age of the terrestrial gastropods to be 2.57 ± 0.30 Ma. The results show that the ESR age falls into the Late Pliocene (Romanian) epoch of the geological time scale, which agreed with the paleoecological and paleogeographic distribution and stratigraphic level of the fauna.

  16. Two new species of the South Asian catfish genus Pseudolaguvia from northeastern India (Teleostei: Sisoridae).

    PubMed

    Tamang, Lakpa; Sinha, Bikramjit

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of sisorid catfish, Pseudolaguvia magna and P. jiyaensis, are described from the upper Brahmaputra River basin in Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Pseudolaguvia magna differs from its congeners by its much larger size (47.0 mm standard length vs. a maximum of 35.6 mm), by having a broader rhomboid thoracic adhesive apparatus, two pale-brown or cream patches on the mid-dorsal region across the dorsal midline: one rectangular to elliptic patch on the mid-interdorsal region, and another indistinct elliptic to irregular patch between the adipose and caudal-fins; and a small, round, pale-brown to cream spot on the lateral side of the head; and except for P. inornata, P. austrina, P. virgulata, and P. assula, in lacking pale to cream cross-bands on the body. Another syntopic new species, Pseudolaguvia jiyaensis, is distinguished from its congeners by having the thoracic adhesive apparatus almost reaching the pelvic-fin origin, and by having fewer vertebrae (25-27 vs. 28-34; except in P. tenebricosa and P. tuberculata). Details of the combination of characters differentiating each of the new species from its congeners are provided in the respective diagnoses. PMID:25543922

  17. Classification of Camellia (Theaceae) Species Using Leaf Architecture Variations and Pattern Recognition Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sean; Nitin, Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Leaf characters have been successfully utilized to classify Camellia (Theaceae) species; however, leaf characters combined with supervised pattern recognition techniques have not been previously explored. We present results of using leaf morphological and venation characters of 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia to assess the effectiveness of several supervised pattern recognition techniques for classifications and compare their accuracy. Clustering approach, Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQ-ANN), Dynamic Architecture for Artificial Neural Networks (DAN2), and C-support vector machines (SVM) are used to discriminate 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia (11 in sect. Furfuracea, 16 in sect. Paracamellia, 12 in sect. Tuberculata, 34 in sect. Camellia, and 20 in sect. Theopsis). DAN2 and SVM show excellent classification results for genus Camellia with DAN2's accuracy of 97.92% and 91.11% for training and testing data sets respectively. The RBF-SVM results of 97.92% and 97.78% for training and testing offer the best classification accuracy. A hierarchical dendrogram based on leaf architecture data has confirmed the morphological classification of the five sections as previously proposed. The overall results suggest that leaf architecture-based data analysis using supervised pattern recognition techniques, especially DAN2 and SVM discrimination methods, is excellent for identification of Camellia species. PMID:22235330

  18. Orientobilharzia Dutt & Srivastava, 1955 (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae), a junior synonym of Schistosoma Weinland, 1858.

    PubMed

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2012-06-01

    In the last few decades, phylogenetic studies of the family Schistosomatidae based on molecular markers have revealed that members of the genus Orientobilharzia Dutt & Srivastava, 1955 belong within Schistosoma Weinland, 1858. In this study, the original descriptions and redescriptions of Orientobilharzia species and related revisions are reviewed, and it is confirmed that the morphological characters correspond with the results of the molecular studies. The two genera differ only in the number of testes; however, this character varies to a large extent within particular genera of the subfamily Schistosomatinae and cannot be used to justify the separation of Orientobilharzia from Schistosoma. Also, we have verified claims suggesting the synonymy of certain species of Orientobilharzia; the four valid species of this genus are transferred to Schistosoma and two new synonymies are formally presented. The following nomenclatural changes are made: Schistosoma Weinland, 1858 [syn. Orientobilharzia Dutt & Srivastava, 1955 (syn. nov.)]; Schistosoma bomfordi Montgomery, 1906 (comb. restit.); S. turkestanicum Skrjabin, 1913 (comb. restit.) [syns Ori. turkestanica var. tuberculata (Bhalerao, 1932) (syn. nov.) and Ori. cheni Hsü & Yang, 1957 (syn. nov.)]; S. dattai (Dutt & Srivastava, 1952) n. comb.; and S. harinasutai (Kruatrachue, Bhaibulaya & Harinasuta, 1965) n. comb. The generic diagnosis of Schistosoma is amended and a revised key to the subfamily Schistosomatinae Stiles & Hassall, 1898 is presented. PMID:22581244

  19. [Vertical stratification of phlebotomine sandfly fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae) in a primary non-flooded forest of the Central Amazon, Amazonas State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dias-Lima, Artur; Bermudez, Eloy Castellón; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes de; Sherlock, Italo

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the vertical stratification of phlebotomine sandfly fauna were conducted in a non-flooded primary forest at a Tropical Forest Experimental Station of the National Institute of Amazonian Research from October 1998 to March 1999. CDC light traps were placed at one, 10, and 20 meters above ground. A total of 2,859 sandflies were captured, belonging to the Lutzomyia (99.93%) and Brumtomyia (0.07%) genera, represented by 38 species. In the Lutzomyia gender, the most frequent sub-gender was Nyssomyia (43.4%), followed by Psychodopygus (22.8%). Lutzomyia umbratilis, L. anduzei, L. rorotaensis, L. trichopyga, and L. olmeca nociva predominated at one meter above ground, while L. davisi, L. infraspinosa, L. umbratilis, L. trichopyga, and L. anduzei predominated at 10 meters. L. anduzei, L. tuberculata, L. dendrophyla, and L. dreisbachi were the most abundant species at 20 meters. L. umbratilis, which appeared at all three levels of vertical stratification, has great epidemic significance as a vector of Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. PMID:12048608

  20. Comparison of the sensitivity of seven marine and freshwater bioassays as regards antidepressant toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Minguez, Laetitia; Di Poi, Carole; Farcy, Emilie; Ballandonne, Céline; Benchouala, Amira; Bojic, Clément; Cossu-Leguille, Carole; Costil, Katherine; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre

    2014-11-01

    The hazards linked to pharmaceutical residues like antidepressants are currently a major concern of ecotoxicology because they may have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Our study assesses the ecotoxicity of three antidepressants (fluoxetine, sertraline and clomipramine) using a battery of marine and freshwater species representing different trophic levels, and compares the bioassay sensitivity levels. We selected the following bioassays: the algal growth inhibition test (Skeletonema marinoi and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), the microcrustacean immobilization test (Artemia salina and Daphnia magna), development and adult survival tests on Hydra attenuata, embryotoxicity and metamorphosis tests on Crassostrea gigas, and in vitro assays on primary cultures of Haliotis tuberculata hemocytes. The results showed high inter-species variability in EC50-values ranging from 43 to 15,600 µg/L for fluoxetine, from 67 to 4,400 µg/L for sertraline, and from 4.70 µg/L to more than 100,000 µg/L for clomipramine. Algae (S. marinoi and P. subcapitata) and the embryo-larval stages of the oyster C. gigas were the most sensitive taxa. This raises an issue due to their ecological and/or economic importance. The marine crustacean A. salina was the least sensitive species. This difference in sensitivity between bioassays highlights the importance of using a test battery. PMID:25185786

  1. A taxonomic reevaluation of Phrynops (Testudines: Chelidae) with the description of two new genera and a new species of Batrachemys.

    PubMed

    McCord, W P; Joseph-Ouni, M; Lamar, W W

    2001-06-01

    Relationships among turtle species loosely categorized within the South American genus Phrynops are explored. Three once recognized genera (Batrachemys, Mesoclemmys and Phrynops) that were demoted to subgenera, and then synonymized with Phrynops, are demonstrated to warrant full recognition based on morphometric analysis, skull osteology, and mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequencing. Mesoclemmys is resurrected from the synonymy of Phrynops as a monotypic genus including M. gibba. The genus Rhinemys, previously a synonym of Phrynops, is resurrected for the species R. rufipes. Ranacephala gen. nov. is described to include the species R. hogei. The genus Batrachemys is resurrected from the synonymy of Phrynops and includes B. dahli, B. nasuta, B. raniceps, B. tuberculata, and B. zuliae. The taxon vanderhaegei is placed in Bufocephala gen. nov. The genus Phrynops is redefined to include the taxa P. geoffroanus, P. hilarii, P. tuberosus, and P. williamsi. Cladistic analysis of morphological data supports this taxonomy. A new species of Batrachemys is described from the western Amazon region, and is distinguished by having facial markings in juveniles, a relatively wide head, and a flattened shell. The new species, B. heliostemma sp. nov., is sympatric with and most similar to the recently resurrected form Batrachemys raniceps in the upper Amazonian region of Peru and adjacent Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Colombia. Lastly, morphometric data from living and museum specimens of all species of Batrachemys are presented. PMID:11935927

  2. Environmental Control of Phase Transition and Polyp Survival of a Massive-Outbreaker Jellyfish

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Laura; Astorga, Diana; Navarro, Gabriel; Ruiz, Javier

    2010-01-01

    A number of causes have been proposed to account for the occurrence of gelatinous zooplankton (both jellyfish and ctenophore) blooms. Jellyfish species have a complex life history involving a benthic asexual phase (polyp) and a pelagic sexual phase (medusa). Strong environmental control of jellyfish life cycles is suspected, but not fully understood. This study presents a comprehensive analysis on the physicochemical conditions that control the survival and phase transition of Cotylorhiza tuberculata; a scyphozoan that generates large outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory experiments indicated that the influence of temperature on strobilation and polyp survival was the critical factor controlling the capacity of this species to proliferate. Early life stages were less sensitive to other factors such as salinity variations or the competitive advantage provided by zooxanthellae in a context of coastal eutrophication. Coherently with laboratory results, the presence/absence of outbreaks of this jellyfish in a particular year seems to be driven by temperature. This is the first time the environmental forcing of the mechanism driving the life cycle of a jellyfish has been disentangled via laboratory experimentation. Projecting this understanding to a field population under climatological variability results in a pattern coherent with in situ records. PMID:21072185

  3. Self-repairing symmetry in jellyfish through mechanically driven reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Michael J.; Basinger, Ty; Yuan, William; Guo, Chin-Lin; Goentoro, Lea

    2015-01-01

    What happens when an animal is injured and loses important structures? Some animals simply heal the wound, whereas others are able to regenerate lost parts. In this study, we report a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair, where moon jellyfish respond to injuries by reorganizing existing parts, and rebuilding essential body symmetry, without regenerating what is lost. Specifically, in response to arm amputation, the young jellyfish of Aurelia aurita rearrange their remaining arms, recenter their manubria, and rebuild their muscular networks, all completed within 12 hours to 4 days. We call this process symmetrization. We find that symmetrization is not driven by external cues, cell proliferation, cell death, and proceeded even when foreign arms were grafted on. Instead, we find that forces generated by the muscular network are essential. Inhibiting pulsation using muscle relaxants completely, and reversibly, blocked symmetrization. Furthermore, we observed that decreasing pulse frequency using muscle relaxants slowed symmetrization, whereas increasing pulse frequency by lowering the magnesium concentration in seawater accelerated symmetrization. A mathematical model that describes the compressive forces from the muscle contraction, within the context of the elastic response from the mesoglea and the ephyra geometry, can recapitulate the recovery of global symmetry. Thus, self-repair in Aurelia proceeds through the reorganization of existing parts, and is driven by forces generated by its own propulsion machinery. We find evidence for symmetrization across species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). PMID:26080418

  4. Self-repairing symmetry in jellyfish through mechanically driven reorganization.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Michael J; Basinger, Ty; Yuan, William; Guo, Chin-Lin; Goentoro, Lea

    2015-06-30

    What happens when an animal is injured and loses important structures? Some animals simply heal the wound, whereas others are able to regenerate lost parts. In this study, we report a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair, where moon jellyfish respond to injuries by reorganizing existing parts, and rebuilding essential body symmetry, without regenerating what is lost. Specifically, in response to arm amputation, the young jellyfish of Aurelia aurita rearrange their remaining arms, recenter their manubria, and rebuild their muscular networks, all completed within 12 hours to 4 days. We call this process symmetrization. We find that symmetrization is not driven by external cues, cell proliferation, cell death, and proceeded even when foreign arms were grafted on. Instead, we find that forces generated by the muscular network are essential. Inhibiting pulsation using muscle relaxants completely, and reversibly, blocked symmetrization. Furthermore, we observed that decreasing pulse frequency using muscle relaxants slowed symmetrization, whereas increasing pulse frequency by lowering the magnesium concentration in seawater accelerated symmetrization. A mathematical model that describes the compressive forces from the muscle contraction, within the context of the elastic response from the mesoglea and the ephyra geometry, can recapitulate the recovery of global symmetry. Thus, self-repair in Aurelia proceeds through the reorganization of existing parts, and is driven by forces generated by its own propulsion machinery. We find evidence for symmetrization across species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). PMID:26080418

  5. Identification of candidate antimicrobial peptides derived from abalone hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jun; Coates, Christopher J; Zhu, Hongtao; Zhu, Ping; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2015-03-01

    Hemocyanins present in invertebrate hemolymph are multifunctional proteins, responsible for oxygen transport and contributing to innate immunity through phenoloxidase-like activity. In arthropods, hemocyanin has been identified as a source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides during infection. Conversely, no hemocyanin-derived antimicrobial peptides have been reported for molluscs. The present study describes a putative antimicrobial region, termed haliotisin, located within the linking sequence between the α-helical domain and β-sheet domain of abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) hemocyanin functional unit E. A series of synthetic peptides based on overlapping fragments of the haliotisin region were tested for their bactericidal potential. Incubating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the presence of certain haliotisin peptides, notably peptides 3-4-5 (DTFDYKKFGYRYDSLELEGRSISRIDELIQQRQEKDRTFAGFLLKGFGTSAS) led to reductions in microbial growth. Furthermore, transmission electron micrographs of haliotisin-treated bacteria revealed damages to the microbial cell wall. Data discussed here provides the first evidence to suggest that molluscan hemocyanin may act as a source of anti-infective peptides. PMID:25445903

  6. Detections of Yersinia pestis East of the Known Distribution of Active Plague in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mize, Erica L; Britten, Hugh B

    2016-02-01

    We examined fleas collected from black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) burrows from 2009 through 2011 in five national park units east of the known distribution of active plague across the northern Great Plains for the presence of Yersinia pestis. Across all national park units, Oropsylla tuberculata and Oropsylla hirsuta were the most common fleas collected from prairie dog burrows, 42.4% and 56.9%, respectively, of the 3964 fleas collected from burrow swabbing. Using a nested PCR assay, we detected 200 Y. pestis-positive fleas from 3117 assays. In total, 6.4% of assayed fleas were Y. pestis positive and 13.9% of prairie dog burrows swabbed contained Y. pestis-positive fleas. Evidence of the presence of Y. pestis was observed at all national park units except Devils Tower National Monument in Wyoming. We detected the presence of Y. pestis without large die-offs, i.e., enzootic sylvatic plague, east of the known distribution of active plague and near the eastern edge of the present distribution of black-tailed prairie dogs. This study, in combination with previous work suggests that sylvatic plague likely occurs across the range of black-tailed prairie dogs and should now be treated as endemic across this range. PMID:26771845

  7. Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

  8. Comparative toxicity of chemicals to earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, C.A.; Shirazi, M.A. ); Neuhauser, E.F. )

    1994-02-01

    The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Allolobophora tuberculata (Eisen), Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg), and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. A Weibull function is used to summarize these data for each chemical in terms of sensitivity and toxicity, in addition to the LC50. The estimation of the Weibull parameters a and k summarize the entire concentration-response relationship. This technique should be applicable to a variety of testing protocols with different species whenever the goal is summarizing the shape of the concentration-response curves to fully evaluate chemical impact on organisms. In some cases for these data four orders of magnitude separate LC50s of the soil test and the contact test for the same chemical and species. All four species appear to be similar in range of toxicity and tolerance to these chemicals, suggesting that Eisenia fetida and may be representative of these four species and these chemicals.

  9. Zwicknia gen. n., a new genus for the Capnia bifrons species group, with descriptions of three new species based on morphology, drumming signals and molecular genetics, and a synopsis of the West Palaearctic and Nearctic genera of Capniidae (Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Murányi, Dávid; Gamboa, Maribet; Orci, Kirill Márk

    2014-01-01

    Zwicknia Murányi, gen. n. is erected for the Capnia bifrons species group sensu Zhiltzova, 2001 with the description of three new species based on morphology, mating call, and the mitochondrial DNA marker cytochrome c oxidase I: Z. acuta Murányi & Orci, sp. n., Z. kovacsi Murányi & Gamboa, sp. n. and Z. rupprechti Murányi, Orci & Gamboa, sp. n.. Zwicknia bifrons (Newman, 1838) comb. n. is selected as the type species and redescribed. The other three species placed into Zwicknia, gen. n., Z. sevanica (Zhiltzova, 1964) comb. n., Z. tuberculata (Zhiltzova, 1964) comb. n., and Z. turkestanica (Kimmins, 1950) comb. n. are redescribed based only on morphological characters. Comparative morphological studies and newly discovered characters of the genitalia has allowed for the first time a synopsis of the adults of the West Palaearctic and Nearctic genera of Capniidae. Arsapnia Banks, 1897 (type species: A. decepta Banks, 1897 comb. rev.) is removed from synonymy with Capnia Pictet, 1841 with new combinations, Arsapnia arapahoe (Nelson & Kondratieff, 1988) comb. n., A. coyote (Nelson & Baumann, 1987) comb. n., A. pileata (Jewett, 1966) comb. n., A. sequoia (Nelson & Baumann, 1987) comb. n., A. teresa (Claassen, 1924) comb. n., A. tumida (Claassen, 1924) comb. n., and A. utahensis (Gaufin & Jewett, 1962) comb. n. A new sensu stricto diagnosis of Capnia is proposed with comments on the taxa retained in Capnia sensu lato. PMID:24943267

  10. Ontogeny of behavioural adaptations in beach crustaceans: some temporal considerations for integrated coastal zone management and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, E.; Kennedy, F.

    2003-10-01

    So-called "typical" behavioural responses of coastal animals to particular stimuli have previously been shown often to vary cyclically in phase with diel or tidal cycles in the environment. Less well-studied are differences in the behaviour of adults and juveniles of the same species at the same time of day or tidal state, or in response to the same stimulus. Experimental studies of such differences in behaviour are reviewed and compared for three species of beach crustaceans, namely, the crab Carcinus maenas, the isopod Eurydice pulchra and the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. Juvenile, but not adult, Carcinus will entrain circatidal rhythmicity after exposure to artificial tidal cycles of immersion/emersion; juvenile, but not adult, Eurydice express pronounced free-running circatidal swimming rhythms at neap tides as well as at springs; and, in Orchestoidea, juveniles and adults express patterns of daily locomotor activity that are complementary, both on the shore and in the laboratory. These ontogenetic differences are discussed in relation to distributional and behavioural differences between adults and juveniles in each species, drawing attention to their adaptive significance and wider implications for coastal management and conservation.

  11. Extirpation of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) following the invasion of dreissenid mussels in an interconnecting river of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Kovalak, William P.; Longton, Gary D.; Smithee, Rick D.

    2006-01-01

    Previous (1992-1994) surveys for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) along main channels of the Detroit River showed that unionids had been extirpated from all but four sites in the upper reaches of the river due to impacts of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis). These four sites were surveyed again in 1998 using the same sampling method (timed-random searches) to determine if they may serve as ''refugia'' where unionids and dreissenids co-exist. Two additional sites were sampled using additional methods (excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches) for comparison with unpublished data collected in 1987 and 1990. A total of four individuals of four species (Actinonaias ligamentina, Cyclonaias tuberculata, Lasmigona complanata and Pleurobema sintoxia) were found by timed-random searches at four sites in 1998 compared to 720 individuals of 24 species in 1992 and 39 individuals of 13 species in 1994. Excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches at the two additional sites yielded only one live specimen of Ptychobranchus fasciolaris compared to 288 individuals of 18 species in 1987 and 1990. Results of this study suggest that remaining densities of unionids in channels of the Detroit River are too low to support viable reproducing populations of any species. Therefore, we conclude that unionids have been extirpated from main channels of the Detroit River due to dreissenid infestation. As the Detroit River was one of the first water bodies in North America to be invaded by dreissenids, it is likely that unionids will also be extirpated from many other rivers and lakes across eastern North America over the next few decades. Resource agencies should be encouraged to implement active management programs to protect remaining unionid populations from zebra mussels.

  12. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Jellyfish Collagen for Use in Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Addad, Sourour; Exposito, Jean-Yves; Faye, Clément; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Lethias, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures). The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2–10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue). Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g), R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p > 0.05) between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin inhibits cell adhesion to jellyfish-native collagen by 55%, the main difference is that heparan sulfate proteoglycans could be preferentially involved in fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion to jellyfish collagens. Our data confirm the broad harmlessness of jellyfish collagens, and their biological effect on human cells that are similar to that of mammalian type I collagen. Given the bioavailability of jellyfish collagen and its biological properties, this marine material is thus a good candidate for replacing bovine or human collagens in selected biomedical applications. PMID:21747742

  13. A lost link between a flightless parrot and a parasitic plant and the potential role of coprolites in conservation paleobiology.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jamie R; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Worthy, Trevor H; Holzapfel, Avi S; Cooper, Alan

    2012-12-01

    Late Quaternary extinctions and population fragmentations have severely disrupted animal-plant interactions globally. Detection of disrupted interactions often relies on anachronistic plant characteristics, such as spines in the absence of large herbivores or large fruit without dispersers. However, obvious anachronisms are relatively uncommon, and it can be difficult to prove a direct link between the anachronism and a particular faunal taxon. Analysis of coprolites (fossil feces) provides a novel way of exposing lost interactions between animals (depositors) and consumed organisms. We analyzed ancient DNA to show that a coprolite from the South Island of New Zealand was deposited by the rare and threatened kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), a large, nocturnal, flightless parrot. When we analyzed the pollen and spore content of the coprolite, we found pollen from the cryptic root-parasite Dactylanthus taylorii. The relatively high abundance (8.9% of total pollen and spores) of this zoophilous pollen type in the coprolite supports the hypothesis of a former direct feeding interaction between kakapo and D. taylorii. The ranges of both species have contracted substantially since human settlement, and their present distributions no longer overlap. Currently, the lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) is the only known native pollinator of D. taylorii, but our finding raises the possibility that birds, and other small fauna, could have once fed on and pollinated the plant. If confirmed, through experimental work and observations, this finding may inform conservation of the plant. For example, it may be possible to translocate D. taylorii to predator-free offshore islands that lack bats but have thriving populations of endemic nectar-feeding birds. The study of coprolites of rare or extinct taxonomic groups provides a unique way forward to expand existing knowledge of lost plant and animal interactions and to identify pollination and dispersal syndromes. This approach of linking paleobiology with neoecology offers significant untapped potential to help inform conservation and restoration plans. PMID:23025275

  14. Toxicity of surficial sediments from Sydney Harbour and vicinity, Australia.

    PubMed

    McCready, S; Spyrakis, G; Greely, C R; Birch, G F; Long, E R

    2004-01-01

    The toxicological responses of three species to 103 surficial saltwater sediment samples from Sydney Harbour, and coastal lakes and estuaries on the south-east coast of New South Wales, Australia, were tested in a battery of four to six laboratory toxicity tests. This is the first large-scale toxicological study of sediments in Australia, the objective of which is to assess the protective and predictive abilities of North American biological effects-based sediment quality guidelines, recently adopted in Australia. Amphipods were exposed to whole sediments in survival and reburial tests, sea urchin fertilisation and larval development tests were conducted on porewaters, and bacterial bio-luminescence (Microtox) tests were conducted on organic solvent extracts and porewaters. Local indigenous species were used for the amphipod and sea urchin tests (Corophium sp. and Heliocidaris tuberculata, respectively). A wide range of responses, from <25 to 100% of negative controls were observed in all tests. Mean control-adjusted responses ranged from 46 to 96% for all tests. The percentages of highly toxic samples ranged from 11 to 83% in the various tests. The order of test sensitivity was: amphipod survival < Microtox test of porewaters < amphipod reburial < sea urchin larval development < sea urchin fertilisation < Microtox test of solvent extracts. Concordance between toxicity tests in classifying samples as highly toxic or not, ranged from 47 to 79%, indicating some similarities between test results, but not complete equivalence. Combined toxicity test results showed that the incidence of highly toxic responses occurring in the majority of tests (75-100% of tests) was low (5% of samples), but a large percentage of samples had highly toxic results in at least one test (76% of samples). Toxicity was more pervasive in the Sydney region than in coastal lakes and estuaries south of Sydney. The current study demonstrated the utility of indigenous invertebrate species and the Microtox bacterium in a sediment toxicity test battery for Australian saltwater sediments. PMID:15327149

  15. Rivaling the World's Smallest Reptiles: Discovery of Miniaturized and Microendemic New Species of Leaf Chameleons (Brookesia) from Northern Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Glaw, Frank; Köhler, Jörn; Townsend, Ted M.; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background One clade of Malagasy leaf chameleons, the Brookesia minima group, is known to contain species that rank among the smallest amniotes in the world. We report on a previously unrecognized radiation of these miniaturized lizards comprising four new species described herein. Methodology/Principal Findings The newly discovered species appear to be restricted to single, mostly karstic, localities in extreme northern Madagascar: Brookesia confidens sp. n. from Ankarana, B. desperata sp. n. from Forêt d'Ambre, B. micra sp. n. from the islet Nosy Hara, and B. tristis sp. n. from Montagne des Français. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of all nominal species in the B. minima group congruently support that the four new species, together with B. tuberculata from Montagne d'Ambre in northern Madagascar, form a strongly supported clade. This suggests that these species have diversified in geographical proximity in this small area. All species of the B. minima group, including the four newly described ones, are characterized by very deep genetic divergences of 18–32% in the ND2 gene and >6% in the 16S rRNA gene. Despite superficial similarities among all species of this group, their status as separate evolutionary lineages is also supported by moderate to strong differences in external morphology, and by clear differences in hemipenis structure. Conclusion/Significance The newly discovered dwarf chameleon species represent striking cases of miniaturization and microendemism and suggest the possibility of a range size-body size relationship in Malagasy reptiles. The newly described Brookesia micra reaches a maximum snout-vent length in males of 16 mm, and its total length in both sexes is less than 30 mm, ranking it among the smallest amniote vertebrates in the world. With a distribution limited to a very small islet, this species may represent an extreme case of island dwarfism. PMID:22348069

  16. Biogeography of Wood-Boring Crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae) Established in European Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Luísa M. S.; Merckelbach, Lucas M.; Cragg, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal), limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe. PMID:25313796

  17. Revision of the Southeast Asian millipede genus Orthomorpha Bollman, 1893, with the proposal of a new genus (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Likhitrakarn, Natdanai; Golovatch, Sergei I.; Panha, Somsak

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The large genus Orthomorpha is rediagnosed and is shown to currently comprise 51 identifiable species ranging from northern Myanmar and Thailand in the Northwest to Lombok Island, Indonesia in the Southeast. Of them, 20 species have been revised and/or abundantly illustrated, based on a restudy of mostly type material; further 12 species are described as new: Orthomorpha atypica sp. n., Orthomorpha communis sp. n., Orthomorpha isarankurai sp. n., Orthomorpha picturata sp. n., Orthomorpha similanensis sp. n., Orthomorpha suberecta sp. n., Orthomorpha tuberculifera sp. n.,Orthomorpha subtuberculifera sp. n. and Orthomorpha latiterga sp. n., all from Thailand, as well as Orthomorpha elevata sp. n.,Orthomorpha spiniformis sp. n. and Orthomorpha subelevata sp. n., from northern Malaysia. The type-species Orthomorpha beaumontii (Le Guillou, 1841) is redescribed in due detail from male material as well, actually being a senior subjective synonym of Orthomorpha spinala (Attems, 1932), syn. n. Two additional new synonymies are proposed: Orthomorpha rotundicollis (Attems, 1937) = Orthomorpha tuberculata (Attems, 1937), syn. n., and Orthomorpha butteli Carl, 1922 = Orthomorpha consocius Chamberlin, 1945, syn. n., the valid names to the left. All species have been keyed and all new and some especially widespread species have been mapped. Further six species, including two revised from type material, are still to be considered dubious, mostly because their paraterga appear to be too narrow to represent Orthomorpha species. A new genus, Orthomorphoides gen. n., diagnosed versus Orthomorpha through only moderately well developed paraterga, coupled with a poorly bi- or trifid gonopod tip, with at least some of its apical prongs being short spines, is erected for two species: Orthomorpha setosus (Attems, 1937), the type-species, which is also revised from type material, and Orthomorpha exaratus (Attems, 1953), both comb. n. ex Orthomorpha. PMID:22140329

  18. Taxonomic revision of the spider genera Agyneta and Tennesseellum (Araneae, Linyphiidae) of North America north of Mexico with a study of the embolic division within Micronetinae sensu Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996.

    PubMed

    Dupérré, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The genera Agyneta Hull 1911 and Tennesseellum Petrunkevitch 1925 are revised for North America north of Mexico. The synonymy of Meioneta Hull 1920 with Agyneta Hull 1911 proposed by Saaristo 1973 is corroborated. The North American fauna north of Mexico of Agyneta now includes a total of 69 species, of which 31 are new species: A. watertoni n. sp., A. perspicua n. sp., A. aquila n. sp., A. yukona n. sp., A. darrelli n. sp., A. bucklei n. sp., A. erinacea n. sp., A. crawfordi n. sp., A. vinki n. sp., A. panthera n. sp., A. miniata n. sp., A. danielbelangeri n. sp., A. pistrix n. sp., A. flax n. sp., A. barfoot n. sp., A. sandia n. sp., A. spicula n. sp., A. grandcanyon n. sp., A. chiricahua n. sp., A. crista n. sp., A. tuberculata n. sp., A. catalina n. sp., A. ledfordi n. sp., A. platnicki n. sp., A. bronx n. sp., A. paquini n. sp., A. girardi n. sp., A. flibuscrocus n. sp., A. delphina n. sp., A. okefenokee n. sp. and A. issaqueena n. sp. The genus Tennesseellum includes two spe-cies, with one new species, T. gollum n. sp. Ten new synonyms are recognized: Meioneta grayi Barnes 1953 = Anibontes mimus Chamberlin 1924; Meioneta dactylata Chamberlin & Ivie 1944, Meioneta officiosa (Barrows 1940) = Meioneta micaria (Emerton 1882); Meioneta imitata Chamberlin & Ivie 1944 = Meioneta leucophora Chamberlin & Ivie 1944; Meioneta ferosa (Chamberlin & Ivie 1943) = Meioneta fillmorana (Chamberlin 1919); Meioneta fuscipes Chamberlin & Ivie 1944 = Meioneta floridana (Banks 1896); Meioneta alaskensis Holm 1960 = Meioneta maritima (Emerton 1919); Meioneta meridionalis (Crosby & Bishop 1936), Meioneta zebrina Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944 = Meioneta parva (Banks 1896); Meioneta zygia (Keyserling 1886) = Meioneta fabra (Keyserling 1886). Ten informal species groups are proposed based on the study on the male palpal conformation of the embolus and radical division; these groups are not intened to be phylogenetic hypotheses. The limits and composition of the subfamily Micronetinae sensu Saaristo & Tanasevitch 1996 are discussed. PMID:26146700

  19. Systematics and Molecular Phylogeny of the Family Oscarellidae (Homoscleromorpha) with Description of Two New Oscarella Species

    PubMed Central

    Gazave, Eve; Lavrov, Dennis V.; Cabrol, Jory; Renard, Emmanuelle; Rocher, Caroline; Vacelet, Jean; Adamska, Maja; Borchiellini, Carole; Ereskovsky, Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    The family Oscarellidae is one of the two families in the class Homoscleromorpha (phylum Porifera) and is characterized by the absence of a skeleton and the presence of a specific mitochondrial gene, tatC. This family currently encompasses sponges in two genera: Oscarella with 17 described species and Pseudocorticium with one described species. Although sponges in this group are relatively well-studied, phylogenetic relationships among members of Oscarellidae and the validity of genus Pseudocorticium remain open questions. Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of Oscarellidae using four markers (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, atp6, tatC), and argue that it should become a mono-generic family, with Pseudocorticium being synonymized with Oscarella, and with the transfer of Pseudocorticium jarrei to Oscarella jarrei. We show that the genus Oscarella can be subdivided into four clades, each of which is supported by either a small number of morphological characters or by molecular synapomorphies. In addition, we describe two new species of Oscarella from Norwegian fjords: O. bergenensis sp. nov. and O. nicolae sp. nov., and we compare their morphology, anatomy, and cytology with other species in this genus. Internal anatomical characters are similar in both species, but details of external morphology and particularly of cytological characters provide diagnostic features. Our study also confirms that O. lobularis and O. tuberculata are two distinct polychromic sibling species. This study highlights the difficulties of species identification in skeleton-less sponges and, more generally, in groups where morphological characters are scarce. Adopting a multi-marker approach is thus highly suitable for these groups. PMID:23737959

  20. Hoverfly (syrphidae) communities respond to varying structural retention after harvesting in canadian peatland black spruce forests.

    PubMed

    Deans, A M; Smith, S M; Malcolm, J R; Crins, W J; Bellocq, M I

    2007-04-01

    Variable retention harvesting (VRH), in which trees are removed at variable intensity and spatial configuration across the landscape, retains greater forest structural heterogeneity than traditional clear-cut harvesting and is being recommended as an alternative for sustainable management of the boreal forest. Little is known about its effects on forest fauna; thus, we studied the influence of one type of VRH (harvesting with advanced regeneration [HARP]) on the Syrphidae (Diptera) community in northern Ontario forests of peatland black spruce (Picea mariana). We examined the effects of varying structural retention (from unharvested through partial retention to clear-cut) on syrphid species richness and abundance, and abundance of functional assemblages. Greater species richness and population abundances were found generally in harvested than in unharvested forests. Overall species richness and the abundance of four species (Platycheirus rosarum, Toxomerus marginatus, Xylota annulifera, and X. tuberculata) and larval predators were all higher in both clear-cut sites and those with structural retention than in unharvested sites. Similarly, overall species richness and the abundance of nine species were higher in clear-cut than in unharvested sites. Species responses are discussed in an ecological context. Differences among the levels of forest retention harvesting were relatively minor compared with those of the clear-cut and unharvested area, suggesting that local habitat characteristics may play a more important role in determining the syrphid community than the landscape configuration. However, a landscape level effect was evident, suggesting that syrphids may be useful in reflecting changes in stand structure at the landscape scale. PMID:17445365

  1. Comparative Developmental Transcriptomics Reveals Rewiring of a Highly Conserved Gene Regulatory Network during a Major Life History Switch in the Sea Urchin Genus Heliocidaris

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Jennifer W.; Martik, Megan L.; Byrne, Maria; Raff, Elizabeth C.; Raff, Rudolf A.; McClay, David R.; Wray, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    The ecologically significant shift in developmental strategy from planktotrophic (feeding) to lecithotrophic (nonfeeding) development in the sea urchin genus Heliocidaris is one of the most comprehensively studied life history transitions in any animal. Although the evolution of lecithotrophy involved substantial changes to larval development and morphology, it is not known to what extent changes in gene expression underlie the developmental differences between species, nor do we understand how these changes evolved within the context of the well-defined gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying sea urchin development. To address these questions, we used RNA-seq to measure expression dynamics across development in three species: the lecithotroph Heliocidaris erythrogramma, the closely related planktotroph H. tuberculata, and an outgroup planktotroph Lytechinus variegatus. Using well-established statistical methods, we developed a novel framework for identifying, quantifying, and polarizing evolutionary changes in gene expression profiles across the transcriptome and within the GRN. We found that major changes in gene expression profiles were more numerous during the evolution of lecithotrophy than during the persistence of planktotrophy, and that genes with derived expression profiles in the lecithotroph displayed specific characteristics as a group that are consistent with the dramatically altered developmental program in this species. Compared to the transcriptome, changes in gene expression profiles within the GRN were even more pronounced in the lecithotroph. We found evidence for conservation and likely divergence of particular GRN regulatory interactions in the lecithotroph, as well as significant changes in the expression of genes with known roles in larval skeletogenesis. We further use coexpression analysis to identify genes of unknown function that may contribute to both conserved and derived developmental traits between species. Collectively, our results indicate that distinct evolutionary processes operate on gene expression during periods of life history conservation and periods of life history divergence, and that this contrast is even more pronounced within the GRN than across the transcriptome as a whole. PMID:26943850

  2. Ocean acidification induces changes in algal palatability and herbivore feeding behavior and performance.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristian; López, Jorge; Benítez, Samanta; Manríquez, Patricio H; Navarro, Jorge M; Bonta, Cesar C; Torres, Rodrigo; Quijón, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    The effects of global stressors on a species may be mediated by the stressors' impact on coexisting taxa. For instance, herbivore-algae interactions may change due to alterations in algal nutritional quality resulting from high CO2 levels associated with ocean acidification (OA). We approached this issue by assessing the indirect effects of OA on the trophic interactions between the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata and the brown alga Durvillaea antarctica, two prominent species of the South-east Pacific coast. We predicted that amphipod feeding behavior and performance (growth rate) will be affected by changes in the palatability of the algae exposed to high levels (1000 ppm) of CO2. We exposed algae to current and predicted (OA) atmospheric CO2 levels and then measured their nutritive quality and amphipod preference in choice trials. We also assessed consumption rates separately in no-choice trials, and measured amphipod absorption efficiency and growth rates. Protein and organic contents of the algae decreased in acidified conditions and amphipods showed low preference for these algae. However, in the no-choice trials we recorded higher grazing rates on algae exposed to OA. Although amphipod absorption efficiency was lower on these algae, growth rates did not differ between treatments, which suggests the occurrence of compensatory feeding. Our results suggest that changes in algal nutritional value in response to OA induce changes in algal palatability and these in turn affect consumers' food preference and performance. Indirect effects of global stressors like OA can be equally or more important than the direct effects predicted in the literature. PMID:26453521

  3. Hyperparasitism of the cryptoniscid isopod Liriopsis pygmaea on the lithodid Paralomis granulosa from the Beagle Channel, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lovrich, Gustavo A; Roccatagliata, Daniel; Peresan, Laura

    2004-01-28

    A total of 29,570 false king crab Paralomis granulosa were sampled from the Beagle Channel (54 degrees 51'S, 68 degrees 12'W), Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, between July 1996 and August 1998. Crab size varied from 6.8 to 111.2 mm carapace length (CL). A few crabs parasitized by the rhizocephalan Briarosaccus callosus were found; prevalences of externae (the rhizocephalan reproductive body) and scars (the mark left on the host after the death of the parasite) were 0.28 and 0.16%, respectively. Of 85 externae examined, 55 were non-ovigerous and 30 ovigerous. The cryptoniscid isopod Liriopsis pygmaea infested 36.5% of the B. callosus examined. The most abundant stage was the cryptonicus larva, accounting for 208 of the 238 L. pygmaea recovered. Cryptonisci showed a highly aggregated distribution. A total of 92.7% of cryptonicsci were recovered inside empty externae, suggesting that the latter were attractive to cryptonisci. Early subadult females of L. pygmaea were rare; only 3 individuals occurred inside 1 ovigerous externa. Eight late subadult and 18 adult females were found on 3 and 7 non-ovigerous externae, respectively; in addition, 1 aberrant late subadult was found on 1 ovigerous externa. In the Beagle Channel, the population of P. granulosa harbours 3 different parasites: the bopyrid isopod Pseudione tuberculata, which reaches highest prevalence at 10 to 20 mm CL, the rhizocephalan B. callosus, with highest prevalence at 20 to 40 mm CL, and the cryptoniscid isopod L. pygmaea, which mainly infests rhizocephalan on crabs >40 mm CL. PMID:15038454

  4. Derivation of a water quality guideline for aluminium in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Apte, Simon C; Krassoi, Rick; Doyle, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    Metal risk assessment of industrialized harbors and coastal marine waters requires the application of robust water quality guidelines to determine the likelihood of biological impacts. Currently there is no such guideline available for aluminium in marine waters. A water quality guideline of 24 µg total Al/L has been developed for aluminium in marine waters based on chronic 10% inhibition or effect concentrations (IC10 or EC10) and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) from 11 species (2 literature values and 9 species tested including temperate and tropical species) representing 6 taxonomic groups. The 3 most sensitive species tested were a diatom Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium; IC10 = 18 µg Al/L, 72-h growth rate inhibition) < mussel Mytilus edulis plannulatus (EC10 = 250 µg Al/L, 72-h embryo development) < oyster Saccostrea echinata (EC10 = 410 µg Al/L, 48-h embryo development). Toxicity to these species was the result of the dissolved aluminium forms of aluminate (Al(OH4 (-) ) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3 (0) ) although both dissolved, and particulate aluminium contributed to toxicity in the diatom Minutocellus polymorphus and green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the green flagellate alga Tetraselmis sp. was the result of particulate aluminium only. Four species, a brown macroalga (Hormosira banksii), sea urchin embryo (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and 2 juvenile fish species (Lates calcarifer and Acanthochromis polyacanthus), were not adversely affected at the highest test concentration used. PMID:25318392

  5. Increase in quantity and quality of suitable areas for invasive species as climate changes.

    PubMed

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Luque, Gloria M; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    As climatically suitable range projections become increasingly used to assess distributions of species, we recommend systematic assessments of the quality of habitat in addition to the classical binary classification of habitat. We devised a method to assess occurrence probability, captured by a climatic suitability index, through which we could determine variations in the quality of potential habitat. This relative risk assessment circumvents the use of an arbitrary suitability threshold. We illustrated our method with 2 case studies on invasive ant species. We estimated invasion potential of the destroyer ant (Monomorium destructor) and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) on a global scale currently and by 2080 with climate change. We found that 21.1% of the world's landmass currently has a suitable climate for the destroyer ant and 16% has a suitable climate for European fire ant. Our climatic suitability index showed that both ant species would benefit from climate change, but in different ways. The size of the potential distribution increased by 35.8% for the destroyer ant. Meanwhile, the total area of potential distribution remained the same for the European fire ant (>0.05%), but the level of climatic suitability within this range increased greatly and led to an improvement in habitat quality (i.e., of invasive species' establishment likelihood). Either through quantity or quality of suitable areas, both invasive ant species are likely to increase the extent of their invasion in the future, following global climate change. Our results show that species may increase their range if either more areas become suitable or if the available areas present improved suitability. Studies in which an arbitrary suitability threshold was used may overlook changes in area quality within climatically suitable areas and as a result reach incorrect predictions. Incremento de la Cantidad y Calidad de Áreas Idóneas para Especies Invasoras a Medida que Cambia el Clima. PMID:23869583

  6. Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) from the ANDEEP3 expedition

    PubMed Central

    Danis, Bruno; Jangoux, Michel; Wilmes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea. Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm), deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72) expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude) and from 0 to -65°W (longitude). A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (http://www.pangaea.de/PHP/CruiseReports.php?b=Polarstern), including a cruise report (http://epic-reports.awi.de/3694/1/PE_72.pdf). The dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens. The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m), while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m), Lysasterias adeliae (4832m), Lophaster stellans (4752m), Cheiraster planeta (4708m), Eremicaster crassus (4626m), Lophaster gaini (4560m) and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m)). Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings to light six species, newly reported in the Southern Ocean. The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly, by means of on-board Polarstern GPS systems, checking of identification by a renowned specialist (Prof. Michel Jangoux, Université Libre de Bruxelles), and matching to the Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS) and World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS). The data is therefore fit for completing checklists, for inclusion in biodiversity patterns analysis, or niche modeling. It also nicely fills an information gap regarding deep-sea starfish from the Southern Ocean, for which data is very scarce at this time. The authors may be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies. PMID:22577314

  7. Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) from the ANDEEP3 expedition.

    PubMed

    Danis, Bruno; Jangoux, Michel; Wilmes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea.Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm), deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72) expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude) and from 0 to -65°W (longitude). A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (http://www.pangaea.de/PHP/CruiseReports.php?b=Polarstern), including a cruise report (http://epic-reports.awi.de/3694/1/PE_72.pdf).The dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens.The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m), while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m), Lysasterias adeliae (4832m), Lophaster stellans (4752m), Cheiraster planeta (4708m), Eremicaster crassus (4626m), Lophaster gaini (4560m) and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m)).Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings to light six species, newly reported in the Southern Ocean.The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly, by means of on-board Polarstern GPS systems, checking of identification by a renowned specialist (Prof. Michel Jangoux, Université Libre de Bruxelles), and matching to the Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS) and World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS). The data is therefore fit for completing checklists, for inclusion in biodiversity patterns analysis, or niche modeling. It also nicely fills an information gap regarding deep-sea starfish from the Southern Ocean, for which data is very scarce at this time. The authors may be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies. PMID:22577314

  8. Phylogeny, Floral Evolution, and Inter-Island Dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) Based on ISSR Variation and Plastid Spacer Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Givnish, Thomas J.; Bean, Gregory J.; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or—perhaps more plausibly—a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree with them in supporting Clermontia's origin on Kauài or some older island and dispersal down the chain subsequently. PMID:23658747

  9. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:25102662

  10. Australian gall-inducing scale insects on Eucalyptus: revision of Opisthoscelis Schrader (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae) and descriptions of a new genus and nine new species

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Nate B.; Gullan, Penny J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelis gen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in Australia, with Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym): Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Opisthoscelis recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= Opisthoscelis ruebsaameni Lindinger) with Opisthoscelis convexa Froggatt; and Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as Tanyscelis conica (Fuller), comb. n., Tanyscelis convexa (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maskelli (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis pisiformis (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis spinosa (Froggatt), comb. n., and Tanyscelis verrucula (Froggatt), comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the first-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (Opisthoscelis subrotunda) and Tanyscelis (Opisthoscelis pisiformis). We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: Opisthoscelis beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis tuberculataHardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Opisthoscelis ungulifinis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: Tanyscelis grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanuscelis megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Tanyscelis villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for Opisthoscelis convexa, Opisthoscelis fibularis, Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, Opisthoscelis maculata, Opisthoscelis mammularis, Opisthoscelis maskelli, Opisthoscelis pisiformis, Opisthoscelis recurva, Opisthoscelis serrata, Opisthoscelis spinosa, and Opisthoscelis verrucula. As a result of our taxonomic revision, Opisthoscelis has six species and Tanyscelis has 12 species. We describe the galls of females for all 18 species and galls of males for 10 species of Opisthoscelis and Tanyscelis, and provide photographs of the galls for most species. A key to the adult females of the species of both genera is included. PMID:21594191

  11. Mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of tiger beetles: basic structure and evolution (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelitae)

    PubMed Central

    Ball, George E.; Acorn, John H.; Shpeley, Danny

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Using for comparison with, and as outgroups for, supertribe Cicindelitae, we describe and illustrate the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of the basal geadephagans Trachypachus gibbsii LeConte, 1861 (family Trachypachidae), and family Carabidae: Pelophila rudis (LeConte, 1863) (supertribe Nebriitae, tribe Pelophilini) and Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz, 1829) (supertribe Carabitae, tribe Ceroglossini). The range and pattern of variation in structure of mandibles and labrum-epipharynx within the supertribe Cicindelitae was assessed using scanning-electron (SEM) images of these structures in nine exemplar taxa: Amblycheila baroni (Rivers, 1890), Omus californicus (Eschscholtz, 1829) and Picnochile fallaciosa (Chevrolat, 1854) (representing the Amblycheilini); Manticora tuberculata (DeGeer, 1778) (representing the Manticorini): Tetracha carolina (Linnaeus, 1767) (representing the Megacephalini); Pogonostoma chalybeum (Klug, 1835) (representing the Collyridini); and Therates basalis Dejean, 1826, Oxycheila species, and Cicindela longilabris Say, 1824 (representing the Cicindelini). An evolutionary transformation series was postulated for the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx, based on a reconstructed phylogenetic sequence, which, in turn, was based on morphological and DNAevidence.Principal features of the transformation series for the mandibles included development of a densely setose basal face; wide quadridentate retinaculum; a lengthened incisor tooth; a multidentate terebra (one to five teeth; two-three most frequent), followed by subsequent loss of one or more such teeth; development of a diastema in the occlusal surface; development and subsequent loss of scrobal setae, and reduction and loss of the scrobe. Principal features of the transformation series for the labrum included evolution of form from transverse, sub-rectangular to elongate almost square, to triangular; position and number of setae evolved from dorsal to insertion on the apical margin, the number increased from 8-10 to as many as 36, and decreased to as few as four. The epipharynx broadened evolutionarily, the pedium evolving in form from narrow, triangular and nearly flat, to broad, palatiform, and markedly convex; anterior parapedial setae both increased and decreased in number, and in orientation, from a row parallel to the parapedial ridge to a setal row extended forward at about a right angle to the latter. PMID:22371663

  12. Comparative sensitivity of the cnidarian Exaiptasia pallida and a standard toxicity test suite: testing whole effluents intended for ocean disposal.

    PubMed

    Howe, P L; Reichelt-Brushett, A J; Krassoi, R; Micevska, T

    2015-09-01

    The sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida (formally Aiptasia pulchella) has been identified as a valuable test species for tropical marine ecotoxicology. Here, the sensitivities of newly developed endpoints for E. pallida to two unidentified whole effluents were compared to a standard suite of temperate toxicity test species and endpoints that are commonly used in toxicological risk assessments for tropical marine environments. For whole effluent 1 (WE1), a 96-h lethal concentration 50 % (LC50) of 40 (95 % confidence intervals, 30-54) % v/v and a 12-day LC50 of 12 (9-15) % v/v were estimated for E. pallida, exhibiting a significantly higher sensitivity than standard sub-lethal endpoints in Allorchestes compressa (96-h effective concentration 50 % (EC50) of >100 % v/v for immobilisation) and Hormosira banksii (72-h EC50 of >100 % v/v for germination), and a similar sensitivity to Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis larval development with a 48-h LC50 of 29 (28-30) % v/v. Sub-lethal effects of whole effluent 2 (WE2) on E. pallida pedal lacerate development resulted in an 8-day EC50 of 7 (3-11) % v/v, demonstrating comparable sensitivity of this endpoint to standardised sub-lethal endpoints in H. banksii (72-h EC50 of 11 (10-11) % v/v for germination), M. edulis galloprovincialis (48-h EC50 for larval development of 12 (9-14) % v/v) and Heliocidaris tuberculata (1-h EC50 of 13 (12-14) % v/v for fertilisation; 72-h EC50 of 26 (25-27) % v/v for larval development) and a significantly higher sensitivity than A. compressa immobilisation (96-h EC50 of >100 % v/v). The sensitivity of E. pallida compared to a standard test species suite highlights the value in standardising the newly developed toxicity test methods for inclusion in routine toxicological risk assessment of complex whole effluents. Importantly, this species provides an additional taxonomic group to the test species that are currently available for tropical marine ecotoxicology and, being a cnidarian, may represent important tropical marine environments including coral reefs. PMID:25940467

  13. Causes of Late Pleistocene water level change in Lake Victoria, Equatorial East Africa, derived from clumped isotopes of land snails and fresh water mollusks. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaarur, S.; Affek, H. P.; Tryon, C.; Peppe, D. J.; Faith, J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is based on the dependence of 13C-18O bond abundance in the carbonate lattice (measured as Δ47) on the carbonate formation temperature. Most marine and freshwater biogenic carbonates are found to be in agreement with the clumped isotopes - temperature calibration. Clumped isotope thermometry is particularly useful in terrestrial environments where the interpretation of carbonate δ18O is limited due to difficulty in estimating the paleo-water isotopic composition. Clumped isotope-derived temperatures from land snails are generally higher than the ambient environmental temperatures, but show no evidence for disequilibrium. We attribute these higher body temperatures to snail eco-physiological adaptations through shell color, morphology, and behavior. We use the clumped isotope-derived temperatures in combination with shell δ18O to calculate snail body water δ18O composition. This parameter is interpreted as a paleo-hydrological indicator that reflects the isotopic composition of local precipitation modified by local evaporation. Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to compare extant species of modern and fossil freshwater mollusks and land snails from the same location to examine lake paleo-hydrology. This location is particularly interesting as Lake Victoria itself is the main source of rain-water in the region such that the isotopic composition of land snail body water can be related back to the source waters. We combine clumped isotope and oxygen isotope measurements of both freshwater mollusks and land snails to examine the water balance of the lake, testing hypotheses about the mechanism of a significant rise in lake level in Lake Victoria ~35 - 40 ka BP. Outcrops of paleo-beach deposits ~18 m above the modern day lake level indicate high water stands at ~35-40 ka BP. Based on water balance models for Lake Victoria, an increase in lake level of this magnitude could be driven by local mean annual precipitation that is significantly greater than modern. However, this is inconsistent with regional climate reconstructions. This suggests that either lake level was controlled by non-climatic factors, or that local climate in the Lake Victoria basin was different than regional patterns of climate across eastern Africa. We use oxygen and clumped isotopes of modern and fossil shells (Corbicula sp., Melanoides sp. and Bellamya unicolor) from this 18 m beach outcrop on Mfangano Island to (1) compare with modern lake water δ18O values and (2) calculate paleo-water compositions. We combine these results with calculated snail body water δ18O composition (using oxygen and clumped isotopes) of land snails (Limicoloria cf. martensiana) from Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, to study hydrological changes of Lake Victoria. We use these data to evaluate the relative importance of climate change and tectonics as mechanisms for the Late Pleistocene expansion of Lake Victoria.

  14. Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control

    SciTech Connect

    Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr.

    2007-03-15

    Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [Spanish] La conota, Panicum repens L., es una especie foranea de pasto que produce rizomas que ha convertido en ser una maleza invasora de ambientes terrestres, pantanosos y acuaticos en regiones tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. Hasta hace un tiempo reciente, las estrategias para controlar conota en los EEUU eran enfocadas casi exclusivamente en los metodos mecanicos y quimicos, solos o en combinacion, con resultados variables. Un muestreo de los artropodos y nematodos asociados corrientemente con esta planta en el Lago de Okeechobee, Florida, fue realizado como parte de un estudio de factibilidad para determinar si conota es una candidata apropiada para un programa de control biologico clasico. En general, especimenes de aproximadamente unos 4,000 artropodos y unos 400 nematodos fueron recolectados. Muestras recolectadas pasando una red sobre vegetacion mezclada, cortando la vegetacion y tomando centros del suelo fueron dominados por representantes de artropodos de los ordenes de Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, y Acari. Nematodos en el genero Pratylenchus, que causan lesiones sobre tejido, fueron asociados regularmente con las raices de conota. Ninguno de los organismos recolectados eran especialistas sobre conota. Aunque el control biologico clasico de la conota es factible basado sobre la magnitud de la infestacion, las perdidas economicas, la resistencia hacia los metodos de control convencionales y el informe en la India de un posible enemigo natural especifico a esta planta, la posicion botanica de este pasto maleza requiere una evaluacion de riesgo economico formal antes de continuar con un programa de control biologico clasico. (author)

  15. Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae)

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Renodaeus group, a monophyletic assemblage of genera within the New World orthotyline tribe Ceratocapsini, comprising eight genera, including four new ones, is defined; and 48 species are treated, including 26 described as new and 12 transferred from Ceratocapsus Reuter as new combinations. Ceratocapsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the new species Ceratocapsidea bahamaensis sp. n., from the Bahamas; Ceratocapsidea baranowskii sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsidea dominicanensis sp. n., from the Dominican Republic; Ceratocapsidea rileyi sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsidea taeniola sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsidea texensis sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsidea transversa sp. n., from Mexico (Neuvo León); and Ceratocapsidea variabilis sp. n., from Jamaica; and Ceratocapsus balli Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsus complicatus Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsidea consimilis Reuter, comb. n., Ceratocapsus fusiformis Van Duzee, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), Ceratocapsus nigropiceus Reuter, comb. n., and Ceratocapsus rufistigmus Blatchley, comb. n. [and a neotype designated], Ceratocapsus clavicornis Knight, syn. n. and Ceratocapsus divaricatus Knight, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Ceratocapsus fusiformis Van Duzee. The genus Marininocoris Carvalho and the only included species Marinonicoris myrmecoides Carvalho are redescribed. The genus Pilophoropsis Poppius is redescribed and revised, Renodaeus texanus Knight, comb. n. is transferred into it and the three new species Pilophoropsis bejeanae sp. n., from Sonora, Mexico; Pilophoropsis cunealis sp. n., from Oaxaca, Mexico; Pilophoropsis quercicola sp. n., from Arizona, USA, are described. Pilophoropsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the 12 new species Pilophoropsidea brailovskyi sp. n., from Federal District, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea cuneata sp. n., from Chiapas, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea dimidiata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea fuscata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico and Arizona and New Mexico, USA; Pilophoropsidea keltoni sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea maxima sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea pueblaensis sp. n., from Puebla, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea schaffneri sp. n., from Neuvo León and San Luis Potosi, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea serrata sp. n., from Michoacan, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea touchetae sp. n., from Mexico (Puebla); Pilophoropsidea truncata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); Pilophoropsidea tuberculata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); and Ceratocapsus barberi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsus camelus Knight, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), and Ceratocapsus fascipennis Knight, comb. n. Pilophoropsita gen. n. is described to accommodate Pilophoropsidea schaffneri sp. n. from Costa Rica and Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca). The genus Renodaeus Distant is redescribed and the new species Renodaeus mimeticus sp. n. from Ecuador is described. The genus Zanchisme Kirkaldy is reviewed and the four known species are redescribed. Zanchismeopsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate Zanchismeopsidea diegoi sp. n. from Argentina (Santiago del Estero). Provided are habitus illustrations for certain adults (Pilophoropsidea camelus, Pilophoropsis brachyptera Poppius, Renodaeus mimeticus, and Zanchisme mexicanus Carvalho & Schaffner), male and female (when available) color digital images and figures of male genitalia of all species, electron photomicrographs of diagnostic characters for selected species, and keys to the genera and their included species. The taxa treated in this paper are arranged alphabetically by genus and species. PMID:25878535