2 Abstract: Melanoides tuberculata snail (Thiaridae) gained recently extra medical and or veterinary importance since several new types of cercariae were procured from it in Egypt. Therefore the morphological and genetic analyses of its populations in this country were studied. Thousands of snails were collected from various localities and the chonchological data of them were gathered. Five morphs were distinguished
Fouad Yousif; Abdalla Ibrahim; Setaita Sleem; Samia EL Bardicy; Magda Ayoub
Cercarial dermatitis is caused by animal schistosomes in many parts of the world including Iran. Various stages of the parasites have been studied in intermediate and definitive hosts in northern and southwestern Iran; however, no molecular investigation for species identification and classification of these agents has been carried out, so far. In the present study, more than 3,800 aquatic snails were collected from water sources of Khuzestan, southwest Iran. The snails were identified as Lymnaea gedrosiana, Radix auricularia, Melanoides tuberculata, Melanopsis sp. and Physa acuta. They were examined for schistosome cercariae. Two specimens of M. tuberculata were infected with ocellate furcocercariae belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. Molecular studies were carried on these schistosomatid samples. Both samples belong to an unknown schistosome species and genus in sister position to Gigantobilharzia-Dendritobilharzia clade. They differ from other species in their ITS sequence region as well as in their intermediate host specificity--This is one of the first reports on schistosome cercariae from M. tuberculata and the first including molecular data. Due to adaptability and invasiveness of this snail species, this new schistosome species, as a potential causative agent of cercarial dermatitis in humans, needs to be studied further. PMID:21046153
Karamian, Mehdi; Aldhoun, Jitka A; Maraghi, Sharif; Hatam, Gholamreza; Farhangmehr, Babak; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud
The introduction of Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) to the island of Saint Lucia (West Indies) and its role in the decline of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni.
A malacological survey was carried out in May 1992 in the whole hydrographic system of Saint Lucia 11 years after the end of a biological control programme to eliminate Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. A competitor snail, Melanoides tuberculata, was introduced to Saint Lucia in 1978 and field experiments in several habitats were conducted by Prentice between 1978 and 1986. At the present time M. tuberculata is the most common freshwater snail in Saint Lucia. The results of the survey, undertaken in sites where B. glabrata occurred in large populations in the past showed (i) the absence of the snail hosts from seven sites now extensively colonized by the competitor (ii) the presence of B. glabrata in low or very low densities in 17 sites together with the competitor and (iii) the presence of the intermediate hosts in large populations in only two sites where M. tuberculata was absent. These results confirm the positive results observed by Prentice. The presence of another planorbid snail, B. straminea, is reported for the first time in Saint Lucia. PMID:8103624
Pointier, J P
Because of recent interest in bats as reservoirs of emerging diseases, we investigated the presence of viruses in Mystacina tuberculata bats in New Zealand. A novel alphacoronavirus sequence was detected in guano from roosts of M. tuberculata bats in pristine indigenous forest on a remote offshore island (Codfish Island).
Wang, Jing; Peacey, Matthew; Moore, Nicole E.; McInnes, Kate; Tompkins, Daniel M.
The effects of allopurinol (an inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH] and the melanoid gene on pigment cell differentiation in the axolotl were examined by analyzing pigment components of the xanthophore (pterins). Pterin contents of skin extracts (70% ethanol) from wild type, allopurinol-treated and melanoid axolotls were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and fluorometric scanning of TLC plates. Heights of peaks produced were used as a quantitative measure for pterin content. Results reveal that melanoid animals contain significantly reduced amounts of all seven pterins examined as compared with wild type animals. Allopurinol-treated animals have reduced levels of four pterins (xanthopterin, isoxanthopterin, biopterin and sepiapterin) as compared with the wild type. These findings suggest that the alterations in pterin biosynthetic pathways, either by drug-induced inhibition of XDH activity or by the melanoid gene, produce similar dramatic changes in pigment phenotype which are manifested by alterations in pigment cell differentiation. PMID:3791419
Thorsteinsdottir, S; Frost, S K
Shell disease in the abalone Haliotis tuberculata L. is characterized by a conchiolin deposit on the inner surface of the shell. The gross clinical signs appear similar to the Brown Ring Disease (BRD) of clams. BRD has been extensively described in clams and is known to be responsible for severe mortalities and the collapse of the clam aquaculture industry in western France. In the clam, it was found to be caused by the infection of the mantle by Vibrio tapetis. Brown protein deposits have been observed in various abalone species around the world; some of these have been associated with a fungal infection in New Zealand, but the ones described here are similar to bacterial infections observed in clams. Larger animals appeared to be more affected by the disease, and a positive correlation of the number of successive infections found in the shells with the level of infestation of the shell by borers suggests that boring polychaetes and sponges may be vectors of the disease, or that the parasite infestation may increase the susceptibility of the animal to this infection. There is no evidence, however, that this infection causes mortality in abalone. PMID:16610593
Huchette, Sylvain; Paillard, Christine; Clavier, Jacques; Day, Robert
The melanoid mutant in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is analysed with respect to the differentiation of pigment cells. Pigment cells were observed with the transmission electron microscope in order to determine any unusual structural characteristics and to determine what happens to each of the cell types as development proceeds. Chemical analysis of pteridine pigments was also carried out, and changes in pteridine biosynthesis were found to correlate well with changes in xanthophore morphology and number. In melanoid axolotls, as development proceeds, melanophore numbers increase, xanthophores decrease, and iridophores fail to differentiate at all. This is considered to result from: (a) conversion of xanthophores (that are present in young larvae) to melanophores; (b) the gradual programming of the majority of chromatoblasts to become, exclusively, melanophores, and (c) the failure of some chromatoblasts (possibly iridoblasts) to differentiate altogether. The ultrastructural and chemical evidence presented in this study is compared to similar data for wild-type axolotls, and a mechanism regarding how the melanoid gene might act is suggested. PMID:6470606
Frost, S K; Epp, L G; Robinson, S J
The male of Sclerocypris tuberculata (Methuen), thus far unknown, is here described. Relying on the morphology of the copulatory appendages and of the prehensile palps, it appears that this taxon belongs to a separate species group, together with S. zelaznyi and perhaps also S. sarsi. There are some interesting sexual dimorphic characters in the valve morphology: males have shorter valves
Koen Martens; Koninklijk Belgisch
Research on the New Zealand short-tailed bat is reviewed from published and unpublished studies. The monotypic family Mystacinidae, at present assigned with the Vespertilionidae and Molossidae to the Vespertilionoidea, is considered to be best re-associated with the Emballonuridae and Noctilionidae in the Emballonuroidea. The two subspecies of Mystacina tuberculata Gray are retained pending elevation to specific status. The dichotomy of
M. J. Daniel
The essential oils obtained from fresh leaves of Guarea macrophylla Vahl. ssp. tuberculata Vellozo (Meliaceae) were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Fourteen volatile compounds were identified in the leaf oil. The major components of the leaf oil were ?-eudesmol (15.3%), ?-ylangene (15.1%), ?-cadinene (13.2%), ?-muurolene (11.4%) and ?-caryophyllene (10.0%).
Walber H. F. Ribeiro; Ângela M. C. Arriaga; Manoel Andrade-Neto; Jackson N. Vasconcelos; Gilvandete M. P. Santiago; Ronaldo F. Nascimento
Anesthesia-related postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) leads to morbidity in the elderly. Lipid peroxidative byproducts (i.e. acrolein) accumulate in aging and may play a role. Sevoflurane, an inhaled anesthetic, sequesters acrolein and enhances the formation of a serotonin-derived melanoid (SDM). SDM may be a biologically relevant polymeric melanoid that we previously showed exhibits redox activity and disrupts lipid bilayers. In this study, we examined the toxicity of SDM in cell culture and looked at protection using L-carnosine. SDM's toxic effects were tested on neuronal-like SH-SY5Y cells, causing an exponential decrease in viability, while human dermal fibroblasts were completely resistant to the toxic effects. SDM brought about morphological changes to differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, particularly to neuronal processes. Co- but not pre-treatment with L-carnosine protected differentiated SH-SY5Y cells exposed to SDM. Our mechanism suggests focal sevoflurane-induced sequestration of age-related acrolein leading to SDM synthesis and neuronal impairment, which is prevented by L-carnosine. PMID:21153702
Brownrigg, Tanner D; Theisen, Christopher S; Fibuch, Eugene E; Seidler, Norbert W
The larval shell of the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata was investigated by polarised light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman microspectroscopy and infra-red spectroscopy.\\u000a Trochophore and veliger larval sections were used for histological examination of the growing shell and each larval stage\\u000a was related to the shell development and the appearance of calcified formations. We determined the stage of initial calcification
E. Jardillier; M. Rousseau; A. Gendron-Badou; F. Fröhlich; D. C. Smith; M. Martin; M.-N. Helléouet; S. Huchette; D. Doumenc; S. Auzoux-Bordenave
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction may be associated with the toxic products of lipid peroxidation, such as the ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, which accumulates in aging. We previously identified an acrolein-mediated, serotonin-derived melanoid product, or SDM. This study further characterizes this putative novel neuromelanin, which is not made from catecholamines. In addition to its strong protein-binding properties, we observed that SDM binds Fe(2+) readily and exhibits complex redox characteristics. SDM may exist as a two-dimensional network of polymers that coalesce into larger entities exhibiting electroactive properties. These observations suggest that SDM may contribute to the decline in cognition due to focal degeneration from SDM-mediated free-radical production. We know that inhalational anesthetics sequester acrolein, which is toxic to neurons, and we propose that the local increase in acrolein depletes serotonin levels and enhances neuronal vulnerability through the production of neuromelanin-like structures, such as SDM. PMID:20309663
Murphy, Meghan M; Miller, Elizabeth D; Fibuch, Eugene E; Seidler, Norbert W
Background Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774) (Thiaridae), an introduced gastropod mollusc with a wide geographical distribution in the Neotropics, is the intermediate host of the trematode Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924) (Heterophyidae). This parasite is considered to be pathogenic to humans. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the locomotory activity of uninfected M. tuberculatus compared with those naturally infected with C. formosanus. Findings The locomotory activity of each mollusc was recorded using an image analysis biomonitoring system, Videomex-V ®, to evaluate and quantify the parameters of ‘Stereotypic’ and ‘Resting time’. The Generalized Estimating Equation analysis of locomotory activity of M. tuberculatus infected with C. formosanus revealed significant differences compared with uninfected molluscs for the parameters ‘Stereotypic time’ and ‘Resting time’ with a reduction of movement. The variations in the values of the monitoring intervals recorded showed a significant difference for the infected molluscs in the case of Stereotypic time, with an irregular locomotory activity pattern, as compared to that of uninfected molluscs. The analysis of the standard length of all molluscs did not exhibit any correlation with locomotory activity, showing that C. formosanus is able to alter the locomotory activity of its snail host regardless of the standard length. Conclusions The trematode C. formosanus affects the locomotory activity of the mollusc M. tuberculatus by reducing its movement and causing it to exhibit an irregular pattern of activity, both of which are independent of the snail's standard length.
Analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences of Haliotis tuberculata tuberculata and H. t. coccinea subtaxa identified two different types of 18S rDNA genes and ITS1 regions. These two different genes were also detected in H. marmorata, H. rugosa and H. diversicolor that are separated from H. tuberculata by 5-65 mya. The mean divergence value between type I and type II sequences ranged from 7.25% for 18S to 80% for ITS1. ITS1 type II is homologous with the ITS1 consensus sequences published for many abalone species, whereas ITS1 type I presented only minor homology with a unique database entry for H. iris ITS1. A phylogenetic analysis makes a clear separation between type I and type II ITS1 sequences and supports grouping H. t. tuberculata, H. t. coccinea and H. marmorata together. The two subtaxa do not show any significant differences between the homologous 18S rDNA sequences. A general structure of the ITS1 transcript was proposed, with four major helices for the two types. The two genes were expressed and, for the first time, a putative differential expression of ITS1 type I was detected in the gills, digestive gland and gonads whereas ITS1 type II was expressed in all tissues. PMID:22210151
Van Wormhoudt, Alain; Gaume, Béatrice; Le Bras, Yvan; Roussel, Valérie; Huchette, Sylvain
2 RESUMO - A identificação das unidades de dispersão é da maior importância nos trabalhos de um laboratório de análise de sementes. Muitas plantas invasoras causam grandes prejuízos às culturas econômicas, principalmente, quando se condidera a produção de sementes. As características morfológicas das unidades de dispersão não variam muito com as condições ambientais e podem ser usadas na identificação taxonômica
Potentially harmful to humans and other animals, the red-rimmed melania snail (Melanoides tuberculatus; family Thiaridae) was discovered in Biscayne National Park, Florida, in 2003 by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers. The discovery raised concerns for park managers because this aquatic non-native snail is present in significant numbers in areas frequently used by park visitors and poses a risk of exposure. Researchers are addressing questions such as: Is this species a danger to human health? How widespread is it within the park? What factors control the distribution of the species? Is its presence a threat to native animals?
Wingard, G. Lynn; Murray, James B.; Schill, W. Bane; Phillips, Emily C.
The current study aimed at evaluating the potential and mechanisms of the antidiabetic activity of the methanolic extract (ME) of Caralluma tuberculata as well as its chloroform (CF), n-butanol (BF) and the remaining water fractions (RFs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic activity was evaluated through assessing fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin levels, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucose utilization by isolated rat psoas muscle, gut glucose absorption and G-6-Pase activity in isolated rat liver microsomes. Both ME and RF showed the highest potency, where ME had superior activity. The mechanism underlying the observed antihyperglycemic activity of ME could be attributed, at least in part, to enhanced skeletal muscle utilization of glucose, inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and stimulation of insulin secretion. ME was standardized through LC-MS analysis for its major pregnanes. PMID:23770343
Abdel-Sattar, Essam A; Abdallah, Hossam M; Khedr, Alaa; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Shehata, Ibrahim A
The 24-h hormone profiles have been well documented in caucasians living in a temperate climate, but they have never been examined in melanoid subjects under equatorial conditions, with a 12-h light-dark cycle in a hot climate. To establish normal data for this population, blood samples were taken at 10-min intervals over 24 h in five healthy young melanoids living in Abidjan (Ivory Coast). Cortisol and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations and plasma renin activity (PRA) were determined by radio-immunoassay and sleep was registered using polysomnography. Data were compared with results obtained in Strasbourg (France) from six healthy aged-matched caucasians. The 24-h profile of cortisol concentration was similar in both groups, with a 2-h phase advance in the melanoids. Nocturnal fluctuations of PRA, strongly linked to the rapid eye movement-non rapid eye movement (REM-NREM) sleep cycles, occurred in both groups, with higher levels in the caucasians in the last 2 h of sleep along with greater amounts of NREM sleep. After an evening increase in TSH, the sleep onset-related decrease seen in the caucasians was not observed in the melanoids. In both groups, increasing concentrations of TSH and cortisol occurred with awakening, decreasing concentrations being observed during slow-wave sleep. As in the caucasians studied in the temperate climates, the melanoid subjects living at the equator showed the same temporal organization of hormone rhythms within the 24-h period and the same relationships between the pulses and specific sleep stages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7607196
Goichot, B; Buguet, A; Bogui, P; Montmayeur, A; Bourdon, L; Dumas, M; Brandenberger, G
Plants exposed to salt stress undergo biochemical and morphological changes even at cellular level. Such changes also include activation of antioxidant enzymes to scavenge reactive oxygen species, while morphological changes are determined as deformation of membranes and organelles. Present investigation substantiates this phenomenon for Caralluma tuberculata calli when exposed to NaCl stress at different concentrations. Elevated levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) in NaCl-stressed calli dwindled upon application of non-enzymatic antioxidants; ascorbic acid (AA) and salicylic acid (SA). Many fold increased enzymes concentrations trimmed down even below as present in the control calli. Electron microscopic images accentuated several cellular changes upon NaCl stress such as plasmolysed plasma membrane, disruption of nuclear membrane, increased numbers of nucleoli, alteration in shape and lamellar membrane system in plastid, and increased number of plastoglobuli. The cells retrieved their normal structure upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants. The results of the present experiments conclude that NaCl aggravate oxidative molecules that eventually alleviate antioxidant enzymatic system. Furthermore, the salt stress knocked down by applying ascorbic acid and salicylic acid manifested by normal enzyme level and restoration of cellular structure. PMID:24744157
Rehman, Riaz Ur; Zia, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Lu, Gang; Chaudhary, Muhammad Fayyaz
As a result of their morphological complexity, large macroalgae show intra-thallus variations in their nutritional composition and secondary metabolite content, which influences the trophic ecology of herbivorous invertebrates, and ultimately their fitness. In this study, we evaluated for the first time the variability in nutritional quality (protein content, carbohydrates, lipids, and total organic matter), secondary metabolites (phlorotannins), and structure (shape and toughness) between blades and stipes of the macroalgae Durvillaea Antarctica. Specifically, we looked at their effect on feeding preference, rate of consumption, absorption efficiency, and growth rate of the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata, one of the most abundant organisms on Chilean sandy beaches. Proteins, carbohydrates, total organic matter and phlorotannin contents were significantly higher in blades than in stipes. Preference experiments revealed that the amphipods preferred blades when fresh pieces of blades and stipes were offered at the same time. Similar results were found when artificial food (in which structures of both parts of the alga were standardized) was offered, suggesting that shape and toughness of the two different parts of the alga did not influence preference patterns of O. tuberculata. Absorption efficiency of O. tuberculata was higher on blades compared to stipes. When the amphipods were kept with each of the algal parts separately (i.e. no choice), they consumed a significantly higher amount of stipe, which suggests that O. tuberculata used food quantity to compensate for the lower nutritional quality of stipes. The higher nutritional values of blades compared to stipes appears to explain observed preference patterns by O. tuberculata. Phlorotannin content did not appear to inhibit blade consumption, suggesting that the nutritional quality of the food could be more important than chemical defense in determining food choice in O. tuberculata. Growth did not differ between the amphipods maintained with either blades or stipes (i.e. no choice), which is consistent with the hypothesis of compensatory feeding. To conclude, O. tuberculata can actively select specific parts of an alga and this selection appears to be based on nutritional quality. The capacity for using different feeding strategies allow O. tuberculata, in some cases, to successfully exploit food types with different nutritional qualities.
Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Karin; Navarro, Jorge M.; Gómez, Iván
The feeding behavior of algal consumers inhabiting sandy beaches and the consequences of this behavior on their performance are poorly understood. Food quality has been shown to influence the food preference of algal consumers. However, food preference can often be altered or subordinated to habitat choice. This study analyzes the feeding behavior (preference and consumption rate), absorption efficiency and growth rates of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet, 1849) in relation to the nutritional characteristics of two of the most common macroalgae stranded in the Chilean north-central region. Our experiments show that these amphipods prefer Macrocystis integrifolia over Lessonia nigrescens when presented with fresh fragments of both algae simultaneously. However, this preference did not match the performance of the amphipods when reared on diets of a single algal species: in that growth rates were not different. These results suggest that M. integrifolia is not a superior food item compared to L. nigrescens. The lower content of proteins and total organic matter found in M. integrifolia supports this interpretation. The preference of the amphipods for L. nigrescens over M. integrifolia when dry powdered algae of each species were provided (artificial food), suggested that some aspect of the physical structure of these two algae determined food preference. When the amphipods were maintained with each of the algal species in no choice experiments, they consumed 2 times more M. integrifolia, but showed higher absorption efficiency on L. nigrescens. These results suggest that food quantity and not absorption efficiency was used to compensate for the lower nutritional quality of M. integrifolia. The feeding behavior documented in this study differs significantly from that observed in populations of the same species inhabiting southern Chile, cautioning against generalizing results obtained even within a single species. Our results suggest that physical features rather than chemical characteristics of the food drive feeding preferences, including the potential (indirect) roles played by the fronds of these seaweeds as refuges against competition and desiccation.
Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Karin; Navarro, Jorge M.; Gómez, Iván; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Quijón, Pedro
Pharmaceutical compounds like antidepressants found in surface waters raise concerns due to their potential toxicity on non-target aquatic organisms. This study aimed at investigating the in vitro cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory properties of four common antidepressants, namely Amitriptyline, Clomipramine, Citalopram and Paroxetine, on primary cultures of abalone hemocytes (Haliotis tuberculata), after 48h-exposure. Effects on immunocompetence (phagocytosis, levels of reactive oxygen species, esterase activity and lysosomal membrane destabilization) were assessed. Results obtained by MTT assays revealed that acute toxicity is unlikely to occur in the environment since the LC50s of the four antidepressants are at the mg/L level. The different immunological endpoints displayed a biphasic response, with an increase at the lowest concentration (i.e. 1?g/L) followed by a decrease at higher concentrations. Overall, Amitriptyline and Clomipramine, the two tricyclic antidepressants, had higher immunomodulatory capacities than the two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Citalopram and Paroxetine. Amitriptyline was the most potent and Citalopram the least potent drug in altering immune function in H. tuberculata. PMID:24210974
Minguez, Laetitia; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Costil, Katherine; Bureau, Ronan; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Serpentini, Antoine
We carried out DNA-hybridization comparisons among representatives of the major groups of Chiroptera to determine the phylogenetic position of the New Zealand short-tailed bat, Mystacina tuberculata. All analyses confirmed the noctilionoid affinity of this species suggested by an earlier serological study, with support from taxon jackknifing and at bootstrap levels of 98% or higher. However, a specific association with Noctilio
John A. W. Kirsch; James M. Hutcheon; Deanna G. P. Byrnes; Brian D. Lloyd
In mollusks, the mantle is responsible for the secretion of an organic matrix that mineralizes to form the shell. A model of mantle cell culture has been established from the nacreous gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. First, viability of cells, quantified by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) reduction assay, was monitored in order to determine a cell density and a time-culturing period
D. Sud; D. Doumenc; E. Lopez; C. Milet
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) represent a diversified family of metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide. They are involved in a wide range of functions, among which is the formation of CaCO(3) skeletons in metazoans. In the shell-forming mantle tissues of mollusks, the location of the CA catalytic activity is elusive and gives birth to contradicting views. In the present paper, using the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a key model gastropod in biomineralization studies, we identified and characterized two CAs (htCA1 and htCA2) that are specific of the shell-forming mantle tissue. We analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. Combining various approaches, including proteomics, activity tests, and in silico analyses, we showed that htCA1 is secreted but is not incorporated in the organic matrix of the abalone shell and that htCA2 is transmembrane. Together with previous studies dealing with molluskan CAs, our findings suggest two possible modes of action for shell mineralization: the first mode applies to, for example, the bivalves Unio pictorum and Pinctada fucata, and involves a true CA activity in their shell matrix; the second mode corresponds to, for example, the European abalone, and does not include CA activity in the shell matrix. Our work provides new insight on the diversity of the extracellular macromolecular tools used for shell biomineralization study in mollusks. PMID:22711568
LE Roy, Nathalie; Marie, Benjamin; Gaume, Béatrice; Guichard, Nathalie; Delgado, Sidney; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Sire, Jean-Yves; Marin, Frédéric
Sporothrix schenckii is the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, the main subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America. Melanin is an important virulence factor of S. schenckii, which produces dihydroxynaphthalene melanin (DHN-melanin) in conidia and yeast cells. Additionally, l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) can be used to enhance melanin production on these structures as well as on hyphae. Some fungi are able to synthesize another type of melanoid pigment, called pyomelanin, as a result of tyrosine catabolism. Since there is no information about tyrosine catabolism in Sporothrix spp., we cultured 73 strains, including representatives of newly described Sporothrix species of medical interest, such as S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, and S. globosa, in minimal medium with tyrosine. All strains but one were able to produce a melanoid pigment with a negative charge in this culture medium after 9 days of incubation. An S. schenckii DHN-melanin mutant strain also produced pigment in the presence of tyrosine. Further analysis showed that pigment production occurs in both the filamentous and yeast phases, and pigment accumulates in supernatants during stationary-phase growth. Notably, sulcotrione inhibits pigment production. Melanin ghosts of wild-type and DHN mutant strains obtained when the fungus was cultured with tyrosine were similar to melanin ghosts yielded in the absence of the precursor, indicating that this melanin does not polymerize on the fungal cell wall. However, pyomelanin-producing fungal cells were more resistant to nitrogen-derived oxidants and to UV light. In conclusion, at least three species of the Sporothrix complex are able to produce pyomelanin in the presence of tyrosine, and this pigment might be involved in virulence. PMID:23042177
Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Frases, Susana; Araújo, Glauber de Sousa; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Gerfen, Gary J; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria
Sporothrix schenckii is the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, the main subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America. Melanin is an important virulence factor of S. schenckii, which produces dihydroxynaphthalene melanin (DHN-melanin) in conidia and yeast cells. Additionally, l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) can be used to enhance melanin production on these structures as well as on hyphae. Some fungi are able to synthesize another type of melanoid pigment, called pyomelanin, as a result of tyrosine catabolism. Since there is no information about tyrosine catabolism in Sporothrix spp., we cultured 73 strains, including representatives of newly described Sporothrix species of medical interest, such as S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, and S. globosa, in minimal medium with tyrosine. All strains but one were able to produce a melanoid pigment with a negative charge in this culture medium after 9 days of incubation. An S. schenckii DHN-melanin mutant strain also produced pigment in the presence of tyrosine. Further analysis showed that pigment production occurs in both the filamentous and yeast phases, and pigment accumulates in supernatants during stationary-phase growth. Notably, sulcotrione inhibits pigment production. Melanin ghosts of wild-type and DHN mutant strains obtained when the fungus was cultured with tyrosine were similar to melanin ghosts yielded in the absence of the precursor, indicating that this melanin does not polymerize on the fungal cell wall. However, pyomelanin-producing fungal cells were more resistant to nitrogen-derived oxidants and to UV light. In conclusion, at least three species of the Sporothrix complex are able to produce pyomelanin in the presence of tyrosine, and this pigment might be involved in virulence.
Frases, Susana; Araujo, Glauber de Sousa; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Gerfen, Gary J.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria
The present study was conducted to determine the toxicity of different polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Using the algal growth inhibition test, the green algae median Effective Concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.34?M for PCB28 to more than 100?M for PCBs 101 and 153. Considering the MTT viability test, the abalone EC50 values ranged from 1.67?M for PCB153 to 89?M for PCB28. Our results in contrast to previous observation in vertebrates did not show significant differences between the dioxin like- and non dioxin like-PCBs toxicities regardless of the model used. However, our results demonstrated that the toxicities of PCBs were species dependent. For example, PCB28 was the most toxic compound for P. subcapitata whereas PCBs 1, 180 and 153 were less toxic for that species. On the contrary, PCB153 was reported as the most toxic for H. tuberculata haemocytes and PCB28 the least toxic. To investigate the mode of action of these compounds, we used an in silico method. Our results suggested that PCBs have a non-specific mode of action (e.g., narcosis) on green algae, and another mode of action, probably more specific than narcosis, was reported for PCBs on the abalone haemocytes. PMID:24630249
Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Abbaszadeh Fard, Elham; Latire, Thomas; Ferard, Jean-François; Costil, Katherine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Bureau, Ronan; Serpentini, Antoine
We have cloned and sequenced cDNAs coding for the complete primary structure of HtH2, the second hemocyanin isoform of the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. The deduced protein sequence comprises 3399 amino acids, corresponding to a molecular mass of 392 kDa. It shares only 66% of structural identity with the previously analysed first isoform HtH1, and according to a molecular clock, the two isoforms of Haliotis hemocyanin separated ca. 320 million years ago. By genomic polymerase chain reaction and 5' race, we have also sequenced the complete gene of HtH2 (18,598 bp), except of the 5' region in front of the secreted protein. It encompasses 15 exons and 14 introns and shows several microsatellite-rich regions. It mirrors the modular structure of the encoded hemocyanin subunit, with a linear arrangement of eight different functional units separated and bordered by seven phase 1 'linker introns'. In addition, within regions encoding three of the functional units, the HtH2 gene contains six 'internal introns'. Comparison to previously sequenced genes of Octopus dofleini hemocyanin and Haliotis hemocyanin isoform (HtH1) suggests Precambrian and Palaeocoic hot spot of intron gains, followed by 320 million years of absolute stasis. PMID:12490323
Altenhein, Benjamin; Markl, Jürgen; Lieb, Bernhard
In invertebrates, members of the collagen family have been found in various phyla. Surprisingly, in mollusc, little is known about such molecules. In this study, we characterize the full-length abalone type IV collagen and we analysed its biological effects on human fibroblast in order to gain insights about this molecule in molluscs and particularly clues about its roles. We screened a cDNA library of Haliotis tuberculata hemocytes. The expression pattern of the transcript is determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. The close identity between ?1(IV) C-terminal domain and the vertebrate homologue led us to produce, purify and test in vitro a recombinant protein corresponding to this region using human dermal fibroblasts cell culture. The biological effects were evaluated on proliferation and on differentiation. We found that the 5,334-bp open reading frame transcript encodes a protein of 1,777 amino acids, including an interrupted 1,502-residue collagenous domain and a 232-residue C-terminal non-collagenous domain. The expression pattern of this transcript is mainly found in the mantle and hemocytes. The recombinant protein corresponding ?1(IV) C-terminal domain increased fibroblast proliferation by 69% and doubled collagen synthesis produced in primary cultures. This work provides the first complete primary structure of a mollusc non-fibrillar collagen chain and the biological effects of its C-terminal domain on human cells. In this study, we prove that the NC1 domain from a molluscan collagen can improve human fibroblast proliferation as well as differentiation. PMID:21271271
Fleury, Christophe; Serpentini, Antoine; Kypriotou, Magdalini; Renard, Emmanuelle; Galéra, Philippe; Lebel, Jean-Marc
In Mollusca, the mantle produces an organic matrix that mineralizes in time to make shell. Primary mantle cell cultures from the nacreous gastropod Haliotis tuberculata have been established as useful experimental model to investigate in vitro synthesis of both proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans (PGs/GAGs) and collagen. First, we tested different enzymatic digestion procedures to find the method that gives the highest percentage of viable and adherent cultured cells. Enzymatic digestion with 0.1% pronase plus 0.1% collagenase was routinely used. Six days after the initiation of culture, about 80% of cells were viable, among which 20% were adherent as quantified by the MTT reduction assay. In addition, the protein synthesis estimated by [(3)H]leucine incorporation remained constant during this period. For the first time, we demonstrated a de novo synthesis of PGs/GAGs and collagen in primary cultures of mantle cells. After 48 hours of labeling, among the [(3)H]-d-glucosamine macromolecules synthesized, [(3)H]PGs/GAGs represented 43%, divided into 45% heparan sulfate, 37% chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, and 6% hyaluronic acid. Early elution on anion-exchange chromatography of these PGs/GAGs indicated that most of them appeared as undersulfated GAG molecules. De novo synthesis of collagen represents 4.52% +/- 0.84% (SD) with respect to the total protein synthesis. Such a model will facilitate studies on the synthesis of PGs/GAGs and collagen as components of the extracellular matrix and its regulation in Mollusca. Both PGs/GAGs and collagen participate in molecular events that regulate cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Further studies with this type of in vitro model should provide knowledge about novel aspects of molluscan cell signaling, in relation to extracellular matrix components. PMID:10960128
Poncet; Serpentini; Thiébot; Villers; Bocquet; Boucaud-Camou; Lebel
To evidence a collagen synthesis and identify which type(s) of collagen is present in hemocytes from the mollusc Haliotis tuberculata, we have performed three separate approaches, namely, de novo synthesis by cultured cells, immunological approaches, and northern blot analysis. We demonstrated first that after 40-hr labeling, the de novo synthesis of collagen in the cell layer of cultured hemocytes represents 9.48 +/- 1.25% with respect to the total [(3)H]proline-labeled protein synthesis. In addition, IGF-I elicited a significant stimulation of collagen synthesis in cultured hemocytes in a dose-dependent manner from 10(-10) to 10(-8) M. The maximal stimulation (10(-9) M) induced an increase of 286 +/- 56% with respect to 100% control. By immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting, we showed that hemocytes present immunoreactive molecules to antibodies directed against the type I fibrillar collagen. In addition, using as a probe Hf 677 corresponding to a human pro alpha1(I) collagen cDNA and which encompasses the (Gly-X-Y) repeated sequence found in all Metazoa, four collagen transcripts of approximately 6.4, 5, 2.2, and 2 kb in length have been detected. These data suggest the presence of fibrillar type I collagen in hemocytes and are compatible with the concept that these cells are involved in the extracellular matrix deposition, a cardinal function in tissue repair as well as in developmental processes. Our model may appear as an excellent system to study the role of growth factors on the regulation of collagen synthesis by molluscan hemocytes. J. Exp. Zool. 287:275-284, 2000. PMID:10951387
Serpentini, A; Ghayor, C; Poncet, J M; Hebert, V; Galéra, P; Pujol, J P; Boucaud-Camou, E; Lebel, J M
The present study gave information about the recent distribution of freshwater snails in Asser region, and the current status of trematode infection specially schistosomiasis within the snails. Fifteen localities were visited from Septeinber 2007 to December 2008 and the collected snails were examined for the presence of trematode infection. Seven species of snails were collected: Biomphalaria arabica, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus beccari, Physa acuta, Lymnaea palustris, Lymnaea arabica and Melanoides tuberculata. The parasitological examination revealed none trematode immature stages. PMID:19795761
Bin Dajem, Saad M
Until now, four species of eye trematodes have been found in South America. Of them, Philophthalmus lucipetus (synonymized with Philophthalmus gralli) displays a broad host spectrum, with at least 30 bird species (prevalently large water birds), five mammal species and humans serving as definitive hosts, and with snails Fagotia (Microcolpia) acicularis, Amphimelania holandri, Melanopsis praemorsa and Melanoides tuberculata serving as intermediate hosts. When examining a total of 50 birds of ten species in the wetland of Pantanos de Villa, Lima, Peru in July 2011, eye trematodes were identified visually in the edematous conjunctival sac of 11 (48%) out of 23 resident many-colored rush tyrants Tachuris rubrigastra. Based on morphometric characteristics, the trematodes were identified as P. lucipetus. ITS2 and CO1 gene of the examined specimens combined showed a 99% similarity to an Iranian isolate of Philophthalmus sp. from the intermediate host Melanoides tuberculata, an invasive freshwater snail, suggesting that these two isolates represent the same species with a wide geographical range. Moreover, the prevalence of infection with the philophthalmid cercariae was 31% in 744 Melanoides tuberculata examined in Pantanos de Villa in 2010. It is evident that P. lucipetus occurs throughout the world as well as locally, including Eurasia and South America. Here we report this trematode for the first time in Peru, and we were the first to sequence any of the South American eye trematodes. Low host specificity of P. lucipetus and the invasive character of Melanoides tuberculata as a competent intermediate host suggest that eye trematodosis caused by P. lucipetus may emerge frequently in various parts of the world, especially in the tropics. Increase of the zoonotic potential of the P. lucipetus associated with this invasive snail spreading across the world is predictable and should be of interest for further research. PMID:23570701
Literák, Ivan; Heneberg, Petr; Sitko, Jiljí; Wetzel, Eric J; Cardenas Callirgos, Jorge Manuel; ?apek, Miroslav; Valle Basto, Daniel; Papoušek, Ivo
Stable-isotope analyses of fossil-spring carbonates (tufas) and freshwater gastropods (Melanoides tuberculata) from the currently hyperarid Western Desert of Egypt indicate that this region received enough precipitation to support a small perennial lake during the height of the oxygen-isotope stage 6\\/5e pluvial event, and a substantial volume of spring discharge during prior pluvial phases. Tufa and gastropod oxygen-isotope ratios are generally
Jennifer R Smith; Robert Giegengack; Henry P Schwarcz
The influence of non-target freshwater snails (Melanoides tuberculata and Planorbis planorbis) on the capacity of Fasciola egg production F. gigantica miracidia to infect Lymnaea natalensis and their effect on mortality and growth rates showed that the snails exhibited a competitive ability against L. natalensis. The mortality rate existed in mixed cultures with snails was greatly increased, and increased with increase of snails number. The egg production and growth rate were negatively affected by the presence of M. tuberculata and P. planorbis which was more pronounced when snails were at higher ratio lL: 10D. Also, the snails showed significant degree of reduction in infection rate of L. natalensis with F. gigantica miracidia. PMID:17153707
Bakry, Fayez A; Hamdi, Salwa A H
An ecological research study was carried out in freshwater mollusk populations of medical and veterinary importance, in order to determine the biotic and abiotic factors that affect their dynamics. It was observed that the principal abiotic factors influencing abundance of mollusks were total hardness, salinity, acidity, alkalinity and CO2 concentration. Both aquatic plants and specific relations among mollusk groups were the principal biotic factors that affected the molluskan fauna. Species like Fossaria cubensis and Tarebia granifera appeared affected when the site diversity increased whereas the tiarid Melanoides tuberculata prevailed in almost all the ecosystems. PMID:23427449
Vázquez Perera, Antonio Alejandro; Gutiérrez Amador, Alfredo
Snail and fish intermediate hosts were collected from rice fields in 3 districts; Mueang, Mae Taeng and Mae Rim of Chiang Mai Province during April-July 2008. For identification of larval trematode infection, standard (cracked for snail and enzymatically digested for fish) and molecular methods were performed. The results showed that three types of cercariae were found, pleurolophocercus, cotylocercous, and echinostome among 4 species of snail with a prevalence of 29, 23 and 3% respectively. Melanoides tuberculata snail was the most susceptible host for cercariae infection. Four species of metacercariae, Haplorchis taichui, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Haplorchoides sp and Centrocestus caninus, were found with a prevalence of 67, 25, 60 and 20%, respectively. The Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis) was the most susceptible fish host for H. taichui, and half- beaked fish (Dermogenys pusillus) for S. falcatus metacercariae infection, whereas Haplorchoides sp and C. caninus were concomitantly found in Puntius brevis. HAT-RAPD profile confirmed that pleurolophocercus cercariae found in Melanoides tuberculata from Mae Taeng District belonged to H. taichui and in Tarebia granifera from Mueang District were S. falcatus. PMID:20578455
Chuboon, Suksan; Wongsawad, Chalobol
Chemical UV filters are used in sun protection and personal care products in order to protect consumers from skin cancer induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of three common UV filters butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (B-MDM) ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OCR) on aquatic organism, focussing particularly on infaunal and epibentic invertebrates (Chironomus riparius, Lumbriculus variegatus, Melanoides tuberculata and Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Due to their life habits, these organism are especially affected by lipophilic substances. Additionally, two direct sediment contact assays utilising zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryos and bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) were conducted. EHMC caused a toxic effect on reproduction in both snails with lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) of 0.4 mg/kg (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and 10 mg/kg (Melanoides tuberculata). At high concentrations sublethal effects could be observed for D. rerio after exposure to EHMC (NOEC 100 mg/kg). B-MDM and OCR showed no effects on any of the tested organism. PMID:22325435
Kaiser, D; Sieratowicz, A; Zielke, H; Oetken, M; Hollert, H; Oehlmann, J
One explanation for the widespread abundance of sexual reproduction is the advantage that genetically diverse sexual lineages have under strong pressure from virulent coevolving parasites. Such parasites are believed to track common asexual host genotypes, resulting in negative frequency-dependent selection that counterbalances the population growth-rate advantage of asexuals in comparison with sexuals. In the face of genetically diverse asexual lineages, this advantage of sexual reproduction might be eroded, and instead sexual populations would be replaced by diverse assemblages of clonal lineages. We investigated whether parasite-mediated selection promotes clonal diversity in 22 natural populations of the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata. We found that infection prevalence explains the observed variation in the clonal diversity of M. tuberculata populations, whereas no such relationship was found between infection prevalence and male frequency. Clonal diversity and male frequency were independent of snail population density. Incorporating ecological factors such as presence/absence of fish, habitat geography and habitat type did not improve the predictive power of regression models. Approximately 11% of the clonal snail genotypes were shared among 2-4 populations, creating a web of 17 interconnected populations. Taken together, our study suggests that parasite-mediated selection coupled with host dispersal ecology promotes clonal diversity. This, in return, may erode the advantage of sexual reproduction in M. tuberculata populations. PMID:24118641
Dagan, Y; Liljeroos, K; Jokela, J; Ben-Ami, F
We use the wavelet-based decomposition to generate the multiresolution representation of dermatoscopic images of potentially malignant pigmented lesions. Three different machine learning methods are experimentally applied, namely neural networks, support vector machines, and Attributional Calculus. The obtained results confirm that neighborhood properties of pixels in dermatoscopic images are a sensitive probe of the melanoma progression and together with the selected machine learning methods may be an important diagnostic tool. PMID:18002660
Surowka, Grzegorz; Grzesiak-Kopec, Katarzyna
The study was conducted at 75 collecting loci in 15 districts of 11 provinces in Thailand during 1999-2004. A total of 12,079 live mollusks were collected, 11,874 were snails and 205 were clams. The snails were comprised of 39 species and classified into 9 families: Ampullariidae, Bithyniidae, Buccinidae, Potamiopsidae, Stenothyridae, Thiaridae, Viviparidae, Planorbidae and Lymnaeidae. The clams were comprised of 14 species classified into 2 families: Amblemidae and Corbiculidae. Fifteen species were medically important snails: Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea, P. pesmei, P. polita, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) funiculata, B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos, B. (D.) s. siamensis, Filopaludina (Siamopaludina) martensi martensi, F. (Filopaludina) sumatrensis polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Indoplanorbis exustus and Radix rubiginosa. Of these 3 snail species harbored trematode cercariae. I. exustus harbored Echinostoma malayanum, Xiphidio and Schistosoma spindale, and R. rubiginosa and B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos harbored Xiphidio and intestinal flukes, respectively. PMID:17539279
Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Butraporn, Piyarat; Limsoomboon, Jareemate; Kaewpoolsri, Manus; Chusongsang, Yupa; Charoenjai, Prasasana; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Numnuan, Suthep; Kiatsiri, Songtham
The prevalence of the cercarial stage of an intestinal trematode, Haplorchis taichui, in thiarid snails (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) was investigated using light microscope and species-specific PCR procedures. A total of 988 snails were collected from Mae Taeng district, Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, which comprised of 3 species; Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera, and Thiara scabra. The overall prevalence of pleurolophocercous cercariae was 21.7% as determined by the morphology. For genetic detection of H. taichui infection in snails, 2 primers Hapt_F (5'-GGCCAACGCAATCGTCATCC-3') and Hapt_R (5'-GCGTCGGGTTTCAGACATGG-3'), were used. The genomic DNA of H. taichui, which was used as a positive control, gave an amplification of the 256 bp fragment. The overall prevalence of H. taichui from specific PCR was 9.7%. The proportion of H. taichui among the pleurolophocercous cercariae in this study was 44.9%.
Indirect interactions among community members impact on organisms. The effects of two snails, banded pond snail, Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck), and Red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller), and tadpoles of Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider), on nonbiting midge larvae, Chironomus striatipennis Kieffer, were observed in experimental microcosm. Decrease in tube number and tube length of midge larvae was observed compared to control condition due to introduction of selected above mentioned organisms. The direct effects of non-predator organisms on the midge larvae are due to physical disturbance that destroys their tubes. This may result in vulnerability of midge larvae to predators in the wild. So the community structure may be altered by indirect effects, where one or more species, through their direct disturbance, indirectly change the abundance of other species. PMID:24672384
Pal, Gargi; Aditya, Gautam; Hazra, Niladri
The morphology of cercariae of freshwater snails from Erawan Waterfall, Erawan National Park, Kanchanaburi Province was studied between December 2002 and August 2003. The snail samples were collected by handpicking using a counts per unit of time sampling method. The cercariae, larva stage of a trematode, were investigated using the shedding method where they were categorized into three groups and six species. The first group, Pleurolophocercous cercariae, consists of Haplorchis pumillo (C1) and Stictodora tridactyla (C3). The second group, Furcocercous cercariae, consisted of Mesostephanus appendicalatus (C2), Transversotrema laruei (C6) and Cardicola alseae(C4). The third group, Xiphidio cercariae, has only one species which is Loxogenoides bicolor (C5). Out of 1163 snails, only 62 were found to be infected by cercariae, equivalent to a 5.33% infection rate. The infections grouped by species of the cercariae are as follows: C, 22 (1.9%), C, 29 (2.5%), C2 1 (0.1%), C6 1 (0.1%), C4 6 (0.5%) and C5 3 (0.3%). The freshwater snail samples consist of four species. From a total of 1163 samples, there are 687 Melanoides jugicostis, 91 Tarebia granifera, 296 Thiara scabra and 89 Melanoides tuberculata. Infections were found in 45 (6.5%), 6 (6.6%), 1 (0.3%) and 10 (11.2%), respectively. PMID:17539280
Ukong, Suluck; Krailas, Duangduen; Dangprasert, Tunyarut; Channgarm, Pasapong
The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio. PMID:20578482
Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima
Nine cases of paragonimiasis have been reported from cats (4), dogs (2) and children (3) in South Africa, with an additional suspected case in an adult female patient. Details of these cases are reviewed. All nine cases, and perhaps the adult case as well, were from the province of KwaZulu-Natal but locality data are only available for six of them. These six cases represent four localities which all lie below 100 m above sea level in the province's lowlands, suggesting that there may be a focus of transmission here. The molluscan first intermediate host must be one of the two prosobranch snail species present in the area, Melanoides tuberculata or Tomichia natalensis, and the decapod second intermediate host the common river crab Potamonautes sidneyi. All infected cats and dogs had pulmonary infections, while two human cases for which there is sufficient information had extrapulmonary infections. Transmission appears to be ongoing but the invasive snail Tarebia granifera may be competing with both M. tuberculata and T. natalensis. If so, this may bring transmission to an end. PMID:23253517
Appleton, C C
Centrocestusformosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria) parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined. PMID:21250483
Arguedas Cortés, Donald; Dolz, Gaby; Romero Zúñiga, Juan J; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; León Alán, Dennis
The study of seed morphology is not well developed in Brazil. Nevertheless, this characteristic remains remarkably constant under varying environmental conditions and may be used as suitable criteria for the taxonomical identification of species, as well as the whole plants do. The main objective of this work was to make an ilustrative description and characterize morphologically the weed dispersal units
In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil), a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997) and rainy (March, 1998) periods. The dominant groups found were Mollusca (Melanoides tuberculata), Oligochaeta, and Chironomidae larvae. Low Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index values were found, but with no significant difference between the sampling periods. However, density and taxonomic richness were significantly different (t(0.05: 31)) = -2.1945; p < 0.05; e t(0.05; 31) = -3.0600; p < 0.01) between the sampling periods, with a reduction in the number of taxa and macroinvertebrate abundance during the rainy period. An increasing gradient in benthic macroinvertebrate community structures was noted along the reservoir cascade from the first reservoir (Apolônio Sales), followed by a decrease downstream from the third reservoir of the system (Xing6). Despite the negative consequences of rapid proliferation of dams, which have caused widespread loss of freshwater habitats, the reservoir cascade system promoted an increase in benthic macroinvertebrate diversity, due to water-quality improvement along the system. PMID:16097725
Callisto, M; Goulart, M; Barbosa, F A R; Rocha, O
In integrated small-scale aquaculture farming, animal and human excreta maybe used as fish feed and pond fertilizer, thereby enhancing transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) from final hosts, like humans, pigs and chickens, to snails. Areas within a pond could vary in trematode egg-load due to the immediate bordering land, and this might provide implications for control of these trematodes or sampling in field studies measuring FZT prevalence in snails. We therefore estimated the effect of bordering land use on prevalence and FZT burden in snails in different areas within small-scale aquaculture ponds. Nine sampling areas within a pond were assigned in six ponds. For each sampling area, about 120 Melanoides tuberculata snails were collected. Based on land use bordering a sampling area, these were categorized in 5 risk-categories: low-risk (road, rice planted in pond, agriculture, or middle of pond), human access point to pond, livestock sty (pigs or poultry), both human access point and livestock sty, and water connection to canal. In total, 5392 snails were collected. Percentages of snails with parapleurolophocercous cercariae varied between 6% in areas categorized as low-risk and areas with livestock sty only to 15% in areas with both human access point and livestock sty; only this 15% was significantly different from the prevalence in the low-risk category. Percentages of snails with xiphidio cercariae did not differ between risk-categories and varied between 5% and 10%. Mean snail size was 15.2mm, and was significantly associated with both the probability of infection as well as parasite burden. Very small differences in parasite burden were found at different land use areas; the maximum difference was about 11 cercariae. This study demonstrated only small differences between areas surrounding a pond on risk of snails to be infected with fish-borne trematodes within different pond areas. In field studies on FZTs in M. tuberculata snails in ponds, sampling from ponds can therefore be done without considering areas within ponds. PMID:23200642
Boerlage, Annette S; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Verreth, Johan A; de Jong, Mart C M
In invertebrates, members of the collagen family have been found in various phyla. Surprisingly, in mollusc, little is known\\u000a about such molecules. In this study, we characterize the full-length abalone type IV collagen and we analysed its biological\\u000a effects on human fibroblast in order to gain insights about this molecule in molluscs and particularly clues about its roles.\\u000a We screened
Christophe Fleury; Antoine Serpentini; Magdalini Kypriotou; Emmanuelle Renard; Philippe Galéra; Jean-Marc Lebel
Sampling surveys to study the diversity of mollusks in the Lam Ta Khong reservoir, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, northeast Thailand, were carried out in the hot, rainy and cold seasons. The study area was divided into: Area I--the upper part where the Lam Ta Khong river drains; Area II--the mid-section of the reservoir; Area III--behind the dam. Mollusks were collected from four locations on each bank (to the right and left) of each area. Each location was sampled to include 6 cross-sectional stations; in total, 144 stations were sampled. In the deep water, an Ekman dredge was used to collect samples; the scoop or manual method was used at the water's edge. Ten species of snails and four species of clams were found. The dominant species of snails were: Clea helena, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and Melanoides tuberculata; clams were dominated by Corbicula sp. The intermediate host of the human blood fluke was not found. The population of most mollusk species increased during the cold season while that of clams and that of some species of snails increased during the rainy season. Clams and operculate snails predominated in Areas II and III. Pulmonate snails were mostly found close to the bank and on aquatic plants especially in Areas I and II. Operculate snails and clams mainly inhabited water 1 to 10 m deep. Two species of edible mollusks were found: Filopaludina martensi martensi and large numbers of Corbicula. Neither shedding light nor digestion with pepsin A revealed any human parasites in the mollusks sampled. PMID:12757219
Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 ?m and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 ?m) contained a bent metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. PCR amplification of a rDNA region (5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2, 28S rRNA gene) and subsequent sequencing confirmed the diagnosis. Metacercariae were found in gill filaments adjacent to the cartilage associated with cartilage hypertrophy, epithelial and mucous cell hyperplasia, clubbing and lamellar fusion. Host cell encapsulation of cysts comprised several layers of leucocytes, chondroblast-like and fibroblast-like cells. The observations raise concerns with regard to veterinary inspection and quarantine procedures. The zoonotic potential of these trematodes and a possible spread of the parasites in natural habitats in Europe should be regarded as a public health issue. So far, several cases of human infections have been reported only in Asia, but the potential intermediate host snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has been recorded in Germany. Accordingly, establishment of the parasite in Europe with climate changes should be considered a risk. PMID:24827099
Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt
Background Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. Methodology/Principal Findings A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs) turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. Conclusion/Significance This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.
Raw, Jacqueline L.; Miranda, Nelson A. F.; Perissinotto, Renzo
The integrated culture of seaweed, abalone, fish and clams in modular intensive land-based systems: II. Performance and nitrogen partitioning within an abalone ( Haliotis tuberculata) and macroalgae culture system
A pilot-scale system for the intensive land-based culture of abalone was established using an integrated design aimed at eliminating the dependence on external food sources, whilst reducing water requirements and nutrient discharge levels. The system was the first and simplest trial in a series of progressive complexity of the concept of integrated culture of seaweed, abalone, fish and clams in
Amir Neori; Norman L. C. Ragg; Muki Shpigel
BACKGROUND: New Zealand's lesser short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata is one of only two of c.1100 extant bat species to use a true walking gait when manoeuvring on the ground (the other being the American common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus). Mystacina tuberculata is also the last surviving member of Mystacinidae, the only mammalian family endemic to New Zealand (NZ) and a
Suzanne J Hand; Vera Weisbecker; Michael Archer; Henk Godthelp; Alan JD Tennyson; Trevor H Worthy
Melanoid pigments are synthesized de novo when a mesophilic Streptomyces galbus Frommer culture is grown at an elevated temperature (42--47 degrees C). The pigments are accumulated in the mycelium walls whose thickness increases twofold. PMID:3320691
Filippova, S N; Kuznetsov, V D; Zaslavskaia, P L
Three oils were tested for their molluscicidal activity, Caple-2, Kemasol and Super-max. Super-max had the strongest toxic effect on B. alexandrina and other snail species. Its LC50 was 0.53 ppm, meanwhile LC50 of Kemasol 3.2 ppm and 4.21 ppm for Caple 2. The LC50 & LC90 of the oils were lower in Lymneae natalensis as compared to B. alexandrina. The LC50 & LC90 of the oils against non-target snails (Physa acuta, Helisoma duryi, Planorbis planorbis and Melanoides tuberculata) were higher as compared to B. alexandrina. Hatchability of snails' eggs exposed to Super-max (3.0 & 5.0 ppm) was stopped completely and l.0 ppm showed the lower percent of egg hatchability 22.7 %. Caple 2 and Kemasol did not affect eggs hatchability. Supermax had the strongest harmful effect on both miracidia and cercariae of S. mansoni. 100% mortality values were obtained for both larval stages after 8 & 9 minutes respectively when maintained at LC50. 100% mortality of miracidia occurred after 35 & 155 minutes when maintained at LC50 of Kemasol & Caple 2 respectively. The infection rate of B. alexandrina with S. mansoni miracidia was greatly reduced by the sublethal concentrations of the oils. The reduction of infection rate was higher in snails treated with Supermax (42.9%). A highly significant reduction of total cercarial production per snail was in the experimental groups as compared with controls. The prepatent period of treated snails was prolonged compared to control. Moreover, Total protein content and enzyme activities of snails treated with LC10 of oils showed a significant reduction as compared with control in haemolymyph. There was an increase of protein contents in the tissue. AlkP enzyme activity was slightly increased in haemolymph of experimental groups than controls and was significantly higher in the tissues as compared to control. ALT enzyme activity in haemolymph of experimental groups was higher than control, but lower in tissue. AST enzyme activity was higher in haemolymph and tissue of experimental groups than controls. The SDS-PAGE pattern of tissue soluble proteins extracted from treated B. alexandrina and controls showed different oils effects on the synthesis of protein within snails yielded a complex pattern of polypeptides ranging in molecular weight between 13.775 to 156.7 kDa. Many bands were present in treated snails. At least, one band was detected for snails treated with each of the oils and not in controls. The difference in the similarity indices between treatment and control; for Kemasol was 0.86 & 0.64, for Caple 2 was 0.61 & 0.55 and for Supermax was 0.64 & 0.86. LC25 of Supermax did not cause any mortality to Daphnia after 6 hr. But, LC50 & LC90 caused lower mortality after 6 hr. Kemasol caused 100% mortality after 4 hr at LC50 and 2 hr in LC90. Caple 2 caused 50% mortality of Daphnia after 5 hr at LC25 &100% mortality after 30 minutes in LC50 & LC90. PMID:17153697
Mostafa, Bayaumy B
Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (AMNWR) was established by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (with the assistance of The Nature Conservancy) in 1984 to protect one of the highest concentrations of endemic flora and fauna in North America (Pister, 1985; Sada, 1990). Prior to federal acquisition, Ash Meadows had been anthropogenically altered, and non-native species had been introduced to the detriment of native species; reports and published literature document the negative effects to the Ash Meadows flora and fauna (Deacon and others, 1964; U.S. Department of the Interior, 1971; Landye, 1973; Pister, 1974; Soltz and Naiman, 1978; Taylor, 1980; Williams and others, 1985; Williams and Sada, 1985; Baugh and others, 1986; Hershler and Sada, 1987; Knight and Clemmer, 1987; Sada, 1990; Deacon and Williams, 1991; Scoppettone and others, 2005; Kennedy and others, 2006). Such activities led to the extinction of the endemic Ash Meadows poolfish (Empetrichthyes merriami) (Miller, 1961; Soltz and Naiman, 1978), and subsequently the federal government listed three local endemic fish as endangered pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1989)—Warm springs pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis pectoralis), Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes), and Ash Meadows speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus nevadensis). Public ownership of a large portion of Ash Meadows provided the opportunity to restore the landscape to some semblance of its historical condition. Elimination of invasive aquatic species may be more difficult than landscape restoration, and their persistence can cause additional native fish decline or extirpation (Taylor and others, 1984; Moyle and others, 1986; Miller and others, 1989; Minckley and Deacon, 1991; Olden and Poff, 2005). Chemical treatment to remove invasive fishes is often unsuccessful (Meffe, 1983; Rinne and Turner, 1991; Meronek and others, 1996). In Ash Meadows, there has been some success in chemical eradication of localized populations of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) (St. George, 1998, 1999; Weissenfluh, 2008b), as well as convict cichlid (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) (Weissenfluh,2008a). However, there has been less success in removing western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) from Ash Meadows's larger spring systems, and sailfin molly maintains strongholds in several spring systems (Scoppettone and others, 2011b). Perhaps the more destructive invasive species are two invertebrates: red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and red-rim melania (Melanoides tuberculata). Following the appearance of red swamp crayfish within the Warm Springs Complex, Warm Springs pupfish was believed to be extirpated from one spring system (St. George, 2000) and near extirpation in two others (Darrick Weissenfluh, Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, oral commun., 2008, 2011). Crayfish also were demonstrated to greatly suppress the Bradford Springs population of Ash Meadows speckled dace population (McShane and others, 2004). Red-rim melania is known to displace native snail populations (Mitchell and others, 2007), and has been implicated as an agent of extinction of native Ash Meadows spring-snails (Donald Sada, Desert Research Institute, oral commun., 2011). Both invasive invertebrates are difficult to control or eradicate (Mitchell and others, 2007; Freeman and others, 2010). Habitat restoration that favors native species can help control non-native species (McShane and others, 2004; Scoppettone and others, 2005; Kennedy and others, 2006). Restoration of Carson Slough and its tributaries present an opportunity to promote habitat types that favor native species over non-natives. Historically, the majority of Ash Meadows spring systems were tributaries to Carson Slough. In 2007 and 2008, a survey of Ash Meadows spring systems was conducted to generate baseline information on the distribution of fishes throughout AMNWR (Scoppettone and others, 2011b). In this study, we conducted a follo
Scoppettone, G. G.; Johnson, D. M.; Hereford, M. E.; Rissler, Peter; Fabes, Mark; Salgado, Antonio; Shea, Sean
Dynamics of reproduction of the Notocotylus imbricatus (Notocotylidae), Echinostom caproni (Echinostomatidae), Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Psilotrema tuberculata (Psilostomatidae) rediae was examined. Forming of germinal mass in trematodes is considered and discussed on the base of literary and original data. PMID:22384681
Isakova, N P
Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were t...
The effect of inhibiting and stimulating agents on the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (actinomycin X and melanoid pigments) was studied in Streptomyces galbus as a function of the growth temperature. D-Valine was shown to inhibit actinomycin synthesis and to stimulate production of melanoid pigments. Tryptophan stimulated the synthesis of both actinomycin and melanoid pigments. The temperature of growth was found to regulate the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites by the culture. The organism synthesized actinomycin at 28 degrees C, but it switched to the production of melanoid pigments at 42 degrees C. This may be considered as a protective reaction of the organism to an increase in the temperature of the environment and in UV radiation which is possible under natural conditions as a consequence of temperature elevation. The paper presents a hypothetical scheme for the regulation of biosynthesis of actinomycin and melanoid pigments by temperature. According to the scheme, the culture synthesizes secondary metabolites from tryptophan to hydroxykynurenine via a general pathway which is then bifurcated: at 28 degrees C--through methylhydroxyanthranilic acid to actinocin to actinomycin; at 42 degrees C--through hydroxyanthranilic acid, o-aminophenol, pyrocatechol, and possibly, o-benzoquinone, to melanin. PMID:6205242
Kuznetsov, V D; Filippova, S N; Orlova, T I; Rybakova, A M
(VERSIÓN EN ESPAÑOL ABAJO) FIGHTING AN AGGRESSIVE WETLANDS INVADER: A CASE STUDY OF GIANT REED (ARUNDO DONAX) AND ITS THREAT TO CUATRO CIÉNEGAS, COAHUILA, MÉXICO Luchando contra una especie ribereña, invasora y agresiva: un estudio de caso de Carrizo Grande (Arundo donax) y la amenaza que representa para Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, México
Recently, a number of wetlands and rivers in Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, México have become infested with an alien invasive weed, Arundo donax (L)(giant reed). Arundo threatens the viability of aquatic ecosystems in this unique federally designated Protected Area for Flora and Fauna by effectively draining the water to support its own rapid growth, altering hydrologic and nutrient cycling regimes, shading
SUZANNE MCGAUGH; DEAN HENDRICKSON; GARY BELL; HERNANDO CABRAL; KELLY LYONS; LUCAS MCEACHRON; OSCAR MUÑOZ
The efficacy of leeches, as biological agents, in control of snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis (Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria alexandrina) and fascioliasis (Lymnaea natalensis) as well as their effect on the non-target snails Physa acuta, Melanioides tuberculata and Cleopatra bulimoides was evaluated. Two glossiphoniid snail leeches, Helobdella nilae and Alboglossiphonia conjugata were used. They destroyed egg masses and young snails more rapidly than adult ones. H. nilae showed a stronger destructive effect than A. conjugata. In a descending order, it preferred L. natalensis followed by B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata and lastly C. bulimoides. But, A. conjugata preferred L. natalensis followed by B. truncatus, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata, B. alexandrina and lastly C. bulimoides. The detailed diagnostic morphology and biology of the two leeches were given. PMID:19530628
Abd-Allah, Karim F; Saleh, Mohamed H; El-Hamshary, Azza M S; Negm-Eldin, Mohsen M; El-Fakahany, Amany F; Abdel-Tawab, Ahmed H; Abdel-Maboud, Amina I; Aly, Nagwa S M
The stabilisation of strong textures in mollusc shells has for long been a strong drawback towards precise structural determinations of these natural biocomposites. We demonstrate here on several crossed lamellar and nacre layers from two gastropods ( Charonia lampas lampas and Haliotis tuberculata tuberculata) and one bivalve ( Pinctada maxima), that on real specimens (without grinding or specific preparation), the textural information can be used efficiently for precise structural determination of the biogenic aragonite. This is done through the combination of orientation distribution function and cyclic Rietveld refinements on several hundreds to thousands of diffractions diagrams.
Chateigner, D.; Ouhenia, S.; Krauss, C.; Belkhir, M.; Morales, M.
The culture of Streptomyces galbus ISP-5089 has a yellow-green colour caused by the accumulation of actinomycin X when it is grown in synthetic media at 28 degrees C; the colour turns dark-brown at 42 degrees C due to the synthesis of melanoid pigments. The population composition does not undergo any noticeable changes in that case, an no specific melanin-synthesizing mutants appear as a result of autoselection . The biosynthesis of actinomycin X (at 28 degrees C) and melanoid pigments (at 42 degrees C) is regulated by temperature. At 42 degrees C, L-DOPA oxidase is synthesized and laccase is activated; these two enzymes are involved in the synthesis of melanoid pigments. The organism does not has tyrosinase. The synthesis of melanoid pigments, when the mesophilic culture of S. galbus ISP-5089 is grown in the regime of superoptimal temperatures (42 to 47 degrees C), may be considered as a protective ecological reaction of the organism to unfavourable conditions of the environment. PMID:6204187
Kuznetsov, V D; Filippova, S N; Rybakova, A M
Single pigment cells from the squid Loligo forbesi have been studied by microspectrophotometry. The absorption spectra obtained show characteristic changes on reduction and oxidation which are compatible with those found in ommochromes. The presence of melanoid substances, however, cannot be excluded. PMID:13635002
BAYER, M; MEYER-ARENDT, J
A new species Actinomyces malachitospinus sp. nov. is described. It has spiral catenulate spores with spines, a gray aerial mycelium, and a green colonial mycelium, and contains no soluble pigments (including melanoid pigments). The strain of Act. malachitospinus INMI 217 produces a physiologically active substance that stimulates the formation of zygotes in Phycomyces blakesleeanus. PMID:1237075
Preobrazhenskaia, T P; Terekhova, L P; Kozlova, A N; Egorova, S A
The complete 16s rRNA sequences of 12 strains of Streptomyces spp., including potato scab pathogens, were determined. Among the strains of Streptomyces scabies that were isolated from diverse geographical areas and differed in melanoid pigment production, either no difference or one difference in sequence was observed. The sequence of S. scabies was most similar to the sequences of Streptomyces diustutochromogenes,
TORU TAKEUCHI; HIROYUKI SAWADA; IZUMI MATSUDA
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between soil physical characteristics and earthworms in a regional-scale field study in Denmark. The earthworm populations along within-field gradients in soil texture were quantified at five field sites, representing dominant soil types of Denmark. Eleven earthworm species were found, but populations were mainly dominated by Aporrectodea tuberculata and A.
Martin Holmstrup; Mathieu Lamandé; Søren B. Torp; Mogens H. Greve; Rodrigo Labouriau; Goswin Heckrath
The taxonomy of the Caprellidea from the Tasmanian coast is reviewed with data on species composition and biogeographical characteristics. Four new species, Caprella edgari n. sp., Hircella inermis n. sp., Orthoprotella tuberculata n. sp. and Paraproto tasmaniensis n. sp. are described, and detailed descriptions of Caprella acanthogaster Mayer, 1890, Orthoprotella tasmaniensis Guiler, 1954 and Paraproto spinosa (Haswell, 1885) are provided.
J. M. Guerra-García; I. Takeuchi
The objectives of this study were to determine and model the effects of earthworms on water and solute movement in soil. Microrelief and rainfall effects on water and solute movement were determined in packed buckets inoculated with earthworms (Aporrectodea tuberculata). A solution of Br[sup [minus
The primary biodegradability of polyethylene (PE) films containing different percentages of cornstarch (0–50%) and other additives (prooxidant, oxidized polyethylene) was tested using four species of earthworms (Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus terrestris, Aporectodea trapezoides, Aporectodea tuberculata), three species of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, Blaberus sp.,Blattella germanica), termites (Reticulotermes flavipes), sowbugs (Porcellio laevis), and crickets (Acheta domesticus). These studies were conducted to elucidate the
Rong Tsao; Todd A. Anderson; Joel R. Coats
The enzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), has been examined in Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum with respect to its role in pigmentation. It now seems probable that the melanoid gene (m) either codes directly for XDH or is somehow intimately connected with the normal function of this enzyme. Inhibition of XDH using the drug, allopurinol, results in animals which appear to be phenocopies of melanoid mutants as described for the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). The effects of allopurinol in terms of specific pigmentary alterations were examined, and a new method for analyzing heterogeneous extracts of skin pigments (e.g., purines and pteridines) is presented. The significance of the link between XDH and melanism is discussed with emphasis on possible mechanisms of pigment induction and general applicability to biological systems. PMID:490138
Frost, S K; Bagnara, J T
By the employment of the colorimetric method statistically significant objective data on postmortem changes in the colour of different parts of the skin have first been obtained. Histological and spectrophotometric studies were carried out in order to elucidate the causes of these changes. The colour of the cadavar skin as well as the colour of the human skin in life depends on primary pigments: hemoglobin, melanin, carotene and melanoid. A certain role is likely to be played by the main structural proteins of the derma and epidermis: collagen and keratin. The cadavar skin colour differs in variations of the dominant wave length and reflectance which are associated with postmortem redistribution of the blood under the effect of the gravity and qualitative transformation of oxyhaemoglobin into reduced haemoglobin. The distribution of melanin, carotene, and melanoid does not differ from that in life. The most specific index of the amount of melanin is the purity of colour and not reflectance. PMID:603422
Zherebtsov, L D; Vasilevski?, V K; Bremzen, S A
SUMMARY To test the hypothesis that chloramphenicol production in Streptomyces vene- zuelae depends on the presence of a plasmid, mapping analysis was carried out by using eight markers in addition to chloramphenicol production and melanoid pig- ment formation. The sequence of the eight markers was determined on a circular linkage map as follows : -his-ude-str-leu-lys-met-iiv-pro-(his-). This sequence resulted in the
H. AKAGAWA; M. OKANISHI; H. UMEZAWA
An actinomycetous culture designated as LIA-0721 was isolated from a soil sample. It was close to Act. fulvoviolaceus by its morphologo-cultural features and differed from it in production of melanoid pigments and the spectrum of carbohydrate assimilation. This justified its classification as Act. fulvoviolaceus var. achromogenes var. nov. The culture produced new aromatic heptaens, i. e. fulvomycins A, B and C. Their physico- chemical and biological characteristics are presented. PMID:1225210
Tsyganov, V A; Iakovleva, E P; Kruglikova, L F; Shenin, Iu D; Etingov, E D
A chromogenic strain of Streptomyces galbus 5ME-13 producing an antifungal antibiotic was used to study the effects of some heavy metals on growth, melanoid pigment and antibiotic production in culture. Mercury and nickel were highly toxic followed by cadmium while cobalt and chromium appeared to be less toxic. All the metals inhibited growth, pigment and antibiotic production with widely variable IC50 values. Cadmium and chromium at lower concentrations unusually stimulated growth and enhanced pigment production in the strain. PMID:7551710
Raytapadar, S; Datta, R; Paul, A K
Actinomycete LIA-O784 was isolated from a soil sample. By its morphological and cultural properties the isolate was close to Act. parvullus but differed from it in synthesis of melanoid pygment, thyrosinase, hydrogen sulphide and pronounced antifungal activity. The actinomycete was classified as a new variant and designated as Actinomyces parvullus var. chromogenes var. nov. The culture produced a new polyglycoside antibiotic named parvulomycin. The physico-chemical characteristics of the antibiotic is presented. PMID:1275453
Iakovleva, E P; Omel'chenko, V N; Tsyganov, V A; Shenin, Iu D
Carbon-14 contents as low as 3.3 ?? 0.2 percent modern (apparent age, 27,000 years) measured from the shells of snails Melanoides tuberculatus living in artesian springs in southern Nevada are attributed to fixation of dissolved HCO3- with which the shells are in carbon isotope equilibrium. Recognition of the existence of such extreme deficiencies is necessary so that erroneous ages are not attributed to freshwater biogenic carbonates.
Riggs, A. C.
Two actinomycete strains, MS16-1OG and MS16-1OW, isolated from soil and producing an antibiotic, were examined and assigned to the genus Streptomyces, because they have a gray aerial mass, spiral spore chains, and a spiny spore surface; form a melanoid pigment on tyrosine agar, on peptone-yeast extract-iron agar, and in tryptone-yeast extract broth; and have cell wall chemotype I. The DNA
TORU EGUCHI; NOBUO TAKADA; SHOJI NAKAMURA; TOSHIYUKI TANAKA; TAKETOSHI MAKIN; YASUJI OSHIMA
Exceptional ecological niche diversity, clear waters and unique divergent selection pressures have often been invoked to explain high morphological and genetic diversity of taxa within ancient lakes. However, it is possible that in some ancient lake taxa high diversity has arisen because these historically stable environments have allowed accumulation of lineages over evolutionary timescales, a process impossible in neighbouring aquatic habitats undergoing desiccation and reflooding. Here we examined the evolution of a unique morphologically diverse assemblage of thiarid gastropods belonging to the Melanoides polymorpha'complex' in Lake Malawi. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences, we found this Lake Malawi complex was not monophyletic, instead sharing common ancestry with Melanoides anomala and Melanoides mweruensis from the Congo Basin. Fossil calibrations of molecular divergence placed the origins of this complex to within the last 4 million years. Nuclear amplified fragment length polymorphism markers revealed sympatric M. polymorpha morphs to be strongly genetically differentiated lineages, and males were absent from our samples indicating that reproduction is predominantly parthenogenetic. These results imply the presence of Lake Malawi as a standing water body over the last million years or more has facilitated accumulation of clonal morphological diversity, a process that has not taken place in more transient freshwater habitats. As such, the historical stability of aquatic environments may have been critical in determining present spatial distributions of biodiversity. PMID:17257110
Genner, Martin J; Todd, Jonathan A; Michel, Ellinor; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Jimoh, Abayomi; Joyce, Domino A; Piechocki, Andrzej; Pointier, Jean-Pierre
The dynamics of earthworm populations were investigated in continuously-cropped, conventional disk-tilled corn agroecosystems\\u000a which had received annual long-term (6 years) amendments of either manure or inorganic fertilizer. Earthworm populations were\\u000a sampled at approximately monthly intervals during the autumn of 1994 and spring and autumn of 1995 and 1996. The dominant\\u000a earthworm species were Lumbricus terrestris L. and Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen),
J. K. Whalen; R. W. Parmelee; C. A. Edwards
This article documents the addition of 228 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anser cygnoides, Apodemus flavicollis, Athene noctua, Cercis canadensis, Glis glis, Gubernatrix cristata, Haliotis tuberculata, Helianthus maximiliani, Laricobius nigrinus, Laricobius rubidus, Neoheligmonella granjoni, Nephrops norvegicus, Oenanthe javanica, Paramuricea clavata, Pyrrhura orcesi and Samanea saman. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Apodemus sylvaticus, Laricobius laticollis and Laricobius osakensis (a proposed new species currently being described). PMID:21565086
Aurelle, D; Baker, A J; Bottin, L; Brouat, C; Caccone, A; Chaix, A; Dhakal, P; Ding, Y; Duplantier, J M; Fiedler, W; Fietz, J; Fong, Y; Forcioli, D; Freitas, T R O; Gunnarsson, G H; Haddrath, O; Hadziabdic, D; Hauksdottir, S; Havill, N P; Heinrich, M; Heinz, T; Hjorleifsdottir, S; Hong, Y; Hreggvidsson, G O; Huchette, S; Hurst, J; Kane, M; Kane, N C; Kawakami, T; Ke, W; Keith, R A; Klauke, N; Klein, J L; Kun, J F J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Li, J-J; Loiseau, A; Lu, L-Z; Lucas, M; Martins-Ferreira, C; Mokhtar-Jamaï, K; Olafsson, K; Pampoulie, C; Pan, L; Pooler, M R; Ren, J-D; Rinehart, T A; Roussel, V; Santos, M O; Schaefer, H M; Scheffler, B E; Schmidt, A; Segelbacher, G; Shen, J-D; Skirnisdottir, S; Sommer, S; Tao, Z-R; Taubert, R; Tian, Y; Tomiuk, J; Trigiano, R N; Ungerer, M C; Van Wormhoudt, A; Wadl, P A; Wang, D-Q; Weis-Dootz, T; Xia, Q; Yuan, Q-Y
Evolutionary change in developmental mode in sea urchins is closely tied to an increase in maternal provisioning. We examined\\u000a the oogenic modifications involved in production of a large egg by comparison of oogenesis in congeneric sea urchins with\\u000a markedly different sized oocytes and divergent modes of development. Heliocidaris tuberculata has small eggs (95 µm diameter) and the ancestral mode of development
M. Byrne; Jeffrey T. Villinski; Paula Cisternas; Rebecca K. Siegel; Ellen Popodi; Rudolf A. Raff
This study evaluated the molluscicidal effect of Commiphora mnolmol oil extract (Myrrh), on control of six fresh water snails (Lymnaea natalensis, Bulinus truncatus, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Physa acuta, Melania tuberculata and Cleopatra bulimoides). Also, the extract effect on the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta was evaluated. Snails and egg masses were exposed at 16-20 degrees C to various concentrations (conc.). LD50 after 24 hours expo-sure were 264/132, 283/195, 230/252, 200/224, 241/246 & 241/246 ppm for young/adult of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, Ph. acuta, M. tuberculata and C. bulimnoides respectively. LDtoo after 24 hours exposure were 400/400 for L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina, M. tuberculata and C. bulimoides, and 300/300 for Ph. acuta. Also, complete mortality (100%) was achieved for the egg masses of L. natalensis, B. truncatus, B. alexandrina and Ph. acuta at concentrations of 300, 200, 300 & 400 ppm respectively. Lower concentrations gave the same results after longer exposure. LD100 of C. molmol oil extract (Myrrh) had a rapid lethal effect on the six snail species and their egg masses in high conc. of 300 & 400 ppm. Commiphora molmol is a promising plant to be included with the candidate plant molluscicides. The oil extract of this plant showed a remarkable molluscicidal activity against used snail species. PMID:19530615
Abd-Allah, Karim F; Negm-Eldin, Mohsen M; Saleh, Mohamed H; El-Hamshary, Azza M S; El-Gozamy, Bothina M R; Aly, Nagwa S M
La cotorreta de pit gris va ser detectada per primera vegada a la ciutat de Barcelona el 1975 i l'any 1994 la població ja havia arribat als 850 individus. L'objectiu d'aquest estudi és actualitzar l'estima de la població de l'espècie a Barcelona i a Catalunya, una informació que és bàsica per preveure l'expansió d'aquesta espècie invasora en el futur. La
Jordi Domènech; José Carrillo; Juan Carlos Senar
The red pigment in the eyes of the squid, blue crab, and horseshoe crab becomes photosensitive when treated with formalin, and bleaches in the light. The resulting change in density is approximately symmetrical around a maximum at 480 mmicro in the blue green. This difference absorption spectrum is in rough agreement with the spectral sensitivity of the cephalopod eye and differs only slightly from the difference absorption spectrum of vertebrate visual purple. The formalin-sensitized pigment is not melanoid. Its bleaching in squid retinas releases large quantities of retinene. It is suggested that the light sensitivity of the normal squid photopigment may be independent of its light stability. PMID:19873349
Bliss, A F
The red pigment in the eyes of the squid, blue crab, and horseshoe crab becomes photosensitive when treated with formalin, and bleaches in the light. The resulting change in density is approximately symmetrical around a maximum at 480 mµ in the blue green. This difference absorption spectrum is in rough agreement with the spectral sensitivity of the cephalopod eye and differs only slightly from the difference absorption spectrum of vertebrate visual purple. The formalin-sensitized pigment is not melanoid. Its bleaching in squid retinas releases large quantities of retinene. It is suggested that the light sensitivity of the normal squid photopigment may be independent of its light stability.
Bliss, Alfred F.
Spontaneous variants of the beromycin-producing strain Streptomyces glomeratus 3980 were divided into five groups (A-E) according to increasing antibiotic activity. The most active variants (group E) differed from the other types and the wild strain by a suppressed ability to produce aerial mycelium and melanoid piogment and by an increased production of propionic acid. Strains with a 12-fold higher antibiotic production capacity (with respect to strain 3980) were obtained by selection of superior segregants from submerged cultures of the E type. PMID:7399371
Blumauerová, M; Podojil, M; Gauze, G F; Maksimova, T S; Panos, J; Van?k, Z
Amphibians have been judiciously exploited by developmental biologists for many years for studying basic developmental mechanisms in vertebrates. In this review, the contributions that have been made by urodeles, in particular the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), to the study of pigment cell biology are elaborated. Pigment cell differentiation is described, and the wild-type pigment phenotype is contrasted to pigment mutants such as albino, axanthic, melanoid, and white. Methods used for studying pigmentation, including recently developed molecular biological tools, are included to illustrate the significance of the axolotl as a model system for studying vertebrate pigmentation. PMID:8877441
Frost-Mason, S K; Mason, K A
Background New Zealand's lesser short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata is one of only two of c.1100 extant bat species to use a true walking gait when manoeuvring on the ground (the other being the American common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus). Mystacina tuberculata is also the last surviving member of Mystacinidae, the only mammalian family endemic to New Zealand (NZ) and a member of the Gondwanan bat superfamily Noctilionoidea. The capacity for true quadrupedal terrestrial locomotion in Mystacina is a secondarily derived condition, reflected in numerous skeletal and muscular specializations absent in other extant bats. The lack of ground-based predatory native NZ mammals has been assumed to have facilitated the evolution of terrestrial locomotion and the unique burrowing behaviour of Mystacina, just as flightlessness has arisen independently many times in island birds. New postcranial remains of an early Miocene mystacinid from continental Australia, Icarops aenae, offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Results Several distinctive derived features of the distal humerus are shared by the extant Mystacina tuberculata and the early Miocene Australian mystacinid Icarops aenae. Study of the myology of M. tuberculata indicates that these features are functionally correlated with terrestrial locomotion in this bat. Their presence in I. aenae suggests that this extinct mystacinid was also adapted for terrestrial locomotion, despite the existence of numerous ground-based mammalian predators in Australia during the early Miocene. Thus, it appears that mystacinids were already terrestrially-adapted prior to their isolation in NZ. In combination with recent molecular divergence dates, the new postcranial material of I. aenae constrains the timing of the evolution of terrestrial locomotion in mystacinids to between 51 and 26 million years ago (Ma). Conclusion Contrary to existing hypotheses, our data suggest that bats are not overwhelmingly absent from the ground because of competition from, or predation by, other mammals. Rather, selective advantage appears to be the primary evolutionary driving force behind habitual terrestriality in the rare bats that walk. Unlike for birds, there is currently no evidence that any bat has evolved a reduced capacity for flight as a result of isolation on islands.
Hand, Suzanne J; Weisbecker, Vera; Beck, Robin MD; Archer, Michael; Godthelp, Henk; Tennyson, Alan JD; Worthy, Trevor H
Two new species of Actinomadura isolated from soil samples of the Turkmen SSR, i.e. Actinomadura fulvescens sp. nov. and Actinomadura turkmeniaca sp. nov. are described. The first species is characterized by formation of short (1-2 turns) spiral spore chains, smooth spores, scanty white aerial mycelium, colourless or yellowish substrate mycelium on synthetic media and brownish-yellow substrate mycelium and soluble pigment of the same colour on organic media. No melanoid pigment is secreted. The type culture is designated as INA 3321. The cultures of A. fulvescens show antibiotic activity. A. turkmeniaca is characterized by formation of short straight or spiral spore chains, smooth spores, scanty white aerial mycelium, substrate mycelium and soluble pigment of pinkish-violet colour, absence of melanoid pigment. The type culture is designated as INA 3344. The strains of this species have low antibiotic activity. The study on the use of carbon sources by the representatives of 7 species (9 strains) of Actinomadura showed that the majority of the cultures (5 species, 7 strains) produced no growth on the Pridham and Gottlieb medium (ISP-9) with various carbon sources, including glucose. Possibly this medium cannot be used as the main medium for investigation of the spectrum of carbohydrate consumption in Actinomadura. PMID:6461291
Terekhova, L P; Galatenko, O A; Preobrazhenskaia, T P
The purpose of the study was to record different intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis and to determine the infection prevalence and intensity of this parasite in freshwater snails in relation to some ecological and biological factors. The study was conducted at Al-Salam irrigation Canal and Al-Abtal village (north Sinai) for one year, from March 2004 to February 2005. Thirteen species of freshwater snails of nine families were examined for A. cantonensis infection. Six species were found infected with A. cantonensis larvae. These species were L. carinatus, C. bulimoides, C. cyclostomoides, B. alexandrina, L. natalensis and M. tuberculta. The infection prevalence of A. cantonensis in the examined snails ranged from 0.63 to 2.24%. L. carinatus snail had the highest prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of A. cantonensis infection. Positive correlations were found between both prevalence and mean abundance of A. cantonensis and host size in L. carinatus and M. tuberculata. Negative correlations were detected between salinity and prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of larvae of A. cantonensis. The results demonstrated seasonal and spatial variation in the prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of infection among examined snails. In this study, A. cantonensis larvae were found in a wide range of freshwater snails and M. tuberculata snail was recorded as a new intermediate host for the first time. In conclusion, further investigations in other areas and controlled laboratory experiments of infection approaches are required to evaluate the possible threat of this parasite on humans. PMID:17432058
Ibrahim, M M
According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches.
Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gurkan; Blande, James D.
To test the hypothesis that chloramphenicol production in Streptomyces venezuelae depends on the presence of a plasmid, mapping analysis was carried out by using eight markers in addition to chloramphenicol production and melanoid pigment formation. The sequence of the eight markers was determined on a circular linkage map as follows: -his-ade-str-leu-lys-met-ilv-pro-(his-). This sequence resulted in the frequency of quadruple crossover (q.c.o.) recombinants having the lowest value, 3-2 to 4-9%. However, the character of chloramphenicol non-production, which was obtained by incubating mycelia with acriflavin, was not required to explain the results. From these results and other tests, it is concluded that chloramphenicol production is controlled by a plasmid. This plasmid appeared to be non-transferable in conjugation. PMID:1194895
Akagawa, H; Okanishi, M; Umezawa, H
Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous disease of the skin, and subcutaneous tissue, which sometimes involves muscle, bones, and neighboring organs. It is characterized by tumefaction, abscess formation, and fistulae with discharge of grains from sinuses. Mycetoma can be caused by various species of fungi (eumycetoma) and aerobic actinomycetes (actinomycetoma), which occur as saprophytes in soil or plants. A tentative diagnosis sufficient to initiate treatment may be made on the basis of grain color. For instance, melanoid grains are always caused by fungi and ochroid or pale grains by actinomycetes. Although this is not the thumbrule, there are exceptional reports too. As trauma favors infection, most lesions are on the foot and lower leg but they may occur anywhere on the body mimicking actinomycosis. However, lab investigations and culture are important tool to differentiate apart from the clinical picture. We are reporting atypical case with unusual site of presentation (perineum and thigh) of mycetoma. PMID:21808436
Gupta, Shweta; Jain, Khushbu; Parmar, Chirag; Shah, Parul; Raval, Ranjan C
Glycosylated BSA was prepared via Maillard reaction and central composite design (CCD) technique was applied to study the effects of reaction time, temperature, the pH value of the buffer solution on the degree of graft (DG), content of the melanoid (A420) and emulsifying stability (ES) of the resultant product. Fluorescence spectra as well as several other techniques including sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), infrared spectrum (IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were employed to study the possible differences between the glycosylated BSA and BSA. Glycosylated albumin possessed distinct properties from BSA and had the great potential to be used as the drug carrier for nanoparticles. PMID:21812322
Gao, Yuan; Sun, Wanjin; Zhang, Jianjun
Pigmented livedo is a frequently encountered disease. It occurs as an ochre reticular membrane which does not disappear when the limb is raised. It is characteristic in persons who already have livido reticularis and who expose themselves for several hours every day to the heat from chimneys or foot-warmers. We wanted to study the histological context of this disease in a group of female patients that we kept under observation. The data that we compiled showed that it is due to lymphocytic vasculitis accompanied by atrophy of the epidermis, hyperpigmentation of the basal keratinocytes and telangiectasia. Our pathogenetic hypothesis is that it involves vasculitis "a calore", with atrophy of the epidermis, telangiectasia and melanoid pigmentation, which is the cause of the characteristic brown pigmentation. PMID:2290866
Bilancini, S; Gallo, P; Bernucci, P; d'Amati, G; Lucchi, M
1. The disposition of adiphenine labelled with 14C in two positions has been investigated in rats and mice after i.v. administration, and has been compared with that of the [14C]diethylethanolamine HCl and of the [14C]diphenylacetic acid. 2. Radioactivity in the blood declined in a biphasic manner. Biliary elimination depended upon the 14C-labelled compound administered: less than 5% dose for the diethylethanolamine moiety, 100% dose for the carboxylic moiety. Of the radioactivity appearing in rat bile, less than 1% is associated with unchanged adiphenine. 3. In preliminary metabolic studies, three major metabolites have been identified: diphenylacetic acid, diethylethanolamine and a diphenylacetic acid glucuronide. 4. Uptake by the brain of [14C]adiphenine shortly after dosing is 15 times greater than that of blood. Radioactivity is also found in the hypophysis, the adrenals and melanoid pigments, with a concn. up to 30 times greater than that found in the blood. PMID:6112821
Michelot, J; Madelmont, J C; Jordan, D; Mornex, R; Meyniel, G
A novel mutant strain designated as Streptomyces nodosus, NDMC-034 was selected from the mutation of Streptomyces nodosus, IMRU 3694. This mutant was characterized by delayed sporulation, the incapability of producing the melanoid pigment either in the production medium or on YD agar containing 1% yeast extract and 1% dextrose, and the increased yield of amphotericin A as compared to its parent strain. In addition, the biosynthesis of amphotericin A by this mutant seems to be sensitive to temperature. When the incubation temperature was raised to 32 degrees C, the yield of amphotericin A was dramatically decreased; in contrast, the yield of amphotericin B was greatly increased as compared to that at 28 degrees C. Another unique mutant strain designated as Streptomyces griseus, YT-1 was selected from the mutation of Streptomyces griseus, IMRU 3570. It was characterized by the incapability of synthesizing candicidin and the delayed sporulation. All the mutants were auxanographed and characterized by the requirement for growth factor. PMID:6443786
Liu, Y T
Actinomadura cultures were isolated from soil samples collected in Turkmenistan, the Moscow, Kursk and Volgograd regions. The cultures were described as representatives of a new species (Actinomadura recticatena, Preobrazhenskaya et Galatenko, sp. nov). The hydrolysates of intact cells of the cultures contain mesodiaminopumelic acid, galactose and madurose. The species is characterized by straight spore chains, wrinkled spore surface, cream-colored aerial mycelium and brown substrate mycelium with pinkish or slightly violet shade. The cultures produce no soluble pigments, including the melanoid ones. The red-violet fraction of the pigments responsible for the pinkish and violet shades of the substrate mycelium belongs to the antibiotics of the griseorodin-rubromycin group. PMID:6696399
Gauze, G F; Terekhova, L P; Galatenko, O A; Preobrazhenskaia, T P; Borisova, V N
Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous disease of the skin, and subcutaneous tissue, which sometimes involves muscle, bones, and neighboring organs. It is characterized by tumefaction, abscess formation, and fistulae with discharge of grains from sinuses. Mycetoma can be caused by various species of fungi (eumycetoma) and aerobic actinomycetes (actinomycetoma), which occur as saprophytes in soil or plants. A tentative diagnosis sufficient to initiate treatment may be made on the basis of grain color. For instance, melanoid grains are always caused by fungi and ochroid or pale grains by actinomycetes. Although this is not the thumbrule, there are exceptional reports too. As trauma favors infection, most lesions are on the foot and lower leg but they may occur anywhere on the body mimicking actinomycosis. However, lab investigations and culture are important tool to differentiate apart from the clinical picture. We are reporting atypical case with unusual site of presentation (perineum and thigh) of mycetoma.
Gupta, Shweta; Jain, Khushbu; Parmar, Chirag; Shah, Parul; Raval, Ranjan C.
Trematodes of the family Heterophyidae in man and carnivores were studied in Khuzestan, south-west Iran. Eight hundred and eleven stool samples from a population of 3400 in 13 villages in a swampy area located in central Khuzestan were examined by the formalin-ether concentration technique. The following helminths were found: Ascaris lumbricoides 7%, Trichostrongylus spp. 53%, hookworms 4+, Trichuris trichiura 5%, Hymenolepis nana 12% and heterophyid spp. 8%. Post-mortem examination of carnivores revealed that 14.2% of jackals, 33.3% of foxes and 2.5% of dogs were infected with heterophyids, namely Metagonimus yokogawai, Heterophyes heterophyes and H. katsuradai. The freshwater snails Melanoides and Melanopsis spp. and brackish water fishes Barbus spp. and Mugil spp. were thought to be the intermediate hosts of these flukes in this area. This is the first report of heterophyid infection in man and carnivores in Iran. PMID:7310107
Massoud, J; Jalali, H; Reza, M
Sanchez-Marroquin, A. (University of Mexico, México D.F.). Constancy of characteristics in the streptomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 83:1183–1192. 1962.—A total of 150 Streptomyces strains isolated from soil was studied during a 3-year period in regard to constancy and variation of the following characteristics: sporophore micromorphology, color of the aerial and substrate mycelium, surface configuration of the spores, assimilation of carbon compounds, production of H2S and melanoid pigment, and reduction of nitrates. A remarkable constancy in the following characteristics was found: (i) sporophore micromorphology when only three of the seven morphological series of Pridham et al. were developed on tomato paste-oatmeal agar or yeast extract-malt extract agar; (ii) color of the aerial mycelium if only four fundamental colors are distinguished (white to cream or buff shades; yellow to orange or brown; pink to cinnamon, red or pinkish tan to lavender; and green to gray or blue); (iii) surface configuration of the spores divided in two types (smooth and warty to spinous or hairy); (iv) assimilation of five carbon compounds (arabinose, xylose, rhamnose, raffinose, and mannitol); (v) production of H2S on Difco peptone-iron agar supplemented with 0.1% Difco yeast extract; and (vi) production of melanoid pigment on peptone agar, giving similar results to those of the H2S test. Color of the substrate mycelium, size and shape of the spores, and reduction of nitrates should be used only as complementary data in the species descriptions, owing to their inconsistency and unreliability. Images
Sanchez-Marroquin, A. (University of Mexico, México D.F.). Constancy of characteristics in the streptomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 83:1183-1192. 1962.-A total of 150 Streptomyces strains isolated from soil was studied during a 3-year period in regard to constancy and variation of the following characteristics: sporophore micromorphology, color of the aerial and substrate mycelium, surface configuration of the spores, assimilation of carbon compounds, production of H(2)S and melanoid pigment, and reduction of nitrates. A remarkable constancy in the following characteristics was found: (i) sporophore micromorphology when only three of the seven morphological series of Pridham et al. were developed on tomato paste-oatmeal agar or yeast extract-malt extract agar; (ii) color of the aerial mycelium if only four fundamental colors are distinguished (white to cream or buff shades; yellow to orange or brown; pink to cinnamon, red or pinkish tan to lavender; and green to gray or blue); (iii) surface configuration of the spores divided in two types (smooth and warty to spinous or hairy); (iv) assimilation of five carbon compounds (arabinose, xylose, rhamnose, raffinose, and mannitol); (v) production of H(2)S on Difco peptone-iron agar supplemented with 0.1% Difco yeast extract; and (vi) production of melanoid pigment on peptone agar, giving similar results to those of the H(2)S test. Color of the substrate mycelium, size and shape of the spores, and reduction of nitrates should be used only as complementary data in the species descriptions, owing to their inconsistency and unreliability. PMID:14496763
Dynamic of the reproduction of the trematodes Notocotylus imbricatus (Notocotylidae), Echinostoma caproni (Echinostomatidae), Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Psilotrema tuberculata (Psilostomatidae) parthenites was observed. The formation of generative cells takes place only as a result of undifferentiated cells proliferation and following differentiation. These processes and early stages of embryogenesis are taking place only in the special reproductive organ--germinal mass. The germinal mass is always formed at the posterior part of the body. The process of reproduction had been finishing to the beginning of the generating of cercariaea of new age by parthenites. Rediae of different generations in fact stop producing new generative cells with the beginning of the appearance of a new generation. PMID:22292264
Isakova, N P
Benthic and periphytic bdelloid communities from 16 alpine lakes from 1700 to 2850 m above sea level in Sesia Valley (Piedmont region, North-western Italy), sampled during summer 2001 and 2002, were analyzed. Seventeen species were identified from these species-poor communities, with 1 to 6 species each. Dissotrocha macrostyla and Philodina citrina were the most common species, present in 10 lakes while 9 species were collected from one lake only. New morphological details from S.E.M. pictures of Dissotrocha macrostyla revealed that Dissotrocha macrostyla tuberculata (Gosse, 1886) is only a seasonal morphotype. Its different appearance is due to the presence of locally distributed microscopic mucous bubbles (diameter 1.41 +/- 0.18 m) on the trunk surface, produced by the rotifer itself under stressful conditions.
Fontaneto, Diego; Melone, Giulio
Elzalia bipectinella1 n. sp. and E. tuberculata2 n. sp. from Thailand are described and the males of three species from the Gulf of Mexico, E. federici Castillo-Fernandez and Lambshead (1990), E. kimae Castillo-Fernandez and Lambshead (1990), and E. poli Castillo-Fernandez and Lambshead (1990) are re-described from type and topotype specimens using light and scanning electron microscopy. New morphological characters are described that include ornamentations at the distal end of the spicula and features of the gubernaculum including the manus with digits, pontis with sensory receptor and accessory process, and the condylus with either conical or foliate projections. Also, ejaculatory and rectal glands are described for the first time for Elzalia. The relevance of the new characters to the taxonomy of Elzalia is discussed. A key to identification of males is provided. A generalized description of females is given, although characters are lacking by which females of each species may be identified.
Hope, W. Duane; Aryuthaka, Chittima
Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust National Cancer Institute botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through put microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015-0.5?mg/mL) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % of the extracts tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50 ) properties <0.0183?mg/mL. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao [symbol: see text] Speranskia herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite clay, Bunge root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi [symbol: see text] root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone root (Collinsonia Canadensis), and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun, and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth root (Trillium Pendulum), and alkanet root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (S. tuberculata), which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis, leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of anti-mitotic natural plants that are effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850
Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, K F A
Human sleep is sensitive to the individual's environment. The present review examines current knowledge of human sleep patterns under different environments: heat exposure, cold exposure, altitude, high pressure and microgravity in space. Heat exposure has two effects. In people living in temperate conditions, moderate heat loads (hot bath, sauna) prior to sleep provoke a delayed reaction across time (diachronic reaction) whereby slow-wave sleep (SWS) augments in the following night (neurogenic adaptive pathway). Melanoids and Caucasians living in the Sahel dry tropical climate experience diachronic increases in SWS throughout seasonal acclimatization. Such increases are greater during the hot season, being further enhanced after daytime exercise. On the contrary, when subjects are acutely exposed to heat, diachronic decreases in total sleep time and SWS occur, being often accompanied by synchronic (concomitant) diminution in REM sleep. Stress hormones increase. Nocturnal cold exposure provokes a synchronic decrease in REM sleep along with an activation of stress hormones (synchronic somatic reaction). SWS remains undisturbed as it still occurs at the beginning of the night before nocturnal body cooling. Altitude and high pressure are deleterious to sleep, especially in non-acclimatized individuals. In their controlled environment, astronauts can sleep well in microgravity. Exercise-induced sleep changes help to understand environmental effects on sleep: well-tolerated environmental strains may improve sleep through a neurogenic adaptive pathway; when this "central" adaptive pathway is overloaded or bypassed, diachronic and synchronic sleep disruptions occur. PMID:17706676
The axanthic mutant in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) was analysed with respect to the differentiation of pigment cells. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the presence of melanophores and cells that are described as unpigmented xanthophores in axanthic skin. Iridophores apparently failed to differentiate in axanthic axolotls (a pattern similar to that observed in melanoid axolotls). Chromatographic analyses of skin extracts confirmed that there are no pteridines (xanthophore pigments) in axanthic skin, suggesting that the axanthic gene may affect pteridine biosynthesis at some point early in the biosynthetic pathway. Why iridophores fail to differentiate in these animals is not known, but this, too, may be related to an inability to synthesize pigments properly. Xanthophore and iridophore pigments both presumably derive from purine precursors. Finally, all axanthic animals were found to be infected by a virus. Electron microscopic results demonstrated the presence of numerous macrophages in the dermis of the skin, occupying positions typical of pigment cells. The virus was localized primarily in macrophages, but was also observed in pigment cells. The virus is, as yet, uncharacterized but is thought to contribute to the low survivability of axanthic adults. PMID:3794587
Frost, S K; Epp, L G; Robinson, S J
Target screening of natural immunosuppressors resulted in isolation of a strain of Streptomyces griseolus (No. 182) producing a complex of antifungal antibiotics. The strain proved to be an aerobe with the growth temperature of 26 to 28 degrees C. Morphological features and physiological properties of the strain were studied. Scanning electron microscopy revealed smooth, oval spores 1.10-1.25 mu in size. The findings showed that the strain belonged to Streptomyces griseolus. Unlike the previously described organisms producing the oligomycin complex the new strain formed straight or twisted sporophores and did not produce melanoid pigment or soluble pigment when grown on the Gauze mineral agar medium No. 1. The procedures for biosynthesis and chemical recovery of the antibiotic complex from the mycelium are described. The complex was shown to include 3 components at a ratio of 80:15:5 identified as oligomycins A, B and C respectively. The oligomycin complex was highly active against Aspergillus niger 137, Tolypocladium inflatum, Fusarium ocsisporum, Curvularia lunata 645 and Trichoderma alba F-32 (MIC 0.1-1.0 mcg/ml). The activity against yeast and bacterial cultures was observed only when the doses were higher than 100 mcg/ml. PMID:14558413
Grammatikova, N E; Bibikova, M V; Spiridonova, I A; Kabanov, A E; Katlinski?, A V
A biochemical and transmission electron microscopic description of the wild-type pigment phenotype in developing Mexican axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) is presented. There are three pigment cell types found in adult axolotl skin - melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores. Both pigments and pigment cells undergo specific developmental changes in axolotls. Melanophores are the predominant pigment cell type throughout development; xanthophores occur secondarily and in fewer numbers than melanophores; iridophores do not appear until well into the larval stage and remain thereafter as the least frequently encountered pigment cell type. Ultrastructural differences in xanthophore organelle (pterinosome) structure at different developmental stages correlate with changes in the pattern of pteridine biosynthesis. Sepiapterin, a yellow pteridine, is present in larval axolotl skin but not in adults. Riboflavin (also yellow) is present in minimal quantities in larval skin and large quantities in adult axolotl skin. Pterinosomes undergo a morphological "reversion" at some point prior to or shortly after axolotls attain sexual maturity. Correlated with the neotenic state of the axolotl, certain larval pigmentary features are retained throughout development. Notably, the pigment cells remain scattered in the dermis such that no two pigment cell bodies overlap, although cell processes may overlap. This study forms the basis for comparison of the wild type pigment phenotype to the three mutant phenotypes-melanoid, axanthic and albino-found in the axolotl. PMID:6470605
Frost, S K; Epp, L G; Robinson, S J
A number of chromogenic Streptomyces, producing diffusible melanoid pigment on complex organic media, fail to form melanin pigment on conventionally used synthetic tyrosine agar. By means of our new melanin formation test, almost all the chromogenic streptomyces can now be detected in chemically defined medium. In contrast to ordinary chromogenic streptomyces, two streptomyces species of the International Streptomyces Project, S. griseus ISP 5236 and S. ornatus ISP 5307, produce melanin pigment only on synthetic tyrosine agar, without showing chromogenicity on complex organic media. From the results obtained with S. griseus ISP 5236 and S. phaeochromogenes ISP 5073, it was revealed that melanin formation by Streptomyces, in general, is inhibited by L-cysteine present in organic nitrogen sources incorporated into natural media. Most chromogenic species of streptomyces produce a higher level of tyrosinase and rapidly utilize L-cysteine in the culture media which result in the manifestation of good chromogenicity on natural media. Peculiarity of chromogenicity of S. griseus and S. ornatus might be due to the lower ability to produce tyrosinase and to utilize L-cysteine in the culture medium. PMID:4629704
Arai, T; Mikami, Y
A number of chromogenic Streptomyces, producing diffusible melanoid pigment on complex organic media, fail to form melanin pigment on conventionally used synthetic tyrosine agar. By means of our new melanin formation test, almost all the chromogenic streptomyces can now be detected in chemically defined medium. In contrast to ordinary chromogenic streptomyces, two streptomyces species of the International Streptomyces Project, S. griseus ISP 5236 and S. ornatus ISP 5307, produce melanin pigment only on synthetic tyrosine agar, without showing chromogenicity on complex organic media. From the results obtained with S. griseus ISP 5236 and S. phaeochromogenes ISP 5073, it was revealed that melanin formation by Streptomyces, in general, is inhibited by L-cysteine present in organic nitrogen sources incorporated into natural media. Most chromogenic species of streptomyces produce a higher level of tyrosinase and rapidly utilize L-cysteine in the culture media which result in the manifestation of good chromogenicity on natural media. Peculiarity of chromogenicity of S. griseus and S. ornatus might be due to the lower ability to produce tyrosinase and to utilize L-cysteine in the culture medium.
Arai, Tadashi; Mikami, Yuzuru
Allopurinol, a drug that inhibits the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), is known to cause hypermelanism in the axolotl. The hypermelanistic condition that results from allopurinol treatment is similar in most respects to the phenotype that results from the action of the melanoid (m) gene in axolotls. On the basis of structural and biochemical studies, it now seems clear that genetic and drug-induced hypermelanism are the same in the following ways. 1) Both types of melanism result in the production of more than normal amounts of melanin and more melanin-containing cells (melanophores). 2) In both cases the amount of pteridine-associated yellow pigment declines during development, and this is associated directly with fine structural changes that occur within the pigment organelles (pterinosomes) of yellow pigment cells (xanthophores). 3) In both cases the hypermelanistic condition results in the suppression of reflecting pigment cell (iridophore) differentiation. 4) Both conditions have now been linked directly to depressed levels of XDH activity. Thus both genetic and drug-induced hypermelanism result in alterations in the normal differentiation of all three pigment cell types and the subsequent disruption of normal pigment pattern formation. The possible significance of these findings with regard to factors known or suspected to direct the migration and/or differentiation of neural crest-derived pigment cells is discussed. PMID:2771877
Frost, S K; Borchert, M; Carson, M K
Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) is associated with increased mortality in the elderly and may occur from lipid peroxidation in aging. We previously showed that sevoflurane sequesters acrolein, which promotes the formation of a novel species of a putative neuromelanin. The current study examined the properties of this serotonin-derived melanoid (SDM). The interaction of SDM with unilamellar vesicles (ULVs) was examined using lipid membrane probes. Vesicle disruption was investigated by leakage of dye from calcein-loaded ULVs. We observed that SDM decreased diphenyl-hexatriene fluorescence anisotropy and increased the temperature-dependent change in anisotropy. SDM changed the absorbance of merocyanin-bound ULVs. SDM increased detergent-mediated calcein leakage. SDM structure was dramatically altered upon interaction with ULVs. We also observed that SDM enhanced detergent-mediated leakage of loaded ULVs, suggesting that SDM may be neurotoxic. We propose that inhalational agents, which sequester acrolein, may promote the production of certain species of neuromelanin that depletes local serotonin and enhances neuronal vulnerability. PMID:20026057
Miller, Elizabeth D; Fibuch, Eugene E; Seidler, Norbert W
To our best knowledge, any study related to the ecological distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans in Jordan does not exist in the medical literature. In order to determine the environmental occurrence of both varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans in Jordan, pigeon droppings and material under the canopies of eucalyptus trees were collected from four major cities of this country. For the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii from environmental sources, 500 samples of the mixed soil debris, including tree materials, under the eucalyptus trees from cities of Amman, Irbid, Jerash, and Ajlun were collected. Also, 509 samples of pigeon droppings were collected from the same cities for the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans variety neoformans. After inoculating the samples onto modified Staib agar medium in Petri dishes, a total of 336 melanoid yeast colonies were picked up during screening process. At the end of serial mycological studies, none of these isolates was identified as Cryptococcus neoformans, but all were Cryptococcus species other than C. neoformans. For determining the exact status, more extensive environmental studies need to be done in the future. PMID:15518348
Hamasha, Akram Mohammad Saad; Yildiran, Sinasi Taner; Gonlum, Ahmet; Saracli, Mehmet Ali; Doganci, Levent
Strain S15-1 which produces antiviral antibiotic S15-1 belonging to the streptothricin group of antibiotics was isolated from a soil sample. Cell analysis, colony morphology, the absence of sporangia-like vesicles, the formation of spores in chains of the Rectus Flexibilis type, and the ability to produce melanoid pigment, indicate that this strain belongs to the genus Streptomyces Waksman and Henrici. A comparison of the characteristics of strain S15-1 with related Streptomyces show that it should be identified as Streptomyces purpeofuscus Yamaguchi and Saburi. The investigation of cultural conditions show that soluble starch and meat extract are the most suitable carbon and organic nitrogen sources for the production of antibiotic S15-1. Strain S15-1 grew poorly on media with no organic nitrogen sources, and did not produce the antibiotic. Antiviral antibiotic S15-1 is accumulated at the highest level after 3 or 4 days growth of the producing organism. PMID:816763
Kawamura, T; Tago, K; Beppu, T; Arima, K
Sooty molds are saprophytic fungi living on plants and feeding on honeydew secreted by some parasitic insects. We present a case of a 41-year-old male laborer who developed hypo- and hyperpigmented areas on his hands, without signs of inflammation or allergic reaction, together with several episodes of bronchial asthma, after occupational handling of sooty mold-covered citrus fruit. While positive prick tests to Alternaria (+++) and Cladosporium (+++) demonstrated the allergic nature of the patient's asthma, the pathogenic mechanism of skin dyspigmentation in such cases remains unknown. Hyperpigmentation could be due to intracutaneous penetration of a melanoid fungal pigment through repeated occupational microtraumatic events, while hypopigmentation could be caused by fungal products that are toxic/apoptosis-inducing for melanocytes and/or that interfere with melanogenesis (as observed for other fungi, such as Malassezia). This case suggests that further research is warranted in the probably underestimated field of sooty mold-related human diseases, and underlines the importance of education, use of protection devices, and prevention of sooty mold infestation in individuals exposed to these fungi. PMID:18717611
Guarneri, Fabrizio; Guarneri, Claudio; Cannavò, Serafinella Patrizia; Guarneri, Biagio
The complete 16S rRNA sequences of 12 strains of Streptomyces spp., including potato scab pathogens, were determined. Among the strains of Streptomyces scabies that were isolated from diverse geographical areas and differed in melanoid pigment production, either no difference or one difference in sequence was observed. The sequence of S. scabies was most similar to the sequences of Streptomyces diastatochromogenes, Streptomyces bottropensis, and Streptomyces neyagawaensis, which belong to the Diastatochromogenes group. The levels of similarity of the 16S rRNA sequences of Streptomyces acidiscabies and S. scabies were almost the same as the levels of similarity between S. acidiscabies and other Streptomyces strains. Streptomyces sp. strain 91-Sy-13, which was isolated in Japan from potato scab and belongs to a distinct species on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and DNA relatedness, exhibited lower levels of 16S rRNA sequence similarity with other potato scab pathogens, as well as other Streptomyces species. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence data showed that the Streptomyces spp. that cause potato scab composed unique branches. The results of our phylogenetic analysis based on complete 16S rRNA sequences confirmed the lack of close relationships among Streptomyces spp. that cause potato scab. Our findings suggest that potato scab is caused by phylogenetically diverse Streptomyces species and that the pathogenicities of these organisms developed independently. PMID:8934906
Takeuchi, T; Sawada, H; Tanaka, F; Matsuda, I
Expressed sequence tag (EST) markers were developed for Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum (Eastern tiger salamander) and for A. mexicanum (Mexican axolotl) to generate the first comprehensive linkage map for these model amphibians. We identified 14 large linkage groups (125.5–836.7 cM) that presumably correspond to the 14 haploid chromosomes in the Ambystoma genome. The extent of genome coverage for these linkage groups is apparently high because the total map size (5251 cM) falls within the range of theoretical estimates and is consistent with independent empirical estimates. Unlike most vertebrate species, linkage map size in Ambystoma is not strongly correlated with chromosome arm number. Presumably, the large physical genome size (?30 Gbp) is a major determinant of map size in Ambystoma. To demonstrate the utility of this resource, we mapped the position of two historically significant A. mexicanum mutants, white and melanoid, and also met, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that contributes to variation in metamorphic timing. This new collection of EST-based PCR markers will better enable the Ambystoma system by facilitating development of new molecular probes, and the linkage map will allow comparative studies of this important vertebrate group.
Smith, J. J.; Kump, D. K.; Walker, J. A.; Parichy, D. M.; Voss, S. R.
Expressed sequence tag (EST) markers were developed for Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum (Eastern tiger salamander) and for A. mexicanum (Mexican axolotl) to generate the first comprehensive linkage map for these model amphibians. We identified 14 large linkage groups (125.5-836.7 cM) that presumably correspond to the 14 haploid chromosomes in the Ambystoma genome. The extent of genome coverage for these linkage groups is apparently high because the total map size (5251 cM) falls within the range of theoretical estimates and is consistent with independent empirical estimates. Unlike most vertebrate species, linkage map size in Ambystoma is not strongly correlated with chromosome arm number. Presumably, the large physical genome size ( approximately 30 Gbp) is a major determinant of map size in Ambystoma. To demonstrate the utility of this resource, we mapped the position of two historically significant A. mexicanum mutants, white and melanoid, and also met, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that contributes to variation in metamorphic timing. This new collection of EST-based PCR markers will better enable the Ambystoma system by facilitating development of new molecular probes, and the linkage map will allow comparative studies of this important vertebrate group. PMID:16079226
Smith, J J; Kump, D K; Walker, J A; Parichy, D M; Voss, S R
Culture 78 was proposed as a neotype of Streptomyces ruber. It was isolated from the soils of the Baikal region and was closest, in its taxonomic properties, to the original description of the species  whose representative had been lost. Cultures from different microbial collections designated as S. ruber were shown to be unlike the original description. The neotype had the following taxononic properties: the cell wall of type I; spiral sporophores with extended spirals having 2-3 coils; oval spores with a smooth envelope; greyish pink aerial and dark-red substrate mycelia; a red pigment not passing into the medium; slow gelatin liquefaction and milk peptonization; weak starch hydrolysis; assimilation of glucose, xylose, rammose, fructose, and inositol; weak growth on arabinose, raffinose and mannitol, but not on sucrose; no formation of melanoid pigments; synthesis of riboflavin and prodigiosin pigments; inhibition of Gram-positive bacterial and acid-resistant mycobacterial growth; no inhibition of yeast and fungal growth. The culture was sensitive to streptomycin, neomycin, gentamycin, monomycin, tetracycline,erythromycin, oleandomycin, lincomycin, ristomycin, levomycetin, polymyxin and fusidin, but resistant in penicillin. The population was composed of six variants : main, faded, asporogenic red, asporogenic yellow, asporogenic white and nocardia-like. The latter two were not capable of riboflavin and prodigiosin formation. The asporogenic yellow variant was a monosynthetic organism: it formed riboflavin, but could not synthesize prodigiosin. The neotype of S. ruber 78 is deposited withthe national Collection of Microorganisms (the reference number is VKM A-611). PMID:3613997
Kuznetsov, V D; Filippova, S N; Poltorak, V A
Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy technique has been employed to date the aragonitic fresh-water gastropod shells ( Melanoides curvicosta) collected from Soma (Manisa) district (West Anatolia) of Turkey. The influence of the annealing temperature and ?-radiation dose on dating signal at g = 2.0016 is investigated. The thermal stability and dose response of the ESR signals were found to be suitable for an age determination using a signal at g = 2.0016. The activation energy ( E), frequency factor ( s) and mean-lifetime ( ?) at 15 °C of the g = 2.0016 center were calculated to be 1.67 ± 0.01 eV, (3.6 ± 0.7) × 10 13 s -1 and 2.02 × 10 8 years, respectively. The ESR signal growth curve on additional ?-irradiation has been best fitted by an exponential saturation function. Based on this model, accumulated dose (AD) value for dating is obtained. We have determined the ESR age of the terrestrial gastropods to be 2.57 ± 0.30 Ma. The results show that the ESR age falls into the Late Pliocene (Romanian) epoch of the geological time scale, which agreed with the paleoecological and paleogeographic distribution and stratigraphic level of the fauna.
Engin, Birol; Kapan-Ye?ilyurt, Sevinç; Taner, Güler; Demirta?, Hayrünnisa; Eken, Mahmut
The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine.
Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad
The life cycle of the heterophyid fluke, Haplorchis pumilio is elucidated for the first time from the Indian region. Various stages in the life cycle were established based on observations made on natural infections found in snails and fish in a freshwater stream at Visakhapatnam, India and experimental infections carried out in the laboratory. The thiarid snail, Thiara tuberculata served as the first intermediate host and a wide range of freshwater fish as second intermediate hosts. Natural infections with adult flukes were found in the piscivorous birds Ardeola grayii and Bubulcus ibis. Adults were raised experimentally in day-old chicks. Distinguishing features of the cercaria of H. pumilio are: a large body size (200-224 x 92-96 micro m), body-tail ratio of 1:2.1 and densely distributed pigment granules in the parenchyma imparting a brownish tinge to the body. Natural infections with metacercariae were found in the freshwater fish Channa punctatus, C. orientalis, Puntius sophore, Gambusia affinis and fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio and Liza macrolepis. Additionally, experimental infections were established in Therapon jarbua, Esomus danricus and Oreochromis mossambica. Metacercariae were embedded in the caudal muscles of fish and heavy infections induced mortality. Metacercariae were infective at about 15 days of age. PMID:17125540
Umadevi, K; Madhavi, R
So-called "typical" behavioural responses of coastal animals to particular stimuli have previously been shown often to vary cyclically in phase with diel or tidal cycles in the environment. Less well-studied are differences in the behaviour of adults and juveniles of the same species at the same time of day or tidal state, or in response to the same stimulus. Experimental studies of such differences in behaviour are reviewed and compared for three species of beach crustaceans, namely, the crab Carcinus maenas, the isopod Eurydice pulchra and the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. Juvenile, but not adult, Carcinus will entrain circatidal rhythmicity after exposure to artificial tidal cycles of immersion/emersion; juvenile, but not adult, Eurydice express pronounced free-running circatidal swimming rhythms at neap tides as well as at springs; and, in Orchestoidea, juveniles and adults express patterns of daily locomotor activity that are complementary, both on the shore and in the laboratory. These ontogenetic differences are discussed in relation to distributional and behavioural differences between adults and juveniles in each species, drawing attention to their adaptive significance and wider implications for coastal management and conservation.
Naylor, E.; Kennedy, F.
Leaf characters have been successfully utilized to classify Camellia (Theaceae) species; however, leaf characters combined with supervised pattern recognition techniques have not been previously explored. We present results of using leaf morphological and venation characters of 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia to assess the effectiveness of several supervised pattern recognition techniques for classifications and compare their accuracy. Clustering approach, Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQ-ANN), Dynamic Architecture for Artificial Neural Networks (DAN2), and C-support vector machines (SVM) are used to discriminate 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia (11 in sect. Furfuracea, 16 in sect. Paracamellia, 12 in sect. Tuberculata, 34 in sect. Camellia, and 20 in sect. Theopsis). DAN2 and SVM show excellent classification results for genus Camellia with DAN2's accuracy of 97.92% and 91.11% for training and testing data sets respectively. The RBF-SVM results of 97.92% and 97.78% for training and testing offer the best classification accuracy. A hierarchical dendrogram based on leaf architecture data has confirmed the morphological classification of the five sections as previously proposed. The overall results suggest that leaf architecture-based data analysis using supervised pattern recognition techniques, especially DAN2 and SVM discrimination methods, is excellent for identification of Camellia species.
Lee, Sean; Nitin, Mantri
Zwicknia gen. n., a new genus for the Capnia bifrons species group, with descriptions of three new species based on morphology, drumming signals and molecular genetics, and a synopsis of the West Palaearctic and Nearctic genera of Capniidae (Plecoptera).
Zwicknia Murányi, gen. n. is erected for the Capnia bifrons species group sensu Zhiltzova, 2001 with the description of three new species based on morphology, mating call, and the mitochondrial DNA marker cytochrome c oxidase I: Z. acuta Murányi & Orci, sp. n., Z. kovacsi Murányi & Gamboa, sp. n. and Z. rupprechti Murányi, Orci & Gamboa, sp. n.. Zwicknia bifrons (Newman, 1838) comb. n. is selected as the type species and redescribed. The other three species placed into Zwicknia, gen. n., Z. sevanica (Zhiltzova, 1964) comb. n., Z. tuberculata (Zhiltzova, 1964) comb. n., and Z. turkestanica (Kimmins, 1950) comb. n. are redescribed based only on morphological characters. Comparative morphological studies and newly discovered characters of the genitalia has allowed for the first time a synopsis of the adults of the West Palaearctic and Nearctic genera of Capniidae. Arsapnia Banks, 1897 (type species: A. decepta Banks, 1897 comb. rev.) is removed from synonymy with Capnia Pictet, 1841 with new combinations, Arsapnia arapahoe (Nelson & Kondratieff, 1988) comb. n., A. coyote (Nelson & Baumann, 1987) comb. n., A. pileata (Jewett, 1966) comb. n., A. sequoia (Nelson & Baumann, 1987) comb. n., A. teresa (Claassen, 1924) comb. n., A. tumida (Claassen, 1924) comb. n., and A. utahensis (Gaufin & Jewett, 1962) comb. n. A new sensu stricto diagnosis of Capnia is proposed with comments on the taxa retained in Capnia sensu lato. PMID:24943267
Murányi, Dávid; Gamboa, Maribet; Orci, Kirill Márk
In the last few decades, phylogenetic studies of the family Schistosomatidae based on molecular markers have revealed that members of the genus Orientobilharzia Dutt & Srivastava, 1955 belong within Schistosoma Weinland, 1858. In this study, the original descriptions and redescriptions of Orientobilharzia species and related revisions are reviewed, and it is confirmed that the morphological characters correspond with the results of the molecular studies. The two genera differ only in the number of testes; however, this character varies to a large extent within particular genera of the subfamily Schistosomatinae and cannot be used to justify the separation of Orientobilharzia from Schistosoma. Also, we have verified claims suggesting the synonymy of certain species of Orientobilharzia; the four valid species of this genus are transferred to Schistosoma and two new synonymies are formally presented. The following nomenclatural changes are made: Schistosoma Weinland, 1858 [syn. Orientobilharzia Dutt & Srivastava, 1955 (syn. nov.)]; Schistosoma bomfordi Montgomery, 1906 (comb. restit.); S. turkestanicum Skrjabin, 1913 (comb. restit.) [syns Ori. turkestanica var. tuberculata (Bhalerao, 1932) (syn. nov.) and Ori. cheni Hsü & Yang, 1957 (syn. nov.)]; S. dattai (Dutt & Srivastava, 1952) n. comb.; and S. harinasutai (Kruatrachue, Bhaibulaya & Harinasuta, 1965) n. comb. The generic diagnosis of Schistosoma is amended and a revised key to the subfamily Schistosomatinae Stiles & Hassall, 1898 is presented. PMID:22581244
Aldhoun, Jitka A; Littlewood, D Timothy J
The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Allolobophora tuberculata (Eisen), Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg), and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. A Weibull function is used to summarize these data for each chemical in terms of sensitivity and toxicity, in addition to the LC50. The estimation of the Weibull parameters a and k summarize the entire concentration-response relationship. This technique should be applicable to a variety of testing protocols with different species whenever the goal is summarizing the shape of the concentration-response curves to fully evaluate chemical impact on organisms. In some cases for these data four orders of magnitude separate LC50s of the soil test and the contact test for the same chemical and species. All four species appear to be similar in range of toxicity and tolerance to these chemicals, suggesting that Eisenia fetida and may be representative of these four species and these chemicals.
Callahan, C.A.; Shirazi, M.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Neuhauser, E.F. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States))
The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328
Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that plays a key role in protein synthesis, folding, denaturation prevention, and signal transduction. We cloned the complete complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of the Laternula elliptica HSP90. The full-length cDNA was 2,823 bp in size and contained an open reading frame of 2,190 bp that was translated into 729 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 83.4 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of HSP90 showed the highest homology to Haliotis tuberculata HSP90 (83%). Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of HSP90 transcripts in all of the tissues examined. We also studied the transcriptional expression pattern of HSP90 exposed to thermal stress with real-time polymerase chain reaction. The relative expression level of HSP90 messenger RNA was upregulated and peaked at 12 h in the digestive gland and at 24 h in the gills, then dropped progressively. PMID:18987993
Kim, Meesun; Ahn, In-Young; Kim, Hakjun; Cheon, Jina; Park, Hyun
Background: We experienced a case in which Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome presented with complications of multiple gastric cancers and multiple colon adenomas. Case Report: Our case is a 64-year-old male who visited a nearby hospital with diarrhea and weight loss. The patient was anemic and hypoproteinemic, with multiple polyps in the stomach, duodenum, and large intestine. He also presented with alopecia, onychatrophia, cutaneous pigmentation, and dysgeusia, and was diagnosed with Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome. Follow-up examinations found multiple gastric cancers and colon adenomas. We performed a total gastrectomy and a polypectomy of the large intestine lesions, revealing 4 well-differentiated adenocarcinomas in the resected stomach, and tubular adenomas in the large intestine lesions. Intraoperative findings included scattered melanoid pigmentation on the mesentery and the small intestinal wall. Tumor cells were positive for p53 and Ki67 and partially positive for MUC5AC and MUC2. Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome polyps are generally classified as juvenile type polyps, and these polyps rarely become cancerous. However, of the 383 cases of Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome reported in Japan, complications of gastric cancer were found in 39 cases (10.2%), and only 8 cases with multiple gastric cancer were reported in Japan. including the cases we have personally experienced. There were only two English literatures on Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome complicated with gastric cancer. So it is necessary to notify this information of Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome to the world. Conclusions: Close gastrointestinal examination and strict follow-up are believed to be essential for Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome patients.
Isobe, Taro; Kobayashi, Teppei; Hashimoto, Kousuke; Kizaki, Junya; Miyagi, Motoshi; Aoyagi, Keishiro; Koufuji, Kikuo; Shirouzu, Kazuo
Groundwater contaminated with a mixture of 14 volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) discharges to an estuarine embayment in Sydney, Australia. A screening-level hazard assessment identified a potential risk to aquatic organisms from surface water contaminated by the groundwater. Direct toxicity assessment of the groundwater was undertaken on 5 indigenous marine species to assess toxicity and derive a site-specific guideline. The testing included acute tests, subchronic tests on early life stages, and a chronic test. Test organisms included a microalga (Nitzschia closterium), an amphipod (Allorchestes compressa), a polychaete worm (Diopatra dentata), and sea urchin (Heliocidaris tuberculata) and oyster larvae (Saccostrea commercialis). Toxicity testing was undertaken in sealed containers to prevent loss of VCHs, and concentrations of VCHs were measured to accurately assess exposure concentrations. No observed effect concentration (NOEC) values varied from 1.56% dilution (1.11 mg total VCHs) to 50% dilution (45.5 mg total VCHs). EC50 values varied from 4.8% dilution (3.77 mg total VCHs) to more than 50% dilution (45.5 mg total VCHs). NOEC data were used to derive species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and a site-specific guideline. SSDs were derived from Burr type III (including the Pareto) and log-normal distributions. The log-normal distribution represented the best fit, and because the Pareto distribution is a finite threshold model more suited to toxicants with a threshold mode of action, the log-normal SSD and the associated 95% trigger value (TV) of 830 microg/L of total VCHs, was adopted as the site-specific TV for the groundwater. PMID:19125544
Hunt, James; Birch, Gavin; Warne, Michael St John; Krassoi, Rick
This study aimed to investigate the possible effects of heavy metal pollution across sites and some biological factors on helminth communities infecting the lizard, Chalcides ocellatus. The possibility of heavy metal accumulation by such helminths was also investigated. A total of 202 C. ocellatus were collected from three different sites (industrial, rural, and urban systems) in Ismailia governorate, Egypt, during summer 2009. The lizards were classified according to their sex and size and were examined for the intestinal helminths. Heavy metal levels were detected in the intestinal tissue of the lizards and the recovered helminths. Species richness was 6, 5, and 3 in rural, urban, and industrial systems, respectively. Significant site variations regarding infection prevalence, intensity, and abundance were encountered at different levels. Some noticeable effects of the host size were found. The significant differences found between the metal levels of the intestinal tissues and the recovered helminths and the other relations found in this study may be indications for a possible metals accumulation capacity by helminths. The cestode Oochoristica tuberculata could be a promising biomonitor for Cu and Pb, while the intestinal nematodes were less sensitive to the pollution. Differences in the accumulation capacity may be attributed to the intensity of infection, parasite species, and metal. The observed patterns of distribution and occurrence of helminths and the metals accumulation capacity reflect the need for more studies since this study proposes the model intestinal helminth/C. ocellatus as another promising bioindication system in the terrestrial habitat, especially in areas where the lizard C. ocellatus are available. PMID:22282349
Soliman, M F M
Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or—perhaps more plausibly—a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree with them in supporting Clermontia's origin on Kauài or some older island and dispersal down the chain subsequently.
Givnish, Thomas J.; Bean, Gregory J.; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.
Abstract The large genus Orthomorpha is rediagnosed and is shown to currently comprise 51 identifiable species ranging from northern Myanmar and Thailand in the Northwest to Lombok Island, Indonesia in the Southeast. Of them, 20 species have been revised and/or abundantly illustrated, based on a restudy of mostly type material; further 12 species are described as new: Orthomorpha atypica sp. n., Orthomorpha communis sp. n., Orthomorpha isarankurai sp. n., Orthomorpha picturata sp. n., Orthomorpha similanensis sp. n., Orthomorpha suberecta sp. n., Orthomorpha tuberculifera sp. n.,Orthomorpha subtuberculifera sp. n. and Orthomorpha latiterga sp. n., all from Thailand, as well as Orthomorpha elevata sp. n.,Orthomorpha spiniformis sp. n. and Orthomorpha subelevata sp. n., from northern Malaysia. The type-species Orthomorpha beaumontii (Le Guillou, 1841) is redescribed in due detail from male material as well, actually being a senior subjective synonym of Orthomorpha spinala (Attems, 1932), syn. n. Two additional new synonymies are proposed: Orthomorpha rotundicollis (Attems, 1937) = Orthomorpha tuberculata (Attems, 1937), syn. n., and Orthomorpha butteli Carl, 1922 = Orthomorpha consocius Chamberlin, 1945, syn. n., the valid names to the left. All species have been keyed and all new and some especially widespread species have been mapped. Further six species, including two revised from type material, are still to be considered dubious, mostly because their paraterga appear to be too narrow to represent Orthomorpha species. A new genus, Orthomorphoides gen. n., diagnosed versus Orthomorpha through only moderately well developed paraterga, coupled with a poorly bi- or trifid gonopod tip, with at least some of its apical prongs being short spines, is erected for two species: Orthomorpha setosus (Attems, 1937), the type-species, which is also revised from type material, and Orthomorpha exaratus (Attems, 1953), both comb. n. ex Orthomorpha.
Likhitrakarn, Natdanai; Golovatch, Sergei I.; Panha, Somsak
The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (<1.5 Bq/kg). In the second experiment, microcosms were used to determine the contribution of soil and lettuce in the accumulation of (137)Cs in snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d). PMID:18266477
Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie
Previous (1992-1994) surveys for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) along main channels of the Detroit River showed that unionids had been extirpated from all but four sites in the upper reaches of the river due to impacts of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis). These four sites were surveyed again in 1998 using the same sampling method (timed-random searches) to determine if they may serve as ''refugia'' where unionids and dreissenids co-exist. Two additional sites were sampled using additional methods (excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches) for comparison with unpublished data collected in 1987 and 1990. A total of four individuals of four species (Actinonaias ligamentina, Cyclonaias tuberculata, Lasmigona complanata and Pleurobema sintoxia) were found by timed-random searches at four sites in 1998 compared to 720 individuals of 24 species in 1992 and 39 individuals of 13 species in 1994. Excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches at the two additional sites yielded only one live specimen of Ptychobranchus fasciolaris compared to 288 individuals of 18 species in 1987 and 1990. Results of this study suggest that remaining densities of unionids in channels of the Detroit River are too low to support viable reproducing populations of any species. Therefore, we conclude that unionids have been extirpated from main channels of the Detroit River due to dreissenid infestation. As the Detroit River was one of the first water bodies in North America to be invaded by dreissenids, it is likely that unionids will also be extirpated from many other rivers and lakes across eastern North America over the next few decades. Resource agencies should be encouraged to implement active management programs to protect remaining unionid populations from zebra mussels.
Schloesser, Don W.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Kovalak, William P./Longton, Gary D.; Smithee, Rick D.
Background One clade of Malagasy leaf chameleons, the Brookesia minima group, is known to contain species that rank among the smallest amniotes in the world. We report on a previously unrecognized radiation of these miniaturized lizards comprising four new species described herein. Methodology/Principal Findings The newly discovered species appear to be restricted to single, mostly karstic, localities in extreme northern Madagascar: Brookesia confidens sp. n. from Ankarana, B. desperata sp. n. from Forêt d'Ambre, B. micra sp. n. from the islet Nosy Hara, and B. tristis sp. n. from Montagne des Français. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of all nominal species in the B. minima group congruently support that the four new species, together with B. tuberculata from Montagne d'Ambre in northern Madagascar, form a strongly supported clade. This suggests that these species have diversified in geographical proximity in this small area. All species of the B. minima group, including the four newly described ones, are characterized by very deep genetic divergences of 18–32% in the ND2 gene and >6% in the 16S rRNA gene. Despite superficial similarities among all species of this group, their status as separate evolutionary lineages is also supported by moderate to strong differences in external morphology, and by clear differences in hemipenis structure. Conclusion/Significance The newly discovered dwarf chameleon species represent striking cases of miniaturization and microendemism and suggest the possibility of a range size-body size relationship in Malagasy reptiles. The newly described Brookesia micra reaches a maximum snout-vent length in males of 16 mm, and its total length in both sexes is less than 30 mm, ranking it among the smallest amniote vertebrates in the world. With a distribution limited to a very small islet, this species may represent an extreme case of island dwarfism.
Glaw, Frank; Kohler, Jorn; Townsend, Ted M.; Vences, Miguel
Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or--perhaps more plausibly--a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree with them in supporting Clermontia's origin on Kauài or some older island and dispersal down the chain subsequently. PMID:23658747
Givnish, Thomas J; Bean, Gregory J; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P; Sytsma, Kenneth J
Late Quaternary extinctions and population fragmentations have severely disrupted animal-plant interactions globally. Detection of disrupted interactions often relies on anachronistic plant characteristics, such as spines in the absence of large herbivores or large fruit without dispersers. However, obvious anachronisms are relatively uncommon, and it can be difficult to prove a direct link between the anachronism and a particular faunal taxon. Analysis of coprolites (fossil feces) provides a novel way of exposing lost interactions between animals (depositors) and consumed organisms. We analyzed ancient DNA to show that a coprolite from the South Island of New Zealand was deposited by the rare and threatened kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), a large, nocturnal, flightless parrot. When we analyzed the pollen and spore content of the coprolite, we found pollen from the cryptic root-parasite Dactylanthus taylorii. The relatively high abundance (8.9% of total pollen and spores) of this zoophilous pollen type in the coprolite supports the hypothesis of a former direct feeding interaction between kakapo and D. taylorii. The ranges of both species have contracted substantially since human settlement, and their present distributions no longer overlap. Currently, the lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) is the only known native pollinator of D. taylorii, but our finding raises the possibility that birds, and other small fauna, could have once fed on and pollinated the plant. If confirmed, through experimental work and observations, this finding may inform conservation of the plant. For example, it may be possible to translocate D. taylorii to predator-free offshore islands that lack bats but have thriving populations of endemic nectar-feeding birds. The study of coprolites of rare or extinct taxonomic groups provides a unique way forward to expand existing knowledge of lost plant and animal interactions and to identify pollination and dispersal syndromes. This approach of linking paleobiology with neoecology offers significant untapped potential to help inform conservation and restoration plans. PMID:23025275
Wood, Jamie R; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Worthy, Trevor H; Holzapfel, Avi S; Cooper, Alan
Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures). The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2-10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue). Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g), R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p > 0.05) between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin inhibits cell adhesion to jellyfish-native collagen by 55%, the main difference is that heparan sulfate proteoglycans could be preferentially involved in fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion to jellyfish collagens. Our data confirm the broad harmlessness of jellyfish collagens, and their biological effect on human cells that are similar to that of mammalian type I collagen. Given the bioavailability of jellyfish collagen and its biological properties, this marine material is thus a good candidate for replacing bovine or human collagens in selected biomedical applications. PMID:21747742
Addad, Sourour; Exposito, Jean-Yves; Faye, Clément; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Lethias, Claire
When 3,4-dihydroxybenzylcyanide (DBC) is oxidized by mushroom tyrosinase, the first visible product, identified as the corresponding quinomethane, exhibits an absorption maximum at 480 nm. Pulse-radiolysis experiments, in which the o-quinone is formed by disproportionation of semiquinone radicals generated by single-electron oxidation of DBC, showed that the quinomethane (A480 6440 M-1.cm-1) is formed through the intermediacy of the o-quinone with a rate constant at neutral pH of 7.5 s-1. The oxygen stoichiometry of the formation of the quinomethane by tyrosinase-catalysed oxidation of DBC was 0.5:1. On the basis of oxygen utilization rates the calculated Vmax was 4900 nmol.min-1 and the apparent Km was 374 microM. The corresponding monohydric phenol, 4-hydroxybenzylcyanide (HBC), was not oxidized by tyrosinase unless the enzyme was pre-exposed to DBC, the maximum acceleration of HBC oxidation being obtained by approximately equimolar addition of DBC. These results are consistent with tyrosinase auto-activation on the basis of the indirect formation of the dihydric phenol-activating cofactor. The rapid conversion of the o-quinone to the quinomethane prevents the formation of the catechol by reduction of the o-quinone product of monohydric phenol oxidation from occurring in the case of the compounds studied. In the absence of auto-activation, the kinetic parameters for HBC oxidation by tyrosinase were estimated as Vmax 70 nmol.min-1 and Km 309 microM. The quinomethane was found to decay with a rate constant of 2k 38 M-1.s-1, as determined both by pulse-radiolysis and tyrosinase experiments. The second-order kinetics indicate that a dimer is formed. In the presence of tyrosinase, but not in the pulse-radiolysis experiments, the quinomethane decay was accompanied by a steady-state oxygen uptake concurrently with the generation of a melanoid product measured by its A650, which is ascribed to the formation of an oligomer incorporating the oxidized dimer.
Cooksey, C J; Garratt, P J; Land, E J; Ramsden, C A; Riley, P A
When 3,4-dihydroxybenzylcyanide (DBC) is oxidized by mushroom tyrosinase, the first visible product, identified as the corresponding quinomethane, exhibits an absorption maximum at 480 nm. Pulse-radiolysis experiments, in which the o-quinone is formed by disproportionation of semiquinone radicals generated by single-electron oxidation of DBC, showed that the quinomethane (A480 6440 M-1.cm-1) is formed through the intermediacy of the o-quinone with a rate constant at neutral pH of 7.5 s-1. The oxygen stoichiometry of the formation of the quinomethane by tyrosinase-catalysed oxidation of DBC was 0.5:1. On the basis of oxygen utilization rates the calculated Vmax was 4900 nmol.min-1 and the apparent Km was 374 microM. The corresponding monohydric phenol, 4-hydroxybenzylcyanide (HBC), was not oxidized by tyrosinase unless the enzyme was pre-exposed to DBC, the maximum acceleration of HBC oxidation being obtained by approximately equimolar addition of DBC. These results are consistent with tyrosinase auto-activation on the basis of the indirect formation of the dihydric phenol-activating cofactor. The rapid conversion of the o-quinone to the quinomethane prevents the formation of the catechol by reduction of the o-quinone product of monohydric phenol oxidation from occurring in the case of the compounds studied. In the absence of auto-activation, the kinetic parameters for HBC oxidation by tyrosinase were estimated as Vmax 70 nmol.min-1 and Km 309 microM. The quinomethane was found to decay with a rate constant of 2k 38 M-1.s-1, as determined both by pulse-radiolysis and tyrosinase experiments. The second-order kinetics indicate that a dimer is formed. In the presence of tyrosinase, but not in the pulse-radiolysis experiments, the quinomethane decay was accompanied by a steady-state oxygen uptake concurrently with the generation of a melanoid product measured by its A650, which is ascribed to the formation of an oligomer incorporating the oxidized dimer. PMID:9677329
Cooksey, C J; Garratt, P J; Land, E J; Ramsden, C A; Riley, P A
This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea.Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm), deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72) expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude) and from 0 to -65°W (longitude). A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (http://www.pangaea.de/PHP/CruiseReports.php?b=Polarstern), including a cruise report (http://epic-reports.awi.de/3694/1/PE_72.pdf).The dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens.The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m), while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m), Lysasterias adeliae (4832m), Lophaster stellans (4752m), Cheiraster planeta (4708m), Eremicaster crassus (4626m), Lophaster gaini (4560m) and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m)).Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings to light six species, newly reported in the Southern Ocean.The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly, by means of on-board Polarstern GPS systems, checking of identification by a renowned specialist (Prof. Michel Jangoux, Université Libre de Bruxelles), and matching to the Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS) and World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS). The data is therefore fit for completing checklists, for inclusion in biodiversity patterns analysis, or niche modeling. It also nicely fills an information gap regarding deep-sea starfish from the Southern Ocean, for which data is very scarce at this time. The authors may be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies. PMID:22577314
Danis, Bruno; Jangoux, Michel; Wilmes, Jennifer
Abstract Using for comparison with, and as outgroups for, supertribe Cicindelitae, we describe and illustrate the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of the basal geadephagans Trachypachus gibbsii LeConte, 1861 (family Trachypachidae), and family Carabidae: Pelophila rudis (LeConte, 1863) (supertribe Nebriitae, tribe Pelophilini) and Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz, 1829) (supertribe Carabitae, tribe Ceroglossini). The range and pattern of variation in structure of mandibles and labrum-epipharynx within the supertribe Cicindelitae was assessed using scanning-electron (SEM) images of these structures in nine exemplar taxa: Amblycheila baroni (Rivers, 1890), Omus californicus (Eschscholtz, 1829) and Picnochile fallaciosa (Chevrolat, 1854) (representing the Amblycheilini); Manticora tuberculata (DeGeer, 1778) (representing the Manticorini): Tetracha carolina (Linnaeus, 1767) (representing the Megacephalini); Pogonostoma chalybeum (Klug, 1835) (representing the Collyridini); and Therates basalis Dejean, 1826, Oxycheila species, and Cicindela longilabris Say, 1824 (representing the Cicindelini). An evolutionary transformation series was postulated for the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx, based on a reconstructed phylogenetic sequence, which, in turn, was based on morphological and DNAevidence.Principal features of the transformation series for the mandibles included development of a densely setose basal face; wide quadridentate retinaculum; a lengthened incisor tooth; a multidentate terebra (one to five teeth; two-three most frequent), followed by subsequent loss of one or more such teeth; development of a diastema in the occlusal surface; development and subsequent loss of scrobal setae, and reduction and loss of the scrobe. Principal features of the transformation series for the labrum included evolution of form from transverse, sub-rectangular to elongate almost square, to triangular; position and number of setae evolved from dorsal to insertion on the apical margin, the number increased from 8-10 to as many as 36, and decreased to as few as four. The epipharynx broadened evolutionarily, the pedium evolving in form from narrow, triangular and nearly flat, to broad, palatiform, and markedly convex; anterior parapedial setae both increased and decreased in number, and in orientation, from a row parallel to the parapedial ridge to a setal row extended forward at about a right angle to the latter.
Ball, George E.; Acorn, John H.; Shpeley, Danny
Abstract This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea. Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm), deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72) expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude) and from 0 to -65°W (longitude). A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (http://www.pangaea.de/PHP/CruiseReports.php?b=Polarstern), including a cruise report (http://epic-reports.awi.de/3694/1/PE_72.pdf). The dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens. The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m), while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m), Lysasterias adeliae (4832m), Lophaster stellans (4752m), Cheiraster planeta (4708m), Eremicaster crassus (4626m), Lophaster gaini (4560m) and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m)). Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings to light six species, newly reported in the Southern Ocean. The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly, by means of on-board Polarstern GPS systems, checking of identification by a renowned specialist (Prof. Michel Jangoux, Université Libre de Bruxelles), and matching to the Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS) and World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS). The data is therefore fit for completing checklists, for inclusion in biodiversity patterns analysis, or niche modeling. It also nicely fills an information gap regarding deep-sea starfish from the Southern Ocean, for which data is very scarce at this time. The authors may be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies.
Danis, Bruno; Jangoux, Michel; Wilmes, Jennifer
Abstract We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelis gen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in Australia, with Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym): Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Opisthoscelis recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= Opisthoscelis ruebsaameni Lindinger) with Opisthoscelis convexa Froggatt; and Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as Tanyscelis conica (Fuller), comb. n., Tanyscelis convexa (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis maskelli (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis pisiformis (Froggatt), comb. n., Tanyscelis spinosa (Froggatt), comb. n., and Tanyscelis verrucula (Froggatt), comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the first-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (Opisthoscelis subrotunda) and Tanyscelis (Opisthoscelis pisiformis). We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: Opisthoscelis beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis tuberculataHardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Opisthoscelis ungulifinis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: Tanyscelis grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanuscelis megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Tanyscelis villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for Opisthoscelis convexa, Opisthoscelis fibularis, Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, Opisthoscelis maculata, Opisthoscelis mammularis, Opisthoscelis maskelli, Opisthoscelis pisiformis, Opisthoscelis recurva, Opisthoscelis serrata, Opisthoscelis spinosa, and Opisthoscelis verrucula. As a result of our taxonomic revision, Opisthoscelis has six species and Tanyscelis has 12 species. We describe the galls of females for all 18 species and galls of males for 10 species of Opisthoscelis and Tanyscelis, and provide photographs of the galls for most species. A key to the adult females of the species of both genera is included.
Hardy, Nate B.; Gullan, Penny J.
Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [Spanish] La conota, Panicum repens L., es una especie foranea de pasto que produce rizomas que ha convertido en ser una maleza invasora de ambientes terrestres, pantanosos y acuaticos en regiones tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. Hasta hace un tiempo reciente, las estrategias para controlar conota en los EEUU eran enfocadas casi exclusivamente en los metodos mecanicos y quimicos, solos o en combinacion, con resultados variables. Un muestreo de los artropodos y nematodos asociados corrientemente con esta planta en el Lago de Okeechobee, Florida, fue realizado como parte de un estudio de factibilidad para determinar si conota es una candidata apropiada para un programa de control biologico clasico. En general, especimenes de aproximadamente unos 4,000 artropodos y unos 400 nematodos fueron recolectados. Muestras recolectadas pasando una red sobre vegetacion mezclada, cortando la vegetacion y tomando centros del suelo fueron dominados por representantes de artropodos de los ordenes de Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, y Acari. Nematodos en el genero Pratylenchus, que causan lesiones sobre tejido, fueron asociados regularmente con las raices de conota. Ninguno de los organismos recolectados eran especialistas sobre conota. Aunque el control biologico clasico de la conota es factible basado sobre la magnitud de la infestacion, las perdidas economicas, la resistencia hacia los metodos de control convencionales y el informe en la India de un posible enemigo natural especifico a esta planta, la posicion botanica de este pasto maleza requiere una evaluacion de riesgo economico formal antes de continuar con un programa de control biologico clasico. (author)
Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr. [University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620 (United States)
Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is based on the dependence of 13C-18O bond abundance in the carbonate lattice (measured as ?47) on the carbonate formation temperature. Most marine and freshwater biogenic carbonates are found to be in agreement with the clumped isotopes - temperature calibration. Clumped isotope thermometry is particularly useful in terrestrial environments where the interpretation of carbonate ?18O is limited due to difficulty in estimating the paleo-water isotopic composition. Clumped isotope-derived temperatures from land snails are generally higher than the ambient environmental temperatures, but show no evidence for disequilibrium. We attribute these higher body temperatures to snail eco-physiological adaptations through shell color, morphology, and behavior. We use the clumped isotope-derived temperatures in combination with shell ?18O to calculate snail body water ?18O composition. This parameter is interpreted as a paleo-hydrological indicator that reflects the isotopic composition of local precipitation modified by local evaporation. Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to compare extant species of modern and fossil freshwater mollusks and land snails from the same location to examine lake paleo-hydrology. This location is particularly interesting as Lake Victoria itself is the main source of rain-water in the region such that the isotopic composition of land snail body water can be related back to the source waters. We combine clumped isotope and oxygen isotope measurements of both freshwater mollusks and land snails to examine the water balance of the lake, testing hypotheses about the mechanism of a significant rise in lake level in Lake Victoria ~35 - 40 ka BP. Outcrops of paleo-beach deposits ~18 m above the modern day lake level indicate high water stands at ~35-40 ka BP. Based on water balance models for Lake Victoria, an increase in lake level of this magnitude could be driven by local mean annual precipitation that is significantly greater than modern. However, this is inconsistent with regional climate reconstructions. This suggests that either lake level was controlled by non-climatic factors, or that local climate in the Lake Victoria basin was different than regional patterns of climate across eastern Africa. We use oxygen and clumped isotopes of modern and fossil shells (Corbicula sp., Melanoides sp. and Bellamya unicolor) from this 18 m beach outcrop on Mfangano Island to (1) compare with modern lake water ?18O values and (2) calculate paleo-water compositions. We combine these results with calculated snail body water ?18O composition (using oxygen and clumped isotopes) of land snails (Limicoloria cf. martensiana) from Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, to study hydrological changes of Lake Victoria. We use these data to evaluate the relative importance of climate change and tectonics as mechanisms for the Late Pleistocene expansion of Lake Victoria.
Zaarur, S.; Affek, H. P.; Tryon, C.; Peppe, D. J.; Faith, J.