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Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) as an intermediate host of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in Brazil.  


Pleurolophocercous cercariae emerged from naturally infected Melanoides tuberculata from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were used to perform experimental infection of laboratory-reared Poecilia reticulata. Mature metacercariae were obtained from the gills of fishes and force-fed to Mus musculus. The adult parasites which recovered from small intestines of mice were identified as Centrocestus formosanus. This is the first report of M. tuberculata as intermediate host of this heterophyid in Brazil. PMID:21748229

Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane



Did life history evolve in response to parasites in invasive populations of Melanoides tuberculata?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enemy release and rapid evolution are often assumed to promote biological invasions. In the parthenogenetic snail Melanoides tuberculata, one invasive strain (MAD) was assumed to benefit from enemy release until a heavily parasitized population was found in Colombia (in the area of introduction). This population is prosperous despite important losses in the reproductive potential due to a high prevalence of

Juan Sebastián Escobar; Ana Cristina Correa; Patrice David



Metacercariae of centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924) (Trematoda) in freshwater Fishes in México and their transmission by the Thiarid Snail Melanoides tuberculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report for the first time Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924) Price, 1932 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) metacercariae parasitizing natural populations of Xiphophorus hellen (Poeciliidae) and Gobiomorus dormitor (Gobiidae) in Mexico. Adult forms confirming the specific identity were recovered from experimental infections of domestic chicks and laboratory mice. The first intermediate host of this parasite is Melanoides tuberculata, its role in transmission of



Parasitological and molecular study of the furcocercariae from Melanoides tuberculata as a probable agent of cercarial dermatitis.  


Cercarial dermatitis is caused by animal schistosomes in many parts of the world including Iran. Various stages of the parasites have been studied in intermediate and definitive hosts in northern and southwestern Iran; however, no molecular investigation for species identification and classification of these agents has been carried out, so far. In the present study, more than 3,800 aquatic snails were collected from water sources of Khuzestan, southwest Iran. The snails were identified as Lymnaea gedrosiana, Radix auricularia, Melanoides tuberculata, Melanopsis sp. and Physa acuta. They were examined for schistosome cercariae. Two specimens of M. tuberculata were infected with ocellate furcocercariae belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. Molecular studies were carried on these schistosomatid samples. Both samples belong to an unknown schistosome species and genus in sister position to Gigantobilharzia-Dendritobilharzia clade. They differ from other species in their ITS sequence region as well as in their intermediate host specificity--This is one of the first reports on schistosome cercariae from M. tuberculata and the first including molecular data. Due to adaptability and invasiveness of this snail species, this new schistosome species, as a potential causative agent of cercarial dermatitis in humans, needs to be studied further. PMID:21046153

Karamian, Mehdi; Aldhoun, Jitka A; Maraghi, Sharif; Hatam, Gholamreza; Farhangmehr, Babak; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud



The Effect of Chemical Treatments on Red-Rim Melania Melanoides tuberculata, an Exotic Aquatic Snail that Serves as a Vector of Trematodes to Fish and Other Species in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculata, a subtropical and tropical snail, is a nonindigenous species that has become established and is spreading in the United States. Of concern is the potential of the red-rim melania to displace native snail populations and to transmit trematodes that cause serious problems. One of these, a fish gill trematode, Centrocestus formosanus, has negatively affected U.S.

Andrew J. Mitchell; Melissa S. Hobbs; Thomas M. Brandt




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata is an exotic aquatic snail of the family Thiaridae that is spreading across the southern United States and in geothermal waters in several midwestern and northwestern states. In addition to its potential to displace native mollusks it is known to harbor...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata, an exotic aquatic snail of the family Thiaridae, is spreading across the southern United States and through geothermal waters in several midwestern and northwestern states. There is little specific information on the temperature tolerance of M. tubercu...


Parasitological and molecular study of the furcocercariae from Melanoides tuberculata as a probable agent of cercarial dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cercarial dermatitis is caused by animal schistosomes in many parts of the world including Iran. Various stages of the parasites\\u000a have been studied in intermediate and definitive hosts in northern and southwestern Iran; however, no molecular investigation\\u000a for species identification and classification of these agents has been carried out, so far. In the present study, more than\\u000a 3,800 aquatic snails

Mehdi Karamian; Jitka A. Aldhoun; Sharif Maraghi; Gholamreza Hatam; Babak Farhangmehr; Seyed Mahmoud Sadjjadi



New Alphacoronavirus in Mystacina tuberculata Bats, New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Because of recent interest in bats as reservoirs of emerging diseases, we investigated the presence of viruses in Mystacina tuberculata bats in New Zealand. A novel alphacoronavirus sequence was detected in guano from roosts of M. tuberculata bats in pristine indigenous forest on a remote offshore island (Codfish Island). PMID:24656060

Wang, Jing; Peacey, Matthew; Moore, Nicole E.; McInnes, Kate; Tompkins, Daniel M.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the United States, Melanoides tuberculatus is a nonindigenous aquatic snail that vectors a trematode infecting both cultured and wild fish species. This snail is now found in 16 states and among other ways is believed to be spread from place to place by the use of contaminated fisheries equipmen...


Cannibalism and food availability in the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of limiting resources can potentially influence the intensity of intra- and interspecific interactions. Stranded macroalgae exported from adjacent coastal ecosystems supports abundant intertidal consumers on oceanic sandy beaches, including talitrid amphipods, which can be one of the numerically dominant invertebrates of the upper shore. The allochthonous nature of this donor-controlled food subsidy and its unpredictable delivery by waves and currents, results in highly variable and potentially limiting resource availability for these consumers. In Chile, adults of the talitrid amphipod, Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet, can influence the survival of juvenile conspecifics through cannibalism, a type of intraspecific interaction we hypothesized could be affected by the availability of macroalgal resources. We experimentally investigated the potential influence of food availability on cannibalism between age classes in O. tuberculata in laboratory mesocosms. Juvenile mortality in presence of conspecific adults was significantly higher when juveniles and adults were maintained without food. However, adult mortality was neither density dependent or food dependent. Further, juveniles did not influence adult mortality, either with or without food. The strong effect of food limitation on juvenile mortality from cannibalism by adults of O. tuberculata found here, supports our hypothesis that food resource availability on beaches can affect this intraspecific interactions. In addition these results provide evidence of the potential importance of biological interaction in the population dynamics of intertidal consumers on oceanic sandy beaches.

Duarte, C.; Jaramillo, E.; Contreras, H.; Acuña, K.



Morphologic, cytometric and functional characterisation of abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) haemocytes.  


This work presents the first detailed microscopic and functional analysis of the haemocytes of an abalone; the European Haliotis tuberculata. It is shown that in contrast to the situation in bivalves, only very few basophilic "granulocytes" could be found and exclusively with a histological stain. Neither flow cytometry, phase contrast observation nor transmission electron microscopy were able to detect any granular cells. The large majority of cells was constituted of "hyalinocytes", which could be sorted by flow cytometry, for the first time, into small (blast-like) and large cells. This permits a detailed analysis of haemocytes and especially of the lowly represented blast-like cells. The differences in haemolymph cell composition between bivalves and gastropods is reviewed in depth and discussed in view of the new data we present. Most of the abalone haemocytes analysed harbour many vacuoles, large glycogen deposits, lipid inclusions and acidic compartments. However, although the number of these "inclusions" was rather variable in between individual hyalinocytes, these experiments did not allow to discern subpopulations using these criteria, and the population appears more as a "differentiation continuum". Haemocytes adhere very rapidly and are immunologically active as they quickly phagocytose latex beads and zymozan particles. This study is the first step towards understanding the H. tuberculata immune system by adapting new tools to gastropods and in providing a first detailed morpho-functional study of their haemocytes. PMID:18289878

Travers, Marie-Agnès; Mirella da Silva, Patricia; Le Goïc, Nelly; Marie, Dominique; Donval, Anne; Huchette, Sylvain; Koken, Marcel; Paillard, Christine



Temperature Tolerance of Red-Rim Melania Melanoides tuberculatus, an Exotic Aquatic Snail Established in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus (family Thiaridae), a tropical, nonindigenous aquatic snail, has become established and is spreading in the United States. Concerns associated with the spread of this snail include its potential to displace native snail populations and to transmit trematodes. Of particular concern is the gill trematode Centrocestus formosanus now found in U.S. commercial and wild fish stocks.

Andrew J. Mitchell; Thomas M. Brandt



Does the trematode Centrocestus formosanus affect the locomotory activity of the mollusc Melanoides tuberculatus?  

PubMed Central

Background Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774) (Thiaridae), an introduced gastropod mollusc with a wide geographical distribution in the Neotropics, is the intermediate host of the trematode Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924) (Heterophyidae). This parasite is considered to be pathogenic to humans. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the locomotory activity of uninfected M. tuberculatus compared with those naturally infected with C. formosanus. Findings The locomotory activity of each mollusc was recorded using an image analysis biomonitoring system, Videomex-V ®, to evaluate and quantify the parameters of ‘Stereotypic’ and ‘Resting time’. The Generalized Estimating Equation analysis of locomotory activity of M. tuberculatus infected with C. formosanus revealed significant differences compared with uninfected molluscs for the parameters ‘Stereotypic time’ and ‘Resting time’ with a reduction of movement. The variations in the values of the monitoring intervals recorded showed a significant difference for the infected molluscs in the case of Stereotypic time, with an irregular locomotory activity pattern, as compared to that of uninfected molluscs. The analysis of the standard length of all molluscs did not exhibit any correlation with locomotory activity, showing that C. formosanus is able to alter the locomotory activity of its snail host regardless of the standard length. Conclusions The trematode C. formosanus affects the locomotory activity of the mollusc M. tuberculatus by reducing its movement and causing it to exhibit an irregular pattern of activity, both of which are independent of the snail's standard length. PMID:23574763



Plantation forests are used by the lesser short-tailed bat, Mystacina tuberculata rhyacobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesser short-tailed bats, Mystacina tuberculata rhyacobia, use Pinus radiata plantation forests within the central North Island of New Zealand for foraging, commuting, and roosting. These plantations are generally contiguous with a large native forested area from which this species is already known. Short-tailed bats have been detected using native remnants and reserves within plantations, and have been radio-tracked to long-dead

Kerry M Borkin; Stuart Parsons



Use of ice water and salt treatments to eliminate an exotic snail, red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus, from small immersible fisheries equipment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ice water and salt treatments were evaluated for disinfection of fisheries equipment contaminated with a non-indigenous tropical snail, the red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus. The snail can displace native snails and can transmit trematodes directly to fishes and indirectly to other animals, i...


La Drosophila de las alas manchadas Una nueva plaga invasora en los frutales de Michigan  

E-print Network

La Drosophila de las alas manchadas Una nueva plaga invasora en los frutales de Michigan Rufus Bulletin E-3140SP New · November 2010 Introducción La mosca Drosophila de alas manchadas (Drosophila mayoría de las moscas del vinagre atacan cuando la fruta esta dañada. A diferencia de estas, la Drosophila


Characterization of abalone Haliotis tuberculata-Vibrio harveyi interactions in gill primary cultures.  


The decline of European abalone Haliotis tuberculata populations has been associated with various pathogens including bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Following the summer mortality outbreaks reported in France between 1998 and 2000, Vibrio harveyi strains were isolated from moribund abalones, allowing in vivo and in vitro studies on the interactions between abalone H. tuberculata and V. harveyi. This work reports the development of primary cell cultures from abalone gill tissue, a target tissue for bacterial colonisation, and their use for in vitro study of host cell-V. harveyi interactions. Gill cells originated from four-day-old explant primary cultures were successfully sub-cultured in multi-well plates and maintained in vitro for up to 24 days. Cytological parameters, cell morphology and viability were monitored over time using flow cytometry analysis and semi-quantitative assay (XTT). Then, gill cell cultures were used to investigate in vitro the interactions with V. harveyi. The effects of two bacterial strains were evaluated on gill cells: a pathogenic bacterial strain ORM4 which is responsible for abalone mortalities and LMG7890 which is a non-pathogenic strain. Cellular responses of gill cells exposed to increasing concentrations of bacteria were evaluated by measuring mitochondrial activity (XTT assay) and phenoloxidase activity, an enzyme which is strongly involved in immune response. The ability of gill cells to phagocyte GFP-tagged V. harveyi was evaluated by flow cytometry and gill cells-V. harveyi interactions were characterized using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. During phagocytosis process we evidenced that V. harveyi bacteria induced significant changes in gill cells metabolism and immune response. Together, the results showed that primary cell cultures from abalone gills are suitable for in vitro study of host-pathogen interactions, providing complementary assays to in vivo experiments. PMID:23756730

Pichon, Delphine; Cudennec, Benoit; Huchette, Sylvain; Djediat, Chakib; Renault, Tristan; Paillard, Christine; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie



Primer registro de Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) en Colombia First record of Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palabras clave: Centrocestus, Cichlidae, Colombia, Digenea, Melanoides tuberculata, Poeciliidae. Abstract. Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea:Heterophyidae) is reported for the fi rst time from Colombia, parasitizing snails and fi sh from the lake of the Joaquín Antonio Uribe botanical garden, Medellín. Rediae and cercariae were obtained from MAD morphs of the snail Melanoides tuberculata. Metacercariae were found encysted on gills of fi sh

Luz Elena Velásquez; Juan Carlos Bedoya; Astrid Areiza; Imelda Vélez



Transmission Efficiency of Two Flea Species ( Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta ) Involved in Plague Epizootics among Prairie Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, is an exotic disease in North America circulating predominantly in wild populations of rodents and their fleas. Black-tailed\\u000a prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are highly susceptible to infection, often experiencing mortality of nearly all individuals in a town as a result of plague.\\u000a The fleas of black-tailed prairie dogs are Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta.

Aryn P. Wilder; Rebecca J. Eisen; Scott W. Bearden; John A. Montenieri; Daniel W. Tripp; R. Jory Brinkerhoff; Kenneth L. Gage; Michael F. Antolin



In vitro effects of triclosan and methyl-triclosan on the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata.  


Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether; TCS) is an antibacterial agent incorporated in a wide variety of household and personal care products. Because of its partial elimination in sewage treatment plants, TCS is commonly detected in natural waters and sediments. Moreover, due to its high hydrophobicity, TCS accumulates in fatty tissues in various aquatic organisms. TCS can be converted into methyl-triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-methoxydiphenyl ether; MTCS) after biological methylation. In this study, the acute cytotoxicity of TCS and MTCS in short-term in vitro experiments was assessed on cell cultures from the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The results showed that morphology and density of hemocyte are affected from a concentration of 8 ?M TCS. Using the XTT reduction assay, TCS has been demonstrated to decrease hemocyte metabolism activity in a dose- and time-dependent exposure. The IC(50) was evaluated at 6 ?M for both hemocyte and gill cells after a 24 h-incubation with TCS. A significant cytotoxicity of MTCS was also observed from 4 ?M in 24 h-old hemocyte culture. Our results reveal a toxic effect of TCS and MTCS on immune (hemocytes) and/or respiratory cells (gill cells) of the abalone, species living in coastal waters areas and exposed to anthropogenic pollution. PMID:22580217

Gaume, Beatrice; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Roig, Benoit; Le Bot, Barbara; Bedoux, Gilles



Expression of biomineralisation genes in tissues and cultured cells of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata.  


Mollusc shell biomineralisation involves a variety of organic macromolecules (matrix proteins and enzymes) that control calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition, growth of crystals, the selection of polymorph, and the microstructure of the shell. Since the mantle and the hemocytes play an important role in the control of shell formation, primary cell cultures have been developed to study the expression of three biomineralisation genes recently identified in the abalone Haliotis tuberculata: a matrix protein, Lustrin A, and two carbonic anhydrase enzymes. Mantle cells and hemocytes were successfully maintained in primary cultures and were evaluated for their viability and proliferation over time using a semi-automated assay (XTT). PCR and densitometric analysis were used to semi-quantify the gene expression and compare the level of expression in native tissues and cultured cells. The results demonstrated that the three genes of interest were being expressed in abalone tissues, with expression highest in the mantle and much lower in the hemocytes and the gills. Biomineralisation genes were also expressed significantly in mantle cells, confirming that primary cultures of target tissues are suitable models for in vitro investigation of matrix protein secretion. PMID:23929462

O'Neill, Matthew; Gaume, Béatrice; Denis, Françoise; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie



Ascorbic acid and salicylic acid mitigate nacl stress in Caralluma tuberculata Calli.  


Plants exposed to salt stress undergo biochemical and morphological changes even at cellular level. Such changes also include activation of antioxidant enzymes to scavenge reactive oxygen species, while morphological changes are determined as deformation of membranes and organelles. Present investigation substantiates this phenomenon for Caralluma tuberculata calli when exposed to NaCl stress at different concentrations. Elevated levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) in NaCl-stressed calli dwindled upon application of non-enzymatic antioxidants; ascorbic acid (AA) and salicylic acid (SA). Many fold increased enzymes concentrations trimmed down even below as present in the control calli. Electron microscopic images accentuated several cellular changes upon NaCl stress such as plasmolysed plasma membrane, disruption of nuclear membrane, increased numbers of nucleoli, alteration in shape and lamellar membrane system in plastid, and increased number of plastoglobuli. The cells retrieved their normal structure upon exposure to non-enzymatic antioxidants. The results of the present experiments conclude that NaCl aggravate oxidative molecules that eventually alleviate antioxidant enzymatic system. Furthermore, the salt stress knocked down by applying ascorbic acid and salicylic acid manifested by normal enzyme level and restoration of cellular structure. PMID:24744157

Rehman, Riaz Ur; Zia, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Lu, Gang; Chaudhary, Muhammad Fayyaz



Beneficial Effect of Verminephrobacter Nephridial Symbionts on the Fitness of the Earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata? †  

PubMed Central

Almost all lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor species-specific Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) symbionts in their nephridia (excretory organs). The function of the symbiosis, and whether the symbionts have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host, is unknown; however, the symbionts have been hypothesized to enhance nitrogen retention in earthworms. The effect of Verminephrobacter on the life history traits of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen) was investigated by comparing the growth, development, and fecundity of worms with and without symbionts given high (cow dung)- and low (straw)-nutrient diets. There were no differences in worm growth or the number of cocoons produced by symbiotic and aposymbiotic worms. Worms with Verminephrobacter symbionts reached sexual maturity earlier and had higher cocoon hatching success than worms cured of their symbionts when grown on the low-nutrient diet. Thus, Verminephrobacter nephridial symbionts do have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host. Cocoons with and without symbionts did not significantly differ in total organic carbon, total nitrogen, or total hydrolyzable amino acid content, which strongly questions the hypothesized role of the symbionts in nitrogen recycling for the host. PMID:20511426

Lund, Marie B.; Holmstrup, Martin; Lomstein, Bente A.; Damgaard, Christian; Schramm, Andreas



Extract from the Zooxanthellate Jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata Modulates Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in  

E-print Network

Abstract: On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean “fried egg jellyfish ” Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ?-3 and ?-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanismMar. Drugs 2013, 11 1729

Human Cell Cultures; Antonella Leone; Raffaella Marina Lecci; Miriana Durante; Stefano Piraino



The use of cold water to kill the exotic snail, red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus, a vector of the fish gill trematode Centrocestus formosanus, caught in dip nets and small seines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A non-indigenous tropical snail, the red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus, has become established and is spreading in the United States. This parthenogenic snail can brood young internally, has the potential to displace native snail populations, and can transmit trematodes directly to fish and i...


Trichostrongylina parasites of Dasypodidae (Xenarthra) from Argentina; a new species of Macielia (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae) in Chaetophractus vellerosus and redescription of Trichohelix tuberculata.  


Macielia jorgei n. sp. is described from Chaetophractus vellerosus from La Rioja, Argentina. Also Trichohelix tuberculata is redescribed in detail. The new species is characterized by parasitizing the small intestine, possessing a bursal membrane and telamon, having complex and sclerotized spicules distally divided into 2 processes, a simple, poorly sclerotized gubernaculum, and synlophe with bilateral symmetry and 12 cuticular ridges. This is the second report of a species of Macielia in Argentina. The synlophe of Trichohelix tuberculata is asymmetric and is characterized by 3 ventral ridges, oriented to the left. The size of these ridges decreases until they disappear at midbody. PMID:23617773

Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T



Does a short-term exposure to cadmium chloride affects haemocyte parameters of the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata?  


In this study, a model based on primary cultured haemocytes from the gastropod mollusc Haliotis tuberculata was established to investigate the effects of cadmium chloride in vitro. Cells were exposed for 24 h to CdCl2 concentrations of 0, 1 and 100 ?g ml(-1). The effects of cadmium on haemocyte parameters were investigated using morphological, spectrophotometric and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that cadmium has no significant effects on cell viability and phagocytotic activity under the tested conditions. However, haemocytes became more rounded after cadmium exposure, which could explain the significant decrease of cell area beginning at 1 ?g ml(-1) of CdCl2. PMID:25131679

Ladhar-Chaabouni, Rim; Machreki-Ajmi, Monia; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel



Nontarget mortality of New Zealand lesser short-tailed bats (Mystacina tuberculata) caused by diphacinone.  


Primary and secondary poisoning of nontarget wildlife with second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides has led to restrictions on their use and to increased use of first-generation anticoagulants, including diphacinone. Although first-generation anticoagulants are less potent and less persistent than second-generation compounds, their use is not without risks to nontarget species. We report the first known mortalities of threatened New Zealand lesser short-tailed bats (Mystacina tuberculata) caused by diphacinone intoxication. The mortalities occurred during a rodent control operation in Pureora Forest Park, New Zealand, during the 2008-09 Austral summer. We observed 115 lesser short-tailed bat deaths between 9 January and 6 February 2009, and it is likely that many deaths were undetected. At necropsy, adult bats showed gross and histologic hemorrhages consistent with coagulopathy, and diphacinone residues were confirmed in 10 of 12 liver samples tested. The cause of mortality of pups was diagnosed as a combination of the effects of diphacinone toxicity, exposure, and starvation. Diphacinone was also detected in two of 11 milk samples extracted from the stomachs of dead pups. Eight adults and 20 pups were moribund when found. Two adults and five pups survived to admission to a veterinary hospital. Three pups responded to treatment and were released at the roost site on 17 March 2009. The route of diphacinone ingestion by adult bats is uncertain. Direct consumption of toxic bait or consumption of poisoned arthropod prey could have occurred. We suggest that the omnivorous diet and terrestrial feeding habits of lesser short-tailed bats make them susceptible to poisoning with the bait matrix and the method of bait delivery used. We recommend the use of alternative vertebrate pesticides, bait matrices, and delivery methods in bat habitat. PMID:25375946

Dennis, Gillian C; Gartrell, Brett D



Variable feeding behavior in Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet 1849): Exploring the relative importance of macroalgal traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feeding behavior of algal consumers inhabiting sandy beaches and the consequences of this behavior on their performance are poorly understood. Food quality has been shown to influence the food preference of algal consumers. However, food preference can often be altered or subordinated to habitat choice. This study analyzes the feeding behavior (preference and consumption rate), absorption efficiency and growth rates of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet, 1849) in relation to the nutritional characteristics of two of the most common macroalgae stranded in the Chilean north-central region. Our experiments show that these amphipods prefer Macrocystis integrifolia over Lessonia nigrescens when presented with fresh fragments of both algae simultaneously. However, this preference did not match the performance of the amphipods when reared on diets of a single algal species: in that growth rates were not different. These results suggest that M. integrifolia is not a superior food item compared to L. nigrescens. The lower content of proteins and total organic matter found in M. integrifolia supports this interpretation. The preference of the amphipods for L. nigrescens over M. integrifolia when dry powdered algae of each species were provided (artificial food), suggested that some aspect of the physical structure of these two algae determined food preference. When the amphipods were maintained with each of the algal species in no choice experiments, they consumed 2 times more M. integrifolia, but showed higher absorption efficiency on L. nigrescens. These results suggest that food quantity and not absorption efficiency was used to compensate for the lower nutritional quality of M. integrifolia. The feeding behavior documented in this study differs significantly from that observed in populations of the same species inhabiting southern Chile, cautioning against generalizing results obtained even within a single species. Our results suggest that physical features rather than chemical characteristics of the food drive feeding preferences, including the potential (indirect) roles played by the fronds of these seaweeds as refuges against competition and desiccation.

Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Karin; Navarro, Jorge M.; Gómez, Iván; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Quijón, Pedro



Assessment of cytotoxic and immunomodulatory properties of four antidepressants on primary cultures of abalone hemocytes (Haliotis tuberculata).  


Pharmaceutical compounds like antidepressants found in surface waters raise concerns due to their potential toxicity on non-target aquatic organisms. This study aimed at investigating the in vitro cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory properties of four common antidepressants, namely Amitriptyline, Clomipramine, Citalopram and Paroxetine, on primary cultures of abalone hemocytes (Haliotis tuberculata), after 48 h-exposure. Effects on immunocompetence (phagocytosis, levels of reactive oxygen species, esterase activity and lysosomal membrane destabilization) were assessed. Results obtained by MTT assays revealed that acute toxicity is unlikely to occur in the environment since the LC50s of the four antidepressants are at the mg/L level. The different immunological endpoints displayed a biphasic response, with an increase at the lowest concentration (i.e. 1 ?g/L) followed by a decrease at higher concentrations. Overall, Amitriptyline and Clomipramine, the two tricyclic antidepressants, had higher immunomodulatory capacities than the two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Citalopram and Paroxetine. Amitriptyline was the most potent and Citalopram the least potent drug in altering immune function in H. tuberculata. PMID:24210974

Minguez, Laetitia; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Costil, Katherine; Bureau, Ronan; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Serpentini, Antoine



Growth of the European abalone ( Haliotis tuberculata L.) in situ: Seasonality and ageing using stable oxygen isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ormer, Haliotis tuberculata is the only European abalone species commercially exploited. The determination of growth and age in the wild is an important tool for fisheries and aquaculture management. However, the ageing technique used in the past in the field is unreliable. The stable oxygen isotope composition ( 18O/ 16O) of the shell depends on the temperature and oxygen isotope composition of the ambient sea water. The stable oxygen isotope technique, developed to study paleoclimatological changes in shellfish, was applied to three H. tuberculata specimens collected in north-west Brittany. For the specimens collected, the oxygen isotope ratios of the shell reflected the seasonal cycle in the temperature. From winter-to-winter cycles, estimates of the age and the annual growth increment, ranging from 13 to 55 mm per year were obtained. This study shows that stable oxygen isotopes can be a reliable tool for ageing and growth studies of this abalone species in the wild, and for validating other estimates.

Roussel, Sabine; Huchette, Sylvain; Clavier, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent



Biosynthesis and Functions of a Melanoid Pigment Produced by Species of the Sporothrix Complex in the Presence of l-Tyrosine  

PubMed Central

Sporothrix schenckii is the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, the main subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America. Melanin is an important virulence factor of S. schenckii, which produces dihydroxynaphthalene melanin (DHN-melanin) in conidia and yeast cells. Additionally, l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) can be used to enhance melanin production on these structures as well as on hyphae. Some fungi are able to synthesize another type of melanoid pigment, called pyomelanin, as a result of tyrosine catabolism. Since there is no information about tyrosine catabolism in Sporothrix spp., we cultured 73 strains, including representatives of newly described Sporothrix species of medical interest, such as S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, and S. globosa, in minimal medium with tyrosine. All strains but one were able to produce a melanoid pigment with a negative charge in this culture medium after 9 days of incubation. An S. schenckii DHN-melanin mutant strain also produced pigment in the presence of tyrosine. Further analysis showed that pigment production occurs in both the filamentous and yeast phases, and pigment accumulates in supernatants during stationary-phase growth. Notably, sulcotrione inhibits pigment production. Melanin ghosts of wild-type and DHN mutant strains obtained when the fungus was cultured with tyrosine were similar to melanin ghosts yielded in the absence of the precursor, indicating that this melanin does not polymerize on the fungal cell wall. However, pyomelanin-producing fungal cells were more resistant to nitrogen-derived oxidants and to UV light. In conclusion, at least three species of the Sporothrix complex are able to produce pyomelanin in the presence of tyrosine, and this pigment might be involved in virulence. PMID:23042177

Frases, Susana; Araújo, Glauber de Sousa; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Gerfen, Gary J.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria



Comparative studies on the nutrition of two species of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata L. and Haliotis discus hannai Ino. III. response of abalone to various levels of dietary lipid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of graded dietary lipid levels on the survival, growth and body composition of Haliotis tuberculata and H. discus hannai. Six purified diets were formulated to provide approximately 25% protein, and a series of graded lipid levels, from 0.63 to 11.58%, in the form of a mixture of corn oil and menhaden

Kangsen Mai; John P. Mercer; John Donlon



Two new species of Demodex (Acari: Demodicidae) from the New Zealand short-tailed bat, Mystacina tuberculata Gray, 1843 (Chiroptera: Mystacinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demodex mystacina sp. nov. is described from the Meibomian glands of New Zealand’s lesser short-tailed bat, Mystacina tuberculata. A second species, D. novazelandica, from the same host is described from the follicles of the body hairs. Observations are presented as to the infestation loci of these mites in the pilosebaceous complex. Neither parasite was associated with any obvious pathology. The

Clifford E. Desch Jr



Characterisation and expression of the biomineralising gene Lustrin A during shell formation of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.  


The molluscan shell is a remarkable product of a highly coordinated biomineralisation process, and is composed of calcium carbonate most commonly in the form of calcite or aragonite. The exceptional mechanical properties of this biomaterial are imparted by the embedded organic matrix which is secreted by the underlying mantle tissue. While many shell-matrix proteins have already been identified within adult molluscan shell, their presence and role in the early developmental stages of larval shell formation are not well understood. In the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, the shell first forms in the early trochophore larva and develops into a mineralised protoconch in the veliger. Following metamorphosis, the juvenile shell rapidly changes as it becomes flattened and develops a more complex crystallographic profile including an external granular layer and an internal nacreous layer. Amongst the matrix proteins involved in abalone shell formation, Lustrin A is thought to participate in the formation of the nacreous layer. Here we have identified a partial cDNA coding for the Lustrin A gene in H. tuberculata and have analysed its spatial and temporal expression during abalone development. RT-PCR experiments indicate that Lustrin A is first expressed in juvenile (post-metamorphosis) stages, suggesting that Lustrin A is a component of the juvenile shell, but not of the larval shell. We also detect Lustrin A mRNAs in non-nacre forming cells at the distal-most edge of the juvenile mantle as well as in the nacre-forming region of the mantle. Lustrin A was also expressed in 7-day-old post-larvae, prior to the formation of nacre. These results suggest that Lustrin A plays multiple roles in the shell-forming process and further highlight the dynamic ontogenic nature of molluscan shell formation. PMID:24321821

Gaume, B; Denis, F; Van Wormhoudt, A; Huchette, S; Jackson, D J; Avignon, S; Auzoux-Bordenave, S



Importancia del subsidio de macroalgas sobre la abundancia y biología poblacional del anfípodo Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet) en playas arenosas del centro sur de Chile Importance of macroalgae subsidy on the abundance and population biology of the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet) in sandy beaches of south central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet) is one of the dominant species inhabiting the upper intertidal of a variety of morphodynamic types of exposed sandy beaches of the Chilean coast. The macroalgae stranded on the beach are the primary food source for this amphipod. In this study, we analyzed the influence of the availability of macroalgae and beach morphodynamic features

Cristian Duarte; Eduardo Jaramillo; Heraldo Contreras; Karin Acuña; Jorge M. Navarro


Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana, Gundlachia radiata Helisoma (= Planorbella) trivolvis, Melanoides tuberculata, Neritina punctulata, and Physa marmorata. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as Gundlachia radiata and Hel...


Vibrio harveyi Adheres to and Penetrates Tissues of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata within the First Hours of Contact  

PubMed Central

Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic epidemics generally associated with massive mortalities in many marine organisms, including the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The aim of this study was to identify the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection of V. harveyi in the European abalone. The results indicate that the duration of contact between V. harveyi and the European abalone influences the mortality rate and precocity. Immediately after contact, the epithelial and mucosal area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland was colonized by V. harveyi. Real-time PCR analyses and culture quantification of a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain of V. harveyi in abalone tissues revealed a high density of bacteria adhering to and then penetrating the whole gill-hypobranchial gland tissue after 1 h of contact. V. harveyi was also detected in the hemolymph of a significant number of European abalones after 3 h of contact. In conclusion, this article shows that a TaqMan real-time PCR assay is a powerful and useful technique for the detection of a marine pathogen such as V. harveyi in mollusk tissue and for the study of its infection dynamics. Thus, we have revealed that the adhesion and then the penetration of V. harveyi in European abalone organs begin in the first hours of contact. We also hypothesize that the portal of entry of V. harveyi in the European abalone is the area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland. PMID:25107972

Barbou, Annaïck; Capitaine, Carole; Bidault, Adeline; Dujon, Antoine Marie; Moraga, Dario



Vibrio harveyi adheres to and penetrates tissues of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata within the first hours of contact.  


Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic epidemics generally associated with massive mortalities in many marine organisms, including the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The aim of this study was to identify the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection of V. harveyi in the European abalone. The results indicate that the duration of contact between V. harveyi and the European abalone influences the mortality rate and precocity. Immediately after contact, the epithelial and mucosal area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland was colonized by V. harveyi. Real-time PCR analyses and culture quantification of a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain of V. harveyi in abalone tissues revealed a high density of bacteria adhering to and then penetrating the whole gill-hypobranchial gland tissue after 1 h of contact. V. harveyi was also detected in the hemolymph of a significant number of European abalones after 3 h of contact. In conclusion, this article shows that a TaqMan real-time PCR assay is a powerful and useful technique for the detection of a marine pathogen such as V. harveyi in mollusk tissue and for the study of its infection dynamics. Thus, we have revealed that the adhesion and then the penetration of V. harveyi in European abalone organs begin in the first hours of contact. We also hypothesize that the portal of entry of V. harveyi in the European abalone is the area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland. PMID:25107972

Cardinaud, Marion; Barbou, Annaïck; Capitaine, Carole; Bidault, Adeline; Dujon, Antoine Marie; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine



Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Haliotidae)  

PubMed Central

The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium. PMID:22645482

Bravo Portela, I.; Martinez-Zorzano, V. S.; Molist- Perez, I.; Molist García, P.



Identification of two carbonic anhydrases in the mantle of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda, Haliotidae): phylogenetic implications.  


Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) represent a diversified family of metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide. They are involved in a wide range of functions, among which is the formation of CaCO(3) skeletons in metazoans. In the shell-forming mantle tissues of mollusks, the location of the CA catalytic activity is elusive and gives birth to contradicting views. In the present paper, using the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a key model gastropod in biomineralization studies, we identified and characterized two CAs (htCA1 and htCA2) that are specific of the shell-forming mantle tissue. We analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. Combining various approaches, including proteomics, activity tests, and in silico analyses, we showed that htCA1 is secreted but is not incorporated in the organic matrix of the abalone shell and that htCA2 is transmembrane. Together with previous studies dealing with molluskan CAs, our findings suggest two possible modes of action for shell mineralization: the first mode applies to, for example, the bivalves Unio pictorum and Pinctada fucata, and involves a true CA activity in their shell matrix; the second mode corresponds to, for example, the European abalone, and does not include CA activity in the shell matrix. Our work provides new insight on the diversity of the extracellular macromolecular tools used for shell biomineralization study in mollusks. PMID:22711568

LE Roy, Nathalie; Marie, Benjamin; Gaume, Béatrice; Guichard, Nathalie; Delgado, Sidney; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Sire, Jean-Yves; Marin, Frédéric



The effect of different polychlorinated biphenyls on two aquatic models, the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.  


The present study was conducted to determine the toxicity of different polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Using the algal growth inhibition test, the green algae median Effective Concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.34?M for PCB28 to more than 100?M for PCBs 101 and 153. Considering the MTT viability test, the abalone EC50 values ranged from 1.67?M for PCB153 to 89?M for PCB28. Our results in contrast to previous observation in vertebrates did not show significant differences between the dioxin like- and non dioxin like-PCBs toxicities regardless of the model used. However, our results demonstrated that the toxicities of PCBs were species dependent. For example, PCB28 was the most toxic compound for P. subcapitata whereas PCBs 1, 180 and 153 were less toxic for that species. On the contrary, PCB153 was reported as the most toxic for H. tuberculata haemocytes and PCB28 the least toxic. To investigate the mode of action of these compounds, we used an in silico method. Our results suggested that PCBs have a non-specific mode of action (e.g., narcosis) on green algae, and another mode of action, probably more specific than narcosis, was reported for PCBs on the abalone haemocytes. PMID:24630249

Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Abbaszadeh Fard, Elham; Latire, Thomas; Ferard, Jean-François; Costil, Katherine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Bureau, Ronan; Serpentini, Antoine



Proteomic strategy for identifying mollusc shell proteins using mild chemical degradation and trypsin digestion of insoluble organic shell matrix: a pilot study on Haliotis tuberculata.  


A successful strategy for the identification of shell proteins is based on proteomic analyses where soluble and insoluble fractions isolated from organic shell matrix are digested with trypsin with the aim of generating peptides, which are used to identify novel shell proteins contained in databases. However, using trypsin as a sole degradative agent is limited by the enzyme's cleavage specificity and is dependent upon the occurrence of lysine and arginine in the shell protein sequence. To bypass this limitation, we investigated the ability of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), a low-specificity chemical degradative agent, to generate clusters of analyzable peptides from organic shell matrix, suitable for database annotation. Acetic acid-insoluble fractions from Haliotis tuberculata shell were processed by trypsin followed by TFA digestion. The hydrolysates were used to annotate an expressed sequence tag library constructed from the mantle tissue of Haliotis asinina, a tropical abalone species. The characterization of sequences with repeat motifs featured in some of the shell matrix proteins benefited from TFA-induced serial cutting, which can result in peptide ladder series. Using the degradative specificities of TFA and trypsin, we were able to identify five novel shell proteins. This pilot study indicates that a mild chemical digestion of organic shell matrix combined with trypsin generates peptides suitable for proteomic analysis for better characterization of mollusc shell matrix proteins. PMID:22160345

Bédouet, Laurent; Marie, Arul; Berland, Sophie; Marie, Benjamin; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Marin, Frédéric; Milet, Christian



Ecdysteroids in Sida tuberculata R.E. Fries (Malvaceae): Chemical composition by LC-ESI-MS and selective anti-Candida krusei activity.  


Sida tuberculata is found in a region of South America and has traditionally been consumed as an infusion or tea. The chemical composition and antifungal activity of aqueous infusions from leaves and roots were investigated. LC-ESI-MS mass spectra were successfully obtained and used to identify four ecdysteroids: 20-hydroxyecdysone-3-O-?-d-glycopyranoside, 20-hydroxyecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone-3-O-?-d-xylose and a hydroxyecdysterone derivative. The in vitro antifungal activity was studied, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established against Candida krusei isolates. The antibiofilm activity was evaluated by the determination of the biofilm removal efficiency in contaminated central venous catheter (CVC) coupons. The preparations exhibited antifungal activity against the species tested, with MICs ranging from 3.90 to 62.50?g/ml. The infusion removed the C. krusei biofilm after 90min of exposure. The observed bioactivity and composition of ecdysteroids will contribute to the future development of antifungal substances for clinical use or as food additives. PMID:25842327

da Rosa, Hemerson Silva; de Camargo, Vanessa Brum; Camargo, Graziela; Garcia, Cássia V; Fuentefria, Alexandre M; Mendez, Andreas S L



Life cycle stages of heterophyid trematodes in Vietnamese freshwater fishes traced by molecular and morphometric methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of digenean zoonotic trematodes infecting snails and fishes in a North Vietnamese freshwater fish culture system revealed shedding of three types of parapleurolophocercous cercariae from the snail host Melanoides tuberculata and the presence of metacercariae within the genus Haplorchis (H. pumilio and H. taichui) and Procerovum sp. in tissues of cultured fishes (silver carp, Indian carp and climbing

Jakob Skov; Per W. Kania; Anders Dalsgaard; Thomas R. Jørgensen; Kurt Buchmann



A molecular phylogeography approach to biological invasions of the New World by parthenogenetic Thiarid snails  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parthenogenetic snail Melanoides tuberculata , present in tropical fresh waters of most of the Old World before 1950, has now invaded the Neotropical area. The phylogeography of this snail was studied to evaluate the pathways and number of such invasions. Because of parthenogenetic reproduction, individuals are structured into genetical clones. Within populations from both the original and invaded areas,




Biological Control of Aquatic Pest Snails by the Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some freshwater snail species are severe pests to human health or agriculture. We tested the hypothesis that the fish Mylopharyngodon piceus, the black carp, may serve as a biological control agent of two pest snails, Physella acuta (a bank-dwelling snail) and Melanoides tuberculata (a substratum-dwelling snail). Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and under controlled field conditions. In the

Frida Ben-Ami; Joseph Heller



Clonal diversity driven by parasitism in a freshwater snail.  


One explanation for the widespread abundance of sexual reproduction is the advantage that genetically diverse sexual lineages have under strong pressure from virulent coevolving parasites. Such parasites are believed to track common asexual host genotypes, resulting in negative frequency-dependent selection that counterbalances the population growth-rate advantage of asexuals in comparison with sexuals. In the face of genetically diverse asexual lineages, this advantage of sexual reproduction might be eroded, and instead sexual populations would be replaced by diverse assemblages of clonal lineages. We investigated whether parasite-mediated selection promotes clonal diversity in 22 natural populations of the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata. We found that infection prevalence explains the observed variation in the clonal diversity of M. tuberculata populations, whereas no such relationship was found between infection prevalence and male frequency. Clonal diversity and male frequency were independent of snail population density. Incorporating ecological factors such as presence/absence of fish, habitat geography and habitat type did not improve the predictive power of regression models. Approximately 11% of the clonal snail genotypes were shared among 2-4 populations, creating a web of 17 interconnected populations. Taken together, our study suggests that parasite-mediated selection coupled with host dispersal ecology promotes clonal diversity. This, in return, may erode the advantage of sexual reproduction in M. tuberculata populations. PMID:24118641

Dagan, Y; Liljeroos, K; Jokela, J; Ben-Ami, F



Effect of water plants and non-target snails on the infectivity of Bulinus truncatus with Schistosoma haematobium.  


The application of the water plant (Ceratophyllum demersum, Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna gibba) and/or non-target snails (Planorbis planorbis, Physa acuta and Melanoides tuberculata) gave a significant degree of reduction in the infection rate of B. truncatus subjected to S. haematobium miracidia. The data also indicated a reduction in mean total number of cercarial production/snail. However, no significant difference was detected in the prepatent period and duration of cercarial shedding of the parasite when compared with the control group. So, the results revealed that the snails exhibited a competitive ability against B. truncatus. Both survival rate and egg production of B. truncatus were greatly reduced when existed in mixed cultures with non-target snails and the magnitude of this reduction increased by increasing the number of the non-target snails. PMID:16333895

Bakry, Fayez A; Abd-el-Monem, Sayed



Consequences of Physical Disturbance by Tadpoles and Snails on Chironomid Larvae  

PubMed Central

Indirect interactions among community members impact on organisms. The effects of two snails, banded pond snail, Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck), and Red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller), and tadpoles of Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider), on nonbiting midge larvae, Chironomus striatipennis Kieffer, were observed in experimental microcosm. Decrease in tube number and tube length of midge larvae was observed compared to control condition due to introduction of selected above mentioned organisms. The direct effects of non-predator organisms on the midge larvae are due to physical disturbance that destroys their tubes. This may result in vulnerability of midge larvae to predators in the wild. So the community structure may be altered by indirect effects, where one or more species, through their direct disturbance, indirectly change the abundance of other species. PMID:24672384

Pal, Gargi; Aditya, Gautam; Hazra, Niladri



Assessment of the potential of competitor snails and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as biocontrol agents against snail hosts transmitting schistosomiasis.  


The objective of this study was to assess the potential of the snails Physa acuta and Melanoides tuberculata and the African catfish Clarias gariepinus as biological control agents against the Schistosoma mansoni intermediate host Biomphalaria pfeifferi under laboratory conditions. Groups of five target and five competitor snails were raised together in experimental aquaria and same number in separate aquaria as controls. Shell size, number of eggs and mortality rate were recorded for twelve consecutive weeks. The stocking density for C. gariepinus was one fish per aquarium. Fish were provided with adequate or inadequate supplementary food and fifteen B. pfeifferi were added to each aquarium. The snails and their eggs were counted daily. Significant differences in shell growth and fecundity were noted between B. pfeifferi and M. tuberculata. Physa acuta was noted to be voracious in food consumption. Snail consumption was faster by fish provided with inadequate supplementary food. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the two competitor snails and African catfish could be used as biological control agents against B. pfeifferi. Nevertheless, the susceptibility of the competitor snails to other trematodes in Ethiopia must first be ruled out before introducing these snails into new habitats. Follow-up field observation and rigorous laboratory studies remain areas for further research. PMID:18582914

Gashaw, Fikru; Erko, Berhanu; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Habtesellasie, Redeat



[Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica].  


Centrocestusformosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria) parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined. PMID:21250483

Arguedas Cortés, Donald; Dolz, Gaby; Romero Zúñiga, Juan J; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; León Alán, Dennis



Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.  


The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio. PMID:20578482

Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima



ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Growth of the European abalone (Haliotis tuberculata L.) in situ: seasonality and aging  

E-print Network

, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, Place Nicolas Copernic, F- 29280 Plouzané, France d France Haliotis, Kerazan Lilia CNRS 6539, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, Place Nicolas Copernic, F- 29280 Plouzané, France Tel.: 33 (0)2 98

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Transmission Efficiency of Two Flea Species (Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta) Involved in Plague  

E-print Network

) Involved in Plague Epizootics among Prairie Dogs Aryn P. Wilder,1,2 Rebecca J. Eisen,1 Scott W. Bearden,1 and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis experiencing mortality of nearly all individuals in a town as a result of plague. The fleas of black

Antolin, Michael F.


Volatile oil from Guarea macrophylla ssp. tuberculata: seasonal variation and electroantennographic detection by Hypsipyla grandella.  


GC and GC-MS analyses of the volatile oils from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae) collected during three different periods in one year (February, June and October) indicated a seasonal variation in chemical composition. Whilst sesquiterpenes were the predominant class of components present in the leaf oil, a seasonal dependent variation in the degree of oxygenation of these compounds was detected, which seemed to be associated with phenological factors. The leaf oil, and fractions thereof, were subjected to GC coupled with electroantennographic detection employing antennae of females of Hypsipyla grandella, an insect pest that attacks several meliaceous species. Five compounds elicited significant responses and these were identified as ledol, 1-cubenol, guai-6-en-10beta-ol, 1-epi-cubenol, and tau-muurolol. The results suggest that these components could be responsible for the attraction of H. grandella to G. macrophylla. PMID:16434069

Lago, João Henrique G; Soares, Marisi G; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Silva, M Fátima G F; Corrêa, Arlene G; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; Roque, Nídia F



Trematode infections of the freshwater snail family Thiaridae in the Khek River, Thailand.  


The freshwater snail family Thiaridae was studied at five different locations: water sources for the Khek River, Thailand. Snail samples were collected by hand using counts per unit of time sampling method between December 2004 and October 2005. The physico-chemical quality of the water changed with the seasons and affected the sampling areas during both the dry season and the flood season. A total of 9,568 snail samples comprised of 14 species were found. These were 284 Tarebia granifera, 24 Melanoides tuberculata, 86 Thiara scabra, 3,295 Paracrostoma pseudosulcospira pseudosulcospira, 736 P. paludiformis paludiformis, 3,266 P. paludiformis dubiosa, 117 P. morrisoni, 304 Brotia (Brotia) binodosa binodosa, 1,250 B. (Brotia) microsculpta, 146 B. (Senckenbergia) wykoffi, 1 B. (Brotia) pagodula, 5 B. (Brotia) binodosa spiralis, 5 B. (Brotia) insolita and 49 B. (Brotia) manningi. The cercariae were investigated using shedding and crushing methods where they were categorized into two types and five species. The first type, Parapleurolophocercous cercariae, were comprised of Haplorchis pumilio Looss, 1899 and Centrocestus formosanus Nishigori, 1924. The second type, Xiphidiocercariae were comprised of Acanthatrium hitaense Koga, 1953, Loxogenoides bicolor Kaw, 1945 and Haematoloechus similis Looss, 1899. The cercarial infection rates in the above 5 species were 0.1% (5:9,568), 0.2% (15:9,568), 0.3% (24:9,568), 0.4% (37:9,568) and 0.1% (5:9,568), respectively. Five species of snails were susceptible to trematode infections. They were T. granifera, M. tuberculata, T. scabra, P. paludiformis paludiformis and B. (Senckenbergia) wykoffi; infections were found in 26.1% (74:284), 33.3% (8:24), 1.2% (1:86), 0.3% (2:736) and 0.7% (1:146), respectively. PMID:18613543

Dechruksa, Wivitchuta; Krailas, Duangduen; Ukong, Suluck; Inkapatanakul, Wasin; Koonchornboon, Tunyarut




Microsoft Academic Search

The study of seed morphology is not well developed in Brazil. Nevertheless, this characteristic remains remarkably constant under varying environmental conditions and may be used as suitable criteria for the taxonomical identification of species, as well as the whole plants do. The main objective of this work was to make an ilustrative description and characterize morphologically the weed dispersal units



Pitones Birmanas en Florida del Sur: Soporte Cientfico para el Manejo de Especies Invasoras1  

E-print Network

clasificada por la Unión Internacional para la Conservación como "casi amenazada" en su rango nativo en el Sureste de Asia, debido a su exportación para el comercio como mascota y a la cacería por su piel. Miles

Mazzotti, Frank


Laboratory experiments on snail predation by Sargochromis codringtoni, a candidate for biological control of the snails that transmit schistosomiasis.  


The potential efficacy of Sargochromis codringtoni, a species of cichlid fish, in the biological control of snails carrying the Schistosoma spp. infecting man has long been recognized. A laboratory study to produce much-needed data on the malacophagous characteristics of this fish was conducted, to see if field studies on its possible role as a biological agent for snail control in Zimbabwe were likely to be worthwhile. The fish can consume large numbers of snails within a short period: a single fish, provided with trout pellets as an alternative food, not only chose to eat the snails but also consumed > 800 within 3 weeks. Addition of macrophytes to the aquaria used appeared to offer the snails no protection from predation. For fish measuring 15-18 cm in length, there was no size preference among snails measuring up to 12 mm in shell height nor was any species preference observed in experiments involving Bulinus globosus, B. tropicus and Melanoides tuberculata. The fish crushed B. globosus which were > 3.0 mm in shell height in their pharynges but swallowed smaller snails of this species whole. Before field trials are conducted, further laboratory studies, in which field conditions are simulated, should be carried out. PMID:9093434

Chimbari, M J; Madsen, H; Ndamba, J



Deriving Freshwater Quality Criteria for Iron, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc for Protection of Aquatic Life in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC50 values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9??g L?1, respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4??g?L?1 and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7??g?L?1, respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358

Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nadzifah, Y.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Umirah, N. S.



Trematode Centrocestus formosanus infection and distribution in ornamental fishes in Mexico.  


The aim of this study was to determine the ornamental fish species affected by the metacercariae of the digenean trematode Centrocestus formosanus and its distribution in 48 fish farms in Morelos, central Mexico. The parasite was found to form various numbers of branchial cysts in 11 of the 25 species analyzed. Goldfish Carassius auratus was the most commonly affected species; 20 of 30 farms were positive for this parasite, the fish showing severe clinical signs and having a high mortality rate. For the first time in the region, koi (a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio), zebrafish Danio rerio, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus and blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus (also known as the threespot gourami) were positive; meanwhile, Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus, which had previously been reported positive in other studies in this region, was found to be negative. The parasite was observed in fish from 27 of the 48 farms studied. Ten of 15 municipalities had farms that were positive for the parasite. These results suggest that the distribution of C. formosanus is closely related to the use of water that had been contaminated with the parasite and to the presence of a snail, the red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata. PMID:19485122

Ortega, César; Fajardo, Raúl; Enríquez, Ricardo



Pattern of emergence and the effects of temperature and light on the emergence and survival of heterophyid cercariae (Centrocestus formosanus and Haplorchis pumilio).  


Production of the cercariae of Centrocestus formosanus and Haplorchis pumilio was not affected by a 10-day starvation of the snail host Melanoides tuberculata, and there was no circadian rhythm in the pattern of cercarial emergence. Daily average cercarial productions from each snail were 1,643 for C. formosanus and 689 for H. pumilio at 25 C and 500 lux illumination. The number of cercariae was moderately correlated with the size of snail host. The heaviest sheddings ever observed from 1 snail in 24 hr were 63,400 cercariae for C. formosanus and 3,470 cercariae for H. pumilio. The cercariae of C. formosanus could emerge in the dark, but the number was much less than in the light. In contrast, the cercariae of H. pumilio emerged equally well with or without light. Within the temperature range tested, the emergence of cercariae occurred at 15-35 C, but not at 10 C. Shedding of C. formosanus cercariae increased with the rise in ambient temperature, whereas the greatest shedding of H. pumilio cercariae occurred at 25 C. Life-span of the cercariae was temperature-dependent. The most favorable temperature for survival of C. formosanus was 15 C, at which some survived for 160 hr, and 20 C for H. pumilio, with the longest survival of 130 hr. PMID:8604114

Lo, C T; Lee, K M



Deriving freshwater quality criteria for iron, lead, nickel, and zinc for protection of aquatic life in Malaysia.  


Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC(50) values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9 ?g L(-1), respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4 ?g?L(-1) and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7 ?g?L(-1), respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC(50) values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358

Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Nadzifah, Y; Nur-Amalina, R; Umirah, N S



Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil).  


In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil), a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997) and rainy (March, 1998) periods. The dominant groups found were Mollusca (Melanoides tuberculata), Oligochaeta, and Chironomidae larvae. Low Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index values were found, but with no significant difference between the sampling periods. However, density and taxonomic richness were significantly different (t(0.05: 31)) = -2.1945; p < 0.05; e t(0.05; 31) = -3.0600; p < 0.01) between the sampling periods, with a reduction in the number of taxa and macroinvertebrate abundance during the rainy period. An increasing gradient in benthic macroinvertebrate community structures was noted along the reservoir cascade from the first reservoir (Apolônio Sales), followed by a decrease downstream from the third reservoir of the system (Xing6). Despite the negative consequences of rapid proliferation of dams, which have caused widespread loss of freshwater habitats, the reservoir cascade system promoted an increase in benthic macroinvertebrate diversity, due to water-quality improvement along the system. PMID:16097725

Callisto, M; Goulart, M; Barbosa, F A R; Rocha, O



Distribution of trematodes in snails in ponds at integrated small-scale aquaculture farms.  


In integrated small-scale aquaculture farming, animal and human excreta maybe used as fish feed and pond fertilizer, thereby enhancing transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) from final hosts, like humans, pigs and chickens, to snails. Areas within a pond could vary in trematode egg-load due to the immediate bordering land, and this might provide implications for control of these trematodes or sampling in field studies measuring FZT prevalence in snails. We therefore estimated the effect of bordering land use on prevalence and FZT burden in snails in different areas within small-scale aquaculture ponds. Nine sampling areas within a pond were assigned in six ponds. For each sampling area, about 120 Melanoides tuberculata snails were collected. Based on land use bordering a sampling area, these were categorized in 5 risk-categories: low-risk (road, rice planted in pond, agriculture, or middle of pond), human access point to pond, livestock sty (pigs or poultry), both human access point and livestock sty, and water connection to canal. In total, 5392 snails were collected. Percentages of snails with parapleurolophocercous cercariae varied between 6% in areas categorized as low-risk and areas with livestock sty only to 15% in areas with both human access point and livestock sty; only this 15% was significantly different from the prevalence in the low-risk category. Percentages of snails with xiphidio cercariae did not differ between risk-categories and varied between 5% and 10%. Mean snail size was 15.2mm, and was significantly associated with both the probability of infection as well as parasite burden. Very small differences in parasite burden were found at different land use areas; the maximum difference was about 11 cercariae. This study demonstrated only small differences between areas surrounding a pond on risk of snails to be infected with fish-borne trematodes within different pond areas. In field studies on FZTs in M. tuberculata snails in ponds, sampling from ponds can therefore be done without considering areas within ponds. PMID:23200642

Boerlage, Annette S; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Verreth, Johan A; de Jong, Mart C M



Correlation between snails and fish in fish ponds of World Fish Center (ICLARM) with special reference to snail vectors of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis.  


The abundance of snail species in earthen fish ponds, irrigation and drainage canals at World Fish Center (ICLARM) in descending order was Bellamya unicolor (50.89%) > Physa acuta (18.94%) > Cleopatra bulimoides (7.6%) > Lanistes carinatus (6.73%) > Bulinus truncatus (5.19%) > Melanoides tuberculata (4.83%) > Lymnaea natalensis (3.14%) > Gabbiella senaariensis (0.9%) > Biomphalaria alexandrina (0.55%) > Lym naea truncatula (0.4%) > Planorbis planorbis and Succinea cleopatra (0.33%) > Ferrissia isseli (0.18%). Dead snails constituted about 5.19% of all the collected specimens. There were dramatic decrease in the total number of pulmonates in fish ponds which contained only Tilapia sp., and a very small number of cat fish, whereas the numbers of prosobranchia snails were much higher in these ponds. In fish ponds which accommodated a variety of fish species, the most dominant snail was B. unicolor followed by L. carinatus. However, pulmonate snails were absent in these ponds. B. truncatus was the only snail species found in concrete tank which contained only young tilapias with a very small size (5-8 cm in standard length). In irrigation canals, the number of snails and diversity was much higher than those in fish ponds. Out of 191 snails collected from inlet irrigation canal, 71 were dead, but in the outside irrigation canals, seven out of 564 snails were dead. P. acuta was absent in all examined fish ponds, but it was alive and in a high number (497 snails) in the outside irrigation canals. The number of snails collected from Bahnasawy drain was remarkably low (128 snails), however the diversity of snails was much higher compared to those in fish ponds and irrigation canals. Snail populations were stable with constant recruitment of young to adult snails for all the studied species. PMID:14964656

Ismail, Nahed M M; El Gamal, Abd El Rahman A



Import of exotic and zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae: Centrocestus sp.) in Xiphophorus maculatus: implications for ornamental fish import control in Europe.  


Ornamental fish, Xiphophorus maculatus, were imported from Singapore to Denmark for distribution to local aquarists. Importers observed lethargic and erratic swimming patterns among fish and forwarded a total of 30 fish for pathological examination to a university diagnostic service. All fish were diagnosed infected with encysted Centrocestus sp. metacercariae in gills (prevalence of 100% and mean intensity of 454.5 ± 161.9 parasites per fish). Metacercariae were identified by morphological and molecular methods. Cysts (mean length 163.3 ± 13.7 ?m and mean width 113.3 ± 10.6 ?m) contained a bent metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. PCR amplification of a rDNA region (5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2, 28S rRNA gene) and subsequent sequencing confirmed the diagnosis. Metacercariae were found in gill filaments adjacent to the cartilage associated with cartilage hypertrophy, epithelial and mucous cell hyperplasia, clubbing and lamellar fusion. Host cell encapsulation of cysts comprised several layers of leucocytes, chondroblast-like and fibroblast-like cells. The observations raise concerns with regard to veterinary inspection and quarantine procedures. The zoonotic potential of these trematodes and a possible spread of the parasites in natural habitats in Europe should be regarded as a public health issue. So far, several cases of human infections have been reported only in Asia, but the potential intermediate host snail, Melanoides tuberculata, has been recorded in Germany. Accordingly, establishment of the parasite in Europe with climate changes should be considered a risk. PMID:24827099

Mehrdana, Foojan; Jensen, Hannah M; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt



Chemical Cues Released by an Alien Invasive Aquatic Gastropod Drive Its Invasion Success  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. Methodology/Principal Findings A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs) turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. Conclusion/Significance This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera. PMID:23691151

Raw, Jacqueline L.; Miranda, Nelson A. F.; Perissinotto, Renzo



Stable Isotope Evidence for Dietary Overlap between Alien and Native Gastropods in Coastal Lakes of Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822) is originally from South-East Asia, but has been introduced and become invasive in many tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In South Africa, T. granifera is rapidly invading an increasing number of coastal lakes and estuaries, often reaching very high population densities and dominating shallow water benthic invertebrate assemblages. An assessment of the feeding dynamics of T. granifera has raised questions about potential ecological impacts, specifically in terms of its dietary overlap with native gastropods. Methodology/Principal Findings A stable isotope mixing model was used together with gut content analysis to estimate the diet of T. granifera and native gastropod populations in three different coastal lakes. Population density, available biomass of food and salinity were measured along transects placed over T. granifera patches. An index of isotopic (stable isotopes) dietary overlap (IDO, %) aided in interpreting interactions between gastropods. The diet of T. granifera was variable, including contributions from microphytobenthos, filamentous algae (Cladophora sp.), detritus and sedimentary organic matter. IDO was significant (>60%) between T. granifera and each of the following gastropods: Haminoea natalensis (Krauss, 1848), Bulinus natalensis (Küster, 1841) and Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774). However, food did not appear to be limiting. Salinity influenced gastropod spatial overlap. Tarebia granifera may only displace native gastropods, such as Assiminea cf. ovata (Krauss, 1848), under salinity conditions below 20. Ecosystem-level impacts are also discussed. Conclusion/Significance The generalist diet of T. granifera may certainly contribute to its successful establishment. However, although competition for resources may take place under certain salinity conditions and if food is limiting, there appear to be other mechanisms at work, through which T. granifera displaces native gastropods. Complementary stable isotope and gut content analysis can provide helpful ecological insights, contributing to monitoring efforts and guiding further invasive species research. PMID:22363764

Miranda, Nelson A. F.; Perissinotto, Renzo



The impacts of handling and air exposure on immune parameters, gene expression, and susceptibility to vibriosis of European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.  


Wild or farmed abalone are regularly exposed to stressors, such as air exposure and handling. Immune and transcriptional responses as well as susceptibility to vibriosis of sexually mature or immature European abalone acclimated at 16 or 19 °C were determined following handling or air exposure. Hemocyte density and H2O2 production increased while hemocyte viability and phagocytic index decreased following handling. Air exposure induces a decrease of hemocyte density and phagocytic index. Measurement of the expression of genes implicated in general metabolic, immunological and stress responses in gills, foot-muscle and hemocytes by real time q-PCR suggested that both stressors lead to a metabolic rate depression, characterized by a general inhibition of transcription. Finally, following handling a Vibrio harveyi challenge enhances almost 100% mortality of sexually immature animals at 19 °C while it has been previously demonstrated that only mature are susceptible to vibriosis. PMID:24215911

Cardinaud, Marion; Offret, Clément; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine



Response of the North Island brown kiwi, Apteryx australis mantelli and the lesser short-tailed bat, Mystacina tuberculata to a measured dose of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.  


Four North Island brown kiwis and six lesser short-tailed bats were inoculated intramuscularly with 300 000 rabbit lethal doses of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus. No clinical abnormalities were observed in the kiwis and bats throughout the study period. Although no viraemia was detected in any of the kiwis, all four birds produced a serological response to RHD virus above the positive cut-off by 14 days after inoculation, and in two of the birds, antibodies persisted for over 5 months. Two kiwis were killed 48 days after inoculation. Their tissues were examined for lesions, and for the presence of persistent virus by both reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and by inoculation of tissue suspensions into rabbits. No gross or histological lesions suggestive of a viral infection were detected and tests for detection of virus were negative. The serological response in the kiwis was probably due to the birds responding to viral antigen in the inoculum rather than to multiplication of the virus. None of the bats showed a serological response to RHD virus above the positive cut-off by 14 days after inoculation and the results of the pathological and virological examinations were negative. PMID:16031964

Buddle, B M; de Lisle, G W; McColl, K; Collins, B J; Morrissy, C; Westbury, H A



Distribution of freshwater snails in family-based VAC ponds and associated waterbodies with special reference to intermediate hosts of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam.  


Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes, such as Clonorchis sinensis, heterophyids and others, constitute a public health concern in parts of northern Vietnam and infections with these trematodes are often thought to be linked to fish culture. One common fish culture system is the integrated fish-livestock (VAC) ponds where individual households have 1 or more ponds. Fish fry, mainly of various carp species, produced in hatcheries, not necessarily local, are introduced into nursery ponds and after approximately 6 weeks, juvenile fishes are transferred to household ponds, referred to as grow-out ponds. Grow-out ponds are usually fertilized with organic debris, including animal excreta, to stimulate algal growth and subsequently fish growth. This paper describes the distribution of freshwater snails and occurrence of trematode infections in these in VAC ponds and associated habitats as part of a major study on risk factors of FZT infections in cultured fish in two communes, Nghia Lac and Nghia Phu, Nghia Hung District, Nam Dinh Province. The area is under intense rice cultivation with an extensive canal network supplying fields and also household VAC ponds. A total of 16 snail species was found and four were widely distributed i.e. Angulyagra polyzonata, Melanoides tuberculata, Bithynia fuchsiana and Pomacea insularum. Snail diversity and counts were higher in nursery ponds than in grow-out ponds. Species of the families Thiaridae and Viviparidae were more abundant than other species in VAC ponds while species of the Bithyniidae, Stenothyridae and Planorbidae dominated in rice fields and small canals. Trematode infections were found in eight snail species and among these M. tuberculata had the highest overall prevalence of infection (13.28%). No trematode infections were found in species of the Viviparidae and Ampullaridae except for metacercariae. Parapleurolophocercous and pleurolophocercous cercariae constituted the most common type of cercariae recovered, contributing 40.6% of all infections followed by echinostome cercariae (35.0%) and xiphidiocercariae (17.3%). Bithynia fuschiana and M. tuberculata had the most diverse trematode fauna. C. sinensis was not recorded in this study. The VAC pond system in this area, is very important for transmission of minute intestinal trematodes while they play little role in transmission of C. sinensis as its intermediate hosts, bithynid snails, rarely occur in these ponds. From a public health perspective this is positive as the effects of infections with intestinal trematodes are considered mild. On the other hand it is possible that even such subtle effects could have importance in public health as transmission is very intense in the area. And this in combination with the aquaculture importance, reduced marketability of fishes with high metacercariae loads, warrants that control efforts against these trematodes are initiated to reduce transmission in this production system. PMID:20457118

Dung, Bui Thi; Madsen, Henry; The, Dang Tat



Impact of certain plants and synthetic molluscicides on some fresh water snails and fish.  


The LC50 (78, 85 ppm) and LC90 (88, 135 ppm) of Anagalis arvensis and Calendula micrantha respectively against Biomphalaria alexandrina were higher than those of the non-target snails, Physa acuta, Planorbis planorbis, Helisoma duryi and Melanoides tuberculata. In contrast, the LC50 of Niclosamide (0.11 ppm) and Copper sulphate (CuSO4) (0.42 ppm) against B. alexandrina were lower than those of the non-target snails. The mortalities percentage among non-target snails ranged between 0.0 & 20% when sublethal concentrations of CuSO4 against B. alexandrina mixed with those of C. micrantha and between 0.0 & 40% when mixed with A. arvensis. Mortalities ranged between 0.0 & 50% when Niclosamide was mixed with each of A. arvensis and C. micrantha. A. arvensis induced 100% mortality on Oreochromis niloticus after 48 hrs exposure and after 24 hrs for Gambusia affinis. C. micrantha was non-toxic to the fish. The survival rate of O. niloticus and G. affinis after 48 hrs exposure to 0.11 ppm of Niclosamide were 83.3% & 100% respectively. These rates were 91.7% & 93.3% respectively when each of the two fish species was exposed to 0.42 ppm of CuSO4. Mixture of sub-lethal concentrations of A. arvensis against B. alexandrina and those of Niclosamide or CuSO4 at ratios 10:40 & 25:25 induced 66.6% mortalities on O. niloticus and 83.3% at 40:10. These mixtures caused 100% mortalities on G. affinis at all ratios. A. arvensis CuSO4 mixtures at 10:40 induced 83.3% & 40% mortalities on O. niloticus and G. affinis respectively and 100% mortalities on both fish species at ratios 25:25 & 40:10. A mixture of sub-lethal concentrations of C. micrantha against B. alexandrina and of Niclosamide or CuSO4 caused mortalities of O. niloticus between 0.0 & 33.3% and between 5% & 35% of G. affinis. The residue of Cu in O. niloticus were 4.69, 19.06 & 25.37 mg/1kgm fish after 24, 48 & 72 hrs exposure to LC0 of CuSO4 against B. alexandrina respectively. PMID:16333905

Mosta-Fa, B B; el-Deeb, Fatma A; Ismail, Nahid M; el-Said, K M



Active biomonitoring in freshwater environments: early warning signals from biomarkers in assessing biological effects of diffuse sources of pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. Relating observed effects to specific pollutants or even classes of pollutants remains a very difficult task due to the usually unknown, complex and often highly variable composition of effluents. It is recognized that toxicants interfere with organism integrity at the biochemical level and give rise to effects at the individual level and is manifested in reduced ecologically relevant characteristics such as growth, reproduction and survival, and ultimately at the ecosystem level. By integrating multiple endpoints at different ecologically relevant levels of organization within one test organism, it should be possible to gain understanding in how different levels of organization within this organism respond to toxic exposure and how responses at these different levels are interrelated. This paper presents results from a field study in the Rietvlei Wetland system, Gauteng, South Africa using the freshwater mollusk ( Melanoides tuberculata) and freshwater fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) as bioindicator organisms. Active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures were conducted where organisms were exposed for 28 days in an effluent dominated river during high flow conditions in April 2003. The river receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial complex, so that up to 75% of the total flow of the river is effluent-based. Effects of field exposure were determined using cellular biomarkers e.g. DNA damage, HSP 70, metallothionein, acetylcholine esterase, lactate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity. The results clearly indicate that although the traditional mortality-based whole effluent toxicity testing did not indicate any toxicity, the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. A multivariate statistical approach was particularly useful for integrating the biomarker responses and highlighting sites at which more detailed analysis of chemical contamination would be useful. Based on the individual biomarker results’ contributing towards the distinct groupings it is possible to conclude that Site 1 is subjected to organic pollutants, whereas Sites 2 and 3 undergo a combination of metallic and organic pollutant stress. However, it is essential that a rapid and sensitive biomarker that is representative of the responses of a suite of biomarkers be tested before ABM can be implemented as a routine biomonitoring practice in water resource management.

Wepener, V.; van Vuren, J. H. J.; Chatiza, F. P.; Mbizi, Z.; Slabbert, L.; Masola, B.


The integrated culture of seaweed, abalone, fish and clams in modular intensive land-based systems: II. Performance and nitrogen partitioning within an abalone ( Haliotis tuberculata) and macroalgae culture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale system for the intensive land-based culture of abalone was established using an integrated design aimed at eliminating the dependence on external food sources, whilst reducing water requirements and nutrient discharge levels. The system was the first and simplest trial in a series of progressive complexity of the concept of integrated culture of seaweed, abalone, fish and clams in

Amir Neori; Norman L. C. Ragg; Muki Shpigel



Bats that walk: a new evolutionary hypothesis for the terrestrial behaviour of New Zealand's endemic mystacinids  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: New Zealand's lesser short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata is one of only two of c.1100 extant bat species to use a true walking gait when manoeuvring on the ground (the other being the American common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus). Mystacina tuberculata is also the last surviving member of Mystacinidae, the only mammalian family endemic to New Zealand (NZ) and a

Suzanne J Hand; Vera Weisbecker; Michael Archer; Henk Godthelp; Alan JD Tennyson; Trevor H Worthy



Diet, habitat and ecomorphology of cichlids in the Upper Bladen River, Belize  

E-print Network

pharyngeal jaw of V. maculicauda featuring molariform teeth (photograph by Jennifer Cochran)………………………………..… 82 25 Three species of aquatic snail found in the upper Bladen River: (a) Pachycheilus largillierti; (b) Pachycheilus corvinus; (c) Melanoides...

Cochran, Jennifer Lynn



Relative abundance and distribution of fishes and crayfish at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nye County, Nevada, 2010-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (AMNWR) was established by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (with the assistance of The Nature Conservancy) in 1984 to protect one of the highest concentrations of endemic flora and fauna in North America (Pister, 1985; Sada, 1990). Prior to federal acquisition, Ash Meadows had been anthropogenically altered, and non-native species had been introduced to the detriment of native species; reports and published literature document the negative effects to the Ash Meadows flora and fauna (Deacon and others, 1964; U.S. Department of the Interior, 1971; Landye, 1973; Pister, 1974; Soltz and Naiman, 1978; Taylor, 1980; Williams and others, 1985; Williams and Sada, 1985; Baugh and others, 1986; Hershler and Sada, 1987; Knight and Clemmer, 1987; Sada, 1990; Deacon and Williams, 1991; Scoppettone and others, 2005; Kennedy and others, 2006). Such activities led to the extinction of the endemic Ash Meadows poolfish (Empetrichthyes merriami) (Miller, 1961; Soltz and Naiman, 1978), and subsequently the federal government listed three local endemic fish as endangered pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1989)—Warm springs pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis pectoralis), Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes), and Ash Meadows speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus nevadensis). Public ownership of a large portion of Ash Meadows provided the opportunity to restore the landscape to some semblance of its historical condition. Elimination of invasive aquatic species may be more difficult than landscape restoration, and their persistence can cause additional native fish decline or extirpation (Taylor and others, 1984; Moyle and others, 1986; Miller and others, 1989; Minckley and Deacon, 1991; Olden and Poff, 2005). Chemical treatment to remove invasive fishes is often unsuccessful (Meffe, 1983; Rinne and Turner, 1991; Meronek and others, 1996). In Ash Meadows, there has been some success in chemical eradication of localized populations of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) (St. George, 1998, 1999; Weissenfluh, 2008b), as well as convict cichlid (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) (Weissenfluh,2008a). However, there has been less success in removing western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) from Ash Meadows's larger spring systems, and sailfin molly maintains strongholds in several spring systems (Scoppettone and others, 2011b). Perhaps the more destructive invasive species are two invertebrates: red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and red-rim melania (Melanoides tuberculata). Following the appearance of red swamp crayfish within the Warm Springs Complex, Warm Springs pupfish was believed to be extirpated from one spring system (St. George, 2000) and near extirpation in two others (Darrick Weissenfluh, Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, oral commun., 2008, 2011). Crayfish also were demonstrated to greatly suppress the Bradford Springs population of Ash Meadows speckled dace population (McShane and others, 2004). Red-rim melania is known to displace native snail populations (Mitchell and others, 2007), and has been implicated as an agent of extinction of native Ash Meadows spring-snails (Donald Sada, Desert Research Institute, oral commun., 2011). Both invasive invertebrates are difficult to control or eradicate (Mitchell and others, 2007; Freeman and others, 2010). Habitat restoration that favors native species can help control non-native species (McShane and others, 2004; Scoppettone and others, 2005; Kennedy and others, 2006). Restoration of Carson Slough and its tributaries present an opportunity to promote habitat types that favor native species over non-natives. Historically, the majority of Ash Meadows spring systems were tributaries to Carson Slough. In 2007 and 2008, a survey of Ash Meadows spring systems was conducted to generate baseline information on the distribution of fishes throughout AMNWR (Scoppettone and others, 2011b). In this study, we conducted a follo

Scoppettone, G.G.; Johnson, D.M.; Hereford, M.E.; Rissler, Peter; Fabes, Mark; Salgado, Antonio; Shea, Sean




EPA Science Inventory

The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisentia fetida, Allolobophora tuberculata, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. eibull function is used to summarize these data for ea...



EPA Science Inventory

Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were t...


Crush-resistance of soft-sediment gastropods of Lake Mala?i: implications for prey selection by Molluscivorous fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in human urinary schistosome transmission in southern Lake Mala?i has been suggested to be associated with decreased density of molluscivorous fishes due to illegal seine-net fishing from the shore. In addition, the increased density of snails (Melanoides spp.) through the invasion of an Asian morph could have changed the predators’ prey choice. At Chembe village, the intermediate host

B. N. Evers; H. Madsen; J. R. Stauffer Jr



Phylogenetic Analysis of Streptomyces spp. Causing Potato Scab Based on 16s rRNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete 16s rRNA sequences of 12 strains of Streptomyces spp., including potato scab pathogens, were determined. Among the strains of Streptomyces scabies that were isolated from diverse geographical areas and differed in melanoid pigment production, either no difference or one difference in sequence was observed. The sequence of S. scabies was most similar to the sequences of Streptomyces diustutochromogenes,



Evolutionary dissociation between cleavage, cell lineage and embryonic axes in sea urchin embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using vital dye staining and the microinjection of fluorescent cell lineage-autonomous tracers, the re- lationship between the first cleavage plane and the prospective larval dorsoventral axis was examined in several sea urchin species, including: Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, S. droebachiensis, Lytechinus pictus, Cly- peaster rosaceus, Heliocidaris tuberculata and H. erythro- gramma. The results indicate that there is no single relationship between



The influence of soil macroinvertebrates on primary biodegradation of starch-containing polyethylene films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary biodegradability of polyethylene (PE) films containing different percentages of cornstarch (0–50%) and other additives (prooxidant, oxidized polyethylene) was tested using four species of earthworms (Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus terrestris, Aporectodea trapezoides, Aporectodea tuberculata), three species of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, Blaberus sp.,Blattella germanica), termites (Reticulotermes flavipes), sowbugs (Porcellio laevis), and crickets (Acheta domesticus). These studies were conducted to elucidate the

Rong Tsao; Todd A. Anderson; Joel R. Coats



The Caprellidea (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomy of the Caprellidea from the Tasmanian coast is reviewed with data on species composition and biogeographical characteristics. Four new species, Caprella edgari n. sp., Hircella inermis n. sp., Orthoprotella tuberculata n. sp. and Paraproto tasmaniensis n. sp. are described, and detailed descriptions of Caprella acanthogaster Mayer, 1890, Orthoprotella tasmaniensis Guiler, 1954 and Paraproto spinosa (Haswell, 1885) are provided.

J. M. Guerra-García; I. Takeuchi



Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites  

E-print Network

and H. trivolvis are established on Dominica, West Indies. We tested a limited number of M. tuberculata Indies The Commonwealth of Dominica is a small (790 km2 ) mountainous island nation in the West Indies and veterinary health significance of these snails. Key words: Biomphalaria, Gundlachia, Helisoma, Physa, West

Dillon, Robert T.


267PETERSON ET AL: POLLEN IN BAT GUANO New Zealand Journal of Ecology (2006) 30(2): 267-272 New Zealand Ecological Society  

E-print Network

267PETERSON ET AL: POLLEN IN BAT GUANO New Zealand Journal of Ecology (2006) 30(2): 267-272 ©New December 2005 SHORT COMMUNICATION Non-native pollen found in short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract: We analysed pollen in short-tailed bat guano samples from Rangataua Forest and from guano

Robertson, Alastair



Earthworm effects on movement of water and solutes in soil  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to determine and model the effects of earthworms on water and solute movement in soil. Microrelief and rainfall effects on water and solute movement were determined in packed buckets inoculated with earthworms (Aporrectodea tuberculata). A solution of Br[sup [minus

Trojan, M.D.



The integrated culture of seaweed, abalone, fish and clams in modular intensive land-based systems: I. Proportions of size and projected revenues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three environmentally friendly modular designs for integrated mariculture are described. The basic design consists of modules for the culture of seaweed (Ulva lactuca or Gracilaria spp.) and abalone (Haliotis tuberculata). Modules for the culture of fish (Sparus aurata) and then clams (Tapes philippinarum) are subsequently connected in two progressively complex systems. The modular design allows flexibility in the allocation of

Muki Shpigel; Amir Neori



Use of Bayluscide (Bayer 73) for Snail Control in Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayluscide applied to ponds on two commercial fish farms at five rates (from L1 to 13.5 kilogram per surface hectare) effectively controlled aquatic snails. Laboratory toxicity tests confirmed susceptibility of three endemic species of aquatic snail—Melanoides tuberculatus, Physella hendersoni, and Planorbella duryi—to Bayluscide. Observed 24-h concentrations lethal to 50% of snails (LC50) ranged from 0.062 to 0.085 mg\\/L, and 24-h

Ruth Francis-Floyd; James Gildea; Peggy Reed; Ruthellen Klinger



Biology of the Molluscivorous Fish Trematocranus placodon (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Lake Mala?i  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tramatocranus placodon is a facultative molluscivore endemic to the Lake Mala?i catchment basin, Mala?i, Africa. T. placodon feeds on both Bulinus nyassanus, which is a host of human urinary schistosomes, and Melanoides spp. in the open waters of Lake Mala?i. We found that there was a dietary shift from insects and small snails to larger snails as the fish grew,

H. Madsen; K. C. J. Kamanga; J. R. Stauffer Jr; J. Likongwe



Introduction, distribution, spread, and impacts of exotic freshwater gastropods in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the patterns of distribution, vectors of introduction, and potential ecological impacts of freshwater exotic species\\u000a in Texas over the last 45 years. Currently, five species of exotic gastropods are established: channeled-type applesnail (Pomacea insularum), red-rim melania (Melanoides tuberculatus), quilted melania (Tarebia granifera), giant rams-horn snail (Marisa cornuarietis), and Chinese mysterysnail (Cipangopaludina\\u000a chinensis). In contrast to the northern part of

Alexander Y. Karatayev; Lyubov E. Burlakova; Vadim A. Karatayev; Dianna K. Padilla



Use of Ice-Water and Salt Treatments to Eliminate an Exotic Snail, the Red-Rim Melania, from Small Immersible Fisheries Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice-water and salt treatments were evaluated for disinfection of small immersible fisheries equipment contaminated with a nonindigenous tropical snail, the red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus. This introduced species can displace native snails and transmit trematodes directly to fish and indirectly to other animals, including humans. The red-rim melania has a well-developed operculum that protects it from desiccation and allows it to

Andrew J. Mitchell; Thomas M. Brandt



Severity of the Effects of Invasive Rats on Seabirds: A Global Review  

E-print Network

the least vulnerable to rats. Of the 3 species of invasive rats, Rattus rattus had the largest mean impact on seabirds followed by R. norvegicus and R. exulans; nevertheless, these differences were not statistically a las ratas. De las 3 especies de ratas invasoras, Rattus rattus tuvo el mayor impacto promedio sobre

Zavaleta, Erika



E-print Network

control, and disease). We discuss these threats in light of the hundreds of proposed and ongoing projects), deterioro del hábitat (contaminantes, calidad del agua, y disturbios humanos), e interac- ciones competitivas (especies invasoras, depredación, mosquitos y otro control vector, y enfermedes). Discutimos estas



Microsoft Academic Search

La intervención se realizó en tres asentamientos agrícolas del macizo montañoso de Guamuhaya en la provincia de Cienfuegos, Cuba. Los principales problemas socio económico que afectan dichos asentamientos abarcan entre otros: Dependencia económica del cultivo del café; Suelos erosionados por causas naturales y antrópicas; Proliferación de especies de plantas invasoras en las áreas de cafetales; Deforestación de patios, parcelas y

Liliana Llanes Robaina; Pedro Rafael Pretel Olite



Locomotor activity and zonation of upper shore arthropods in a sandy beach of north central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tenebrionid beetle Phalerisida maculata Kulzer, the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet and the oniscid isopod Tylos spinulosus Dana are semi-terrestrial burrowing species, which coexist on sandy beaches of north central Chile (28-30°S). During the night, these scavengers emerge to make downshore migrations. Given the similarity in niches of these three species (all are known to include macroalgal detritus in their diet) and their relatively high abundance on that beaches, there is the potential for some degree of interaction, both inter- and intraspecific. Field studies were carried out to examine zonation of these burrowing organisms and eventual time and/or space partitioning of locomotor activity during night hours. Locomotor activity on the beach surface was analyzed over 12 h periods during spring and neap tides of September and December 2000, and March 2001. Scavengers moving over the beach surface were captured using pitfall traps buried with their rims flush with the beach surface along a transect extended from the foot of the dunes to the highest levels reached by the swashes. Every 1 h the captured animals in the traps were collected. Locomotor activity was also studied in the laboratory with chambers equipped with infrared recording systems (actographs). Data downloaded from the actographs were graphed to obtain a display of locomotor activity per 15 min interval during the course of the 7 day experiments. Results show space partitioning of burrowed organisms and time partitioning in the locomotor activity of O. tuberculata, T. spinulosus and P. maculata over the beach surface. Circular statistics showed that usually the activity peaks of O. tuberculata were more different from those of P. maculata and T. spinulosus than those of the last two species when compared with each other. Intraspecific differences were also found in the surface locomotor activity, primarily between juveniles and adults of O. tuberculata. Interseasonal comparisons of capture figures show that the highest locomotor activity occurred during early summer (December 2000). Moon phases apparently affect locomotor activity (i.e. T. spinulosus and P. maculata had higher locomotor activity during neap tides as compared with that observed during spring tide samplings carried out with full moon). Periodograms resulting from the locomotor activity of adults of O. tuberculata, T. spinulosus and P. maculata studied with actographs and total darkness show evidence of a circadian endogenous component close to 23-25 h. Activity peaks close to 11-14 h were also found that probably represents a circatidal component in the locomotor activity. Results of actograph experiments under constant light show that the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of O. tuberculata was the only one maintained throughout the experiment and phased with the subjective night. Analyses of contour distributional maps and mean hourly zonations show that the locomotor activity of the studied species also differed, specially that of O. tuberculata versus that of T. spinulosus and P. maculata. Results of coexistence experiments showed no evidence of intraspecific interactions. Similar experiments evidentiated interspecific interactions: those species with similarities in locomotor activity (that is T. spinulosus and P. maculata) showed no interactions between them, while both of them had negative interactions with O. tuberculata, the species which separated more in time and hourly zonation of locomotor activity. Thus, differences in time/space partitioning of surface locomotor activity can be interpreted as a means to avoid detrimental interactions in this guild of scavengers. That partitioning would allow coexistence of interacting scavenger species and provides evidence that biological interactions are indeed important in community structure of sandy beach macroinfauna.

Jaramillo, E.; Contreras, H.; Duarte, C.; Avellanal, M. H.



Variable sizes of introns in the SSU rDNA in three species of Roccella (Arthoniales, Euascomycetes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of the lichenized fungus Roccella (Arthoniales, Euascomycetes), R. canariensis, R. tuberculata and R. montagnei, were found to possess insertions in the first half of the nuclear SSU rDNA. Both the number and the type of these insertions\\u000a varied between and within species. At position 516 the insertions belonged to group-IC1 introns with a characteristic secondary\\u000a structure and conserved

Leena Myllys; Mari Källersjö; Anders Tehler



Diversity and Localization of Bacterial Endosymbionts from Whitefly Species Collected in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is the first survey of whitely populations collected in Brazil, and provides further insights into the complexity of infection with secondary endosymionts in whiteflies. PMID:25259930

Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad



3D reconstruction of the hemocyanin subunit dimer from the chiton Acanthochiton fascicularis.  


Procedures are presented for the purification of the subunit dimer from Acanthochiton fasicularis hemocyanin. Electron microscopy of negatively stained specimens revealed a uniform population of macromolecules possessing the characteristic "boat shape". A 3D reconstruction from this EM data generated a approximately 3 nm resolution model that correlates well with earlier data of the purported subunit dimer, extracted from the 3D reconstruction of the didecamer of Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin type 1. PMID:15036283

Harris, J Robin; Meissner, Ulrich; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Markl, Jürgen



Distribution of Sargassum natans and some of its epibionts in the Sargasso Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sargassum was collected during the Sargasso Sea Eel Expedition in Spring 1979. On average, the morphological form type Sargassum natans (I) made up 85 % of the total wet weight of the samples. South of the thermal front, larger amounts of weeds were observed. Here, the bladder size of S. natans (I) was significantly smaller (surface 47±7 mm2) than in the northern part (surface: 64±15 mm2), while phylloids showed no differences. The composition and density of some epibionts were examined. Membranipora tuberculata (Bryozoa), Clytia noliformis (Hydrozoa) and the calcarious algae “ Melobesia sp.” (Rhodophyta) were studied quantitatively according to different features at 17 stations. M. tuberculata was the most abundant epibiont followed by C. noliformis. Compared with these species, " Melobesia sp." occurred in considerably lower quantities. M. tuberculata showed a preference for bladders rather than phylloids; C. noliformis was found more frequently on phylloids than on bladders. " Melobesia sp." did not show any preference. Frequency and abundance of these epibionts were higher north of the thermal front than south of this front. North of the front S. natans (I) was less abundant but bladders were larger.

Niermann, U.



Early development of congeneric sea urchins (Heliocidaris) with contrasting life history modes in a warming and high CO2 ocean.  


The impacts of ocean change stressors - warming and acidification - on marine invertebrate development have emerged as a significant impact of global change. We investigated the response of early development to the larval stage in sympatric, congeneric sea urchins, Heliocidaris tuberculata and Heliocidaris erythrogramma with contrasting modes of development to ocean warming and acidification. Effects of these stressors were assessed by quantifying the percentage of normal development during the first 24 h post fertilization, in cross-factorial experiments that included three temperature treatments (control: 20 °C; +4: 24 °C; +6: 26 °C) and four pHNIST levels (control: 8.2; -0.4: 7.8; -0.6: 7.6; -0.8: 0.4). The experimental treatments were designed in context with present day and near-future (?2100) conditions for the southeast Australia global warming hotspot. Temperature was the most important factor affecting development of both species causing faster progression through developmental stages as well as a decrease in the percentage of normal development. H. erythrogramma embryos were less tolerant of increased temperature than those of H. tuberculata. Acidification impaired development to the larval stage in H. tuberculata, but this was not the case for H. erythrogramma. Thus, outcomes for the planktonic life phase of the two Heliocidaris species in response to ocean warming and acidification will differ. As shown for these species, single-stressor temperature or acidification studies can be misleading with respect to determining species' vulnerability and responses to global change. PMID:25115741

Hardy, Natasha A; Byrne, Maria



Bats that walk: a new evolutionary hypothesis for the terrestrial behaviour of New Zealand's endemic mystacinids  

PubMed Central

Background New Zealand's lesser short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata is one of only two of c.1100 extant bat species to use a true walking gait when manoeuvring on the ground (the other being the American common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus). Mystacina tuberculata is also the last surviving member of Mystacinidae, the only mammalian family endemic to New Zealand (NZ) and a member of the Gondwanan bat superfamily Noctilionoidea. The capacity for true quadrupedal terrestrial locomotion in Mystacina is a secondarily derived condition, reflected in numerous skeletal and muscular specializations absent in other extant bats. The lack of ground-based predatory native NZ mammals has been assumed to have facilitated the evolution of terrestrial locomotion and the unique burrowing behaviour of Mystacina, just as flightlessness has arisen independently many times in island birds. New postcranial remains of an early Miocene mystacinid from continental Australia, Icarops aenae, offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Results Several distinctive derived features of the distal humerus are shared by the extant Mystacina tuberculata and the early Miocene Australian mystacinid Icarops aenae. Study of the myology of M. tuberculata indicates that these features are functionally correlated with terrestrial locomotion in this bat. Their presence in I. aenae suggests that this extinct mystacinid was also adapted for terrestrial locomotion, despite the existence of numerous ground-based mammalian predators in Australia during the early Miocene. Thus, it appears that mystacinids were already terrestrially-adapted prior to their isolation in NZ. In combination with recent molecular divergence dates, the new postcranial material of I. aenae constrains the timing of the evolution of terrestrial locomotion in mystacinids to between 51 and 26 million years ago (Ma). Conclusion Contrary to existing hypotheses, our data suggest that bats are not overwhelmingly absent from the ground because of competition from, or predation by, other mammals. Rather, selective advantage appears to be the primary evolutionary driving force behind habitual terrestriality in the rare bats that walk. Unlike for birds, there is currently no evidence that any bat has evolved a reduced capacity for flight as a result of isolation on islands. PMID:19615105

Hand, Suzanne J; Weisbecker, Vera; Beck, Robin MD; Archer, Michael; Godthelp, Henk; Tennyson, Alan JD; Worthy, Trevor H



Distribution of Oncomelania hupensis in the Napu Valley of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.  


Fifteen colonies of Oncomelania hupensis were found near trails transecting the North Lore District, Napu Valley, Central Sulawesi. Habitats were in abandoned rice fields, uncultivated grazing areas for livestock, roadside ditches and, in one case, an actively worked rice field. Marsh grasses, Ischaemum barbatum and Laersia hexandra, were the most common plants in oncomelanid habitats. Other mollusks found in association with O. hupensis were Radix sp., Melanoides sp., Gyraulus sp., Idiopoma sp., Thiara sp., Opeas sp. and Indopyrgus sp. in that order of frequency. Schistosoma japonicum cercariae, as determined by mouse exposures, were shed from snails collected at four foci. In Sulawesi, O. hupensis and S. japonicum were found in high mountain valleys near, or above, 1,000 meters in elevation. Oncomelania hupensis, however, were not found in what appeared to be suitable habitats at lower elevations in the same drainage systems. PMID:1166348

Carney, W P; Masri, S; Sudomo, M; Putrali, J; Davis, G M



Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny  

PubMed Central

The ability to predict which alien plants will transition from naturalized to invasive prior to their introduction to novel regions is a key goal for conservation and has the potential to increase the efficacy of weed risk assessment (WRA). However, multiple factors contribute to plant invasion success (e.g., functional traits, range characteristics, residence time, phylogeny), and they all must be taken into account simultaneously in order to identify meaningful correlates of invasion success. We compiled 146 pairs of phylogenetically paired (congeneric) naturalized and invasive plant species in Australia with similar minimum residence times (i.e., time since introduction in years). These pairs were used to test for differences in 5 functional traits (flowering duration, leaf size, maximum height, specific leaf area [SLA], seed mass) and 3 characteristics of species’ native ranges (biome occupancy, mean annual temperature, and rainfall breadth) between naturalized and invasive species. Invasive species, on average, had larger SLA, longer flowering periods, and were taller than their congeneric naturalized relatives. Invaders also exhibited greater tolerance for different environmental conditions in the native range, where they occupied more biomes and a wider breadth of rainfall and temperature conditions than naturalized congeners. However, neither seed mass nor leaf size differed between pairs of naturalized and invasive species. A key finding was the role of SLA in distinguishing between naturalized and invasive pairs. Species with high SLA values were typically associated with faster growth rates, more rapid turnover of leaf material, and shorter lifespans than those species with low SLA. This suite of characteristics may contribute to the ability of a species to transition from naturalized to invasive across a wide range of environmental contexts and disturbance regimes. Our findings will help in the refinement of WRA protocols, and we advocate the inclusion of quantitative traits, in particular SLA, into the WRA schemes. Diferencia de Características entre Especies de Plantas Naturalizadas e Invasoras Independientes del Tiempo de Residencia y de la Filogenia Resumen La habilidad para predecir cuáles plantas exóticas harán la transición de naturalizadas a invasoras antes de su introducción a regiones nuevas es un objetivo clave para la conservación y tiene el potencial de incrementar la eficiencia de la evaluación de riesgo de hierbas (ERH). Sin embargo, múltiples factores contribuyen al éxito invasor de las plantas (p. ej.: características funcionales, características de cobertura, tiempo de residencia, filogenia) y todos deben considerarse simultáneamente para poder identificar correlaciones significativas del éxito invasor. Recopilamos en Australia 146 parejas de especies de plantas invasoras y naturalizadas emparejadas filogenéticamente (congéneres) y con tiempos de residencia mínima similares (es decir, el tiempo transcurrido desde su introducción en años). Estas parejas se usaron para probar diferencias en cinco características funcionales (duración de la floración, tamaño de la hoja, altura máxima, área específica de la hoja [AEH], masa de la semilla) y en tres características de cobertura nativa de las especies (ocupación de bioma, temperatura media anual y amplitud de pluviosidad) entre especies invasoras y naturalizadas. Las especies invasoras, en promedio, tuvieron una mayor AEH, periodos de floración más largos y fueron más altas que sus parientes congéneres naturalizadas. Las invasoras también exhibieron una mayor tolerancia a diferentes condiciones ambientales en su cobertura nativa, donde ocuparon más biomas y una mayor amplitud de pluviosidad y condiciones de temperatura que sus congéneres naturalizadas. Sin embargo, ni la masa de la semilla ni el tamaño de hoja difirieron entre las parejas de especies naturalizadas

Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R



Unusual micrometric calcite-aragonite interface in the abalone shell Haliotis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).  


Species of Haliotis (abalone) show high variety in structure and mineralogy of the shell. One of the European species (Haliotis tuberculata) in particular has an unusual shell structure in which calcite and aragonite coexist at a microscale with small patches of aragonite embedded in larger calcitic zones. A detailed examination of the boundary between calcite and aragonite using analytical microscopies shows that the organic contents of calcite and aragonite differ. Moreover, changes in the chemical composition of the two minerals seem to be gradual and define a micrometric zone of transition between the two main layers. A similar transition zone has been observed between the layers in more classical and regularly structured mollusk shells. The imbrication of microscopic patches of aragonite within a calcitic zone suggests the occurrence of very fast physiological changes in these taxa. PMID:24188740

Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Chevallard, Corinne; Farre, Bastien; Meibom, Anders



Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis).  


Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on North American wildlife. Epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (Siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of Y. pestis between epizootics. We monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most commonly found flea, and it increased in abundance with temperature. In contrast, Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris declined with rising temperature. During plague epizootics, flea abundance in burrows increased and then subsequently declined after the extirpation of their prairie dog hosts. PMID:18605787

Salkeld, Dan J; Stapp, Paul



A Partial Revision of the Marine Nematode Genus Elzalia (Monhysterida: Xyalidae) with New Characters and Descriptions of Two New Species from Khung Kraben Bay, East Thailand  

PubMed Central

Elzalia bipectinella1 n. sp. and E. tuberculata2 n. sp. from Thailand are described and the males of three species from the Gulf of Mexico, E. federici Castillo-Fernandez and Lambshead (1990), E. kimae Castillo-Fernandez and Lambshead (1990), and E. poli Castillo-Fernandez and Lambshead (1990) are re-described from type and topotype specimens using light and scanning electron microscopy. New morphological characters are described that include ornamentations at the distal end of the spicula and features of the gubernaculum including the manus with digits, pontis with sensory receptor and accessory process, and the condylus with either conical or foliate projections. Also, ejaculatory and rectal glands are described for the first time for Elzalia. The relevance of the new characters to the taxonomy of Elzalia is discussed. A key to identification of males is provided. A generalized description of females is given, although characters are lacking by which females of each species may be identified. PMID:22661779

Hope, W. Duane; Aryuthaka, Chittima



Prevalence of larval helminths in freshwater snails of the Kinmen Islands.  


A survey of larval helminths in freshwater snails of Kinmen was conducted from 1986 to 1987. Parasitological examinations of a total of 726 live snails collected from 25 loci revealed that 20 of 80 Bithynia fuchsiana were infected with metacercariae of Echinostoma gotoi and 36 with metacercariae of other echinostomes. Among 57 Radix auricularia swinhoei snails, 27 were infected with echinostomes and eight with metacercariae of other flukes. Of 20 Cipangopaludina chinensis, 18 were found with larvae of echinostomes. Larval trematodes were also found in three of 37 Austropeplea ollula and two of 87 Gyraulus spirillus. Third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus cantonensis were found in Ampullarius canaliculatus (5/103), Sinotaia quadrata (20/141), Hippeutis umbilicalis cantori (1/70) and Gyraulus spirillus (2/87). Segmentina hemisphaerula were not infected. Cercariae of Centrocestus formosanus, Haplorchis pumilio and a xiphidiocercaria were found in three, two and two specimens, respectively, of 37 Thiara tuberculata. PMID:8132969

Chao, D; Wang, L C; Huang, T C



Pentaplex PCR as screening assay for jellyfish species identification in food products.  


Salted jellyfish, a traditional food in Asian Countries, is nowadays spreading on the Western markets. In this work, we developed a Pentaplex PCR for the identification of five edible species (Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculentum, Rhizostoma pulmo, Pelagia noctiluca, and Cotylorhiza tuberculata), which cannot be identified by a mere visual inspection in jellyfish products sold as food. A common degenerated forward primer and five specie-specific reverse primers were designed to amplify COI gene regions of different lengths. Another primer pair targeted the 28SrRNA gene and was intended as common positive reaction control. Considering the high level of degradation in the DNA extracted from acidified and salted products, the maximum length of the amplicons was set at 200 bp. The PCR was developed using 66 reference DNA samples. It gave successful amplifications in 85.4% of 48 ready to eat products (REs) and in 60% of 30 classical salted products (CPs) collected on the market. PMID:25393326

Armani, Andrea; Giusti, Alice; Castigliego, Lorenzo; Rossi, Aurelio; Tinacci, Lara; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra



Metal content of earthworms in sludge-amended soils: uptake and loss  

SciTech Connect

The widespread practice of landspreading of sludge has raised concern about increasing concentrations of potentially toxic metals in soils, with the possibility of these metals adversely impacting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Earthworms, as one of the largest components of the soil biota, are useful indicators of potentially toxic soil metal concentrations. The study describes the metal content of five metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in one earthworm species, Allolobophora tuberculata, as a function of varying soil metal concentrations in the same soil type and the ability of the earthworms to bioconcentrate the five metals. The rate of uptake of the five metals in earthworms with initially low concentrations of metals placed in a soil with high metal concentrations was evaluated for a 112 day period. The rate of loss of the five metals in earthworms with initially high metal concentrations placed in soil with low metal concentrations was also examined.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Malecki, M.R.; Cukic, Z.V.



High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells.  


Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust National Cancer Institute botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through put microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015-0.5?mg/mL) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % of the extracts tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50 ) properties <0.0183?mg/mL. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao [symbol: see text] Speranskia herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite clay, Bunge root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi [symbol: see text] root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone root (Collinsonia Canadensis), and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun, and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth root (Trillium Pendulum), and alkanet root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (S. tuberculata), which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis, leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of anti-mitotic natural plants that are effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, K F A



The schistosome intermediate host, Bulinus nyassanus, is a 'preferred' food for the cichlid fish, Trematocranus placodon, at Cape Maclear, Lake Malawi.  


Over the last decade, transmission of the schistosome parasites of humans has increased in parts of Lake Malawi, possibly because over-fishing has led to a decline in the numbers of molluscivorous fish. The stomach contents of 51 wild-caught Trematocranus placodon from the Cape Maclear area of Lake Malawi have now been investigated and compared with the field abundance of snail species at two sites, close to where the fish were caught. The snails found in the fish stomachs were identified to genus or species on the basis of their shell fragments and/or opercula. The sizes of the prosobranchs consumed by the T. placodon were determined from their operculum sizes whereas the Bulinus nyassanus ingested by the fish were categorized as small (<4 mm) or large (> or =4 mm) on the basis of their shell fragments. The proportion of the Bu. nyassanus ingested that were categorized as large increased with fish size. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Bu. nyassanus in the guts of the fish was considerably higher than in the field, indicating that the T. placodon had a 'preference' for Bu. nyassanus over the Melanoides species that dominated the snail fauna. Small specimens of Bellamya species were also consumed in a greater proportion than found in field. PMID:16417717

Evers, B N; Madsen, H; McKaye, K M; Stauffer, J R



Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. causing potato scab based on 16S rRNA sequences.  


The complete 16S rRNA sequences of 12 strains of Streptomyces spp., including potato scab pathogens, were determined. Among the strains of Streptomyces scabies that were isolated from diverse geographical areas and differed in melanoid pigment production, either no difference or one difference in sequence was observed. The sequence of S. scabies was most similar to the sequences of Streptomyces diastatochromogenes, Streptomyces bottropensis, and Streptomyces neyagawaensis, which belong to the Diastatochromogenes group. The levels of similarity of the 16S rRNA sequences of Streptomyces acidiscabies and S. scabies were almost the same as the levels of similarity between S. acidiscabies and other Streptomyces strains. Streptomyces sp. strain 91-Sy-13, which was isolated in Japan from potato scab and belongs to a distinct species on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and DNA relatedness, exhibited lower levels of 16S rRNA sequence similarity with other potato scab pathogens, as well as other Streptomyces species. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence data showed that the Streptomyces spp. that cause potato scab composed unique branches. The results of our phylogenetic analysis based on complete 16S rRNA sequences confirmed the lack of close relationships among Streptomyces spp. that cause potato scab. Our findings suggest that potato scab is caused by phylogenetically diverse Streptomyces species and that the pathogenicities of these organisms developed independently. PMID:8934906

Takeuchi, T; Sawada, H; Tanaka, F; Matsuda, I



Classification of Camellia (Theaceae) species using leaf architecture variations and pattern recognition techniques.  


Leaf characters have been successfully utilized to classify Camellia (Theaceae) species; however, leaf characters combined with supervised pattern recognition techniques have not been previously explored. We present results of using leaf morphological and venation characters of 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia to assess the effectiveness of several supervised pattern recognition techniques for classifications and compare their accuracy. Clustering approach, Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQ-ANN), Dynamic Architecture for Artificial Neural Networks (DAN2), and C-support vector machines (SVM) are used to discriminate 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia (11 in sect. Furfuracea, 16 in sect. Paracamellia, 12 in sect. Tuberculata, 34 in sect. Camellia, and 20 in sect. Theopsis). DAN2 and SVM show excellent classification results for genus Camellia with DAN2's accuracy of 97.92% and 91.11% for training and testing data sets respectively. The RBF-SVM results of 97.92% and 97.78% for training and testing offer the best classification accuracy. A hierarchical dendrogram based on leaf architecture data has confirmed the morphological classification of the five sections as previously proposed. The overall results suggest that leaf architecture-based data analysis using supervised pattern recognition techniques, especially DAN2 and SVM discrimination methods, is excellent for identification of Camellia species. PMID:22235330

Lu, Hongfei; Jiang, Wu; Ghiassi, M; Lee, Sean; Nitin, Mantri



Derivation of a water quality guideline for aluminium in marine waters.  


Metal risk assessment of industrialized harbors and coastal marine waters requires the application of robust water quality guidelines to determine the likelihood of biological impacts. Currently there is no such guideline available for aluminium in marine waters. A water quality guideline of 24?µg total Al/L has been developed for aluminium in marine waters based on chronic 10% inhibition or effect concentrations (IC10 or EC10) and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) from 11 species (2 literature values and 9 species tested including temperate and tropical species) representing 6 taxonomic groups. The 3 most sensitive species tested were a diatom Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium; IC10?=?18?µg Al/L, 72-h growth rate inhibition) < mussel Mytilus edulis plannulatus (EC10?=?250?µg Al/L, 72-h embryo development) < oyster Saccostrea echinata (EC10?=?410?µg Al/L, 48-h embryo development). Toxicity to these species was the result of the dissolved aluminium forms of aluminate (Al(OH4 (-) ) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3 (0) ) although both dissolved, and particulate aluminium contributed to toxicity in the diatom Minutocellus polymorphus and green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the green flagellate alga Tetraselmis sp. was the result of particulate aluminium only. Four species, a brown macroalga (Hormosira banksii), sea urchin embryo (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and 2 juvenile fish species (Lates calcarifer and Acanthochromis polyacanthus), were not adversely affected at the highest test concentration used. PMID:25318392

Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Apte, Simon C; Krassoi, Rick; Doyle, Chris J



The life cycle of Haplorchis pumilio (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the Indian region.  


The life cycle of the heterophyid fluke, Haplorchis pumilio is elucidated for the first time from the Indian region. Various stages in the life cycle were established based on observations made on natural infections found in snails and fish in a freshwater stream at Visakhapatnam, India and experimental infections carried out in the laboratory. The thiarid snail, Thiara tuberculata served as the first intermediate host and a wide range of freshwater fish as second intermediate hosts. Natural infections with adult flukes were found in the piscivorous birds Ardeola grayii and Bubulcus ibis. Adults were raised experimentally in day-old chicks. Distinguishing features of the cercaria of H. pumilio are: a large body size (200-224 x 92-96 micro m), body-tail ratio of 1:2.1 and densely distributed pigment granules in the parenchyma imparting a brownish tinge to the body. Natural infections with metacercariae were found in the freshwater fish Channa punctatus, C. orientalis, Puntius sophore, Gambusia affinis and fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio and Liza macrolepis. Additionally, experimental infections were established in Therapon jarbua, Esomus danricus and Oreochromis mossambica. Metacercariae were embedded in the caudal muscles of fish and heavy infections induced mortality. Metacercariae were infective at about 15 days of age. PMID:17125540

Umadevi, K; Madhavi, R



Observations on the morphology and life-cycle of Procerovum varium (Onji & Nishio, 1916) (Trematoda: Heterophyidae).  


The life-cycle of Procerovum varium (Digenea: Haplorchiinae) was studied experimentally and the morphology of stages in the life-cycle has been described and illustrated. Infections with adult flukes were found in the pond heron Ardeola grayii and heavy infections with metacercariae were found, attached to the liver of the fish Oryzias melastigma (Oryziatidae) occurring in a freshwater stream situated in Visakhapatnam, India. The cercariae developing in the snail Thiara tuberculata possessed typical haplorchiine features and were characterised by the presence of numerous cystogenous glands. Early stages of metacercarial development occurred free in the muscles of the fish intermediate host. The larvae reached the liver at 5 days post-infection, encystment commenced 2 days later and 15-day-old metacercariae were found to be infective to chicks, ducks and mice that served as suitable experimental hosts. The adult flukes obtained from natural and experimental infections showed many intraspecific variations, especially in the size and shape of the expulsor which depend on the quantity of sperm it contains. The validity of various species described in the genus and differentiated on the basis of differences in the size of the expulsor has been examined. It is concluded that only three species of the genus, namely P. varium, P. cheni and P. calderoni, are valid. "P. sisonli" of Chen (1949) is confirmed as a synonym of P. varium. P. varium is reported for the first time from India. PMID:10845654

Umadevi, K; Madhavi, R



Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases.  


The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad



Comparison of the sensitivity of seven marine and freshwater bioassays as regards antidepressant toxicity assessment.  


The hazards linked to pharmaceutical residues like antidepressants are currently a major concern of ecotoxicology because they may have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms. Our study assesses the ecotoxicity of three antidepressants (fluoxetine, sertraline and clomipramine) using a battery of marine and freshwater species representing different trophic levels, and compares the bioassay sensitivity levels. We selected the following bioassays: the algal growth inhibition test (Skeletonema marinoi and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), the microcrustacean immobilization test (Artemia salina and Daphnia magna), development and adult survival tests on Hydra attenuata, embryotoxicity and metamorphosis tests on Crassostrea gigas, and in vitro assays on primary cultures of Haliotis tuberculata hemocytes. The results showed high inter-species variability in EC50-values ranging from 43 to 15,600 µg/L for fluoxetine, from 67 to 4,400 µg/L for sertraline, and from 4.70 µg/L to more than 100,000 µg/L for clomipramine. Algae (S. marinoi and P. subcapitata) and the embryo-larval stages of the oyster C. gigas were the most sensitive taxa. This raises an issue due to their ecological and/or economic importance. The marine crustacean A. salina was the least sensitive species. This difference in sensitivity between bioassays highlights the importance of using a test battery. PMID:25185786

Minguez, Laetitia; Di Poi, Carole; Farcy, Emilie; Ballandonne, Céline; Benchouala, Amira; Bojic, Clément; Cossu-Leguille, Carole; Costil, Katherine; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre



Classification of Camellia (Theaceae) Species Using Leaf Architecture Variations and Pattern Recognition Techniques  

PubMed Central

Leaf characters have been successfully utilized to classify Camellia (Theaceae) species; however, leaf characters combined with supervised pattern recognition techniques have not been previously explored. We present results of using leaf morphological and venation characters of 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia to assess the effectiveness of several supervised pattern recognition techniques for classifications and compare their accuracy. Clustering approach, Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQ-ANN), Dynamic Architecture for Artificial Neural Networks (DAN2), and C-support vector machines (SVM) are used to discriminate 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia (11 in sect. Furfuracea, 16 in sect. Paracamellia, 12 in sect. Tuberculata, 34 in sect. Camellia, and 20 in sect. Theopsis). DAN2 and SVM show excellent classification results for genus Camellia with DAN2's accuracy of 97.92% and 91.11% for training and testing data sets respectively. The RBF-SVM results of 97.92% and 97.78% for training and testing offer the best classification accuracy. A hierarchical dendrogram based on leaf architecture data has confirmed the morphological classification of the five sections as previously proposed. The overall results suggest that leaf architecture-based data analysis using supervised pattern recognition techniques, especially DAN2 and SVM discrimination methods, is excellent for identification of Camellia species. PMID:22235330

Lee, Sean; Nitin, Mantri



Comparative toxicity of chemicals to earthworms  

SciTech Connect

The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Allolobophora tuberculata (Eisen), Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg), and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. A Weibull function is used to summarize these data for each chemical in terms of sensitivity and toxicity, in addition to the LC50. The estimation of the Weibull parameters a and k summarize the entire concentration-response relationship. This technique should be applicable to a variety of testing protocols with different species whenever the goal is summarizing the shape of the concentration-response curves to fully evaluate chemical impact on organisms. In some cases for these data four orders of magnitude separate LC50s of the soil test and the contact test for the same chemical and species. All four species appear to be similar in range of toxicity and tolerance to these chemicals, suggesting that Eisenia fetida and may be representative of these four species and these chemicals.

Callahan, C.A.; Shirazi, M.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Neuhauser, E.F. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States))



Ecological studies on Al-Khadoud Spring, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.  


Al-Khadoud spring is one of the most important water resources in Al-Hassa Governorate, Saudi Arabia. However, much of its biotic information is still unknown. This study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. Regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. These species include two submerged aquatic plants (Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L.). The common distributed species are Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trimex Steud and Cyperus rotundus (L.). On the other hand, a total of 20 algal genera were recorded with 7 genera of Chlorophyceae, 8 of Bacillariophyceae, 4 of Cyanophyceae and one of Euglenophyceae. The common phytoplankton occurred in all three investigated sites were Chlorella vulgaris, Mougeotia sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Actinastrum sp. Regarding to the biotic fauna, different forms of unicellular zooplankton such as Paramecium and Amoeba were recorded. Invertebrates such as freshwater insects and some freshwater snails were documented in the study sites including Melanodies tuberculata, Melanopsis praemorsa and Lymnaea auricularia. As regard to vertebrates, one species of fish, Aphanius dispar, dominate the spring basin and its extended channels. PMID:19090280

Al-Kahtani, Mohammed A; Youssef, Ashraf M; Fathi, Adel A



Identification of candidate antimicrobial peptides derived from abalone hemocyanin.  


Hemocyanins present in invertebrate hemolymph are multifunctional proteins, responsible for oxygen transport and contributing to innate immunity through phenoloxidase-like activity. In arthropods, hemocyanin has been identified as a source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides during infection. Conversely, no hemocyanin-derived antimicrobial peptides have been reported for molluscs. The present study describes a putative antimicrobial region, termed haliotisin, located within the linking sequence between the ?-helical domain and ?-sheet domain of abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) hemocyanin functional unit E. A series of synthetic peptides based on overlapping fragments of the haliotisin region were tested for their bactericidal potential. Incubating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the presence of certain haliotisin peptides, notably peptides 3-4-5 (DTFDYKKFGYRYDSLELEGRSISRIDELIQQRQEKDRTFAGFLLKGFGTSAS) led to reductions in microbial growth. Furthermore, transmission electron micrographs of haliotisin-treated bacteria revealed damages to the microbial cell wall. Data discussed here provides the first evidence to suggest that molluscan hemocyanin may act as a source of anti-infective peptides. PMID:25445903

Zhuang, Jun; Coates, Christopher J; Zhu, Hongtao; Zhu, Ping; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui



Environmental Control of Phase Transition and Polyp Survival of a Massive-Outbreaker Jellyfish  

PubMed Central

A number of causes have been proposed to account for the occurrence of gelatinous zooplankton (both jellyfish and ctenophore) blooms. Jellyfish species have a complex life history involving a benthic asexual phase (polyp) and a pelagic sexual phase (medusa). Strong environmental control of jellyfish life cycles is suspected, but not fully understood. This study presents a comprehensive analysis on the physicochemical conditions that control the survival and phase transition of Cotylorhiza tuberculata; a scyphozoan that generates large outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory experiments indicated that the influence of temperature on strobilation and polyp survival was the critical factor controlling the capacity of this species to proliferate. Early life stages were less sensitive to other factors such as salinity variations or the competitive advantage provided by zooxanthellae in a context of coastal eutrophication. Coherently with laboratory results, the presence/absence of outbreaks of this jellyfish in a particular year seems to be driven by temperature. This is the first time the environmental forcing of the mechanism driving the life cycle of a jellyfish has been disentangled via laboratory experimentation. Projecting this understanding to a field population under climatological variability results in a pattern coherent with in situ records. PMID:21072185

Prieto, Laura; Astorga, Diana; Navarro, Gabriel; Ruiz, Javier



Isolation, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Jellyfish Collagen for Use in Biomedical Applications  

E-print Network

Abstract: Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures). The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2–10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue). Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g), R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p> 0.05) between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin

Sourour Addad; Jean-yves Exposito; Clément Faye; Sylvie Ricard-blum; Claire Lethias



Metacercarial distribution of Centrocestus formosanus among fish hosts in the Guadalupe River drainage of Texas.  


We examined the gills of wild fish collected from central Texas for Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae to determine whether this temperature-restricted parasite had invaded the thermally dynamic Guadalupe River via an introduced population in its thermally stable tributary, the Comal River. We collected fish from three sites in the Guadalupe River near its confluence with the Comal River (upstream, at, and downstream) and one site in the Comal River. Centrocestus formosanus infected 14 of the 25 species examined (56.0%) and 171 of the individual fish (27.1%). Several of the infected fish represent new host records for the parasite, and two are listed as species of special concern by the state of Texas. Mean metacercarial intensities varied from 8 to 616 among species, and the highest recorded intensity was greater than 800 in two Guadalupe roundnose minnow Dionda nigrotaeniata. Among the 24 species examined from the Guadalupe River, 11 (45.8%) were infected with C. formosanus. Thorough surveys at the study sites yielded no living specimens of the first obligate intermediate snail host (red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus), which must be present to perpetuate the parasite. Thus, the infections were probably due to drifting cercariae that had been shed into the water column upstream of the study area in the Comal River. We therefore investigated spatial patterns in cercarial acquisition using caged fish to determine whether drifting cercariae were present in the water column at the study sites. Of 57 uninfected blacktail shiners Cyprinella venusta exposed to Guadalupe River water downstream from and at the confluence, 52 (91.2%) became infected with C. Formosanus metacercariae at a mean rate of 4 metacercariae/d. This finding extends the known geographic range of this invasive exotic parasite and is the first report of the life cycle being advanced in the fish assemblage of a thermally variable temperate stream in the USA. PMID:22216710

Fleming, B Paul; Huffman, David G; Bonner, Timothy H; Brandt, Thomas M



Biogeography of Wood-Boring Crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae) Established in European Coastal Waters  

PubMed Central

Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal), limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe. PMID:25313796

Borges, Luísa M. S.; Merckelbach, Lucas M.; Cragg, Simon M.



cDNA sequence, protein structure, and evolution of the single hemocyanin from Aplysia californica, an opisthobranch gastropod.  


By protein immunobiochemistry and cDNA sequencing, we have found only a single hemocyanin polypeptide in an opisthobranch gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia californica, which contrasts with previously studied prosobranch gastropods, which express two distinct isoforms of this extracellular respiratory protein. We have cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding the complete polypeptide of Aplysia californica hemocyanin (AcH). The cDNA comprises 11,433 bp, encompassing a 5'UTR of 77 bp, a 3'UTR of 1057 bp, and an open reading frame for a signal peptide of 20 amino acids plus a polypeptide of 3412 amino acids (Mr ca. 387 kDa). This polypeptide is the subunit of the cylindrical native hemocyanin (Mr ca. 8 MDa). It comprises eight different functional units (FUs: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) that have been identified immunobiochemically after limited proteolysis of AcH purified from the hemolymph. Each FU shows a highly conserved copper-A and copper-B site for reversible oxygen binding. FU AcH-h carries a specific C-terminal extension of ca. 100 amino acids that include two cysteines that may be utilized for disulfide bridge formation. Potential N-glycosylation sites are present in six FUs but lacking in AcH-b and AcH-c. On the basis of multiple sequence alignments, phylogenetic trees and a statistically firm molecular clock were calculated. The latter suggests that the last common ancestor of Haliotis and Aplysia lived 373+/-47 million years ago, in convincing agreement with fossil records from the early Devonian. However, the gene duplication yielding the two distinct hemocyanin isoforms found today in Haliotis tuberculata occurred 343+/-43 million years ago. PMID:15638465

Lieb, Bernhard; Boisguérin, Valesca; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Markl, Jürgen



Distribution and Characterization of Rhogocyte Cell Types in the Mantle Tissue of Haliotis laevigata.  


Molluscan rhogocytes are known to be the only cells able to synthesize hemocyanin that is one of the largest respiratory proteins in nature. However, investigation of rhogocyte cells in vitro is limited due to difficulty in isolating and establishing marine cell culture. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature and distribution of rhogocyte cells of Haliotis laevigata in the mantle tissue with respect to the expression of the two known isoforms of hemocyanin. Rhogocyte cells were identified using immunofluorescence-fluorescence in situ hybridization (IF-FISH) that involved simultaneous staining of localized hemocyanin by a polyclonal antibody while the mRNA was hybridized with FISH probes. The distribution of rhogocyte cells was demonstrated using flow cytometry, followed by cell sorting with fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) and confocal microscope imaging for further characterization. Our results suggested that the mantle tissue is dominated by two distinct populations of rhogocyte cells that synthesize hemocyanin type 1. Observation with confocal microscopy of both populations revealed hemocyanin localization in the periphery of the cell membrane. Cell population with higher antibody signal had irregular and elongated cell morphology with punctate mRNA probe signals. The second population with lower antibody signal had ovoid morphology and wide distribution of mRNA probe signals. We suggest that these populations represent two distinct phases of hemocyanin biosynthesis of a single isoform, which is closely related to Haliotis tuberculata type 1 hemocyanin (HtH1). The knowledge acquired in this study enhances the understanding of the biology of rhogocyte cells and biosynthesis of hemocyanin. PMID:25382219

Sairi, Fareed; Valtchev, Peter; Gomes, Vincent G; Dehghani, Fariba



Revision of the orb-weaving spider genus Verrucosa McCook, 1888 (Araneae, Araneidae).  


The araneid spider genus Verrucosa McCook, 1888 is revised. Five of the seven previously known species, V. arenata (Walckenaer, 1841), V. lampra Soares & Camargo, 1948, V. meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892), V. undecimvariolata (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889) and V. zebra (Keyserling, 1892), are redescribed and illustrated. In addition, 37 new species of Verrucosa from the Neotropical region are described and illustrated: V. cachimbo n. sp., V. tarapoa n. sp., V. scapofracta n. sp., V. carara n. sp., V. latigastra n. sp., V. guatopo n. sp., V. cuyuni n. sp., V. benavidesae n. sp., V. rancho n. sp., V. excavata n. sp., V. meta n. sp., V. levii n. sp., V. chanchamayo n. sp., V. manauara n. sp., V. brachiscapa n. sp., V. macarena n. sp., V. pedrera n. sp., V. lata n. sp., V. galianoae n. sp., V. suaita n. sp., V. coroico n. sp., V. florezi n. sp., V. hoferi n. sp., V. caninde n. sp., V. opon n. sp., V. silvae n. sp., V. avilesae n. sp., V. tuberculata n. sp., V. alvarengai n. sp., V. apuela n. sp., V. bartica n. sp., V. cajamarca n. sp., V. canje n. sp., V. cuyabenoensis n. sp., V. sergipana n. sp., V. simla n. sp. and V. rhea n. sp. Mahadiva reticulata O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 is removed from the synonymy of Verrucosa arenata (Walckenaer, 1841) and is recognized as a valid species, Verrucosa reticulata. Araneus cylicophorus Badcock, 1932 is transferred to Verrucosa by Mello-Leitão (1946) removed from the synonymy of Verrucosa meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892) and recognized as a valid species. The male of Verrucosa meridionalis (Keyserling, 1892) is described for the first time. Distributional maps are provided for all species. PMID:25781566

Lise, Arno A; Kesster, Cynara C; Da Silva, Estevam L Cruz



Revision of the Southeast Asian millipede genus Orthomorpha Bollman, 1893, with the proposal of a new genus (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The large genus Orthomorpha is rediagnosed and is shown to currently comprise 51 identifiable species ranging from northern Myanmar and Thailand in the Northwest to Lombok Island, Indonesia in the Southeast. Of them, 20 species have been revised and/or abundantly illustrated, based on a restudy of mostly type material; further 12 species are described as new: Orthomorpha atypica sp. n., Orthomorpha communis sp. n., Orthomorpha isarankurai sp. n., Orthomorpha picturata sp. n., Orthomorpha similanensis sp. n., Orthomorpha suberecta sp. n., Orthomorpha tuberculifera sp. n.,Orthomorpha subtuberculifera sp. n. and Orthomorpha latiterga sp. n., all from Thailand, as well as Orthomorpha elevata sp. n.,Orthomorpha spiniformis sp. n. and Orthomorpha subelevata sp. n., from northern Malaysia. The type-species Orthomorpha beaumontii (Le Guillou, 1841) is redescribed in due detail from male material as well, actually being a senior subjective synonym of Orthomorpha spinala (Attems, 1932), syn. n. Two additional new synonymies are proposed: Orthomorpha rotundicollis (Attems, 1937) = Orthomorpha tuberculata (Attems, 1937), syn. n., and Orthomorpha butteli Carl, 1922 = Orthomorpha consocius Chamberlin, 1945, syn. n., the valid names to the left. All species have been keyed and all new and some especially widespread species have been mapped. Further six species, including two revised from type material, are still to be considered dubious, mostly because their paraterga appear to be too narrow to represent Orthomorpha species. A new genus, Orthomorphoides gen. n., diagnosed versus Orthomorpha through only moderately well developed paraterga, coupled with a poorly bi- or trifid gonopod tip, with at least some of its apical prongs being short spines, is erected for two species: Orthomorpha setosus (Attems, 1937), the type-species, which is also revised from type material, and Orthomorpha exaratus (Attems, 1953), both comb. n. ex Orthomorpha. PMID:22140329

Likhitrakarn, Natdanai; Golovatch, Sergei I.; Panha, Somsak



Dynamics of plague in a Gunnison's prairie dog colony complex from New Mexico.  


A plague (Yersinia pestis) epizootic spread through Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni), and possibly other rodent species, in the Moreno Valley in north-central New Mexico between winter 1984-1985 and autumn 1987. We observed the progress of the epizootic and subsequent population recovery at four prairie dog towns within the valley during this period. At two towns (Midlake and Val Verde) the prairie dogs were marked prior to the epizootic. At two additional towns (Vega and South Entrance) prairie dogs were marked following the epizootic. In 1988, a second epizootic occurred at Vega. One hundred thirty-nine serum samples were collected from prairie dogs and other rodents and 1,750 fleas were collected from animals and burrows. Fleas infected with Y. pestis were collected from prairie dogs, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus). Prairie dog fleas included Oropsylla hirsuta, O. labis and O. tuberculata, deermouse associated fleas were Aetheca wagneri and Rhadinopsylla sectilis, and Oropsylla bacchi was associated with thirteen-lined ground squirrels. All of the above flea species were collected from prairie dog burrows. All rodent species shared some flea species. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels disappeared shortly before plague was identified in prairie dogs at Midlake. Meadow voles were rare following the epizootic at Vega in 1986, became abundant in 1987, and disappeared at the time of the second prairie dog epizootic in summer 1988. Although we collected serum from Gunnison's prairie dogs, thirteen-lined ground squirrels, deer mice, and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), we identified elevated serum titers against Y. pestis only in Gunnison's prairie dogs. Prairie dog mortality at all towns affected by plague was in excess of 99%. Serum antibody titers indicate that more than 40% of the few prairie dogs left to establish colonies following epizootics survived plague infection. PMID:9391954

Cully, J F; Barnes, A M; Quan, T J; Maupin, G



Extirpation of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) following the invasion of dreissenid mussels in an interconnecting river of the Laurentian Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Previous (1992-1994) surveys for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) along main channels of the Detroit River showed that unionids had been extirpated from all but four sites in the upper reaches of the river due to impacts of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis). These four sites were surveyed again in 1998 using the same sampling method (timed-random searches) to determine if they may serve as ''refugia'' where unionids and dreissenids co-exist. Two additional sites were sampled using additional methods (excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches) for comparison with unpublished data collected in 1987 and 1990. A total of four individuals of four species (Actinonaias ligamentina, Cyclonaias tuberculata, Lasmigona complanata and Pleurobema sintoxia) were found by timed-random searches at four sites in 1998 compared to 720 individuals of 24 species in 1992 and 39 individuals of 13 species in 1994. Excavated-quadrat and line-transect searches at the two additional sites yielded only one live specimen of Ptychobranchus fasciolaris compared to 288 individuals of 18 species in 1987 and 1990. Results of this study suggest that remaining densities of unionids in channels of the Detroit River are too low to support viable reproducing populations of any species. Therefore, we conclude that unionids have been extirpated from main channels of the Detroit River due to dreissenid infestation. As the Detroit River was one of the first water bodies in North America to be invaded by dreissenids, it is likely that unionids will also be extirpated from many other rivers and lakes across eastern North America over the next few decades. Resource agencies should be encouraged to implement active management programs to protect remaining unionid populations from zebra mussels.

Schloesser, Don W.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Kovalak, William P.; Longton, Gary D.; Smithee, Rick D.



Rivaling the World's Smallest Reptiles: Discovery of Miniaturized and Microendemic New Species of Leaf Chameleons (Brookesia) from Northern Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background One clade of Malagasy leaf chameleons, the Brookesia minima group, is known to contain species that rank among the smallest amniotes in the world. We report on a previously unrecognized radiation of these miniaturized lizards comprising four new species described herein. Methodology/Principal Findings The newly discovered species appear to be restricted to single, mostly karstic, localities in extreme northern Madagascar: Brookesia confidens sp. n. from Ankarana, B. desperata sp. n. from Forêt d'Ambre, B. micra sp. n. from the islet Nosy Hara, and B. tristis sp. n. from Montagne des Français. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of all nominal species in the B. minima group congruently support that the four new species, together with B. tuberculata from Montagne d'Ambre in northern Madagascar, form a strongly supported clade. This suggests that these species have diversified in geographical proximity in this small area. All species of the B. minima group, including the four newly described ones, are characterized by very deep genetic divergences of 18–32% in the ND2 gene and >6% in the 16S rRNA gene. Despite superficial similarities among all species of this group, their status as separate evolutionary lineages is also supported by moderate to strong differences in external morphology, and by clear differences in hemipenis structure. Conclusion/Significance The newly discovered dwarf chameleon species represent striking cases of miniaturization and microendemism and suggest the possibility of a range size-body size relationship in Malagasy reptiles. The newly described Brookesia micra reaches a maximum snout-vent length in males of 16 mm, and its total length in both sexes is less than 30 mm, ranking it among the smallest amniote vertebrates in the world. With a distribution limited to a very small islet, this species may represent an extreme case of island dwarfism. PMID:22348069

Glaw, Frank; Köhler, Jörn; Townsend, Ted M.; Vences, Miguel



Hoverfly (syrphidae) communities respond to varying structural retention after harvesting in canadian peatland black spruce forests.  


Variable retention harvesting (VRH), in which trees are removed at variable intensity and spatial configuration across the landscape, retains greater forest structural heterogeneity than traditional clear-cut harvesting and is being recommended as an alternative for sustainable management of the boreal forest. Little is known about its effects on forest fauna; thus, we studied the influence of one type of VRH (harvesting with advanced regeneration [HARP]) on the Syrphidae (Diptera) community in northern Ontario forests of peatland black spruce (Picea mariana). We examined the effects of varying structural retention (from unharvested through partial retention to clear-cut) on syrphid species richness and abundance, and abundance of functional assemblages. Greater species richness and population abundances were found generally in harvested than in unharvested forests. Overall species richness and the abundance of four species (Platycheirus rosarum, Toxomerus marginatus, Xylota annulifera, and X. tuberculata) and larval predators were all higher in both clear-cut sites and those with structural retention than in unharvested sites. Similarly, overall species richness and the abundance of nine species were higher in clear-cut than in unharvested sites. Species responses are discussed in an ecological context. Differences among the levels of forest retention harvesting were relatively minor compared with those of the clear-cut and unharvested area, suggesting that local habitat characteristics may play a more important role in determining the syrphid community than the landscape configuration. However, a landscape level effect was evident, suggesting that syrphids may be useful in reflecting changes in stand structure at the landscape scale. PMID:17445365

Deans, A M; Smith, S M; Malcolm, J R; Crins, W J; Bellocq, M I



Biotic interactions modify the transfer of cesium-137 in a soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web.  


The present study investigated the possible influence of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata on the transfer of cesium-137 ((137)Cs) from a contaminated (130 Bq/kg) deciduous forest soil to the lettuce Lactuca sativa and to the snail Cantareus aspersus (formerly Helix aspersa) in two laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the International Organization for Standardization 15952 test was used to expose snails for five weeks to contaminated soil with or without earthworms. In these conditions, the presence of earthworms caused a two- to threefold increase in (137)Cs concentrations in snails. Transfer was low in earthworms as well as in snails, with transfer factors (TFs) lower than 3.7 x 10(-2). Activity concentrations were higher in earthworms (2.8- 4.8 Bq/kg dry mass) than in snails (<1.5 Bq/kg). In the second experiment, microcosms were used to determine the contribution of soil and lettuce in the accumulation of (137)Cs in snails. Results suggest that the contribution of lettuce and soil is 80 and 20%, respectively. Microcosms also were used to study the influence of earthworms on (137)Cs accumulation in snail tissues in the most ecologically relevant treatment (soil-earthworm-plant-snail food web). In this case, soil-to-plant transfer was high, with a TF of 0.8, and was not significantly modified by earthworms. Conversely, soil-to-snail transfer was lower (TF, approximately 0.1) but was significantly increased in presence of earthworms. Dose rates were determined in the microcosm study with the EDEN (elementary dose evaluation for natural environment) model. Dose rates were lower than 5.5 x 10(-4) mGy/d, far from values considered to have effects on terrestrial organisms (1 mGy/d). PMID:18266477

Fritsch, Clémentine; Scheifler, Renaud; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hubert, Philippe; Coeurdassier, Michaël; de Vaufleury, Annette; Badot, Pierre-Marie



The use of environmental DNA in invasive species surveillance of the Great Lakes commercial bait trade.  


Over 180 non-native species have been introduced in the Laurentian Great Lakes region, many posing threats to native species and ecosystem functioning. One potential pathway for introductions is the commercial bait trade; unknowing or unconcerned anglers commonly release unused bait into aquatic systems. Previous surveillance efforts of this pathway relied on visual inspection of bait stocks in retail shops, which can be time and cost prohibitive and requires a trained individual that can rapidly and accurately identify cryptic species. Environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance, a molecular tool that has been used for surveillance in aquatic environments, can be used to efficiently detect species at low abundances. We collected and analyzed 576 eDNA samples from 525 retail bait shops throughout the Laurentian Great Lake states. We used eDNA techniques to screen samples for multiple aquatic invasive species (AIS) that could be transported in the bait trade, including bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus), Eurasian rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Twenty-seven samples were positive for at least one target species (4.7% of samples), and all target species were found at least once, except bighead carp. Despite current regulations, the bait trade remains a potential pathway for invasive species introductions in the Great Lakes region. Alterations to existing management strategies regarding the collection, transportation, and use of live bait are warranted, including new and updated regulations, to prevent future introductions of invasive species in the Great Lakes via the bait trade. El Uso del ADN Ambiental en la Vigilancia de Especies Invasoras del Mercado de Carnada Comercial de los Grandes Lagos. PMID:25169113

Nathan, Lucas R; Jerde, Christopher L; Budny, Michelle L; Mahon, Andrew R



Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) from the ANDEEP3 expedition.  


This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea.Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm), deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72) expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude) and from 0 to -65°W (longitude). A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (, including a cruise report ( dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens.The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m), while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m), Lysasterias adeliae (4832m), Lophaster stellans (4752m), Cheiraster planeta (4708m), Eremicaster crassus (4626m), Lophaster gaini (4560m) and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m)).Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings to light six species, newly reported in the Southern Ocean.The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly, by means of on-board Polarstern GPS systems, checking of identification by a renowned specialist (Prof. Michel Jangoux, Université Libre de Bruxelles), and matching to the Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS) and World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS). The data is therefore fit for completing checklists, for inclusion in biodiversity patterns analysis, or niche modeling. It also nicely fills an information gap regarding deep-sea starfish from the Southern Ocean, for which data is very scarce at this time. The authors may be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies. PMID:22577314

Danis, Bruno; Jangoux, Michel; Wilmes, Jennifer



Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.  


The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:25102662

Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade



Mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of tiger beetles: basic structure and evolution (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelitae).  


Using for comparison with, and as outgroups for, supertribe Cicindelitae, we describe and illustrate the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of the basal geadephagans Trachypachus gibbsii LeConte, 1861 (family Trachypachidae), and family Carabidae: Pelophila rudis (LeConte, 1863) (supertribe Nebriitae, tribe Pelophilini) and Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz, 1829) (supertribe Carabitae, tribe Ceroglossini). The range and pattern of variation in structure of mandibles and labrum-epipharynx within the supertribe Cicindelitae was assessed using scanning-electron (SEM) images of these structures in nine exemplar taxa: Amblycheila baroni (Rivers, 1890), Omus californicus (Eschscholtz, 1829) and Picnochile fallaciosa (Chevrolat, 1854) (representing the Amblycheilini); Manticora tuberculata (DeGeer, 1778) (representing the Manticorini): Tetracha carolina (Linnaeus, 1767) (representing the Megacephalini); Pogonostoma chalybeum (Klug, 1835) (representing the Collyridini); and Therates basalis Dejean, 1826, Oxycheila species, and Cicindela longilabris Say, 1824 (representing the Cicindelini). An evolutionary transformation series was postulated for the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx, based on a reconstructed phylogenetic sequence, which, in turn, was based on morphological and DNAevidence.Principal features of the transformation series for the mandibles included development of a densely setose basal face; wide quadridentate retinaculum; a lengthened incisor tooth; a multidentate terebra (one to five teeth; two-three most frequent), followed by subsequent loss of one or more such teeth; development of a diastema in the occlusal surface; development and subsequent loss of scrobal setae, and reduction and loss of the scrobe. Principal features of the transformation series for the labrum included evolution of form from transverse, sub-rectangular to elongate almost square, to triangular; position and number of setae evolved from dorsal to insertion on the apical margin, the number increased from 8-10 to as many as 36, and decreased to as few as four. The epipharynx broadened evolutionarily, the pedium evolving in form from narrow, triangular and nearly flat, to broad, palatiform, and markedly convex; anterior parapedial setae both increased and decreased in number, and in orientation, from a row parallel to the parapedial ridge to a setal row extended forward at about a right angle to the latter. PMID:22371663

Ball, George E; Acorn, John H; Shpeley, Danny



Mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of tiger beetles: basic structure and evolution (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelitae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Using for comparison with, and as outgroups for, supertribe Cicindelitae, we describe and illustrate the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx of the basal geadephagans Trachypachus gibbsii LeConte, 1861 (family Trachypachidae), and family Carabidae: Pelophila rudis (LeConte, 1863) (supertribe Nebriitae, tribe Pelophilini) and Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz, 1829) (supertribe Carabitae, tribe Ceroglossini). The range and pattern of variation in structure of mandibles and labrum-epipharynx within the supertribe Cicindelitae was assessed using scanning-electron (SEM) images of these structures in nine exemplar taxa: Amblycheila baroni (Rivers, 1890), Omus californicus (Eschscholtz, 1829) and Picnochile fallaciosa (Chevrolat, 1854) (representing the Amblycheilini); Manticora tuberculata (DeGeer, 1778) (representing the Manticorini): Tetracha carolina (Linnaeus, 1767) (representing the Megacephalini); Pogonostoma chalybeum (Klug, 1835) (representing the Collyridini); and Therates basalis Dejean, 1826, Oxycheila species, and Cicindela longilabris Say, 1824 (representing the Cicindelini). An evolutionary transformation series was postulated for the mandibles and labrum-epipharynx, based on a reconstructed phylogenetic sequence, which, in turn, was based on morphological and DNAevidence.Principal features of the transformation series for the mandibles included development of a densely setose basal face; wide quadridentate retinaculum; a lengthened incisor tooth; a multidentate terebra (one to five teeth; two-three most frequent), followed by subsequent loss of one or more such teeth; development of a diastema in the occlusal surface; development and subsequent loss of scrobal setae, and reduction and loss of the scrobe. Principal features of the transformation series for the labrum included evolution of form from transverse, sub-rectangular to elongate almost square, to triangular; position and number of setae evolved from dorsal to insertion on the apical margin, the number increased from 8-10 to as many as 36, and decreased to as few as four. The epipharynx broadened evolutionarily, the pedium evolving in form from narrow, triangular and nearly flat, to broad, palatiform, and markedly convex; anterior parapedial setae both increased and decreased in number, and in orientation, from a row parallel to the parapedial ridge to a setal row extended forward at about a right angle to the latter. PMID:22371663

Ball, George E.; Acorn, John H.; Shpeley, Danny



Causes of Late Pleistocene water level change in Lake Victoria, Equatorial East Africa, derived from clumped isotopes of land snails and fresh water mollusks. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is based on the dependence of 13C-18O bond abundance in the carbonate lattice (measured as ?47) on the carbonate formation temperature. Most marine and freshwater biogenic carbonates are found to be in agreement with the clumped isotopes - temperature calibration. Clumped isotope thermometry is particularly useful in terrestrial environments where the interpretation of carbonate ?18O is limited due to difficulty in estimating the paleo-water isotopic composition. Clumped isotope-derived temperatures from land snails are generally higher than the ambient environmental temperatures, but show no evidence for disequilibrium. We attribute these higher body temperatures to snail eco-physiological adaptations through shell color, morphology, and behavior. We use the clumped isotope-derived temperatures in combination with shell ?18O to calculate snail body water ?18O composition. This parameter is interpreted as a paleo-hydrological indicator that reflects the isotopic composition of local precipitation modified by local evaporation. Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to compare extant species of modern and fossil freshwater mollusks and land snails from the same location to examine lake paleo-hydrology. This location is particularly interesting as Lake Victoria itself is the main source of rain-water in the region such that the isotopic composition of land snail body water can be related back to the source waters. We combine clumped isotope and oxygen isotope measurements of both freshwater mollusks and land snails to examine the water balance of the lake, testing hypotheses about the mechanism of a significant rise in lake level in Lake Victoria ~35 - 40 ka BP. Outcrops of paleo-beach deposits ~18 m above the modern day lake level indicate high water stands at ~35-40 ka BP. Based on water balance models for Lake Victoria, an increase in lake level of this magnitude could be driven by local mean annual precipitation that is significantly greater than modern. However, this is inconsistent with regional climate reconstructions. This suggests that either lake level was controlled by non-climatic factors, or that local climate in the Lake Victoria basin was different than regional patterns of climate across eastern Africa. We use oxygen and clumped isotopes of modern and fossil shells (Corbicula sp., Melanoides sp. and Bellamya unicolor) from this 18 m beach outcrop on Mfangano Island to (1) compare with modern lake water ?18O values and (2) calculate paleo-water compositions. We combine these results with calculated snail body water ?18O composition (using oxygen and clumped isotopes) of land snails (Limicoloria cf. martensiana) from Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, to study hydrological changes of Lake Victoria. We use these data to evaluate the relative importance of climate change and tectonics as mechanisms for the Late Pleistocene expansion of Lake Victoria.

Zaarur, S.; Affek, H. P.; Tryon, C.; Peppe, D. J.; Faith, J.



Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control  

SciTech Connect

Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [Spanish] La conota, Panicum repens L., es una especie foranea de pasto que produce rizomas que ha convertido en ser una maleza invasora de ambientes terrestres, pantanosos y acuaticos en regiones tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. Hasta hace un tiempo reciente, las estrategias para controlar conota en los EEUU eran enfocadas casi exclusivamente en los metodos mecanicos y quimicos, solos o en combinacion, con resultados variables. Un muestreo de los artropodos y nematodos asociados corrientemente con esta planta en el Lago de Okeechobee, Florida, fue realizado como parte de un estudio de factibilidad para determinar si conota es una candidata apropiada para un programa de control biologico clasico. En general, especimenes de aproximadamente unos 4,000 artropodos y unos 400 nematodos fueron recolectados. Muestras recolectadas pasando una red sobre vegetacion mezclada, cortando la vegetacion y tomando centros del suelo fueron dominados por representantes de artropodos de los ordenes de Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, y Acari. Nematodos en el genero Pratylenchus, que causan lesiones sobre tejido, fueron asociados regularmente con las raices de conota. Ninguno de los organismos recolectados eran especialistas sobre conota. Aunque el control biologico clasico de la conota es factible basado sobre la magnitud de la infestacion, las perdidas economicas, la resistencia hacia los metodos de control convencionales y el informe en la India de un posible enemigo natural especifico a esta planta, la posicion botanica de este pasto maleza requiere una evaluacion de riesgo economico formal antes de continuar con un programa de control biologico clasico. (author)

Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr. [University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620 (United States)



Revision of the Ceratocapsine Renodaeus group: Marinonicoris, Pilophoropsis, Renodaeus, and Zanchisme, with descriptions of four new genera (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Renodaeus group, a monophyletic assemblage of genera within the New World orthotyline tribe Ceratocapsini, comprising eight genera, including four new ones, is defined; and 48 species are treated, including 26 described as new and 12 transferred from Ceratocapsus Reuter as new combinations. Ceratocapsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the new species Ceratocapsidea bahamaensis sp. n., from the Bahamas; Ceratocapsidea baranowskii sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsidea dominicanensis sp. n., from the Dominican Republic; Ceratocapsidea rileyi sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsidea taeniola sp. n., from Jamaica; Ceratocapsidea texensis sp. n., from Texas; Ceratocapsidea transversa sp. n., from Mexico (Neuvo León); and Ceratocapsidea variabilis sp. n., from Jamaica; and Ceratocapsus balli Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsus complicatus Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsidea consimilis Reuter, comb. n., Ceratocapsus fusiformis Van Duzee, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), Ceratocapsus nigropiceus Reuter, comb. n., and Ceratocapsus rufistigmus Blatchley, comb. n. [and a neotype designated], Ceratocapsus clavicornis Knight, syn. n. and Ceratocapsus divaricatus Knight, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Ceratocapsus fusiformis Van Duzee. The genus Marininocoris Carvalho and the only included species Marinonicoris myrmecoides Carvalho are redescribed. The genus Pilophoropsis Poppius is redescribed and revised, Renodaeus texanus Knight, comb. n. is transferred into it and the three new species Pilophoropsis bejeanae sp. n., from Sonora, Mexico; Pilophoropsis cunealis sp. n., from Oaxaca, Mexico; Pilophoropsis quercicola sp. n., from Arizona, USA, are described. Pilophoropsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate the 12 new species Pilophoropsidea brailovskyi sp. n., from Federal District, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea cuneata sp. n., from Chiapas, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea dimidiata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea fuscata sp. n., from Durango, Mexico and Arizona and New Mexico, USA; Pilophoropsidea keltoni sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea maxima sp. n., from Durango, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea pueblaensis sp. n., from Puebla, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea schaffneri sp. n., from Neuvo León and San Luis Potosi, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea serrata sp. n., from Michoacan, Mexico; Pilophoropsidea touchetae sp. n., from Mexico (Puebla); Pilophoropsidea truncata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); Pilophoropsidea tuberculata sp. n., from Mexico (Guerrero); and Ceratocapsus barberi Knight, comb. n., Ceratocapsus camelus Knight, comb. n. (as the type species of the genus), and Ceratocapsus fascipennis Knight, comb. n. Pilophoropsita gen. n. is described to accommodate Pilophoropsidea schaffneri sp. n. from Costa Rica and Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca). The genus Renodaeus Distant is redescribed and the new species Renodaeus mimeticus sp. n. from Ecuador is described. The genus Zanchisme Kirkaldy is reviewed and the four known species are redescribed. Zanchismeopsidea gen. n. is described to accommodate Zanchismeopsidea diegoi sp. n. from Argentina (Santiago del Estero). Provided are habitus illustrations for certain adults (Pilophoropsidea camelus, Pilophoropsis brachyptera Poppius, Renodaeus mimeticus, and Zanchisme mexicanus Carvalho & Schaffner), male and female (when available) color digital images and figures of male genitalia of all species, electron photomicrographs of diagnostic characters for selected species, and keys to the genera and their included species. The taxa treated in this paper are arranged alphabetically by genus and species. PMID:25878535

Henry, Thomas J.