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Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) harboring renicolid cercariae (Trematoda: Renicolidae) in Brazil.  


Melanoides tuberculata , naturally infected by gymnocephalous cercariae, were found in aquatic collections from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. After morphological characterization, larvae were used for experimental infection of Poecilia reticulata. Metacercariae were obtained from the liver of these fish, which were also found to be naturally infected in the same locality. The morphology and biology of the developmental stages of trematodes we obtained were characteristic of Renicola sp. This is the first record of renicolid cercariae and metacercariae in Brazil. PMID:22288437

Pinto, H A; Melo, A L



Did life history evolve in response to parasites in invasive populations of Melanoides tuberculata?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enemy release and rapid evolution are often assumed to promote biological invasions. In the parthenogenetic snail Melanoides tuberculata, one invasive strain (MAD) was assumed to benefit from enemy release until a heavily parasitized population was found in Colombia (in the area of introduction). This population is prosperous despite important losses in the reproductive potential due to a high prevalence of a trematode that castrates snails. We studied genetic variation in life-history traits among five populations from the invaded area to test whether life histories had recently evolved in the parasitized population in such a way that snails have more chance to reproduce before being parasitized. We find significant genetic differences among populations, though they are not in the expected direction. Individuals from the parasitized population were smaller at birth, grew slower, and reproduced later and at a bigger size than individuals from the non-parasitized populations. We conclude that the life-history traits of this snail strain did not need to evolve in order to allow population renewal in the invaded area, even in the presence of parasites. This implies that enemy release and/or rapid evolution were not necessary for this strain to invade.

Escobar, Juan Sebastián; Correa, Ana Cristina; David, Patrice



Focal Philophthalmus gralli infection possibly persists in Melanoides tuberculata over two years following the definitive hosts' removal.  


Philophthalmosis is a zoonotic disease associated largely with the spread of the invasive freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata, serving as an intermediate host. Here we examined Philophthalmus gralli focal fenced infection site reported recently as being associated with Tinamus major and M. tuberculata in Alajuela, Costa Rica. Removal of the definitive hosts allowed us to address also the long-term survival strategy of the parasite. Initially, the snail intermediate hosts displayed high prevalence of P. gralli infection across all its age cohorts. Two years following the removal of definitive hosts, the infection rate decreased by one order of magnitude, while the snails aging less than one year displayed zero infection prevalence. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial (ND1) and nuclear (ITS1, ITS2) DNA loci revealed negligible intrasite DNA variability of the specimens obtained at the study site in Costa Rica (but not of those obtained earlier in Peru or New Zealand), supporting strongly the hypothesis on focal origin of the infection. The observed dynamics of infection suggests the explanation for the high variability in P. gralli prevalence in intermediate hosts experienced worldwide. We noticed that the reports claiming >20% prevalence of M. tuberculata infection by P. gralli originated exclusively from foci with known eye infection of the definitive hosts, while the P. gralli infection penetrance <2% is typically associated with sites, where the infection of definitive hosts was not observed, suggesting that the infected definitive hosts were present onsite only in the past, or were present only at a site upstream or downstream of the respective sampling site. Thus, this is the first evidence on the possible persistence of eye-trematode infection site for over two years following the last confirmed outbreak in its adult hosts. PMID:25102356

Heneberg, Petr; Rojas, Alicia; Bizos, Ji?í; Kocková, Lucie; Malá, Milena; Rojas, Diana



The Effect of Chemical Treatments on Red-Rim Melania Melanoides tuberculata, an Exotic Aquatic Snail that Serves as a Vector of Trematodes to Fish and Other Species in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculata, a subtropical and tropical snail, is a nonindigenous species that has become established and is spreading in the United States. Of concern is the potential of the red-rim melania to displace native snail populations and to transmit trematodes that cause serious problems. One of these, a fish gill trematode, Centrocestus formosanus, has negatively affected U.S.

Andrew J. Mitchell; Melissa S. Hobbs; Thomas M. Brandt




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata is an exotic aquatic snail of the family Thiaridae that is spreading across the southern United States and in geothermal waters in several midwestern and northwestern states. In addition to its potential to displace native mollusks it is known to harbor...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata, an exotic aquatic snail of the family Thiaridae, is spreading across the southern United States and through geothermal waters in several midwestern and northwestern states. There is little specific information on the temperature tolerance of M. tubercu...


Terrestrial locomotion of the New Zealand short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata and the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move

Daniel K. Riskin; Stuart Parsons; William A. Schutt; Gerald G. Carter; John W. Hermanson



Dinâmica populacional de Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774) em um riacho impactado da Vila do Abraão, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil.  

E-print Network

??Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774) é um gastrópode dulceaquícola de origem afroasiática, atualmente com uma distribuição cosmopolita, devido a seu comportamento invasivo. Utilizamos em nosso trabalho… (more)

Igor Christo Miyahira



Transmission Efficiency of Two Flea Species (Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta) Involved in Plague  

E-print Network

and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis dusting INTRODUCTION Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, was intro- duced to the west coast. tuberculata cynomuris to transmit Y. pestis daily from 24 to 96 h postinfection and compared it to previously

Antolin, Michael F.


Temperature Tolerance of Red-Rim Melania Melanoides tuberculatus, an Exotic Aquatic Snail Established in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus (family Thiaridae), a tropical, nonindigenous aquatic snail, has become established and is spreading in the United States. Concerns associated with the spread of this snail include its potential to displace native snail populations and to transmit trematodes. Of particular concern is the gill trematode Centrocestus formosanus now found in U.S. commercial and wild fish stocks.

Andrew J. Mitchell; Thomas M. Brandt




Microsoft Academic Search

A BSTRACT In this work is reported the first record of Melanoides tuberculatus in the Iguazú River basin (Argentina-Brazil). This species is native to southern Asia and was anthropogenically introduced to America in the 1960s decade. Sixteen specimens (one adult and 15 juvenile) of M. tuberculatus were recorded at only one site, the rapids of Iguazú River at Isla San

Diego E. Gutiérrez Gregoric; Verónica Núñez; Noelia S. Ferrando; Alejandra Rumi


First record of the invasive snail Melanoides tuberculatus (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia: Thiaridae) in the Paranã River Basin, GO, Brazil.  


The Thiarid snail Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774), native to Asia and East Africa was recorded for the first time in the Paranã River basin, Goiás State. There is no evidence concerning introduction vectors but aquarium releases is the most probable vector. Specimens were collected at three different water bodies after twenty-seven rivers were investigated. The possible spread of this species to other habitats and potential effects on native thermal water communities are discussed. PMID:17299947

Rocha-Miranda, F; Martins-Silva, M J



Studies in histopathology—Changes induced by a larval monostome in the digestive gland of the snail, Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An account is given of the effects of infection in the digestive gland ofMelanoides tuberculatus (Müller) by a monostome larval trematode. The distinction into four types of cells of the tubules of digestive gland as seen\\u000a in the normal uninfected gland is lost due to this infection. The columnar cells become squarish and may even change into\\u000a a nucleated syncitial

M. B. Lal; Premvati



MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 790, pp. 18, 3 figs. Mystacina tuberculata. By Gerald G. Carter and Daniel K. Riskin  

E-print Network

locality ``[T]he Hutt Valley, near Wellington,'' North Island, New Zealand, and ``Milford Sound Kauri Sanctuary, Northland, North Island, New Zealand, 35 10 S, 175 37 E.'' M. t. rhyacobia Hill Taupo, central North Island, New Zealand, 39 02 S, 175 56 E, ca. 700 ft.'' M. t. tuberculata Gray, 1843

Hayssen, Virginia


Transmission efficiency of two flea species (Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta) involved in plague epizootics among prairie dogs.  


Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, is an exotic disease in North America circulating predominantly in wild populations of rodents and their fleas. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are highly susceptible to infection, often experiencing mortality of nearly all individuals in a town as a result of plague. The fleas of black-tailed prairie dogs are Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta. We tested the efficiency of O. tuberculata cynomuris to transmit Y. pestis daily from 24 to 96 h postinfection and compared it to previously collected data for O. hirsuta. We found that O. tuberculata cynomuris has over threefold greater transmission efficiency (0.18 infected fleas transmit Y. pestis at 24 h postinfection) than O. hirsuta (0.05 fleas transmit). Using a simple model of flea-borne transmission, we combine these laboratory measurements with field data on monthly flea loads to compare the seasonal vectorial capacity of these two flea species. Coinciding with seasonal patterns of flea abundance, we find a peak in potential for flea-borne transmission in March, during high O. tuberculata cynomuris abundance, and in September-October when O. hirsuta is common. Our findings may be useful in determining the timing of insecticidal dusting to slow plague transmission in black-tailed prairie dogs. PMID:18787922

Wilder, Aryn P; Eisen, Rebecca J; Bearden, Scott W; Montenieri, John A; Tripp, Daniel W; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Gage, Kenneth L; Antolin, Michael F



Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites  

E-print Network

(=Planorbella) trivolvis (Say, 1817), Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774), Neritina punctulata Lamarck, 1816 and H. trivolvis are established on Dominica, West Indies. We tested a limited number of M. tuberculata

Dillon, Robert T.


Does the trematode Centrocestus formosanus affect the locomotory activity of the mollusc Melanoides tuberculatus?  

PubMed Central

Background Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774) (Thiaridae), an introduced gastropod mollusc with a wide geographical distribution in the Neotropics, is the intermediate host of the trematode Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924) (Heterophyidae). This parasite is considered to be pathogenic to humans. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the locomotory activity of uninfected M. tuberculatus compared with those naturally infected with C. formosanus. Findings The locomotory activity of each mollusc was recorded using an image analysis biomonitoring system, Videomex-V ®, to evaluate and quantify the parameters of ‘Stereotypic’ and ‘Resting time’. The Generalized Estimating Equation analysis of locomotory activity of M. tuberculatus infected with C. formosanus revealed significant differences compared with uninfected molluscs for the parameters ‘Stereotypic time’ and ‘Resting time’ with a reduction of movement. The variations in the values of the monitoring intervals recorded showed a significant difference for the infected molluscs in the case of Stereotypic time, with an irregular locomotory activity pattern, as compared to that of uninfected molluscs. The analysis of the standard length of all molluscs did not exhibit any correlation with locomotory activity, showing that C. formosanus is able to alter the locomotory activity of its snail host regardless of the standard length. Conclusions The trematode C. formosanus affects the locomotory activity of the mollusc M. tuberculatus by reducing its movement and causing it to exhibit an irregular pattern of activity, both of which are independent of the snail's standard length. PMID:23574763



La Drosophila de las alas manchadas Una nueva plaga invasora en los frutales de Michigan  

E-print Network

La Drosophila de las alas manchadas Una nueva plaga invasora en los frutales de Michigan Rufus Bulletin E-3140SP New · November 2010 Introducción La mosca Drosophila de alas manchadas (Drosophila mayoría de las moscas del vinagre atacan cuando la fruta esta dañada. A diferencia de estas, la Drosophila


Red-Rimmed Melania (Melanoides tuberculatus) - A Snail in Biscayne National Park, Florida - Harmful Invader or Just a Nuisance?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Potentially harmful to humans and other animals, the red-rimmed melania snail (Melanoides tuberculatus; family Thiaridae) was discovered in Biscayne National Park, Florida, in 2003 by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers. The discovery raised concerns for park managers because this aquatic non-native snail is present in significant numbers in areas frequently used by park visitors and poses a risk of exposure. Researchers are addressing questions such as: Is this species a danger to human health? How widespread is it within the park? What factors control the distribution of the species? Is its presence a threat to native animals?

Wingard, G. Lynn; Murray, James B.; Schill, W. Bane; Phillips, Emily C.



The mixotroph Ochromonas tuberculata may invade and suppress specialist phago- and phototroph plankton communities depending on nutrient conditions.  


Mixotrophic organisms combine light, mineral nutrients, and prey as supplementary resources. Based on theoretical assumptions and field observations, we tested experimentally the hypothesis that mixotrophs may invade established plankton communities depending on the trophic status of the system, and investigated possible effects on food web structure, species diversity, and nutrient dynamics. To test our hypothesis, we inoculated the mixotrophic nanoflagellate Ochromonas tuberculata into established planktonic food webs, consisting of specialist phototrophs, specialist phagotrophs, and bacteria at different supplies of soluble inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon. Oligotrophic systems facilitated the invasion of O. tuberculata in two different ways. First, the combination of photosynthesis and phagotrophy gave mixotrophs a competitive advantage over specialist phototrophs and specialist phagotrophs. Second, low nutrient supplies supported the growth of small plankton organisms that fell into the food size spectrum of mixotrophs. Conversely, high nutrient supplies prevented O. tuberculata from successfully invading the food webs. Two important conclusions were derived from our experiments. First, in contrast to a paradigm of ecology, specialization may not necessarily be the most successful strategy for survival under stable conditions. Indeed, the use of several resources with lower efficiency can be an equally, or even more, successful strategy in nature. Second, when limiting nutrients promote the growth of bacterio- and picophytoplankton, invading mixotrophs may have a habitat-ameliorating effect for higher trophic levels, gauged in terms of food quantity and quality. Using given resources more efficiently, O. tuberculata generated higher biomasses and expressed an increased nutritional value for potential planktivores, due to decreased cellular carbon to phosphorus (C:P) ratios compared to specialized plankton taxa. Our findings may help to explain why energy transfer efficiency between phytoplankton and higher trophic levels is generally higher in oligotrophic systems than in nutrient rich environments. PMID:16568278

Katechakis, Alexis; Stibor, Herwig



Transmission Efficiency of Two Flea Species ( Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta ) Involved in Plague Epizootics among Prairie Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, is an exotic disease in North America circulating predominantly in wild populations of rodents and their fleas. Black-tailed\\u000a prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are highly susceptible to infection, often experiencing mortality of nearly all individuals in a town as a result of plague.\\u000a The fleas of black-tailed prairie dogs are Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta.

Aryn P. Wilder; Rebecca J. Eisen; Scott W. Bearden; John A. Montenieri; Daniel W. Tripp; R. Jory Brinkerhoff; Kenneth L. Gage; Michael F. Antolin



Extract from the Zooxanthellate Jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata Modulates Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Human Cell Cultures  

PubMed Central

On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean “fried egg jellyfish” Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ?-3 and ?-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed. PMID:23697954

Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Piraino, Stefano



Intra-plant differences in seaweed nutritional quality and chemical defenses: Importance for the feeding behavior of the intertidal amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of their morphological complexity, large macroalgae show intra-thallus variations in their nutritional composition and secondary metabolite content, which influences the trophic ecology of herbivorous invertebrates, and ultimately their fitness. In this study, we evaluated for the first time the variability in nutritional quality (protein content, carbohydrates, lipids, and total organic matter), secondary metabolites (phlorotannins), and structure (shape and toughness) between blades and stipes of the macroalgae Durvillaea Antarctica. Specifically, we looked at their effect on feeding preference, rate of consumption, absorption efficiency, and growth rate of the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata, one of the most abundant organisms on Chilean sandy beaches. Proteins, carbohydrates, total organic matter and phlorotannin contents were significantly higher in blades than in stipes. Preference experiments revealed that the amphipods preferred blades when fresh pieces of blades and stipes were offered at the same time. Similar results were found when artificial food (in which structures of both parts of the alga were standardized) was offered, suggesting that shape and toughness of the two different parts of the alga did not influence preference patterns of O. tuberculata. Absorption efficiency of O. tuberculata was higher on blades compared to stipes. When the amphipods were kept with each of the algal parts separately (i.e. no choice), they consumed a significantly higher amount of stipe, which suggests that O. tuberculata used food quantity to compensate for the lower nutritional quality of stipes. The higher nutritional values of blades compared to stipes appears to explain observed preference patterns by O. tuberculata. Phlorotannin content did not appear to inhibit blade consumption, suggesting that the nutritional quality of the food could be more important than chemical defense in determining food choice in O. tuberculata. Growth did not differ between the amphipods maintained with either blades or stipes (i.e. no choice), which is consistent with the hypothesis of compensatory feeding. To conclude, O. tuberculata can actively select specific parts of an alga and this selection appears to be based on nutritional quality. The capacity for using different feeding strategies allow O. tuberculata, in some cases, to successfully exploit food types with different nutritional qualities.

Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Karin; Navarro, Jorge M.; Gómez, Iván



Trichostrongylina parasites of Dasypodidae (Xenarthra) from Argentina; a new species of Macielia (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae) in Chaetophractus vellerosus and redescription of Trichohelix tuberculata.  


Macielia jorgei n. sp. is described from Chaetophractus vellerosus from La Rioja, Argentina. Also Trichohelix tuberculata is redescribed in detail. The new species is characterized by parasitizing the small intestine, possessing a bursal membrane and telamon, having complex and sclerotized spicules distally divided into 2 processes, a simple, poorly sclerotized gubernaculum, and synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 12 cuticular ridges. This is the second report of a species of Macielia in Argentina. The synlophe of Trichohelix tuberculata is asymmetric and is characterized by 3 ventral ridges, oriented to the left. The size of these ridges decreases until they disappear at midbody. PMID:23617773

Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T



Nontarget mortality of new zealand lesser short-tailed bats (mystacina tuberculata) caused by diphacinone.  


Abstract Primary and secondary poisoning of nontarget wildlife with second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides has led to restrictions on their use and to increased use of first-generation anticoagulants, including diphacinone. Although first-generation anticoagulants are less potent and less persistent than second-generation compounds, their use is not without risks to nontarget species. We report the first known mortalities of threatened New Zealand lesser short-tailed bats (Mystacina tuberculata) caused by diphacinone intoxication. The mortalities occurred during a rodent control operation in Pureora Forest Park, New Zealand, during the 2008-09 Austral summer. We observed 115 lesser short-tailed bat deaths between 9 January and 6 February 2009, and it is likely that many deaths were undetected. At necropsy, adult bats showed gross and histologic hemorrhages consistent with coagulopathy, and diphacinone residues were confirmed in 10 of 12 liver samples tested. The cause of mortality of pups was diagnosed as a combination of the effects of diphacinone toxicity, exposure, and starvation. Diphacinone was also detected in two of 11 milk samples extracted from the stomachs of dead pups. Eight adults and 20 pups were moribund when found. Two adults and five pups survived to admission to a veterinary hospital. Three pups responded to treatment and were released at the roost site on 17 March 2009. The route of diphacinone ingestion by adult bats is uncertain. Direct consumption of toxic bait or consumption of poisoned arthropod prey could have occurred. We suggest that the omnivorous diet and terrestrial feeding habits of lesser short-tailed bats make them susceptible to poisoning with the bait matrix and the method of bait delivery used. We recommend the use of alternative vertebrate pesticides, bait matrices, and delivery methods in bat habitat. PMID:25375946

Dennis, Gillian C; Gartrell, Brett D



Assessment of cytotoxic and immunomodulatory properties of four antidepressants on primary cultures of abalone hemocytes (Haliotis tuberculata).  


Pharmaceutical compounds like antidepressants found in surface waters raise concerns due to their potential toxicity on non-target aquatic organisms. This study aimed at investigating the in vitro cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory properties of four common antidepressants, namely Amitriptyline, Clomipramine, Citalopram and Paroxetine, on primary cultures of abalone hemocytes (Haliotis tuberculata), after 48 h-exposure. Effects on immunocompetence (phagocytosis, levels of reactive oxygen species, esterase activity and lysosomal membrane destabilization) were assessed. Results obtained by MTT assays revealed that acute toxicity is unlikely to occur in the environment since the LC50s of the four antidepressants are at the mg/L level. The different immunological endpoints displayed a biphasic response, with an increase at the lowest concentration (i.e. 1 ?g/L) followed by a decrease at higher concentrations. Overall, Amitriptyline and Clomipramine, the two tricyclic antidepressants, had higher immunomodulatory capacities than the two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Citalopram and Paroxetine. Amitriptyline was the most potent and Citalopram the least potent drug in altering immune function in H. tuberculata. PMID:24210974

Minguez, Laetitia; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Costil, Katherine; Bureau, Ronan; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Serpentini, Antoine



Nutritional value of the marine invertebrates Anemonia viridis and Haliothis tuberculata and effects on serum cholesterol concentration in ratsopen star  


The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional value of diets with protein from two marine species (Haliotis tuberculata and Anemonia viridis) as compared to a high-quality protein reference based on casein or casein supplemented with olive oil. We also investigated the effects of these diets on serum lipid levels. Male rats were fed these diets for 23 days. Protein quality indicators (true digestibility, net protein utilization, biological value) were similar to those obtained for casein-based feeds except for lower true digestibility and net protein utilization values for the Anemonia viridis feed. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the groups fed marine species or casein supplemented with olive oil than in the casein group. Total-cholesterol level was higher in the group fed Haliotis tuberculata fed than in the other groups. These results suggest that these marine species are a good protein source, and that they may have positive effects on serum cholesterol level. PMID:11834211

Gonzalez, M; Caride, B; Lamas, A; Taboada, C



Two new species of Demodex (Acari: Demodicidae) from the New Zealand short-tailed bat, Mystacina tuberculata Gray, 1843 (Chiroptera: Mystacinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demodex mystacina sp. nov. is described from the Meibomian glands of New Zealand’s lesser short-tailed bat, Mystacina tuberculata. A second species, D. novazelandica, from the same host is described from the follicles of the body hairs. Observations are presented as to the infestation loci of these mites in the pilosebaceous complex. Neither parasite was associated with any obvious pathology. The

Clifford E. Desch Jr



Histological and histochemical observations on the digestive gland of Melanoides tuberculatus (Gastropoda) infected with certain larval trematodes and focus on their mode of nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histological and histochemical observations were made on infected and uninfected digestive glands of snails,Melanoides tuberculatus. Infected gland either with sporocysts ofCercaria diglandulata (Xiphidio) or with rediae ofCercaria martini (Monostome) revealed basically two types of histopathological abnormalities (damages), mechanical (lesion 1) and physiological\\u000a (lesion 2). Depletion of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins as well as increased activities of phosphatases, lipase, non-specific\\u000a esterase

S L Choubisa



Characterisation and expression of the biomineralising gene Lustrin A during shell formation of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.  


The molluscan shell is a remarkable product of a highly coordinated biomineralisation process, and is composed of calcium carbonate most commonly in the form of calcite or aragonite. The exceptional mechanical properties of this biomaterial are imparted by the embedded organic matrix which is secreted by the underlying mantle tissue. While many shell-matrix proteins have already been identified within adult molluscan shell, their presence and role in the early developmental stages of larval shell formation are not well understood. In the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, the shell first forms in the early trochophore larva and develops into a mineralised protoconch in the veliger. Following metamorphosis, the juvenile shell rapidly changes as it becomes flattened and develops a more complex crystallographic profile including an external granular layer and an internal nacreous layer. Amongst the matrix proteins involved in abalone shell formation, Lustrin A is thought to participate in the formation of the nacreous layer. Here we have identified a partial cDNA coding for the Lustrin A gene in H. tuberculata and have analysed its spatial and temporal expression during abalone development. RT-PCR experiments indicate that Lustrin A is first expressed in juvenile (post-metamorphosis) stages, suggesting that Lustrin A is a component of the juvenile shell, but not of the larval shell. We also detect Lustrin A mRNAs in non-nacre forming cells at the distal-most edge of the juvenile mantle as well as in the nacre-forming region of the mantle. Lustrin A was also expressed in 7-day-old post-larvae, prior to the formation of nacre. These results suggest that Lustrin A plays multiple roles in the shell-forming process and further highlight the dynamic ontogenic nature of molluscan shell formation. PMID:24321821

Gaume, B; Denis, F; Van Wormhoudt, A; Huchette, S; Jackson, D J; Avignon, S; Auzoux-Bordenave, S



Melanoides tuberculatus (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) as intermediate host of Heterophyidae (Trematoda: Digenea) in Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Brazil.  


In the late 1960s, Melanoides tuberculatus snails were introduced in Brazil from North/East Africa and Southeast Asia. The first records of specimens infected with cercariae were registered in Rio de Janeiro State in 2001. The present study reports the occurrence of M. tuberculatus infected with larval trematodes in Rio de Janeiro City. Bottom sediment was collected with dip nets and sieved through 0.25 inch-mesh screening. Snails were transported to the laboratory in vials with stream water, then measured and individually isolated in glass vials with distilled water. They were exposed to artificial light and temperature to induce cercarial emergence. The most actively emerging cercariae were processed by differential staining and silver nitrate impregnation methods. Negative snails were subsequently dissected. Approximately 700 snails were collected. Snail total lengths ranged from 1.2 to 3.3 cm. The prevalence rate was 15.76% although 53.76% of the snails were found infected in one of the sites. Infected snails were infected with rediae and pleurolophocercous cercariae. Cercarial morphology and chaetotaxy were consistent with those of the family Heterophyidae mostly due to the presence of median dorsal and ventral fins on the tail and the absence of CI dorsal sensory receptors. PMID:15880219

Bogéa, Tami; Cordeiro, Fernanda Martins; Gouveia, Janaína Silva de



Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Haliotidae)  

PubMed Central

The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium. PMID:22645482

Bravo Portela, I.; Martinez-Zorzano, V. S.; Molist- Perez, I.; Molist García, P.



The introduced snail Melanoides Tuberculatus (Muller, 1774) (Mollusca: Thiaridae) in aquatic ecosystems of the Brazilian semiarid Northeast (Piranhas-Assu River basin, State of Rio Grande do Norte).  


Records of the gastropod Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774), family Thiaridae, in the Piranhas-Assu River basin in Rio Grande do Norte reveal the dispersal of this native Southeast Asian and East African species into aquatic environments of the Brazilian semiarid region, including artificial environments (reservoirs) and lotic systems. The eutrophic conditions of the local waterbodies appear to favor the present situation, where this invasive species reaches extremely high densities, sometimes over 10,000 ind x m(-2) as in Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves Reservoir. These observations indicate the immediate need for new studies on the spatial distribution of the species and its potential impact on the biodiversity and water quality of the waterbodies of the semiarid region of the state. Implantation of regular and systematic monitoring of the aquatic resources of the region is urgently required. PMID:20231954

Santos, C M; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M



The Effect of Extract/Fractions of Caralluma tuberculata on Blood Glucose Levels and Body Weight in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbits.  


Caralluma tuberculata is a cooked food item in Pakistan especially for diabetics. The current study was designed to explore the antidiabetic potential of extract/fractions of Caralluma tuberculata in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits and its effect on body weight. The crude extract of the plant provoked 24% and 44% antidiabetic action at 25 and 50 mg/kg OP, respectively, after the 24th day of treatment, which was strongly supported by a positive effect on the body weight of animals. On fractionation, pretreatment of the ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated most dominant (25.17% and 34.83%) antidiabetic activity followed by n-hexane (19.33% and 32.76%) and aqueous fractions (16.44% and 22.36%) at 25 and 50 mg/kg OP, respectively, after the 24th day of treatment. The corresponding effect on blood glucose was also observed on body weight of diabetic rabbits. In sum, extract/fractions of the plant showed marked antidiabetic action and thus a provided scientific foundation to the use of the plant as an antidiabetic. PMID:24742609

Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Ihsaan Ullah; Rehman, Ali; Akber, Noor Ul; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Murad Ali



The effect of different polychlorinated biphenyls on two aquatic models, the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.  


The present study was conducted to determine the toxicity of different polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Using the algal growth inhibition test, the green algae median Effective Concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.34?M for PCB28 to more than 100?M for PCBs 101 and 153. Considering the MTT viability test, the abalone EC50 values ranged from 1.67?M for PCB153 to 89?M for PCB28. Our results in contrast to previous observation in vertebrates did not show significant differences between the dioxin like- and non dioxin like-PCBs toxicities regardless of the model used. However, our results demonstrated that the toxicities of PCBs were species dependent. For example, PCB28 was the most toxic compound for P. subcapitata whereas PCBs 1, 180 and 153 were less toxic for that species. On the contrary, PCB153 was reported as the most toxic for H. tuberculata haemocytes and PCB28 the least toxic. To investigate the mode of action of these compounds, we used an in silico method. Our results suggested that PCBs have a non-specific mode of action (e.g., narcosis) on green algae, and another mode of action, probably more specific than narcosis, was reported for PCBs on the abalone haemocytes. PMID:24630249

Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Abbaszadeh Fard, Elham; Latire, Thomas; Ferard, Jean-François; Costil, Katherine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Bureau, Ronan; Serpentini, Antoine



Occurrence of larval Philophthalmus gralli (Mathis and Leger, 1910) in freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculatus (Muller) from Al-Hafuf, Saudi Arabia and its development into adult in various experimental hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of occurrence of Philophthalmus gralli in Melanoides tuberculatus from Saudi Arabia. The overall infection rate of M. tuberculatus with P. gralli larvae was 8.9%. However, the incidence of infection varied from 6.46 to 10.16% depending on the size of the snail, and larger snails were found to be more infected than the smaller ones. The

A. M. N. Kalantan; M. Arfin; H. A. Al-Arefi; H. I. Bobshait; S. A. Hamadah; F. H. Al-Thawab; A. A. Al-Shamrani



Habitat preference of freshwater snails in relation to environmental factors and the presence of the competitor snail Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774).  


Our objective is to evaluate the habitat preference of freshwater snails in relation to environmental factors and the presence of the competitor snail Melanoides tuberculatus. In the first phase, snails was collected at 12 sites. This sampling sites presented a degree of organic input. In the second phase 33 sampling sites were chosen, covering a variety of lotic and lentic environments. The snail species found at Guapimirim, state of Rio de Janeiro, displayed a marked habitat preference, specially in relation to the physical characteristics of each environment. Other limiting factors for snail distribution at the studied lotic environments were the water current velocity and the amount of organic matter, mainly to Physa marmorata, M. tuberculatus, and Biomphalaria tenagophila. The absence of interactions between M. tuberculatus and another snails could be associated to the distinct spatial distribution of those species and the instability of habitats. This later factor may favor the coexistence of M. tuberculatus with B. glabrata by reduction of population density. In areas of schistosomiasis transmission some habitat modification may add to the instability of the environment, which would make room for the coexistence of M. tuberculatus and Biomphalaria spp. In this way, some of the usual measures for the control of snail hosts would prevent the extinction of populations of Biomphalaria spp. by M. tuberculatus in particular habitats. PMID:16021304

Giovanelli, Alexandre; da Silva, Cesar Luiz Pinto Ayres Coelho; Leal, Geórgia Borges Eccard; Baptista, Darcílio Fernandes



Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883), Gundlachia radiata (Guilding, 1828), Helisoma (=Planorbella) trivolvis (Say, 1817), Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774), Neritina punctulata Lamarck, 1816, and Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as G. radiata and H. trivolvis are established on Dominica, West Indies. We tested a limited number

Will K. Reeves; Robert T. Dillon; Gregory A. Dasch



A molecular phylogeography approach to biological invasions of the New World by parthenogenetic Thiarid snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parthenogenetic snail Melanoides tuberculata , present in tropical fresh waters of most of the Old World before 1950, has now invaded the Neotropical area. The phylogeography of this snail was studied to evaluate the pathways and number of such invasions. Because of parthenogenetic reproduction, individuals are structured into genetical clones. Within populations from both the original and invaded areas,




Biological Control of Aquatic Pest Snails by the Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some freshwater snail species are severe pests to human health or agriculture. We tested the hypothesis that the fish Mylopharyngodon piceus, the black carp, may serve as a biological control agent of two pest snails, Physella acuta (a bank-dwelling snail) and Melanoides tuberculata (a substratum-dwelling snail). Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and under controlled field conditions. In the

Frida Ben-Ami; Joseph Heller




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Melanoides tuberculata, Planorbella trivolvis and Physella heterostropha are three aquatic snails which host trematodes that can infect both cultured and wild populations of fish causing serious problems. These three snail species were offered to black carp Mylopharngodon pisceus, redear sunfish Le...


Camouflaged invasion of Lake Malawi by an Oriental gastropod  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we report the first animal invasion, to our knowledge, into Lake Malawi. The colonizer is a non-native morph of the gastropod Melanoides tuberculata that differs substantially in external shell characters from co-occurring indigenous forms. However, because the species possesses extensive within-Africa geographical variation in shell morphology, it was unclear whether the invasion was range expansion of a




Molecular identification of larval trematode in intermediate hosts from Chiang Mai, Thailand.  


Snail and fish intermediate hosts were collected from rice fields in 3 districts; Mueang, Mae Taeng and Mae Rim of Chiang Mai Province during April-July 2008. For identification of larval trematode infection, standard (cracked for snail and enzymatically digested for fish) and molecular methods were performed. The results showed that three types of cercariae were found, pleurolophocercus, cotylocercous, and echinostome among 4 species of snail with a prevalence of 29, 23 and 3% respectively. Melanoides tuberculata snail was the most susceptible host for cercariae infection. Four species of metacercariae, Haplorchis taichui, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Haplorchoides sp and Centrocestus caninus, were found with a prevalence of 67, 25, 60 and 20%, respectively. The Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis) was the most susceptible fish host for H. taichui, and half- beaked fish (Dermogenys pusillus) for S. falcatus metacercariae infection, whereas Haplorchoides sp and C. caninus were concomitantly found in Puntius brevis. HAT-RAPD profile confirmed that pleurolophocercus cercariae found in Melanoides tuberculata from Mae Taeng District belonged to H. taichui and in Tarebia granifera from Mueang District were S. falcatus. PMID:20578455

Chuboon, Suksan; Wongsawad, Chalobol



Consequences of Physical Disturbance by Tadpoles and Snails on Chironomid Larvae  

PubMed Central

Indirect interactions among community members impact on organisms. The effects of two snails, banded pond snail, Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck), and Red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller), and tadpoles of Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider), on nonbiting midge larvae, Chironomus striatipennis Kieffer, were observed in experimental microcosm. Decrease in tube number and tube length of midge larvae was observed compared to control condition due to introduction of selected above mentioned organisms. The direct effects of non-predator organisms on the midge larvae are due to physical disturbance that destroys their tubes. This may result in vulnerability of midge larvae to predators in the wild. So the community structure may be altered by indirect effects, where one or more species, through their direct disturbance, indirectly change the abundance of other species. PMID:24672384

Pal, Gargi; Aditya, Gautam; Hazra, Niladri



High tolerance to abiotic stressors and invasion success of the slow growing freshwater snail, Melanoides tuberculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research has been conducted to determine traits common to invasive species with the goal of predicting, preventing,\\u000a or managing invasions. The importance of physiological tolerance to abiotic stressors in the ability of invasive species to\\u000a establish and displace native species has been hypothesized to be important although there are few actual tests of the hypothesis\\u000a in the literature. In

Scott M. WeirChristopher; Christopher J. Salice


Studies on the morphology of cercariae obtained from freshwater snails at Erawan Waterfall, Erawan National Park, Thailand.  


The morphology of cercariae of freshwater snails from Erawan Waterfall, Erawan National Park, Kanchanaburi Province was studied between December 2002 and August 2003. The snail samples were collected by handpicking using a counts per unit of time sampling method. The cercariae, larva stage of a trematode, were investigated using the shedding method where they were categorized into three groups and six species. The first group, Pleurolophocercous cercariae, consists of Haplorchis pumillo (C1) and Stictodora tridactyla (C3). The second group, Furcocercous cercariae, consisted of Mesostephanus appendicalatus (C2), Transversotrema laruei (C6) and Cardicola alseae(C4). The third group, Xiphidio cercariae, has only one species which is Loxogenoides bicolor (C5). Out of 1163 snails, only 62 were found to be infected by cercariae, equivalent to a 5.33% infection rate. The infections grouped by species of the cercariae are as follows: C, 22 (1.9%), C, 29 (2.5%), C2 1 (0.1%), C6 1 (0.1%), C4 6 (0.5%) and C5 3 (0.3%). The freshwater snail samples consist of four species. From a total of 1163 samples, there are 687 Melanoides jugicostis, 91 Tarebia granifera, 296 Thiara scabra and 89 Melanoides tuberculata. Infections were found in 45 (6.5%), 6 (6.6%), 1 (0.3%) and 10 (11.2%), respectively. PMID:17539280

Ukong, Suluck; Krailas, Duangduen; Dangprasert, Tunyarut; Channgarm, Pasapong



Elimination of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus tropicus and Lymnaea natalensis by the ampullarid snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in a man-made dam in northern Tanzania.  


Marisa cornuarietis is a well known ampullarid competitor/predator of Biomphalaria glabrata in Puerto Rico. For the first time in Africa a flourishing population of Marisa has been established in a small, permanent, man-made dam at Kisangara, near Moshi, Tanzania. Prior to the release of M. cornuarietis in June 1977, this dam supported thriving populations of the pulmonate snail hosts Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis; Bulinus tropicus and the melaniid Melanoides tuberculata were also common. Some 24 months after the establishment of Marisa the three pulmonate species had been eliminated; only M. tuberculata remained at about the same population density as originally recorded. Marisa has not caused any obvious adverse environmental impact in the dam. There is at present no valid evidence that this ampullarid would be a threat to local rice production, which is the only crop at risk, but carefully designed field trials should be undertaken to confirm or refute this view. In view of the vast number of permanent, lentic habitats throughout the Afrotropical region, which act as important transmission sites of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, the role of Marisa cornuarietis as a cost-effective biological control agent in integrated control operations deserves henceforth to be energetically explored. PMID:6122367

Nguma, J F; McCullough, F S; Masha, E



Deriving Freshwater Quality Criteria for Iron, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc for Protection of Aquatic Life in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC50 values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9??g L?1, respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4??g?L?1 and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7??g?L?1, respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358

Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nadzifah, Y.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Umirah, N. S.



[Epidemiology of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in Péhunco area, Northern Benin. Malacological survey].  


Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Benin but prevalence estimates vary widely. Parasitological (from May to September 2010) and malacological surveys (from September 2010 to June 2012) were conducted to determine the current status of urinary schistosomiasis among 1 585 schoolchildren from 18 primary schools of Péhunco area, North-West Benin, using two parasitological tests. Pupils were enrolled with a mean age of 11 years (from 7 to 16 years-old age) and 51.48% of them were girls. Urines samples were examined using both urine reagent strips and filtration method. Structured questionnaires were used to identify environmental and socio-economic factors. Malacological surveys were conducted to ascertain general freshwater snail diversity and specific diversity of the schistosome host snails. The results showed a general prevalence of 29.40% with boys (36.67%) significantly more affected than girls (22.55%). Among the 844 collected snails, 5 species freshwater snails were identified: two species known as potential schistosome intermediate host snails, Bulinus forskalii and B. globosus, and three species known as non-schistosome transmitting snails Lymnaea natalensis, Physa marmorata and Melanoides tuberculata. B. forskalii was a most largely distributed snail and none of snails were found naturally infected by schistosome. No freshwater snails were found naturally infected by schistosome. PMID:24615433

Ibikounlé, M; Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; de Tové, Y Sissinto Savi; Dansou, A; Courtin, D; Kindé-Gazard, D; Mouahid, G; Moné, H; Massougbodji, A



Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil).  


In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil), a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997) and rainy (March, 1998) periods. The dominant groups found were Mollusca (Melanoides tuberculata), Oligochaeta, and Chironomidae larvae. Low Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index values were found, but with no significant difference between the sampling periods. However, density and taxonomic richness were significantly different (t(0.05: 31)) = -2.1945; p < 0.05; e t(0.05; 31) = -3.0600; p < 0.01) between the sampling periods, with a reduction in the number of taxa and macroinvertebrate abundance during the rainy period. An increasing gradient in benthic macroinvertebrate community structures was noted along the reservoir cascade from the first reservoir (Apolônio Sales), followed by a decrease downstream from the third reservoir of the system (Xing6). Despite the negative consequences of rapid proliferation of dams, which have caused widespread loss of freshwater habitats, the reservoir cascade system promoted an increase in benthic macroinvertebrate diversity, due to water-quality improvement along the system. PMID:16097725

Callisto, M; Goulart, M; Barbosa, F A R; Rocha, O



Characterization of a Non-fibrillar-Related Collagen in the Mollusc Haliotis tuberculata and its Biological Activity on Human Dermal Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In invertebrates, members of the collagen family have been found in various phyla. Surprisingly, in mollusc, little is known\\u000a about such molecules. In this study, we characterize the full-length abalone type IV collagen and we analysed its biological\\u000a effects on human fibroblast in order to gain insights about this molecule in molluscs and particularly clues about its roles.\\u000a We screened

Christophe Fleury; Antoine Serpentini; Magdalini Kypriotou; Emmanuelle Renard; Philippe Galéra; Jean-Marc Lebel


Import of exotic and zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae: Centrocestus sp.) in Xiphophorus maculatus: implications for ornamental fish import control in Europe.  


Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 ?m and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 ?m) contained a bent metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. PCR amplification of a rDNA region (5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2, 28S rRNA gene) and subsequent sequencing confirmed the diagnosis. Metacercariae were found in gill filaments adjacent to the cartilage associated with cartilage hypertrophy, epithelial and mucous cell hyperplasia, clubbing and lamellar fusion. Host cell encapsulation of cysts comprised several layers of leucocytes, chondroblast-like and fibroblast-like cells. The observations raise concerns with regard to veterinary inspection and quarantine procedures. The zoonotic potential of these trematodes and a possible spread of the parasites in natural habitats in Europe should be regarded as a public health issue. So far, several cases of human infections have been reported only in Asia, but the potential intermediate host snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has been recorded in Germany. Accordingly, establishment of the parasite in Europe with climate changes should be considered a risk. PMID:24827099

Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt



Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise to effects at the individual level and is manifested in reduced ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction and survival, and ultimately at the ecosystem level. By integrating multiple endpoints at different ecologically relevant levels of organization within one test organism, it should be possible to gain understanding in how different levels of organization within this organism respond to toxic exposure and how responses at these different levels are interrelated. This paper presents results from a field study in the Rietvlei Wetland system, Gauteng, South Africa using the freshwater mollusk ( Melanoides tuberculata) and freshwater fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) as bioindicator organisms. Active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures were conducted where organisms were exposed for 28 days in an effluent dominated river during high flow conditions in April 2003. The river receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial complex, so that up to 75% of the total flow of the river is effluent-based. Effects of field exposure were determined using cellular biomarkers e.g. DNA damage, HSP 70, metallothionein, acetylcholine esterase, lactate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity. The results clearly indicate that although the traditional mortality-based whole effluent toxicity testing did not indicate any toxicity, the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. A multivariate statistical approach was particularly useful for integrating the biomarker responses and highlighting sites at which more detailed analysis of chemical contamination would be useful. Based on the individual biomarker results’ contributing towards the distinct groupings it is possible to conclude that Site 1 is subjected to organic pollutants, whereas Sites 2 and 3 undergo a combination of metallic and organic pollutant stress. However, it is essential that a rapid and sensitive biomarker that is representative of the responses of a suite of biomarkers be tested before ABM can be implemented as a routine biomonitoring practice in water resource management.

Wepener, V.; van Vuren, J. H. J.; Chatiza, F. P.; Mbizi, Z.; Slabbert, L.; Masola, B.


The integrated culture of seaweed, abalone, fish and clams in modular intensive land-based systems: II. Performance and nitrogen partitioning within an abalone ( Haliotis tuberculata) and macroalgae culture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale system for the intensive land-based culture of abalone was established using an integrated design aimed at eliminating the dependence on external food sources, whilst reducing water requirements and nutrient discharge levels. The system was the first and simplest trial in a series of progressive complexity of the concept of integrated culture of seaweed, abalone, fish and clams in

Amir Neori; Norman L. C. Ragg; Muki Shpigel



Allopolyploidy in the Melaniid Snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a recent communication1, I recorded the occurrence of apomictic parthenogenesis combined with polyploidy in a few species of Melanoides. One of these species, Melanoides tuberculatus, includes a diploid race with 2n = 32 chromosomes and a polyploid race with 90-94 chromosomes, which thus appears to be more or less at the hexaploid level when compared to the former. Both

Joseph Jacob



Bats that walk: a new evolutionary hypothesis for the terrestrial behaviour of New Zealand's endemic mystacinids  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: New Zealand's lesser short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata is one of only two of c.1100 extant bat species to use a true walking gait when manoeuvring on the ground (the other being the American common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus). Mystacina tuberculata is also the last surviving member of Mystacinidae, the only mammalian family endemic to New Zealand (NZ) and a

Suzanne J Hand; Vera Weisbecker; Michael Archer; Henk Godthelp; Alan JD Tennyson; Trevor H Worthy



Dietary effects of marine food intake on intestinal and hepatic enzyme activities in rats.  


Dietary effects of two diets high in protein from two marine species (Haliotis tuberculata and Anemonia viridis) as compared to a high-quality patron protein such as casein (or casein supplemented with olive oil) on intestinal and hepatic enzymes were studied. After 23 days, the two marine species as diet compared to casein increased the disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Feeding Haliotis tuberculata meal produced a decrease on intestinal leucine aminopeptidase activity. The hepatic gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity decreased slightly in animals fed Haliotis tuberculata meal. Supplementation of casein with olive oil tended to decrease the intestinal and hepatic enzyme activity. PMID:11339110

González, M; Caride, B; Lamas, A; Taboada, C




EPA Science Inventory

Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were t...



EPA Science Inventory

The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisentia fetida, Allolobophora tuberculata, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. eibull function is used to summarize these data for ea...


Limnetica, 29 (2): x-xx (2011)Limnetica, 32 (1): 107-120 (2013) c Asociacin Ibrica de Limnologa, Madrid. Spain. ISSN: 0213-8409  

E-print Network

impacts on microbial communities Invasive species in the phylum Mollusca, including gastropods invasoras del phyllum Mollusca, incluyendo los gasterópodos y bivalvos, han causado impactos importantes en

Olden, Julian D.


The gastropod fauna and their abundance, and some physicochemical parameters of Lake Gölba?i (Hatay, Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was carried out on the native gastropod species in Lake Gölba?i, Hatay. During the research 3 species belonging to the subclass Pulmonata (Gyraulus piscinarum, Radix labiata, Anisus leucostoma) were detected along with 9 species of the subclass Orthogastropoda (=Prosobranchia) including Theodoxus jordani, Semisalsa contempta, Semisalsa longiscata, Bithynia phialensis, Valvata saulcyi, Valvata piscinalis, Melanoides tuberculatus, Melanopsis praemorsa ferussaci, Melanopsis



The morphology, life-history and systematic position of Haplorchoides mehrai Pande & Shukla, 1976 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life-history of Haplorchoides mehrai Pande & Shukla, 1976 is elucidated. The cercariae occurred in the thiarid snail Melanoides tuberculatus (Muller) collected from Chilka Lake, Orissa State. Metacercariae were found beneath the scales of Puntius sophore (Hamilton). Several species of catfishes in the lake served as definitive hosts. All stages in the life-cycle were successfully established under experimental conditions in

U. Shameem; R. Madhavi



Effects of earthworms on nitrogen mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata) on the rate of net N mineralization was studied, both in soil columns with intact soil structure (partly influenced by past earthworm activity) and in columns with sieved soil. Soil columns were collected from a well drained silt loam soil, and before the experiment all earthworms present were removed. Next, either

J. J. G. M. Willems; J. C. Y. Marinissen; J. Blair



The influence of soil macroinvertebrates on primary biodegradation of starch-containing polyethylene films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary biodegradability of polyethylene (PE) films containing different percentages of cornstarch (0–50%) and other additives (prooxidant, oxidized polyethylene) was tested using four species of earthworms (Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus terrestris, Aporectodea trapezoides, Aporectodea tuberculata), three species of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, Blaberus sp.,Blattella germanica), termites (Reticulotermes flavipes), sowbugs (Porcellio laevis), and crickets (Acheta domesticus). These studies were conducted to elucidate the

Rong Tsao; Todd A. Anderson; Joel R. Coats



Earthworm effects on movement of water and solutes in soil  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to determine and model the effects of earthworms on water and solute movement in soil. Microrelief and rainfall effects on water and solute movement were determined in packed buckets inoculated with earthworms (Aporrectodea tuberculata). A solution of Br[sup [minus

Trojan, M.D.



The integrated culture of seaweed, abalone, fish and clams in modular intensive land-based systems: I. Proportions of size and projected revenues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three environmentally friendly modular designs for integrated mariculture are described. The basic design consists of modules for the culture of seaweed (Ulva lactuca or Gracilaria spp.) and abalone (Haliotis tuberculata). Modules for the culture of fish (Sparus aurata) and then clams (Tapes philippinarum) are subsequently connected in two progressively complex systems. The modular design allows flexibility in the allocation of

Muki Shpigel; Amir Neori



Three new species of Spiladarcha Meyrick, 1913 (Lepidoptera: Urodidae) from Costa Rica.  


Three new species of Spiladarcha are described from Costa Rica, including S. puravida n. sp., S. septifera n. sp., and S. tuberculata n. sp. The genus Spiladarcha is reported from Costa Rica for the first time. Synapomorphies of Spiladarcha are revised. Photos of adult habitus and genitalia of known sexes are provided. PMID:25543767

Sohn, Jae-Cheon



Introduction Trade-offs in locomotion  

E-print Network

a single kinematic gait shift with increasing speed from a kinetic walk (where kinetic and potential energy oscillations in kinetic and potential energy were of similar magnitudes, M. tuberculata did not use pendulum, and thus move quite differently from them (Chechina et al., 2004). In instances where animal morphology

Auckland, University of


A Plasmid Involved in Chloramphenicol Production in Streptomyces venezuelae: Evidence from Genetic Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY To test the hypothesis that chloramphenicol production in Streptomyces vene- zuelae depends on the presence of a plasmid, mapping analysis was carried out by using eight markers in addition to chloramphenicol production and melanoid pig- ment formation. The sequence of the eight markers was determined on a circular linkage map as follows : -his-ude-str-leu-lys-met-iiv-pro-(his-). This sequence resulted in the




Major carbon-14 deficiency in modern snail shells from southern Nevada springs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon-14 contents as low as 3.3 ?? 0.2 percent modern (apparent age, 27,000 years) measured from the shells of snails Melanoides tuberculatus living in artesian springs in southern Nevada are attributed to fixation of dissolved HCO3- with which the shells are in carbon isotope equilibrium. Recognition of the existence of such extreme deficiencies is necessary so that erroneous ages are not attributed to freshwater biogenic carbonates.

Riggs, A.C.



Major carbon-14 deficiency in modern snail shells from southern Nevada springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon-14 contents as low as 3.3 +\\/- 0.2% modern (apparent age, 27,000 years) measured from the shells of snails Melanoides tuberculatus living in artesian springs in southern Nevada are attributed to fixation of dissolved HCOâ⁻ with which the shells are in carbon isotope equilibrium. Recognition of the existence of such extreme deficiencies is necessary so that erroneous ages are not




Use of Ice-Water and Salt Treatments to Eliminate an Exotic Snail, the Red-Rim Melania, from Small Immersible Fisheries Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice-water and salt treatments were evaluated for disinfection of small immersible fisheries equipment contaminated with a nonindigenous tropical snail, the red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus. This introduced species can displace native snails and transmit trematodes directly to fish and indirectly to other animals, including humans. The red-rim melania has a well-developed operculum that protects it from desiccation and allows it to

Andrew J. Mitchell; Thomas M. Brandt



Use of Bayluscide (Bayer 73) for Snail Control in Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayluscide applied to ponds on two commercial fish farms at five rates (from L1 to 13.5 kilogram per surface hectare) effectively controlled aquatic snails. Laboratory toxicity tests confirmed susceptibility of three endemic species of aquatic snail—Melanoides tuberculatus, Physella hendersoni, and Planorbella duryi—to Bayluscide. Observed 24-h concentrations lethal to 50% of snails (LC50) ranged from 0.062 to 0.085 mg\\/L, and 24-h

Ruth Francis-Floyd; James Gildea; Peggy Reed; Ruthellen Klinger



Introduction, distribution, spread, and impacts of exotic freshwater gastropods in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the patterns of distribution, vectors of introduction, and potential ecological impacts of freshwater exotic species\\u000a in Texas over the last 45 years. Currently, five species of exotic gastropods are established: channeled-type applesnail (Pomacea insularum), red-rim melania (Melanoides tuberculatus), quilted melania (Tarebia granifera), giant rams-horn snail (Marisa cornuarietis), and Chinese mysterysnail (Cipangopaludina\\u000a chinensis). In contrast to the northern part of

Alexander Y. Karatayev; Lyubov E. Burlakova; Vadim A. Karatayev; Dianna K. Padilla



Major Carbon14 Deficiency in Modern Snail Shells from Southern Nevada Springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon-14 contents as low as 3.3 ± 0.2 percent modern (apparent age, 27,000 years) measured from the shells of snails Melanoides tuberculatus living in artesian springs in southern Nevada are attributed to fixation of dissolved HCO3{}- with which the shells are in carbon isotope equilibrium. Recognition of the existence of such extreme deficiencies is necessary so that erroneous ages are

Alan C. Riggs



Major carbon-14 deficiency in modern snail shells from southern Nevada springs  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-14 contents as low as 3.3 +/- 0.2% modern (apparent age, 27,000 years) measured from the shells of snails Melanoides tuberculatus living in artesian springs in southern Nevada are attributed to fixation of dissolved HCO/sub 3//sup -/ with which the shells are in carbon isotope equilibrium. Recognition of the existence of such extreme deficiencies is necessary so that erroneous ages are not attributed to fresh water biogenic carbonates. 2 figures, 1 table.

Riggs, A.C.



Major carbon-14 deficiency in modern snail shells from southern nevada springs.  


Carbon-14 contents as low as 3.3 +/- 0.2 percent modern (apparent age, 27,000 years) measured from the shells of snails Melanoides tuberculatus living in artesian springs in southern Nevada are attributed to fixation of dissolved HCO(3)(-) with which the shells are in carbon isotope equilibrium. Recognition of the existence of such extreme deficiencies is necessary so that erroneous ages are not attributed to freshwater biogenic carbonates. PMID:17783523

Riggs, A C



Locomotor activity and zonation of upper shore arthropods in a sandy beach of north central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tenebrionid beetle Phalerisida maculata Kulzer, the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet and the oniscid isopod Tylos spinulosus Dana are semi-terrestrial burrowing species, which coexist on sandy beaches of north central Chile (28-30°S). During the night, these scavengers emerge to make downshore migrations. Given the similarity in niches of these three species (all are known to include macroalgal detritus in their diet) and their relatively high abundance on that beaches, there is the potential for some degree of interaction, both inter- and intraspecific. Field studies were carried out to examine zonation of these burrowing organisms and eventual time and/or space partitioning of locomotor activity during night hours. Locomotor activity on the beach surface was analyzed over 12 h periods during spring and neap tides of September and December 2000, and March 2001. Scavengers moving over the beach surface were captured using pitfall traps buried with their rims flush with the beach surface along a transect extended from the foot of the dunes to the highest levels reached by the swashes. Every 1 h the captured animals in the traps were collected. Locomotor activity was also studied in the laboratory with chambers equipped with infrared recording systems (actographs). Data downloaded from the actographs were graphed to obtain a display of locomotor activity per 15 min interval during the course of the 7 day experiments. Results show space partitioning of burrowed organisms and time partitioning in the locomotor activity of O. tuberculata, T. spinulosus and P. maculata over the beach surface. Circular statistics showed that usually the activity peaks of O. tuberculata were more different from those of P. maculata and T. spinulosus than those of the last two species when compared with each other. Intraspecific differences were also found in the surface locomotor activity, primarily between juveniles and adults of O. tuberculata. Interseasonal comparisons of capture figures show that the highest locomotor activity occurred during early summer (December 2000). Moon phases apparently affect locomotor activity (i.e. T. spinulosus and P. maculata had higher locomotor activity during neap tides as compared with that observed during spring tide samplings carried out with full moon). Periodograms resulting from the locomotor activity of adults of O. tuberculata, T. spinulosus and P. maculata studied with actographs and total darkness show evidence of a circadian endogenous component close to 23-25 h. Activity peaks close to 11-14 h were also found that probably represents a circatidal component in the locomotor activity. Results of actograph experiments under constant light show that the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of O. tuberculata was the only one maintained throughout the experiment and phased with the subjective night. Analyses of contour distributional maps and mean hourly zonations show that the locomotor activity of the studied species also differed, specially that of O. tuberculata versus that of T. spinulosus and P. maculata. Results of coexistence experiments showed no evidence of intraspecific interactions. Similar experiments evidentiated interspecific interactions: those species with similarities in locomotor activity (that is T. spinulosus and P. maculata) showed no interactions between them, while both of them had negative interactions with O. tuberculata, the species which separated more in time and hourly zonation of locomotor activity. Thus, differences in time/space partitioning of surface locomotor activity can be interpreted as a means to avoid detrimental interactions in this guild of scavengers. That partitioning would allow coexistence of interacting scavenger species and provides evidence that biological interactions are indeed important in community structure of sandy beach macroinfauna.

Jaramillo, E.; Contreras, H.; Duarte, C.; Avellanal, M. H.



3D reconstruction of the hemocyanin subunit dimer from the chiton Acanthochiton fascicularis.  


Procedures are presented for the purification of the subunit dimer from Acanthochiton fasicularis hemocyanin. Electron microscopy of negatively stained specimens revealed a uniform population of macromolecules possessing the characteristic "boat shape". A 3D reconstruction from this EM data generated a approximately 3 nm resolution model that correlates well with earlier data of the purported subunit dimer, extracted from the 3D reconstruction of the didecamer of Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin type 1. PMID:15036283

Harris, J Robin; Meissner, Ulrich; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Markl, Jürgen



Permanent Genetic Resources added to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2010-31 March 2010.  


This article documents the addition of 228 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anser cygnoides, Apodemus flavicollis, Athene noctua, Cercis canadensis, Glis glis, Gubernatrix cristata, Haliotis tuberculata, Helianthus maximiliani, Laricobius nigrinus, Laricobius rubidus, Neoheligmonella granjoni, Nephrops norvegicus, Oenanthe javanica, Paramuricea clavata, Pyrrhura orcesi and Samanea saman. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Apodemus sylvaticus, Laricobius laticollis and Laricobius osakensis (a proposed new species currently being described). PMID:21565086

Aurelle, D; Baker, A J; Bottin, L; Brouat, C; Caccone, A; Chaix, A; Dhakal, P; Ding, Y; Duplantier, J M; Fiedler, W; Fietz, J; Fong, Y; Forcioli, D; Freitas, T R O; Gunnarsson, G H; Haddrath, O; Hadziabdic, D; Hauksdottir, S; Havill, N P; Heinrich, M; Heinz, T; Hjorleifsdottir, S; Hong, Y; Hreggvidsson, G O; Huchette, S; Hurst, J; Kane, M; Kane, N C; Kawakami, T; Ke, W; Keith, R A; Klauke, N; Klein, J L; Kun, J F J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Li, J-J; Loiseau, A; Lu, L-Z; Lucas, M; Martins-Ferreira, C; Mokhtar-Jamaï, K; Olafsson, K; Pampoulie, C; Pan, L; Pooler, M R; Ren, J-D; Rinehart, T A; Roussel, V; Santos, M O; Schaefer, H M; Scheffler, B E; Schmidt, A; Segelbacher, G; Shen, J-D; Skirnisdottir, S; Sommer, S; Tao, Z-R; Taubert, R; Tian, Y; Tomiuk, J; Trigiano, R N; Ungerer, M C; Van Wormhoudt, A; Wadl, P A; Wang, D-Q; Weis-Dootz, T; Xia, Q; Yuan, Q-Y



Effects of earthworms on decomposition and metal availability in contaminated soil: Microcosm studies of populations with different exposure histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population-specific differences in the responses of earthworms to simultaneous exposure to Cu and Zn were studied in microcosm experiments. Two populations of Aporrectodea caliginosa tuberculata (Eisen) with different metal exposure histories were chosen for the studies. Microcosms were prepared containing either uncontaminated soil or soils with low or high combined Cu\\/Zn -concentrations (79\\/139 or 178\\/311mgkg?1 dry mass of soil, respectively).

Tuomas Lukkari; Sanra Teno; Ari Väisänen; Jari Haimi



Population dynamics of earthworm communities in corn agroecosystems receiving organic or inorganic fertilizer amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of earthworm populations were investigated in continuously-cropped, conventional disk-tilled corn agroecosystems\\u000a which had received annual long-term (6 years) amendments of either manure or inorganic fertilizer. Earthworm populations were\\u000a sampled at approximately monthly intervals during the autumn of 1994 and spring and autumn of 1995 and 1996. The dominant\\u000a earthworm species were Lumbricus terrestris L. and Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen),

J. K. Whalen; R. W. Parmelee; C. A. Edwards



Quantification of nitrogen excretion rates for three lumbricid earthworms using 15 N  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen excretion rates of 15N-labeled earthworms and contributions of 15N excretion products to organic (dissolved organic N) and inorganic (NH4-N, NO3-N) soil N pools were determined at 10??°C and 18??°C under laboratory conditions. Juvenile and adult Lumbricus terrestris L., pre-clitellate and adult Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen), and adult Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister) were labeled with 15N by providing earthworms with 15N-labeled organic

J. K. Whalen; R. W. Parmelee; S. Subler



Diversity and Localization of Bacterial Endosymbionts from Whitefly Species Collected in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is the first survey of whitely populations collected in Brazil, and provides further insights into the complexity of infection with secondary endosymionts in whiteflies. PMID:25259930

Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad



Bats that walk: a new evolutionary hypothesis for the terrestrial behaviour of New Zealand's endemic mystacinids  

E-print Network

the Gondwanan bat super- family Noctilionoidea, but molecular divergence dates indicate that the two families diverged 41–51 Ma [7], and terrestrial locomotion appears to have evolved independ- ently in Mystacina and Desmodus. Today, Mystacina tuberculata... ,11,14,15] that is broader than that of any bat recorded and includes nectar, flowers and fruit as well as flying and terrestrial invertebrates including spiders, centipedes and weta orthopterans [9,52,55,56]. An omnivorous diet in Australian Miocene mystacinids...

Hand, Suzanne J; Weisbecker, Vera; Beck, Robin M D; Archer, Michael; Godthelp, Henk; Tennyson, Alan J D; Worthy, Trevor H



Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.  


Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is the first survey of whitely populations collected in Brazil, and provides further insights into the complexity of infection with secondary endosymionts in whiteflies. PMID:25259930

Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad



Forecasting the Spread of Invasive Rainbow Smelt in the Laurentian Great Lakes Region of North America  

E-print Network

Kirby Drive, Duluth, MN 55812, U.S.A. Abstract: Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) have invaded many North. Keywords: classification trees, inland lakes, invasive species, nonindigenous species, Osmerus mordax, predic- tion Pron´ostico de la Dispersi´on de la Especie Invasora Osmerus mordax en la Regi´on de los

Vander Zanden, Jake


Revisado en Junio 2013 Recomendaciones para el Manejo de SWD en los Arndanos de Michigan  

E-print Network

Revisado en Junio 2013 Recomendaciones para el Manejo de SWD en los Arándanos de Michigan practices. USDAOAO Grant number 59250112019. La Drosófila de alas manchadas (SWD) es una plaga invasora de Unidos. En Michigan, la primera SWD fue encontrada después de la cosecha de arándanos en el 2010. En 2011


Updated Fall 2014 Recomendaciones para el Manejo de la Mosca de Alas Manchadas (SWD) en  

E-print Network

Updated Fall 2014 Recomendaciones para el Manejo de la Mosca de Alas Manchadas (SWD) en los Gómez-Rodas. La Drosófila de las alas manchadas (SWD) es una plaga invasora que ataca las frutillas sitio de Internet donde encontrará hojas desplegables, guías para la

Isaacs, Rufus


Early development of congeneric sea urchins (Heliocidaris) with contrasting life history modes in a warming and high CO2 ocean.  


The impacts of ocean change stressors - warming and acidification - on marine invertebrate development have emerged as a significant impact of global change. We investigated the response of early development to the larval stage in sympatric, congeneric sea urchins, Heliocidaris tuberculata and Heliocidaris erythrogramma with contrasting modes of development to ocean warming and acidification. Effects of these stressors were assessed by quantifying the percentage of normal development during the first 24 h post fertilization, in cross-factorial experiments that included three temperature treatments (control: 20 °C; +4: 24 °C; +6: 26 °C) and four pHNIST levels (control: 8.2; -0.4: 7.8; -0.6: 7.6; -0.8: 0.4). The experimental treatments were designed in context with present day and near-future (?2100) conditions for the southeast Australia global warming hotspot. Temperature was the most important factor affecting development of both species causing faster progression through developmental stages as well as a decrease in the percentage of normal development. H. erythrogramma embryos were less tolerant of increased temperature than those of H. tuberculata. Acidification impaired development to the larval stage in H. tuberculata, but this was not the case for H. erythrogramma. Thus, outcomes for the planktonic life phase of the two Heliocidaris species in response to ocean warming and acidification will differ. As shown for these species, single-stressor temperature or acidification studies can be misleading with respect to determining species' vulnerability and responses to global change. PMID:25115741

Hardy, Natasha A; Byrne, Maria



Studies on the fresh water cercariae in Leyte island, Philippines. 3. Cercariae from Thiaridae.  


From 1975 to 1976, about three thousand snails of Thiaridae were examined for cercarial fauna in the northeastern part of Leyte Island, Philippines. The thiarid snails examined were Melanoides tuberculatus, Thiara (Plotiopsis) scabra, Antemelania dactylus and A. asperata, and a total of 13 species of cercariae including some important human parasites were found. These cercariae are consisted of one philophthalmid cercaria, two echinostome cercariae, three heterophyid cercariae, five xiphidiocercariae, one paragonimid cercaria and one unknown cercaria. In this paper a description of their morphology, infection rate, locality, and some remarks on the presumptive life cycle are included with illustrations and photographs. PMID:926399

Ito, J



[Freshwater snails of the Campus of Manguinhos, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ].  


A survey of freshwater gastropods of the Campus of Manguinhos, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, was carried out during the last two years aiming to compare the current species with those found at the beginning of this century. Among 18 breeding sites in 880,000m2 of the surveyed area, 13 showed the following species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria straminea; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa cubensis; Pomacea glauca and Pomacea lineata. Notably, Biomphalaria tenagophila reported by Lutz in 1918, had disappeared and B. straminea and the Asiatic thiarid M. tuberculatus had been introduced. No specimens infected with Schistosoma mansoni were found. PMID:11460215

Fernandez, M A; Thiengo, S C; Boaventura, M F



[Dynamics of infection of Bithynia tentaculata (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) with trematodes].  


The dynamics of infection of Bithynia tentaculata with 7 trematode species was examined during 5 years. Stability of parasite fauna with significant changes of infection rate has been recorded. During the period of observations the infection rate of Sphaeridiotrema globulus, Notocotylus imbricatus, Holostephanus volgensis, Pleurogenoides medians and Metorchis intermedius has decreased, while that of Psilotrema tuberculata has increased. The infection rate of Plagiorchis sp. slightly fluctuated. It was found out that the infection rate of S. globulus, P. tuberculata, Plagiorchis sp., H. volgensis and M. intermedius increases by the age of hosts. Maximal infection rate of N. imbricatus was observed in mollusks of 2-3 years old. Based on peculiarities of infection dynamics during the year, 3 groups of parasites have been recognized. 1. S. globulus, P. tuberculata and N. imbricatus show an increase of infection rate from April to August with subsequent decrease. 2. Infection rate of H. volgensis increases during the Summer and reaches maximum in Autumn. Age group of host 2+ and older ones showed some decrease of infection in the beginning of Summer. 3. First cases of infection with M. intermedius occur in May, then the infection rate increases and reaches maximum in the end of July. The infection rate gradually decreases and in the end of October the mollusks infected with M. intermedius are usually absent. An emission of cercariae is usually observed in June-August. The difference in infection rate of Bithynia tentaculata males and females was not found. Based on a complex analysis of infection dynamics and population dynamics of mollusks, different aspects of the life cycle of parasites (periods of emission, maturity and longevity of local microhemipopulations) are discussed. PMID:12173451

Ataev, G L; Kozminski?, E V; Dobrovol'ski?, A A



Tanaidaceans (Crustacea) from the Central Pacific Manganese Nodule Province. I. The genera Collettea, Robustochelia and Tumidochelia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Three new species of are described from the manganese nodule province between the Clarion and the Clipperton Fracture Zone of the equatorial North Pacific Ocean, and collected during the Nodinaut expedition on board the r/v l´Atalante in the summer of 2004. The new species belongs to three genera as: Collettea (Collettea longisetosa), Robustochelia (Robustochelia pacifica), and Tumidochelia (Tumidochelia tuberculata). A key to the genus Tumidochelia is presented and the validity of the genera Robustochelia and Collettea is discussed. PMID:21594100

Larsen, Kim



Bats that walk: a new evolutionary hypothesis for the terrestrial behaviour of New Zealand's endemic mystacinids  

PubMed Central

Background New Zealand's lesser short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata is one of only two of c.1100 extant bat species to use a true walking gait when manoeuvring on the ground (the other being the American common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus). Mystacina tuberculata is also the last surviving member of Mystacinidae, the only mammalian family endemic to New Zealand (NZ) and a member of the Gondwanan bat superfamily Noctilionoidea. The capacity for true quadrupedal terrestrial locomotion in Mystacina is a secondarily derived condition, reflected in numerous skeletal and muscular specializations absent in other extant bats. The lack of ground-based predatory native NZ mammals has been assumed to have facilitated the evolution of terrestrial locomotion and the unique burrowing behaviour of Mystacina, just as flightlessness has arisen independently many times in island birds. New postcranial remains of an early Miocene mystacinid from continental Australia, Icarops aenae, offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Results Several distinctive derived features of the distal humerus are shared by the extant Mystacina tuberculata and the early Miocene Australian mystacinid Icarops aenae. Study of the myology of M. tuberculata indicates that these features are functionally correlated with terrestrial locomotion in this bat. Their presence in I. aenae suggests that this extinct mystacinid was also adapted for terrestrial locomotion, despite the existence of numerous ground-based mammalian predators in Australia during the early Miocene. Thus, it appears that mystacinids were already terrestrially-adapted prior to their isolation in NZ. In combination with recent molecular divergence dates, the new postcranial material of I. aenae constrains the timing of the evolution of terrestrial locomotion in mystacinids to between 51 and 26 million years ago (Ma). Conclusion Contrary to existing hypotheses, our data suggest that bats are not overwhelmingly absent from the ground because of competition from, or predation by, other mammals. Rather, selective advantage appears to be the primary evolutionary driving force behind habitual terrestriality in the rare bats that walk. Unlike for birds, there is currently no evidence that any bat has evolved a reduced capacity for flight as a result of isolation on islands. PMID:19615105

Hand, Suzanne J; Weisbecker, Vera; Beck, Robin MD; Archer, Michael; Godthelp, Henk; Tennyson, Alan JD; Worthy, Trevor H



Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves  

PubMed Central

According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D.



Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from four Ruta species growing in Algeria.  


Antimicrobial properties of plants essential oils have been investigated in order to suggest them as potential tools to overcome the microbial drug resistance and the increasing incidence of food borne diseases problems. The aim of this research is to study the antibacterial and antifungal effects of four traditional plants essential oils, Ruta angustifolia, Ruta chalepensis, Ruta graveolens and Ruta tuberculata, against standard bacterial and fungal strains. The chemical compounds of the oils were examined by GC/MS. Results revealed a powerful antifungal activity against filamentous fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium herbarum are the most sensitive strains to these oils with MIC values less than 3.5 ?g ml(-1) for certain oils, reaching 7.8 ?g ml(-1) for other. GC/MS essay exhibited ketones as the most abundant constituent of these oils except for R. tuberculata essential oil which has a completely different composition, monoterpenes alcohols being the most abundant. These compositions explain their potential antifungal activity. PMID:23768355

Haddouchi, Farah; Chaouche, Tarik Mohammed; Zaouali, Yosr; Ksouri, Riadh; Attou, Amina; Benmansour, Abdelhafid



Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: V -- Norte Fluminense Mesoregion.  


In this paper, the fifth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Norte Fluminense Mesoregion from 2002 to 2003 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 19 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Burnupia sp.; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex; Drepanotrema depressissimum; Drepanotrema lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Hebetancylus moricandi; Idiopyrgus sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; Physa marmorata; Pomacea sordida, and Pomacea sp. Concerning the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni only B. tenagophila was found, in contrast with other previuosly studied mesoregions.No specimens were found harbouring larval forms of S. mansoni although different kinds of cercariae had been observed. An account about the current schistosomiasis transmission sites in this Mesoregion is presented as well. PMID:15486644

Thiengo, Silvana C; Mattos, Aline C; Boaventura, M Fernanda; Loureiro, Márcio S; Santos, Sonia B; Fernandez, Monica A



Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: VI--Noroeste Fluminense Mesoregion.  


In this paper, the last of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Noroeste Fluminense Mesoregion from 2002 to 2005 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; B. straminea; B. tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; D. cimex; D. depressissimum; D. lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Idiopyrgus sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; P. marmorata; Plesiophysa guadeloupensis; Pomacea lineata; and Pomacea sp. Concerning the snail hosts of schistosomiasis the three natural vectors were identified and, although no specimens were found harbouring larval forms of Schistosoma mansoni, different kinds of cercariae had been observed. PMID:17308776

Thiengo, Silvana C; Mattos, Aline C; Santos, Sonia B; Fernandez, Monica A



Malacological assessment and natural infestation of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) by Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907) And Chaetogaster limnaei (K. Von Baer, 1827) in an urban eutrophic watershed.  


The objective of this study was to perform a malacological assessment at the Ibirité reservoir watershed in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais) and to evaluate the natural infestation rate of Biomphalaria straminea (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) by Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) and Chaetogaster limnaei (Oligochaeta: Naididae). The samples were collected from July to August 2002. The B. straminea individuals collected were kept in the laboratory; the natural infestation rate by S. mansoni and C. limnaei was assessed weekly. The malacological assessment identified five mollusk species present in the Ibirité reservoir watershed: B. straminea, Physa marmorata, Lymnea sp., Melanoides tuberculatus, and Pomacea austrum. Laboratory observations showed that the B. straminea individuals were infected by C. limnaei rather than S. mansoni. Although there was no infection of B. straminea by S. mansoni, presence of B. straminea in itself merits close attention due to possible risk of human schistosomiasis by the local population. PMID:16097724

Callisto, M; Moreno, P; Gonçalves, J F; Ferreira, W R; Gomes, C L Z



Freshwater snails and Schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: IV - Sul Fluminense Mesoregion.  


In this paper, the forth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Sul Fluminense Mesoregion from 2000 to 2002 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 18 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria peregrina; Biomphalaria straminea; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex; Drepanotrema lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; Physa marmorata; Pomacea sordida and Pomacea sp. As to the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni the most frequent species was B. tenagophila, found in all municipalities surveyed, except Parati. Besides new records the present study extends the distribution of B. peregrina and B. straminea in the state. No specimens were found harbouring larval forms of S. mansoni although different kinds of cercariae had been observed. An account about the current schistosomiasis transmission sites in this Mesoregion is presented as well. PMID:15273799

Thiengo, Silvana C; Mattos, Aline C; Boaventura, M Fernanda; Fernandez, Monica A



[Schistosomiasis mansoni and distribution of freshwater mollusks in natural bodies of water in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].  


The authors report on the distribution of freshwater mollusks in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and notification of schistosomiasis cases in this municipality from 1995 to 2000. All breeding sites favorable to freshwater mollusks were surveyed, showing the following species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954), Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848), Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835), Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835), Lymnaea columella Say, 1817, Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774), Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839, Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828, and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823). Some 3,691 specimens of snail hosts for Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 were examined by exposure to artificial light and crushing. No S. mansoni cercariae were found, although other types of cercariae were observed. PMID:12244379

Medeiros, Almir de Souza; Cruz, Oswaldo José da; Fernandez, Monica Ammon



Mapping nanomechanical properties of freshly grown, native, interlamellar organic sheets on flat pearl nacre.  


We imaged surfaces of freshly grown flat pearl nacre (Haliotis tuberculata) in different stages of growth in seawater using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Characteristic mineral phases of nacre, such as aragonitic stacks of coins, as well as the associated organic sheets, could be detected. Apart from imaging, the acquisition of force volumes on freshly grown organic surface areas on flat pearl nacre was conducted with the AFM. The evaluation of the force volumes with the Hertz-Sneddon model resulted in Young's moduli in the MPa range. The presented values are considerably smaller than values previously determined from macroscopic tensile tests. This might reflect the anisotropy of the organic nacre layers. PMID:24607419

Launspach, Malte; Gries, Katharina I; Heinemann, Fabian; Hübner, Anja; Fritz, Monika; Radmacher, Manfred



Pentaplex PCR as screening assay for jellyfish species identification in food products.  


Salted jellyfish, a traditional food in Asian Countries, is nowadays spreading on the Western markets. In this work, we developed a Pentaplex PCR for the identification of five edible species (Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculentum, Rhizostoma pulmo, Pelagia noctiluca, and Cotylorhiza tuberculata), which cannot be identified by a mere visual inspection in jellyfish products sold as food. A common degenerated forward primer and five specie-specific reverse primers were designed to amplify COI gene regions of different lengths. Another primer pair targeted the 28SrRNA gene and was intended as common positive reaction control. Considering the high level of degradation in the DNA extracted from acidified and salted products, the maximum length of the amplicons was set at 200 bp. The PCR was developed using 66 reference DNA samples. It gave successful amplifications in 85.4% of 48 ready to eat products (REs) and in 60% of 30 classical salted products (CPs) collected on the market. PMID:25393326

Armani, Andrea; Giusti, Alice; Castigliego, Lorenzo; Rossi, Aurelio; Tinacci, Lara; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra



Metal content of earthworms in sludge-amended soils: uptake and loss  

SciTech Connect

The widespread practice of landspreading of sludge has raised concern about increasing concentrations of potentially toxic metals in soils, with the possibility of these metals adversely impacting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Earthworms, as one of the largest components of the soil biota, are useful indicators of potentially toxic soil metal concentrations. The study describes the metal content of five metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in one earthworm species, Allolobophora tuberculata, as a function of varying soil metal concentrations in the same soil type and the ability of the earthworms to bioconcentrate the five metals. The rate of uptake of the five metals in earthworms with initially low concentrations of metals placed in a soil with high metal concentrations was evaluated for a 112 day period. The rate of loss of the five metals in earthworms with initially high metal concentrations placed in soil with low metal concentrations was also examined.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Malecki, M.R.; Cukic, Z.V.



A Partial Revision of the Marine Nematode Genus Elzalia (Monhysterida: Xyalidae) with New Characters and Descriptions of Two New Species from Khung Kraben Bay, East Thailand  

PubMed Central

Elzalia bipectinella1 n. sp. and E. tuberculata2 n. sp. from Thailand are described and the males of three species from the Gulf of Mexico, E. federici Castillo-Fernandez and Lambshead (1990), E. kimae Castillo-Fernandez and Lambshead (1990), and E. poli Castillo-Fernandez and Lambshead (1990) are re-described from type and topotype specimens using light and scanning electron microscopy. New morphological characters are described that include ornamentations at the distal end of the spicula and features of the gubernaculum including the manus with digits, pontis with sensory receptor and accessory process, and the condylus with either conical or foliate projections. Also, ejaculatory and rectal glands are described for the first time for Elzalia. The relevance of the new characters to the taxonomy of Elzalia is discussed. A key to identification of males is provided. A generalized description of females is given, although characters are lacking by which females of each species may be identified. PMID:22661779

Hope, W. Duane; Aryuthaka, Chittima



Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis).  


Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on North American wildlife. Epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (Siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of Y. pestis between epizootics. We monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most commonly found flea, and it increased in abundance with temperature. In contrast, Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris declined with rising temperature. During plague epizootics, flea abundance in burrows increased and then subsequently declined after the extirpation of their prairie dog hosts. PMID:18605787

Salkeld, Dan J; Stapp, Paul



Cryptococcus neoformans varieties from material under the canopies of eucalyptus trees and pigeon dropping samples from four major cities in Jordan.  


To our best knowledge, any study related to the ecological distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans in Jordan does not exist in the medical literature. In order to determine the environmental occurrence of both varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans in Jordan, pigeon droppings and material under the canopies of eucalyptus trees were collected from four major cities of this country. For the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii from environmental sources, 500 samples of the mixed soil debris, including tree materials, under the eucalyptus trees from cities of Amman, Irbid, Jerash, and Ajlun were collected. Also, 509 samples of pigeon droppings were collected from the same cities for the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans variety neoformans. After inoculating the samples onto modified Staib agar medium in Petri dishes, a total of 336 melanoid yeast colonies were picked up during screening process. At the end of serial mycological studies, none of these isolates was identified as Cryptococcus neoformans, but all were Cryptococcus species other than C. neoformans. For determining the exact status, more extensive environmental studies need to be done in the future. PMID:15518348

Hamasha, Akram Mohammad Saad; Yildiran, Sinasi Taner; Gonlum, Ahmet; Saracli, Mehmet Ali; Doganci, Levent



Outbreak of Philophthalmus gralli in four greater rheas (Rhea americana).  


Using slit-lamp biomicroscopy, conjunctival biopsy, and morphological identification, a flock of four Greater rheas (Rhea americana) in Arizona were diagnosed with conjunctivitis secondary to Philophthalmus gralli (P. gralli) infection. Aquatic snails from the exhibit's water source were identified as Melanoides tuberculatus, a known vector for P. gralli. Comparison of partial sequences of DNA regions from P. gralli adults removed from the rheas and metacercariae from the aquatic snails demonstrated a 100% match, confirming the source of infection. The flock was divided into two treatment groups: the most severely affected rheas received both manual removal of trematodes and praziquantel 1% ointment OU q12?h and the least severely affected rheas were only given praziquantel 1% ointment OU q12?h. The rheas were permanently relocated away from the infected water source and aquatic snails. Initial resolution was seen at 17?weeks in the most severely affected rhea, which had 675 adult P. gralli removed and topical praziquantel. The two rheas that only received topical praziquantel showed resolution within 3 and 15?weeks. Current recommendations for treating P. gralli include: manual removal of trematodes, topical praziquantel 1% ointment, and relocation away from infected water sources and aquatic snails. PMID:22429741

Church, Melanie L; Barrett, Paul M; Swenson, Julie; Kinsella, John M; Tkach, Vasyl V



Epidemiology of clonorchiasis in Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam.  


Clinical and stool examinations for clonorchiasis were carried out in an endemic area, Kim Son District, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam. Stool examination with the Kato-Katz technic revealed that in 306 residents selected randomly, 42 people (13.7%) were infected with Clonorchis sinensis. The rate was biased towards men (23.4%) as opposed to women (1.5%) and increased with age. No children younger than 10 years old were infected, reflecting difference in a chance for acquisition of infection through a habit of eating raw fish. Few clinical abnormalities were found by blood and urine examinations of the patients. Treatment with praziquantel decreased the infection rate to 5.3% at 6 weeks later. Snails, Melanoides tuberculatus, collected from ponds around the settlements were infected with cercariae at a rate of 13.3%. Farmed fish (Hypophthalmichtys molitrix) in the ponds were infected with metacercariae at rates of 56.4% in small individuals and 100% in large ones. The life cycle of C. sinensis is exclusively completed in the ponds and the traditional habit of eating raw fish in summer was thought to be a major route of infection. PMID:9886107

Kino, H; Inaba, H; Van De, N; Van Chau, L; Son, D T; Hao, H T; Toan, N D; Cong, L D; Sano, M



Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I-- Metropolitan mesoregion.  


In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954); Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818); Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864); Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848); Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835); Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835); Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839); Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839); Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962); Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774); Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822); Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823). Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well. PMID:11586447

Thiengo, S C; Fernandez, M A; Boaventura, M F; Grault, C E; Silva, H F; Mattos, A C; Santos, S B



[Temporary and permanent breeding sites for Biomphalaria in Jaboatão dos Guararapes, PE].  


A malacological survey of permanent and temporary breeding sites was conducted in the Piedade neighborhood of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, between November 2006 and November 2007, with the aim of determining the malacological fauna at this locality, along with the potential for Schistosomiasis mansoni transmission. In addition to Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818), the molluscs Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1837), Pomacea sp and Melanoides tuberculatus (Muller, 1774) were collected. Among the specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata that were collected, 1,490 were found alive, and 74 (5%) were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. The largest numbers of molluscs collected, and all of the specimens that were positive for Schistosoma mansoni, were collected during the annual rainy season. The presence of larvae of other trematodes infecting the Biomphalaria glabrata molluscs was also observed. These trematodes were from the families Strigeidae and Diplostomatidae and, at first sight, they presented morphology that could lead to confusion with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Thus, knowledge of these trematodes becomes essential for the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent for schistosomiasis. PMID:18719804

Souza, Marco Antônio Andrade de; Barbosa, Verônica Santos; Wanderlei, Tereza Neuma Guedes; Barbosa, Constança Simões



The life cycle of Haplorchis pumilio (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the Indian region.  


The life cycle of the heterophyid fluke, Haplorchis pumilio is elucidated for the first time from the Indian region. Various stages in the life cycle were established based on observations made on natural infections found in snails and fish in a freshwater stream at Visakhapatnam, India and experimental infections carried out in the laboratory. The thiarid snail, Thiara tuberculata served as the first intermediate host and a wide range of freshwater fish as second intermediate hosts. Natural infections with adult flukes were found in the piscivorous birds Ardeola grayii and Bubulcus ibis. Adults were raised experimentally in day-old chicks. Distinguishing features of the cercaria of H. pumilio are: a large body size (200-224 x 92-96 micro m), body-tail ratio of 1:2.1 and densely distributed pigment granules in the parenchyma imparting a brownish tinge to the body. Natural infections with metacercariae were found in the freshwater fish Channa punctatus, C. orientalis, Puntius sophore, Gambusia affinis and fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio and Liza macrolepis. Additionally, experimental infections were established in Therapon jarbua, Esomus danricus and Oreochromis mossambica. Metacercariae were embedded in the caudal muscles of fish and heavy infections induced mortality. Metacercariae were infective at about 15 days of age. PMID:17125540

Umadevi, K; Madhavi, R



Toxicity of landfill leachate to sea urchin development with a focus on ammonia.  


Sea urchin gametes and embryos serve as a model system to evaluate toxicity in the marine environment. In this study, the toxicity of complex chemical mixtures in leachate samples to sea urchin development was examined with a focus on ammonia, which was the main contaminant of concern in most samples. Two rapid tests, the submitochondrial particle function and bacterial luminescence tests, were also used. Ammonia is highly toxic to sea urchin embryos with an EC50 of 1.3 mg l(-1) for the embryos of the Australian sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata. Leachate ammonia levels were well above these EC50 concentrations. To assess the contribution of ammonia to leachate toxicity in sea urchin development, we compared the predicted toxic units (PTU) and observed toxic units (OTU) for ammonia for each sample. The PTU/OTU comparison revealed that the sensitivity of the sea urchin embryos to ammonia were altered (enhanced or decreased) by other chemicals in the leachates. This result emphasises the need for parallel chemical analyses and a suite bioassays for evaluating the toxicity of complex and variable chemical mixtures. PMID:18716888

Byrne, Maria; Oakes, Diana J; Pollak, John K; Laginestra, Edwina



Classification of Camellia (Theaceae) Species Using Leaf Architecture Variations and Pattern Recognition Techniques  

PubMed Central

Leaf characters have been successfully utilized to classify Camellia (Theaceae) species; however, leaf characters combined with supervised pattern recognition techniques have not been previously explored. We present results of using leaf morphological and venation characters of 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia to assess the effectiveness of several supervised pattern recognition techniques for classifications and compare their accuracy. Clustering approach, Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQ-ANN), Dynamic Architecture for Artificial Neural Networks (DAN2), and C-support vector machines (SVM) are used to discriminate 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia (11 in sect. Furfuracea, 16 in sect. Paracamellia, 12 in sect. Tuberculata, 34 in sect. Camellia, and 20 in sect. Theopsis). DAN2 and SVM show excellent classification results for genus Camellia with DAN2's accuracy of 97.92% and 91.11% for training and testing data sets respectively. The RBF-SVM results of 97.92% and 97.78% for training and testing offer the best classification accuracy. A hierarchical dendrogram based on leaf architecture data has confirmed the morphological classification of the five sections as previously proposed. The overall results suggest that leaf architecture-based data analysis using supervised pattern recognition techniques, especially DAN2 and SVM discrimination methods, is excellent for identification of Camellia species. PMID:22235330

Lee, Sean; Nitin, Mantri



Molecular characterization and induction of heat shock protein 90 in the Antarctic bivalve Laternula elliptica  

PubMed Central

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that plays a key role in protein synthesis, folding, denaturation prevention, and signal transduction. We cloned the complete complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of the Laternula elliptica HSP90. The full-length cDNA was 2,823 bp in size and contained an open reading frame of 2,190 bp that was translated into 729 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 83.4 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of HSP90 showed the highest homology to Haliotis tuberculata HSP90 (83%). Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of HSP90 transcripts in all of the tissues examined. We also studied the transcriptional expression pattern of HSP90 exposed to thermal stress with real-time polymerase chain reaction. The relative expression level of HSP90 messenger RNA was upregulated and peaked at 12 h in the digestive gland and at 24 h in the gills, then dropped progressively. PMID:18987993

Kim, Meesun; Ahn, In-Young; Kim, Hakjun; Cheon, Jina



Identification of candidate antimicrobial peptides derived from abalone hemocyanin.  


Hemocyanins present in invertebrate hemolymph are multifunctional proteins, responsible for oxygen transport and contributing to innate immunity through phenoloxidase-like activity. In arthropods, hemocyanin has been identified as a source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides during infection. Conversely, no hemocyanin-derived antimicrobial peptides have been reported for molluscs. The present study describes a putative antimicrobial region, termed haliotisin, located within the linking sequence between the ?-helical domain and ?-sheet domain of abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) hemocyanin functional unit E. A series of synthetic peptides based on overlapping fragments of the haliotisin region were tested for their bactericidal potential. Incubating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the presence of certain haliotisin peptides, notably peptides 3-4-5 (DTFDYKKFGYRYDSLELEGRSISRIDELIQQRQEKDRTFAGFLLKGFGTSAS) led to reductions in microbial growth. Furthermore, transmission electron micrographs of haliotisin-treated bacteria revealed damages to the microbial cell wall. Data discussed here provides the first evidence to suggest that molluscan hemocyanin may act as a source of anti-infective peptides. PMID:25445903

Zhuang, Jun; Coates, Christopher J; Zhu, Hongtao; Zhu, Ping; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui



Removal of anthracene and phenanthrene by filamentous fungi capable of cortexolone 11-hydroxylation.  


Nine fungal strains showing ability of cortexolone hydroxylation to epicortisol and/or cortisol were screened in this work for anthracene and phenanthrene elimination (250 mg/l). All of the strains (Cylindrocladium simplex IM 2358, C. simplex IM 2358/650, Monosporium olivaceum IM 484, Curvularia lunata IM 2901, C. lunata IM 2901/366, C. tuberculata IM 4417, Cunninghamella elegans IM 1785, C. elegans IM 1785/21Gp, C. elegans IM 1785/10Gi) significantly removed anthracene and phenanthrene. During incubation with anthracene formation of intermediate products was observed. The amount of the main intermediate product, identified as 9, 10-anthraquinone, was not greater than 22.2% of the anthracene introduced to the fungal cultures. C. elegans IM 1785/21Gp was the best degrader of both anthracene and phenanthrene, removing 81.6 and 99.4% of these compounds after 7 days, respectively. Phenanthrene removal by C. elegans IM 1785/21Gp was preceded by PAHs accumulation in mycelium and growth inhibition. Elimination of phenanthrene started after one day of incubation and was related to the fungus growth. PMID:10335604

Lisowska, K; D?ugo?ski, J



Abundance patterns of two Oropsylla (Ceratophyllidae: Siphonaptera) species on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) hosts.  


Behavioral, genetic, and immune variation within a host population may lead to aggregation of parasites whereby a small proportion of hosts harbor a majority of parasites. In situations where two or more parasite species infect the same host population there is the potential for interaction among parasites that could potentially influence patterns of aggregation through either competition or facilitation. We studied the occurrence and abundance patterns of two congeneric flea species on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) hosts to test for interactions among parasite species. We live-trapped prairie dogs on ten sites in Boulder County, CO and collected their fleas. We found a non-random, positive association between the two flea species, Oropsylla hirsuta and O. tuberculata cynomuris; hosts with high loads of one flea species had high loads of the second species. This result suggests that there is no interspecific competition among fleas on prairie dog hosts. Host weight had a weak negative relationship to flea load and host sex did not influence flea load, though there were slight differences in flea prevalence and abundance between male and female C. ludovicianus. While genetic and behavioral variation among hosts may predispose certain individuals to infection, our results indicate apparent facilitation among flea species that may result from immune suppression or other flea-mediated factors. PMID:17249353

Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Markeson, Amelia B; Knouft, Jason H; Gage, Kenneth L; Montenieri, John A



Cronkhite-Canada syndrome complicated with multiple gastric cancers and multiple colon adenomas  

PubMed Central

Background: We experienced a case in which Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome presented with complications of multiple gastric cancers and multiple colon adenomas. Case Report: Our case is a 64-year-old male who visited a nearby hospital with diarrhea and weight loss. The patient was anemic and hypoproteinemic, with multiple polyps in the stomach, duodenum, and large intestine. He also presented with alopecia, onychatrophia, cutaneous pigmentation, and dysgeusia, and was diagnosed with Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome. Follow-up examinations found multiple gastric cancers and colon adenomas. We performed a total gastrectomy and a polypectomy of the large intestine lesions, revealing 4 well-differentiated adenocarcinomas in the resected stomach, and tubular adenomas in the large intestine lesions. Intraoperative findings included scattered melanoid pigmentation on the mesentery and the small intestinal wall. Tumor cells were positive for p53 and Ki67 and partially positive for MUC5AC and MUC2. Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome polyps are generally classified as juvenile type polyps, and these polyps rarely become cancerous. However, of the 383 cases of Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome reported in Japan, complications of gastric cancer were found in 39 cases (10.2%), and only 8 cases with multiple gastric cancer were reported in Japan. including the cases we have personally experienced. There were only two English literatures on Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome complicated with gastric cancer. So it is necessary to notify this information of Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome to the world. Conclusions: Close gastrointestinal examination and strict follow-up are believed to be essential for Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome patients. PMID:23826450

Isobe, Taro; Kobayashi, Teppei; Hashimoto, Kousuke; Kizaki, Junya; Miyagi, Motoshi; Aoyagi, Keishiro; Koufuji, Kikuo; Shirouzu, Kazuo



Metacercarial distribution of Centrocestus formosanus among fish hosts in the Guadalupe River drainage of Texas.  


We examined the gills of wild fish collected from central Texas for Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae to determine whether this temperature-restricted parasite had invaded the thermally dynamic Guadalupe River via an introduced population in its thermally stable tributary, the Comal River. We collected fish from three sites in the Guadalupe River near its confluence with the Comal River (upstream, at, and downstream) and one site in the Comal River. Centrocestus formosanus infected 14 of the 25 species examined (56.0%) and 171 of the individual fish (27.1%). Several of the infected fish represent new host records for the parasite, and two are listed as species of special concern by the state of Texas. Mean metacercarial intensities varied from 8 to 616 among species, and the highest recorded intensity was greater than 800 in two Guadalupe roundnose minnow Dionda nigrotaeniata. Among the 24 species examined from the Guadalupe River, 11 (45.8%) were infected with C. formosanus. Thorough surveys at the study sites yielded no living specimens of the first obligate intermediate snail host (red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus), which must be present to perpetuate the parasite. Thus, the infections were probably due to drifting cercariae that had been shed into the water column upstream of the study area in the Comal River. We therefore investigated spatial patterns in cercarial acquisition using caged fish to determine whether drifting cercariae were present in the water column at the study sites. Of 57 uninfected blacktail shiners Cyprinella venusta exposed to Guadalupe River water downstream from and at the confluence, 52 (91.2%) became infected with C. Formosanus metacercariae at a mean rate of 4 metacercariae/d. This finding extends the known geographic range of this invasive exotic parasite and is the first report of the life cycle being advanced in the fish assemblage of a thermally variable temperate stream in the USA. PMID:22216710

Fleming, B Paul; Huffman, David G; Bonner, Timothy H; Brandt, Thomas M



Dynamics of plague in a Gunnison's prairie dog colony complex from New Mexico.  


A plague (Yersinia pestis) epizootic spread through Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni), and possibly other rodent species, in the Moreno Valley in north-central New Mexico between winter 1984-1985 and autumn 1987. We observed the progress of the epizootic and subsequent population recovery at four prairie dog towns within the valley during this period. At two towns (Midlake and Val Verde) the prairie dogs were marked prior to the epizootic. At two additional towns (Vega and South Entrance) prairie dogs were marked following the epizootic. In 1988, a second epizootic occurred at Vega. One hundred thirty-nine serum samples were collected from prairie dogs and other rodents and 1,750 fleas were collected from animals and burrows. Fleas infected with Y. pestis were collected from prairie dogs, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus). Prairie dog fleas included Oropsylla hirsuta, O. labis and O. tuberculata, deermouse associated fleas were Aetheca wagneri and Rhadinopsylla sectilis, and Oropsylla bacchi was associated with thirteen-lined ground squirrels. All of the above flea species were collected from prairie dog burrows. All rodent species shared some flea species. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels disappeared shortly before plague was identified in prairie dogs at Midlake. Meadow voles were rare following the epizootic at Vega in 1986, became abundant in 1987, and disappeared at the time of the second prairie dog epizootic in summer 1988. Although we collected serum from Gunnison's prairie dogs, thirteen-lined ground squirrels, deer mice, and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), we identified elevated serum titers against Y. pestis only in Gunnison's prairie dogs. Prairie dog mortality at all towns affected by plague was in excess of 99%. Serum antibody titers indicate that more than 40% of the few prairie dogs left to establish colonies following epizootics survived plague infection. PMID:9391954

Cully, J F; Barnes, A M; Quan, T J; Maupin, G



Systematics and molecular phylogeny of the family oscarellidae (homoscleromorpha) with description of two new oscarella species.  


The family Oscarellidae is one of the two families in the class Homoscleromorpha (phylum Porifera) and is characterized by the absence of a skeleton and the presence of a specific mitochondrial gene, tatC. This family currently encompasses sponges in two genera: Oscarella with 17 described species and Pseudocorticium with one described species. Although sponges in this group are relatively well-studied, phylogenetic relationships among members of Oscarellidae and the validity of genus Pseudocorticium remain open questions. Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of Oscarellidae using four markers (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, atp6, tatC), and argue that it should become a mono-generic family, with Pseudocorticium being synonymized with Oscarella, and with the transfer of Pseudocorticium jarrei to Oscarella jarrei. We show that the genus Oscarella can be subdivided into four clades, each of which is supported by either a small number of morphological characters or by molecular synapomorphies. In addition, we describe two new species of Oscarella from Norwegian fjords: O. bergenensis sp. nov. and O. nicolae sp. nov., and we compare their morphology, anatomy, and cytology with other species in this genus. Internal anatomical characters are similar in both species, but details of external morphology and particularly of cytological characters provide diagnostic features. Our study also confirms that O. lobularis and O. tuberculata are two distinct polychromic sibling species. This study highlights the difficulties of species identification in skeleton-less sponges and, more generally, in groups where morphological characters are scarce. Adopting a multi-marker approach is thus highly suitable for these groups. PMID:23737959

Gazave, Eve; Lavrov, Dennis V; Cabrol, Jory; Renard, Emmanuelle; Rocher, Caroline; Vacelet, Jean; Adamska, Maja; Borchiellini, Carole; Ereskovsky, Alexander V



A lost link between a flightless parrot and a parasitic plant and the potential role of coprolites in conservation paleobiology.  


Late Quaternary extinctions and population fragmentations have severely disrupted animal-plant interactions globally. Detection of disrupted interactions often relies on anachronistic plant characteristics, such as spines in the absence of large herbivores or large fruit without dispersers. However, obvious anachronisms are relatively uncommon, and it can be difficult to prove a direct link between the anachronism and a particular faunal taxon. Analysis of coprolites (fossil feces) provides a novel way of exposing lost interactions between animals (depositors) and consumed organisms. We analyzed ancient DNA to show that a coprolite from the South Island of New Zealand was deposited by the rare and threatened kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), a large, nocturnal, flightless parrot. When we analyzed the pollen and spore content of the coprolite, we found pollen from the cryptic root-parasite Dactylanthus taylorii. The relatively high abundance (8.9% of total pollen and spores) of this zoophilous pollen type in the coprolite supports the hypothesis of a former direct feeding interaction between kakapo and D. taylorii. The ranges of both species have contracted substantially since human settlement, and their present distributions no longer overlap. Currently, the lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) is the only known native pollinator of D. taylorii, but our finding raises the possibility that birds, and other small fauna, could have once fed on and pollinated the plant. If confirmed, through experimental work and observations, this finding may inform conservation of the plant. For example, it may be possible to translocate D. taylorii to predator-free offshore islands that lack bats but have thriving populations of endemic nectar-feeding birds. The study of coprolites of rare or extinct taxonomic groups provides a unique way forward to expand existing knowledge of lost plant and animal interactions and to identify pollination and dispersal syndromes. This approach of linking paleobiology with neoecology offers significant untapped potential to help inform conservation and restoration plans. PMID:23025275

Wood, Jamie R; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Worthy, Trevor H; Holzapfel, Avi S; Cooper, Alan



Plague in a complex of white-tailed prairie dogs and associated small mammals in Wyoming.  


Fleas were collected from white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) and other small mammals trapped on six grids during a field study near Meeteetse (Wyoming, USA) in 1989 and 1990 to investigate the dynamics of plague in this rodent population. Fleas were identified and tested for Yersinia pestis by mouse inoculation. Yersinia pestis-positive fleas were found on prairie dogs and in their burrows. Flea species on prairie dogs changed from spring to late summer. White-tailed prairie dog numbers were significantly lower in the presence of Y. pestis-positive fleas; however, affected populations generally recovered 1 to 2 yr following absence of detectable plague. Grids where recovery occurred had a high proportion of juvenile male prairie dogs. Eighteen flea species were identified on small mammals, six of which were infected with Y. pestis. Some flea species were associated with a particular small mammal species, while others were found on a broad range of host species. Flea species most important in the potential interchange of Y. pestis between associated small mammals and white-tailed prairie dogs were Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris, Oropsylla idahoensis, and Oropsylla labis. Plague cycled through the white-tailed prairie dog complex in an unpredictable manner. Each summer the complex was a mixture of colonies variously impacted by plague: some were declining, some were unaffected by plague, and others were recovering from plague population declines. These data provide insight into the dynamics of plague in white-tailed prairie dog complexes, but predicting movement of plague is not yet possible and the role of associated mammals in maintenance of plague is not understood. PMID:9391955

Anderson, S H; Williams, E S



Derivation of a water quality guideline for aluminium in marine waters.  


Metal risk assessment of industrialized harbors and coastal marine waters requires the application of robust water quality guidelines to determine the likelihood of biological impacts. Currently there is no such guideline available for aluminium in marine waters. A water quality guideline of 24?µg total Al/L has been developed for aluminium in marine waters based on chronic 10% inhibition or effect concentrations (IC10 or EC10) and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) from 11 species (2 literature values and 9 species tested including temperate and tropical species) representing 6 taxonomic groups. The 3 most sensitive species tested were a diatom Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium; IC10?=?18?µg Al/L, 72-h growth rate inhibition) < mussel Mytilus edulis plannulatus (EC10?=?250?µg Al/L, 72-h embryo development) < oyster Saccostrea echinata (EC10?=?410?µg Al/L, 48-h embryo development). Toxicity to these species was the result of the dissolved aluminium forms of aluminate (Al(OH4 (-) ) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3 (0) ) although both dissolved, and particulate aluminium contributed to toxicity in the diatom Minutocellus polymorphus and green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the green flagellate alga Tetraselmis sp. was the result of particulate aluminium only. Four species, a brown macroalga (Hormosira banksii), sea urchin embryo (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and 2 juvenile fish species (Lates calcarifer and Acanthochromis polyacanthus), were not adversely affected at the highest test concentration used. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:141-151. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25318392

Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Apte, Simon C; Krassoi, Rick; Doyle, Chris J



Phylogeny, Floral Evolution, and Inter-Island Dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) Based on ISSR Variation and Plastid Spacer Sequences  

PubMed Central

Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or—perhaps more plausibly—a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree with them in supporting Clermontia's origin on Kauài or some older island and dispersal down the chain subsequently. PMID:23658747

Givnish, Thomas J.; Bean, Gregory J.; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.



Biotic interactions modify the transfer of cesium-137 in a soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web.  


The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (<1.5 Bq/kg). In the second experiment, microcosms were used to determine the contribution of soil and lettuce in the accumulation of (137)Cs in snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d). PMID:18266477

Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie



Flea abundance on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increases during plague epizootics.  


Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often approaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall transmission can be increased if flea abundance (the number of fleas on hosts) increases. Changes in flea abundance on hosts during plague outbreaks were recorded during a large-scale study of plague outbreaks in prairie dogs in north central Colorado during 3 years (2004-2007). Fleas were collected from live-trapped black-tailed prairie dogs before and during plague epizootics and tested by PCR for the presence of Y. pestis. The predominant fleas were two prairie dog specialists (Oropsylla hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris), and a generalist flea species (Pulex simulans) was also recorded from numerous mammals in the area. The three species differ in seasonal abundance, with greatest abundance in spring (February and March) and fall (September and October). Flea abundance and infestation intensity increased during epizootics and were highest on prairie dogs with Y. pestis-infected fleas. Seasonal occurrence of epizootics among black-tailed prairie dogs was found to coincide with seasonal peaks in flea abundance. Concentration of infected fleas on surviving animals may account for rapid spread of plague during epizootics. In particular, the role of the generalist flea P. simulans was previously underappreciated. PMID:19492944

Tripp, Daniel W; Gage, Kenneth L; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F



Revision of the Southeast Asian millipede genus Orthomorpha Bollman, 1893, with the proposal of a new genus (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).  


The large genus Orthomorpha is rediagnosed and is shown to currently comprise 51 identifiable species ranging from northern Myanmar and Thailand in the Northwest to Lombok Island, Indonesia in the Southeast. Of them, 20 species have been revised and/or abundantly illustrated, based on a restudy of mostly type material; further 12 species are described as new: Orthomorpha atypicasp. n., Orthomorpha communissp. n., Orthomorpha isarankuraisp. n., Orthomorpha picturatasp. n., Orthomorpha similanensissp. n., Orthomorpha suberectasp. n., Orthomorpha tuberculiferasp. n.,Orthomorpha subtuberculiferasp. n. and Orthomorpha latitergasp. n., all from Thailand, as well as Orthomorpha elevatasp. n.,Orthomorpha spiniformissp. n. and Orthomorpha subelevatasp. n., from northern Malaysia. The type-species Orthomorpha beaumontii (Le Guillou, 1841) is redescribed in due detail from male material as well, actually being a senior subjective synonym of Orthomorpha spinala (Attems, 1932), syn. n. Two additional new synonymies are proposed: Orthomorpha rotundicollis (Attems, 1937) = Orthomorpha tuberculata (Attems, 1937), syn. n., and Orthomorpha butteli Carl, 1922 = Orthomorpha consocius Chamberlin, 1945, syn. n., the valid names to the left. All species have been keyed and all new and some especially widespread species have been mapped. Further six species, including two revised from type material, are still to be considered dubious, mostly because their paraterga appear to be too narrow to represent Orthomorpha species. A new genus, Orthomorphoidesgen. n., diagnosed versus Orthomorpha through only moderately well developed paraterga, coupled with a poorly bi- or trifid gonopod tip, with at least some of its apical prongs being short spines, is erected for two species: Orthomorpha setosus (Attems, 1937), the type-species, which is also revised from type material, and Orthomorpha exaratus (Attems, 1953), both comb. n. ex Orthomorpha. PMID:22140329

Likhitrakarn, Natdanai; Golovatch, Sergei I; Panha, Somsak



Isolation, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Jellyfish Collagen for Use in Biomedical Applications  

PubMed Central

Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures). The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2–10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue). Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g), R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p > 0.05) between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin inhibits cell adhesion to jellyfish-native collagen by 55%, the main difference is that heparan sulfate proteoglycans could be preferentially involved in fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion to jellyfish collagens. Our data confirm the broad harmlessness of jellyfish collagens, and their biological effect on human cells that are similar to that of mammalian type I collagen. Given the bioavailability of jellyfish collagen and its biological properties, this marine material is thus a good candidate for replacing bovine or human collagens in selected biomedical applications. PMID:21747742

Addad, Sourour; Exposito, Jean-Yves; Faye, Clément; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Lethias, Claire



The potential for biodiversity offsetting to fund effective invasive species control.  


Compensating for biodiversity losses in 1 location by conserving or restoring biodiversity elsewhere (i.e., biodiversity offsetting) is being used increasingly to compensate for biodiversity losses resulting from development. We considered whether a form of biodiversity offsetting, enhancement offsetting (i.e., enhancing the quality of degraded natural habitats through intensive ecological management), can realistically secure additional funding to control biological invaders at a scale and duration that results in enhanced biodiversity outcomes. We suggest that biodiversity offsetting has the potential to enhance biodiversity values through funding of invasive species control, but it needs to meet 7 key conditions: be technically possible to reduce invasive species to levels that enhance native biodiversity; be affordable; be sufficiently large to compensate for the impact; be adaptable to accommodate new strategic and tactical developments while not compromising biodiversity outcomes; acknowledge uncertainties associated with managing pests; be based on an explicit risk assessment that identifies the cost of not achieving target outcomes; and include financial mechanisms to provide for in-perpetuity funding. The challenge then for conservation practitioners, advocates, and policy makers is to develop frameworks that allow for durable and effective partnerships with developers to realize the full potential of enhancement offsets, which will require a shift away from traditional preservation-focused approaches to biodiversity management. El Potencial de la Compensación de la Biodiversidad para Financiar Controles Efectivos de Especies Invasoras. PMID:25047072

Norton, David A; Warburton, Bruce



Tyrosinase kinetics: failure of the auto-activation mechanism of monohydric phenol oxidation by rapid formation of a quinomethane intermediate.  


When 3,4-dihydroxybenzylcyanide (DBC) is oxidized by mushroom tyrosinase, the first visible product, identified as the corresponding quinomethane, exhibits an absorption maximum at 480 nm. Pulse-radiolysis experiments, in which the o-quinone is formed by disproportionation of semiquinone radicals generated by single-electron oxidation of DBC, showed that the quinomethane (A480 6440 is formed through the intermediacy of the o-quinone with a rate constant at neutral pH of 7.5 s-1. The oxygen stoichiometry of the formation of the quinomethane by tyrosinase-catalysed oxidation of DBC was 0.5:1. On the basis of oxygen utilization rates the calculated Vmax was 4900 nmol.min-1 and the apparent Km was 374 microM. The corresponding monohydric phenol, 4-hydroxybenzylcyanide (HBC), was not oxidized by tyrosinase unless the enzyme was pre-exposed to DBC, the maximum acceleration of HBC oxidation being obtained by approximately equimolar addition of DBC. These results are consistent with tyrosinase auto-activation on the basis of the indirect formation of the dihydric phenol-activating cofactor. The rapid conversion of the o-quinone to the quinomethane prevents the formation of the catechol by reduction of the o-quinone product of monohydric phenol oxidation from occurring in the case of the compounds studied. In the absence of auto-activation, the kinetic parameters for HBC oxidation by tyrosinase were estimated as Vmax 70 nmol.min-1 and Km 309 microM. The quinomethane was found to decay with a rate constant of 2k 38 M-1.s-1, as determined both by pulse-radiolysis and tyrosinase experiments. The second-order kinetics indicate that a dimer is formed. In the presence of tyrosinase, but not in the pulse-radiolysis experiments, the quinomethane decay was accompanied by a steady-state oxygen uptake concurrently with the generation of a melanoid product measured by its A650, which is ascribed to the formation of an oligomer incorporating the oxidized dimer. PMID:9677329

Cooksey, C J; Garratt, P J; Land, E J; Ramsden, C A; Riley, P A



The Use of Environmental DNA in Invasive Species Surveillance of the Great Lakes Commercial Bait Trade.  


Over 180 non-native species have been introduced in the Laurentian Great Lakes region, many posing threats to native species and ecosystem functioning. One potential pathway for introductions is the commercial bait trade; unknowing or unconcerned anglers commonly release unused bait into aquatic systems. Previous surveillance efforts of this pathway relied on visual inspection of bait stocks in retail shops, which can be time and cost prohibitive and requires a trained individual that can rapidly and accurately identify cryptic species. Environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance, a molecular tool that has been used for surveillance in aquatic environments, can be used to efficiently detect species at low abundances. We collected and analyzed 576 eDNA samples from 525 retail bait shops throughout the Laurentian Great Lake states. We used eDNA techniques to screen samples for multiple aquatic invasive species (AIS) that could be transported in the bait trade, including bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus), Eurasian rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Twenty-seven samples were positive for at least one target species (4.7% of samples), and all target species were found at least once, except bighead carp. Despite current regulations, the bait trade remains a potential pathway for invasive species introductions in the Great Lakes region. Alterations to existing management strategies regarding the collection, transportation, and use of live bait are warranted, including new and updated regulations, to prevent future introductions of invasive species in the Great Lakes via the bait trade. El Uso del ADN Ambiental en la Vigilancia de Especies Invasoras del Mercado de Carnada Comercial de los Grandes Lagos. PMID:25169113

Nathan, Lucas R; Jerde, Christopher L; Budny, Michelle L; Mahon, Andrew R



Clarifying values, risk perceptions, and attitudes to resolve or avoid social conflicts in invasive species management.  


Decision makers and researchers recognize the need to effectively confront the social dimensions and conflicts inherent to invasive species research and management. Yet, despite numerous contentious situations that have arisen, no systematic evaluation of the literature has examined the commonalities in the patterns and types of these emergent social issues. Using social and ecological keywords, we reviewed trends in the social dimensions of invasive species research and management and the sources and potential solutions to problems and conflicts that arise around invasive species. We integrated components of cognitive hierarchy theory and risk perceptions theory to provide a conceptual framework to identify, distinguish, and provide understanding of the driving factors underlying disputes associated with invasive species. In the ISI Web of Science database, we found 15,915 peer-reviewed publications on biological invasions, 124 of which included social dimensions of this phenomenon. Of these 124, 28 studies described specific contentious situations. Social approaches to biological invasions have emerged largely in the last decade and have focused on both environmental social sciences and resource management. Despite being distributed in a range of journals, these 124 articles were concentrated mostly in ecology and conservation-oriented outlets. We found that conflicts surrounding invasive species arose based largely on differences in value systems and to a lesser extent stakeholder and decision maker's risk perceptions. To confront or avoid such situations, we suggest integrating the plurality of environmental values into invasive species research and management via structured decision making techniques, which enhance effective risk communication that promotes trust and confidence between stakeholders and decision makers. Clarificar los Valores, Percepciones de Riesgo y Actitudes para Resolver o Evitar Conflictos Sociales en el Manejo de Especies Invasoras. PMID:25155068

Estévez, Rodrigo A; Anderson, Christopher B; Pizarro, J Cristobal; Burgman, Mark A



Australian gall-inducing scale insects on Eucalyptus: revision of Opisthoscelis Schrader (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae) and descriptions of a new genus and nine new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelis gen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in Australia, with Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym): Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Opisthoscelis recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= Opisthoscelis ruebsaameni Lindinger) with Opisthoscelis convexa Froggatt; and Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as Tanyscelis conica (Fuller), comb. n., Tanyscelis convexa (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maskelli (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis pisiformis (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis spinosa (Froggatt), comb. n., and Tanyscelis verrucula (Froggatt), comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the first-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (Opisthoscelis subrotunda) and Tanyscelis (Opisthoscelis pisiformis). We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: Opisthoscelis beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis tuberculataHardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Opisthoscelis ungulifinis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: Tanyscelis grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanuscelis megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Tanyscelis villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for Opisthoscelis convexa, Opisthoscelis fibularis, Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, Opisthoscelis maculata, Opisthoscelis mammularis, Opisthoscelis maskelli, Opisthoscelis pisiformis, Opisthoscelis recurva, Opisthoscelis serrata, Opisthoscelis spinosa, and Opisthoscelis verrucula. As a result of our taxonomic revision, Opisthoscelis has six species and Tanyscelis has 12 species. We describe the galls of females for all 18 species and galls of males for 10 species of Opisthoscelis and Tanyscelis, and provide photographs of the galls for most species. A key to the adult females of the species of both genera is included. PMID:21594191

Hardy, Nate B.; Gullan, Penny J.



Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.  


The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:25102662

Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade



Mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of tiger beetles: basic structure and evolution (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelitae).  


Using for comparison with, and as outgroups for, supertribe Cicindelitae, we describe and illustrate the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of the basal geadephagans Trachypachus gibbsii LeConte, 1861 (family Trachypachidae), and family Carabidae: Pelophila rudis (LeConte, 1863) (supertribe Nebriitae, tribe Pelophilini) and Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz, 1829) (supertribe Carabitae, tribe Ceroglossini). The range and pattern of variation in structure of mandibles and labrum-epipharynx within the supertribe Cicindelitae was assessed using scanning-electron (SEM) images of these structures in nine exemplar taxa: Amblycheila baroni (Rivers, 1890), Omus californicus (Eschscholtz, 1829) and Picnochile fallaciosa (Chevrolat, 1854) (representing the Amblycheilini); Manticora tuberculata (DeGeer, 1778) (representing the Manticorini): Tetracha carolina (Linnaeus, 1767) (representing the Megacephalini); Pogonostoma chalybeum (Klug, 1835) (representing the Collyridini); and Therates basalis Dejean, 1826, Oxycheila species, and Cicindela longilabris Say, 1824 (representing the Cicindelini). An evolutionary transformation series was postulated for the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx, based on a reconstructed phylogenetic sequence, which, in turn, was based on morphological and DNAevidence.Principal features of the transformation series for the mandibles included development of a densely setose basal face; wide quadridentate retinaculum; a lengthened incisor tooth; a multidentate terebra (one to five teeth; two-three most frequent), followed by subsequent loss of one or more such teeth; development of a diastema in the occlusal surface; development and subsequent loss of scrobal setae, and reduction and loss of the scrobe. Principal features of the transformation series for the labrum included evolution of form from transverse, sub-rectangular to elongate almost square, to triangular; position and number of setae evolved from dorsal to insertion on the apical margin, the number increased from 8-10 to as many as 36, and decreased to as few as four. The epipharynx broadened evolutionarily, the pedium evolving in form from narrow, triangular and nearly flat, to broad, palatiform, and markedly convex; anterior parapedial setae both increased and decreased in number, and in orientation, from a row parallel to the parapedial ridge to a setal row extended forward at about a right angle to the latter. PMID:22371663

Ball, George E; Acorn, John H; Shpeley, Danny



Mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of tiger beetles: basic structure and evolution (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelitae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Using for comparison with, and as outgroups for, supertribe Cicindelitae, we describe and illustrate the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of the basal geadephagans Trachypachus gibbsii LeConte, 1861 (family Trachypachidae), and family Carabidae: Pelophila rudis (LeConte, 1863) (supertribe Nebriitae, tribe Pelophilini) and Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz, 1829) (supertribe Carabitae, tribe Ceroglossini). The range and pattern of variation in structure of mandibles and labrum-epipharynx within the supertribe Cicindelitae was assessed using scanning-electron (SEM) images of these structures in nine exemplar taxa: Amblycheila baroni (Rivers, 1890), Omus californicus (Eschscholtz, 1829) and Picnochile fallaciosa (Chevrolat, 1854) (representing the Amblycheilini); Manticora tuberculata (DeGeer, 1778) (representing the Manticorini): Tetracha carolina (Linnaeus, 1767) (representing the Megacephalini); Pogonostoma chalybeum (Klug, 1835) (representing the Collyridini); and Therates basalis Dejean, 1826, Oxycheila species, and Cicindela longilabris Say, 1824 (representing the Cicindelini). An evolutionary transformation series was postulated for the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx, based on a reconstructed phylogenetic sequence, which, in turn, was based on morphological and DNAevidence.Principal features of the transformation series for the mandibles included development of a densely setose basal face; wide quadridentate retinaculum; a lengthened incisor tooth; a multidentate terebra (one to five teeth; two-three most frequent), followed by subsequent loss of one or more such teeth; development of a diastema in the occlusal surface; development and subsequent loss of scrobal setae, and reduction and loss of the scrobe. Principal features of the transformation series for the labrum included evolution of form from transverse, sub-rectangular to elongate almost square, to triangular; position and number of setae evolved from dorsal to insertion on the apical margin, the number increased from 8-10 to as many as 36, and decreased to as few as four. The epipharynx broadened evolutionarily, the pedium evolving in form from narrow, triangular and nearly flat, to broad, palatiform, and markedly convex; anterior parapedial setae both increased and decreased in number, and in orientation, from a row parallel to the parapedial ridge to a setal row extended forward at about a right angle to the latter. PMID:22371663

Ball, George E.; Acorn, John H.; Shpeley, Danny



Causes of Late Pleistocene water level change in Lake Victoria, Equatorial East Africa, derived from clumped isotopes of land snails and fresh water mollusks. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is based on the dependence of 13C-18O bond abundance in the carbonate lattice (measured as ?47) on the carbonate formation temperature. Most marine and freshwater biogenic carbonates are found to be in agreement with the clumped isotopes - temperature calibration. Clumped isotope thermometry is particularly useful in terrestrial environments where the interpretation of carbonate ?18O is limited due to difficulty in estimating the paleo-water isotopic composition. Clumped isotope-derived temperatures from land snails are generally higher than the ambient environmental temperatures, but show no evidence for disequilibrium. We attribute these higher body temperatures to snail eco-physiological adaptations through shell color, morphology, and behavior. We use the clumped isotope-derived temperatures in combination with shell ?18O to calculate snail body water ?18O composition. This parameter is interpreted as a paleo-hydrological indicator that reflects the isotopic composition of local precipitation modified by local evaporation. Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to compare extant species of modern and fossil freshwater mollusks and land snails from the same location to examine lake paleo-hydrology. This location is particularly interesting as Lake Victoria itself is the main source of rain-water in the region such that the isotopic composition of land snail body water can be related back to the source waters. We combine clumped isotope and oxygen isotope measurements of both freshwater mollusks and land snails to examine the water balance of the lake, testing hypotheses about the mechanism of a significant rise in lake level in Lake Victoria ~35 - 40 ka BP. Outcrops of paleo-beach deposits ~18 m above the modern day lake level indicate high water stands at ~35-40 ka BP. Based on water balance models for Lake Victoria, an increase in lake level of this magnitude could be driven by local mean annual precipitation that is significantly greater than modern. However, this is inconsistent with regional climate reconstructions. This suggests that either lake level was controlled by non-climatic factors, or that local climate in the Lake Victoria basin was different than regional patterns of climate across eastern Africa. We use oxygen and clumped isotopes of modern and fossil shells (Corbicula sp., Melanoides sp. and Bellamya unicolor) from this 18 m beach outcrop on Mfangano Island to (1) compare with modern lake water ?18O values and (2) calculate paleo-water compositions. We combine these results with calculated snail body water ?18O composition (using oxygen and clumped isotopes) of land snails (Limicoloria cf. martensiana) from Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, to study hydrological changes of Lake Victoria. We use these data to evaluate the relative importance of climate change and tectonics as mechanisms for the Late Pleistocene expansion of Lake Victoria.

Zaarur, S.; Affek, H. P.; Tryon, C.; Peppe, D. J.; Faith, J.



A taxonomic revision of the southern African leaf-cutter bees, Megachile Latreille sensu stricto and Heriadopsis Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachilidae).  


The five southern African subgenera of Megachile with recessed cutting edges between their teeth are revised. The entire group comprises 37 valid species, two of which are new: Megachile (Eutricharaea) gobabebensis sp. n. and Megachile (Eutricharaea) goegabensis sp. n. Other species are: Megachile (Amegachile) fimbriata Smith, Megachile (Amegachile) nasalis Smith, Megachile (Amegachile) bituberculata Ritsema, Megachile (Eutricharaea) afra Pasteels, Megachile (Eutricharaea) aurifera Cockerell, Megachile (Eutricharaea) barbata Smith, Megachile (Eutricharaea) basalis Smith, Megachile (Eutricharaea) bucephala (Fabricius), Megachile (Eutricharaea) cyanescens Friese, Megachile (Eutricharaea) eurymera Smith, Megachile (Eutricharaea) familiaris Cockerell, Megachile (Eutricharaea) konowiana Friese, Megachile (Eutricharaea) meadewaldoi Brauns, Megachile (Eutricharaea) muansae Friese, Megachile (Eutricharaea) pachyceps Friese, Megachile (Eutricharaea) regina Friese, Megachile (Eutricharaea) salsburyana Friese, Megachile (Eutricharaea) venusta Smith, Megachile (Eutricharaea) wahlbergi Friese, Megachile (Heriadopsis) whiteana Cameron, Megachile (Paracella) admixta Cockerell, Megachile (Paracella) barkeri Cockerell, Megachile (Paracella) chrysopogon Vachal, Megachile (Paracella) curtula Gerstaecker, Megachile (Paracella) edwardsi Friese, Megachile (Paracella) filicornis Friese, Megachile(Paracella) frontalis Smith, Megachile (Paracella) malangensis Friese, Megachile (Paracella) pilosella Friese, Megachile (Paracella) semierma Vachal, Megachile (Paracella) ungulata Smith, Megachile (Platysta) khamana Cockerell. Of the 78 new synonymies fimbriata vulpecula Pasteels is M. fimbriata; volkmanni ventrifasciata Strand is M. nasalis; sjoestedti var. rubripedana Strand is M. tuberculata; gratiosa Gerstaecker,concinna Smith, marusa Cameron, robertiana Cameron, venustella Cockerell, umbiloensis Cockerell and acallognatha Cockerell are M. venusta Smith; latimetatarsis Strand and rozenii Pasteels are M. basalis Smith; semifulva Friese and planatipes Cockerell are M. bucephala (Fabricius); seclusiformis Cockerell is M. salsburyana Friese; flava Friese and rhodoleucura Cockerell are M. eurymera Smith; luteola Pasteels and stellensis Pasteels are M. familiaris Cockerell; nasutula Brauns, coelostoma Cockerell, and nitidicauda Cockerell are M. barbata Smith; venustoides Strand, venustella zambesica Cockerell and pondonis Cockerell are wahlbergi Friese; okanjandica Strand and vittatula Cockerell are cyanescens Friese; leucospilura Cockerell is M. muansae Friese; cordata Smith,tardula Cameron, ekuivella Cockerell, krebsiana Strand, rhodesica Cockerell, natalica Cockerell, masaiella Cockerell, chromatica Cockerell, gratiosella Cockerell, rhodesica haematognatha Cockerell, mackieae Cockerell,flammicauda Cockerell, venusta var. semiflava Cockerell, rufulina Cockerell, rufosuffusa Cockerell, melanura Cockerell, asarna Cockerell, capiticola Cockerell, heteroscopa Cockerell, capiticola Cockerell and chrysognatha Cockerell are M. frontalis Smith; boswendica Cockerell, rubrociliata Pasteels and rufisetosa Pasteels are M. pilosella Friese; apiformis Smith is M. ungulata Smith; stellarum Cockerell, laticeps Friese, malangensis mamalapia Pasteels, obesa Pasteels and ovatomaculata Pasteels are M. malangensis Friese; flavibasis Cockerell,heterotricha Cockerell, candidicauda Cockerell, candidigena Cockerell, candidicauda spinarum Cockerell, neliCockerell, albofilosa Cockerell, discretula Cockerell, rubeola Pasteels and meesi Pasteels are M. chrysopogon Vachal; lydenburgiana Strand, aliceae Cockerell, pretoriaensis Pasteels and pycnocephala Pasteels are M. semierma Vachal; benitocola Strand and granulicauda Cockerell are M. curtula Gerstaecker; and spatulicornis Pasteels is M. edwardsi Friese. Brief descriptions are provided for all the species, as are their distributions in southern Africa, known host plants and parasites. Keys for the identification of the species are also given. PMID:24614086

Eardley, Connal




PubMed Central

1. The morbidity of pulmonary distomiasis among the school children in the plains of the Prefecture of Shinchiku is 4.3 per cent, while in the mountainous regions among the savages it reaches in some districts 50 per cent. 2. Seventeen species of cercariæ were discovered in fresh water mollusks in the Prefecture of Shinchiku, Formosa. But it was impossible to ascertain from morphological characteristics alone which of them developed into the pulmonary fluke. Consequently, the eggs of the pulmonary fluke after hatching into miracidia were allowed to come into contact with several species of fresh water mollusks, of which they infected two. But as it was difficult to keep the two spedes alive in the aquarium long enough to get cercariæ, the second intermediate hosts of the pulmonary distomas were looked for in the severely infected villages of the savage tribes. 3. The miracidia of the pulmonary distomas leave the egg about 4 weeks after they are first set free in the water, and if they do not reach mollusks they soon die. 4. Three species of fresh water mollusks were found to act as the first intermediate host of the pulmonary distomas; viz., Melania libertina Gould, Melania tuberculata Mueller, and Melania obliquegranosa Smith. 5. The cercariæ of the pulmonary distoma may be identified by their small size and a spine in the oral sucker. They develop in the liver of the three spedes of Melania mentioned above. 6. The second intermediate hosts of the pulmonary distoma,detected in the Prefecture of Shinchiku, are the following three species of fresh water crabs: Potamon (Geothelphusa) obtusipes Stimpson (native name, red crab), Potamon (Geothelphusa) dehaanii White (native name, dung crab), and Eriocheir japonicus De Haan (native name, hairy crab). In addition it was discovered that the following two species might act as intermediate hosts: Sesarma dehaanii Milne-Edwards and Potamon (Parathelphusa) sinensis Milne-Edwards. In Formosa four of the five species are the carriers of the cercariæ. 7. The encysted cercariæ are found in the gills, liver, and muscle, and have an elongated dark excretory vesicle in the middle of their bodies. They resemble the adult flukes. 8. Full grown encysted cercariæ fed to dogs develop into mature pulmonary distomas and begin to lay eggs in about 90 days. 9. In the final host the parasites are taken into the alimentary canal as encysted cercariæ. They liberate themselves from the cysts in the intestine and bore through the jejunum into the abdominal cavity. They then pierce the diaphragm, enter the thoracic cavity, and piercing the pleura reach the lungs. In the parenchyma of the lungs they form cysts and develop into adult forms. 10. The chief causes of pulmonary distomiasis are the eating of raw or insufficiently cooked crabs infected with the cercariæ of Paragonimus westermanni, and the drinking of river water containing them. PMID:19868151

Nakagawa, Koan