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Sample records for inverse electron demand

  1. An intramolecular inverse electron demand Diels–Alder approach to annulated α-carbolines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Ni, Feng; Woo, Grace H C; Lo, Sie-Mun; Roveto, Philip M; Schaus, Scott E

    2012-01-01

    Summary Intramolecular inverse electron demand cycloadditions of isatin-derived 1,2,4-triazines with acetylenic dienophiles tethered by amidations or transesterifications proceed in excellent yields to produce lactam- or lactone-fused α-carbolines. Beginning with various isatins and alkynyl dienophiles, a pilot-scale library of eighty-eight α-carbolines was prepared by using this robust methodology for biological evaluation. PMID:23015831

  2. Asymmetric synthesis of bicyclic dihydropyrans via organocatalytic inverse-electron-demand oxo-Diels-Alder reactions of enolizable aliphatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Long; Yang, Kai-Chuan; Li, Yi; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Hong-Ping; Han, Bo; Peng, Cheng; Zhi, Yong-Gang; Gou, Xiao-Jun

    2016-08-23

    A highly enantioselective organocatalytic inverse-electron-demand oxo-Diels-Alder reaction involving aqueous acetaldehyde has been discovered. The reaction, in which cyclic enones serve as dienes in the presence of readily available secondary amine catalysts, allows facile construction of optically active bicyclic dihydropyrans. Other typical enolizable aliphatic aldehydes can also serve as competent dienophiles in the reaction. PMID:27436351

  3. Harnessing the bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition for pretargeted PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Thomas; Lewis, Jason S; Zeglis, Brian M

    2015-01-01

    Due to their exquisite affinity and specificity, antibodies have become extremely promising vectors for the delivery of radioisotopes to cancer cells for PET imaging. However, the necessity of labeling antibodies with radionuclides with long physical half-lives often results in high background radiation dose rates to non-target tissues. In order to circumvent this issue, we have employed a pretargeted PET imaging strategy based on the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. The methodology decouples the antibody from the radioactivity and thus exploits the positive characteristics of antibodies, while eschewing their pharmacokinetic drawbacks. The system is composed of four steps: (1) the injection of a mAb-trans-cyclooctene (TCO) conjugate; (2) a localization time period during which the antibody accumulates in the tumor and clears from the blood; (3) the injection of the radiolabeled tetrazine; and (4) the in vivo click ligation of the components followed by the clearance of excess radioligand. In the example presented in the work at hand, a (64)Cu-NOTA-labeled tetrazine radioligand and a trans-cyclooctene-conjugated humanized antibody (huA33) were successfully used to delineate SW1222 colorectal cancer tumors with high tumor-to-background contrast. Further, the pretargeting methodology produces high quality images at only a fraction of the radiation dose to non-target tissue created by radioimmunoconjugates directly labeled with (64)Cu or (89)Zr. Ultimately, the modularity of this protocol is one of its greatest assets, as the trans-cyclooctene moiety can be appended to any non-internalizing antibody, and the tetrazine can be attached to a wide variety of radioisotopes. PMID:25742199

  4. Harnessing the Bioorthogonal Inverse Electron Demand Diels-Alder Cycloaddition for Pretargeted PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their exquisite affinity and specificity, antibodies have become extremely promising vectors for the delivery of radioisotopes to cancer cells for PET imaging. However, the necessity of labeling antibodies with radionuclides with long physical half-lives often results in high background radiation dose rates to non-target tissues. In order to circumvent this issue, we have employed a pretargeted PET imaging strategy based on the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. The methodology decouples the antibody from the radioactivity and thus exploits the positive characteristics of antibodies, while eschewing their pharmacokinetic drawbacks. The system is composed of four steps: (1) the injection of a mAb-trans-cyclooctene (TCO) conjugate; (2) a localization time period during which the antibody accumulates in the tumor and clears from the blood; (3) the injection of the radiolabeled tetrazine; and (4) the in vivo click ligation of the components followed by the clearance of excess radioligand. In the example presented in the work at hand, a 64Cu-NOTA-labeled tetrazine radioligand and a trans-cyclooctene-conjugated humanized antibody (huA33) were successfully used to delineate SW1222 colorectal cancer tumors with high tumor-to-background contrast. Further, the pretargeting methodology produces high quality images at only a fraction of the radiation dose to non-target tissue created by radioimmunoconjugates directly labeled with 64Cu or 89Zr. Ultimately, the modularity of this protocol is one of its greatest assets, as the trans-cyclooctene moiety can be appended to any non-internalizing antibody, and the tetrazine can be attached to a wide variety of radioisotopes. PMID:25742199

  5. Recent Advances in Inverse-Electron-Demand Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions of 1-Oxa-1,3-Butadienes.

    PubMed

    Pałasz, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    This review is an endeavor to highlight the progress in the inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of 1-oxa-1,3-butadienes in recent years. The huge number of examples of 1-oxadienes cycloadditions found in the literature clearly demonstrates the incessant importance of this transformation in pyran ring synthesis. This type of reaction is today one of the most important methods for the synthesis of dihydropyrans which are the key building blocks in structuring of carbohydrate and other natural products. Two different modes, inter- and intramolecular, of inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of 1-oxadienes are discussed. The domino Knoevenagel hetero-Diels-Alder reactions are also described. In recent years the use of chiral Lewis acids, chiral organocatalysts, new optically active heterodienes or dienophiles have provided enormous progress in asymmetric synthesis. Solvent-free and aqueous hetero-Diels-Alder reactions of 1-oxabutadienes were also investigated. The reactivity of reactants, selectivity of cycloadditions, and chemical stability in aqueous solutions and under physiological conditions were taken into account to show the potential application of the described reactions in bioorthogonal chemistry. New bioorthogonal ligation by click inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition of in situ-generated 1-oxa-1,3-butadienes and vinyl ethers was developed. It seems that some of the hetero-Diels-Alder reactions described in this review can be applied in bioorthogonal chemistry because they are selective, non-toxic, and can function in biological conditions taking into account pH, an aqueous environment, and temperature. PMID:27573264

  6. ent-Kaurane-Based Regio- and Stereoselective Inverse Electron Demand Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions: Synthesis of Dihydropyran-Fused Diterpenoids†

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Chunyong; Wang, Lili; Chen, Haijun; Wild, Christopher; Ye, Na; Ding, Ye; Wang, Tianzhi; White, Mark A.; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2014-01-01

    A mild and concise approach for the construction of 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran ring integrated into the A-ring of the natural product oridonin using an optimized inverse electron demand hetero-Diels-Alder (IED HDA) reaction is reported herein. A self-dimerization of the exocyclic enone installed in the A-ring through a homo-HDA reaction was identified to exclusively give a dimeric ent-kaurane diterpenoid with the spirochroman core. Moreover, the efficient cross-HDA cycloadditions of this enone with various vinyl ethers or vinyl sulfides, instead of its own homo-HDA dimerization, were achieved in regio- and stereoselective manners, thus providing the access to novel dihydropyran-fused diterpenoids as potential anticancer agents to overcome chemoresistance. PMID:25225052

  7. ent-Kaurane-based regio- and stereoselective inverse electron demand hetero-Diels-Alder reactions: synthesis of dihydropyran-fused diterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chunyong; Wang, Lili; Chen, Haijun; Wild, Christopher; Ye, Na; Ding, Ye; Wang, Tianzhi; White, Mark A; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2014-11-14

    A mild and concise approach for the construction of a 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran ring integrated into the A-ring of the natural product oridonin using an optimized inverse electron demand hetero-Diels-Alder (IED HDA) reaction is reported herein. A self-dimerization of the exocyclic enone installed in the A-ring through a homo-HDA reaction was identified to exclusively give a dimeric ent-kaurane diterpenoid with the spirochroman core. Moreover, efficient cross-HDA cycloadditions of this enone with various vinyl ethers or vinyl sulfides, instead of its own homo-HDA dimerization, were achieved in a regio- and stereoselective manner, thus providing access to novel dihydropyran-fused diterpenoids as potential anticancer agents to overcome chemoresistance. PMID:25225052

  8. On-resin Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand: an efficient ligation method for complex peptides with a varying spacer to optimize cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Mareen; Meier, René; Braun, Klaus; Wiessler, Manfred; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2016-06-01

    Solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) is the method of choice to produce peptides. Several protecting groups enable specific modifications. However, complex peptide conjugates usually require a rather demanding conjugation strategy, which is mostly performed in solution. Herein, an efficient strategy is described using an on-resin Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand (DARinv). This method is compatible with the standard Fmoc/tBu strategy and is easy to monitor. As a proof of concept a titanium binding peptide was modified with a cyclic cell binding peptide (RGD) by DARinv on a solid support applying different tetrazines and alkenes. The generated bulky DARinv linkers were employed to act as the required spacer for RGD mediated cell adhesion on titanium. In vitro studies demonstrated improved cell spreading on DARinv-conjugated peptides and revealed, in combination with molecular dynamics-simulation, new insights into the design of spacers between the RGD peptide and the surface. Performing the DARinv on resin expands the toolbox of SPPS to produce complex peptide conjugates under mild, catalyst free conditions with reduced purification steps. The resulting conjugate can be effectively exploited to promote cell adhesion on biomaterials. PMID:27117044

  9. The Diels-Alder-Reaction with inverse-Electron-Demand, a very efficient versatile Click-Reaction Concept for proper Ligation of variable molecular Partners

    PubMed Central

    Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Kliem, Christian; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Braun, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The ligation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for working with image processing systems in diagnostics (MRT) attracts increasing notice and scientific interest. The Diels-Alder ligation Reaction with inverse electron demand (DARinv) turns out to be an appropriate candidate. The DARinv is characterized by a specific distribution of electrons of the diene and the corresponding dienophile counterpart. Whereas the reactants in the classical Diels-Alder Reaction feature electron-rich diene and electron-poor dienophile compounds, the DARinv exhibits exactly the opposite distribution of electrons. Substituents with pushing electrones increase and, with pulling electrons reduce the electron density of the dienes as used in the DARinv. We report here that the DARinv is an efficient route for coupling of multifunctional molecules like active peptides, re-formulated drugs or small molecules like the alkyalting agent temozolomide (TMZ). This is an example of our contribution to the "Click chemistry" technology. In this case TMZ is ligated by DARinv as a cargo to transporter molecules facilitating the passage across the cell membranes into cells and subsequently into subcellular components like the cell nucleus by using address molecules. With such constructs we achieved high local concentrations at the desired target site of pharmacological action. The DARinv ligation was carried out using the combination of several technologies, namely: the organic chemistry and the solid phase peptide synthesis which can produce 'tailored' solutions for questions not solely restricted to the medical diagnostics or therapy, but also result in functionalizations of various surfaces qualified amongst others also for array development. We like to acquaint you with the DARinv and we like to exemplify that all ligation products were generated after a rapid and complete reaction in organic solutions at room temperature, in high purity, but also, hurdles and difficulties on the way to the

  10. Inverse free electron laser accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; Sandweiss, J.; van Steenbergen, A. )

    1992-07-01

    The study of the INVERSE FREE ELECTRON LASER, as a potential mode of electron acceleration, is being pursued at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent studies have focussed on the development of a low energy, high gradient, multi stage linear accelerator. The elementary ingredients for the IFEL interaction are the 50 MeV Linac e[sup [minus

  11. Inverse Free Electron Laser accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; van Steenbergen, A. ); Sandweiss, J. )

    1992-09-01

    The study of the INVERSE FREE ELECTRON LASER, as a potential mode of electron acceleration, is being pursued at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent studies have focussed on the development of a low energy, high gradient, multi stage linear accelerator. The elementary ingredients for the IFEL interaction are the 50 MeV Linac e[sup [minus

  12. Inverse Free Electron Laser accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; Vansteenbergen, A.; Sandweiss, J.

    1992-09-01

    The study of the INVERSE FREE ELECTRON LASER, as a potential mode of electron acceleration, is being pursued at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent studies have focussed on the development of a low energy, high gradient, multi stage linear accelerator. The elementary ingredients for the IFEL interaction are the 50 MeV Linac e(-) beam and the 10(exp 11) Watt CO2 laser beam of BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), Center for Accelerator Physics (CAP) and a wiggler. The latter element is designed as a fast excitation unit making use of alternating stacks of Vanadium Permendur (VaP) ferromagnetic laminations, periodically interspersed with conductive, nonmagnetic laminations, which act as eddy current induced field reflectors. Wiggler parameters and field distribution data will be presented for a prototype wiggler in a constant period and in a approximately 1.5 percent/cm tapered period configuration. The CO2 laser beam will be transported through the IFEL interaction region by means of a low loss, dielectric coated, rectangular waveguide. Short waveguide test sections have been constructed and have been tested using a low power CW CO2 laser. Preliminary results of guide attenuation and mode selectivity will be given, together with a discussion of the optical issues for the IFEL accelerator. The IFEL design is supported by the development and use of 1D and 3D simulation programs. The results of simulation computations, including also wiggler errors, for a single module accelerator and for a multi-module accelerator will be presented.

  13. Inverse free electron laser accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; Sandweiss, J.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1992-07-01

    The study of the INVERSE FREE ELECTRON LASER, as a potential mode of electron acceleration, is being pursued at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent studies have focussed on the development of a low energy, high gradient, multi stage linear accelerator. The elementary ingredients for the IFEL interaction are the 50 MeV Linac e- beam and the 1011 Watt CO2 laser beam of BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), Center for Accelerator Physics (CAP), and a wiggler. The latter element is designed as a fast excitation unit making use of alternating stacks of Vanadium Permendur (VaP) ferromagnetic laminations, periodically interspersed with conductive, nonmagnetic laminations, which act as eddy current induced field reflectors. Wiggler parameters and field distribution data will be presented for a prototype wiggler in a constant period and in a ≊1.5%/cm tapered period configuration. The CO2 laser beam will be transported through the IFEL interaction region by means of a low loss, dielectric coated, rectangular waveguide. Short waveguide test sections have been constructed and have been tested using a low power cw CO2 laser. Preliminary results of guide attenuation and mode selectivity will be given, together with a discussion of the optical issues for the IFEL accelerator. The IFEL design is supported by the development and use of 1D and 3D simulation programs. The results of simulation computations, including also wiggler errors, for a single module accelerator and for a multi-module accelerator will be presented.

  14. Inverse Free Electron Laser accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Sandweiss, J.

    1992-09-01

    The study of the INVERSE FREE ELECTRON LASER, as a potential mode of electron acceleration, is being pursued at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent studies have focussed on the development of a low energy, high gradient, multi stage linear accelerator. The elementary ingredients for the IFEL interaction are the 50 MeV Linac e{sup {minus}} beam and the 10{sup 11} Watt CO{sub 2} laser beam of BNL`s Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), Center for Accelerator Physics (CAP) and a wiggler. The latter element is designed as a fast excitation unit making use of alternating stacks of Vanadium Permendur (VaP) ferromagnetic laminations, periodically interspersed with conductive, nonmagnetic laminations, which act as eddy current induced field reflectors. Wiggler parameters and field distribution data will be presented for a prototype wiggler in a constant period and in a {approximately} 1.5 %/cm tapered period configuration. The CO{sub 2} laser beam will be transported through the IFEL interaction region by means of a low loss, dielectric coated, rectangular waveguide. Short waveguide test sections have been constructed and have been tested using a low power cw CO{sub 2} laser. Preliminary results of guide attenuation and mode selectivity will be given, together with a discussion of the optical issues for the IFEL accelerator. The IFEL design is supported by the development and use of 1D and 3D simulation programs. The results of simulation computations, including also wiggler errors, for a single module accelerator and for a multi-module accelerator will be presented.

  15. Partitioning of on-demand electron pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubbelohde, Niels; Hohls, Frank; Kashcheyevs, Vyacheslavs; Wagner, Timo; Fricke, Lukas; Kästner, Bernd; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W.; Haug, Rolf J.

    2015-01-01

    The on-demand generation and separation of entangled photon pairs are key components of quantum information processing in quantum optics. In an electronic analogue, the decomposition of electron pairs represents an essential building block for using the quantum state of ballistic electrons in electron quantum optics. The scattering of electrons has been used to probe the particle statistics of stochastic sources in Hanbury Brown and Twiss experiments and the recent advent of on-demand sources further offers the possibility to achieve indistinguishability between multiple sources in Hong-Ou-Mandel experiments. Cooper pairs impinging stochastically at a mesoscopic beamsplitter have been successfully partitioned, as verified by measuring the coincidence of arrival. Here, we demonstrate the splitting of electron pairs generated on demand. Coincidence correlation measurements allow the reconstruction of the full counting statistics, revealing regimes of statistically independent, distinguishable or correlated partitioning, and have been envisioned as a source of information on the quantum state of the electron pair. The high pair-splitting fidelity opens a path to future on-demand generation of spin-entangled electron pairs from a suitably prepared two-electron quantum-dot ground state.

  16. Inverse free-electron laser accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, C.; Campisi, R.

    1982-01-01

    We first describe the basic physical properties of an inverse free-electron laser and make an estimate of the order of magnitude of the accelerating field obtainable with such a system; then apply the general ideas to the design of an actual device and through this example we give a more accurate evaluation of the fundamental as well as the technical limitations that this acceleration scheme imposes.

  17. An Inverse Free-Electron-Laser accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.C.; van Steenbergen, A.; Ulc, S.; Woodle, M.; Sandweiss, J.; Fang, Jyan-Min

    1993-08-01

    Recent work at BNL on electron acceleration using the Inverse Free-Electron Laser (IFEL) has considered a low-energy, high-gradient, multi-stage linear accelerator. Experiments are planned at BNL`s Accelerator Test Facility using its 50-MeV linac and 100-GW CO{sub 2} laser. We have built and tested a fast-excitation wiggler magnet with constant field, tapered period, and overall length of 47 cm. Vanadium-Permendur ferromagnetic laminations are stacked in alternation with copper, eddy-current-induced, field reflectors to achieve a 1.4-T peak field with a 4-mm gap and a typical period of 3 cm. The laser beam will pass through the wiggler in a low-loss, dielectric-coated stainless-steel, rectangular waveguide. The attenuation and transverse mode has been measured in waveguide sections of various lengths, with and without the dielectric. Results of 1-D and 3-D IFEL simulations, including wiggler errors, will be presented for several cases: the initial, single-module experiment with {Delta}E = 39 MeV, a four-module design giving {Delta}E = 100 MeV in a total length of 2 m, and an eight-module IFEL with {Delta}E = 210 MeV.

  18. The Inverse Demand Oxa-Diels-Alder Reaction of Resorcinarenes: An Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Regioselectivity and Diastereoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Stefańska, Karolina; Jędrzejewska, Hanna; Wierzbicki, Michał; Szumna, Agnieszka; Iwanek, Waldemar

    2016-07-15

    The Diels-Alder reaction enables introduction of new functionalities onto the resorcinarene skeleton with simultaneous generation of new stereogenic centers and expansion of the internal cavity. We present highly regio- and diastereoselective inverse electron demand oxa-Diels-Alder reactions of resorcinarene ortho-quinone methide with benzofuran and indene, each generating 12 new stereogenic centers. The mechanism and reasons for regioselectivity and diastereoselectivity were analyzed using theoretical calculations (NBO charges, Fukui functions, transition state energies, and thermodynamic stability of the products). Enantiomers were separated, and their configurations were determined by comparison of experimental and theoretical electronic circular dichroism spectra. PMID:27336857

  19. Inverse calculation of biochemical oxygen demand models based on time domain for the tidal Foshan River.

    PubMed

    Er, Li; Xiangying, Zeng

    2014-01-01

    To simulate the variation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in the tidal Foshan River, inverse calculations based on time domain are applied to the longitudinal dispersion coefficient (E(x)) and BOD decay rate (K(x)) in the BOD model for the tidal Foshan River. The derivatives of the inverse calculation have been respectively established on the basis of different flow directions in the tidal river. The results of this paper indicate that the calculated values of BOD based on the inverse calculation developed for the tidal Foshan River match the measured ones well. According to the calibration and verification of the inversely calculated BOD models, K(x) is more sensitive to the models than E(x) and different data sets of E(x) and K(x) hardly affect the precision of the models. PMID:25026574

  20. Electronic Eye: Streaming Video On-Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meulen, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of on-demand streaming video in school libraries. Explains how streaming works, considers advantages and technical issues, and describes products from three companies that are pioneering streaming in the educational video market. (LRW)

  1. Inverse Compton Scattering from Laser Accelerated Quasi-Monoenergetic Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yoshitaka; Kuwabara, Hajime; Ishii, Katsuhiro; Hanayama, Ryohei; Kawashima, Toshiyuki; Kitagawa, Yoneyoshi

    2010-11-01

    The progress of the laser accelerator shows us the possible applications to the industries, such as an inspection source for soft materials like as human bodies, plants foods and medicines. The inverse Compton scattering will realize such a novel inspection system. We demonstrate for the fist time that the laser-accelerated mono-energetic electrons inversely scatter the same counter laser beam to the Compton X-ray emissions. A Ti:sapphire laser (500mJ width 150fs) is divided into two beams. Main beam is focused to an edge of a helium gasjet to accelerate electrons to 13 and 22 MeV monoenergies, which inversely scattered the counter laser beam into 6 and 11 keV X-ray emissions in agreement with that calculated from the obtained electron spectra. The scattering is within 30 deg. around the main beam direction.

  2. Program Calculates Power Demands Of Electronic Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    CURRENT computer program calculates power requirements of electronic designs. For given design, CURRENT reads in applicable parts-list file and file containing current required for each part. Program also calculates power required for circuit at supply potentials of 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5 volts. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. Sun version of program (NPO-19590). PC version of program (NPO-19111).

  3. Inverse photoelectron spectrometer with magnetically focused electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainsky, Isay L.

    1991-01-01

    An inverse photoelectron spectrometer is described which is based on the design of a magnetically focused low energy electron gun. The magnetic lens extends its field over a relatively large segment of the electron trajectory, which could provide a better focusing effect on a high-current-density low-velocity electron beam, providing the magnetic field in the vicinity of the target is reduced sufficiently to preserve the collinearity of the beam. In order to prove the concept, ray tracing is conducted using the Herrmannsfeldt program for solving electron trajectories in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems. The program allows the calculation of the angles of the electron trajectories with the z axis, at the target location. The results of the ray-tracing procedure conducted for this gun are discussed. Some of the advantages of the magnetic focusing are also discussed.

  4. Quasi-ballistic Electronic Thermal Conduction in Metal Inverse Opals.

    PubMed

    Barako, Michael T; Sood, Aditya; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Junjie; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Zheng, Xiaolin; Braun, Paul V; Goodson, Kenneth E

    2016-04-13

    Porous metals are used in interfacial transport applications that leverage the combination of electrical and/or thermal conductivity and the large available surface area. As nanomaterials push toward smaller pore sizes to increase the total surface area and reduce diffusion length scales, electron conduction within the metal scaffold becomes suppressed due to increased surface scattering. Here we observe the transition from diffusive to quasi-ballistic thermal conduction using metal inverse opals (IOs), which are metal films that contain a periodic arrangement of interconnected spherical pores. As the material dimensions are reduced from ∼230 nm to ∼23 nm, the thermal conductivity of copper IOs is reduced by more than 57% due to the increase in surface scattering. In contrast, nickel IOs exhibit diffusive-like conduction and have a constant thermal conductivity over this size regime. The quasi-ballistic nature of electron transport at these length scales is modeled considering the inverse opal geometry, surface scattering, and grain boundaries. Understanding the characteristics of electron conduction at the nanoscale is essential to minimizing the total resistance of porous metals for interfacial transport applications, such as the total electrical resistance of battery electrodes and the total thermal resistance of microscale heat exchangers. PMID:26986050

  5. Ultrashort laser pulse driven inverse free electron laser accelerator experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, J. T.; Anderson, S. G.; Anderson, G.; Betts, S.; Fisher, S.; Tremaine, A.; Musumeci, P.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the ultrashort pulse high gradient inverse free electron laser accelerator experiment carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory which demonstrated gradients exceeding 200 MV /m using a 4 TW 100 fs long 800 nm Ti :Sa laser pulse. Due to the short laser and electron pulse lengths, synchronization was determined to be one of the main challenges in this experiment. This made necessary the implementation of a single-shot, nondestructive, electro-optic sampling based diagnostics to enable time-stamping of each laser accelerator shot with <100 fs accuracy. The results of this experiment are expected to pave the way towards the development of future GeV-class IFEL accelerators.

  6. An inverse free electron laser accelerator: Experiment and theoretical interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Jyan-Min

    1997-06-01

    Experimental and numerical studies of the Inverse Free Electron Laser using a GW-level 10.6 {mu}m CO{sub 2} laser have been carried out at Brookhaven`s Accelerator Test Facility. An energy gain of 2.5 % ({Delta}E/E) on a 40 MeV electron beam has been observed E which compares well with theory. The effects on IFEL acceleration with respect to the variation of the laser electric field, the input electron beam energy, and the wiggler magnetic field strength were studied, and show the importance of matching the resonance condition in the IFEL. The numerical simulations were performed under various conditions and the importance of the electron bunching in the IFEL is shown. The numerical interpretation of our IFEL experimental results was examined. Although good numerical agreement with the experimental results was obtained, there is a discrepancy between the level of the laser power measured in the experiment and used in the simulation, possibly due to the non-Gaussian profile of the input high power laser beam. The electron energy distribution was studied numerically and a smoothing of the energy spectrum by the space charge effect at the location of the spectrometer was found, compared with the spectrum at the exit of the wiggler. The electron bunching by the IFEL and the possibility of using the IFEL as an electron prebuncher for another laser-driven accelerator were studied numerically. We found that bunching of the electrons at 1 meter downstream from the wiggler can be achieved using the existing facility. The simulation shows that there is a fundamental difference between the operating conditions for using the IFEL as a high gradient accelerator, and as a prebuncher for another accelerator.

  7. Inversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Inversions are fascinating phenomena. They are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. What do inversions have to do with learning spaces? The author suggests that they are a useful metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education. On the basis of…

  8. Chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser vacuum accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Landahl, Eric C.

    2002-01-01

    A chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) vacuum accelerator for high gradient laser acceleration in vacuum. By the use of an ultrashort (femtosecond), ultrahigh intensity chirped laser pulse both the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased, thus yielding large gains in a compact system. In addition, the IFEL resonance condition can be maintained throughout the interaction region by using a chirped drive laser wave. In addition, diffraction can be alleviated by taking advantage of the laser optical bandwidth with negative dispersion focusing optics to produce a chromatic line focus. The combination of these features results in a compact, efficient vacuum laser accelerator which finds many applications including high energy physics, compact table-top laser accelerator for medical imaging and therapy, material science, and basic physics.

  9. Inverse planning of energy-modulated electron beams in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, John R. . E-mail: gentryj@gmh.org; Steeves, Richard; Paliwal, Bhudatt A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of megavoltage electron beams often poses a clinical challenge in that the planning target volume (PTV) is anterior to other radiosensitive structures and has variable depth. To ensure that skin as well as the deepest extent of the PTV receives the prescribed dose entails prescribing to a point beyond the depth of peak dose for a single electron energy. This causes dose inhomogeneities and heightened potential for tissue fibrosis, scarring, and possible soft tissue necrosis. Use of bolus on the skin improves the entrant dose at the cost of decreasing the therapeutic depth that can be treated. Selection of a higher energy to improve dose homogeneity results in increased dose to structures beyond the PTV, as well as enlargement of the volume receiving heightened dose. Measured electron data from a linear accelerator was used as input to create an inverse planning tool employing energy and intensity modulation using bolus (e-IMRT{sup TM}). Using tools readily available in a radiotherapy department, the applications of energy and intensity modulation on the central axis makes it possible to remove hot spots of 115% or more over the depths clinically encountered. The e-IMRT{sup TM} algorithm enables the development of patient-specific dose distributions with user-defined positions of peak dose, range, and reduced dose to points beyond the prescription point.

  10. Reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density by geostatistical inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkwitz, David; van den Boogaart, Karl Gerald; Hoque, Mainul; Gerzen, Tatjana

    2015-04-01

    The ionosphere is the upper part of the atmosphere where sufficient free electrons exist to affect the propagation of radio waves. Typically, the ionosphere extends from about 50 - 1000 km and its morphology is mainly driven by solar radiation, particle precipitation and charge exchange. Due to the strong ionospheric impact on many applications dealing with trans-ionospheric signals such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning, navigation and remote sensing, the demand for a highly accurate reconstruction of the electron density is ever increasing. Within the Helmholtz Alliance project "Remote Sensing and Earth System Dynamics" (EDA) the utilization of the upcoming radar mission TanDEM-L and its related products are prepared. The TanDEM-L mission will operate in L-band with a wavelength of approximately 24 cm and aims at an improved understanding of environmental processes and ecosystem change, e.g. earthquakes, volcanos, glaciers, soil moisture and carbon cycle. Since its lower frequency compared to the X-band (3 cm) and C-band (5 cm) radar missions, the influence of the ionosphere will increase and might lead to a significant degradation of the radar image quality if no correction is applied. Consequently, our interest is the reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density in order to mitigate the ionospheric delay. Following the ionosphere's behaviour we establish a non-stationary and anisotropic spatial covariance model of the electron density separated into a vertical and horizontal component. In order to estimate the model's parameters we chose a maximum likelihood approach. This approach incorporates GNSS total electron content measurements, representing integral measurements of the electron density between satellite to receiver ray paths, and the NeQuick model as a non-stationary trend. Based on a multivariate normal distribution the spatial covariance model parameters are optimized and afterwards the 3D electron density can be

  11. Electron energy and electron trajectories in an inverse free-electron laser accelerator based on a novel electrostatic wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikrah, M.; Jafari, S.

    2016-06-01

    We expand here a theory of a high-gradient laser-excited electron accelerator based on an inverse free-electron laser (inverse-FEL), but with innovations in the structure and design. The electrostatic wiggler used in our scheme, namely termed the Paul wiggler, is generated by segmented cylindrical electrodes with applied oscillatory voltages {{V}\\text{osc}}(t) over {{90}\\circ} segments. The inverse-FEL interaction can be described by the equations that govern the electron motion in the combined fields of both the laser pulse and Paul wiggler field. A numerical study of electron energy and electron trajectories has been made using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method. The results indicate that the electron attains a considerable energy at short distances in this device. It is found that if the electron has got sufficient suitable wiggler amplitude intensities, it can not only gain higher energy in longer distances, but also can retain it even after the passing of the laser pulse. In addition, the results reveal that the electron energy gains different peaks for different initial axial velocities, so that a suitable small initial axial velocity of e-beam produces substantially high energy gain. With regard to the transverse confinement of the electron beam in a Paul wiggler, there is no applied axial guide magnetic field in this device.

  12. An improved inversion for FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC ionosphere electron density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Yue, X.; Schreiner, W. S.

    2015-10-01

    An improved method to retrieve electron density profiles from Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) data is presented and applied to Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) observations. The improved inversion uses a monthly grid of COSMIC F region peak densities (NmF2), which are obtained via the standard Abel inversion, to aid the Abel inversion by providing information on the horizontal gradients in the ionosphere. This lessens the impact of ionospheric gradients on the retrieval of GPS RO electron density profiles, reducing the dominant error source in the standard Abel inversion. Results are presented that demonstrate the NmF2 aided retrieval significantly improves the quality of the COSMIC electron density profiles. Improvements are most notable at E region altitudes, where the improved inversion reduces the artificial plasma cave that is generated by the Abel inversion spherical symmetry assumption at low latitudes during the daytime. Occurrence of unphysical negative electron densities at E region altitudes is also reduced. Furthermore, the NmF2 aided inversion has a positive impact at F region altitudes, where it results in a more distinct equatorial ionization anomaly. COSMIC electron density profiles inverted using our new approach are currently available through the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Center. Owing to the significant improvement in the results, COSMIC data users are encouraged to use electron density profiles based on the improved inversion rather than those inverted by the standard Abel inversion.

  13. Acceleration of electrons using an inverse free electron laser auto- accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wernick, I.K.; Marshall, T.C.

    1992-07-01

    We present data from our study of a device known as the inverse free electron laser. First, numerical simulations were performed to optimize the design parameters for an experiment that accelerates electrons in the presence of an undulator by stimulated absorption of radiation. The Columbia free electron laser (FEL) was configured as an auto-accelerator (IFELA) system; high power (MW`s) FEL radiation at {approximately}1.65 mm is developed along the first section of an undulator inside a quasi-optical resonator. The electron beam then traverses a second section of undulator where a fraction of the electrons is accelerated by stimulated absorption of the 1.65 mm wavelength power developed in the first undulator section. The second undulator section has very low gain and does not generate power on its own. We have found that as much as 60% of the power generated in the first section can be absorbed in the second section, providing that the initial electron energy is chosen correctly with respect to the parameters chosen for the first and second undulators. An electron momentum spectrometer is used to monitor the distribution of electron energies as the electrons exit the IFELA. We have found; using our experimental parameters, that roughly 10% of the electrons are accelerated to energies as high as 1100 keV, in accordance with predictions from the numerical model. The appearance of high energy electrons is correlated with the abrupt absorption of millimeter power. The autoaccelerator configuration is used because there is no intense source of coherent power at the 1.65 mm design wavelength other than the FEL.

  14. Acceleration of electrons using an inverse free electron laser auto- accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wernick, I.K.; Marshall, T.C.

    1992-07-01

    We present data from our study of a device known as the inverse free electron laser. First, numerical simulations were performed to optimize the design parameters for an experiment that accelerates electrons in the presence of an undulator by stimulated absorption of radiation. The Columbia free electron laser (FEL) was configured as an auto-accelerator (IFELA) system; high power (MW's) FEL radiation at {approximately}1.65 mm is developed along the first section of an undulator inside a quasi-optical resonator. The electron beam then traverses a second section of undulator where a fraction of the electrons is accelerated by stimulated absorption of the 1.65 mm wavelength power developed in the first undulator section. The second undulator section has very low gain and does not generate power on its own. We have found that as much as 60% of the power generated in the first section can be absorbed in the second section, providing that the initial electron energy is chosen correctly with respect to the parameters chosen for the first and second undulators. An electron momentum spectrometer is used to monitor the distribution of electron energies as the electrons exit the IFELA. We have found; using our experimental parameters, that roughly 10% of the electrons are accelerated to energies as high as 1100 keV, in accordance with predictions from the numerical model. The appearance of high energy electrons is correlated with the abrupt absorption of millimeter power. The autoaccelerator configuration is used because there is no intense source of coherent power at the 1.65 mm design wavelength other than the FEL.

  15. High-quality electron beams from a helical inverse free-electron laser accelerator.

    PubMed

    Duris, J; Musumeci, P; Babzien, M; Fedurin, M; Kusche, K; Li, R K; Moody, J; Pogorelsky, I; Polyanskiy, M; Rosenzweig, J B; Sakai, Y; Swinson, C; Threlkeld, E; Williams, O; Yakimenko, V

    2014-01-01

    Compact, table-top sized accelerators are key to improving access to high-quality beams for use in industry, medicine and academic research. Among laser-based accelerating schemes, the inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) enjoys unique advantages. By using an undulator magnetic field in combination with a laser, GeV m(-1) gradients may be sustained over metre-scale distances using laser intensities several orders of magnitude less than those used in laser wake-field accelerators. Here we show for the first time the capture and high-gradient acceleration of monoenergetic electron beams from a helical IFEL. Using a modest intensity (~10(13) W cm(-2)) laser pulse and strongly tapered 0.5 m long undulator, we demonstrate >100 MV m(-1) accelerating gradient, >50 MeV energy gain and excellent output beam quality. Our results pave the way towards compact, tunable GeV IFEL accelerators for applications such as driving soft X-ray free-electron lasers and producing γ-rays by inverse Compton scattering. PMID:25222026

  16. Cooling of electrons in a silicon inversion layer.

    PubMed

    Prus, O; Reznikov, M; Sivan, U; Pudalov, V

    2002-01-01

    Low temperature cooling of two-dimensional electrons in silicon-metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors is studied experimentally and found to be more effective than expected from the bulk electron-phonon coupling in silicon. The extracted heat transfer rate to phonons depends cubically on electron temperature, suggesting that piezoelectric coupling, which is absent in bulk silicon, dominates over deformation potential. As a result, at 100 mK, electrons farther than approximately 100 microm from the contacts are mostly cooled by phonons. Using long devices and low excitation voltage we measure electron resistivity down to approximately 100 mK and find that some of the "metallic" curves turn insulating below approximately 300 mK. PMID:11800976

  17. Electron orbits in the microwave inverse FEL accelerator (MIFELA)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.B.; Marshall, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    The MIFELA is a new device based on stimulated absorption of microwaves by electrons moving along an undulator. An intense microwave field is used (a{sub s} = eE{sub s}/k{sub s} m c{sup 2} = 0.2) as well as a large undulator field (a{sub w}/{gamma} = eB{sub {perpendicular}}/{gamma}k{sub w} mc{sup 2} = 1/2) to accelerate electrons emitted at 6MeV from a rf gun to 20MeV in 1.5m. The spiral radius of the electrons in the undulator is 8mm, in a waveguide of diameter 34mm, with undulator period about 10cm. There is a small guiding field, and the electrons move in type I orbits. We describe three problems connected with the orbital motion of the electrons in this structure: (i) injecting the electrons in an increasing undulator field prior to entering the MIFELA; (ii) orbital motion and stability inside the MIFELA; (iii) extraction of electrons from the spiral orbit in the accelerator into an axially-propagating beam, obtaining {Beta}{sub {perpendicular}} < 0.02. These studies have application to a MIFELA which is under construction at Yale University by Omega-P.

  18. Tomography of the ionospheric electron density with geostatistical inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkwitz, D.; van den Boogaart, K. G.; Gerzen, T.; Hoque, M.

    2015-08-01

    In relation to satellite applications like global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and remote sensing, the electron density distribution of the ionosphere has significant influence on trans-ionospheric radio signal propagation. In this paper, we develop a novel ionospheric tomography approach providing the estimation of the electron density's spatial covariance and based on a best linear unbiased estimator of the 3-D electron density. Therefore a non-stationary and anisotropic covariance model is set up and its parameters are determined within a maximum-likelihood approach incorporating GNSS total electron content measurements and the NeQuick model as background. As a first assessment this 3-D simple kriging approach is applied to a part of Europe. We illustrate the estimated covariance model revealing the different correlation lengths in latitude and longitude direction and its non-stationarity. Furthermore, we show promising improvements of the reconstructed electron densities compared to the background model through the validation of the ionosondes Rome, Italy (RO041), and Dourbes, Belgium (DB049), with electron density profiles for 1 day.

  19. Population inversions in ablation plasmas generated by intense electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Kammash, T.; Brake, M. L.

    1988-11-01

    Experiments during the past three years have concerned the generation and spectroscopic study of electron beam-driven carbon plasmas in order to explore the production of optical and ultraviolet radiation from nonequilibrium populations. The output of MELBA (Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator), has been connected to an electron beam diode consisting of an aluminum (or brass) cathode stalk and a carbon anode. Magnetic field coils have been designed, procured, and utilized to focus the electron beam. A side viewing port permitted spectroscopic diagnostics to view across the surface of the anode. Spectroscopic diagnosis has been performed using a 1 m spectrograph capable of operation from the vacuum ultraviolet through the visible. This spectrograph is coupled to a 1024 channel optical multichannel analyzer. Spectra taken during the initial 400 ns period of the e-beam pulse showed a low effective charge plasma with primarily molecular components (C2, CH) as well as atomic hydrogen and singly ionized carbon (CII). When the generator pulse was crowbarred after the first 400 ns, the spectra revealed a continuation of the low charge state plasma.

  20. Control of wire heating with resistively guided fast electrons through an inverse conical taper

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A. P. L. Schmitz, H.; Green, J. S.; Booth, N.; Ridgers, C. P.; Pasley, J.

    2015-04-15

    The heating of a solid wire embedded in a solid substrate (of lower Z material) with relativistic electrons generated by ultra-intense laser irradiation is considered. Previously, it has been noted that the initial angular distribution of the fast electrons is a highly important factor in the efficacy of the heating [Robinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 122701 (2013)]. We show that, using 3D numerical simulations, the addition of an inverse conical taper at the front of wire can considerably improve the heating of the wire due to the reduction of angular spread of the fast electrons which is caused by transport through the inverse conical taper [Robinson et al., “Guiding of laser-generated fast electrons by exploiting the resistivity-gradients around a conical guide element,” Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion (to be published)].

  1. Effect of electron collisions on transport coefficients induced by the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bendib, A.; Tahraoui, A.; Bendib, K.; Mohammed El Hadj, K.; Hueller, S.

    2005-03-01

    The transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas under the influence of a high-frequency electric field are derived solving numerically the electron Fokker-Planck equation using a perturbation method, parametrized as a function of the electron mean-free-path {lambda}{sub ei} compared to the spatial scales L. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions of the inverse bremsstrahlung heating are considered. Electron-electron collision terms are kept in the analysis, which allows us to consider with sufficient accuracy to describe plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. Practical numerical fits of the transport coefficients are proposed as functions of Z and the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L.

  2. Proton laser accelerator by means of the inverse free electron laser mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Zakowicz, W.

    1984-07-01

    The inverse free electron laser accelerator is considered to be a potential high gradient electron accelerator. In this accelerator electrons oscillating in the magnetic field of a wiggler can gain energy from a strong laser beam propagating collinearly. The same mechanism of acceleration can work for protons and all other heavier particles. One can expect that the proton acceleration will be less effective, as it is more difficult to wiggle a heavier particle. It is indeed so, but this less efficient coupling of the proton and laser beam is partly compensated by the negligible radiative losses. These losses impose restrictions on the electron acceleration above 100 Gev. 6 references, 2 figures.

  3. F region electron density profile inversion from backscatter ionogram based on international reference ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng; Zhou, Chen; Zhang, Yuannong; Yang, Guobin; Jiang, Chunhua; Sun, Hengqing; Cui, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    Ionospheric backscatter sounding transmits HF (3-30 MHz) radio wave obliquely into ionosphere and receives echoes backscattered from remote ground. Due to the focusing effect, the echoes form leading edge on the swept frequency backscatter ionogram (BSI). This kind of backscatter ionogram contains plentiful ionospheric information, such as electron density, radio wave propagation modes and maximum usage frequency (MUF). By inversion algorithm, the backscatter ionogram can provide two-dimensional electron density profile (EDP) down range. In this paper, we propose an ionospheric F2 region EDP inversion algorithm. By utilizing the F2 bottomside electron density profile represented by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model and ray tracing techniques, this approach inverts the leading edge of the backscatter ionogram to two dimensional F region EDP. Results of validation experiments demonstrate that the inverted ionospheric EDPs show good agreement with the results of vertical ionosonde and provide reliable information of ionosphere. Thus the proposed inversion algorithm provide an effective and accurate method for achieving large scale and remote ionospheric electron density structure.

  4. First experimental results of the BNL inverse free electron laser accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Steenbergen, A. van; Gallardo, J.; Babzien, M.; Skaritka, J.; Wang, X.J.; Sandweiss, J.; Fang, J.M.; Qiu, X.

    1996-10-01

    A 40 MeV electron beam, using the inverse3e free-electron laser interaction, has been accelerated by {Delta}E/E = 2.5% over a distance of 0.47 m. The electrons interact with a 1--2 GW CO{sub 2} laser beam bounded by a 2.8 mm ID sapphire circular waveguide in the presence of a tapered wiggler with Bmax {approx} 1 T and a period 2.89 cm {le} {lambda}{sub w} {le} 3.14 cm. The experimental results of {Delta}E/E as a function of electron energy E, peak magnetic field Bw and laser power W{sub 1} compare well with analytical and 1-D numerical simulations and permit scaling to higher laser power and electron energy.

  5. Magnetic performance of a fast excitation wiggler for inverse free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, J.C.; Romano, T.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1993-12-31

    With the objective of performing an inverse free-electron laser accelerator experiment, an iron dominated (Vanadium Permendur), fast excitation, high K planar wiggler has been guilt and measured. We present in this report an analysis of a constant period wiggler and several tapering configurations (gap=4 mm; 3.0 cm < {lambda}{sub {omega}} < 5.0 cm) when we drive it to a peak field of B{sub max} {approx} 1.4T.

  6. Magnetic performance of a fast excitation wiggler for inverse free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Juan C.; Romano, T.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1993-11-01

    With the objective of performing an inverse free-electron laser accelerator experiment, an iron dominated (Vanadium Permendur), fast excitation, high K planar wiggler has been built and measured. We present in this report an analysis of a constant period wiggler and several tapering configurations (gap equals 4 mm; 3.0 cm < (lambda) w < 5.0 cm) when we drive it to a peak field of Bmax approximately equals 1.4 T.

  7. Very High Energy Gain at the Neptune Inverse Free Electron Laser Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Musumeci, P.; Boucher, S.; Doyuran, A.; England, R. J.; Pellegrini, C.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Travish, G.; Yoder, R.; Tochitsky, S.Ya.; Joshi, C.; Ralph, J.; Sung, C.; Tolmachev, S.; Varfolomeev, A.; Varfolomeev, A. Jr.; Yarovoi, T.

    2004-12-07

    We report the observation of energy gain in excess of 20 MeV at the Inverse Free Electron Laser Accelerator experiment at the Neptune Laboratory at UCLA. A 14.5 MeV electron beam is injected in an undulator strongly tapered in period and field amplitude. The IFEL driver is a CO2 10.6 {mu}m laser with power larger than 400 GW. The Rayleigh range of the laser, {approx} 1.8 cm, is much shorter than the undulator length so that the interaction is diffraction dominated. A few per cent of the injected particles are trapped in a stable accelerating bucket. Electrons with energies up to 35 MeV are measured by a magnetic spectrometer. Three-dimensional simulations, in good agreement with the measured electron energy spectrum, indicate that most of the acceleration occurs in the first 25 cm of the undulator, corresponding to an energy gradient larger than 70 MeV/m. The measured energy spectrum also indicates that higher harmonic Inverse Free Electron Laser interaction takes place in the second section of the undulator.

  8. Obtaining electron attachment cross sections by means of linear inversion of swarm parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabie, M.; Haefliger, P.; Chachereau, A.; Franck, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate electron attachment to strongly attaching gases as a function of the electron energy. The total electron attachment cross section of this electronegative sample gas is determined from the effective ionization rate constant νeff/N measured in a swarm experiment using the buffer gases N2 and CO2 with minor proportions (≲0.8%) of the sample gas SF6, and C3F8 respectively. The measured rate constants νeff/N for varying reduced electric field strengths E/N are unfolded from the electron energy distribution of the buffer gases. Different unfolding routines for so-called ill-posed problems are tested to find robust solutions for the attachment cross section. Finally, we propose Tikhonov regularization, which is a well defined algorithm for discrete linear inversion problems, as most efficient. Our method gives rise to an approximate and clearly defined solution for the attachment cross section, and it is described in detail.

  9. Electron irradiation induced buckling, morphological transformation, and inverse Ostwald ripening in nanorod filled inside carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anshika; Kumari, Reetu; Kumar, Vinay; Krishnia, Lucky; Naqvi, Zainab; Panwar, Amrish K.; Bhatta, Umananda M.; Ghosh, Arnab; Satyam, P. V.; Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to deduce the in-situ response of iron carbide (Fe3C) nanorod filled inside carbon nanotube (CNT) under electron irradiation. Electron irradiation on Fe3C filled-CNT at both high and room temperature (RT) has been performed inside transmission electron microscope. At high temperature (HT), it has been found that γ-Fe atoms in lattice of Fe3C nanorod accumulate first and then form the cluster. These clusters follow the inverse Ostwald ripening whereas if e-irradiation is performed at RT then only the morphological changes in both carbon nanotube as well as nanorod are observed. Compression generated either by electron beam heating or by shrinkage of CNT walls is observed to be a decisive factor.

  10. Rotatable spin-polarized electron source for inverse-photoemission experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stolwijk, S. D. Wortelen, H.; Schmidt, A. B.; Donath, M.

    2014-01-15

    We present a ROtatable Spin-polarized Electron source (ROSE) for the use in spin- and angle-resolved inverse-photoemission (SR-IPE) experiments. A key feature of the ROSE is a variable direction of the transversal electron beam polarization. As a result, the inverse-photoemission experiment becomes sensitive to two orthogonal in-plane polarization directions, and, for nonnormal electron incidence, to the out-of-plane polarization component. We characterize the ROSE and test its performance on the basis of SR-IPE experiments. Measurements on magnetized Ni films on W(110) serve as a reference to demonstrate the variable spin sensitivity. Moreover, investigations of the unoccupied spin-dependent surface electronic structure of Tl/Si(111) highlight the capability to analyze complex phenomena like spin rotations in momentum space. Essentially, the ROSE opens the way to further studies on complex spin-dependent effects in the field of surface magnetism and spin-orbit interaction at surfaces.

  11. Magnetic helicity conservation and inverse energy cascade in electron magnetohydrodynamic wave packets.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungyeon

    2011-05-13

    Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluidlike description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of three-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results. (1) Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite-traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. (2) EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence. PMID:21668138

  12. Magnetic Helicity Conservation and Inverse Energy Cascade in Electron Magnetohydrodynamic Wave Packets

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jungyeon

    2011-05-13

    Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluidlike description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of three-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results. (1) Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite-traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. (2) EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence.

  13. Electron mobility in extremely thin single-gate silicon-on-insulator inversion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gámiz, F.; Roldán, J. B.; Cartujo-Cassinello, P.; Carceller, J. E.; López-Villanueva, J. A.; Rodriguez, S.

    1999-12-01

    Inversion-layer mobility has been investigated in extremely thin silicon-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with a silicon film thickness as low as 5 nm. The Poisson and Schrœdinger equations have been self-consistently solved to take into account inversion layer quantization. To evaluate the electron mobility, the Boltzmann transport equation has been solved by the Monte Carlo method, simultaneously taking into account phonon, surface-roughness, and Coulomb scattering. We show that the reduction of the silicon layer has several effects on the electron mobility: (i) a greater confinement of the electrons in the thin silicon film, which implies an increase in the phonon-scattering rate and therefore a mobility decrease; (ii) a reduction in the conduction effective mass and the intervalley-scattering rate due to the redistribution of carriers in the two subband ladders as a consequence of size quantization resulting in a mobility increase; and (iii) an increase in Coulomb scattering because of a greater number of interface traps in the buried Si-SiO2 and to a closer approach of these charged centers to the mobile carriers. The dependence of these effects on the silicon-layer thickness and on the inversion-charge concentration causes the mobility to be a nontrivial function of these variables. A detailed explanation of the mobility behavior is provided. Mobility for samples with silicon thickness below 10 nm is shown to increase in an electric field range that depends on the charged center concentration, while for silicon layers over 10 nm mobility always decreases as the silicon-layer thickness is reduced.

  14. Inversion of Dynamical Scattering from Large-Angle Rocking-Beam Electron Diffraction Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Pennington, Robert S.; Koch, Christoph T.

    2016-07-01

    A method for ab initio structure factor retrieval from large-angle rocking-beam electron diffraction data of thin crystals is described and tested with experimental and simulated data. No additional information, such as atomicity or information about chemical composition, has been made use of. Our numerical experiments show that the inversion of dynamical scattering works best, if the beam tilt range is large and the specimen not too thick, because for moderate multiple scattering, the large tilt amplitude effectively removes local minima in this global optimization problem.

  15. Inversion of Dynamical Scattering from Large-Angle Rocking-Beam Electron Diffraction Patterns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Pennington, Robert S; Koch, Christoph T

    2016-07-01

    A method for ab initio structure factor retrieval from large-angle rocking-beam electron diffraction data of thin crystals is described and tested with experimental and simulated data. No additional information, such as atomicity or information about chemical composition, has been made use of. Our numerical experiments show that the inversion of dynamical scattering works best, if the beam tilt range is large and the specimen not too thick, because for moderate multiple scattering, the large tilt amplitude effectively removes local minima in this global optimization problem. PMID:27419576

  16. Detecting band inversions by measuring the environment: fingerprints of electronic band topology in bulk phonon linewidths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kush; Legare, Katherine; Garate, Ion

    The interplay between topological phases of matter and dissipative baths constitutes an emergent research topic with links to condensed matter, photonic crystals, cold atomic gases and quantum information. While recent studies suggest that dissipative baths can induce topological phases in intrinsically trivial quantum materials, the backaction of topological invariants on dissipative baths is overlooked. By exploring this back action for a centrosymmetric Dirac insulator coupled to phonons, we show that the linewidths of bulk optical phonons can reveal electronic band inversions. This result is the first known example where topological phases of an open quantum system may be detected by measuring the bulk properties of the surrounding environment.

  17. The theory and design of a chirped-pulse inverse free-electron laser: An innovative, compact, high-energy, vacuum-based, electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troha, Anthony Lawrence

    As current high-energy accelerator facilities continue to increase in both size and cost, there is a growing need for a relatively small and inexpensive alternative. Numerous experiments over the past decade have shown the inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) to be a feasible laser-driven particle accelerator. In the present work, a new variant of the IFEL is proposed, which uses a short-duration, chirped laser pulse to greatly increase the energy exchange from the drive-laser pulse to the electron bunch. An extensive investigation is then conducted, starting with analytical and numerical studies of the dynamics of an electron interacting with a high-intensity, focused laser pulse. Following a review of the physics behind a free-electron laser (FEL), a detailed analysis of several variants of the IFEL is performed, from which it is determined that an IFEL driven by a chirped laser pulse will not suffer the detrimental effects experienced by other IFEL schemes. The design specifications for the chirped-pulse inverse free-electron laser (CPIFEL) are then obtained from theoretical and computational models of the interaction, which culminates in a device that has an acceleration gradient approaching 1 GeV/m over an interaction distance of less than 5 cm. The acceleration mechanism is very efficient, providing a nearly uniform acceleration to a picosecond-duration charge bunch. The demands on laser technology are stringent, but not extreme. The laser must produce chirped-pulse durations only a few optical cycles long and intensities near 9 x 1016 W/cm2 at the focal plane. The IFEL is also an appealing choice, because it is essentially an FEL functioning in a different operational mode. FEL's are a well-established, familiar technology, routinely and reliably employed in a variety of research facilities throughout the world. Thus, the development of the IFEL has a strong foundation upon which to build, a heritage that will hopefully hasten the realization of a CPIFEL

  18. Unoccupied-electronic-band structure of graphite studied by angle-resolved secondary-electron emission and inverse photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, F.; Takahashi, T.; Ohsawa, H.; Suzuki, S.; Suematsu, H.

    1988-03-01

    Angle-resolved inverse photoemission spectroscopy (ARIPES) and angle-resolved secondary-electron emission spectroscopy (ARSEES) have been performed for graphite to establish experimentally the unoccupied-electronic-band structure as well as to study the difference between the two techniques. Remarkable differences have been found in the experimental two-dimensional band structures obtained by the two methods. The experimental results have been compared with the two different band calculations by R. C. Tatar and S. Rabii [Phys. Rev. B 25, 4126 (1982)] and by N. A. W. Holzwarth, S. G. Louie, and S. Rabii [Phys. Rev. B 26, 5382 (1982)] with special attention to the energy position of the three-dimensional interlayer band. The possible origin of the difference between ARIPES and ARSEES has also been discussed.

  19. Chirped-Pulse Inverse Free Electron Laser: A Tabletop, High-Gradient Vacuum Laser Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Troha, A L; Baldis, H A

    2001-03-05

    The inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) interaction is studied both theoretically and numerically in the case where the drive laser intensity approaches the relativistic regime, and the pulse duration is only a few optical cycles long. We show that by using an ultrashort, ultrahigh-intensity drive laser pulse, the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased considerably, thus yielding large energy gains. Using a chirped pulse and negative dispersion focusing optics allows one to take further advantage of the laser optical bandwidth and produce a chromatic line focus maximizing the gradient. The combination of these novel ideas results in a compact vacuum laser accelerator capable of accelerating picosecond electron bunches with a high gradient (GeV/m) and very low energy spread. A computer code which takes into account the three-dimensional nature of the interaction is currently in development and results are expected this Spring.

  20. Halide-Substituted Electronic Properties of Organometal Halide Perovskite Films: Direct and Inverse Photoemission Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi; Wei, Jian; Sato, Mikio; Koike, Harunobu; Xie, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Yan-Qing; Kanai, Kaname; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2016-05-11

    Solution-processed perovskite solar cells are attracting increasing interest due to their potential in next-generation hybrid photovoltaic devices. Despite the morphological control over the perovskite films, quantitative information on electronic structures and interface energetics is of paramount importance to the optimal photovoltaic performance. Here, direct and inverse photoemission spectroscopies are used to determine the electronic structures and chemical compositions of various methylammonium lead halide perovskite films (MAPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I), revealing the strong influence of halide substitution on the electronic properties of perovskite films. Precise control over halide compositions in MAPbX3 films causes the manipulation of the electronic properties, with a qualitatively blue shift along the I → Br → Cl series and showing the increase in ionization potentials from 5.96 to 7.04 eV and the change of transport band gaps in the range from 1.70 to 3.09 eV. The resulting light absorption of MAPbX3 films can cover the entire visible region from 420 to 800 nm. The results presented here provide a quantitative guide for the analysis of perovskite-based solar cell performance and the selection of optimal carrier-extraction materials for photogenerated electrons and holes. PMID:27101940

  1. High performance electronic device for the measurement of the inverse spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Javier E.; Guillén, Matías; Butera, Alejandro; Albaugh, Neil P.

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a high performance analog electronic device that can be used for the measurement of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) as a function of the applied magnetic field. The electronic circuit is based on the synchronous detection technique with a careful selection of the active components in order to optimize the response in this application. The electronic accessory was adapted for the simultaneous measurement of the ISHE signal and the microwave absorption in an electron spin resonance spectrometer and tested with a bilayer sample of 5 nm of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) and 5 nm of tantalum. The response of the electronic device was characterized as a function of the microwave power, the amplitude and frequency of the modulation signal, and the relative phase between signal and reference. This last characterization reveals a simple method to put in phase the signal with the reference. The maximum signal to noise ratio was achieved for a modulation frequency between 6 and 12 kHz, for the largest possible values of field modulation amplitude and microwave power.

  2. High performance electronic device for the measurement of the inverse spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Javier E; Guillén, Matías; Butera, Alejandro; Albaugh, Neil P

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a high performance analog electronic device that can be used for the measurement of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) as a function of the applied magnetic field. The electronic circuit is based on the synchronous detection technique with a careful selection of the active components in order to optimize the response in this application. The electronic accessory was adapted for the simultaneous measurement of the ISHE signal and the microwave absorption in an electron spin resonance spectrometer and tested with a bilayer sample of 5 nm of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) and 5 nm of tantalum. The response of the electronic device was characterized as a function of the microwave power, the amplitude and frequency of the modulation signal, and the relative phase between signal and reference. This last characterization reveals a simple method to put in phase the signal with the reference. The maximum signal to noise ratio was achieved for a modulation frequency between 6 and 12 kHz, for the largest possible values of field modulation amplitude and microwave power. PMID:26931877

  3. Nd{sup 3+} ion shift under domain inversion by electron beam writing in LiNbO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, P.; Sarkar, D.; Ramirez, M. O.; Garcia Sole, J.; Bausa, L. E.; Garcia, B. J.; Munoz Santiuste, J. E.

    2007-04-02

    Ferroelectric domain inversion has been obtained in Nd{sup 3+} doped lithium niobate by means of direct electron beam writing. The local effects of the polarization inversion on the optical transitions of Nd{sup 3+} ions have been studied by low temperature high resolution site selective spectroscopy. Inverted regions present different axial crystal field acting over Nd{sup 3+} ions compared with noninverted (original) regions. The results can be interpreted in terms of slight shifts of Nd{sup 3+} ions along the ferroelectric c axis within the Li{sup +} octahedrons, as a result of the lattice rearrangement after the domain inversion processes.

  4. The impact of price and tobacco control policies on the demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jidong; Tauras, John; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Background While much is known about the demand for conventional cigarettes, little is known about the determinants of demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes). The goal of this study is to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and to examine the impact of cigarette prices and smoke-free policies on e-cigarette sales. Methods Quarterly e-cigarette prices and sales and conventional cigarette prices from 2009 to 2012 were constructed from commercial retail store scanner data from 52 US markets, for food, drug and mass stores, and from 25 markets, for convenience stores. Fixed-effects models were used to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and associations between e-cigarette sales and cigarette prices and smoke-free policies. Results Estimated own price elasticities for disposable e-cigarettes centred around −1.2, while those for reusable e-cigarettes were approximately −1.9. Disposable e-cigarette sales were higher in markets where reusable e-cigarette prices were higher and where less of the population was covered by a comprehensive smoke-free policy. There were no consistent and statistically significant relationships between cigarette prices and e-cigarette sales. Conclusions E-cigarette sales are very responsive to own price changes. Disposable e-cigarettes appear to be substitutes for reusable e-cigarettes. Policies increasing e-cigarette retail prices, such as limiting rebates, discounts and coupons and imposing a tax on e-cigarettes, could potentially lead to significant reductions in e-cigarette sales. Differential tax policies based on product type could lead to substitution between different types of e-cigarettes. PMID:24935898

  5. Electronic Properties of Pseudomorphic Metallic Films: Photoemission and Inverse Photoemission Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankey, Gary Jay

    Recent developments in experimental physics have made possible the production and characterization of ultrathin metallic films of atomic dimension. The methods used to grow pseudomorphic fcc films of Ni, Co, and Fe on Cu(001) are described. High-quality epitaxial films are produced by vapor deposition in an ultra-high vacuum environment on suitably prepared substrates. The morphology of these films is characterized using a variety of experimental techniques: Auger electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and thermal desorption spectroscopy of adsorbed hydrogen. The magnetic properties of the films are measured with a surface magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometer. The occupied and unoccupied electronic band dispersions and critical point energies are determined with photoemission and inverse photoemission measurements. These measurements are used as eigenvalues for an empirical combined interpolation scheme bandstructure calculation of the energy bands along the fcc(001) surface normal. Results are presented for Cu(001), Ni(001), Co(001), and paramagnetic Fe(001). Changes in the unoccupied electronic states in the ultrathin film limit are determined for Co and Fe films on Cu(111). The Co films exhibit a bulk-like electronic structure similar to hcp Co(0001) down to films one atomic layer thick. The low-spin ferromagnetic phase of fcc Fe is produced on Cu(111) for films below 5 atomic layers thick. Above this thickness, the Fe films revert to a bulk-like bcc(110) phase. The development of the electronic structure is measured for ultrathin Cu films grown on a specially prepared fcc Co(001) substrate. The Cu 3d band is significantly narrowed for films 1 atomic layer thick and bulk-like for films 3 atomic layers thick (one fcc unit cell). The s, p band exhibits quantum-well states due to the discretization of reciprocal space in the direction perpendicular to the film surface. These quantum-well states are

  6. Ion bombardment of Ni(110) studied with inverse photoemission spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Benjamin; Warner, James; Heskett, David

    2016-02-01

    Inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) performed on clean Ni(110) reveals an unoccupied electronic surface state with energy ~ 2.5 eV above the Fermi level for emission near the Ȳ point of the Surface Brillouin Zone. Ion bombardment of the sample creates defects that reduce the intensity of the peak in IPES spectra. Sharp, intense diffraction spots in low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) patterns taken of the clean surface become dimmer after bombardment. Results of these measurements are compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the sputtering process to ascertain the approximate size of clean patches on the sample necessary to sustain the IPES and LEED features. At 170 K, the IPES surface state peak appears closely associated with the population of surface atomic sites contained in clean circular patches of about 50 atoms. The LEED patterns persist to greater degrees of sputtering and are associated with smaller clean patches. Both measurements performed at 300 K indicate significant self-annealing of the sputtering damage.

  7. Inverse free electron lasers and laser wakefield acceleration driven by CO2 lasers.

    PubMed

    Kimura, W D; Andreev, N E; Babzien, M; Ben-Zvi, I; Cline, D B; Dilley, C E; Gottschalk, S C; Hooker, S M; Kusche, K P; Kuznetsov, S V; Pavlishin, I V; Pogorelsky, I V; Pogosova, A A; Steinhauer, L C; Ting, A; Yakimenko, V; Zigler, A; Zhou, F

    2006-03-15

    The staged electron laser acceleration (STELLA) experiment demonstrated staging between two laser-driven devices, high trapping efficiency of microbunches within the accelerating field and narrow energy spread during laser acceleration. These are important for practical laser-driven accelerators. STELLA used inverse free electron lasers, which were chosen primarily for convenience. Nevertheless, the STELLA approach can be applied to other laser acceleration methods, in particular, laser-driven plasma accelerators. STELLA is now conducting experiments on laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). Two novel LWFA approaches are being investigated. In the first one, called pseudo-resonant LWFA, a laser pulse enters a low-density plasma where nonlinear laser/plasma interactions cause the laser pulse shape to steepen, thereby creating strong wakefields. A witness e-beam pulse probes the wakefields. The second one, called seeded self-modulated LWFA, involves sending a seed e-beam pulse into the plasma to initiate wakefield formation. These wakefields are amplified by a laser pulse following shortly after the seed pulse. A second e-beam pulse (witness) follows the seed pulse to probe the wakefields. These LWFA experiments will also be the first ones driven by a CO(2) laser beam. PMID:16483952

  8. Electronic structure investigation of the cubic inverse perovskite Sc3AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnuson, Martin; Mattesini, Maurizio; Höglund, Carina; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Birch, Jens; Hultman, Lars

    2008-12-01

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding of the recently discovered inverse perovskite Sc3AlN , in comparison to those of ScN and Sc metal, have been investigated by bulk-sensitive soft-x-ray emission spectroscopy. The measured ScL , NK , AlL1 , and AlL2,3 emission spectra are compared with calculated spectra using first-principles density-functional theory including dipole transition-matrix elements. The main Sc3d-N2p and Sc3d-Al3p chemical bond regions are identified at -4 and -1.4eV below the Fermi level, respectively. A strongly modified spectral shape of 3s states in the AlL2,3 emission from Sc3AlN in comparison to that for pure Al metal is found, which reflects the Sc3d-Al3p hybridization observed in the AlL1 emission. The differences between the electronic structures of Sc3AlN , ScN, and Sc metal are discussed in relation to the change in the conductivity and elastic properties.

  9. Excitation of atomic nuclei in hot plasma through resonance inverse electron bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalya, E. V.; Akhrameev, E. V.; Arutyunyan, R. V.; Bol'shov, L. A.; Kondratenko, P. S.

    2014-09-01

    A process of nucleus excitation by photons under the mechanism of the inverse electron bridge (IEB) is examined provided the energies of atomic and nuclear transitions coincide. It is shown that in this case, the excitation of nuclei with EL[ML] transition with the energy ωN≲10keV is strengthened relative to the process of photoabsorption by nucleus by a factor of 1/(ωNr0)2(L +2) [e4/(ωNr0)2(L+2)], where r0 is a typical size of domain in the ion shell for accumulation of electronic integrals. In the Rb84 nuclei the IEB cross section for the 3.4 keV M1 transition 6-(463.59 keV) ↔5-(463.59keV ) can exceed even a photoexcitation cross section for the 3.4keVE1 transition with the reduced probability in the Weisskopf model BW .u.(E1)=1. This result can be important for understanding the mechanisms of atomic nucleus excitation in hot plasma. In particular, the considered process is capable to provide the existence of so called gamma luminescence wave or a nuclear isomer "burning" wave—an analog of self-maintaining process of triggered depopulation of nuclear isomer.

  10. Role-based access control through on-demand classification of electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Basant; Kumar, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) provides convenient method to exchange medical information of patients between different healthcare providers. Access control mechanism in healthcare services characterises authorising users to access EHR records. Role Based Access Control helps to restrict EHRs to users in a certain role. Significant works have been carried out for access control since last one decade but little emphasis has been given to on-demand role based access control. Presented work achieved access control through physical data isolation which is more robust and secure. We propose an algorithm in which selective combination of policies for each user of the EHR database has been defined. We extend well known data mining technique 'classification' to group EHRs with respect to the given role. Algorithm works by taking various roles as class and defined their features as a vector. Here, features are used as a Feature Vector for classification to describe user authority. PMID:26559071

  11. Accelerating Atomic Orbital-based Electronic Structure Calculation via Pole Expansion plus Selected Inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Chen, Mohan; Yang, Chao; He, Lixin

    2012-02-10

    We describe how to apply the recently developed pole expansion plus selected inversion (PEpSI) technique to Kohn-Sham density function theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations that are based on atomic orbital discretization. We give analytic expressions for evaluating charge density, total energy, Helmholtz free energy and atomic forces without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. We also show how to update the chemical potential without using Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. The advantage of using PEpSI is that it has a much lower computational complexity than that associated with the matrix diagonalization procedure. We demonstrate the performance gain by comparing the timing of PEpSI with that of diagonalization on insulating and metallic nanotubes. For these quasi-1D systems, the complexity of PEpSI is linear with respect to the number of atoms. This linear scaling can be observed in our computational experiments when the number of atoms in a nanotube is larger than a few hundreds. Both the wall clock time and the memory requirement of PEpSI is modest. This makes it even possible to perform Kohn-Sham DFT calculations for 10,000-atom nanotubes on a single processor. We also show that the use of PEpSI does not lead to loss of accuracy required in a practical DFT calculation.

  12. Optical and Electronic Properties of Si Nanoclusters Synthesized in Inverse Micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Provencio, P.N.; Samara, G.A.; Wilcoxon, J.P.

    1998-12-14

    Highly crystalline, size-selected silicon (Si) nanocrystals in the size range 2-10 nm were grown in inverse micelles and their optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) properties were studied. High resolution TEM and electron diffraction results show that these nanocrystals retain their cubic diamond stuctures down to sizes {approximately}4 nm in diameter, and optical absorption data suggest that this structure and bulk-like properties are retained down to the smallest sizes produced ({approximately}1.8 nm diameter containing about 150 Si atoms). High pressure liquid chromatography techniques with on-line optical and electrical diagnostics were developed to purify and separate the clusters into pure, monodisperse populations. The optical absorption revealed features associated with both the indirect and direct bandgap transitions, and these transitions exhibited different quantum confinement effects. The indirect bandgap shifts from 1.1 eV in the bulk to {approximately}2.1 eV for nanocrystals {approximately}2 nm in diameter and the direct transition at r(l_"X - r15) blue shifts by 0.4 eV from its 3.4 eV bulk value over the same size range. Tailorable, visible, room temperature PL in the range 700-350 nm (1.8 - 3.5 eV) was observed from these nanocrystals. The most intense PL was in the violet region of the spectrum ({approximately}400 nm) and is attributed to direct electron-hole recombination. Other less intense PL peaks are attributed to surface state and to indirect bandgap recombination. The results are compared to earlier work on Si clusters grown by other techniques and to the predictions of various model calculations. Currently, the wide variations in the theoretical predictions of the various models along with considerable uncertainties in experimental size determination for clusters less than 3-4 nm, make it difficult to select among competing models.

  13. DERIVATION OF THE ELECTRON DISTRIBUTION IN SUPERNOVA REMNANT RX J1713.7-3946 VIA A SPECTRAL INVERSION METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hui; Chen Yang; Liu Siming

    2011-11-20

    We show that the radio, X-ray, and {gamma}-ray spectrum of the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946 can be accounted for with the simplest emission model, where all of these emissions are attributed to a population of relativistic electrons interacting with the cosmic microwave background radiation, IR interstellar photons, and a background magnetic field. Using a spectral inversion method, the parent electron distribution and its uncertainties are derived from the observed photon spectrum. These results are independent of the model of particle acceleration and strongly support the leptonic scenario for the TeV emission.

  14. Simplified Formulae System for Resonant Inverse Compton Scattering of a Fast Electron in an Intense Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, J. H.; Chen, W. P.; Zhang, S. N.; Chen, L.; Liu, D.; Chou, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    We present simple analytical formulae for the emission spectrum and total power of a special kind of resonant inverse Compton scattering (RICS) of a relativistic electron in an intense magnetic field. In contrast with the available formulae system, we obtain a markedly simplified one based on the semiclassical quantum theory, which is more understandable for people who are unfamiliar with quantum electrodynamics. We show that the RICS process, under an appropriate 'accommodation condition' derived in this paper, is predominantly much more efficient than the coexistent ordinary inverse Compton scattering, and produces highly beamed high-frequency radiation with moderately good monochromaticity. Our formulae are simple to use - thus offering a lucid physical intuition for the theory - and may find wide applications in hard X-ray and gamma-ray astrophysics.

  15. Validation of Spherically Symmetric Inversion by Use of a Tomographically Reconstructed Three-Dimensional Electron Density of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the coronal electron density by the inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) measurements by coronagraphs is a classic problem in solar physics. An inversion technique based on the spherically symmetric geometry (spherically symmetric inversion, SSI) was developed in the 1950s and has been widely applied to interpret various observations. However, to date there is no study of the uncertainty estimation of this method. We here present the detailed assessment of this method using a three-dimensional (3D) electron density in the corona from 1.5 to 4 solar radius as a model, which is reconstructed by a tomography method from STEREO/COR1 observations during the solar minimum in February 2008 (Carrington Rotation, CR 2066).We first show in theory and observation that the spherically symmetric polynomial approximation (SSPA) method and the Van de Hulst inversion technique are equivalent. Then we assess the SSPA method using synthesized pB images from the 3D density model, and find that the SSPA density values are close to the model inputs for the streamer core near the plane of the sky (POS) with differences generally smaller than about a factor of two; the former has the lower peak but extends more in both longitudinal and latitudinal directions than the latter. We estimate that the SSPA method may resolve the coronal density structure near the POS with angular resolution in longitude of about 50 deg. Our results confirm the suggestion that the SSI method is applicable to the solar minimum streamer (belt), as stated in some previous studies. In addition, we demonstrate that the SSPA method can be used to reconstruct the 3D coronal density, roughly in agreement with the reconstruction by tomography for a period of low solar activity (CR 2066). We suggest that the SSI method is complementary to the 3D tomographic technique in some cases, given that the development of the latter is still an ongoing research effort.

  16. Electron transport in electrically biased inverse parabolic double-barrier structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Bati; S, Sakiroglu; I, Sokmen

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical study of resonant tunneling is carried out for an inverse parabolic double-barrier structure subjected to an external electric field. Tunneling transmission coefficient and density of states are analyzed by using the non-equilibrium Green’s function approach based on the finite difference method. It is found that the resonant peak of the transmission coefficient, being unity for a symmetrical case, reduces under the applied electric field and depends strongly on the variation of the structure parameters.

  17. Demonstration of inverse free-electron laser seeding in a sub-80 K, short period cryogenic undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OʼShea, F. H.; Knyazik, Andrey; Marinelli, A.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Dunning, M.; Hast, C.; Hemsing, E.; Jobe, K.; Nelson, J.; Weathersby, S.; Xiang, D.; Holy, F.; Grüner, F.; Bahrdt, J.

    2014-12-01

    Short period, high field undulators have been shown to permit operation of x-ray free-electron lasers with short gain-lengths, and at unprecedented short wavelengths. In addition, the reduced beam energy required to reach resonance with a given radiation wavelength in short period undulators could prove useful in advanced inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) seeding schemes for future light sources, such as high-gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation, or in IFEL acceleration. We report here the in situ beam testing of a 9 mm period length cryogenic undulator having undulator parameter near unity in the context appropriate for advanced seeding and acceleration schemes, a linear accelerator. Because of the short period length of the undulator, a 47 MeV high-brightness electron beam could be used to produce near infrared photons via the undulator radiation mechanism. The undulator radiation was observed through a filter and the spectral response of the undulator is compared to simulation. Finally, an 800 nm seed laser was introduced in order to generate an energy modulation via the IFEL mechanism. Resonance between the electron beam and the laser seed was achieved without detailed knowledge of the temperature dependent undulator magnetic field through the observation of the undulator radiation. The energy modulation (and concomitant energy spread increase) of the electron beam was observed both directly in an electron beam spectrometer and indirectly via coherent transition radiation after conversion to a density modulation in a longitudinally dispersive chicane.

  18. Controlled generation of comb-like electron beams in plasma channels for polychromatic inverse Thomson γ-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmykov, S. Y.; Davoine, X.; Ghebregziabher, I.; Lehe, R.; Lifschitz, A. F.; Shadwick, B. A.

    2016-03-01

    Propagating a relativistically intense, negatively chirped laser pulse (the bandwidth  >150 nm) in a plasma channel makes it possible to generate background-free, comb-like electron beams—sequences of synchronized bunches with a low phase-space volume and controlled energy spacing. The tail of the pulse, confined in the accelerator cavity (an electron density ‘bubble’), experiences periodic focusing, while the head, which is the most intense portion of the pulse, steadily self-guides. Oscillations of the cavity size cause periodic injection of electrons from the ambient plasma, creating an electron energy comb with the number of components, their mean energy, and energy spacing dependent on the channel radius and pulse length. These customizable electron beams enable the design of a tunable, all-optical source of pulsed, polychromatic γ-rays using the mechanism of inverse Thomson scattering, with up to  ˜10-5 conversion efficiency from the drive pulse in the electron accelerator to the γ-ray beam. Such a source may radiate  ˜107 quasi-monochromatic photons per shot into a microsteradian-scale cone. The photon energy is distributed among several distinct bands, each having sub-30% energy spread, with a highest energy of 12.5 MeV.

  19. Amplification of radiation near cyclotron frequency due to electron population inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Wu, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Amplification of electromagnetic waves via the cyclotron maser mechanism by a population of weakly relativistic electrons is studied. The effect of a tenuous population of low energy background plasma is included. It is found that both the ordinary and extraordinary modes can be excited by the weakly relativistic electrons with a loss-cone distribution. The growth rate for the extraordinary mode is much higher than that for the ordinary mode. Velocity spread in the energetic electron distribution function may reduce the growth rate by a factor of approximately 10 from that in the monoenergetic case. The maximum growth rate for the fast extraordinary mode (X mode) occurs near the upper hybrid cutoff frequency. Numerical results are obtained and discussed.

  20. Ultra-Short Electron Beam Compression and Phase Locking Using an Inverse Free Electron Laser Interaction in the THz Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J. T.; Musumeci, P.; Scoby, C. M.; To, H.; Marcoux, C.

    2010-11-04

    The concept of a THz-based IFEL compressor at the UCLA Pegasus photoinjector laboratory is explored. A 3.5 MeV sub-picosecond electron beam generated in the photoinjector blowout regime can be compressed to femtosecond timescales by a THz IFEL interaction.

  1. Understanding Clinician Information Demands and Synthesis of Clinical Documents in Electronic Health Record Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farri, Oladimeji Feyisetan

    2012-01-01

    Large quantities of redundant clinical data are usually transferred from one clinical document to another, making the review of such documents cognitively burdensome and potentially error-prone. Inadequate designs of electronic health record (EHR) clinical document user interfaces probably contribute to the difficulties clinicians experience while…

  2. Customizable electron beams from optically controlled laser plasma acceleration for γ-ray sources based on inverse Thomson scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmykov, S. Y.; Davoine, X.; Ghebregziabher, I.; Shadwick, B. A.

    2016-09-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons in the blowout regime can be controlled by tailoring the laser pulse phase and the plasma target. The 100 nm-scale bandwidth and negative frequency chirp of the optical driver compensate for the nonlinear frequency red-shift imparted by wakefield excitation. This mitigates pulse self-steepening and suppresses continuous injection. The plasma channel suppresses diffraction of the pulse leading edge, further reducing self-steepening, making injection even quieter. Besides, the channel destabilizes the pulse tail confined within the accelerator cavity (the electron density "bubble"), causing oscillations in the bubble size. The resulting periodic injection generates background-free comb-like beams - sequences of synchronized, low phase-space volume bunches. Controlling the number of bunches, their energy, and energy spacing by varying the channel radius and the pulse length (as permitted by the large bandwidth) enables the design of a tunable, all-optical source of polychromatic, pulsed γ-rays using the mechanism of inverse Thomson scattering. Such source may radiate ~107 quasi-monochromatic 10 MeV-scale photons per shot into a microsteradian-scale observation angle. The photon energy is distributed among several distinct bands, each having sub-25% energy spread dictated by the mrad-scale divergence of electron beam.

  3. Holographic Inversion of Diffuse Electron Diffraction Intensities for the Ni(001)/K Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, K.; Wedler, H.

    At low temperatures many adsorbates arrange in lattice gas disorder on crystalline substrates. In a low energy electron diffraction (LEED) experiment this leads to diffuse intensities super-imposed on the sharp spots caused by the substrate. For the disordered adsorption system Ni(001)/K, we present two-dimensional intensity distributions as function of the electron energy and angle of incidence. They can be measured very fast (20 s per frame) and reliably using an automatic video based data acquisition technique. We show that diffuse intensity spectra DI(E) taken as function of energy for fixed surface parallel electron momentum transfer carry the information about the local adsorption structure. This is equivalent to conventional I(E) spectra taken for sharp spots. In the light of recent proposals it is shown that the diffuse single energy intensity pattern is not a hologram of the local structure because e.g. the reference wave is ill defined. However, the diffraction processes disturbing the pure reference wave cancel when the intensities of different energies are suitably averaged. It is demonstrated that the holographic reconstruction of real space information from such scanned energy data leads to reliable and well resolved atomic images. Full widths at half-maximum of such atomic images are not greater than 1 Å. Substrate atoms behind the reference atom in direction of the incident beam are imaged best. So, image reconstructions for different beam directions produce a full and high quality three-dimensional image of the local adsorption structure.

  4. Anisotropic electron-distribution function in inverse-bremsstrahlung-heated plasmas.

    PubMed

    Bendib, A; Bendib-Kalache, K; Cros, B; Maynard, G

    2016-04-01

    The electron-distribution function in homogeneous plasmas heated by a high-frequency laser field is calculated in velocity space from the Vlasov-Landau equation. The kinetic model is valid for moderate laser intensity defined by the relevant parameter α=v_{0}^{2}/v_{t}^{2}<0.5 where v_{0} and v_{t} are the peak velocity of oscillation in the high-frequency electric field and the thermal velocity, respectively. The results obtained constitute an improvement of the results reported in the literature devoted to weak electric field intensities. The electron-distribution function is calculated solving the kinetic equation with the use of the Legendre polynomial expansion within the laser field dipole approximation. It results in an infinite set of equations for the isotropic component f_{0}(v) and the anisotropic components f_{n≥1}(v) that we have solved numerically with appropriate truncation. For the second anisotropy f_{2}(v), we found that its maximum increases from the weak electric field intensity (α<0.01) to a moderate one (α=0.5) by a factor f_{2max}(α=0.5)/f_{2max}(α=0.01)≈48. Applications to the radiation pressure, electromagnetic instabilities, and photoabsorption are also considered. PMID:27176419

  5. Status of UCLA Helical Permanent-Magnet Inverse Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazik, A.; Tikhoplav, R.; Frederico, J. T.; Affolter, M.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2009-01-22

    A helical undulator, utilizing permanent-magnet of cylindrically symmetric (Halbach) geometry is being developed at UCLA's Neptune Facility. The initial prototype is a short 10 cm, 7 periods long helical undulator, designed to test the electron-photon coupling by observing the micro-bunching is currently being constructed. The Neptune IFEL facility utilizes a 15 MeV Photoinjector-generated electron beam of 0.5 nC interacting with CO{sub 2} of peak energy up to 100 J, estimated to have acceleration of 100 MeV/m. An Open Iris-Loaded Waveguide Structure (OILS) scheme which conserves laser mode size and wave fronts throughout the undulator, is utilized to avoid Gouy phase shift caused by focusing of the drive laser. Undulator design was tested by computer simulations Radia and Genesis 1.3. Coherent Transition Radiation and Coherent Cherenkov Radiation will be used for micro-bunching diagnostic. Currently permanent dipoles and their aluminum holders have been built, and the project is in its final state of assembly and undulator testing.

  6. Anisotropic electron-distribution function in inverse-bremsstrahlung-heated plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendib, A.; Bendib-Kalache, K.; Cros, B.; Maynard, G.

    2016-04-01

    The electron-distribution function in homogeneous plasmas heated by a high-frequency laser field is calculated in velocity space from the Vlasov-Landau equation. The kinetic model is valid for moderate laser intensity defined by the relevant parameter α =v02/vt2<0.5 where v0 and vt are the peak velocity of oscillation in the high-frequency electric field and the thermal velocity, respectively. The results obtained constitute an improvement of the results reported in the literature devoted to weak electric field intensities. The electron-distribution function is calculated solving the kinetic equation with the use of the Legendre polynomial expansion within the laser field dipole approximation. It results in an infinite set of equations for the isotropic component f0(v ) and the anisotropic components fn ≥1(v ) that we have solved numerically with appropriate truncation. For the second anisotropy f2(v ) , we found that its maximum increases from the weak electric field intensity (α <0.01 ) to a moderate one (α =0.5 ) by a factor f2 max(α =0.5 ) / f2 max(α =0.01 ) ≈48 . Applications to the radiation pressure, electromagnetic instabilities, and photoabsorption are also considered.

  7. Status of UCLA Helical Permanent-Magnet Inverse Free Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazik, A.; Tikhoplav, R.; Frederico, J. T.; Affolter, M.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    A helical undulator, utilizing permanent-magnet of cylindrically symmetric (Halbach) geometry is being developed at UCLA's Neptune Facility. The initial prototype is a short 10 cm, 7 periods long helical undulator, designed to test the electron-photon coupling by observing the micro-bunching is currently being constructed. The Neptune IFEL facility utilizes a 15 MeV Photoinjector-generated electron beam of 0.5 nC interacting with CO2 of peak energy up to 100 J, estimated to have acceleration of 100 MeV/m. An Open Iris-Loaded Waveguide Structure (OILS) scheme which conserves laser mode size and wave fronts throughout the undulator, is utilized to avoid Gouy phase shift caused by focusing of the drive laser. Undulator design was tested by computer simulations Radia and Genesis 1.3. Coherent Transition Radiation and Coherent Cherenkov Radiation will be used for micro-bunching diagnostic. Currently permanent dipoles and their aluminum holders have been built, and the project is in its final state of assembly and undulator testing.

  8. Evidence of p- to n-type inversion at CIGS grain boundaries: A depth-dependent surface electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Calvin; Ohta, Taisuke; Kellogg, Gary; Mansfield, Lorelle; Noufi, Rommel

    2014-03-01

    Chalcopyrite Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) is an interesting photovoltaic material because it holds the laboratory record for thin-film solar power conversion efficiency (η > 20 %) despite its disordered microcrystalline structure. However, commercialization of this technology has been limited by structural and chemical variations in CIGS films. Many microscopic and spectroscopic studies have shown built-in electric potentials (Φbi) at CIGS grain boundaries. This may assist with electron-hole separation, but the reported magnitude and statistical distribution of Φbi remains inconsistent between studies. In this work, photoemission and low-energy electron microscopies (PEEM and LEEM) were used to reconcile these reported differences. Highly surface sensitive PEEM measurements showed Φbi ~ 0 . 5 V, which was consistent with most other reports. However, more bulk sensitive LEEM measurements showed Φbi ~ 1 . 5 V, which strongly suggests p- to n-type inversion at CIGS grain boundaries. This formation of pn junctions at CIGS grain boundaries is likely responsible for the high performance of CIGS photovoltaics. Sandia is managed by Sandia Corp., a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, for the U.S. DOE NNSA (DE-AC04-94AL85000). Work was supported by an U.S. DOE EERE SunShot Bridging Research Interactions through collaborative Development Grants in Energy (BRIDGE).

  9. Gamma rays produced by intra-cavity inverse Compton scattering of a storage ring free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couprie, M. E.; Nutarelli, D.; Roux, R.; Visentin, B.; Nahon, L.; Bakker, R.; Delboulbé, A.; Billardon, M.

    1999-12-01

    A collimated tunable gamma-ray beam has been generated by inverse Compton scattering of an additional positron bunch with the Super-ACO storage ring free-electron laser (FEL) positioned inside the optical resonator in the UV range (345-355 nm). This specific novel set-up ensures a natural transverse overlap and synchronization. The tunable gamma-ray beam produced covers the energy range from a few MeV up to 35 MeV, the maximum energy achievable with a FEL. The number of scattered gamma rays is relatively large (5000 000 photons/s at 800 MeV and 2000 000 photons/s at 700 MeV, i.e. the greatest value for a FEL). Furthermore, a significant number of high-energy gamma rays have also been produced by scattering of the spontaneous radiation stored in the optical cavity. The scattering is performed from a positron bunch outside the undulator, demonstrating for the first time the possibility of optimizing the yield and/or the spectrum by alteration of the stored beam without alteration of the FEL.

  10. Improving the Automatic Inversion of Digital ISIS-2 Ionogram Reflection Traces into Topside Vertical Electron-Density Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.; Truhlik, V.; Huang, X.; Wang, Y.; Bilitza, D.

    2011-01-01

    The topside-sounders on the four satellites of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program were designed as analog systems. The resulting ionograms were displayed on 35-mm film for analysis by visual inspection. Each of these satellites, launched between 1962 and 1971, produced data for 10 to 20 years. A number of the original telemetry tapes from this large data set have been converted directly into digital records. Software, known as the TOPside Ionogram Scalar with True-height (TOPIST) algorithm has been produced that enables the automatic inversion of ISIS-2 ionogram reflection traces into topside vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h). More than million digital Alouette/ISIS topside ionograms have been produced and over 300,000 are from ISIS 2. Many of these ISIS-2 ionograms correspond to a passive mode of operation for the detection of natural radio emissions and thus do not contain ionospheric reflection traces. TOPIST, however, is not able to produce Ne(h) profiles from all of the ISIS-2 ionograms with reflection traces because some of them did not contain frequency information. This information was missing due to difficulties encountered during the analog-to-digital conversion process in the detection of the ionogram frame-sync pulse and/or the frequency markers. Of the many digital topside ionograms that TOPIST was able to process, over 200 were found where direct comparisons could be made with Ne(h) profiles that were produced by manual scaling in the early days of the ISIS program. While many of these comparisons indicated excellent agreement (<10% average difference over the entire profile) there were also many cases with large differences (more than a factor of two). Here we will report on two approaches to improve the automatic inversion process: (1) improve the quality of the digital ionogram database by remedying the missing frequency-information problem when possible, and (2) using the above-mentioned comparisons as

  11. Improving the Automatic Inversion of Digital Alouette/ISIS Ionogram Reflection Traces into Topside Electron Density Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Huang, Xueqin; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The topside sounders of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program were designed as analog systems. The resulting ionograms were displayed on 35 mm film for analysis by visual inspection. Each of these satellites, launched between 1962 and 1971, produced data for 10 to 20 years. A number of the original telemetry tapes from this large data set have been converted directly into digital records. Software, known as the Topside Ionogram Scalar With True-Height (TOPIST) algorithm, has been produced and used for the automatic inversion of the ionogram reflection traces on more than 100,000 ISIS-2 digital topside ionograms into topside vertical electron density profiles Ne(h). Here we present some topside ionospheric solar cycle variations deduced from the TOPIST database to illustrate the scientific benefit of improving and expanding the topside ionospheric Ne(h) database. The profile improvements will be based on improvements in the TOPIST software motivated by direct comparisons between TOPIST profiles and profiles produced by manual scaling in the early days of the ISIS program. The database expansion will be based on new software designed to overcome limitations in the original digital topside ionogram database caused by difficulties encountered during the analog-to-digital conversion process in the detection of the ionogram frame sync pulse and/or the frequency markers. This improved and expanded TOPIST topside Ne(h) database will greatly enhance investigations into both short- and long-term ionospheric changes, e.g., the observed topside ionospheric responses to magnetic storms, induced by interplanetary magnetic clouds, and solar cycle variations, respectively.

  12. Improving the automatic inversion of digital Alouette/ISIS ionogram reflection traces into topside electron density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Robert F.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Huang, Xueqin; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter

    2012-04-01

    The topside sounders of the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program were designed as analog systems. The resulting ionograms were displayed on 35 mm film for analysis by visual inspection. Each of these satellites, launched between 1962 and 1971, produced data for 10 to 20 years. A number of the original telemetry tapes from this large data set have been converted directly into digital records. Software, known as the Topside Ionogram Scalar With True-Height (TOPIST) algorithm, has been produced and used for the automatic inversion of the ionogram reflection traces on more than 100,000 ISIS-2 digital topside ionograms into topside vertical electron density profiles Ne(h). Here we present some topside ionospheric solar cycle variations deduced from the TOPIST database to illustrate the scientific benefit of improving and expanding the topside ionospheric Ne(h) database. The profile improvements will be based on improvements in the TOPIST software motivated by direct comparisons between TOPIST profiles and profiles produced by manual scaling in the early days of the ISIS program. The database expansion will be based on new software designed to overcome limitations in the original digital topside ionogram database caused by difficulties encountered during the analog-to-digital conversion process in the detection of the ionogram frame sync pulse and/or the frequency markers. This improved and expanded TOPIST topside Ne(h) database will greatly enhance investigations into both short- and long-term ionospheric changes, e.g., the observed topside ionospheric responses to magnetic storms, induced by interplanetary magnetic clouds, and solar cycle variations, respectively.

  13. A New Inversion Routine to Produce Vertical Electron-Density Profiles from Ionospheric Topside-Sounder Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yongli; Benson, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Two software applications have been produced specifically for the analysis of some million digital topside ionograms produced by a recent analog-to-digital conversion effort of selected analog telemetry tapes from the Alouette-2, ISIS-1 and ISIS-2 satellites. One, TOPIST (TOPside Ionogram Scalar with True-height algorithm) from the University of Massachusetts Lowell, is designed for the automatic identification of the topside-ionogram ionospheric-reflection traces and their inversion into vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h). TOPIST also has the capability of manual intervention. The other application, from the Goddard Space Flight Center based on the FORTRAN code of John E. Jackson from the 1960s, is designed as an IDL-based interactive program for the scaling of selected digital topside-sounder ionograms. The Jackson code has also been modified, with some effort, so as to run on modern computers. This modification was motivated by the need to scale selected ionograms from the millions of Alouette/ISIS topside-sounder ionograms that only exist on 35-mm film. During this modification, it became evident that it would be more efficient to design a new code, based on the capabilities of present-day computers, than to continue to modify the old code. Such a new code has been produced and here we will describe its capabilities and compare Ne(h) profiles produced from it with those produced by the Jackson code. The concept of the new code is to assume an initial Ne(h) and derive a final Ne(h) through an iteration process that makes the resulting apparent-height profile fir the scaled values within a certain error range. The new code can be used on the X-, O-, and Z-mode traces. It does not assume any predefined profile shape between two contiguous points, like the exponential rule used in Jackson s program. Instead, Monotone Piecewise Cubic Interpolation is applied in the global profile to keep the monotone nature of the profile, which also ensures better smoothness

  14. First-principles study of the inversion thermodynamics and electronic structure of Fe M2X4 (thio)spinels (M =Cr , Mn, Co, Ni; X =O , S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Carballal, David; Roldan, Alberto; Grau-Crespo, Ricardo; de Leeuw, Nora H.

    2015-05-01

    Fe M2X4 spinels, with the magnetite structure, where M is a transition metal and X is oxygen or sulfur, are candidate materials for spin filters, one of the key devices in spintronics. We present here a computational study of the inversion thermodynamics and the electronic structure of these (thio)spinels for M =Cr ,Mn ,Co ,Ni , using calculations based on the density functional theory with on-site Hubbard corrections (DFT +U ). The analysis of the configurational free energies shows that different behavior is expected for the equilibrium cation distributions in these structures: FeC r2X4 and FeM n2S4 are fully normal, FeN i2X4 and FeC o2S4 are intermediate, and FeC o2O4 and FeM n2O4 are fully inverted. We have analyzed the role played by the size of the ions and by the crystal field stabilization effects in determining the equilibrium inversion degree. We also discuss how the electronic and magnetic structure of these spinels is modified by the degree of inversion, assuming that this could be varied from the equilibrium value. We have obtained electronic densities of states for the completely normal and completely inverse cation distribution of each compound. FeC r2X4 ,FeM n2X4 ,FeC o2O4 , and FeN i2O4 are half-metals in the ferrimagnetic state when Fe is in tetrahedral positions. When M is filling the tetrahedral positions, the Cr-containing compounds and FeM n2O4 are half-metallic systems, while the Co and Ni spinels are insulators. The Co and Ni sulfide counterparts are metallic for any inversion degree together with the inverse FeM n2S4 . Our calculations suggest that the spin filtering properties of the Fe M2X4 (thio)spinels could be modified via the control of the cation distribution through variations in the synthesis conditions.

  15. Selective rearrangement of Nd{sup 3+} centers in LiNbO{sub 3} under ferroelectric domain inversion by electron beam writing

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, P.; Ramirez, M. O.; Garcia Sole, J.; Bausa, L. E.; Garcia, B. J.

    2008-07-01

    Different values of the electronic charge provided by a direct electron beam writing system have been used to produce polarization inverted domain regions in the micrometer range on Nd{sup 3+} optically activated LiNbO{sub 3}. The effect of the electronic charge on the Nd{sup 3+} center structure has been studied by means of low-temperature luminescence from Nd{sup 3+} ions. The axial crystal field acting on the Nd{sup 3+} centers has been analyzed through the {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} energy-level splitting of the Nd{sup 3+} ions. From there we have determined the position of Nd{sup 3+} ions into the Li{sup +} octahedra for the different unequivalent centers in domains reversed with different electronic doses. The results show that the axial crystal field acting on the unequivalent Nd{sup 3+} centers can be selectively modified by means of the different doses applied to produce the inversion of the polarization. Moreover, a control of the discrete shifts suffered by the Nd{sup 3+} ions into the Li{sup +} octahedra after the inversion process can be carried out in the range 0-0.02 A by selecting the type of Nd center to be shifted by means of the different electronic charge. The behavior of each Nd{sup 3+} center after the polarization inversion under different doses can be discriminated and the different nature, as well as the polar character of the Nd{sup 3+} centers, is clearly manifested.

  16. Inverse problem for Bremsstrahlung radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, K.E.; Fisch, N.J.

    1991-10-01

    For certain predominantly one-dimensional distribution functions, an analytic inversion has been found which yields the velocity distribution of superthermal electrons given their Bremsstrahlung radiation. 5 refs.

  17. {open_quotes}Media-On-Demand{close_quotes} multimedia electronic mail: A tool for collaboration on the web

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoi, Kei Nam; Rahman, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Undoubtedly, multimedia electronic mail has many advantages in exchanging information electronically in a collaborative work. The existing design of e-mail systems architecture is inefficient in exchanging multimedia message which has much larger volume, and requires more bandwidth and storage space than the text-only messages. This paper presents an innovative method for exchanging multimedia mail messages in a heterogeneous environment to support collaborative work over YAW on the Internet. We propose a {open_quotes}Parcel Collection{close_quotes} approach for exchanging multimedia electronic mail messages. This approach for exchanging multimedia electronic mail messages integrates the current WWW technologies with the existing electronic mail systems.

  18. Influence of the contact potential and space-charge effect on the performance of a Stoffel-Johnson design electron source for inverse photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Maniraj, M.; Barman, Sudipta Roy

    2014-03-15

    By imaging the spatial intensity distribution of the electrons from a Stoffel-Johnson (SJ) type low energy electron source for inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES), we find that the focus is distorted when the beam current exceeds the limiting value due to space charge effect. The space charge effect and the contact potential difference suppress the beam current at low energies (<10 eV). In this work, we show that these limitations of the SJ source can be overcome by compensation of the contact potential difference between the cathode and the lens electrodes and an uniform well focused electron beam with the set kinetic energy can be obtained. The size of the electron beam is around 1 mm full width at half maximum over the whole energy range of 5 to 30 eV generally used for IPES. The compensation of the contact potential difference also enhances the beam current substantially at low energies (<10 eV) and uniform beam current is achieved for the whole energy range. We find that the drift in the electron beam position is sensitive to the lens electrode separation and it is about 1 mm over the whole energy range. By measuring the n = 1 image potential state on Cu(100), we show that the resolution is better when the cathode filament current is set to lower values.

  19. Pair potentials for liquid sodium near freezing from electron theory and from inversion of the measured structure factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, F.; March, N. H.

    1990-04-01

    An effective pair potential for liquid sodium near freezing has been calculated from electron theory using the density-functional method. The main features of the potential extracted by Reatto, Levesque, and Weis [Phys. Rev. A 33, 3451 (1986)] by inverting the measured structure factor of Greenfield, Wellendorf, and Wiser [Phys. Rev. A 4, 1607 (1971)] are faithfully reflected by electron theory. To obtain precise agreement between the two methods will evidently require further progress in setting up nonlocal exchange and correlation functionals.

  20. Population inversions in ablation plasmas generated by intense electron beams. Final report, 1 November 1985-31 October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Gilgenbach, R.M.; Kammash, T.; Brake, M.L.

    1988-11-01

    Experiments during the past three years have concerned the generation and spectroscopic study of electron beam-driven carbon plasmas in order to explore the production of optical and ultraviolet radiation from nonequilibrium populations. The output of MELBA (Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator), has been connected to an electron-beam diode consisting of an aluminum (or brass) cathode stalk and a carbon anode. Magnetic-field coils were designed, procured, and utilized to focus the electron beam. A side viewing port permitted spectroscopic diagnostics to view across the surface of the anode. Spectroscopic diagnosis was performed using a 1-m spectrograph capable of operation from the vacuum-ultraviolet through the visible. This spectrograph is coupled to a 1024-channel optical multichannel analyzer. Spectra taken during the initial 400-ns period of the e-beam pulse showed a low effective-charge plasma with primarily molecular components (C/sub 2/, CH) as well as atomic hydrogen and singly ionized carbon (CII). When the generator pulse was crowbarred after the first 400 ns, the spectra revealed a continuation of the low-charge-state plasma. At times greater than 400 ns in non-crowbarred shots, the spectra revealed a highly ionized plasma with a very large intensity line at 2530 Angstroms due to CIV (5g-4f), and lower-intensity lines due to CIII and CII. This CIV line emission increased with time, peaking sharply between 750 and 900 ns, and decayed rapidly in less than 100 ns. Emission from these high ionization states may be due to electron beam-plasma instabilities, as this emission was accompanied by high levels of radio frequency and microwave emission.

  1. Exact electronic spectra and inverse localization lengths in one-dimensional random systems I. Random alloy, liquid metal and liquid alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T. M.

    1983-07-01

    Analytic continuations into the complex energy plane of Dyson-Schmidt type of equations for the calculation of the density of states are constructed for a random alloy model, a liquid metal and for a liquid alloy. In all these models the characteristic function follows from the solution of this equation. Its imaginary part yields the accumulated density of states and its real part is a measure for the inverse of the localization length of the eigenfunctions. The equations have been solved exactly for some distributions of the random variables. In the random alloy case the strengths of the delta-potentials have an exponential distribution. They may also have finite, exponentially distributed values with probability 0 ⪕ p ⪕ 1 and be infinite with probability q = 1 - p. In the liquid metal the liquid particles are assumed to behave like hard rods. This implies an exponential distribution of the distances between the particles. The common electronic potential may be arbitrary, but is assumed to vanish outside the rods. In the one-dimensional liquid alloy there is, apart from positional randomness of the liquid particles, a distribution of the strengths of the electronic delta-potentials. For Cauchy distributions an argument of Lloyd is extended to obtain the characteristic function from the one in the model with equal strengths. For the case of a liquid of point particles a three parameter class of distributions of the strengths is shown to yield a solution in the form of known functions of the equation mentioned above. For several cases numerical calculations of the density of states and the inverse localization length of the eigenfunctions are presented and discussed. New results are found: exponential decay of the density of states near special energies in the random alloy and liquid metal; divergence of the density of states at certain energies with non-classical exponent {1}/{3} in the random alloy if the average of the potential strengths vanishes

  2. BAYESIAN CONFIDENCE LIMITS OF ELECTRON SPECTRA OBTAINED THROUGH REGULARIZED INVERSION OF SOLAR HARD X-RAY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Emslie, A. Gordon; Massone, Anna Maria E-mail: annamaria.massone@cnr.it

    2012-11-10

    Many astrophysical observations are characterized by a single, non-repeatable measurement of a source brightness or intensity, from which we are to construct estimates for the true intensity and its uncertainty. For example, the hard X-ray count spectrum from transient events such as solar flares can be observed only once, and from this single spectrum one must determine the best estimate of the underlying source spectrum I({epsilon}), and hence the form of the responsible electron spectrum F(E). Including statistical uncertainties on the measured count spectrum yields a 'confidence strip' that delineates the boundaries of electron spectra that are consistent with the observed photon spectrum. In this short article, we point out that the expectation values of the source brightness and its variance in a given photon energy bin are in general not (as has been assumed in prior works) equal to n, the number of counts observed in that energy bin. Rather, they depend both on n and on prior knowledge of the overall photon spectrum. Using Bayesian statistics, we provide an explicit procedure and formulas for determining the 'confidence strip' (Bayesian credible region) for F(E), thus providing rigorous bounds on the intensity and shape of the accelerated electron spectrum.

  3. A Fast Parallel Algorithm for Selected Inversion of Structured Sparse Matrices with Application to 2D Electronic Structure Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Lu, Jiangfeng; Ying, Lexing; E, Weinan

    2009-09-25

    We present an efficient parallel algorithm and its implementation for computing the diagonal of $H^-1$ where $H$ is a 2D Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian discretized on a rectangular domain using a standard second order finite difference scheme. This type of calculation can be used to obtain an accurate approximation to the diagonal of a Fermi-Dirac function of $H$ through a recently developed pole-expansion technique \\cite{LinLuYingE2009}. The diagonal elements are needed in electronic structure calculations for quantum mechanical systems \\citeHohenbergKohn1964, KohnSham 1965,DreizlerGross1990. We show how elimination tree is used to organize the parallel computation and how synchronization overhead is reduced by passing data level by level along this tree using the technique of local buffers and relative indices. We analyze the performance of our implementation by examining its load balance and communication overhead. We show that our implementation exhibits an excellent weak scaling on a large-scale high performance distributed parallel machine. When compared with standard approach for evaluating the diagonal a Fermi-Dirac function of a Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian associated a 2D electron quantum dot, the new pole-expansion technique that uses our algorithm to compute the diagonal of $(H-z_i I)^-1$ for a small number of poles $z_i$ is much faster, especially when the quantum dot contains many electrons.

  4. Proposal for an on-demand source of polarized electrons into the edges of a topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inhofer, Andreas; Bercioux, Dario

    2013-12-01

    We propose a device that allows for the emission of pairs of spin-polarized electrons into the edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator. Charge and spin emission is achieved using a periodically driven quantum dot weakly coupled to the edge states of the host topological insulator. We present calculations of the emitted time-dependent charge and spin currents of such a dynamical scatterer using the Floquet scattering matrix approach. Experimental signatures of spin-polarized two-particle emission can be found in noise measurements. Here a new form of noise suppression, named Z2 antibunching, is introduced. Additionally, we propose a setup in which entanglement of the emitted electrons is generated. This entanglement is based on a postselection procedure and becomes manifest in a violation of a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality.

  5. Indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Since Doug MacAyeal's pioneering studies of the ice-stream basal traction optimizations by control methods, inversions for unknown parameters (e.g., basal traction, accumulation patterns, etc) have become a hallmark of the present-day ice-sheet modeling. The common feature of such inversion exercises is a direct relationship between optimized parameters and observations used in the optimization procedure. For instance, in the standard optimization for basal traction by the control method, ice-stream surface velocities constitute the control data. The optimized basal traction parameters explicitly appear in the momentum equations for the ice-stream velocities (compared to the control data). The inversion for basal traction is carried out by minimization of the cost (or objective, misfit) function that includes the momentum equations facilitated by the Lagrange multipliers. Here, we build upon this idea, and demonstrate how to optimize for parameters indirectly related to observed data using a suite of nested constraints (like Russian dolls) with additional sets of Lagrange multipliers in the cost function. This method opens the opportunity to use data from a variety of sources and types (e.g., velocities, radar layers, surface elevation changes, etc.) in the same optimization process.

  6. The defect-induced changes of the electronic and magnetic properties in the inverse Heusler alloy Ti2CoAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Wu, Bo; Yuan, Hongkuan; Feng, Yu; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The first-principles calculations are performed to investigate the effect of swap, antisite and vacancy defects of three classes on the electronic and magnetic properties in the inverse Heusler alloy Ti2CoAl of half-metallicity. Our calculations reveal that Ti(A/B)-Co and Co-Al swaps, Ti(A/B) and Al vacancy defects as well as CoTi(A)/Al and AlTi(A)/Ti(B) antisite defects are likely to form in a concentration as high as 12.5%. Among them, CoTi(A) antisite is detected to be the most probable defect. It is shown that the spin polarizations of Ti2CoAl are considerably reduced by the Ti(A/B)-Co swap and Ti(B)/Al vacancy defects, while a quite high spin polarization around 95% is observed in Co-Al swap as well as Ti(A) vacancy. Remarkably, all the likely antisite defects almost retain the half-metallic character in a concentration of 12.5% even if they have the possibility to form. However, induced by antisites, the Fermi levels shift to the edge of band gap with small peaks arising just above the Fermi level, which may destroy the half-metallicity by spin-flip excitation.

  7. The defect-induced changes of the electronic and magnetic properties in the inverse Heusler alloy Ti{sub 2}CoAl

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Wu, Bo; Yuan, Hongkuan; Feng, Yu; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-15

    The first-principles calculations are performed to investigate the effect of swap, antisite and vacancy defects of three classes on the electronic and magnetic properties in the inverse Heusler alloy Ti{sub 2}CoAl of half-metallicity. Our calculations reveal that Ti(A/B)–Co and Co–Al swaps, Ti(A/B) and Al vacancy defects as well as Co{sub Ti(A)/Al} and Al{sub Ti(A)/Ti(B)} antisite defects are likely to form in a concentration as high as 12.5%. Among them, Co{sub Ti(A)} antisite is detected to be the most probable defect. It is shown that the spin polarizations of Ti{sub 2}CoAl are considerably reduced by the Ti(A/B)–Co swap and Ti(B)/Al vacancy defects, while a quite high spin polarization around 95% is observed in Co–Al swap as well as Ti(A) vacancy. Remarkably, all the likely antisite defects almost retain the half-metallic character in a concentration of 12.5% even if they have the possibility to form. However, induced by antisites, the Fermi levels shift to the edge of band gap with small peaks arising just above the Fermi level, which may destroy the half-metallicity by spin-flip excitation. - Graphical abstract: The spin polarization and formation energy of various possible defects in inverse Heusler alloy Ti{sub 2}CoAl. The triangle, star and square represent the swap, antisite and vacancy defects, respectively. - Highlights: • The swap, antisite, and vacancy defects are studied in half-metallic Ti{sub 2}CoAl. • The Co{sub Ti(A)} antisite is the most probable among the studied defects. • The antisite defects almost retain the half-metallicity. • Most of swap and vacancy defects have degraded the half-metallicity. • High spin polarizations are detected in Co–Al swap and Ti(A) vacancy defects.

  8. Donor states in inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  9. Donor states in inverse opals

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-21

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  10. First-principles study on the effect of defects on the electronic and magnetic properties of the Ti2NiAl inverse Heusler alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Chen, Ying; Feng, Yu; Yuan, Hongkuan; Chen, Hong

    2014-12-01

    The effect of atomic antisite and swap defects on the electronic and magnetic properties of Ti2NiAl inverse Heusler alloy is investigated by the first-principles calculations within density functional theory. In the ordered Ti2NiAl alloy, there are eight antisites and five swaps which are established by the replacement of an atom by another and the exchange in positions of atoms, respectively. The NiTi(A) antisite is found to be the most probable defect due to the lowest formation energy, whereas the least probable defects are the AlTi(A)/Ti(B) and NiAl/Ti(B) antisites as well as Ni-Ti(A) and Al-Ti(B) swaps due to the higher formation energies compared with NiTi(A) antisite. The TiNi/Al and AlNi antisites as well as Al-Ti(A)/Ni and Ni-Ti(B) swaps are highly unlikely to be formed due to the positive values of formation energy. Moreover, we deduce from the relative binding energy of the swap with respect to their antisites that the Ni prefers atomic antisite to site swap, while Al prefers site swap to atomic antisite. The spin polarization is markedly reduced in Ni/AlTi(B) antisite as well as Ni-Ti(A) and Al-Ti(B) swaps due to the occurrence of defect states at the Fermi level, while a very high spin polarization is obtained for Ni/AlTi(A) antisites and only the NiAl antisite retains the half-metallicity with a perfect spin polarization. The magnetic moments of all the likely defected structures decrease in comparison to the ordered Ti2NiAl mainly due to the decrease of local magnetic moments of the defect atom and its near neighbors.

  11. Inverse Floatation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Anish; Chatterjee, Souvick; Ganguly, Ranjan; Sen, Swarnendu; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    We have observed that capillarity forces may cause floatation in a few non-intuitive configurations. These may be divided into 2 categories: i) floatation of heavier liquid droplets on lighter immiscible ones and ii) fully submerged floatation of lighter liquid droplets in a heavier immiscible medium. We call these counter-intuitive because of the inverse floatation configuration. For case (i) we have identified and studied in detail the several factors affecting the shape and maximum volume of the floating drop. We used water and vegetable oil combinations as test fluids and established the relation between Bond Number and maximum volume contained in a floating drop (in the order of μL). For case (ii), we injected vegetable oil drop-wise into a pool of water. The fully submerged configuration of the drop is not stable and a slight perturbation to the system causes the droplet to burst and float in partially submerged condition. Temporal variation of a characteristic length of the droplet is analyzed using MATLAB image processing. The constraint of small Bond Number establishes the assumption of lubrication regime in the thin gap. A brief theoretical formulation also shows the temporal variation of the gap thickness. Jadavpur University, Jagadis Bose Centre of Excellence, Virginia Tech.

  12. EXTERNAL INVERSE COMPTON SPECTRA FOR MONOENERGETIC AND BLACKBODY PHOTON FIELDS UPSCATTERED BY A POWER-LAW ELECTRON DISTRIBUTION WITH A FINITE ENERGY RANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Fouka, M.; Ouichaoui, S. E-mail: souichaoui@usthb.dz

    2011-08-20

    We have calculated the inverse Compton (IC) integrated spectral power within the Thomson limit for a monoenergetic isotropic photon field upscattered off highly relativistic electrons assuming an isotropic power-law distribution of the latter, N({gamma}) = C{gamma}{sup -p}, with Lorentz parameter values {gamma}{sub 1} < {gamma} < {gamma}{sub 2}. Our interest was essentially focused on the case of a finite energy range (finite {gamma}{sub 2}) possibly having realistic applications in high-energy astrophysical sites, mainly relativistic shock regions. To this end, we have defined and derived a dimensionless parametric function, F{sub p} (z{sub 1}, {eta}), with variables z{sub 1} = {epsilon}{sub 1}/4{gamma}{sup 2}{sub 1}{epsilon} and {eta} = {gamma}{sub 2}/{gamma}{sub 1}. This result was used to derive the IC-integrated spectral power for an upscattered blackbody (BB) photon field using a dimensionless parametric function, W{sub p} ({xi}, {eta}), with variable {xi} = {epsilon}{sub 1}/4{gamma}{sup 2}{sub 1} kT. Asymptotic forms of this function have been derived for three energy ranges, i.e., {xi} << 1, 1 << {xi} << {eta}{sup 2}, and {xi} >> {eta}{sup 2}. Then, a characteristic value, {eta}{sub c}(p, {epsilon}) with {epsilon} << 1, of parameter {eta} was defined such that the middle range asymptotic form of W{sub p} ({xi}, {eta}) could be valid and good when {eta} {approx}> {eta}{sub c}(p, {epsilon}), by deriving an approximate expression of this particular value for {epsilon} = 10{sup -3}. The resulting spectra featured by a high-energy cutoff in the case of low values of the ratio {eta} can be discussed at least for a population of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), those best described by the cutoff power-law model with a low-energy spectral index, {alpha} {approx} 0. Furthermore, it is suggested that for GRB spectra with {alpha} < -1/2 pertaining to the prompt emission phase, the IC is a likely emission mechanism for both monoenergetic and BB photon fields if one

  13. Doctors Swamped by 'E-Medicine' Demands

    MedlinePlus

    ... Demands Survey found those who have to use electronic health records report more burnout, job dissatisfaction To ... HealthDay News) -- Doctors say they're drowning in electronic paperwork, feeling burned out and dissatisfied with their ...

  14. Acoustic source identification using a Generalized Weighted Inverse Beamforming technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presezniak, Flavio; Zavala, Paulo A. G.; Steenackers, Gunther; Janssens, Karl; Arruda, Jose R. F.; Desmet, Wim; Guillaume, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    In the last years, acoustic source identification has gained special attention, mainly due to new environmental norms, urbanization problems and more demanding acoustic comfort expectation of consumers. From the current methods, beamforming techniques are of common use, since normally demands affordable data acquisition effort, while producing clear source identification in most of the applications. In order to improve the source identification quality, this work presents a method, based on the Generalized Inverse Beamforming, that uses a weighted pseudo-inverse approach and an optimization procedure, called Weighted Generalized Inverse Beamforming. To validate this method, a simple case of two compact sources in close vicinity in coherent radiation was investigated by numerical and experimental assessment. Weighted generalized inverse results are compared to the ones obtained by the conventional beamforming, MUltiple Signal Classification, and Generalized Inverse Beamforming. At the end, the advantages of the proposed method are outlined together with the computational effort increase compared to the Generalized Inverse Beamforming.

  15. Pyramidal inversion domain boundaries revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Remmele, T.; Albrecht, M.; Irmscher, K.; Fornari, R.; Strassburg, M.

    2011-10-03

    The structure of pyramidal inversion domain boundaries in GaN:Mg was investigated by aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy. The analysis shows the upper (0001) boundary to consist of a single Mg layer inserted between polarity inverted GaN layers in an abcab stacking. The Mg bound in these defects is at least one order of magnitude lower than the chemical Mg concentration. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements show that up to 27% of the Mg acceptors is electrically compensated.

  16. Towards Real Information on Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip

    The phrase "information on demand" is often used to describe situations in which digital electronic information can be delivered to particular points of need at times and in ways that are determined by the specific requirements of individual consumers or client groups. The advent of "mobile" computing equipment now makes the realization of this…

  17. Inverse Bremsstrahlung in Shocked Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    There has recently been interest in the role of inverse bremsstrahlung, the emission of photons by fast suprathermal ions in collisions with ambient electrons possessing relatively low velocities, in tenuous plasmas in various astrophysical contexts. This follows a long hiatus in the application of suprathermal ion bremsstrahlung to astrophysical models since the early 1970s. The potential importance of inverse bremsstrahlung relative to normal bremsstrahlung, i.e. where ions are at rest, hinges upon the underlying velocity distributions of the interacting species. In this paper, we identify the conditions under which the inverse bremsstrahlung emissivity is significant relative to that for normal bremsstrahlung in shocked astrophysical plasmas. We determine that, since both observational and theoretical evidence favors electron temperatures almost comparable to, and certainly not very deficient relative to proton temperatures in shocked plasmas, these environments generally render inverse bremsstrahlung at best a minor contributor to the overall emission. Hence inverse bremsstrahlung can be safely neglected in most models invoking shock acceleration in discrete sources such as supernova remnants. However, on scales approximately > 100 pc distant from these sources, Coulomb collisional losses can deplete the cosmic ray electrons, rendering inverse bremsstrahlung, and perhaps bremsstrahlung from knock-on electrons, possibly detectable.

  18. A "voice inversion effect?".

    PubMed

    Bédard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-07-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an "auditory face" rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a "voice inversion effect," by analogy to the classical "face inversion effect," which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted of a gender identification task on two syllables pronounced by 90 speakers (boys, girls, men, and women). Experiment 2 consisted of a speaker discrimination task on pairs of syllables (8 men and 8 women). Experiment 3 consisted of an instrument discrimination task on pairs of melodies (8 string and 8 wind instruments). In all three experiments, stimuli were presented in 4 conditions: (1) no inversion; (2) temporal inversion (e.g., backwards speech); (3) frequency inversion centered around 4000 Hz; and (4) around 2500 Hz. Results indicated a significant decrease in performance caused by sound inversion, with a much stronger effect for frequency than for temporal inversion. Interestingly, although frequency inversion markedly affected timbre for both voices and instruments, subjects' performance was still above chance. However, performance at instrument discrimination was much higher than for voices, preventing comparison of inversion effects for voices vs. non-vocal stimuli. Additional experiments will be necessary to conclude on the existence of a possible "voice inversion effect." PMID:15177788

  19. What Extent Are Current New York State High School Electronics Programs Preparing Students with the Competencies Necessary for Employment in the Electronics Field Based on Industrial Demands in the Greater Rochester Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Earl Dwight

    Since there are no clearly defined set of priorities on which to base a program of study in secondary school electronics, this study determined to what extent New York State high school electronics programs are preparing students with the technical competencies, knowledge, and equipment orientation necessary for employment in the electronics field…

  20. Inversion symmetry protected topological insulators and superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dung-Hai; Lu, Yuan-Ming

    2015-03-01

    Three dimensional topological insulator represents a class of novel quantum phases hosting robust gapless boundary excitations, which is protected by global symmetries such as time reversal, charge conservation and spin rotational symmetry. In this work we systematically study another class of topological phases of weakly interacting electrons protected by spatial inversion symmetry, which generally don't support stable gapless boundary states. We classify these inversion-symmetric topological insulators and superconductors in the framework of K-theory, and construct their lattice models. We also discuss quantized response functions of these inversion-protected topological phases, which serve as their experimental signatures.

  1. Effects of Tape and Exercise on Dynamic Ankle Inversion

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, Mark D.; Sherwood, Stephen M.; Schulthies, Shane S.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of tape, with and without prewrap, on dynamic ankle inversion before and after exercise. Design and Setting: Doubly multivariate analyses of variance were used to compare the taping and exercise conditions. Subjects were randomly assigned to a fixed treatment order as determined by a balanced latin square. The independent variables were tape application (no tape, tape with prewrap, tape to skin) and exercise (before and after). The dependent variables were average inversion velocity, total inversion, maximum inversion velocity, and time to maximum inversion. Subjects: Thirty college-age male and female students (17 males, 13 females; mean age = 24.9 ± 4.3 years, range, 19 to 39 years) were tested. Subjects were excluded from the study if they exhibited a painful gait or painful range of motion or had a past history of ankle surgery or an ankle sprain within the past 4 weeks. Measurements: We collected data using electronic goniometers while subjects balanced on the right leg on an inversion platform tilted about the medial-lateral axis to produce 15° of plantar flexion. Sudden ankle inversion was induced by pulling the inversion platform support, allowing the platform support base to rotate 37°. Ten satisfactory trials were recorded on the inversion platform before and after a prescribed exercise bout. We calculated total inversion, time to maximum inversion, average inversion velocity, and maximum inversion velocity after sudden inversion. Results: We found no significant differences between taping to the skin and taping over prewrap for any of the variables measured. There were significant differences between both taping conditions and no-tape postexercise for average inversion velocity, maximum inversion, maximum inversion velocity, and time to maximum inversion. The total inversion mean for no-tape postexercise was 38.8° ± 6.3°, whereas the means for tape and skin and for tape and prewrap were 28.3° ± 4.6° and 29.1°

  2. Momentum resolution in inverse photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Zumbülte, A.; Schmidt, A. B.; Donath, M.

    2015-01-15

    We present a method to determine the electron beam divergence, and thus the momentum resolution, of an inverse-photoemission setup directly from a series of spectra measured on Cu(111). Simulating these spectra with different beam divergences shows a distinct influence of the divergence on the appearance of the Shockley surface state. Upon crossing the Fermi level, its rise in intensity can be directly linked with the beam divergence. A comparison of measurement and simulation enables us to quantify the momentum resolution independent of surface quality, energy resolution, and experimental geometry. With spin resolution, a single spectrum taken around the Fermi momentum of a spin-split surface state, e.g., on Au(111), is sufficient to derive the momentum resolution of an inverse-photoemission setup.

  3. A ''Voice Inversion Effect?''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Catherine; Belin, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Voice is the carrier of speech but is also an ''auditory face'' rich in information on the speaker's identity and affective state. Three experiments explored the possibility of a ''voice inversion effect,'' by analogy to the classical ''face inversion effect,'' which could support the hypothesis of a voice-specific module. Experiment 1 consisted…

  4. Seismic Inversion Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jackiewicz, Jason

    2009-09-16

    With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.

  5. The Kinked Demand Curve When Demand Shifts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasco, Gregg P.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent research into the theory of the kinked demand curve in economics. Applies this theory to economic concepts such as marginal cost and price flexibility. Discusses the implications for corporations and government policymakers. (CFR)

  6. Inverse structure functions

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Bruce R.; Water, Willem van de

    2005-03-01

    While the ordinary structure function in turbulence is concerned with the statistical moments of the velocity increment {delta}u measured over a distance r, the inverse structure function is related to the distance r where the turbulent velocity exits the interval {delta}u. We study inverse structure functions of wind-tunnel turbulence which covers a range of Reynolds numbers Re{sub {lambda}}=400-1100. We test a recently proposed relation between the scaling exponents of the ordinary structure functions and those of the inverse structure functions [S. Roux and M. H. Jensen, Phys. Rev. E 69, 16309 (2004)]. The relatively large range of Reynolds numbers in our experiment also enables us to address the scaling with Reynolds number that is expected to highlight the intermediate dissipative range. While we firmly establish the (relative) scaling of inverse structure functions, our experimental results fail both predictions. Therefore, the question of the significance of inverse structure functions remains open.

  7. Solution uniquity of an inverse VLF problem: A case-study of the polar, ground-based, VLF radio signal disturbances caused by the ultra-energetic relativistic electron precipitations and of their southern boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remenets, G. F.; Astafiev, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Here we present the results of a case study of the rare, abnormal, qualitatively specific behavior of Aldra (northern Norway) and GBR (UK) VLF transmitter signals (10-16 kHz) received at Kola Peninsula. The abnormal amplitude and the phase disturbances of signals were used as a proxy for ultra-energetic relativistic (solar?) electron precipitation (URE, ∼100 MeV) into the middle polar atmosphere. The disturbances have been observed under quiet or moderately disturbed geomagnetic activity. Based on bearing results, it was established that the abnormal variations of the electric conductivity of ionized middle atmosphere (of a sporadic Ds layer under the regular ionosphere D layer) were characterized by the following: (i) the time function of height h(t) of an effective spherical waveguide between the Earth surface and the sporadic Ds layer shows a minimum value equal to ∼30 km and (ii) the reflection coefficient R(t) of radio wave with a grazing angle of incidence from a virtual boundary with height h(t) has a minimum value equal to ∼0.4. The southern boundaries of the ultra-energetic relativistic electron precipitations have been found as well. They turned out to be not southerly than 61 degree of magnetic latitude and similar to the ones obtained in our previous study of the events for other dates under the similar geophysical conditions although we do not know anything definite about the rigidity and density of the electron fluxes. A used calculation method of analysis is based on a necessary condition that a number n of input data should be greater than a number m of output parameter-functions. We have stated by numerical testing that a decrease of n from 6 to 4 generates a lack of uniqueness of an inverse VLF problem solution for m = 2. It is important for future VLF ground-based monitoring of the URE precipitation events.

  8. Prediction of phase transition, mechanical and electronic properties of inverse Heusler compound Y2RuPb, via FP-LMTO method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labair, M.; Rached, H.; Rached, D.; Benalia, S.; Abidri, B.; Khenata, R.; Ahmed, R.; Omran, S. Bin; Bouhemadou, A.; Syrotyuk, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Topological insulators (TI) are immensely investigated due to their promising characteristics for spintronics and quantum computing applications. In this regard, although bismuth, telluride, selenide and antimony containing compounds are typically considered as topological insulators, materials with Hg2CuTi-type structure have also shown their potential for TIs as well. Here, we present first principles study of the Y2RuPb compound, pertaining to its structural, mechanical, electrical and the optical properties. Calculations are executed at the level of the parameterized Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized gradient approximation (GGA), employing the full-potential (FP) linearized muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) approach, as designed within the density functional theory (DFT). The study is carried out on the Hg2CuTi-type and Cu2MnAl-type structures of the Y2RuPb compound. From our structural calculations, it is found that Y2RuPb is more stable in its Hg2CuTi-type structure; however, the analysis of the mechanical properties reveals its stability in both phases against any kind of elastic deformation. Similarly, Dirac cone shaped surface energy levels found in the predicted electronic band structure of the Y2RuPb compound, and good agreement of the obtained results with Zhang et al., demonstrates that it is a topological insulating material. Additionally, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function ɛ (ω) and refractive index n (ω), for an energy range up to 14eV, are analyzed as well.

  9. Plasma inverse transition acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ming

    2001-06-18

    It can be proved fundamentally from the reciprocity theorem with which the electromagnetism is endowed that corresponding to each spontaneous process of radiation by a charged particle there is an inverse process which defines a unique acceleration mechanism, from Cherenkov radiation to inverse Cherenkov acceleration (ICA) [1], from Smith-Purcell radiation to inverse Smith-Purcell acceleration (ISPA) [2], and from undulator radiation to inverse undulator acceleration (IUA) [3]. There is no exception. Yet, for nearly 30 years after each of the aforementioned inverse processes has been clarified for laser acceleration, inverse transition acceleration (ITA), despite speculation [4], has remained the least understood, and above all, no practical implementation of ITA has been found, until now. Unlike all its counterparts in which phase synchronism is established one way or the other such that a particle can continuously gain energy from an acceleration wave, the ITA to be discussed here, termed plasma inverse transition acceleration (PITA), operates under fundamentally different principle. As a result, the discovery of PITA has been delayed for decades, waiting for a conceptual breakthrough in accelerator physics: the principle of alternating gradient acceleration [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. In fact, PITA was invented [7, 8] as one of several realizations of the new principle.

  10. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore » by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.« less

  11. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  12. New advances in Inverse Cerenkov acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, W.D.; Babzien, M.; Cline, D.B.; Fiorito, R.B.; Fontana, J.R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gottschalk, S.C.; Kusche, K.P. |; Liu, Y.; Pogorelsky, I.V.; Quimby, D.C.; Pantell, R.H.; Rule, D.W.; Skaritka, J.; Sandweiss, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Yakimenko, V.

    1997-02-01

    Inverse Cerenkov acceleration (ICA) has entered a new phase in its development. The issue of staging and rephasing the optical wave with a microbunched electron beam is now being examined. This ability to accelerate over multiple stages is important for scaling laser accelerator devices to higher energies. An inverse free electron laser (IFEL) will be positioned upstream from the ICA experiment and used to prebunch the electrons. These electrons will then be focused into the ICA interaction region for rephasing and acceleration by the laser beam. Issues that will be examined during these combined ICA/IFEL experiments include rephasing the laser beam with the microbunches, minimizing bunch smearing, and trapping the electrons in an acceleration bucket. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Generalized emissivity inverse problem.

    PubMed

    Ming, DengMing; Wen, Tao; Dai, XianXi; Dai, JiXin; Evenson, William E

    2002-04-01

    Inverse problems have recently drawn considerable attention from the physics community due to of potential widespread applications [K. Chadan and P. C. Sabatier, Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989)]. An inverse emissivity problem that determines the emissivity g(nu) from measurements of only the total radiated power J(T) has recently been studied [Tao Wen, DengMing Ming, Xianxi Dai, Jixin Dai, and William E. Evenson, Phys. Rev. E 63, 045601(R) (2001)]. In this paper, a new type of generalized emissivity and transmissivity inverse (GETI) problem is proposed. The present problem differs from our previous work on inverse problems by allowing the unknown (emissivity) function g(nu) to be temperature dependent as well as frequency dependent. Based on published experimental information, we have developed an exact solution formula for this GETI problem. A universal function set suggested for numerical calculation is shown to be robust, making this inversion method practical and convenient for realistic calculations. PMID:12005916

  14. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  15. Direct and indirect inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virieux, Jean; Brossier, Romain; Métivier, Ludovic; Operto, Stéphane; Ribodetti, Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    A bridge is highlighted between the direct inversion and the indirect inversion. They are based on fundamental different approaches: one is looking after a projection from the data space to the model space while the other one is reducing a misfit between observed data and synthetic data obtained from a given model. However, it is possible to obtain similar structures for model perturbation, and we shall focus on P-wave velocity reconstruction. This bridge is built up through the Born approximation linearizing the forward problem with respect to model perturbation and through asymptotic approximations of the Green functions of the wave propagation equation. We first describe the direct inversion and its ingredients and then we focus on a specific misfit function design leading to a indirect inversion. Finally, we shall compare this indirect inversion with more standard least-squares inversion as the FWI, enabling the focus on small weak velocity perturbations on one side and the speed-up of the velocity perturbation reconstruction on the other side. This bridge has been proposed by the group led by Raul Madariaga in the early nineties, emphasizing his leading role in efficient imaging workflows for seismic velocity reconstruction, a drastic requirement at that time.

  16. Dirac Points in Two-Dimensional Inverse Opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2013-10-01

    The electron energy states and energy bands are calculated for a two-dimensional inverse opal structure. Assume that the opal structure is closed-packed circles, the inverse opal has the honeycomb lattice. The honeycomb lattice in two dimensions has a Dirac point. Its properties can be manipulated by altering the structure of the inverse opal: the radius of the circle, and the small gap between circles.

  17. Radiation-Insensitive Inverse Majority Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    To help satisfy a need for high-density logic circuits insensitive to radiation, it has been proposed to realize inverse majority gates as microscopic vacuum electronic devices. In comparison with solid-state electronic devices ordinarily used in logic circuits, vacuum electronic devices are inherently much less adversely affected by radiation and extreme temperatures. The proposed development would involve state-of-the-art micromachining and recent advances in the fabrication of carbon-nanotube-based field emitters. A representative three-input inverse majority gate would be a monolithic, integrated structure that would include three gate electrodes, six bundles of carbon nanotubes (serving as electron emitters) at suitable positions between the gate electrodes, and an overhanging anode. The bundles of carbon nanotubes would be grown on degenerately doped silicon substrates that would be parts of the monolithic structure. The gate electrodes would be fabricated as parts of the monolithic structure by means of a double-silicon-on-insulator process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The tops of the bundles of carbon nanotubes would lie below the plane of the tops of the gate electrodes. The particular choice of shapes, dimensions, and relative positions of the electrodes and bundles of carbon nanotubes would provide for both field emission of electrons from the bundles of carbon nanotubes and control of the electron current to obtain the inverse majority function, which is described in the paper.

  18. A Demanding Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Diane J.; Monger, Joyce R.

    1992-01-01

    This curriculum unit, intended for use with gifted students and others, uses the daily activities of a zoo gift shop to teach principles of economics including the law of demand, the nature of a market, and influences on product demand. (DB)

  19. Electromagnetic inverse scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bojarski, N. N.

    1972-01-01

    A three-dimensional electromagnetic inverse scattering identity, based on the physical optics approximation, is developed for the monostatic scattered far field cross section of perfect conductors. Uniqueness of this inverse identity is proven. This identity requires complete scattering information for all frequencies and aspect angles. A nonsingular integral equation is developed for the arbitrary case of incomplete frequence and/or aspect angle scattering information. A general closed-form solution to this integral equation is developed, which yields the shape of the scatterer from such incomplete information. A specific practical radar solution is presented. The resolution of this solution is developed, yielding short-pulse target resolution radar system parameter equations. The special cases of two- and one-dimensional inverse scattering and the special case of a priori knowledge of scatterer symmetry are treated in some detail. The merits of this solution over the conventional radar imaging technique are discussed.

  20. Inverse temperature in Superstatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loguercio, Humberto; Davis, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    In this work, it is shown that there are (at least) three alternative definitions of the inverse temperature for a non-canonical ensemble. These definitions coincide in expectation but, in general, not in their higher moments. We explore in detail the application to the recent formalism of Superstatistics (C. Beck, 2003), and, in particular, to the configurational probability distribution in the microcanonical ensemble.

  1. Rotation and inversion in nitrosamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirste, Karl; Rademacher, Paul

    1981-04-01

    Geometry optimizations of the ground states as well as of the transition states for internal rotation and inversion have been performed by the semiempirical MNDO method for dimethyl nitrosamine (1), perfluordimethyl nitrosamine (2), N-nitroso aziridine (3), and N-nitroso azetidine (4). It was found that the potential barrier to internal rotation about the N-N bond is always of lower energy than that to inversion on the nitroso nitrogen. While the ground states tend to adopt structures which enable mesomerism, the lowest transition state is characterized by a pyramidal sp3-hybridized amino nitrogen. In accordance with experimental results the low barriers to rotation of 2 (7.96 kcal mol -1), 3 (3.38 kcal mol -1) and 4 (9.97 kcal mol -1) in comparison with 1 (12.54 kcal mol -1) indicate that in donor-acceptor molecules the transfer of charge can be limited by electronic and stereochemical effects. In particular, the equivalence of the α-methylene hydrogens which was observed in the NMR-spectrum of 3 is due to unhindered rotation and ring inveirsion.

  2. Latin American demand

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    From Mexico to Argentina, independent power companies are finding great demand for their services in Latin America. But while legal and economic conditions are increasingly favorable, political and financial uncertainties make power development challenging.

  3. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePlus

    ... a good breastfeeding rhythm with your baby. In reality, the efficient supply-and-demand rhythm of normal ... is one reason it’s a good idea to alternate which breast you use to begin nursing. A ...

  4. Impact of Energy Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambel, Ali B.

    1970-01-01

    The types of pollutants associated with the process of power production are identified. A nine-point proposal is presented on the ways the increase in power demands might be achieved with the minimum threat to the environment. (PR)

  5. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  6. AVO inversion based on inverse operator estimation in trust region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xing-Yao; Deng, Wei; Zong, Zhao-Yun

    2016-04-01

    Amplitude variation with offset (AVO) inversion is widely utilized in exploration geophysics, especially for reservoir prediction and fluid identification. Inverse operator estimation in the trust region algorithm is applied for solving AVO inversion problems in which optimization and inversion directly are integrated. The L1 norm constraint is considered on the basis of reasonable initial model in order to improve effciency and stability during the AVO inversion process. In this study, high-order Zoeppritz approximation is utilized to establish the inversion objective function in which variation of {{v}\\text{p}}/{{v}\\text{s}} with time is taken into consideration. A model test indicates that the algorithm has a relatively higher stability and accuracy than the damp least-squares algorithm. Seismic data inversion is feasible and inversion values of three parameters ({{v}\\text{p}},{{v}\\text{s}},ρ ) maintain good consistency with logging curves.

  7. Package inspection using inverse diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2008-08-01

    More efficient cost-effective hand-held methods of inspecting packages without opening them are in demand for security. Recent new work in TeraHertz sources,1 millimeter waves, presents new possibilities. Millimeter waves pass through cardboard and styrofoam, common packing materials, and also pass through most materials except those with high conductivity like metals which block light and are easily spotted. Estimating refractive index along the path of the beam through the package from observations of the beam passing out of the package provides the necessary information to inspect the package and is a nonlinear problem. So we use a generalized linear inverse technique that we first developed for finding oil by reflection in geophysics.2 The computation assumes parallel slices in the packet of homogeneous material for which the refractive index is estimated. A beam is propagated through this model in a forward computation. The output is compared with the actual observations for the package and an update computed for the refractive indices. The loop is repeated until convergence. The approach can be modified for a reflection system or to include estimation of absorption.

  8. on the two-state inversion capacitance at varied frequencies of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tzu-Yu; Hwu, Jenn-Gwo

    2014-09-01

    Two-state inversion capacitances of a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) at varied AC frequencies after negative/positive constant voltage stress (negative/positive CVS) treatments are investigated. When the device was biased into inversion, a low/high inversion-capacitance state (set state/reset state) was achieved after the negative/positive CVS treatments with/without a few trapped electrons in the ultrathin SiO2 layer. The inversion capacitances of set states were frequency independent, whereas those of reset states increased with the decreasing frequencies. It is different from the general characteristics of an MOSCAP whose inversion capacitances disperse at low frequencies. For this observed finding of the two-state inversion capacitances at varied frequencies, a mechanism of trapped-electrons-induced screening effect on the inversion electrons is proposed. The number of the trapped electrons in the SiO2 layer affects the number of the inversion electrons, and thus dominates the values of the inversion capacitances. Besides, simulation curves of the inversion capacitances of set states are demonstrated. They are fitted well with the experimental data utilizing the mechanism we proposed. This work investigates further into the influence of the trapped electrons in the ultrathin SiO2 layer on the inversion capacitance response.

  9. Wage Inequality and Demand for Skill: Evidence from Five Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhn, Chinhui

    1999-01-01

    Using 1940-90 Censuses, a study of changes in male wage inequality and skill premiums shows that relative demand for most skilled workers rose steadily over the years. The pace of industrial change, especially in blue-collar manufacturing, was inversely related to the overall growth in wage inequality. (SK)

  10. Molecular inversion probe assay.

    PubMed

    Absalan, Farnaz; Ronaghi, Mostafa

    2007-01-01

    We have described molecular inversion probe technologies for large-scale genetic analyses. This technique provides a comprehensive and powerful tool for the analysis of genetic variation and enables affordable, large-scale studies that will help uncover the genetic basis of complex disease and explain the individual variation in response to therapeutics. Major applications of the molecular inversion probes (MIP) technologies include targeted genotyping from focused regions to whole-genome studies, and allele quantification of genomic rearrangements. The MIP technology (used in the HapMap project) provides an efficient, scalable, and affordable way to score polymorphisms in case/control populations for genetic studies. The MIP technology provides the highest commercially available multiplexing levels and assay conversion rates for targeted genotyping. This enables more informative, genome-wide studies with either the functional (direct detection) approach or the indirect detection approach. PMID:18025701

  11. Silk inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Mitropoulos, Alexander N.; Spitzberg, Joshua D.; Tao, Hu; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2012-12-01

    Periodic nanostructures provide the facility to control and manipulate the flow of light through their lattices. Three-dimensional photonic crystals enable the controlled design of structural colour, which can be varied by infiltrating the structure with different (typically liquid) fillers. Here, we report three-dimensional photonic crystals composed entirely of a purified natural protein (silk fibroin). The biocompatibility of this protein, as well as its favourable material properties and ease of biological functionalization, present opportunities for otherwise unattainable device applications such as bioresorbable integration of structural colour within living tissue or lattice functionalization by means of organic and inorganic material doping. We present a silk inverse opal that demonstrates a pseudo-photonic bandgap in the visible spectrum and show its associated structural colour beneath biological tissue. We also leverage silk's facile dopability to manufacture a gold nanoparticle silk inverse opal and demonstrate patterned heating mediated by enhancement of nanoparticle absorption at the band-edge frequency of the photonic crystal.

  12. Lesson on Demand. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Sue

    This lesson plan helps students understand the role consumer demand plays in the market system, i.e., how interactions in the marketplace help determine pricing. Students will participate in an activity that demonstrates the concepts of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, and the law of demand. The lesson plan provides student objectives;…

  13. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-10-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.

  14. Introduction to the 30th volume of Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Alfred K.

    2014-01-01

    The field of inverse problems is a fast-developing domain of research originating from the practical demands of finding the cause when a result is observed. The woodpecker, searching for insects, is probing a tree using sound waves: the information searched for is whether there is an insect or not, hence a 0-1 decision. When the result has to contain more information, ad hoc solutions are not at hand and more sophisticated methods have to be developed. Right from its first appearance, the field of inverse problems has been characterized by an interdisciplinary nature: the interpretation of measured data, reinforced by mathematical models serving the analyzing questions of observability, stability and resolution, developing efficient, stable and accurate algorithms to gain as much information as possible from the input and to feedback to the questions of optimal measurement configuration. As is typical for a new area of research, facets of it are separated and studied independently. Hence, fields such as the theory of inverse scattering, tomography in general and regularization methods have developed. However, all aspects have to be reassembled to arrive at the best possible solution to the problem at hand. This development is reflected by the first and still leading journal in the field, Inverse Problems. Founded by pioneers Roy Pike from London and Pierre Sabatier from Montpellier, who enjoyably describes the journal's nascence in his book Rêves et Combats d'un Enseignant-Chercheur, Retour Inverse [1], the journal has developed successfully over the last few decades. Neither the Editors-in-Chief, formerly called Honorary Editors, nor the board or authors could have set the path to success alone. Their fruitful interplay, complemented by the efficient and highly competent publishing team at IOP Publishing, has been fundamental. As such it is my honor and pleasure to follow my renowned colleagues Pierre Sabatier, Mario Bertero, Frank Natterer, Alberto Grünbaum and

  15. Inverse avalanches on Abelian sandpiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, H.F. Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 )

    1994-11-01

    A simple and computationally efficient way of finding inverse avalanches for Abelian sandpiles, called the inverse particle addition operator, is presented. In addition, the method is shown to be optimal in the sense that it requires the minimum amount of computation among methods of the same kind. The method is also conceptually succinct because avalanche and inverse avalanche are placed in the same footing.

  16. Hospital demand for physicians.

    PubMed

    Morrisey, M A; Jensen, G A

    1990-01-01

    This article develops a derived demand for physicians that is general enough to encompass physician control, simple profit maximization and hospital utility maximization models of the hospital. The analysis focuses on three special aspects of physician affiliations: the price of adding a physician to the staff is unobserved; the physician holds appointments at multiple hospitals, and physicians are not homogeneous. Using 1983 American Hospital Association data, a system of specialty-specific demand equations is estimated. The results are consistent with the model and suggest that physicians should be concerned about reduced access to hospitals, particularly as the stock of hospitals declines. PMID:10104050

  17. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  18. Three-Dimensional Magnetotelluric Inversion: An Introductory Guide for Developers and Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, the demand for three-dimensional (3-D) inversions for magnetotelluric data has significantly driven the progress of 3-D codes. There are currently a lot of new 3-D inversion and forward modeling codes. Some, such as the WSINV3DMT code of the author, are available to the academic community. The goal of this paper is to summarize all the important issues involving 3-D inversions. It aims to show how inversion works and how to use it properly. In this paper, I start by describing several good reasons for doing 3-D inversion instead of 2-D inversion. The main algorithms for 3-D inversion are reviewed along with some comparisons of their advantages and disadvantages. These algorithms are the classical Occam's inversion, the data space Occam's inversion, the Gauss-Newton method, the Gauss-Newton with the conjugate gradient method, the non-linear conjugate gradient method, and the quasi-Newton method. Other variants are based on these main algorithms. Forward modeling, sensitivity calculations, model covariance and its parallel implementation are all necessary components of inversions and are reviewed here. Rules of thumb for performing 3-D inversion are proposed for the benefit of the 3-D inversion novice. Problems regarding 3-D inversions are discussed along with suggested topics for future research for the developers of the next decades.

  19. Distribution of Childrearing Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Judith D.; And Others

    The tools of economic analysis were applied to demographic data in order to develop a social indicator measuring the extent of inequality in the distribution of childrearing responsibility in households from 1940 to 1980. With data drawn from the Current Population Survey of the Bureau of the Census, a "demand intensity" measure was developed.…

  20. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard University in…

  1. The future demands efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demand for food, feed, fuel, and fiber from agricultural production systems will require increased efficiency of production, resilience to climate change, enhanced quality of the product, and new insights into management. These may sound like impossible challenges; however, the solution l...

  2. Demand, Growth, and Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The paradigm shift to engaged and collaborative learning delivered via distance education technologies has been led by practitioners in adult and continuing education. Online and blended courses are experiencing increased demand and continued growth at all levels of higher education, professional development, and K-12 education. Adult and…

  3. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  4. Cognitive task demands, self-control demands and the mental well-being of office workers.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Robert S; Brasher, Kate

    2011-09-01

    The cognitive task demands of office workers and the self-control demands of their work roles were measured in a sample of 196 employees in two different office layouts using a self-report questionnaire, which was circulated electronically. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both factors were associated with mental well-being, but not with physical well-being, while controlling for exposure to psychosocial stressors. The interaction between cognitive task demands and self-control demands had the strongest association with mental well-being, suggesting that the deleterious effect of one was greater when the other was present. An exploratory analysis revealed that the association was stronger for employees working in a large open-plan office than for those working in smaller offices with more privacy. Frustration of work goals was the cognitive task demand having the strongest negative impact on mental well-being. Methodological limitations and scale psychometrics (particularly the use of the NASA Task Load Index) are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Modern office work has high mental demands and low physical demands and there is a need to design offices to prevent adverse psychological reactions. It is shown that cognitive task demands interact with self-control demands to degrade mental well-being. The association was stronger in an open-plan office. PMID:21846282

  5. Multiscale full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Trampert, Jeannot; Cupillard, Paul; Saygin, Erdinc; Taymaz, Tuncay; Capdeville, Yann; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    We develop and apply a full waveform inversion method that incorporates seismic data on a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, thereby constraining the details of both crustal and upper-mantle structure. This is intended to further our understanding of crust-mantle interactions that shape the nature of plate tectonics, and to be a step towards improved tomographic models of strongly scale-dependent earth properties, such as attenuation and anisotropy. The inversion for detailed regional earth structure consistently embedded within a large-scale model requires locally refined numerical meshes that allow us to (1) model regional wave propagation at high frequencies, and (2) capture the inferred fine-scale heterogeneities. The smallest local grid spacing sets the upper bound of the largest possible time step used to iteratively advance the seismic wave field. This limitation leads to extreme computational costs in the presence of fine-scale structure, and it inhibits the construction of full waveform tomographic models that describe earth structure on multiple scales. To reduce computational requirements to a feasible level, we design a multigrid approach based on the decomposition of a multiscale earth model with widely varying grid spacings into a family of single-scale models where the grid spacing is approximately uniform. Each of the single-scale models contains a tractable number of grid points, which ensures computational efficiency. The multi-to-single-scale decomposition is the foundation of iterative, gradient-based optimization schemes that simultaneously and consistently invert data on all scales for one multi-scale model. We demonstrate the applicability of our method in a full waveform inversion for Eurasia, with a special focus on Anatolia where coverage is particularly dense. Continental-scale structure is constrained by complete seismic waveforms in the 30-200 s period range. In addition to the well-known structural elements of the Eurasian mantle

  6. Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration experiment at ATF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. J.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fernow, R.; Kusche, K. P.; Liu, Y.; Kimura, W. D.; Kim, G. H.; Romea, R. D.; Steinhauer, L. C.

    Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration was demonstrated using an axicon optical system at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The ATF S-band linac and a high power 10.6 MICROMETERSCO2 laser were used for the experiment. Experimental arrangement and the laser and the electron beams synchronization are discussed. The electrons were accelerated more than 0.7 MeV for a 34 MW CO2 laser power. More than 3.7 MeV acceleration was measured with 0.7 GW CO2 laser power, which is more than 20 times of the previous ICA experiment. The experimental results are compared with computer program TRANSPORT simulations.

  7. Neighborhood inverse consistency preprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Freuder, E.C.; Elfe, C.D.

    1996-12-31

    Constraint satisfaction consistency preprocessing methods are used to reduce search effort. Time and especially space costs limit the amount of preprocessing that will be cost effective. A new form of consistency preprocessing, neighborhood inverse consistency, can achieve more problem pruning than the usual arc consistency preprocessing in a cost effective manner. There are two basic ideas: (1) Common forms of consistency enforcement basically operate by identifying and remembering solutions to subproblems for which a consistent value cannot be found for some additional problem variable. The space required for this memory can quickly become prohibitive. Inverse consistency basically operates by removing values for variables that are not consistent with any solution to some subproblem involving additional variables. The space requirement is at worst linear. (2) Typically consistency preprocessing achieves some level of consistency uniformly throughout the problem. A subproblem solution will be tested against each additional variable that constrains any subproblem variable. Neighborhood consistency focuses attention on the subproblem formed by the variables that are all constrained by the value in question. By targeting highly relevant subproblems we hope to {open_quotes}skim the cream{close_quotes}, obtaining a high payoff for a limited cost.

  8. Analytic Differentiation of Barlat's 2D Criteria for Inverse Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Endelt, Benny; Nielsen, Karl Brian; Danckert, Joachim

    2005-08-05

    The demand for alternative identification schemes for identification of constitutive parameters is getting more pronounced as the complexity of the constitutive equations increases, i.e. the number of parameters subject to identification. A general framework for inverse identification of constitutive parameters associated with sheet metal forming is proposed in the article. The inverse problem is solved, through minimization of the least square error between an experimental punch force sampled from a deep drawing and a predicted punch force produced from a coherent finite element model.

  9. Inverse Compton for Compton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suortti, Pekka

    2016-04-01

    A novel concept for a high resolution Compton spectrometer is introduced. 88 keV radiation from an Inverse Compton Compact Source is focused using crossed cylindrically bent Laue-type Si perfect crystals, and dispersed on the sample with a constant energy gradient. Dispersion is compensated exactly at a Ge crystal analyzer, so that the same wavelength shift is observed for all wavelengths of the incident beam. The ThomX source is used as a concrete example. Detailed dimensions and flux estimates at successive locations of the spectrometer are given, and the performance is compared with the dispersion compensating spectrometer at ID15 of the ESRF. The momentum resolution is better than 0.1 atomic units in both cases. The intensity of scattering with the compact source is an order of magnitude smaller, but still adequate for high resolution Compton profile measurements.

  10. Inverse magnetorheological fluids.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arco, L; López-López, M T; Zubarev, A Y; Gdula, K; Durán, J D G

    2014-09-01

    We report a new kind of field-responsive fluid consisting of suspensions of diamagnetic (DM) and ferromagnetic (FM) microparticles in ferrofluids. We designate them as inverse magnetorheological (IMR) fluids for analogy with inverse ferrofluids (IFFs). Observations on the particle self-assembly in IMR fluids upon magnetic field application showed that DM and FM microparticles were assembled into alternating chains oriented along the field direction. We explain such assembly on the basis of the dipolar interaction energy between particles. We also present results on the rheological properties of IMR fluids and, for comparison, those of IFFs and bidispersed magnetorheological (MR) fluids. Interestingly, we found that upon magnetic field application, the rheological properties of IMR fluids were enhanced with respect to bidispersed MR fluids with the same FM particle concentration, by an amount greater than the sum of the isolated contribution of DM particles. Furthermore, the field-induced yield stress was moderately increased when up to 30% of the total FM particle content was replaced with DM particles. Beyond this point, the dependence of the yield stress on the DM content was non-monotonic, as expected for FM concentrations decreasing to zero. We explain these synergistic results by two separate phenomena: the formation of exclusion areas for FM particles due to the perturbation of the magnetic field by DM particles and the dipole-dipole interaction between DM and FM particles, which enhances the field-induced structures. Based on the second phenomenon, we present a theoretical model for the yield stress that semi-quantitatively predicts the experimental results. PMID:25022363

  11. Wavelet Sparse Approximate Inverse Preconditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.; Tang, W.-P.; Wan, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using sparse approximate inverses as preconditioners for Krylov subspace iterative methods. Recent studies of Grote and Huckle and Chow and Saad also show that sparse approximate inverse preconditioner can be effective for a variety of matrices, e.g. Harwell-Boeing collections. Nonetheless a drawback is that it requires rapid decay of the inverse entries so that sparse approximate inverse is possible. However, for the class of matrices that, come from elliptic PDE problems, this assumption may not necessarily hold. Our main idea is to look for a basis, other than the standard one, such that a sparse representation of the inverse is feasible. A crucial observation is that the kind of matrices we are interested in typically have a piecewise smooth inverse. We exploit this fact, by applying wavelet techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse in the wavelet basis. We shall justify theoretically and numerically that our approach is effective for matrices with smooth inverse. We emphasize that in this paper we have only presented the idea of wavelet approximate inverses and demonstrated its potential but have not yet developed a highly refined and efficient algorithm.

  12. Meeting increased demand.

    PubMed

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  13. Introduction to the 30th volume of Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Alfred K.

    2014-01-01

    The field of inverse problems is a fast-developing domain of research originating from the practical demands of finding the cause when a result is observed. The woodpecker, searching for insects, is probing a tree using sound waves: the information searched for is whether there is an insect or not, hence a 0-1 decision. When the result has to contain more information, ad hoc solutions are not at hand and more sophisticated methods have to be developed. Right from its first appearance, the field of inverse problems has been characterized by an interdisciplinary nature: the interpretation of measured data, reinforced by mathematical models serving the analyzing questions of observability, stability and resolution, developing efficient, stable and accurate algorithms to gain as much information as possible from the input and to feedback to the questions of optimal measurement configuration. As is typical for a new area of research, facets of it are separated and studied independently. Hence, fields such as the theory of inverse scattering, tomography in general and regularization methods have developed. However, all aspects have to be reassembled to arrive at the best possible solution to the problem at hand. This development is reflected by the first and still leading journal in the field, Inverse Problems. Founded by pioneers Roy Pike from London and Pierre Sabatier from Montpellier, who enjoyably describes the journal's nascence in his book Rêves et Combats d'un Enseignant-Chercheur, Retour Inverse [1], the journal has developed successfully over the last few decades. Neither the Editors-in-Chief, formerly called Honorary Editors, nor the board or authors could have set the path to success alone. Their fruitful interplay, complemented by the efficient and highly competent publishing team at IOP Publishing, has been fundamental. As such it is my honor and pleasure to follow my renowned colleagues Pierre Sabatier, Mario Bertero, Frank Natterer, Alberto Grünbaum and

  14. Inverse Problems of Thermoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatychuk, L. I.; Luste, O. J.; Kuz, R. V.; Strutinsky, M. N.

    2011-05-01

    Classical thermoelectricity is based on the use of the Seebeck and Thomson effects that occur in the near-contact areas between n- and p-type materials. A conceptually different approach to thermoelectric power converter design that is based on the law of thermoelectric induction of currents is also known. The efficiency of this approach has already been demonstrated by its first applications. More than 10 basically new types of thermoelements were discovered with properties that cannot be achieved by thermocouple power converters. Therefore, further development of this concept is of practical interest. This paper provides a classification and theory for solving the inverse problems of thermoelectricity that form the basis for devising new thermoelement types. Computer methods for their solution for anisotropic and inhomogeneous media are elaborated. Regularities related to thermoelectric current excitation in anisotropic and inhomogeneous media are established. The possibility of obtaining eddy currents of a particular configuration through control of the temperature field and material parameters for the creation of new thermo- element types is demonstrated for three-dimensional (3D) models of anisotropic and inhomogeneous media.

  15. Inverse problem in hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.

    2005-03-01

    The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le

  16. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies.more » Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.« less

  17. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Peng; Yin, Rongxin

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies. Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.

  18. New demands on desalter operations

    SciTech Connect

    Witzig, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Increased demands for improved desalter performance focus primarily on salt content and BS and W (basic sediment and water) content of the desalted crude. Recent demands target removal of other inorganic impurities which deactivate catalysts and contaminate finish products. The specific demand or performance need is usually apparent and easily quantified. This paper focuses on methods to achieve these demands through process optimization, chemical treatment, and employing an integrated process approach to desalting.

  19. Full Waveform Inversion Using Waveform Sensitivity Kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Florian; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    We present a full waveform inversion concept for applications ranging from seismological to enineering contexts, in which the steps of forward simulation, computation of sensitivity kernels, and the actual inversion are kept separate of each other. We derive waveform sensitivity kernels from Born scattering theory, which for unit material perturbations are identical to the Born integrand for the considered path between source and receiver. The evaluation of such a kernel requires the calculation of Green functions and their strains for single forces at the receiver position, as well as displacement fields and strains originating at the seismic source. We compute these quantities in the frequency domain using the 3D spectral element code SPECFEM3D (Tromp, Komatitsch and Liu, 2008) and the 1D semi-analytical code GEMINI (Friederich and Dalkolmo, 1995) in both, Cartesian and spherical framework. We developed and implemented the modularized software package ASKI (Analysis of Sensitivity and Kernel Inversion) to compute waveform sensitivity kernels from wavefields generated by any of the above methods (support for more methods is planned), where some examples will be shown. As the kernels can be computed independently from any data values, this approach allows to do a sensitivity and resolution analysis first without inverting any data. In the context of active seismic experiments, this property may be used to investigate optimal acquisition geometry and expectable resolution before actually collecting any data, assuming the background model is known sufficiently well. The actual inversion step then, can be repeated at relatively low costs with different (sub)sets of data, adding different smoothing conditions. Using the sensitivity kernels, we expect the waveform inversion to have better convergence properties compared with strategies that use gradients of a misfit function. Also the propagation of the forward wavefield and the backward propagation from the receiver

  20. A scatterometry inverse problem in optical mask metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Model, R.; Rathsfeld, A.; Gross, H.; Wurm, M.; Bodermann, B.

    2008-11-01

    We discuss the solution of the inverse problem in scatterometry i.e. the determination of periodic surface structures from light diffraction patterns. With decreasing details of lithography masks, increasing demands on metrology techniques arise. By scatterometry as a non-imaging indirect optical method critical dimensions (CD) like side-wall angles, heights, top and bottom widths are determined. The numerical simulation of diffraction is based on the finite element solution of the Helmholtz equation. The inverse problem seeks to reconstruct the grating geometry from measured diffraction patterns. The inverse operator maps efficiencies of diffracted plane wave modes to the grating parameters. We employ a Newton type iterative method to solve the resulting minimum problem. The reconstruction quality surely depends on the angles of incidence, on the wave lengths and/or the number of propagating scattered wave modes and will be discussed by numerical examples.

  1. Microwave inverse Cerenkov accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.B.; Marshall, T.C.; LaPointe, M.A.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    1997-03-01

    A Microwave Inverse Cerenkov Accelerator (MICA) is currently under construction at the Yale Beam Physics Laboratory. The accelerating structure in MICA consists of an axisymmetric dielectrically lined waveguide. For the injection of 6 MeV microbunches from a 2.856 GHz RF gun, and subsequent acceleration by the TM{sub 01} fields, particle simulation studies predict that an acceleration gradient of 6.3 MV/m can be achieved with a traveling-wave power of 15 MW applied to the structure. Synchronous injection into a narrow phase window is shown to allow trapping of all injected particles. The RF fields of the accelerating structure are shown to provide radial focusing, so that longitudinal and transverse emittance growth during acceleration is small, and that no external magnetic fields are required for focusing. For 0.16 nC, 5 psec microbunches, the normalized emittance of the accelerated beam is predicted to be less than 5{pi}mm-mrad. Experiments on sample alumina tubes have been conducted that verify the theoretical dispersion relation for the TM{sub 01} mode over a two-to-one range in frequency. No excitation of axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric competing waveguide modes was observed. High power tests showed that tangential electric fields at the inner surface of an uncoated sample of alumina pipe could be sustained up to at least 8.4 MV/m without breakdown. These considerations suggest that a MICA test accelerator can be built to examine these predictions using an available RF power source, 6 MeV RF gun and associated beam line. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Forward and Inverse Cascades in EMHD Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jungyeon

    2016-05-01

    Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a simple fluid-like description of physics below the proton gyro-scale in collisionless plasmas, such as the solar wind. In this paper, we discuss forward and inverse cascades in EMHD turbulence in the presence of a strong mean magnetic field. Similar to Alfvén waves, EMHD waves, or EMHD perturbations, propagate along magnetic field lines. Therefore, two types of EMHD waves can exist: waves moving parallel to and waves moving anti-parallel to the the magnetic field lines. For energy cascade in EMHD turbulence, the relative amplitudes of opposite-traveling waves are important. When the amplitudes are balanced, we will see fully-developed forward cascade with a k -7/3 energy spectrum and a scale-dependent anisotropy. On the other hand, when the amplitudes are imbalanced, we will see inverse cascade, as well as (presumably not fully developed) forward cascade. The underlying physics for the inverse cascade is magnetic helicity conservation.

  3. Efficient preconditioning of the electronic structure problem in large scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffmann, Florian; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-06-01

    We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling's iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filtering small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step.

  4. Efficient preconditioning of the electronic structure problem in large scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Florian; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-06-28

    We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling's iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filtering small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step. PMID:26133420

  5. Efficient preconditioning of the electronic structure problem in large scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffmann, Florian; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-06-28

    We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling’s iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filtering small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step.

  6. Optimal filling fraction of Ta2O5 inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubio, C. R.; Guitian, F.; Gil, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) inverse opals were prepared by combining the self-assembly process and sol-gel chemistry-based opal infiltration. The inverse opal was made by the infiltration of a tantalum(V) ethoxide solution in the interstices of the polystyrene colloidal crystal template, and then removing the original opal template by calcination. The infiltration process as well as the optimal precursor concentration has been investigated in order to obtain Ta2O5 inverse opals with the optimal filling fraction. The effects of processing, template sphere size, morphology, structural properties, filling fraction and composition of the inverse opal are provided by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis (EDS) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results correlate the concentration of the precursor with the filling fraction of the template.

  7. Polymer sol-gel composite inverse opal structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Blanchard, G J

    2015-03-25

    We report on the formation of composite inverse opal structures where the matrix used to form the inverse opal contains both silica, formed using sol-gel chemistry, and poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. We find that the morphology of the inverse opal structure depends on both the amount of PEG incorporated into the matrix and its molecular weight. The extent of organization in the inverse opal structure, which is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical reflectance data, is mediated by the chemical bonding interactions between the silica and PEG constituents in the hybrid matrix. Both polymer chain terminus Si-O-C bonding and hydrogen bonding between the polymer backbone oxygens and silanol functionalities can contribute, with the polymer mediating the extent to which Si-O-Si bonds can form within the silica regions of the matrix due to hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:25734614

  8. Realizing Tunable Inverse and Normal Doppler Shifts in Reconfigurable RF Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Sun, Yong; Chen, Hong

    2015-06-01

    The Doppler effect has well-established applications in astronomy, medicine, radar and metrology. Recently, a number of experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear. However, the inverse Doppler effect has never been observed on an electronically reconfigurable system with an external electromagnetic wave source at radio frequencies (RF) in experiment. Here we demonstrate an experimental observation of the inverse Doppler shift on an electronically reconfigurable RF metamaterial structure, which can exhibit anomalous dispersion, normal dispersion or a stop band, depending on an applied bias voltage. Either inverse or normal Doppler shift is realized by injecting an external RF signal into the electronically reconfigurable metamaterial, on which an electronically controllable moving reflective boundary is formed. The effective velocity of this boundary and the resulting frequency shift can be tuned over a wide range by a digital switching circuit. This work is expected to open up possibilities in applying the inverse Doppler effect in wireless communications, radar and satellite navigation.

  9. A generalized inversion method: Simultaneous source localization and environmental inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilsen, Tracianne B.; Knobles, David P.

    2002-05-01

    The problem of localizing and tracking a source in the shallow ocean is often complicated by uncertainty in the environmental parameters. Likewise, the estimates of environmental parameters in the shallow ocean obtained by inversion methods can be degraded by incorrect information about the source location. To overcome both these common obstacles-environmental mismatch in matched field processing and incorrect source location in geoacoustic inversions-a generalized inversion scheme is developed that includes both source and environmental parameters as unknowns in the inversion. The new technique called systematic decoupling using rotated coordinates (SDRC) expands the original idea of rotated coordinates [M. D. Collins and L. Fishman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 1637-1644 (1995)] by using multiple sets of coherent broadband rotated coordinates, each corresponding to a different set of bounds, to systematically decouple the unknowns in a series of simulated annealing inversions. The results of applying the SDRC inversion method to data from the Area Characterization Test II experiment performed on the New Jersey continental shelf are presented. [Work supported by ONR.

  10. Demand illumination control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

  11. EDITORIAL: Inverse Problems' 25th year of publication Inverse Problems' 25th year of publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    2009 is Inverse Problems' 25th year of publication. In this quarter-century, the journal has established itself as the premier publication venue for inverse problems research. It has matured from its beginnings as a niche journal serving the emerging field of inverse and ill-posed problems to a monthly publication in 2009 covering all aspects of a well-established, vibrant and still-expanding subject. Along with its core readership of pure and applied mathematicians and physicists, Inverse Problems has become widely known across a broad range of researchers in areas such as geophysics, optics, radar, acoustics, communication theory, signal processing and medical imaging, amongst others. The journal's appeal to the inverse problems community and those researchers from the varied fields that encounter such problems can be attributed to our commitment to publishing only the very best papers, and to offering unique services to the community. Besides our regular research papers, which average a remarkably short five months from submission to electronic publication, we regularly publish heavily cited topical review papers and topic-specific special sections, which first appeared in 2004. These highly-downloaded invited articles focus on the latest developments and hot topics in all areas of inverse problems. No other journal in the field offers these features. I am very pleased to take Inverse Problems into its 25th year as Editor-in-Chief. The journal has an impressive tradition of scholarship, established at its inception by the founder and first Editor-in-Chief, Professor Pierre Sabatier. Professor Sabatier envisioned the journal in 1985 as providing a medium for publication of exemplary research in our intrinsically interdisciplinary field. I am glad to say that the support of our authors, readers, referees, Editors-in-Chief, Editorial Boards and Advisory Panels over the years, has resulted in Inverse Problems becoming the top publication in this field, publishing

  12. Temperature Inversions Have Cold Bottoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.; Brown, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    Uses discussion and illustrations of several demonstrations on air temperature differences and atmospheric stability to explain the phenomena of temperature inversions. Relates this to the smog in Los Angeles and discusses the implications. (DC)

  13. Inversion layer MOS solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Fat Duen

    1986-01-01

    Inversion layer (IL) Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) solar cells were fabricated. The fabrication technique and problems are discussed. A plan for modeling IL cells is presented. Future work in this area is addressed.

  14. Uterine Inversion; A case report.

    PubMed

    Bouchikhi, C; Saadi, H; Fakhir, B; Chaara, H; Bouguern, H; Banani, A; Melhouf, Ma

    2008-01-01

    The puerperal uterine inversion is a rare and severe complication occurring in the third stage of labour. The mechanisms are not completely known. However, extrinsic factors such as oxytocic arrests after a prolonged labour, umbilical cord traction or abdominal expression are pointed. Other intrinsic factors such as primiparity, uterine hypotonia, various placental localizations, fundic myoma or short umbilical cord were also reported. The diagnosis of the uterine inversion is mainly supported by clinical symptoms. It is based on three elements: haemorrhage, shock and a strong pelvic pain. The immediate treatment of the uterine inversion is required. It is based on a medical reanimation associated with firstly a manual reduction then surgical treatment using various techniques. We report an observation of a 25 years old grand multiparous patient with a subacute uterine inversion after delivery at home. PMID:21516244

  15. Uterine Inversion; A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bouchikhi, C; Saadi, H; Fakhir, B; Chaara, H; Bouguern, H; Banani, A; Melhouf, MA

    2008-01-01

    The puerperal uterine inversion is a rare and severe complication occurring in the third stage of labour. The mechanisms are not completely known. However, extrinsic factors such as oxytocic arrests after a prolonged labour, umbilical cord traction or abdominal expression are pointed. Other intrinsic factors such as primiparity, uterine hypotonia, various placental localizations, fundic myoma or short umbilical cord were also reported. The diagnosis of the uterine inversion is mainly supported by clinical symptoms. It is based on three elements: haemorrhage, shock and a strong pelvic pain. The immediate treatment of the uterine inversion is required. It is based on a medical reanimation associated with firstly a manual reduction then surgical treatment using various techniques. We report an observation of a 25 years old grand multiparous patient with a subacute uterine inversion after delivery at home. PMID:21516244

  16. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  17. Breast ultrasound computed tomography using waveform inversion with source encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Matthews, Thomas; Anis, Fatima; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) holds great promise for improving the detection and management of breast cancer. Because they are based on the acoustic wave equation, waveform inversion-based reconstruction methods can produce images that possess improved spatial resolution properties over those produced by ray-based methods. However, waveform inversion methods are computationally demanding and have not been applied widely in USCT breast imaging. In this work, source encoding concepts are employed to develop an accelerated USCT reconstruction method that circumvents the large computational burden of conventional waveform inversion methods. This method, referred to as the waveform inversion with source encoding (WISE) method, encodes the measurement data using a random encoding vector and determines an estimate of the speed-of-sound distribution by solving a stochastic optimization problem by use of a stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Computer-simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate the use of the WISE method. Using a single graphics processing unit card, each iteration can be completed within 25 seconds for a 128 × 128 mm2 reconstruction region. The results suggest that the WISE method maintains the high spatial resolution of waveform inversion methods while significantly reducing the computational burden.

  18. Computation of inverse magnetic cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1981-01-01

    Inverse cascades of magnetic quantities for turbulent incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are reviewed, for two and three dimensions. The theory is extended to the Strauss equations, a description intermediate between two and three dimensions appropriate to Tokamak magnetofluids. Consideration of the absolute equilibrium Gibbs ensemble for the system leads to a prediction of an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which may manifest itself as a major disruption. An agenda for computational investigation of this conjecture is proposed.

  19. Computation of inverse magnetic cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.

    1981-10-01

    Inverse cascades of magnetic quantities for turbulent incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are reviewed, for two and three dimensions. The theory is extended to the Strauss equations, a description intermediate between two and three dimensions appropriate to tokamak magnetofluids. Consideration of the absolute equilibrium Gibbs ensemble for the system leads to a prediction of an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which may manifest itself as a major disruption. An agenda for computational investigation of this conjecture is proposed.

  20. Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration experiment at ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.J.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fernow, R.; Kusche, K.P.; Liu, Y.; Kimura, W.D.; Kim, G.H.; Romea, R.D.; Steinhauer, L.C.

    1994-09-01

    Inverse Cerenkov laser acceleration was demonstrated using an axicon optical system at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The ATF S-band linac and a high power 10.6 {mu}m CO{sub 2} laser were used for the experiment. Experimental arrangement and the laser and the electron beams synchronization are discussed. The electrons were accelerated more than 0.7 MeV for a 34 MW CO{sub 2} laser power. More than 3.7 MeV acceleration was measured with 0.7 GW CO{sub 2} laser power, which is more than 20 times of the previous ICA experiment. The experimental results are compared with computer program TRANSPORT simulations.

  1. New RADIOM algorithm using inverse EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busquet, Michel; Sokolov, Igor; Klapisch, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    The RADIOM model, [1-2], allows one to implement non-LTE atomic physics with a very low extra CPU cost. Although originally heuristic, RADIOM has been physically justified [3] and some accounting for auto-ionization has been included [2]. RADIOM defines an ionization temperature Tz derived from electronic density and actual electronic temperature Te. LTE databases are then queried for properties at Tz and NLTE values are derived from them. Some hydro-codes (like FAST at NRL, Ramis' MULTI, or the CRASH code at U.Mich) use inverse EOS starting from the total internal energy Etot and returning the temperature. In the NLTE case, inverse EOS requires to solve implicit relations between Te, Tz, and Etot. We shall describe these relations and an efficient solver successively implemented in some of our codes. [4pt] [1] M. Busquet, Radiation dependent ionization model for laser-created plasmas, Ph. Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993).[0pt] [2] M. Busquet, D. Colombant, M. Klapisch, D. Fyfe, J. Gardner. Improvements to the RADIOM non-LTE model, HEDP 5, 270 (2009).[0pt] [3] M.Busquet, Onset of pseudo-thermal equilibrium within configurations and super-configurations, JQSRT 99, 131 (2006)

  2. Synthesis of metal colloids in inverse microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnickel, P.; Wokaun, A.

    Colloidal silver and gold particles have been prepared by reduction of aqueous metal salt solutions in inverse microemulsions. The sols are characterized by absorption spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Ultrasound treatment during reduction results in a narrower size distribution of the colloidal particles, as evidenced by a narrower absorption band. Photochemical silver and gold sol formation, without the addition of a reducing agent, has been observed for inverse microemulsions of metal salt solutions in a medium consisting of dodecyl-heptaethyleneglycol-ether and hexane. The particle sizes determined from electron microscopy have been used as input parameters for the simulation of absorption spectra, based on the electromagnetic theory of localized surface plasmon excitation. For the gold sols a quantitative agreement between experimental and simulated spectra is obtained. With the silver colloids, the observed red-shift of the absorption maximum points to the presence of an ionic layer on the surface of the particles. When this layer is included in the theoretical model, good agreement with the experiment is achieved.

  3. Stoner magnetism in an inversion layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golosov, D. I.

    2016-02-01

    Motivated by recent experimental work on magnetic properties of Si-MOSFETs, we report a calculation of magnetisation and susceptibility of electrons in an inversion layer, taking into account the co-ordinate dependence of electron wave function in the direction perpendicular to the plane. It is assumed that the inversion-layer carriers interact via a contact repulsive potential, which is treated at a mean-field level, resulting in a self-consistent change of profile of the wave functions. We find that the results differ significantly from those obtained in the pure 2DEG case (where no provision is made for a quantum motion in the transverse direction). Specifically, the critical value of interaction needed to attain the ferromagnetic (Stoner) instability is decreased and the Stoner criterion is therefore relaxed. This leads to an increased susceptibility and ultimately to a ferromagnetic transition deep in the high-density metallic regime. In the opposite limit of low carrier densities, a phenomenological treatment of the in-plane correlation effects suggests a ferromagnetic instability above the metal-insulator transition. Results are discussed in the context of the available experimental data.

  4. Multidimensional NMR inversion without Kronecker products: Multilinear inversion.

    PubMed

    Medellín, David; Ravi, Vivek R; Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Multidimensional NMR inversion using Kronecker products poses several challenges. First, kernel compression is only possible when the kernel matrices are separable, and in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in NMR sequences with non-separable kernels. Second, in three or more dimensions, the singular value decomposition is not unique; therefore kernel compression is not well-defined for higher dimensions. Without kernel compression, the Kronecker product yields matrices that require large amounts of memory, making the inversion intractable for personal computers. Finally, incorporating arbitrary regularization terms is not possible using the Lawson-Hanson (LH) or the Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithms. We develop a minimization-based inversion method that circumvents the above problems by using multilinear forms to perform multidimensional NMR inversion without using kernel compression or Kronecker products. The new method is memory efficient, requiring less than 0.1% of the memory required by the LH or BRD methods. It can also be extended to arbitrary dimensions and adapted to include non-separable kernels, linear constraints, and arbitrary regularization terms. Additionally, it is easy to implement because only a cost function and its first derivative are required to perform the inversion. PMID:27209370

  5. Multidimensional NMR inversion without Kronecker products: Multilinear inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellín, David; Ravi, Vivek R.; Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Multidimensional NMR inversion using Kronecker products poses several challenges. First, kernel compression is only possible when the kernel matrices are separable, and in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in NMR sequences with non-separable kernels. Second, in three or more dimensions, the singular value decomposition is not unique; therefore kernel compression is not well-defined for higher dimensions. Without kernel compression, the Kronecker product yields matrices that require large amounts of memory, making the inversion intractable for personal computers. Finally, incorporating arbitrary regularization terms is not possible using the Lawson-Hanson (LH) or the Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithms. We develop a minimization-based inversion method that circumvents the above problems by using multilinear forms to perform multidimensional NMR inversion without using kernel compression or Kronecker products. The new method is memory efficient, requiring less than 0.1% of the memory required by the LH or BRD methods. It can also be extended to arbitrary dimensions and adapted to include non-separable kernels, linear constraints, and arbitrary regularization terms. Additionally, it is easy to implement because only a cost function and its first derivative are required to perform the inversion.

  6. An integrated communications demand model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubleday, C. F.

    1980-11-01

    A computer model of communications demand is being developed to permit dynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of demand for communications media in the U.K. to be made under alternative assumptions about social, economic and technological trends in British Telecom's business environment. The context and objectives of the project and the potential uses of the model are reviewed, and four key concepts in the demand for communications media, around which the model is being structured are discussed: (1) the generation of communications demand; (2) substitution between media; (3) technological convergence; and (4) competition. Two outline perspectives on the model itself are given.

  7. Transformations of nitrogen in a polluted estuary: nonlinearities in the demand for oxygen at low flow.

    PubMed

    Wofsy, S C; McElroy, M B; Elkins, J W

    1981-08-14

    Oxidation of sewage ammonium in the Potomac River is described in terms of a simple kinetic model, with growth of nitrifying bacteria limited by the supply of ammonium ion. The oxidation rate varies inversely with freshwater inflow, and the associated demand for oxygen varies as the inverse square of the freshwater inflow rate. Similar behavior is observed for the Delaware River. The model accounts for the observed concentrations of ammonium and nitrous oxide. PMID:17834581

  8. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and

  9. Adamantyl-group containing mixed-mode acrylamide-based continuous beds for capillary electrochromatography. Part II. Characterization of the synthesized monoliths by inverse size exclusion chromatography and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ayat Allah Al-Massaedh; Pyell, Ute

    2014-01-17

    In our previous article we have described the synthesis of a new amphiphilic monolithic stationary phase by in situ free radical copolymerization of cyclodextrin-solubilized N-adamantyl acrylamide, piperazinediacrylamide, methacrylamide and vinylsulfonic acid in aqueous medium in pre-treated fused silica capillaries of 100μm I.D. In the present work, we study the morphology of different monolithic stationary phases synthesized under variation of the concentration of ammonium sulfate in the polymerization mixture. The pore size distribution is determined with inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC) using the retention data of a series of polystyrene standards with narrow molecular size distribution and known average molar mass ranging from 1560 to 2010000gmol(-1). The impact of the concentration of the lyotropic salt ammonium sulfate in the polymerization mixture on the formed morphology, the pore size distribution, and the fractional volume of mesopores and macropores is determined. The homogeneity and uniformity of the formed monolith over the length of the capillary and the covalent attachment to the confining walls are confirmed. Repetition of the synthesis procedure shows that these morphology parameters are well controlled as there is an excellent capillary-to-capillary, day-to-day, and run-to-run reproducibility reached for the electroosmotic mobility and the retention factor determined with alkylphenones in the reversed-phase mode. PMID:24380653

  10. Global inversion for anisotropy during full-waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debens, H. A.; Warner, M.; Umpleby, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a powerful tool for quantitative estimation of high-resolution high-fidelity models of subsurface seismic parameters, typically P-wave velocity. The solution to FWI's posed nonlinear inverse problem is obtained via an iterative series of linearized local updates to a start model, assuming this model lies within the basin of attraction to the global minimum. Thanks to many successful published applications to three-dimensional (3D) field datasets, its advance has been rapid and driven in large-part by the oil and gas industry. The consideration of seismic anisotropy during FWI is of vital importance, as it holds influence over both the kinematics and dynamics of seismic waveforms. If not appropriately taken into account then inadequacies in the anisotropy model are likely to manifest as significant error in the recovered velocity model. Conventionally, anisotropic FWI employs either an a priori anisotropy model, held fixed during FWI, or it uses a multi-parameter local inversion scheme to recover the anisotropy as part of the FWI; both of these methods can be problematic. Constructing an anisotropy model prior to FWI often involves intensive (and hence expensive) iterative procedures, such as travel-time tomography or moveout velocity analysis. On the other hand, introducing multiple parameters to FWI itself increases the complexity of what is already an underdetermined inverse problem. We propose that global rather than local FWI can be used to recover the long-wavelength acoustic anisotropy model, and that this can then be followed by more-conventional local FWI to recover the detailed model. We validate this approach using a full 3D field dataset, demonstrating that it avoids problems associated to crosstalk that can bedevil local inversion schemes, and reconciles well with in situ borehole measurements. Although our approach includes a global inversion for anisotropy, it is nonetheless affordable and practical for 3D field data.

  11. Characterizing generated charged inverse micelles with transient current measurements.

    PubMed

    Strubbe, Filip; Prasad, Manoj; Beunis, Filip

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the generation of charged inverse micelles in nonpolar surfactant solutions relevant for applications such as electronic ink displays and liquid toners. When a voltage is applied across a thin layer of a nonpolar surfactant solution between planar electrodes, the generation of charged inverse micelles leads to a generation current. From current measurements it appears that such charged inverse micelles generated in the presence of an electric field behave differently compared to those present in equilibrium in the absence of a field. To examine the origin of this difference, transient current measurements in which the applied voltage is suddenly increased are used to measure the mobility and the amount of generated charged inverse micelles. The mobility and the corresponding hydrodynamic size are found to be similar to those of charged inverse micelles present in equilibrium, which indicates that other properties determine their different behavior. The amplitude and shape of the transient currents measured as a function of the surfactant concentration confirm that the charged inverse micelles are generated by bulk disproportionation. A theoretical model based on bulk disproportionation with simulations and analytical approximations is developed to analyze the experimental transient currents. PMID:25580883

  12. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

    2001-02-07

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts

  13. Geophysical Inversion Through Hierarchical Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, A.; Huisman, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Geophysical investigation is a powerful tool that allows non-invasive and non-destructive mapping of subsurface states and properties. However, non-uniqueness associated with the inversion process prevents the quantitative use of these methods. One major direction researchers are going is constraining the inverse problem by hydrological observations and models. An alternative to the commonly used direct inversion methods are global optimization schemes (such as genetic algorithms and Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods). However, the major limitation here is the desired high resolution of the tomographic image, which leads to a large number of parameters and an unreasonably high computational effort when using global optimization schemes. Two innovative schemes are presented here. First, a hierarchical approach is used to reduce the computational effort for the global optimization. Solution is achieved for coarse spatial resolution, and this solution is used as the starting point for finer scheme. We show that the computational effort is reduced in this way dramatically. Second, we use a direct ERT inversion as the starting point for global optimization. In this case preliminary results show that the outcome is not necessarily beneficial, probably because of spatial mismatch between the results of the direct inversion and the true resistivity field.

  14. CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, E.R.; WELCH, JOHN L.

    THIS PUBLICATION UPDATES THE "CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS" PUBLISHED IN 1959 AND PROVIDES COUNSELORS WITH INFORMATION ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN MANY AREAS WHICH REQUIRE PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. IT PRESENTS, IN COLUMN FORM, THE EDUCATION AND OTHER TRAINING USUALLY REQUIRED BY EMPLOYERS, HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF PARTICULAR PERTINENCE TO…

  15. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  16. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  17. Optimization and geophysical inverse problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.

    2000-10-01

    A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness

  18. Thermoelectric properties of inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.; Poilvert, N.; Crespi, V. H.

    2016-02-01

    Rayleigh's method [Philos. Mag. Ser. 5 34, 481 (1892)] is used to solve for the classical thermoelectric equations in inverse opals. His theory predicts that in an inverse opal, with periodic holes, the Seebeck coefficient and the figure of merit are identical to that of the bulk material. We also provide a major revision to Rayleigh's method, in using the electrochemical potential as an important variable, instead of the electrostatic potential. We also show that in some cases, the thermal boundary resistance is important in the effective thermal conductivity.

  19. Multiphase inverse modeling: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.

    1998-03-01

    Inverse modeling is a technique to derive model-related parameters from a variety of observations made on hydrogeologic systems, from small-scale laboratory experiments to field tests to long-term geothermal reservoir responses. If properly chosen, these observations contain information about the system behavior that is relevant to the performance of a geothermal field. Estimating model-related parameters and reducing their uncertainty is an important step in model development, because errors in the parameters constitute a major source of prediction errors. This paper contains an overview of inverse modeling applications using the ITOUGH2 code, demonstrating the possibilities and limitations of a formalized approach to the parameter estimation problem.

  20. Darwin's "strange inversion of reasoning".

    PubMed

    Dennett, Daniel

    2009-06-16

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection unifies the world of physics with the world of meaning and purpose by proposing a deeply counterintuitive "inversion of reasoning" (according to a 19th century critic): "to make a perfect and beautiful machine, it is not requisite to know how to make it" [MacKenzie RB (1868) (Nisbet & Co., London)]. Turing proposed a similar inversion: to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine, it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. Together, these ideas help to explain how we human intelligences came to be able to discern the reasons for all of the adaptations of life, including our own. PMID:19528651

  1. Inversion domains in AlN grown on (0001) sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, J.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Paduano, Q.S.; Weyburne, D.W.

    2003-08-25

    Al-polarity inversion domains formed during AlN layer growth on (0001) sapphire were identified using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They resemble columnar inversion domains reported for GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire. However, for AlN, these columns have a V-like shape with boundaries that deviate by 2 {+-} 0.5{sup o} from the c-axis. TEM identification of these defects agrees with the post-growth surface morphology as well as with the microstructure revealed by etching in hot aqueous KOH.

  2. CASPT2 study of inverse sandwich-type dinuclear 3d transition metal complexes of ethylene and dinitrogen molecules: similarities and differences in geometry, electronic structure, and spin multiplicity.

    PubMed

    Nakagaki, Masayuki; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2015-07-01

    The spin multiplicities and coordination structures of inverse sandwich-type complexes (ISTCs) of ethylene and dinitrogen molecules with 3d transition metal elements (Sc to Ni), (μ-C2H4)[M(AIP)]2 and (μ-N2)[M(AIP)]2 (AIPH = (Z)-1-amino-3-iminoprop-1-ene; M = Sc to Ni) were investigated by the CASPT2 method. In both ethylene and dinitrogen ISTCs of the early 3d transition metals (Sc to Cr), sandwiched ethylene and dinitrogen ligands coordinate with two metal atoms in an η(2)-side-on form and their ground states have an open-shell singlet spin multiplicity. The η(1)-end-on coordination structure of dinitrogen ISTCs is considerably less stable than the η(2)-side-on form in these metals. For the late 3d transition metals (Mn to Ni), ethylene and dinitrogen ISTCs exhibit interesting similarities and differences in spin multiplicity and structure as follows: in ethylene ISTCs of Mn to Ni, the ground state has an open-shell singlet spin multiplicity like those of the ISTCs of early transition metals. However, the ethylene ligand is considerably distorted, in which the ethylene carbon atoms have a tetrahedral-like structure similar to sp(3) carbon and each of them coordinates with one metal in a μ-η(1):η(1) structure. These geometrical features are completely different from those of ISTCs of the early transition metals. In dinitrogen ISTCs of Mn to Ni, on the other hand, the ground state has a high spin multiplicity from nonet (Mn) to triplet (Ni). The η(2)-side-on coordination structure of the dinitrogen ligand is as stable as the η(1)-end-on form in the Mn complex but the η(1)-end-on structure is more stable than the η(2)-side-on form in the Fe to Ni complexes. All these interesting similarities and differences between ethylene and dinitrogen ISTCs and between the early and late transition metal elements arise from the occupation of several important molecular orbitals. PMID:26041561

  3. External inverse-Compton Emission from Blazar Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, Jennifer E.; Chiang, James; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    According to leptonic models for the high-energy emission from blazars, relativistic electrons in the inner jets inverse-Compton scatter photons from a variety of sources. Seed photons are certainly introduced via the synchrotron process from the electrons themselves, but external sources of seed photons may also be present. In this paper, we present detailed derivations of the equations describing external inverse-Compton scattering from two sources of seed photons: direct emission from the accretion disk, and accretion disk photons that have scattered off the broad line region. For each source, we derive the seed photon spectrum incident on the jet, the single electron energy loss rate, and the emitted photon spectrum.

  4. Inverse dielectric response function for copper oxide superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. C.; Kulshrestha, Ina

    1992-09-01

    We use a layered-electron-gas model to calculate the inverse electronic dielectric response functions for the normal state of copper oxide superconductors with one and two copper oxide layers per unit cell. Our calculation demonstrates that the low-energy electronic collective-excitation spectrum consists of both acoustic and optic plasmons. The acoustic plasmon modes are found to be well behaved only for certain restricted values of the wave vector and damping parameter. Our computed optical inverse dielectric response function exhibits one peak in the low-energy region and varies as βω2 for 0<=ω<=ωp. Here β is a material-dependent parameter and ωp is the position of the peak that corresponds to the intraband optic plasmon mode. Our calculated optical dielectric response functions show excellent agreement with the experimental results of Bozovic for 0<=ω<=ωp.

  5. Action Understanding as Inverse Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Chris L.; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the…

  6. Ceria based inverse opals for thermochemical fuel production: Quantification and prediction of high temperature behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, Danielle Courtney

    Solar energy has the potential to supply more than enough energy to meet humanity's energy demands. Here, a method for thermochemical solar energy storage through fuel production is presented. A porous non-stoichiometric oxide, ceria, undergoes partial thermal reduction and oxidation with concentrated solar energy as a heat source, and water as an oxidant. The resulting yields for hydrogen fuel and oxygen are produced in two discrete steps, while the starting material maintains its original phase. Ordered porosity has been shown superior to random porosity for thermochemical fuel production applications, but stability limits for these structures are currently undefined. Ceria-based inverse opals are currently being investigated to assess the architectural influence on thermochemical hydrogen production. Low tortuosity and continuous interconnected pore network allow for facile gas transport and improved reaction kinetics. Ceria-based ordered materials have recently been shown to increase maximum hydrogen production over non-ordered porous ceria. Thermal stability of ordered porosity was quantified using quantitative image analysis. Fourier analysis was applied to SEM images of the material. The algorithm results in an order parameter gamma that describes the degree of long range order maintained by these structures, where gamma>4 signifies ordered porosity. According to this metric, a minimum zirconium content of 20 atomic percent (at%) is necessary for these architectures to survive aggressive annealing up to 1000°C. Zirconium substituted ceria (ZSC) with Zr loadings in excess of 20at% developed undesired tetragonal phases. Through gamma, we were able to find a balance between the benefit of zirconium additions on structural stability and its negative impact on phase. This work demonstrates the stability of seemingly delicate architectures, and the operational limit for ceria based inverse opals to be 1000°C for 1microm pore size. Inverse opals having sub

  7. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  8. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  9. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  10. Optimal inversion of the generalized Anscombe transformation for Poisson-Gaussian noise.

    PubMed

    Mäkitalo, Markku; Foi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Many digital imaging devices operate by successive photon-to-electron, electron-to-voltage, and voltage-to-digit conversions. These processes are subject to various signal-dependent errors, which are typically modeled as Poisson-Gaussian noise. The removal of such noise can be effected indirectly by applying a variance-stabilizing transformation (VST) to the noisy data, denoising the stabilized data with a Gaussian denoising algorithm, and finally applying an inverse VST to the denoised data. The generalized Anscombe transformation (GAT) is often used for variance stabilization, but its unbiased inverse transformation has not been rigorously studied in the past. We introduce the exact unbiased inverse of the GAT and show that it plays an integral part in ensuring accurate denoising results. We demonstrate that this exact inverse leads to state-of-the-art results without any notable increase in the computational complexity compared to the other inverses. We also show that this inverse is optimal in the sense that it can be interpreted as a maximum likelihood inverse. Moreover, we thoroughly analyze the behavior of the proposed inverse, which also enables us to derive a closed-form approximation for it. This paper generalizes our work on the exact unbiased inverse of the Anscombe transformation, which we have presented earlier for the removal of pure Poisson noise. PMID:22692910

  11. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  12. An ionospheric occultation inversion technique based on epoch difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jian; Xiong, Jing; Zhu, Fuying; Yang, Jian; Qiao, Xuejun

    2013-09-01

    Of the ionospheric radio occultation (IRO) electron density profile (EDP) retrievals, the Abel based calibrated TEC inversion (CTI) is the most widely used technique. In order to eliminate the contribution from the altitude above the RO satellite, it is necessary to utilize the calibrated TEC to retrieve the EDP, which introduces the error due to the coplanar assumption. In this paper, a new technique based on the epoch difference inversion (EDI) is firstly proposed to eliminate this error. The comparisons between CTI and EDI have been done, taking advantage of the simulated and real COSMIC data. The following conclusions can be drawn: the EDI technique can successfully retrieve the EDPs without non-occultation side measurements and shows better performance than the CTI method, especially for lower orbit mission; no matter which technique is used, the inversion results at the higher altitudes are better than those at the lower altitudes, which could be explained theoretically.

  13. Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-07-01

    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially

  14. Quantization effects on the inversion mode of a double gate MOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondol, Kalyan; Hasan, Md. Manzurul; Arafath, Yeasir; Alam, Khairul

    We investigate the quantization effects on the gate capacitance and charge distribution of a double gate MOSFET using a self-consistent solution of Poisson and Schrödinger equations of the industry standard simulation package Silvaco. Quantization effects on the gate C-V are simulated by varying the electron and hole effective masses. We notice that the inversion capacitance value decreases as the effective mass goes below 0.1mo and the shape of the C-V curve changes to step like in the inversion. We also notice that the inversion switches from surface inversion to volume inversion for low effective mass, and the quantization effect (step like shape) in C-V and volume inversion in charge profile happen at the same effective mass.

  15. Microwave inverse {hacek C}erenkov accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.B.; Marshall, T.C.; LaPointe, M.A.; Hirshfield, J.L.; Ron, A.

    1996-08-01

    Testing and analysis have been carried out on a dielectrically lined waveguide, which appears to be a suitable structure for accelerating electrons. From the dispersion relation for the TM{sub 01} mode, inner and outer radii of a copper-clad alumina pipe ({var_epsilon}=9.40) have been determined such that the phase and group velocities are 0.9732{ital c} and 0.1096{ital c}, respectively. Analysis and particle simulation studies for the injection of 6-MeV microbunches from a 2.856-GHz rf gun, and subsequent acceleration by the TM{sub 01} fields, predict that an acceleration gradient of 6.3 Mv/m can be achieved with a traveling-wave power of 15 MW applied to the structure. Synchronous injection into a narrow phase window allows trapping of all injected particles. The rf fields of the accelerating structure provide radial focusing, so that longitudinal and transverse emittance growth during acceleration is small and that no external magnetic fields are required for focusing. The acceleration mechanism is the inverse of that in which electrons radiate as they traverse a waveguide at speeds exceeding the phase velocity of the microwaves (Cerenkov radiation) and is thus referred to as a microwave inverse Cerenkov accelerator. For 0.16-nC, 5-psec microbunches, the normalized emittance of the accelerated beam is predicted to be less than 5{pi} mrad. Experiments on sample alumina tubes have been conducted that verify the theoretical dispersion relation for the TM{sub 01} mode over a two-to-one range in frequency. No excitation of axisymmetric or nonaxisymmetric competing waveguide modes was observed. High power tests showed that tangential electric fields at the inner surface of an uncoated sample of alumina pipe could be sustained up to 8.4 MV/m without breakdown. These considerations suggest that a microwave inverse Cerenkov test accelerator can be built to examine these predictions using an available rf power source, a 6-MeV rf gun, and an associated beam line.

  16. Analysis of RAE-1 inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedland, D. A.; Degonia, P. K.

    1974-01-01

    The RAE-1 spacecraft inversion performed October 31, 1972 is described based upon the in-orbit dynamical data in conjunction with results obtained from previously developed computer simulation models. The computer simulations used are predictive of the satellite dynamics, including boom flexing, and are applicable during boom deployment and retraction, inter-phase coast periods, and post-deployment operations. Attitude data, as well as boom tip data, were analyzed in order to obtain a detailed description of the dynamical behavior of the spacecraft during and after the inversion. Runs were made using the computer model and the results were analyzed and compared with the real time data. Close agreement between the actual recorded spacecraft attitude and the computer simulation results was obtained.

  17. Simplified, inverse, ejector design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dechant, Lawrence J.

    1993-01-01

    A simple lumped parameter based inverse design tool has been developed which provides flow path geometry and entrainment estimates subject to operational, acoustic, and design constraints. These constraints are manifested through specification of primary mass flow rate or ejector thrust, fully-mixed exit velocity, and static pressure matching. Fundamentally, integral forms of the conservation equations coupled with the specified design constraints are combined to yield an easily invertible linear system in terms of the flow path cross-sectional areas. Entrainment is computed by back substitution. Initial comparison with experimental and analogous one-dimensional methods show good agreement. Thus, this simple inverse design code provides an analytically based, preliminary design tool with direct application to High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) design studies.

  18. Broadband synthetic aperture geoacoustic inversion.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bien Aik; Gerstoft, Peter; Yardim, Caglar; Hodgkiss, William S

    2013-07-01

    A typical geoacoustic inversion procedure involves powerful source transmissions received on a large-aperture receiver array. A more practical approach is to use a single moving source and/or receiver in a low signal to noise ratio (SNR) setting. This paper uses single-receiver, broadband, frequency coherent matched-field inversion and exploits coherently repeated transmissions to improve estimation of the geoacoustic parameters. The long observation time creates a synthetic aperture due to relative source-receiver motion. This approach is illustrated by studying the transmission of multiple linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulses which results in a multi-tonal comb spectrum that is Doppler sensitive. To correlate well with the measured field across a receiver trajectory and to incorporate transmission from a source trajectory, waveguide Doppler and normal mode theory is applied. The method is demonstrated with low SNR, 100-900 Hz LFM pulse data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment. PMID:23862809

  19. Southern California Adjoint Source Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromp, J.; Kim, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Southern California Centroid-Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions with 9 components (6 moment tensor elements, latitude, longitude, and depth) are sought to minimize a misfit function computed from waveform differences. The gradient of a misfit function is obtained based upon two numerical simulations for each earthquake: one forward calculation for the southern California model, and an adjoint calculation that uses time-reversed signals at the receivers. Conjugate gradient and square-root variable metric methods are used to iteratively improve the earthquake source model while reducing the misfit function. The square-root variable metric algorithm has the advantage of providing a direct approximation to the posterior covariance operator. We test the inversion procedure by perturbing each component of the CMT solution, and see how the algorithm converges. Finally, we demonstrate full inversion capabilities using data for real Southern California earthquakes.

  20. Inverse psoriasis treated with ustekinumab.

    PubMed

    Campos, Manuel António; Varela, Paulo; Baptista, Armando; Moreira, Ana Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Inverse psoriasis is characterised by the involvement of flexural skin folds. This form of psoriasis has distinct clinical and therapeutic features. This report refers to the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian man who was observed in our department, with a clinically and biopsy proven diagnosis of inverse psoriasis. For 2 years, the patient was treated with different combinations of corticosteroids, vitamin D analogues and methotrexate, with no satisfactory response. Given the lack of a clinical response and comorbidities, latent tuberculosis was excluded, and we started treatment with ustekinumab. We chose this biological agent because the patient was a long-distance truck driver and refused the possibility of autoinjections. The patient underwent three ustekinumab injections, which resulted in significant improvement of pruritus, erythaematous lesions and quality of life. PMID:27222277

  1. Techniques in Doppler gravity inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The types of Doppler gravity data available for local as opposed to planetwide geophysical modeling are reviewed. Those gravity fields that are determined dynamically in orbit determination programs yield a smoothed representation of the local gravity field that may be used for quantitative modeling. An estimate of the difference between smoothed and true fields can be considered as a noise limitation in generating local gravity models. A nonlinear inversion for the geometry, depth, and density of the Mare Serenitatis mascon using an ellipsoidal model yielded a global least squares minimum in horizontal dimensions, depth, and thickness-density contrast product. It was subsequently found, by using a linear model, that there were an infinite number of solutions corresponding to various combinations of depth and lateral inhomogeneity. Linear modeling was performed by means of generalized inverse theory.

  2. Energy supply and demand in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  3. Electronic document interchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuey, Dick

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation and implementation tasks for the NASA-wide electronic publishing system known as networked DOCUTECH are examined and the system configuration is graphically depicted. DOCUTECH provides the capability to print on demand electronically stored documents. Use of the electronic publishing system in several applications has generated productivity gains ranging from 33 to 88 percent at geographically dispersed NASA centers.

  4. Stochastic inversion by ray continuation

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, A.; Viallix

    1989-05-01

    The conventional tomographic inversion consists in minimizing residuals between measured and modelled traveltimes. The process tends to be unstable and some additional constraints are required to stabilize it. The stochastic formulation generalizes the technique and sets it on firmer theoretical bases. The Stochastic Inversion by Ray Continuation (SIRC) is a probabilistic approach, which takes a priori geological information into account and uses probability distributions to characterize data correlations and errors. It makes it possible to tie uncertainties to the results. The estimated parameters are interval velocities and B-spline coefficients used to represent smoothed interfaces. Ray tracing is done by a continuation technique between source and receives. The ray coordinates are computed from one path to the next by solving a linear system derived from Fermat's principle. The main advantages are fast computations, accurate traveltimes and derivatives. The seismic traces are gathered in CMPs. For a particular CMP, several reflecting elements are characterized by their time gradient measured on the stacked section, and related to a mean emergence direction. The program capabilities are tested on a synthetic example as well as on a field example. The strategy consists in inverting the parameters for one layer, then for the next one down. An inversion step is divided in two parts. First the parameters for the layer concerned are inverted, while the parameters for the upper layers remain fixed. Then all the parameters are reinverted. The velocity-depth section computed by the program together with the corresponding errors can be used directly for the interpretation, as an initial model for depth migration or for the complete inversion program under development.

  5. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  6. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  7. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  8. Successful demand-side management

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, S.; Flanigan, T.

    1995-05-01

    This article is a brief summary of a series of case studies of five publicly-owned utilities that are noted for their success with demand-side management. These utilities are: (1) city of Austin, Texas, (2) Burlington Electric Department in Vermont, (3) Sacramento Municipal Utility District in California, (4) Seattle City Light, and (5) Waverly Light and Power in Iowa. From these case studies, the authors identified a number of traits associated with a successful demand-side management program. These traits are: (1) high rates, (2) economic factors, (3) environmental awareness, (4) state emphasis on integrated resource planning/demand side management, (5) local political support, (6) large-sized utilities, and (7) presence of a champion.

  9. On the Magic Square and Inverse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elzaidi, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    In this note, we give a method for finding the inverse of a three by three magic square matrix without using the usual methods for finding the inverse of a matrix. Also we give a method for finding the inverse of a three by three magic square matrix whose entries are also matrices. By using these ideas, we can construct large matrices whose…

  10. Fast Computation of the Inverse CMH Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A fast computational method based on differential equation approach for inverse DOK model has been extended for the inverse CMH model. Also, a cobweb technique for calculating the inverse CMH model is also presented. The two techniques are differed from the point of view of flexibility and computation time.

  11. Microfluidic electronics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field. PMID:22711057

  12. Inversion domains in GaN grown on sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, L.T.; Northrup, J.E.; OKeefe, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Planar defects observed in GaN films grown on (0001) sapphire have been identified as inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) by a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, multiple dark field imaging, and convergent beam electron diffraction techniques. Films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metalorganic vapor deposition (MOCVD), and hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) were investigated and all were found to contain IDBs. The IDBs in the MBE and HVPE films extended from the interface to the film surface and formed columnar domains that ranged in width from 3 to 20 nm in the MBE films and up to 100 nm in the HVPE films. For the films investigated, the MBE films had the highest density, and the MOCVD films had the lowest density of IDBs. The nucleation of inversion domains (IDs) may result from step-related inhomogeneities of the GaN/sapphire interface. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Inverse Beta Decay Reconstruction in the Double Chooz Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrick, Anne

    2010-02-01

    The Double Chooz Experiment will search for neutrino oscillations using the ``Inverse Beta-Decay'' (IBD) interactions of electron antineutrinos from a nuclear reactor in Chooz, France. The experiment needs to isolate IBD events by detecting and reconstructing the positions and deposited energies of the outgoing positron and neutron. Methods for isolating this process will be described. In addition, results of simulation studies of two different reconstruction algorithms will be presented and their performances compared. )

  14. Employer Demands from Business Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Stephen; Dutton, Matthew; McQuaid, Ronald; Richard, Alec

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research carried out with employers to determine demand for business and management skills in the Scottish workforce. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a questionnaire in which employers were interviewed (either telephone or face to face), completed themselves and returned by e-mail,…

  15. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  16. Smart Buildings and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2011-11-01

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems in buildings. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  17. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  18. Faculty Demand in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the factors that shift the demand curve for faculty at not-for-profit private institutions. It is unique in that to the author's knowledge no other study has directly addressed the question of how the positive correlation between average faculty salaries and faculty-student ratios can be reconciled with…

  19. Dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, Joanna; Tchoń, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    By analogy to the definition of the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for robotic manipulators, we have designed a dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators built of a non-holonomic mobile platform and a holonomic on-board manipulator. The endogenous configuration space approach has been exploited as a source of conceptual guidelines. The new inverse guarantees a decoupling of the motion in the operational space from the forces exerted in the endogenous configuration space and annihilated by the dual Jacobian inverse. A performance study of the new Jacobian inverse as a tool for motion planning is presented.

  20. Convergence demands by spectacle magnifiers.

    PubMed

    Katz, M

    1996-08-01

    A general equation, c delta = k1b + k2sF, for finding the binocular convergence demands by spectacle magnifiers to view images at any distance is presented. Factor k1 in the equation yields the accommodative demand to view the image; factor k2 determines the actual reduction in convergence demand provided by the vendors' incorporation of base-in prism. When magnifiers from virtual images at finite distances, such as at the least distance of distinct vision or 25 cm, the interpupiliary distance (b), the separation between the lenses and the eyes (d), and the distance between the optical centers of the lenses (s) are basic quantities, according to this equation. The fundamental datum that the vendors should specify is the distance (s) between the optical centers of the lenses, rather than base-in prism. The specification of base-in prism is unrellable when images are formed at finite distances and the frame PD is not equal to the distance IPD. When the image is formed at infinity, that is when the angular magnification M = F/4, the convergence demand by spectacle magnifiers only depends on the separation between the optical centers of the lenses and the lens power, that is, c delta = sF. It is independent of the interpupillary distance (b) and the separation between the lenses and the eyes (d). We also present an equation, to find the disparity of the accommodative/convergence relation caused by spectacle magnifiers. Knowing the demands on convergence and accommodation, the practitioner can probably evaluate the potential for successful adaptation to spectacle magnifiers from routine measurements of positive and negative relative convergence and accommodation. PMID:8869985

  1. The continuation inverse problem revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, Stephen P.

    1998-06-01

    The non-uniqueness of the continuation of a finite collection of harmonic potential field data to a level surface in the source-free region forces its treatment as an inverse problem. A formalism is proposed for the construction of continuation functions which are extremal by various measures. The problem is cast in such a form that the inverse problem solution is the potential function on the lowest horizontal surface above all sources, serving as the boundary function for the Dirichlet problem in the upper half-plane. The desired continuation, at the higher level of interest, must then be in the range of the upward continuation operator acting on this boundary function, rather than being allowed the full freedom of itself being part of a Dirichlet problem boundary function. Extremal solutions minimize non-linear functionals of the continuation function, which are re-expressed as different functionals of the boundary function. A crux of the method is that there is no essential distinction between the upward and downward continuation inverse problems to levels above or below data locations. Casting the optimization as a Lagrange multiplier problem leads to an integral equation for the boundary function, which is readily solved in the Fourier domain for a certain class of functionals. The desired extremal continuation is then given by upward continuation. It is found that for some functionals, application of the Lagrange multiplier theorem requires a further restriction on the set of allowable boundary functions: bandlimitedness is a natural choice for the continuation problem. With this imposition, the theory is developed in detail for semi-norm functionals penalizing departure from a constant potential, in the 2-norm and Sobelev norm senses, and illustrated by application for a small synthetic Deep Tow magnetic field data set.

  2. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Wang, Xuben; Li, Zhirong; Li, Qiong; Li, Zhengwen

    2009-06-01

    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  3. Parallel inverse iteration with reorthogonalization

    SciTech Connect

    Fann, G.I.; Littlefield, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    A parallel method for finding orthogonal eigenvectors of real symmetric tridiagonal is described. The method uses inverse iteration with repeated Modified Gram-Schmidt (MGS) reorthogonalization of the unconverged iterates for clustered eigenvalues. This approach is more parallelizable than reorthogonalizing against fully converged eigenvectors, as is done by LAPACK's current DSTEIN routine. The new method is found to provide accuracy and speed comparable to DSTEIN's and to have good parallel scalability even for matrices with large clusters of eigenvalues. We present al results for residual and orthogonality tests, plus timings on IBM RS/6000 (sequential) and Intel Touchstone DELTA (parallel) computers.

  4. Parallel inverse iteration with reorthogonalization

    SciTech Connect

    Fann, G.I.; Littlefield, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    A parallel method for finding orthogonal eigenvectors of real symmetric tridiagonal is described. The method uses inverse iteration with repeated Modified Gram-Schmidt (MGS) reorthogonalization of the unconverged iterates for clustered eigenvalues. This approach is more parallelizable than reorthogonalizing against fully converged eigenvectors, as is done by LAPACK`s current DSTEIN routine. The new method is found to provide accuracy and speed comparable to DSTEIN`s and to have good parallel scalability even for matrices with large clusters of eigenvalues. We present al results for residual and orthogonality tests, plus timings on IBM RS/6000 (sequential) and Intel Touchstone DELTA (parallel) computers.

  5. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    SciTech Connect

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  6. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Ghatikar, Girish; Ni, Chun Chun; Dudley, Junqiao; Martin, Phil; Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  7. Inversion of Chelyabinsk Meteorite Micromagnetic Maps - Implication for Inversions of Mars Magnetic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazanec, M.; Kletetschka, G.

    2014-12-01

    The largest fragment of Chelyabinsk meteorite fell into the Russian lake Chebarkul on February 15, 2013. We used magnetic scanner constructed by Youngwood Science and Engineering (YSE, see Kletetschka et al 2013) to obtain micromagnetic maps of one of the Chelyabinsk's meteorite fragment. Our instrument has a Hall effect magnetic sensor and maps vertical component of the magnetic field approximately 0.3 mm above the planar surface of meteorite sample. Advantage of this instrument is a constant background field due to static position of the sensor. We applied fast Fourier transform inversion technique developed by Lima et al (2013). This technique is tailored for scanning magnetic microscopy (SMM), but may be also modified for aeromagnetic or satellite survey. It retrieves planar unidirectional magnetization distribution from micromagnetic field map. With this technique we achieved verifiable information about the source of the magnetic anomalies in our meteorite sample. Specific areas of detected magnetization were used for compositional analyses by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This way we obtain the ground truth for the source of magnetic anomalies of our meteorite thin section. Measurement of chemical composition of magnetic grains can be directly linked to the amount of magnetization for the specific magnetic mineralogy. The inversion technique was extended for interpretation of real magnetic anomalies on Mars. Lima, E. A., B. P. Weiss, L. Baratchart,D. P.Hardin, and E. B. Saff (2013), Fast inversion ofmagnetic field maps of unidirectional planar geological magnetization, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 2723-2752, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50229.Kletetschka, G., Schnabl, P., Sifnerova, K., Tasaryova, Z., Manda, S., and Pruner, P., 2013, Magnetic scanning and interpretation of paleomagnetic data from Prague Synform's volcanics: Studia Geophysica Et Geodaetica, v. 57, no. 1, p. 103-117.

  8. MOSES Inversions using Multiresolution SMART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, Thomas; Fox, Lewis; Kankelborg, Charles; Courrier, Hans; Plovanic, Jacob

    2014-06-01

    We present improvements to the SMART inversion algorithm for the MOSES imaging spectrograph. MOSES, the Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph, is a slitless extreme ultraviolet spectrograph designed to measure cotemporal narrowband spectra over a wide field of view via tomographic inversion of images taken at three orders of a concave diffraction grating. SMART, the Smooth Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique, relies on a global chi squared goodness of fit criterion, which enables overfit and underfit regions to "balance out" when judging fit quality. "Good" reconstructions show poor fits at some positions and length scales. Here we take a multiresolution approach to SMART, applying corrections to the reconstruction at positions and scales where correction is warranted based on the noise. The result is improved fit residuals that more closely resemble the expected noise in the images. Within the multiresolution framework it is also easy to include a regularized deconvolution of the instrument point spread functions, which we do. Different point spread functions among MOSES spectral orders results in spurious doppler shifts in the reconstructions, most notable near bright compact emission. We estimate the point spread funtions from the data. Deconvolution is done using the Richardson-Lucy method, which is algorithmically similar to SMART. Regularization results from only correcting the reconstruction at positions and scales where correction is warranted based on the noise. We expect the point spread function deconvolution to increase signal to noise and reduce systematic error in MOSES reconstructions.

  9. Multi-Skip Tomographic Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volker, Arno; Bloom, Joost; Lorenz, Maarten

    2011-06-01

    Inspection of corrosion at pipe support locations is difficult because of accessibility limitations. Recently a screening technique has been developed called Multi-Skip ultrasonics. The method utilizes a pitch-catch set-up. Shear waves are transmitted that reflect multiple times in the pipe wall, from which integral wall thickness information is obtained. The method turns out to be very sensitive in detecting the presence of wall loss, but it turns out to be difficult to determine the extent of the wall loss. If the extent is not known, only a conservative estimate of depth can be derived from the Multi-Skip signals, because of the accumulative nature of the change in arrival time due to wall loss. Multi-Skip tomography appears to be a promising method in addition to Multi-Skip screening as a follow-up inspection technique. It uses full wave field inversion to determine a wall thickness profile at a particular location of the pipe on the support. As with the Multi-Skip screening method, Multi-Skip tomography is applied with the transmitter and receiver on both sides of the pipe support location and waves traveling in the axial pipe direction. The wave field inversion consists of a forward modeling step that predicts the measured wave field after which an iterative comparison process with the actually measured wave field results in an estimate of the wall thickness profile under the support.

  10. Self-annihilation of inversion domains by high energy defects in III-Nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Koukoula, T.; Kioseoglou, J. Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.

    2014-04-07

    Low-defect density InN films were grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy over an ∼1 μm thick GaN/AlN buffer/nucleation layer. Electron microscopy observations revealed the presence of inverse polarity domains propagating across the GaN layer and terminating at the sharp GaN/InN (0001{sup ¯}) interface, whereas no inversion domains were detected in InN. The systematic annihilation of GaN inversion domains at the GaN/InN interface is explained in terms of indium incorporation on the Ga-terminated inversion domains forming a metal bonded In-Ga bilayer, a structural instability known as the basal inversion domain boundary, during the initial stages of InN growth on GaN.

  11. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed. PMID:22167909

  12. DataBase on Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar Aparicio, R.; Gomez, D.; Coterillo Coz, I.; Wojcik, D.

    2012-12-01

    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  13. Transport of charged Aerosol OT inverse micelles in nonpolar liquids.

    PubMed

    Karvar, Masoumeh; Strubbe, Filip; Beunis, Filip; Kemp, Roger; Smith, Ashley; Goulding, Mark; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2011-09-01

    Surfactants such as Aerosol OT (AOT) are commonly used to stabilize and electrically charge nonpolar colloids in devices such as electronic ink displays. The electrical behavior of such devices is strongly influenced by the presence of charged inverse micelles, formed by excess surfactant that does not cover the particles. The presence of charged inverse micelles results in increased conductivity of the solution, affecting both the energy consumption of the device and its switching characteristics. In this work, we use transient current measurements to investigate the electrical properties of suspensions of the surfactant Aerosol OT in dodecane. No particles are added, to isolate the effect of excess surfactant. The measured currents upon application of a voltage step are found to be exponentially decaying, and can be described by an analytical model based on an equivalent electric circuit. This behavior is physically interpreted, first by the high generation rate of charged inverse micelles giving the suspension resistor like properties, and second by the buildup of layers of charged inverse micelles at both electrodes, acting as capacitors. The model explains the measurements over a large range of surfactant concentrations, applied voltages, and device thicknesses. PMID:21728309

  14. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing the Drazin Inverse.

    PubMed

    Stanimirović, Predrag S; Zivković, Ivan S; Wei, Yimin

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a recurrent neural network (RNN) for computing the Drazin inverse of a real matrix in real time. This recurrent neural network (RNN) is composed of n independent parts (subnetworks), where n is the order of the input matrix. These subnetworks can operate concurrently, so parallel and distributed processing can be achieved. In this way, the computational advantages over the existing sequential algorithms can be attained in real-time applications. The RNN defined in this paper is convenient for an implementation in an electronic circuit. The number of neurons in the neural network is the same as the number of elements in the output matrix, which represents the Drazin inverse. The difference between the proposed RNN and the existing ones for the Drazin inverse computation lies in their network architecture and dynamics. The conditions that ensure the stability of the defined RNN as well as its convergence toward the Drazin inverse are considered. In addition, illustrative examples and examples of application to the practical engineering problems are discussed to show the efficacy of the proposed neural network. PMID:25706892

  15. Alcohol demand and risk preference

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6–8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use. PMID:19956353

  16. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    PubMed

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use. PMID:19956353

  17. Energy demand and population change.

    PubMed

    Allen, E L; Edmonds, J A

    1981-09-01

    During the post World War 2 years energy consumption has grown 136% while population grew about 51%; per capita consumption of energy expanded, therefore, about 60%. For a given population size, demographic changes mean an increase in energy needs; for instance the larger the group of retirement age people, the smaller their energy needs than are those for a younger group. Estimates indicate that by the year 2000 the energy impact will be toward higher per capita consumption with 60% of the population in the 19-61 age group of workers. Rising female labor force participation will increase the working group even more; it has also been found that income and energy grow at a proportional rate. The authors predict that gasoline consumption within the US will continue to rise with availability considering the larger number of female drivers and higher per capita incomes. The flow of illegal aliens (750,000/year) will have a major impact on income and will use greater amounts of energy than can be expected. A demographic change which will lower energy demands will be the slowdown of the rate of household formation caused by the falling number of young adults. The response of energy demand to price changes is small and slow but incomes play a larger role as does the number of personal automobiles and social changes affecting household formation. Households, commercial space, transportation, and industry are part of every demand analysis and population projections play a major role in determining these factors. PMID:12265241

  18. Automation of energy demand forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Sanzad

    Automation of energy demand forecasting saves time and effort by searching automatically for an appropriate model in a candidate model space without manual intervention. This thesis introduces a search-based approach that improves the performance of the model searching process for econometrics models. Further improvements in the accuracy of the energy demand forecasting are achieved by integrating nonlinear transformations within the models. This thesis introduces machine learning techniques that are capable of modeling such nonlinearity. Algorithms for learning domain knowledge from time series data using the machine learning methods are also presented. The novel search based approach and the machine learning models are tested with synthetic data as well as with natural gas and electricity demand signals. Experimental results show that the model searching technique is capable of finding an appropriate forecasting model. Further experimental results demonstrate an improved forecasting accuracy achieved by using the novel machine learning techniques introduced in this thesis. This thesis presents an analysis of how the machine learning techniques learn domain knowledge. The learned domain knowledge is used to improve the forecast accuracy.

  19. Inverse parabolic quantum dot: The transition energy under magnetic field effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safwan, S. A.; El Meshed, Nagwa

    2016-08-01

    We present here, the evolution of the transition energy with a static magnetic field, when the electron and the hole are confined in inverse parabolic quantum dot (IPQD). The unexpected behavior is found, at the weak confinement regime the conduction band minimum and the top of valance band change from s-state to p-state or d-state for confined electron and hole inside IPQD, respectively. The strength of the inverse parabolic potential (potential hump) inside a quantum dot has the upper hand in tuning the ground state momentum for both electron and hole, and consequently their interband transition energy is changed. Knowing that this is not the case for the other types of potentials. The quantum size, the magnetic field and inverse potential hump effects on electron and hole ground and excited states are discussed.

  20. PREFACE: Inverse Problems in Applied Sciences—towards breakthrough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jin; Iso, Yuusuke; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2007-06-01

    flourishing time, it is necessary to carefully analyse the current status of inverse problems for further development. Thus we have opened with the panel discussion entitled `Future of Inverse Problems' with panelists: Professors J Cheng, H W Engl, V Isakov, R Kress, J-K Seo, G Uhlmann and the commentator: Elaine Longden-Chapman from IOP Publishing. The aims of the panel discussion were to examine the current research status from various viewpoints, to discuss how we can overcome any difficulties and how we can promote young researchers and open new possibilities for inverse problems such as industrial linkages. As one output, the panel discussion has triggered the organization of the Inverse Problems International Association (IPIA) which has led to its first international congress in the summer of 2007. Another remarkable outcome of the conference is, of course, the present volume: this is the very high quality online proceedings volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Readers can see in these proceedings very well written tutorial lecture notes, and very high quality original research and review papers all of which show what was achieved by the time the conference was held. The electronic publication of the proceedings is a new way of publicizing the achievement of the conference. It has the advantage of wide circulation and cost reduction. We believe this is a most efficient method for our needs and purposes. We would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge all the people who helped to organize the conference. Guest Editors Jin Cheng, Fudan University, Shanghai, China Yuusuke Iso, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Gen Nakamura, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan Masahiro Yamamoto, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

  1. Development and Initial Validation of the Coping with Academic Demands Scale: How Students in Accelerated High School Curricula Cope with School-Related Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Fefer, Sarah A.; Ferron, John

    2015-01-01

    Successful coping with academic demands is important given the inverse relationship between stress and positive adjustment in adolescents. The Coping With Academic Demands Scale (CADS) is a new measure of coping appropriate for students pursuing advanced high school curricula, specifically Advanced Placement (AP) classes and the International…

  2. Three-dimensional induced polarization data inversion for complex resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Williams, K.H.; Hubbard, S.S.

    2011-03-15

    The conductive and capacitive material properties of the subsurface can be quantified through the frequency-dependent complex resistivity. However, the routine three-dimensional (3D) interpretation of voluminous induced polarization (IP) data sets still poses a challenge due to large computational demands and solution nonuniqueness. We have developed a flexible methodology for 3D (spectral) IP data inversion. Our inversion algorithm is adapted from a frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) inversion method primarily developed for large-scale hydrocarbon and geothermal energy exploration purposes. The method has proven to be efficient by implementing the nonlinear conjugate gradient method with hierarchical parallelism and by using an optimal finite-difference forward modeling mesh design scheme. The method allows for a large range of survey scales, providing a tool for both exploration and environmental applications. We experimented with an image focusing technique to improve the poor depth resolution of surface data sets with small survey spreads. The algorithm's underlying forward modeling operator properly accounts for EM coupling effects; thus, traditionally used EM coupling correction procedures are not needed. The methodology was applied to both synthetic and field data. We tested the benefit of directly inverting EM coupling contaminated data using a synthetic large-scale exploration data set. Afterward, we further tested the monitoring capability of our method by inverting time-lapse data from an environmental remediation experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Similar trends observed in both our solution and another 2D inversion were in accordance with previous findings about the IP effects due to subsurface microbial activity.

  3. Recent Advances in Geostatistical Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanidis, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    Inverse problems are common in hydrologic applications, such as in subsurface imaging which is the identification of parameters characterizing geologic formations from hydrologic and geophysical observations. In such problems, the data do not suffice to constrain the solution to be unique. The geostatistical approach utilizes probability theory and statistical inference to assimilate data and information about structure and to explore the range of possible solutions in a systematic way. This is a progress report on recent advances in terms of formulation and computational methods. The standard implementation of the geostatistical approach to the inverse method is computationally very expensive when there are millions of unknowns and hundreds of thousands of observations, as is the case in fusing data from many sources in hydrogeology. However, depending on the specific problem, alternative formulations and numerical methods can reduce the computational problem quite dramatically. One approach can utilize formulations that involve matrices with a very high degree of sparsity combined with indirect methods of solution and strategies that minimize the number of required forward runs. The potential for this method is illustrated with an application to transient hydraulic tomography. Another approach speeds up matrix-vector multiplications by utilizing hierarchical sparsity in commonly encountered matrices, particularly prior covariance matrices. A couple of examples show how the computational cost scales with the size of the problem (number of observations and unknowns) in conventional and newer methods. Yet another fruitful approach is to rely on a large number of realizations to represent ensembles of solutions and we illustrate this approach in fusing data from two different geophysical methods. In all of these approaches, utilizing parallel processors and mixed CPU/GPU programming can significantly reduce the computational cost and make it possible to solve very

  4. Sapphire decomposition and inversion domains in N-polar aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Hussey, Lindsay White, Ryan M.; Kirste, Ronny; Bryan, Isaac; Guo, Wei; Osterman, Katherine; Haidet, Brian; Bryan, Zachary; Bobea, Milena; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Mita, Seiji

    2014-01-20

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching confirmed that inversion domains in the N-polar AlN grown on c-plane sapphire were due to the decomposition of sapphire in the presence of hydrogen. The inversion domains were found to correspond to voids at the AlN and sapphire interface, and transmission electron microscopy results showed a V-shaped, columnar inversion domain with staggered domain boundary sidewalls. Voids were also observed in the simultaneously grown Al-polar AlN, however no inversion domains were present. The polarity of AlN grown above the decomposed regions of the sapphire substrate was confirmed to be Al-polar by KOH etching and TEM.

  5. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  6. Dark radiative inverse seesaw mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahriche, Amine; Boucenna, Sofiane M.; Nasri, Salah

    2016-04-01

    We present a minimal model that simultaneously accounts for neutrino masses and the origin of dark matter (DM) and where the electroweak phase transition is strong enough to allow for electroweak baryogenesis. The Standard Model is enlarged with a Majorana fermion, three generations of chiral fermion pairs, and a single complex scalar that plays a central role in DM production and phenomenology, neutrino masses, and the strength of the phase transition. All the new fields are singlets under the SM gauge group. Neutrino masses are generated via a new variant of the radiative inverse seesaw mechanism, where the required small mass term is generated via loops involving DM and no large hierarchy is assumed among the mass scales. The model offers all the advantage of low-scale neutrino mass models as well as a viable dark matter candidate that is testable with direct detection experiments.

  7. Hierarchical Bayesian inverse reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaedeug; Kim, Kee-Eung

    2015-04-01

    Inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) is the problem of inferring the underlying reward function from the expert's behavior data. The difficulty in IRL mainly arises in choosing the best reward function since there are typically an infinite number of reward functions that yield the given behavior data as optimal. Another difficulty comes from the noisy behavior data due to sub-optimal experts. We propose a hierarchical Bayesian framework, which subsumes most of the previous IRL algorithms as well as models the sub-optimality of the expert's behavior. Using a number of experiments on a synthetic problem, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach including the robustness of our hierarchical Bayesian framework to the sub-optimal expert behavior data. Using a real dataset from taxi GPS traces, we additionally show that our approach predicts the driving behavior with a high accuracy. PMID:25291805

  8. Applications of matrix inversion tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warp, Richard J.; Godfrey, Devon J.; Dobbins, James T., III

    2000-04-01

    The improved image quality and characteristics of new flat- panel x-ray detectors have renewed interest in advanced algorithms such as tomosynthesis. Digital tomosynthesis is a method of acquiring and reconstructing a three-dimensional data set with limited-angle tube movement. Historically, conventional tomosynthesis reconstruction has suffered contamination of the planes of interest by blurred out-of- plane structures. This paper focuses on a Matrix Inversion Tomosynthesis (MITS) algorithm to remove unwanted blur from adjacent planes. The algorithm uses a set of coupled equations to solve for the blurring function in each reconstructed plane. This paper demonstrates the use of the MITS algorithm in three imaging applications: small animal microscopy, chest radiography, and orthopedics. The results of the MITS reconstruction process demonstrate an improved reduction of blur from out-of-plane structures when compared to conventional tomosynthesis. We conclude that the MITS algorithm holds potential in a variety of applications to improve three-dimensional image reconstruction.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of FE colloid catalysts in inverse micelle solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, A.; Sault, A.G.; Kawola, J.S.; Stoker, M.; Hicks, M.; Bartholomew, C.H.

    1995-02-01

    Formation of Fe clusters in inverse micelles was studied. Iron salts are solubilized within the polar interior of inverse micelles, and addition of LiBH{sub 4} initiates reduction to produce monodisperse, nanometer-sized Fe based particles. The reaction sequence is sustained by material exchange between inverse micelles. Surfactant interface provides a spatial constraint on reaction volume, and reactions carried out in these micro-heterogeneous solutions produce colloidal sized particles (10--100 {Angstrom}) stabilized in solution against flocculation by surfactant. In this paper, the clusters were characterized using TEM, Moessbauer spectroscopy, electron diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  10. Forward model nonlinearity versus inverse model nonlinearity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, S.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of concern is the impact of forward model nonlinearity on the nonlinearity of the inverse model. The question posed is, "Does increased nonlinearity in the head solution (forward model) always result in increased nonlinearity in the inverse solution (estimation of hydraulic conductivity)?" It is shown that the two nonlinearities are separate, and it is not universally true that increased forward model nonlinearity increases inverse model nonlinearity. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  11. NICOLE: NLTE Stokes Synthesis/Inversion Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socas-Navarro, H.

    2015-08-01

    NICOLE, written in Fortran 90, seeks the model atmosphere that provides the best fit to the Stokes profiles (in a least-squares sense) of an arbitrary number of simultaneously-observes spectral lines from solar/stellar atmospheres. The inversion core used for the development of NICOLE is the LORIEN engine (the Lovely Reusable Inversion ENgine), which combines the SVD technique with the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization method to solve the inverse problem.

  12. Superresolution imaging from nonlinear inverse scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, R. Shane; Fiddy, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Inverse scattering algorithms typically rely on weak scattering approximations and the inversion of far field data on an Ewald sphere. This, in turn, fixes the resolution of the computed image. However, it has long been observed that when multiple scattering occurs in a strongly interacting object, and a nonlinear inversion method is employed to image it, the resulting image can reveal subwavelength resolution. We have observed this phenomenon using a cepstral filtering approach and characterize it more fully here.

  13. Inversion methods for interpretation of asteroid lightcurves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaasalainen, Mikko; Lamberg, L.; Lumme, K.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed methods of inversion that can be used in the determination of the three-dimensional shape or the albedo distribution of the surface of a body from disk-integrated photometry, assuming the shape to be strictly convex. In addition to the theory of inversion methods, we have studied the practical aspects of the inversion problem and applied our methods to lightcurve data of 39 Laetitia and 16 Psyche.

  14. Spectral signatures of compact sources in the inverse Compton catastrophe limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, M.; Piran, T.; Mastichiadis, A.

    2015-09-01

    The inverse Compton catastrophe is defined as a dramatic rise in the luminosity of inverse Compton scattered photons. It is described by a non-linear loop of radiative processes that sets in for high values of the electron compactness and is responsible for the efficient transfer of energy from electrons to photons, predominantly through inverse Compton scatterings. We search for the conditions that drive a magnetized non-thermal source to the inverse Compton catastrophe regime and study its multiwavelength (MW) photon spectrum. We develop a generic analytical framework and use numerical calculations as a backup to the analytical predictions. We find that the escaping radiation from a source in the Compton catastrophe regime bears some unique features. The MW photon spectrum is a broken power law with a break at ˜mec2 due to the onset of the Klein-Nishina suppression. The spectral index below the break energy depends on the electron and magnetic compactnesses logarithmically, while it is independent of the electron power-law index (s). The maximum radiating power emerges typically in the γ-ray regime, at energies ˜mec2 (˜γmax mec2) for s > 2 (s ≲ 2), where γmax is the maximum Lorentz factor of the injected electron distribution. We apply the principles of the inverse Compton catastrophe to blazars and γ-ray bursts using the analytical framework we developed, and show how these can be used to impose robust constraints on the source parameters.

  15. Adaptation through chromosomal inversions in Anopheles.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Diego; Ullastres, Anna; González, Josefa

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal inversions have been repeatedly involved in local adaptation in a large number of animals and plants. The ecological and behavioral plasticity of Anopheles species-human malaria vectors-is mirrored by high amounts of polymorphic inversions. The adaptive significance of chromosomal inversions has been consistently attested by strong and significant correlations between their frequencies and a number of phenotypic traits. Here, we provide an extensive literature review of the different adaptive traits associated with chromosomal inversions in the genus Anopheles. Traits having important consequences for the success of present and future vector control measures, such as insecticide resistance and behavioral changes, are discussed. PMID:24904633

  16. Human inversions and their functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Marta; Casillas, Sònia; Villatoro, Sergi

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphic inversions are a type of structural variants that are difficult to analyze owing to their balanced nature and the location of breakpoints within complex repeated regions. So far, only a handful of inversions have been studied in detail in humans and current knowledge about their possible functional effects is still limited. However, inversions have been related to phenotypic changes and adaptation in multiple species. In this review, we summarize the evidences of the functional impact of inversions in the human genome. First, given that inversions have been shown to inhibit recombination in heterokaryotes, chromosomes displaying different orientation are expected to evolve independently and this may lead to distinct gene-expression patterns. Second, inversions have a role as disease-causing mutations both by directly affecting gene structure or regulation in different ways, and by predisposing to other secondary arrangements in the offspring of inversion carriers. Finally, several inversions show signals of being selected during human evolution. These findings illustrate the potential of inversions to have phenotypic consequences also in humans and emphasize the importance of their inclusion in genome-wide association studies. PMID:25998059

  17. Nanoscale Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xiaoye

    Continuous downscaling in microelectronics has pushed conventional CMOS technology to its physical limits, while Moore's Law has correctly predicted the trend for decades, each step forward is accompanied with unprecedented technological difficulties and near-exponential increase in cost. At the same time, however, demands for low-power, low-cost and high-speed devices have never diminished, instead, even more stringent requirements have been imposed on device performances. It is therefore crucial to explore alternative materials and device architectures in order to alleviate the pressure caused by downscaling. To this end, we investigated two different approaches: (1) InSb nanowire based field effect transistors (NWFETs) and (2) single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) -- peptide nucleic acid (PNA) --SWCNT conjugate. Two types of InSb nanowires were synthesized by template-assisted electrochemistry and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) respectively. In both cases, NWFETs were fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL) and crystallinity was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns. For electrochemistry nanowire, ambipolar conduction was observed with strong p-type conduction, the effect of thermal annealing on the conductivity was analyzed, a NWFET model that took into consideration the underlapped region in top-gated NWFET was proposed. Hole mobility in the channel was calculated to be 292.84 cm2V-1s -1 with a density of 1.5x1017/cm3. For CVD nanowire, the diameter was below 40nm with an average of 20nm. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process was speculated to be the mechanism responsible for nanowire growth. The efficient gate control was manifested by high ION/I OFF ratio which was on the order of 106 and a small inverse subthreshold slope (<200 mV/decade). Scale analysis was used to successfully account for disparities observed among a number of sample devices. N-type conduction was found in all NWFETs with

  18. Implement Method for Automated Testing of Markov Chain Convergence into INVERSE for ORNL12-RS-108J: Advanced Multi-Dimensional Forward and Inverse Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, Keith C.

    2015-04-01

    The DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) method is a powerful optimization/uncertainty quantification tool used to solve inverse transport problems in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s INVERSE code system. The DREAM method has been shown to be adept at accurate uncertainty quantification, but it can be very computationally demanding. Previously, the DREAM method in INVERSE performed a user-defined number of particle transport calculations. This placed a burden on the user to guess the number of calculations that would be required to accurately solve any given problem. This report discusses a new approach that has been implemented into INVERSE, the Gelman-Rubin convergence metric. This metric automatically detects when an appropriate number of transport calculations have been completed and the uncertainty in the inverse problem has been accurately calculated. In a test problem with a spherical geometry, this method was found to decrease the number of transport calculations (and thus time required) to solve a problem by an average of over 90%. In a cylindrical test geometry, a 75% decrease was obtained.

  19. AIDA - from Airborne Data Inversion to In-Depth Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Goetze, H.; Schroeder, M.; Boerner, R.; Tezkan, B.; Winsemann, J.; Siemon, B.; Alvers, M.; Stoll, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    The rising competition in land use especially between water economy, agriculture, forestry, building material economy and other industries often leads to irreversible deterioration in the water and soil system (as salinization and degradation) which results in a long term damage of natural resources. A sustainable exploitation of the near subsurface by industry, economy and private households is a fundamental demand of a modern society. To fulfill this demand, a sound and comprehensive knowledge on structures and processes of the near subsurface is an important prerequisite. A spatial survey of the usable underground by aerogeophysical means and a subsequent ground geophysics survey targeted at special locations will deliver essential contributions within short time that make it possible to gain the needed additional knowledge. The complementary use of airborne and ground geophysics as well as the validation, assimilation and improvement of current findings by geological and hydrogeological investigations and plausibility tests leads to the following key questions: a) Which new and/or improved automatic algorithms (joint inversion, data assimilation and such) are useful to describe the structural setting of the usable subsurface by user specific characteristics as i.e. water volume, layer thicknesses, porosities etc.? b) What are the physical relations of the measured parameters (as electrical conductivities, magnetic susceptibilities, densities, etc.)? c) How can we deduce characteristics or parameters from the observations which describe near subsurface structures as ground water systems, their charge, discharge and recharge, vulnerabilities and other quantities? d) How plausible and realistic are the numerically obtained results in relation to user specific questions and parameters? e) Is it possible to compile material flux balances that describe spatial and time dependent impacts of environmental changes on aquifers and soils by repeated airborne surveys? In

  20. Developing a Near Real-time System for Earthquake Slip Distribution Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li; Hsieh, Ming-Che; Luo, Yan; Ji, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Advances in observational and computational seismology in the past two decades have enabled completely automatic and real-time determinations of the focal mechanisms of earthquake point sources. However, seismic radiations from moderate and large earthquakes often exhibit strong finite-source directivity effect, which is critically important for accurate ground motion estimations and earthquake damage assessments. Therefore, an effective procedure to determine earthquake rupture processes in near real-time is in high demand for hazard mitigation and risk assessment purposes. In this study, we develop an efficient waveform inversion approach for the purpose of solving for finite-fault models in 3D structure. Full slip distribution inversions are carried out based on the identified fault planes in the point-source solutions. To ensure efficiency in calculating 3D synthetics during slip distribution inversions, a database of strain Green tensors (SGT) is established for 3D structural model with realistic surface topography. The SGT database enables rapid calculations of accurate synthetic seismograms for waveform inversion on a regular desktop or even a laptop PC. We demonstrate our source inversion approach using two moderate earthquakes (Mw~6.0) in Taiwan and in mainland China. Our results show that 3D velocity model provides better waveform fitting with more spatially concentrated slip distributions. Our source inversion technique based on the SGT database is effective for semi-automatic, near real-time determinations of finite-source solutions for seismic hazard mitigation purposes.

  1. Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun

    2015-10-01

    Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.

  2. 3D constrained inversion of geophysical and geological information applying Spatial Mutually Constrained Inversion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, O. F.; Ploug, C.; Mendoza, J. A.; Martínez, K.

    2009-05-01

    The need for increaseding accuracy and reduced ambiguities in the inversion results has resulted in focus on the development of more advanced inversion methods of geophysical data. Over the past few years more advanced inversion techniques have been developed to improve the results. Real 3D-inversion is time consuming and therefore often not the best solution in a cost-efficient perspective. This has motivated the development of 3D constrained inversions, where 1D-models are constrained in 3D, also known as a Spatial Constrained Inversion (SCI). Moreover, inversion of several different data types in one inversion has been developed, known as Mutually Constrained Inversion (MCI). In this paper a presentation of a Spatial Mutually Constrained Inversion method (SMCI) is given. This method allows 1D-inversion applied to different geophysical datasets and geological information constrained in 3D. Application of two or more types of geophysical methods in the inversion has proved to reduce the equivalence problem and to increase the resolution in the inversion results. The use of geological information from borehole data or digital geological models can be integrated in the inversion. In the SMCI, a 1D inversion code is used to model soundings that are constrained in three dimensions according to their relative position in space. This solution enhances the accuracy of the inversion and produces distinct layers thicknesses and resistivities. It is very efficient in the mapping of a layered geology but still also capable of mapping layer discontinuities that are, in many cases, related to fracturing and faulting or due to valley fills. Geological information may be included in the inversion directly or used only to form a starting model for the individual soundings in the inversion. In order to show the effectiveness of the method, examples are presented from both synthetic data and real data. The examples include DC-soundings as well as land-based and airborne TEM

  3. Economic demand and essential value.

    PubMed

    Hursh, Steven R; Silberberg, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The strength of a rat's eating reflex correlates with hunger level when strength is measured by the response frequency that precedes eating (B. F. Skinner, 1932a, 1932b). On the basis of this finding, Skinner argued response frequency could index reflex strength. Subsequent work documented difficulties with this notion because responding was affected not only by the strengthening properties of the reinforcer but also by the rate-shaping effects of the schedule. This article obviates this problem by measuring strength via methods from behavioral economics. This approach uses demand curves to map how reinforcer consumption changes with changes in the "price" different ratio schedules impose. An exponential equation is used to model these demand curves. The value of this exponential's rate constant is used to scale the strength or essential value of a reinforcer, independent of the scalar dimensions of the reinforcer. Essential value determines the consumption level to be expected at particular prices and the response level that will occur to support that consumption. This approach permits comparing reinforcers that differ in kind, contributing toward the goal of scaling reinforcer value. PMID:18211190

  4. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  5. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  6. An exact inverse method for subsonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daripa, Prabir

    1988-01-01

    A new inverse method for the aerodynamic design of airfoils is presented for subcritical flows. The pressure distribution in this method can be prescribed as a function of the arclength of the still unknown body. It is shown that this inverse problem is mathematically equivalent to solving only one nonlinear boundary value problem subject to known Dirichlet data on the boundary.

  7. Inversion and approximation of Laplace transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    A method of inverting Laplace transforms by using a set of orthonormal functions is reported. As a byproduct of the inversion, approximation of complicated Laplace transforms by a transform with a series of simple poles along the left half plane real axis is shown. The inversion and approximation process is simple enough to be put on a programmable hand calculator.

  8. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Inverse magnetic/shear catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, Brett

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark-Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce "inverse magnetic catalysis", signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magnetic field at low values of the baryonic chemical potential, but that it can actually decrease that effect at high chemical potentials.

  10. Inverse Common-Reflection-Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perroud, H.; Tygel, M.; Freitas, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Common-Reflection-Surface (CRS) stack method is a powerful tool to produce high-quality stacked images of multicoverage seismic data. As a result of the CRS stack, not only a stacked section, but also a number of attributes defined at each point of that section, are produced. In this way, one can think of the CRS stack method as a transformation from data space to attribute space. Being a purely kinematic method, the CRS stack lacks amplitude information that can be useful for many purposes. Here we propose to fill this gap by means of a combined use of a zero-offset section (that could be a short-offset or amplitude-corrected stacked section) and common midpoint gather. We present an algorithm for an inverse CRS transformation, namely one that (approximately) transforms the CRS attributes back to data space. First synthetic tests provide satisfying results for the two simple cases of single dipping-plane and single circular reflectors with a homogeneous overburden, and provide estimates of the range of applicability, in both midpoint and offset directions. We further present an application for interpolating missing traces in a near-surface, high-resolution seismic experiment, conducted in the alluvial plain of the river Gave de Pau, near Assat, southern France, showing its ability to build coherent signals, where recording was not available. A somewhat unexpected good feature of the algorithm, is that it seems capable to reconstruct signals even in muted parts of the section.

  11. Inversion based on computational simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.; Saquib, S.S.

    1998-09-01

    A standard approach to solving inversion problems that involve many parameters uses gradient-based optimization to find the parameters that best match the data. The authors discuss enabling techniques that facilitate application of this approach to large-scale computational simulations, which are the only way to investigate many complex physical phenomena. Such simulations may not seem to lend themselves to calculation of the gradient with respect to numerous parameters. However, adjoint differentiation allows one to efficiently compute the gradient of an objective function with respect to all the variables of a simulation. When combined with advanced gradient-based optimization algorithms, adjoint differentiation permits one to solve very large problems of optimization or parameter estimation. These techniques will be illustrated through the simulation of the time-dependent diffusion of infrared light through tissue, which has been used to perform optical tomography. The techniques discussed have a wide range of applicability to modeling including the optimization of models to achieve a desired design goal.

  12. Cut Electric Bills by Controlling Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumman, David L.

    1974-01-01

    Electric bills can be reduced by lowering electric consumption and by controlling demand -- the amount of electricity used at a certain point in time. Gives tips to help reduce electric demand at peak power periods. (Author/DN)

  13. Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.

  14. Prospects for European labour demand.

    PubMed

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  15. Realizing Tunable Inverse and Normal Doppler Shifts in Reconfigurable RF Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Sun, Yong; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The Doppler effect has well-established applications in astronomy, medicine, radar and metrology. Recently, a number of experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear. However, the inverse Doppler effect has never been observed on an electronically reconfigurable system with an external electromagnetic wave source at radio frequencies (RF) in experiment. Here we demonstrate an experimental observation of the inverse Doppler shift on an electronically reconfigurable RF metamaterial structure, which can exhibit anomalous dispersion, normal dispersion or a stop band, depending on an applied bias voltage. Either inverse or normal Doppler shift is realized by injecting an external RF signal into the electronically reconfigurable metamaterial, on which an electronically controllable moving reflective boundary is formed. The effective velocity of this boundary and the resulting frequency shift can be tuned over a wide range by a digital switching circuit. This work is expected to open up possibilities in applying the inverse Doppler effect in wireless communications, radar and satellite navigation. PMID:26111643

  16. Realizing Tunable Inverse and Normal Doppler Shifts in Reconfigurable RF Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Sun, Yong; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The Doppler effect has well-established applications in astronomy, medicine, radar and metrology. Recently, a number of experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear. However, the inverse Doppler effect has never been observed on an electronically reconfigurable system with an external electromagnetic wave source at radio frequencies (RF) in experiment. Here we demonstrate an experimental observation of the inverse Doppler shift on an electronically reconfigurable RF metamaterial structure, which can exhibit anomalous dispersion, normal dispersion or a stop band, depending on an applied bias voltage. Either inverse or normal Doppler shift is realized by injecting an external RF signal into the electronically reconfigurable metamaterial, on which an electronically controllable moving reflective boundary is formed. The effective velocity of this boundary and the resulting frequency shift can be tuned over a wide range by a digital switching circuit. This work is expected to open up possibilities in applying the inverse Doppler effect in wireless communications, radar and satellite navigation. PMID:26111643

  17. Inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for beam plasma research

    SciTech Connect

    Yushkov, Yu. G. Zolotukhin, D. B.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Oks, E. M.

    2014-08-15

    The paper describes the design and principle of operation of an inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for research in the plasma produced by an electron beam in the forevacuum pressure range (5–20 Pa). In the spectrometer, the deflecting plates as well as the drift tube and the primary ion beam measuring system are at high potential with respect to ground. This provides the possibility to measure the mass-charge constitution of the plasma created by a continuous electron beam with a current of up to 300 mA and electron energy of up to 20 keV at forevacuum pressures in the chamber placed at ground potential. Research results on the mass-charge state of the beam plasma are presented and analyzed.

  18. Price elasticity of demand: An overlooked concept

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    An all-too-common mistake in analyzing the uranium market is to assume that demand for uranium is driven only by the design and operational parameters of nuclear power plants. Because it is generally accepted that demand for uranium is inelastic, not much attention has been given to how prices can indirectly affect demand. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors that are most sensitive to uranium prices, and to show how they alter uranium demand.

  19. Phase inversion emulsification: Current understanding and applications.

    PubMed

    Perazzo, A; Preziosi, V; Guido, S

    2015-08-01

    This review is addressed to the phase inversion process, which is not only a common, low-energy route to make stable emulsions for a variety of industrial products spanning from food to pharmaceuticals, but can also be an undesired effect in some applications, such as crude oil transportation in pipelines. Two main ways to induce phase inversion are described in the literature, i.e., phase inversion composition (PIC or catastrophic) and phase inversion temperature (PIT or transitional). In the former, starting from one phase (oil or water) with surfactants, the other phase is more or less gradually added until it reverts to the continuous phase. In PIT, phase inversion is driven by a temperature change without varying system composition. Given its industrial relevance and scientific challenge, phase inversion has been the subject of a number of papers in the literature, including extensive reviews. Due to the variety of applications and the complexity of the problem, most of the publications have been focused either on the phase behavior or the interfacial properties or the mixing process of the two phases. Although all these aspects are quite important in studying phase inversion and much progress has been done on this topic, a comprehensive picture is still lacking. In particular, the general mechanisms governing the inversion phenomenon have not been completely elucidated and quantitative predictions of the phase inversion point are limited to specific systems and experimental conditions. Here, we review the different approaches on phase inversion and highlight some related applications, including future and emerging perspectives. PMID:25632889

  20. Rapid approximate inversion of airborne TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullagar, Peter K.; Pears, Glenn A.; Reid, James E.; Schaa, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Rapid interpretation of large airborne transient electromagnetic (ATEM) datasets is highly desirable for timely decision-making in exploration. Full solution 3D inversion of entire airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys is often still not feasible on current day PCs. Therefore, two algorithms to perform rapid approximate 3D interpretation of AEM have been developed. The loss of rigour may be of little consequence if the objective of the AEM survey is regional reconnaissance. Data coverage is often quasi-2D rather than truly 3D in such cases, belying the need for `exact' 3D inversion. Incorporation of geological constraints reduces the non-uniqueness of 3D AEM inversion. Integrated interpretation can be achieved most readily when inversion is applied to a geological model, attributed with lithology as well as conductivity. Geological models also offer several practical advantages over pure property models during inversion. In particular, they permit adjustment of geological boundaries. In addition, optimal conductivities can be determined for homogeneous units. Both algorithms described here can operate on geological models; however, they can also perform `unconstrained' inversion if the geological context is unknown. VPem1D performs 1D inversion at each ATEM data location above a 3D model. Interpretation of cover thickness is a natural application; this is illustrated via application to Spectrem data from central Australia. VPem3D performs 3D inversion on time-integrated (resistive limit) data. Conversion to resistive limits delivers a massive increase in speed since the TEM inverse problem reduces to a quasi-magnetic problem. The time evolution of the decay is lost during the conversion, but the information can be largely recovered by constructing a starting model from conductivity depth images (CDIs) or 1D inversions combined with geological constraints if available. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated on Spectrem data from Brazil. Both separately and in

  1. The effect of electron-electron interaction induced dephasing on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kahnoj, Sina Soleimani; Touski, Shoeib Babaee; Pourfath, Mahdi E-mail: pourfath@iue.tuwien.ac.at

    2014-09-08

    The effect of dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons is theoretically investigated. In the presence of disorder in graphene nanoribbons, wavefunction of electrons can set up standing waves along the channel and the conductance exponentially decreases with the ribbon's length. Employing the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism along with an accurate model for describing the dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction, we show that this kind of interaction prevents localization and transport of electrons remains in the diffusive regime where the conductance is inversely proportional to the ribbon's length.

  2. Energy demand and population changes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

  3. Demand-side management glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Isaksen, L. ); Ignelzi, P.C. )

    1992-10-01

    Demand-side management (DSM) plays an increasingly important role in helping utilities meet capacity needs while addressing important customer service issues. In implementing utility-specific programs, however, DSM professionals have created an entire vocabulary of words and phrases that are often used and interpreted in very different ways by people with similar utility planning backgrounds. Such inconsistent terminology can hamper the very communication DSM seeks to support. Thus, this report-the first of its kind-presents a glossary of DSM terms, grouped under five major categories: (1) utility systems, (2) programs and techniques, (3) costs, revenues, and rates, (4) modeling and analysis, and (5) marketing. An index facilitates the rapid search for key words. This glossary together with a complimentary report entitled, Electric Utility DSM Programs: Terminology and Reporting Formats attempts to define some of the most common terms used in DSM today.

  4. 12 CFR 561.16 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demand accounts. 561.16 Section 561.16 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.16 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means...

  5. 12 CFR 561.16 - Demand accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand accounts. 561.16 Section 561.16 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.16 Demand accounts. The term demand accounts means...

  6. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds..., bakery, ice cream, and nut salting trades will acquire from all handlers during a crop year...

  7. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand...

  8. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds..., bakery, ice cream, and nut salting trades will acquire from all handlers during a crop year...

  9. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds..., bakery, ice cream, and nut salting trades will acquire from all handlers during a crop year...

  10. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand...

  11. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand...

  12. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand...

  13. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds..., bakery, ice cream, and nut salting trades will acquire from all handlers during a crop year...

  14. Positional demands of professional rugby.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p < 0.001), while backs were involved in more ball carries and covered more total distance and distance at high speed per minute of game time (p < 0.01). Loose forwards, inside and outside backs covered significantly more distance at high speed (p < 0.01), while there was a negligible difference with number of impacts between the forward positions. There was also minimal difference between positions in the percentage change in NP, cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game. PMID:25830235

  15. Enhancing Spin Filters by Use of Bulk Inversion Asymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David; Cartoixa,Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical calculations have shown that the degrees of spin polarization in proposed nonmagnetic semiconductor resonant tunneling spin filters could be increased through exploitation of bulk inversion asymmetry (BIA). These enhancements would be effected through suitable orientation of spin collectors (or spin-polarization- inducing lateral electric fields), as described below. Spin filters -- more precisely, sources of spin-polarized electron currents -- have been sought for research on, and development of, the emerging technological discipline of spintronics (spin-transport electronics). The proposed spin filters were to be based on the Rashba effect, which is an energy splitting of what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spinorbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry (SIA) in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. In a spin filter, the spin-polarized currents produced by the Rashba effect would be extracted by quantum-mechanical resonant tunneling.

  16. External inverse-Compton emission from jetted tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-05-01

    The recent discoveries of Sw J1644+57 and Sw J2058+05 show that tidal disruption events (TDEs) can launch relativistic jets. Super-Eddington accretion produces a strong radiation field of order Eddington luminosity. In a jetted TDE, electrons in the jet will inverse-Compton scatter the photons from the accretion disc and wind (external radiation field). Motivated by observations of thermal optical-UV spectra in Sw J2058+05 and several other TDEs, we assume the spectrum of the external radiation field intercepted by the relativistic jet to be blackbody. Hot electrons in the jet scatter this thermal radiation and produce luminosities 1045-1048 erg s- 1 in the X/γ-ray band. This model of thermal plus inverse-Compton radiation is applied to Sw J2058+05. First, we show that the blackbody component in the optical-UV spectrum most likely has its origin in the super-Eddington wind from the disc. Then, using the observed blackbody component as the external radiation field, we show that the X-ray luminosity and spectrum are consistent with the inverse-Compton emission, under the following conditions: (1) the jet Lorentz factor is Γ ≃ 5-10; (2) electrons in the jet have a power-law distribution dN_e/dγ _e ∝ γ _e^{-p} with γmin ˜ 1 and p = 2.4; (3) the wind is mildly relativistic (Lorentz factor ≳ 1.5) and has isotropic-equivalent mass-loss rate ˜ 5 M⊙ yr- 1. We describe the implications for jet composition and the radius where jet energy is converted to radiation.

  17. Neurotensin inversely modulates maternal aggression.

    PubMed

    Gammie, S C; D'Anna, K L; Gerstein, H; Stevenson, S A

    2009-02-18

    Neurotensin (NT) is a versatile neuropeptide involved in analgesia, hypothermia, and schizophrenia. Although NT is released from and acts upon brain regions involved in social behaviors, it has not been linked to a social behavior. We previously selected mice for high maternal aggression (maternal defense), an important social behavior that protects offspring, and found significantly lower NT expression in the CNS of highly protective females. Our current study directly tested NT's role in maternal defense. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of NT significantly impaired defense in terms of time aggressive and number of attacks at all doses tested (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 microg). Other maternal behaviors, including pup retrieval, were unaltered following NT injections (0.05 microg) relative to vehicle, suggesting specificity of NT action on defense. Further, i.c.v. injections of the NT receptor 1 (NT1) antagonist, SR 48692 (30 microg), significantly elevated maternal aggression in terms of time aggressive and attack number. To understand where NT may regulate aggression, we examined Fos following injection of either 0.1 microg NT or vehicle. Thirteen of 26 brain regions examined exhibited significant Fos increases with NT, including regions expressing NT1 and previously implicated in maternal aggression, such as lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and central amygdala. Together, our results indicate that NT inversely regulates maternal aggression and provide the first direct evidence that lowering of NT signaling can be a mechanism for maternal aggression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly link NT to a social behavior. PMID:19118604

  18. EDITORIAL: Photonic materials on demand Photonic materials on demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay; Padilla, Willie J.; Brener, Igal

    2012-11-01

    As David Payne famously said, 'we never have a photonic material that we want...'. This has changed with the proliferation of nanotechnology. Metamaterials—artificial media structured on a sub-wavelength scale—offer a radical paradigm for the engineering of optical properties. Some remarkable advances have been possible with metamaterials. These include, for instance, negative-index media that refract light in the opposite direction from that of conventional materials, chiral materials that rotate the polarization state of light hundreds of thousands of times more strongly than natural optical crystals, and structured thin films with remarkably strong dispersion that can slow light in much the same way as resonant atomic systems with electromagnetically induced transparency. The research agenda is now shifting towards achieving tunable and switchable functionalities with metamaterials [1] where the goal is, paraphrasing Dave Payne, 'to have on demand the photonic material that we want'. The papers in this Journal of Optics special issue explore and review the different approaches to both switching and tuning of metamaterial properties through exploiting effects such as phase conjugation, intense photo-excitation and photoconductivity, the use of electro-optical effects in conductive oxides, the exploitation global quantum coherency and resonantly coupled classical resonator and quantum structures, hybridization with gain media and the manipulation with shapes and constitution of the complex metamolecules and metamaterial reliefs by design, or using MEMS actuation. References [1] Zheludev N I and Kivshar Y 2012 From metamaterials to metadevices Nature Mater.11 917

  19. Support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Safaeinili, A.

    1994-04-24

    This report discusses the following topics on support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering: Minimum support inversion; forward modelling of elastodynamic wave scattering; minimum support linearized acoustic inversion; support minimized nonlinear acoustic inversion without absolute phase; and support minimized nonlinear elastic inversion.

  20. Methodology for determining multilayered temperature inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fochesatto, G. J.

    2015-05-01

    Temperature sounding of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and lower troposphere exhibits multilayered temperature inversions specially in high latitudes during extreme winters. These temperature inversion layers are originated based on the combined forcing of local- and large-scale synoptic meteorology. At the local scale, the thermal inversion layer forms near the surface and plays a central role in controlling the surface radiative cooling and air pollution dispersion; however, depending upon the large-scale synoptic meteorological forcing, an upper level thermal inversion can also exist topping the local ABL. In this article a numerical methodology is reported to determine thermal inversion layers present in a given temperature profile and deduce some of their thermodynamic properties. The algorithm extracts from the temperature profile the most important temperature variations defining thermal inversion layers. This is accomplished by a linear interpolation function of variable length that minimizes an error function. The algorithm functionality is demonstrated on actual radiosonde profiles to deduce the multilayered temperature inversion structure with an error fraction set independently.

  1. Fabrication of titania inverse opals by multi-cycle dip-infiltration for optical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chun-Chen; Tuyen, Le Dac; Ren, Ching-Rung; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Wu, Cheng Yi; Huang, Ping-Ji; Hsu, Chia Chen

    2016-04-01

    We have demonstrated a low-cost method to fabricate TiO2 inverse opal photonic crystals with high refractive index skeleton. The TiO2 inverse opal films were fabricated from a polystyrene opal template by multi-cycle dip-infiltration-coating method. The properties of the TiO2 inverse opal films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Bragg reflection spectroscopy. The reflection spectroscopic measurements of the TiO2 inverse opal films were compared with theories of photonic band calculations and Bragg law. The agreement between experiment and theory indicates that we can precisely predict the refractive index of the infiltrated liquid sample in the TiO2 inverse opal films from the measurement results. The red-shift of the peak wavelength in the Bragg reflection spectra for both alcohol mixtures and aqueous sucrose solutions of increasing refractive index was observed and respective refractive index sensitivities of 296 and 286 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) were achieved. As the fabrication of the TiO2 inverse opal films and reflection spectroscopic measurement are fairly easy, the TiO2 inverse opal films have potential applications in optical sensing.

  2. Optical inverse-Compton emission from clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Ryo; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-10-01

    Shocks around clusters of galaxies accelerate electrons which upscatter the cosmic microwave background photons to higher energies. We use an analytical model to calculate this inverse-Compton (IC) emission, taking into account the effects of additional energy losses via synchrotron and Coulomb scattering. We find that the surface brightness of the optical IC emission increases with redshift and halo mass. The IC emission surface brightness, 32-34 mag arcsec-2, for massive clusters is potentially detectable by the newly developed Dragonfly Telephoto Array.

  3. Computer modeling of inversion layer MOS solar cells and arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Fat Duen

    1991-01-01

    A two dimensional numerical model of the inversion layer metal insulator semiconductor (IL/MIS) solar cell is proposed by using the finite element method. The two-dimensional current flow in the device is taken into account in this model. The electrostatic potential distribution, the electron concentration distribution, and the hole concentration distribution for different terminal voltages are simulated. The results of simple calculation are presented. The existing problems for this model are addressed. Future work is proposed. The MIS structures are studied and some of the results are reported.

  4. Charge control of the inverse trans-influence.

    PubMed

    La Pierre, Henry S; Rosenzweig, Michael; Kosog, Boris; Hauser, Christina; Heinemann, Frank W; Liddle, Stephen T; Meyer, Karsten

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of uranium(VI) mono(imido) complexes, by the oxidation of corresponding uranium(V) species, are presented. These experimental results, paired with DFT analyses, allow for the comparison of the electronic structure of uranium(VI) mono(oxo) and mono(imido) ligands within a conserved ligand framework and demonstrate that the magnitude of the ground state stabilization derived from the inverse trans-influence (ITI) is governed by the relative charge localization on the multiply bonded atom or group. PMID:26430823

  5. On the inversion-indel distance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inversion distance, that is the distance between two unichromosomal genomes with the same content allowing only inversions of DNA segments, can be computed thanks to a pioneering approach of Hannenhalli and Pevzner in 1995. In 2000, El-Mabrouk extended the inversion model to allow the comparison of unichromosomal genomes with unequal contents, thus insertions and deletions of DNA segments besides inversions. However, an exact algorithm was presented only for the case in which we have insertions alone and no deletion (or vice versa), while a heuristic was provided for the symmetric case, that allows both insertions and deletions and is called the inversion-indel distance. In 2005, Yancopoulos, Attie and Friedberg started a new branch of research by introducing the generic double cut and join (DCJ) operation, that can represent several genome rearrangements (including inversions). Among others, the DCJ model gave rise to two important results. First, it has been shown that the inversion distance can be computed in a simpler way with the help of the DCJ operation. Second, the DCJ operation originated the DCJ-indel distance, that allows the comparison of genomes with unequal contents, considering DCJ, insertions and deletions, and can be computed in linear time. Results In the present work we put these two results together to solve an open problem, showing that, when the graph that represents the relation between the two compared genomes has no bad components, the inversion-indel distance is equal to the DCJ-indel distance. We also give a lower and an upper bound for the inversion-indel distance in the presence of bad components. PMID:24564182

  6. 3-D inversion of magnetotelluric Phase Tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patro, Prasanta; Uyeshima, Makoto

    2010-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) inversion of the magnetotelluric (MT) has become a routine practice among the MT community due to progress of algorithms for 3-D inverse problems (e.g. Mackie and Madden, 1993; Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005). While availability of such 3-D inversion codes have increased the resolving power of the MT data and improved the interpretation, on the other hand, still the galvanic effects poses difficulties in interpretation of resistivity structure obtained from the MT data. In order to tackle the galvanic distortion of MT data, Caldwell et al., (2004) introduced the concept of phase tensor. They demonstrated how the regional phase information can be retrieved from the observed impedance tensor without any assumptions for structural dimension, where both the near surface inhomogeneity and the regional conductivity structures can be 3-D. We made an attempt to modify a 3-D inversion code (Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005) to directly invert the phase tensor elements. We present here the main modification done in the sensitivity calculation and then show a few synthetic studies and its application to the real data. The synthetic model study suggests that the prior model (m_0) setting is important in retrieving the true model. This is because estimation of correct induction scale length lacks in the phase tensor inversion process. Comparison between results from conventional impedance inversion and new phase tensor inversion suggests that, in spite of presence of the galvanic distortion (due to near surface checkerboard anomalies in our case), the new inverion algorithm retrieves the regional conductivitity structure reliably. We applied the new inversion to the real data from the Indian sub continent and compared with the results from conventional impedance inversion.

  7. Support vector machines for geophysical inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, Heidi Anderson

    This thesis explores what it means to replace classical non-linear geophysical inversion with computer learning via Support Vector Machines. Geophysical inverse problems are almost always ill-posed which means that many different models (i.e. descriptions of the earth) can be found to explain a given noisy or incomplete data set. Regularization and constraints encourage inversions to find physically realistic models. The set of preferred models needs to be defined a priori using as much geologic knowledge as is available. In inversion, it is assumed that data and a forward modeling process is known. The goal is to solve for a model. In the SVM paradigm, a series of models and associated data are known. The goal is to solve for a reverse modeling process. Starting with a series of initial models assembled using all available geologic information, synthetic data is created using the most realistic forward modeling program available. With the synthetic data as inputs and the known models as outputs, a Support Vector Machine is trained to approximate a local inverse to the forward modeling program. The advantages of this approach are that it is honest about the need to establish, a priori, the kinds of models that are reasonable in a particular field situation. There is no need to adjust the forward process to accommodate inversion, because SVMs can be easily modified to capture complicated, non-linear relationships. SVMs are transparent and require very little programming. If an SVM is trained using model/data pairs that are drawn from the same probability distribution that is implicit in the regularization of an inversion, then it will get very similar results to the inversion. Because SVMs can interpret as much data as desired so long as the conditions of an experiment do not change, they can be used to perform otherwise computationally expensive procedures. The SVMs in this paper are trained to emulate linear and non-linear seismic Amplitude Variation with Offset

  8. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.

  9. An inverse problem in thermal imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Kurt; Caudill, Lester F., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines uniqueness and stability results for an inverse problem in thermal imaging. The goal is to identify an unknown boundary of an object by applying a heat flux and measuring the induced temperature on the boundary of the sample. The problem is studied both in the case in which one has data at every point on the boundary of the region and the case in which only finitely many measurements are available. An inversion procedure is developed and used to study the stability of the inverse problem for various experimental configurations.

  10. Population inversion in a stationary recombining plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, M.

    1980-12-01

    Population inversion, which occurs in a recombining plasma when a stationary He plasma is brought into contact with a neutral gas, is examined. With hydrogen as a contact gas, noticeable inversion between low-lying levels of H as been found. The overpopulation density is of the order of 10/sup 8/ cm/sup -3/, which is much higher then that (approx. =10/sup 5/ cm/sup -3/) obtained previously with He as a contact gas. Relations between these experimental results and the conditions for population inversion are discussed with the CR model.

  11. Photonic band gap in (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji; Hao, Lifeng; Hu, Wei; Zong, Ruilong; Cai, Minmin; Fu, Min; Gui, Zhilun; Li, Longtu; Li, Qi

    2003-05-01

    (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 (PLZT) inverse opal photonic crystals were synthesized by a process of self-assembly in combination with a sol-gel technique. In this process, PLZT precursors were infiltrated into the interstices of the opal template assembled by monodisperse submicron polystyrene spheres, and then gelled in a humid environment. Polystyrene template was removed by calcining the specimen at a final temperature of 700 °C accompanied with the crystallization of perovskite phase in PLZT inverse opal network. Scanning electron microscope images show that the inverse opals possess a fcc structure with a lattice constant of 250 nm. A wide photonic band gap in the visible range is observed from transmission spectra of the sample. Such PLZT inverse opals as photonic crystals should be of importance in device applications.

  12. Whistler turbulence forward vs. inverse cascade. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chang, Ouliang; Gary, S. Peter; Wang, Joseph

    2015-02-12

    In this study, we present the results of the first fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying whistler turbulence in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma in which both forward cascades to shorter wavelengths, and inverse cascades to longer wavelengths are allowed to proceed. For the electron beta βe = 0.10 initial value considered here, the early-time rate of inverse cascade is very much smaller than the rate of forward cascade, so that at late times the fluctuation energy in the regime of the inverse cascade is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime. Similarly, the wavevector anisotropy in themore » inverse cascade regime is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime.« less

  13. Whistler turbulence forward vs. inverse cascade. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ouliang; Gary, S. Peter; Wang, Joseph

    2015-02-12

    In this study, we present the results of the first fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying whistler turbulence in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma in which both forward cascades to shorter wavelengths, and inverse cascades to longer wavelengths are allowed to proceed. For the electron beta βe = 0.10 initial value considered here, the early-time rate of inverse cascade is very much smaller than the rate of forward cascade, so that at late times the fluctuation energy in the regime of the inverse cascade is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime. Similarly, the wavevector anisotropy in the inverse cascade regime is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime.

  14. WHISTLER TURBULENCE FORWARD CASCADE VERSUS INVERSE CASCADE: THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE-IN-CELL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ouliang; Gary, S. Peter; Wang, Joseph E-mail: pgary@lanl.gov

    2015-02-20

    We present the results of the first fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying whistler turbulence in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma in which both forward cascades to shorter wavelengths, and inverse cascades to longer wavelengths are allowed to proceed. For the electron beta β {sub e} = 0.10 initial value considered here, the early-time rate of inverse cascade is very much smaller than the rate of forward cascade, so that at late times the fluctuation energy in the regime of the inverse cascade is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime. Similarly, the wavevector anisotropy in the inverse cascade regime is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime.

  15. Inverse sodium hydride: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Agnieszka; Skurski, Piotr; Simons, Jack

    2003-04-01

    A recent experimental investigation in which a salt containing the unusual charge distribution H(+) and Na(-) was synthesized and characterized prompted us to undertake an ab initio theoretical investigation. In the salt synthesized, the H(+) is bound to the nitrogen center of an amine and the Na(-) alkalide is "blocked" from approaching the protonated amine site by steric constraints of a cage structure. Although one expects that the Na(-) would deprotonate an unprotected R(3)N-H(+) cation, we decided to further explore this issue. Using extended atomic orbital basis sets and Møller-Plesset and coupled-cluster treatments of electron correlation, we examined the relative stabilities of the prototype (Me)(3)N + NaH, (Me)(3)N + Na(+) + H(-), (Me)(3)N-H(+) + Na(-), and (Me)(3)N-Na(+) + H(-) as well as the ion pair complexes (Me)(3)N-H(+).Na(-) and (Me)(3)N-Na(+).H(-). The primary focus of this effort was to determine whether the high-energy (Me)(3)N-H(+).Na(-) ion pair, which is the analogue of what the earlier workers termed "inverse sodium hydride", might be stable with respect to proton abstraction under any reasonable solvation conditions (which we treated within the polarized continuum model). Indeed, we find that such ion pairs are metastable (i.e., locally geometrically stable with a barrier to dissociation) for solvents having dielectric constants below approximately 2 but spontaneously decompose into their constituent ions for solvents with higher dielectric constants. We suggest that amines with large proton affinities and/or metals with weaker MH bond strengths should be explored experimentally. PMID:12656631

  16. Analysis of Temperature Distributions in Nighttime Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telyak, Oksana; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei

    2015-04-01

    Adequate prediction of temperature inversion in the atmospheric boundary layer is one of prerequisites for successful forecasting of meteorological parameters and severe weather events. Examples include surface air temperature and precipitation forecasting as well as prediction of fog, frosts and smog with hazardous levels of atmospheric pollution. At the same time, reliable forecasting of temperature inversions remains an unsolved problem. For prediction of nighttime inversions over some specific territory, it is important to study characteristic features of local circulation cells formation and to properly take local factors into account to develop custom modeling techniques for operational use. The present study aims to investigate and analyze vertical temperature distributions in tropospheric inversions (isotherms) over the territory of Belarus. We study several specific cases of formation, evolution and decay of deep nighttime temperature inversions in Belarus by means of mesoscale numerical simulations with WRF model, considering basic mechanisms of isothermal and inverse temperature layers formation in the troposphere and impact of these layers on local circulation cells. Our primary goal is to assess the feasibility of advance prediction of inversions formation with WRF. Modeling results reveal that all cases under consideration have characteristic features of radiative inversions (e.g., their formation times, development phases, inversion intensities, etc). Regions of "blocking" layers formation are extensive and often spread over the entire territory of Belarus. Inversions decay starts from the lowermost (near surface) layer (altitudes of 5 to 50 m). In all cases, one can observe formation of temperature gradients that substantially differ from the basic inversion gradient, i.e. the layer splits into smaller layers, each having a different temperature stratification (isothermal, adiabatic, etc). As opposed to various empirical techniques as well as

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Inverse Problems. Activities for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2003-06-01

    This book is a valuable introduction to inverse problems. In particular, from the educational point of view, the author addresses the questions of what constitutes an inverse problem and how and why we should study them. Such an approach has been eagerly awaited for a long time. Professor Groetsch, of the University of Cincinnati, is a world-renowned specialist in inverse problems, in particular the theory of regularization. Moreover, he has made a remarkable contribution to educational activities in the field of inverse problems, which was the subject of his previous book (Groetsch C W 1993 Inverse Problems in the Mathematical Sciences (Braunschweig: Vieweg)). For this reason, he is one of the most qualified to write an introductory book on inverse problems. Without question, inverse problems are important, necessary and appear in various aspects. So it is crucial to introduce students to exercises in inverse problems. However, there are not many introductory books which are directly accessible by students in the first two undergraduate years. As a consequence, students often encounter diverse concrete inverse problems before becoming aware of their general principles. The main purpose of this book is to present activities to allow first-year undergraduates to learn inverse theory. To my knowledge, this book is a rare attempt to do this and, in my opinion, a great success. The author emphasizes that it is very important to teach inverse theory in the early years. He writes; `If students consider only the direct problem, they are not looking at the problem from all sides .... The habit of always looking at problems from the direct point of view is intellectually limiting ...' (page 21). The book is very carefully organized so that teachers will be able to use it as a textbook. After an introduction in chapter 1, sucessive chapters deal with inverse problems in precalculus, calculus, differential equations and linear algebra. In order to let one gain some insight

  18. a method of gravity and seismic sequential inversion and its GPU implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Meng, X.

    2011-12-01

    In this abstract, we introduce a gravity and seismic sequential inversion method to invert for density and velocity together. For the gravity inversion, we use an iterative method based on correlation imaging algorithm; for the seismic inversion, we use the full waveform inversion. The link between the density and velocity is an empirical formula called Gardner equation, for large volumes of data, we use the GPU to accelerate the computation. For the gravity inversion method , we introduce a method based on correlation imaging algorithm,it is also a interative method, first we calculate the correlation imaging of the observed gravity anomaly, it is some value between -1 and +1, then we multiply this value with a little density ,this value become the initial density model. We get a forward reuslt with this initial model and also calculate the correaltion imaging of the misfit of observed data and the forward data, also multiply the correaltion imaging result a little density and add it to the initial model, then do the same procedure above , at last ,we can get a inversion density model. For the seismic inveron method ,we use a mothod base on the linearity of acoustic wave equation written in the frequency domain,with a intial velociy model, we can get a good velocity result. In the sequential inversion of gravity and seismic , we need a link formula to convert between density and velocity ,in our method , we use the Gardner equation. Driven by the insatiable market demand for real time, high-definition 3D images, the programmable NVIDIA Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) as co-processor of CPU has been developed for high performance computing. Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) is a parallel programming model and software environment provided by NVIDIA designed to overcome the challenge of using traditional general purpose GPU while maintaining a low learn curve for programmers familiar with standard programming languages such as C. In our inversion processing

  19. Investigation of approaches for hydrogeophysical joint inversion using a parallel computing platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commer, M.; Kowalsky, M. B.; Doetsch, J.; Newman, G. A.; Finsterle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Owing to the computational demands of joint inverse problems, we have developed a parallel inversion framework based on the inverse modeling tool iTOUGH2. The software provides inverse modeling capabilities for TOUGH2, a general-purpose simulator for multiphase, multicomponent, non-isothermal flows in multidimensional fractured-porous media. Our parallel version of iTOUGH2 realizes a hierarchically parallel architecture using the Message Passing Interface. This architecture allows for large numbers of parallel processes to be employed for addressing many-parameter inverse problems on large meshes. To provide geophysical modeling capabilities, we have further combined iTOUGH2 with the geophysical simulator Electromagnetic Geological Mapper (EMGeo), which features a suite of methods for modeling electrical and electromagnetic data types, including controlled-source electromagnetics, magnetotellurics, electrical resistivity tomography, and (spectral) induced polarization. Here, we consider the estimation of hydrological parameters through inverse modeling of hydrological and geophysical data associated with experiments from the shallow unconfined uranium-contaminated aquifer at the DOE Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site at Rifle, Colorado. Our study draws on examples from ongoing research at the IFRC site, and investigates different approaches for jointly inverting electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and tracer concentration data. Exploiting complementary hydrological-geophysical modeling and parallel computing capabilities of the inversion framework, we investigate a few sequential and coupled inversion approaches, initially using synthetic examples. In the first approach, done as a pre-processing step before hydrological inversion, geophysical inversion of crosswell ERT data yields spatial maps of the subsurface electrical resistivity. During subsequent hydrological inversion, these maps are matched with their counterparts calculated from a

  20. Growing collateral arteries on demand.

    PubMed

    Oh, Charles C; Klein, Jason D; Migrino, Raymond Q; Thornburg, Kent L

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have significantly advanced our understanding of arteriogenesis, raising hope that therapies to increase collateral arterial formation may become important new tools in the treatment of ischemic disease. The most important initiating trigger for arteriogenesis is the marked increase in shear stress which is sensed by the endothelium and leads to characteristic changes. Intracellularly, it was shown that platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to increased shear stress, suggesting a role as a possible mechanoreceptor for dynamic and continual monitoring of shear stress. The signal generated by PECAM-1 leads to the activation of the Rho pathway among others. More than 40 genes have been shown to have a shear stress responsive element. The Rho pathway is activated early and appears to be essential to the arteriogenic response as inhibiting it abolished the effect of fluid shear stress. Overexpression of a Rho pathway member, Actin-binding Rho protein (Abra), led to a 60% increase in collateral perfusion over simple femoral artery occlusion. A patent for the Abra gene has been filed recently. It may be a harbinger of a future where collateral arteries grown on demand may become an effective treatment for ischemic vascular disease. PMID:21861827

  1. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  2. Combined experimental setup for spin- and angle-resolved direct and inverse photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Budke, M.; Allmers, T.; Donath, M.; Rangelov, G.

    2007-11-15

    We present a combined experimental setup for spin- and angle-resolved direct and inverse photoemission in the vacuum ultraviolet energy range for measurements of the electronic structure below and above the Fermi level. Both techniques are installed in one ultrahigh-vacuum chamber and, as a consequence, allow quasisimultaneous measurements on one and the same sample preparation. The photoemission experiment consists of a gas discharge lamp and an electron energy analyzer equipped with a spin polarization detector based on spin-polarized low-energy electron diffraction. Our homemade inverse-photoemission spectrometer comprises a GaAs photocathode as spin-polarized electron source and Geiger-Mueller counters for photon detection at a fixed energy of 9.9 eV. The total energy resolution of the experiment is better than 50 meV for photoemission and better than 200 meV for inverse photoemission. The performance of our combined direct and inverse-photoemission experiment with respect to angular and energy resolutions is exemplified by the Fermi-level crossing of the Cu(111) L-gap surface state. Spin-resolved measurements of Co films on Cu(001) are used to characterize the Sherman function of the spin polarization detector as well as the spin polarization of our electron source.

  3. Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording: Fundamental Limits to Inverse Electromagnetic Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, Samarth

    (NSOM), which is the incumbent technology allowing the focus of light to the nano-scale. Even in these lower power NSOM probe tips, optical self-heating and deformation of the nano- gold tips are significant reliability and performance bottlenecks. Hence, the design and manufacture of the higher power optical nano-focusing system for HAMR must overcome great engineering challenges in optical and thermal performance. There has been much debate about alternative materials for metal-optics and plasmonics to cure the current plague of optical loss and thermal reliability in this burgeoning field. We clear the air. For an application like HAMR, where intense self-heating occurs, refractory metals and metals nitrides with high melting points but low optical and thermal conductivities are inferior to noble metals. This conclusion is contradictory to several claims and may be counter-intuitive to some, but the analysis is simple, evident and relevant to any engineer working on metal-optics and plasmonics. Indeed, the best metals for DC and RF electronics are also the best at optical frequencies. We also argue that the geometric design of electromagnetic structures (especially sub-wavelength devices) is too cumbersome for human designers, because the wave nature of light necessitates that this inverse problem be non-convex and non-linear. When the computation for one forward simulation is extremely demanding (hours on a high-performance computing cluster), typical designers constrain themselves to only 2 or 3 degrees of freedom. We attack the inverse electromagnetic design problem using gradient-based optimization after leveraging the adjoint-method to efficiently calculate the gradient (ie. the sensitivity) of an objective function with respect to thousands to millions of parameters. This approach results in creative computational designs of electromagnetic structures that human designers could not have conceived yet yield better optical performance. After gaining key insights

  4. Stochastic inverse consistency in medical image registration.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Sai Kit; Shi, Pengcheng

    2005-01-01

    An essential goal in medical image registration is, the forward and reverse mapping matrices should be inverse to each other, i.e., inverse consistency. Conventional approaches enforce consistency in deterministic fashions, through incorporation of sub-objective cost function to impose source-destination symmetric property during the registration process. Assuming that the initial forward and reverse matching matrices have been computed and used as the inputs to our system, this paper presents a stochastic framework which yields perfect inverse consistency with the simultaneous considerations of the errors underneath the registration matrices and the imperfectness of the consistent constraint. An iterative generalized total least square (GTLS) strategy has been developed such that the inverse consistency is optimally imposed. PMID:16685959

  5. Zinc oxide inverse opal enzymatic biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Xueqiu; Pikul, James H.; King, William P.; Pak, James J.

    2013-06-01

    We report ZnO inverse opal- and nanowire (NW)-based enzymatic glucose biosensors with extended linear detection ranges. The ZnO inverse opal sensors have 0.01-18 mM linear detection range, which is 2.5 times greater than that of ZnO NW sensors and 1.5 times greater than that of other reported ZnO sensors. This larger range is because of reduced glucose diffusivity through the inverse opal geometry. The ZnO inverse opal sensors have an average sensitivity of 22.5 μA/(mM cm2), which diminished by 10% after 35 days, are more stable than ZnO NW sensors whose sensitivity decreased by 10% after 7 days.

  6. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R

    2016-01-01

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe. PMID:27578317

  7. Inverse problem of electro-seismic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Yang, Yang

    2013-11-01

    When a porous rock is saturated with an electrolyte, electrical fields are coupled with seismic waves via the electro-seismic conversion. Pride (1994 Phys. Rev. B 50 15678-96) derived the governing models, in which Maxwell equations are coupled with Biot's equations through the electro-kinetic mobility parameter. The inverse problem of the linearized electro-seismic conversion consists in two steps, namely the inversion of Biot's equations and the inversion of Maxwell equations. We analyze the reconstruction of conductivity and electro-kinetic mobility parameter in Maxwell equations with internal measurements, while the internal measurements are provided by the results of the inversion of Biot's equations. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines these two parameters. Moreover, a Lipschitz-type stability is proved based on the same sets of well-chosen boundary conditions.

  8. Electromagnetic inverse applications for functional brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.C.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses an important mathematical and computational problem in functional brain imaging, namely the electromagnetic {open_quotes}inverse problem.{close_quotes} Electromagnetic brain imaging techniques, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), are based on measurements of electrical potentials and magnetic fields at hundreds of locations outside the human head. The inverse problem is the estimation of the locations, magnitudes, and time-sources of electrical currents in the brain from surface measurements. This project extends recent progress on the inverse problem by combining the use of anatomical constraints derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Bayesian and other novel algorithmic approaches. The results suggest that we can achieve significant improvements in the accuracy and robustness of inverse solutions by these two approaches.

  9. Statistical versus nonstatistical temperature inversion methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.; Fleming, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    Vertical temperature profiles are derived from radiation measurements by inverting the integral equation of radiative transfer. Because of the nonuniqueness of the solution, the particular temperature profile obtained depends on the numerical inversion technique used and the type of auxiliary information incorporated in the solution. The choice of an inversion algorithm depends on many factors; including the speed and size of computer, the availability of representative statistics, and the accuracy of initial data. Results are presented for a numerical study comparing two contrasting inversion methods: the statistical-matrix inversion method and the nonstatistical-iterative method. These were found to be the most applicable to the problem of determining atmospheric temperature profiles. Tradeoffs between the two methods are discussed.

  10. Metacognitive evaluation in the avoidance of demand.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Timothy L; Lutes, David J C; Risko, Evan F

    2016-09-01

    In the current set of experiments our goal was to test the hypothesis that individuals avoid courses of action based on a kind of metacognitive evaluation of demand in a Demand Selection Task (DST). Individuals in Experiment 1 completed a DST utilizing visual stimuli known to yield a dissociation between performance and perceived demand. Patterns of demand avoidance followed that of perceived demand. Experiment 2 provided a replication of the aforementioned results, in addition to demonstrating a second dissociation between a peripheral physiological measure of demand (i.e., blink rates) and demand avoidance. Experiment 3 directly tested the assumption that individuals make use of a general metacognitive evaluation of task demand during selections. A DST was utilized in a forced-choice paradigm that required individuals to either select the most effortful, time demanding, or least accurate of 2 choices. Patterns of selections were similar across all rating dimensions, lending credit to this notion. Findings are discussed within a metacognitive framework of demand avoidance and contrasted to current theories. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27123679

  11. Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance

    PubMed Central

    Khilnani, Gurudas; Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar

    2011-01-01

    A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced) receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity) or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity). Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity). Receptors of many classes (α-and β-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors) have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (β-blockers, antihistaminics) have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H1 and H2 antihistaminics (antagonists) have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the β-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D2 receptors antagonist), antihypertensive (AT1 receptor antagonists), antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103), a highly selective 5-HT2A inverse

  12. Inversion of elastic impedance for unconsolidated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2006-01-01

    Elastic properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are important for quantifying gas hydrate amounts as well as discriminating the gas hydrate effect on velocity from free gas or pore pressure. This paper presents an elastic inversion method for estimating elastic properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments from angle stacks using sequential inversion of P-wave impedance from the zero-offset stack and S-wave impedance from the far-offset stack without assuming velocity ratio.

  13. A fluorophosphate-based inverse Keggin structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fielden, John; Quasdorf, Kyle; Cronin, Leroy; Kogerler, Paul

    2012-07-17

    An unusual PFO(3)(2-)-templated "inverse Keggin" polyanion, [Mo(12)O(46)(PF)(4)](4-), has been isolated from the degradation reaction of an {Mo(132)}-type Keplerate to [PMo(12)O(40)](3-) by [Cu(MeCN)(4)](PF(6)) in acetonitrile. (31)P-NMR studies suggest a structure-directing role for [Cu(MeCN)(4)](+) in the formation of the highly unusual all-inorganic inverse Keggin structure.

  14. Inverse scattering problems with multi-frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Gang; Li, Peijun; Lin, Junshan; Triki, Faouzi

    2015-09-01

    This paper is concerned with computational approaches and mathematical analysis for solving inverse scattering problems in the frequency domain. The problems arise in a diverse set of scientific areas with significant industrial, medical, and military applications. In addition to nonlinearity, there are two common difficulties associated with the inverse problems: ill-posedness and limited resolution (diffraction limit). Due to the diffraction limit, for a given frequency, only a low spatial frequency part of the desired parameter can be observed from measurements in the far field. The main idea developed here is that if the reconstruction is restricted to only the observable part, then the inversion will become stable. The challenging task is how to design stable numerical methods for solving these inverse scattering problems inspired by the diffraction limit. Recently, novel recursive linearization based algorithms have been presented in an attempt to answer the above question. These methods require multi-frequency scattering data and proceed via a continuation procedure with respect to the frequency from low to high. The objective of this paper is to give a brief review of these methods, their error estimates, and the related mathematical analysis. More attention is paid to the inverse medium and inverse source problems. Numerical experiments are included to illustrate the effectiveness of these methods.

  15. On the edge of an inverse cascade.

    PubMed

    Seshasayanan, Kannabiran; Benavides, Santiago Jose; Alexakis, Alexandros

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate that systems with a parameter-controlled inverse cascade can exhibit critical behavior for which at the critical value of the control parameter the inverse cascade stops. In the vicinity of such a critical point, standard phenomenological estimates for the energy balance will fail since the energy flux towards large length scales becomes zero. We demonstrate this using the computationally tractable model of two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamics in a periodic box. In the absence of any external magnetic forcing, the system reduces to hydrodynamic fluid turbulence with an inverse energy cascade. In the presence of strong magnetic forcing, the system behaves as 2D magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with forward energy cascade. As the amplitude of the magnetic forcing is varied, a critical value is met for which the energy flux towards the large scales becomes zero. Close to this point, the energy flux scales as a power law with the departure from the critical point and the normalized amplitude of the fluctuations diverges. Similar behavior is observed for the flux of the square vector potential for which no inverse flux is observed for weak magnetic forcing, while a finite inverse flux is observed for magnetic forcing above the critical point. We conjecture that this behavior is generic for systems of variable inverse cascade. PMID:25493730

  16. Iterative inverse kinematics with manipulator configuration control

    SciTech Connect

    Grudic, G.Z.; Lawrence, P.D.

    1993-08-01

    A new method, termed the offset modification method (OM method), for solving the manipulator inverse kinematics problem is presented. The OM method works by modifying the link offset values of a manipulator until it is possible to derive closed-form inverse kinematics equations for the resulting manipulator (termed the model manipulator). This procedure allows one to derive a set of three nonlinear equations in three unknowns that, when numerically solved, give an inverse kinematics solution for the original manipulator. The OM method can be applied to manipulators with any number of degrees of freedom, as long as the manipulator satisfies a given set of conditions (Theorem 1). The OM method is tested on a 6-degree-of-freedom manipulator that has no known closed-form inverse kinematics equations. It is shown that the OM method is applicable to real-time manipulator control, can be used to guarantee convergence to a desired endpoint position and orientation (if it exists), and allows one to directly choose which inverse kinematics solution the algorithm will converge to (as specified in the model manipulator closed-form inverse kinematics equations). Applications of the method to other 6-DOF manipulator geometries and to redundant manipulators (i.e. greater than 6 DOF geometries) are discussed.

  17. Geoacoustic inversion with ships as sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Robert A.; Knobles, David P.

    2005-02-01

    Estimation of geoacoustic parameters using acoustic data from a surface ship was performed for a shallow water region in the Gulf of Mexico. The data were recorded from hydrophones in a bottom mounted, horizontal line array (HLA). The techniques developed to produce the geoacoustic inversion are described, and an efficient method for geoacoustic inversion with broadband beam cross-spectral data is demonstrated. The performance of cost functions that involve coherent or incoherent sums over frequency and one or multiple time segments is discussed. Successful inversions for the first sediment layer sound speed and thickness and some of the parameters for the deeper layers were obtained with the surface ship at nominal ranges of 20, 30, or 50 water depths. The data for these inversions were beam cross-spectra from four subapertures of the HLA spanning a little more than two water depths. The subaperture beams included ten frequencies equally spaced in the 120-200 Hz band. The values of the geoacoustic parameters from the inversions are validated by comparisons with geophysical observations and with the parameter values from previous inversions by other invesigators, and by comparing transmission loss (TL) measured in the experiment with modeled TL based on the inverted geoacoustic parameters. .

  18. Sol-gel co-assembly of hollow cylindrical inverse opals and inverse opal columns.

    PubMed

    Haibin, Ni; Ming, Wang; Wei, Chen

    2011-12-19

    A facile approach of fabricating hollow cylindrical inverse opals and inverse opal columns by sol-gel co-assembly method was proposed. Polystyrene (PS) colloidal suspension added with hydrolyzed silicate precursor solution was used to self-assemble composite colloidal crystals which consist of PS colloidal crystal template and infiltrated silica gel in the interstitial of microspheres. Continuous hollow cylindrical composite colloidal crystal films have been produced on capillaries' outside and internal surface. Composite colloidal crystal columns which filling up the interior of a capillary were fabricated by pressure assisted sol-gel co-assembly method. Hollow cylindrical inverse opals and inverse opal columns were obtained after removing PS colloidal crystal from the composite colloidal crystal. Optical properties of the silica hollow cylindrical inverse opals were characterized by transmission spectrum and a stop band was observed. Structure and optical properties of the inverse opal columns were investigated. PMID:22274178

  19. High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

    2007-04-17

    Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

  20. Titanium induced polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, X.; Li, H.; Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.; Draxl, C.; Trampert, A.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the formation of polarity inversion in ordered (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns grown on a Ti-masked GaN-buffered sapphire substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy reveal a stacking fault-like planar defect at the homoepitaxial GaN interface due to Ti incorporation, triggering the generation of N-polar domains in Ga-polar nanocolumns. Density functional theory calculations are applied to clarify the atomic configurations of a Ti monolayer occupation on the GaN (0002) plane and to prove the inversion effect. The polarity inversion leads to an enhanced indium incorporation in the subsequent (In,Ga)N segment of the nanocolumn. This study provides a deeper understanding of the effects of Ti mask in the well-controlled selective area growth of (In,Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns.

  1. Demand forecast model based on CRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuancui; Chen, Lichao

    2006-11-01

    With interiorizing day by day management thought that regarding customer as the centre, forecasting customer demand becomes more and more important. In the demand forecast of customer relationship management, the traditional forecast methods have very great limitation because much uncertainty of the demand, these all require new modeling to meet the demands of development. In this paper, the notion is that forecasting the demand according to characteristics of the potential customer, then modeling by it. The model first depicts customer adopting uniform multiple indexes. Secondly, the model acquires characteristic customers on the basis of data warehouse and the technology of data mining. The last, there get the most similar characteristic customer by their comparing and forecast the demands of new customer by the most similar characteristic customer.

  2. Comparative evolution of the inverse problems (Introduction to an interdisciplinary study of the inverse problems)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, P. C.

    1972-01-01

    The progressive realization of the consequences of nonuniqueness imply an evolution of both the methods and the centers of interest in inverse problems. This evolution is schematically described together with the various mathematical methods used. A comparative description is given of inverse methods in scientific research, with examples taken from mathematics, quantum and classical physics, seismology, transport theory, radiative transfer, electromagnetic scattering, electrocardiology, etc. It is hoped that this paper will pave the way for an interdisciplinary study of inverse problems.

  3. Application of the least-squares inversion method: Fourier series versus waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Dong-Joo; Shin, Jungkyun; Shin, Changsoo

    2015-11-01

    We describe an implicit link between waveform inversion and Fourier series based on inversion methods such as gradient, Gauss-Newton, and full Newton methods. Fourier series have been widely used as a basic concept in studies on seismic data interpretation, and their coefficients are obtained in the classical Fourier analysis. We show that Fourier coefficients can also be obtained by inversion algorithms, and compare the method to seismic waveform inversion algorithms. In that case, Fourier coefficients correspond to model parameters (velocities, density or elastic constants), whereas cosine and sine functions correspond to components of the Jacobian matrix, that is, partial derivative wavefields in seismic inversion. In the classical Fourier analysis, optimal coefficients are determined by the sensitivity of a given function to sine and cosine functions. In the inversion method for Fourier series, Fourier coefficients are obtained by measuring the sensitivity of residuals between given functions and test functions (defined as the sum of weighted cosine and sine functions) to cosine and sine functions. The orthogonal property of cosine and sine functions makes the full or approximate Hessian matrix become a diagonal matrix in the inversion for Fourier series. In seismic waveform inversion, the Hessian matrix may or may not be a diagonal matrix, because partial derivative wavefields correlate with each other to some extent, making them semi-orthogonal. At the high-frequency limits, however, the Hessian matrix can be approximated by either a diagonal matrix or a diagonally-dominant matrix. Since we usually deal with relatively low frequencies in seismic waveform inversion, it is not diagonally dominant and thus it is prohibitively expensive to compute the full or approximate Hessian matrix. By interpreting Fourier series with the inversion algorithms, we note that the Fourier series can be computed at an iteration step using any inversion algorithms such as the

  4. SiC/C nanocomposites with inverse opal structure.

    PubMed

    Emelchenko, G A; Zhokhov, A A; Masalov, V M; Maximuk, M Yu; Fursova, T N; Bazhenov, A V; Zverkova, I I; Khasanov, S S; Steinman, E A; Tereshenko, A N

    2010-11-26

    The synthesis, morphology, structural and optical characteristics of SiC/C nanocomposites with an inverse opal lattice have been investigated. The samples were prepared by thermochemical treatment of opal matrices filled with carbon compounds which was followed by silicon dioxide dissolution. The samples were studied by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, IR and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The electron microscopy data revealed a highly porous periodic structure which was a three-dimensional replica of the voids of the initial opal lattice. The hexagonal silicon carbide was found to be non-uniformly distributed throughout the volume, its greater part located in the surface layer up to 50 µm deep. The data of x-ray diffraction, IR and Raman scattering spectroscopy enabled us to assume that the composite had hexagonal diamond fragments. The photoluminescence and optical reflection spectra of the composites have been measured. PMID:21030770

  5. The Market Demand for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    Although the presentation will touch upon the areas of market for air transportation, the theoretical foundations of the demand function, the demand models, and model selection and evaluation, the emphasis of the presentation will be on a qualitative description of the factors affecting the demand for air transportation. The presentation will rely heavily on the results of market surveys carried out by the Port of New York Authority, the University of Michigan, and Census of Transportation.

  6. Anisotropy effects on 3D waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stekl, I.; Warner, M.; Umpleby, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the recent years 3D waveform inversion has become achievable procedure for seismic data processing. A number of datasets has been inverted and presented (Warner el al 2008, Ben Hadj at all, Sirgue et all 2010) using isotropic 3D waveform inversion. However the question arises will the results be affected by isotropic assumption. Full-wavefield inversion techniques seek to match field data, wiggle-for-wiggle, to synthetic data generated by a high-resolution model of the sub-surface. In this endeavour, correctly matching the travel times of the principal arrivals is a necessary minimal requirement. In many, perhaps most, long-offset and wide-azimuth datasets, it is necessary to introduce some form of p-wave velocity anisotropy to match the travel times successfully. If this anisotropy is not also incorporated into the wavefield inversion, then results from the inversion will necessarily be compromised. We have incorporated anisotropy into our 3D wavefield tomography codes, characterised as spatially varying transverse isotropy with a tilted axis of symmetry - TTI anisotropy. This enhancement approximately doubles both the run time and the memory requirements of the code. We show that neglect of anisotropy can lead to significant artefacts in the recovered velocity models. We will present inversion results of inverting anisotropic 3D dataset by assuming isotropic earth and compare them with anisotropic inversion result. As a test case Marmousi model extended to 3D with no velocity variation in third direction and with added spatially varying anisotropy is used. Acquisition geometry is assumed as OBC with sources and receivers everywhere at the surface. We attempted inversion using both 2D and full 3D acquisition for this dataset. Results show that if no anisotropy is taken into account although image looks plausible most features are miss positioned in depth and space, even for relatively low anisotropy, which leads to incorrect result. This may lead to

  7. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to themore » uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.« less

  8. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to the uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.

  9. Income distribution trends and future food demand

    PubMed Central

    Cirera, Xavier; Masset, Edoardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the theoretical literature on the relationship between income distribution and food demand, and identifies main gaps of current food modelling techniques that affect the accuracy of food demand projections. At the heart of the relationship between income distribution and food demand is Engel's law. Engel's law establishes that as income increases, households' demand for food increases less than proportionally. A consequence of this law is that the particular shape of the distribution of income across individuals and countries affects the rate of growth of food demand. Our review of the literature suggests that existing models of food demand fail to incorporate the required Engel flexibility when (i) aggregating different food budget shares among households; and (ii) changing budget shares as income grows. We perform simple simulations to predict growth in food demand under alternative income distribution scenarios taking into account nonlinearity of food demand. Results suggest that (i) distributional effects are to be expected from changes in between-countries inequality, rather than within-country inequality; and (ii) simulations of an optimistic and a pessimistic scenario of income inequality suggest that world food demand in 2050 would be 2.7 per cent higher and 5.4 per cent lower than distributional-neutral growth, respectively. PMID:20713387

  10. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K. D.; Baker, I. T.; Uliasz, M.; Parazoo, N.; Andrews, A. E.; Worthy, D. E. J.

    2010-05-01

    Resolving the discrepancies between NEE estimates based upon (1) ground studies and (2) atmospheric inversion results, demands increasingly sophisticated techniques. In this paper we present a high-resolution inversion based upon a regional meteorology model (RAMS) and an underlying biosphere (SiB3) model, both running on an identical 40 km grid over most of North America. Current operational systems like CarbonTracker as well as many previous global inversions including the Transcom suite of inversions have utilized inversion regions formed by collapsing biome-similar grid cells into larger aggregated regions. An extreme example of this might be where corrections to NEE imposed on forested regions on the east coast of the United States might be the same as that imposed on forests on the west coast of the United States while, in reality, there likely exist subtle differences in the two areas, both natural and anthropogenic. Our current inversion framework utilizes a combination of previously employed inversion techniques while allowing carbon flux corrections to be biome independent. Temporally and spatially high-resolution results utilizing biome-independent corrections provide insight into carbon dynamics in North America. In particular, we analyze hourly CO2 mixing ratio data from a sparse network of eight towers in North America for 2004. A prior estimate of carbon fluxes due to Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER) is constructed from the SiB3 biosphere model on a 40 km grid. A combination of transport from the RAMS and the Parameterized Chemical Transport Model (PCTM) models is used to forge a connection between upwind biosphere fluxes and downwind observed CO2 mixing ratio data. A Kalman filter procedure is used to estimate weekly corrections to biosphere fluxes based upon observed CO2. RMSE-weighted annual NEE estimates, over an ensemble of potential inversion parameter sets, show a mean estimate 0.57 Pg/yr sink in North America

  11. Drivers of U.S. mineral demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sznopek, John L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The word 'demand' has different meanings for different people. To some, it means their 'wants and needs,' to others it is what they consume. Yet, when considering economics, demand refers to the specific amounts of goods or services that individuals will purchase at various prices. Demand is measured over a given time period. It is determined by a number of factors including income, tastes, and the price of complementary and substitute goods. In this paper, the term consumption is used fairly synonymously with the term demand. Most mineral commodities, like iron ore, copper, zinc, and gravel, are intermediate goods, which means that they are used in the production of other goods, called final goods. Demand for intermediate goods is called derived demand because such demand is derived from the demand for final goods. When demand increases for a commodity, generally the price rises. With everything else held constant, this increases the profits for those who provide this commodity. Normally, this would increase profits of existing producers and attract new producers to the market. When demand for a commodity decreases, generally the price falls. Normally, this would cause profits to fall and, as a consequence, the least efficient firms may be forced from the industry. Demand changes for specific materials as final goods or production techniques are reengineered while maintaining or improving product performance, for example, the use of aluminum in the place of copper in long distance electrical transmission lines or plastic replacing steel in automobile bumpers. Substitution contributes to efficient material usage by utilizing cheaper or technically superior materials. In this way, it may also alleviate materials scarcity. If a material becomes relatively scarce (and thus more expensive), a more abundant (and less expensive) material generally replaces it (Wagner and others, 2003, p. 91).

  12. Improved Fat Water Separation with Water Selective Inversion Pulse for Inversion Recovery Imaging in Cardiac MRI

    PubMed Central

    Havla, Lukas; Basha, Tamer; Rayatzadeh, Hussein; Shaw, Jaime L.; Manning, Warren J.; Reeder, Scott B.; Kozerke, Sebastian; Nezafat, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop an improved chemical shift-based water-fat separation sequence using a water-selective inversion pulse for inversion-recovery 3D contrast-enhanced cardiac MR. Materials and Methods In inversion-recovery sequences, the fat signal is substantially reduced due to the application of a non-selective inversion pulse. Therefore, for simultaneous visualization of water, fat, and myocardial enhancement in inversion-recovery based sequences such as late Gadolinium enhancement imaging, two separate scans are used. To overcome this, the non-selective inversion pulse is replaced with a water-selective inversion pulse. Imaging was performed in phantoms, 9 healthy subjects and 9 patients with suspected arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy plus 1 patient for tumor/mass imaging. In patients, images with conventional turbo-spin echo (TSE) with and without fat saturation were acquired prior to contrast injection for fat assessment. Subjective image scores (1=poor, 4=excellent) were used for image assessment. Results Phantom experiments showed a fat SNR increase between 1.7 to 5.9 times for inversion times of 150 and 300ms, respectively. The water-selective inversion pulse retains the fat signal in contrast-enhanced cardiac MR, allowing improved visualization of fat in the water-fat separated images of healthy subjects with a score of 3.7 ± 0.6. Patient images acquired with the proposed sequence were scored higher when compared with TSE sequence (3.5 ± 0.7 vs. 2.2 ± 0.5, p<0.05). Conclusion The water-selective inversion pulse retains the fat signal in inversion-recovery based contrast-enhanced cardiac MR, allowing simultaneous visualization of water and fat. PMID:22927327

  13. ON THE SPECTRAL SHAPE OF RADIATION DUE TO INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERING CLOSE TO THE MAXIMUM CUTOFF

    SciTech Connect

    Lefa, E.; Kelner, S. R.; Aharonian, F. A.

    2012-07-10

    The spectral shape of radiation due to inverse Compton scattering is analyzed in the Thomson and the Klein-Nishina regime for electron distributions with exponential cutoff. We derive analytical, asymptotic expressions for the spectrum close to the maximum cutoff region. We consider monoenergetic, Planckian, and synchrotron photons as target photon fields. These approximations provide a direct link between the distribution of parent electrons and the upscattered spectrum at the cutoff region.

  14. Domain inversion and electrochromism in congruent RuO II:LiNbO 3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Ya'nan; Liu, De'an; Qu, Weijuan; Zhou, Yu; Chai, Zhifang; Luan, Zhu; Liu, Liren

    2006-08-01

    The domain inversion and electrochromism in congruent RuO II:LiNbO 3 crystals are investigated at room temperature, and the relations between them are proposed. During electric poling process, the electrochromism accompanies the ferroelectric domain inversion simultaneously, and is localized to the same region with domain inversion. As domain inversion, the electrochromism is completely reversible when the domain is inverted from the reverse direction. The properties, coincidence and localization, between domain inversion and electrochromism are proved solidly by the digital holographic interferometry, the real-time measurement of optical transmittance change and poling current, and the micrographic analysis after being etched in hydrofluoric acid. The influences of annealing conditions on electrochromism are also discussed. We provide the reasonable assumptions and analyses that the charge redistribution within the crystal caused by domain inversion is the source for electrochemically oxidation and reduction of Ru ion, and the intervalence electron transference between Ru 4+ and Ru 3+ plays a key role in the spectrum shift within different spectral range by the change of the photon absorption.

  15. The rotation-inversion spectrum of cyanamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, W. G.; Cohen, E. A.; Pickett, H. M.

    1986-02-01

    The microwave, millimeter, and submillimeter spectra of cyanamide were studied to better determine the inversion-rotation parameters of the ground and first excited states. A total of 146 transitions including 64 rotation-inversion frequencies between 7 and 500 GHz have been measured at this laboratory. An additional 118 a-type R-branch transitions between 139 and 262 GHz measured by Möller and Winnewisser at Justus Liebig University, Giessen, have also been included in the analysis. The data were fitted to a Hamiltonian which contains a rotation-inversion interaction as an off-diagonal inertial term. The interpretation of the interaction term in terms of the molecular structure and inversion motion is in good agreement with experiment. Higher order rotational effects were handled with a Watson " S" centrifugal distortion Hamiltonian. The inversion splitting, rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, nitrogen nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors including χac for the amino nitrogen, and the a and c components of the electric dipole moment are reported.

  16. A semisimultaneous inversion algorithm for SAGE III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Dale M.

    2002-12-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III instrument was successfully launched into orbit on 10 December 2001. The planned operational species separation inversion algorithm will utilize a stepwise retrieval strategy. This paper presents an alternative, semisimultaneous species separation inversion that simultaneously retrieves all species over user-specified vertical intervals or blocks. By overlapping these vertical blocks, retrieved species profiles over the entire vertical range of the measurements are obtained. The semisimultaneous retrieval approach provides a more straightforward method for evaluating the error coupling that occurs among the retrieved profiles due to various types of input uncertainty. Simulation results are presented to show how the semisimultaneous inversion can enhance understanding of the SAGE III retrieval process. In the future, the semisimultaneous inversion algorithm will be used to help evaluate the results and performance of the operational inversion. Compared to SAGE II, SAGE III will provide expanded and more precise spectral measurements. This alone is shown to significantly reduce the uncertainties in the retrieved ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and aerosol extinction profiles for SAGE III. Additionally, the well-documented concern that SAGE II retrievals are biased by the level of volcanic aerosol is greatly alleviated for SAGE III.

  17. Inverse kinematic-based robot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolovich, W. A.; Flueckiger, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    A fundamental problem which must be resolved in virtually all non-trivial robotic operations is the well-known inverse kinematic question. More specifically, most of the tasks which robots are called upon to perform are specified in Cartesian (x,y,z) space, such as simple tracking along one or more straight line paths or following a specified surfacer with compliant force sensors and/or visual feedback. In all cases, control is actually implemented through coordinated motion of the various links which comprise the manipulator; i.e., in link space. As a consequence, the control computer of every sophisticated anthropomorphic robot must contain provisions for solving the inverse kinematic problem which, in the case of simple, non-redundant position control, involves the determination of the first three link angles, theta sub 1, theta sub 2, and theta sub 3, which produce a desired wrist origin position P sub xw, P sub yw, and P sub zw at the end of link 3 relative to some fixed base frame. Researchers outline a new inverse kinematic solution and demonstrate its potential via some recent computer simulations. They also compare it to current inverse kinematic methods and outline some of the remaining problems which will be addressed in order to render it fully operational. Also discussed are a number of practical consequences of this technique beyond its obvious use in solving the inverse kinematic question.

  18. Improved SOLA Inversions of MDI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, R. M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Schou, J.

    We present a new version of 2d-SOLA, where the target functions have been modified to match the behavior of the mode kernels near the rotation axis and to minimize near-surface contributions. Inversion of artificial data show that these modifications significantly improve the effective resolution near the pole, which allows us to assess the reliability of the high-latitude features seen by other inversion methods. Most importantly, our new inversions seem to confirm the detection of a submerged polar jet previously seen in the 2d-RLS inversions reported by Schou et al. 1998. A test of the robustness of the improved method is carried out by inverting artificial data from the MDI Hare and Hounds exercise. We analyze the averaging kernels and error propagation of the method, and also describe the error-correlation between different points in the solution, the latter being a potential source of spurious features in the solutions as pointed out by Howe and Thompson, 1996. So far, helioseismic datasets given in the form of a-coefficients have been inverted under the assumption that the errors in different a-coefficients are uncorrelated. The MDI peak-bagging procedure, however, does produce estimates of the error-correlation between a-coefficients within the same multiplet. Here we investigate the effect of including this knowledge in the inversions.

  19. On the nonuniqueness of receiver function inversions

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon, C.J. ); Randall, G.E. ); Zandt, G. )

    1990-09-10

    To study the resolving power of teleseismic P waveforms for receiver structure, the authors model synthetic waveforms using a time domain waveform inversion scheme beginning with a range of initial models to estimate the range of acceptable velocity structures. To speed up the waveform inversions, they implement Randall's (1989) efficient algorithms for calculating differential seismograms and include a smoothness constraint on all the resulting velocity models utilizing the jumping inversion technique of Shaw and Orcutt (1985). They present the results of more than 235 waveform inversions for one-dimensional velocity structures that indicate that the primary sensitivity of a receiver function is to high wavenumber velocity changes, and a depth-velocity product, not simply velocity. The range of slownesses in a typical receiver function study does not appear to be broad enough to remove the depth-velocity ambiguity; the inclusion of a priori information is necessary. They also present inversion results for station RSCP, located in the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee. The results are similar to those from a previous study by Owens et al. (1984) and demonstrate the uncertainties in the resulting velocity estimate more clearly.

  20. Career Technical Education and Labor Market Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Current data indicates that Career Technical Education (CTE) graduates with high school diplomas or postsecondary skills are preparing for careers in fields that are growing or in high-demand. Matching employability skills with workforce demand has been an issue among industries across the nation. CTE provides relevant academic and technical…

  1. Evaluation of the MEDLARS Demand Search Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, F.W.

    A detailed analysis was made by the National Library of Medicine of the performance of the Medical Literature and Analysis System (MEDLARS) in relation to 300 actual "demand search" requests made to the systems in 1966 and 1967. The objectives of the study were : (1) to study the demand search requirements of MEDLARS users, (2) to determine how…

  2. Engineering Manpower: Supply and Demand Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Robert D.; Hartman, J. Paul

    This paper provides a review of pertinent statistical information related to supply and demand, a consideration of "forcing" factors in supply/demand analyses, a discussion of training versus task requirements as related to job performance, a presentation of a tentative "engineering occupations" model, and an emphasis on definition of the various…

  3. REGIONAL RECREATION DEMAND AND BENEFITS MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a regional recreation demand and benefits model that is used to estimate recreation demand and value (consumers' surplus) of four activities at each of 195 sites in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana. The recreation activities considered are camp...

  4. Uranium demand flatlines. Any chance for revival?

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Analysis of and predictions for the uranium spot market are provided in the article. Also, results of an informal survey of utilities and uranium producers are summarized. Demand for uranium oxide is projected to be approximately 10 million pounds for the end of 1997, and total uncovered demand is predicted to steadily increase. No shortages are predicted for the next decade.

  5. Faculty Supply and Demand in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Sharon; Arends, Richard I.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated current levels of faculty supply and demand at 752 American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education member institutions. Survey data indicate that demand is greater than supply, shortages are more critical in some program areas than others (e.g., early childhood and special education), the percentage of minority hires has…

  6. The Demand for Training. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom; Cully, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper was presented in Sydney in September 2008 at a seminar conducted by Skills Australia and the Academy of Social Sciences. It examines the demand for training. It concentrates on the factors that affect individual and employer demand, and points out that accredited vocational education and training (VET) need to be considered in the…

  7. A Vision of Demand Response - 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Roger

    2006-10-15

    Envision a journey about 10 years into a future where demand response is actually integrated into the policies, standards, and operating practices of electric utilities. Here's a bottom-up view of how demand response actually works, as seen through the eyes of typical customers, system operators, utilities, and regulators. (author)

  8. PC Based Video on Demand Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Philip; Durran, Jennifer

    Many educational institutions have a substantial personal computer (PC) network that can be adapted to provide digital video on demand, as well as PCs that can be used as video on demand clients. To gain insight into the issues involved in using this technology in an educational environment that relies heavily on video, a simple, low cost video on…

  9. 12 CFR 404.27 - Demand requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Current and Former Ex-Im Bank Personnel and for Production of Ex-Im Bank Records § 404.27 Demand requirements. A party's demand for testimony and/or production of records by Ex-Im Bank personnel regarding... only be obtained through testimony or production of records by Ex-Im Bank personnel; and (f)...

  10. 12 CFR 404.27 - Demand requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Current and Former Ex-Im Bank Personnel and for Production of Ex-Im Bank Records § 404.27 Demand requirements. A party's demand for testimony and/or production of records by Ex-Im Bank personnel regarding... only be obtained through testimony or production of records by Ex-Im Bank personnel; and (f)...

  11. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  12. Information management - Assessing the demand for information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Information demand is defined in terms of both information content (what information) and form (when, how, and where it is needed). Providing the information richness required for flight crews to be informed without overwhelming their information processing capabilities will require a great deal of automated intelligence. It is seen that the essence of this intelligence is comprehending and capturing the demand for information.

  13. Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    The author analyzes the inflation-targeting model that underlies recent textbook expositions of the aggregate demand-aggregate supply approach used in introductory courses in macroeconomics. He shows how numerical simulations of a model with inflation inertia can be used as a tool to help students understand adjustments in response to demand and…

  14. Energy infrastructure: Mapping future electricity demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janetos, Anthony C.

    2016-08-01

    Electricity distribution system planners rely on estimations of future energy demand to build adequate supply, but these are complicated to achieve. An approach that combines spatially resolved projections of population movement and climate change offers a method for building better demand maps to mid-century.

  15. Normalized demand for drugs and other reinforcers.

    PubMed Central

    Hursh, S R; Winger, G

    1995-01-01

    The concepts of behavioral economics have proven to be useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts have implications for the assessment of abuse liability and drug abuse intervention and the formulation of public policy on drug abuse. An essential requirement is the ability to compare the demand for different drugs directly in order to assess relative abuse liability, and to compare demand for the same drug under different environmental and biological interventions to assess their ability to reduce demand. Until now, such comparisons were hampered by the confounding effect of varying drug doses and potencies that prevent quantitative comparisons of demand elasticity--sensitivity of consumption and responding to the constraint of price (effort). In this paper we describe a procedure to normalize demand-curve analysis that permits dose- and potency-independent comparisons of demand across drugs. The procedure is shown to be effective for comparing drug demand within and across the drug classes. The technique permits a quantitative ordering of demand that is consistent with the peak levels of responding maintained by the drugs. The same technique is generalized for the comparison of other types of reinforcers under different biological conditions. PMID:8551194

  16. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  17. Inverse scattering theory: Inverse scattering series method for one dimensional non-compact support potential

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Jie; Lesage, Anne-Cécile; Hussain, Fazle; Bodmann, Bernhard G.; Kouri, Donald J.

    2014-12-15

    The reversion of the Born-Neumann series of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation is one of the standard ways to solve the inverse acoustic scattering problem. One limitation of the current inversion methods based on the reversion of the Born-Neumann series is that the velocity potential should have compact support. However, this assumption cannot be satisfied in certain cases, especially in seismic inversion. Based on the idea of distorted wave scattering, we explore an inverse scattering method for velocity potentials without compact support. The strategy is to decompose the actual medium as a known single interface reference medium, which has the same asymptotic form as the actual medium and a perturbative scattering potential with compact support. After introducing the method to calculate the Green’s function for the known reference potential, the inverse scattering series and Volterra inverse scattering series are derived for the perturbative potential. Analytical and numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. Besides, to ensure stability of the numerical computation, the Lanczos averaging method is employed as a filter to reduce the Gibbs oscillations for the truncated discrete inverse Fourier transform of each order. Our method provides a rigorous mathematical framework for inverse acoustic scattering with a non-compact support velocity potential.

  18. Reducing Peak Demand by Time Zone Divisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, A.

    2014-09-01

    For a large country like India, the electrical power demand is also large and the infrastructure cost for power is the largest among all the core sectors of economy. India has an emerging economy which requires high rate of growth of infrastructure in the power generation, transmission and distribution. The current peak demand in the country is approximately 1,50,000 MW which shall have a planned growth of at least 50 % over the next five years (Seventeenth Electric Power Survey of India, Central Electricity Authority, Government of India, March 2007). By implementing the time zone divisions each comprising of an integral number of contiguous states based on their total peak demand and geographical location, the total peak demand of the nation can be significantly cut down by spreading the peak demand of various states over time. The projected reduction in capital expenditure over a plan period of 5 years is substantial. Also, the estimated reduction in operations expenditure cannot be ignored.

  19. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  20. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  1. Inversion for seismic anisotropy using genetic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, S. Univ. of Edinburgh . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); MacBeth, C. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1994-11-01

    A general inversion scheme based on a genetic algorithm is developed to invert seismic observations for anisotropic parameters. The technique is applied to the inversion of shear-wave observations from two azimuthal VSP data sets from the Conoco test site in Oklahoma. Horizontal polarizations and time-delays are inverted for hexagonal and orthorhombic symmetries. The model solutions are consistent with previous studies using trial and error matching of full waveform synthetics. The shear-wave splitting observations suggest the presence of a shear-wave line singularity and are consistent with a dipping fracture system which is known to exist at the test site. Application of the inversion scheme prior to full waveform modeling demonstrates that a considerable saving in time is possible while retaining the same degree of accuracy.

  2. Optimization and Inverse Design of Pump Impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyauchi, S.; Zhu, B.; Luo, X.; Piao, B.; Matsumoto, H.; Sano, M.; Kassai, N.

    2012-11-01

    As for pump impellers, the meridional flow channel and blade-to-blade flow channel, which are relatively independent of each other but greatly affect performance, are designed in parallel. And the optimization design is used for the former and the inverse design is used for the latter. To verify this new design method, a mixed-flow impeller was made. Next, we use Tani's inverse design method for the blade loading of inverse design. It is useful enough to change a deceleration rate freely and greatly. And it can integrally express the rear blade loading of various methods by NACA, Zangeneh and Stratford. We controlled the deceleration rate by shape parameter m, and its value became almost same with Tani's recommended value of the laminar airfoil.

  3. Inverse scattering approach to improving pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapline, George; Fu, Chi-Yung

    2005-05-01

    The Helmholtz machine provides what may be the best existing model for how the mammalian brain recognizes patterns. Based on the observation that the "wake-sleep" algorithm for training a Helmholtz machine is similar to the problem of finding the potential for a multi-channel Schrodinger equation, we propose that the construction of a Schrodinger potential using inverse scattering methods can serve as a model for how the mammalian brain learns to extract essential information from sensory data. In particular, inverse scattering theory provides a conceptual framework for imagining how one might use EEG and MEG observations of brain-waves together with sensory feedback to improve human learning and pattern recognition. Longer term, implementation of inverse scattering algorithms on a digital or optical computer could be a step towards mimicking the seamless information fusion of the mammalian brain.

  4. Tabu optimization for matched field inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni; Ghosh-Dastidar, Urmi

    2002-11-01

    Matched field processing is a powerful tool for source localization and geoacoustic inversion. Because of significant environmental and geometry uncertainties, however, matched field processing usually involves multiparameter searches. To facilitate these searches, global optimization techniques such as genetic algorithms and simulated annealing have been successfully employed. In this work, a different approach, tabu, is implemented for optimization in matched field inversion. Tabu is a technique relying on the use of memory; it searches for the global maximum of the objective function through a navigation process that avoids already revisited models, also making use of aspiration criteria and diversification for faster convergence. The tabu performance in localization and geoacoustic inversion is demonstrated through experimentation with both synthetic and real (SWellEX 96) data. The approach is shown to provide reliable estimates in an efficient manner. [Work supported by ONR.

  5. Fast Inversion of Solar Ca II Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast (Lt1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ~ -3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = -6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively.

  6. Inverse Scattering Approach to Improving Pattern Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G; Fu, C

    2005-02-15

    The Helmholtz machine provides what may be the best existing model for how the mammalian brain recognizes patterns. Based on the observation that the ''wake-sleep'' algorithm for training a Helmholtz machine is similar to the problem of finding the potential for a multi-channel Schrodinger equation, we propose that the construction of a Schrodinger potential using inverse scattering methods can serve as a model for how the mammalian brain learns to extract essential information from sensory data. In particular, inverse scattering theory provides a conceptual framework for imagining how one might use EEG and MEG observations of brain-waves together with sensory feedback to improve human learning and pattern recognition. Longer term, implementation of inverse scattering algorithms on a digital or optical computer could be a step towards mimicking the seamless information fusion of the mammalian brain.

  7. Psycholinguistic Evidence for Inverse Scope in Korean.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunyoung; O'Grady, William

    2016-08-01

    We use experimental data to shed light on the ongoing question of whether Korean allows inverse scope interpretation in sentences containing an indefinite subject and a universally quantified direct object (e.g., 'Someone bought each loaf of bread at the bakery'). The results of an off-line acceptability judgment task (n = 38) and an online self-paced reading task (n [Formula: see text] 22) indicate that inverse scope interpretations are in fact permitted in Korean as a secondary option, as is also the case in English. We argue that the dispreference for the inverse scope reading reflects processing considerations related to burden on working memory. PMID:26022290

  8. Reservoir parameter inversion based on weighted statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Jin-Yong; Gao, Jian-Hu; Yong, Xue-Shan; Li, Sheng-Jun; Liu, Bin-Yang; Zhao, Wan-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Variation of reservoir physical properties can cause changes in its elastic parameters. However, this is not a simple linear relation. Furthermore, the lack of observations, data overlap, noise interference, and idealized models increases the uncertainties of the inversion result. Thus, we propose an inversion method that is different from traditional statistical rock physics modeling. First, we use deterministic and stochastic rock physics models considering the uncertainties of elastic parameters obtained by prestack seismic inversion and introduce weighting coefficients to establish a weighted statistical relation between reservoir and elastic parameters. Second, based on the weighted statistical relation, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations to generate the random joint distribution space of reservoir and elastic parameters that serves as a sample solution space of an objective function. Finally, we propose a fast solution criterion to maximize the posterior probability density and obtain reservoir parameters. The method has high efficiency and application potential.

  9. Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.

  10. A new strategy for helioseismic inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eff-Darwich, A.; Perez Hernandez, F.

    1997-10-01

    Helioseismic inversion techniques have been revealed as powerful tools for inferring the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun. One of the most popular techniques is Regularized Least Squares. When it is used, it is necessary to define an inversion mesh and a penalty function, without an a priori knowledge of the behaviour of the solution. In addition, this penalty function is weighted by a trade-off parameter that must be fixed in order to obtain the solution. We present here a new technique, developed in order to find the optimal mesh and smoothing function by means of a deep analysis of the basis functions of the inversion problem. We have found that the method is suitable in particular for obtaining the sound speed and density profiles simultaneously, without any reference to the equation of state.

  11. FAST INVERSION OF SOLAR Ca II SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.

    2015-01-10

    We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively.

  12. Recent Advancements in Quantitative Full-Wavefield Electromagnetic Induction and Ground Penetrating Radar Inversion for Shallow Subsurface Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Kruk, J.; Yang, X.; Klotzsche, A.; von Hebel, C.; Busch, S.; Mester, A.; Huisman, J. A.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ray-based or approximate forward modeling techniques have been often used to reduce the computational demands for inversion purposes. Due to increasing computational power and possible parallelization of inversion algorithms, accurate forward modeling can be included in advanced inversion approaches such that the full-wavefield content can be exploited. Here, recent developments of large-scale quantitative electromagnetic induction (EMI) inversion and full-waveform ground penetrating radar (GPR) inversions are discussed that yield higher resolution of quantitative medium properties compared to conventional approaches due to the use of accurate modeling tools that are based on Maxwell's equations. For a limited number of parameters, a combined global and local search using the simplex search algorithm or the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) can be used for inversion. Examples will be shown where calibrated large-scale multi-configuration EMI data measured with new generation multi-offset EMI systems are inverted for a layered electrical conductivity earth, and quantitative permittivity and conductivity values of a layered subsurface can be obtained using on-ground GPR full-waveform inversion that includes the estimation of the unknown source wavelet. For a large number of unknowns, gradient-based optimization methods are commonly used that need a good start model to prevent it from being trapped in a local minimum. Examples will be shown where the non-linearity invoked by the presence of high contrast media can be tamed by using a novel combined frequency-time-domain full-waveform inversion, and a low-velocity waveguide layer can be imaged by using crosshole GPR full-waveform inversion, after adapting the starting model using waveguide identification in the measured data. Synthetic data calculated using the inverted permittivity and conductivity models show similar amplitudes and phases as observed in the measured data, which indicates the reliability of the

  13. Electronic document interchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The operational impact of various storage formats related to electronic publishing of documents in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program is discussed. Questions are raised about the development of full text, surrogate, and hybrid storage formats. It appears that the eventual configuration will contain a mix of storage formats based on user demand.

  14. Acoustic Inversion in Optoacoustic Tomography: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Amir; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Optoacoustic tomography enables volumetric imaging with optical contrast in biological tissue at depths beyond the optical mean free path by the use of optical excitation and acoustic detection. The hybrid nature of optoacoustic tomography gives rise to two distinct inverse problems: The optical inverse problem, related to the propagation of the excitation light in tissue, and the acoustic inverse problem, which deals with the propagation and detection of the generated acoustic waves. Since the two inverse problems have different physical underpinnings and are governed by different types of equations, they are often treated independently as unrelated problems. From an imaging standpoint, the acoustic inverse problem relates to forming an image from the measured acoustic data, whereas the optical inverse problem relates to quantifying the formed image. This review focuses on the acoustic aspects of optoacoustic tomography, specifically acoustic reconstruction algorithms and imaging-system practicalities. As these two aspects are intimately linked, and no silver bullet exists in the path towards high-performance imaging, we adopt a holistic approach in our review and discuss the many links between the two aspects. Four classes of reconstruction algorithms are reviewed: time-domain (so called back-projection) formulae, frequency-domain formulae, time-reversal algorithms, and model-based algorithms. These algorithms are discussed in the context of the various acoustic detectors and detection surfaces which are commonly used in experimental studies. We further discuss the effects of non-ideal imaging scenarios on the quality of reconstruction and review methods that can mitigate these effects. Namely, we consider the cases of finite detector aperture, limited-view tomography, spatial under-sampling of the acoustic signals, and acoustic heterogeneities and losses. PMID:24772060

  15. Geometry and kinematic evolution of inversion structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S. )

    1993-07-01

    Positive inversion structures form by the compressional reactivation of preexisting extensional structures. Experimental models and observations of natural structures are used to develop quantitative models for the geometry and kinematic evolution of inversion structures. In this paper, I analyze two main formation mechanisms of inversion structures: (1) fault-propagation folding on planar faults, and (2) fault-bend folding on listric faults. Inversion structures formed by fault-propagation folding occur in the southern North Sea, the Central Montana platform, and the Kangean Basin. During extension, a broad fault-propagation (or drape) fold develops above the master fault, with the fault subsequently breaking through the fold. Synextensional growth units deposited in the hanging wall typically thicken into the basin. Compressional reactivation results in slip reversal on the master and secondary faults, their rotation to shallower dips, and the development of a compressional fault-propagation fold. Inversion structures formed by fault-bend folding on listric faults occur in the Taranaki Basin, and possibly in the southern North Sea. Rollover folding in the hanging wall occurs during extension, possibly accompanied by a small component of fault-propagation folding in the vicinity of the fault tip. Deformation is primarily along a system of antithetic faults. Synextensional growth sediments typically thicken into the fault, but also show thinning in the immediate vicinity of the fault. During compression, the extensional fold is first unfolded and then folded into a compressional fault-bend fold. The characteristic variations in bed geometry and thickness provide predictive models for interpreting the subsurface geometries of these two classes of inversion structures in areas with poor seismic data. These models are particularly useful in exploring for structural traps in the complex and relatively unexplored synextensional growth units. 31 refs., 29 figs.

  16. Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, George E.

    1996-12-01

    By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error δz = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error δz is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.

  17. Improved Abel transform inversion: First application to COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon-Angel, A.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.; Sanz, J.

    2007-05-01

    In this paper the first results of Ionospheric Tomographic inversion are presented, using the Improved Abel Transform on the COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 constellation of 6 LEO satellites, carrying on-board GPS receivers.[- 4mm] The Abel transform inversion is a wide used technique which in the ionospheric context makes it possible to retrieve electron densities as a function of height based of STEC (Slant Total Electron Content) data gathered from GPS receivers on board of LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellites. Within this precise use, the classical approach of the Abel inversion is based on the assumption of spherical symmetry of the electron density in the vicinity of an occultation, meaning that the electron content varies in height but not horizontally. In particular, one implication of this assumption is that the VTEC (Vertical Total Electron Content) is a constant value for the occultation region. This assumption may not always be valid since horizontal ionospheric gradients (a very frequent feature in some ionosphere problematic areas such as the Equatorial region) could significantly affect the electron profiles. [- 4mm] In order to overcome this limitation/problem of the classical Abel inversion, a studied improvement of this technique can be obtained by assuming separability in the electron density (see Hernández-Pajares et al. 2000). This means that the electron density can be expressed by the multiplication of VTEC data and a shape function which assumes all the height dependency in it while the VTEC data keeps the horizontal dependency. Actually, it is more realistic to assume that this shape fuction depends only on the height and to use VTEC information to take into account the horizontal variation rather than considering spherical symmetry in the electron density function as it has been carried out in the classical approach of the Abel inversion.[-4mm] Since the above mentioned improved Abel inversion technique has already been tested and proven to be a useful

  18. Spectral properties of Compton inverse radiation: Application of Compton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyak, Eugene; Urakawa, Junji

    2014-05-01

    Compton inverse radiation emitted due to backscattering of laser pulses off the relativistic electrons possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons - in hard x-ray up to gamma-ray energies - because of short wavelength of laser radiation as compared with the classical electromagnetic devices such as undulators. In this report, the possibility of such radiation to monochromatization by means of collimation is studied. Two approaches have been considered for the description of the spectral-angular density of Compton radiation based on the classical field theory and on the quantum electrodynamics. As is shown, both descriptions produce similar total spectra. On the contrary, angular distribution of the radiation is different: the classical approach predicted a more narrow radiation cone. Also proposed and estimated is a method of the 'electronic' monochromatization based on the electronic subtraction of the two images produced by the electron beams with slightly different energies. A 'proof-of-principle' experiment of this method is proposed for the LUXC facility of KEK (Japan).

  19. Computational 3-D inversion for seismic exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilov, E.M.; Forslund, D.W.; Fehler, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a four-month, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There is a great need for a new and effective technology with a wide scope of industrial applications to investigate media internal properties of which can be explored only from the backscattered data. The project was dedicated to the development of a three-dimensional computational inversion tool for seismic exploration. The new computational concept of the inversion algorithm was suggested. The goal of the project was to prove the concept and the practical validity of the algorithm for petroleum exploration.

  20. Direct and Inverse problems in Electrocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulakia, M.; Fernández, M. A.; Gerbeau, J. F.; Zemzemi, N.

    2008-09-01

    We present numerical results related to the direct and the inverse problems in electrocardiography. The electrical activity of the heart is described by the bidomain equations. The electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded in different points on the body surface are obtained by coupling the bidomain equation to a Laplace equation in the torso. The simulated ECGs are quite satisfactory. As regards the inverse problem, our goal is to estimate the parameters of the bidomain-torso model. Here we present some preliminary results of a parameter estimation for the torso model.

  1. Bayesian Inference in Satellite Gravity Inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, K. I.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Wittmann, G.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Torony, B.; Mayer-Guerr, T.

    2005-01-01

    To solve a geophysical inverse problem means applying measurements to determine the parameters of the selected model. The inverse problem is formulated as the Bayesian inference. The Gaussian probability density functions are applied in the Bayes's equation. The CHAMP satellite gravity data are determined at the altitude of 400 kilometer altitude over the South part of the Pannonian basin. The model of interpretation is the right vertical cylinder. The parameters of the model are obtained from the minimum problem solved by the Simplex method.

  2. Dispersion analysis with inverse dielectric function modelling.

    PubMed

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G; Ivanovski, Vladimir; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    We investigate how dispersion analysis can profit from the use of a Lorentz-type description of the inverse dielectric function. In particular at higher angles of incidence, reflectance spectra using p-polarized light are dominated by bands from modes that have their transition moments perpendicular to the surface. Accordingly, the spectra increasingly resemble inverse dielectric functions. A corresponding description can therefore eliminate the complex dependencies of the dispersion parameters, allow their determination and facilitate a more accurate description of the optical properties of single crystals. PMID:27294550

  3. Directional wetting in anisotropic inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine R; Vogel, Nicolas; Burgess, Ian B; Perry, Carole C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    Porous materials display interesting transport phenomena due to restricted motion of fluids within the nano- to microscale voids. Here, we investigate how liquid wetting in highly ordered inverse opals is affected by anisotropy in pore geometry. We compare samples with different degrees of pore asphericity and find different wetting patterns depending on the pore shape. Highly anisotropic structures are infiltrated more easily than their isotropic counterparts. Further, the wetting of anisotropic inverse opals is directional, with liquids filling from the side more easily. This effect is supported by percolation simulations as well as direct observations of wetting using time-resolved optical microscopy. PMID:24941308

  4. Inverse melting in stressed fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchut, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    The emissive properties of proton implanted fused silica surfaces have been studied by laser beam annealing. When submitted to a high thermal step from a focused CO2 laser, an intense near infra-red thermoluminescence peak rises at a heating rate threshold. The in plane tensile stress relaxes and silica melts. We show that in the irreversible inverse melting of stressed fused silica, the protons exo-diffuse through internal modes coupling. The heat and mass transfer is one entropy flux whose dynamics are regulated by the mass transport. Inverse melting is the thermodynamic process that initiates the glass transition when heating.

  5. 3D Electromagnetic inversion using conjugate gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, G.A.; Alumbaugh, D.L.

    1997-06-01

    In large scale 3D EM inverse problems it may not be possible to directly invert a full least-squares system matrix involving model sensitivity elements. Thus iterative methods must be employed. For the inverse problem, we favor either a linear or non-linear (NL) CG scheme, depending on the application. In a NL CG scheme, the gradient of the objective function is required at each relaxation step along with a univariate line search needed to determine the optimum model update. Solution examples based on both approaches will be presented.

  6. Aerosol physical properties from satellite horizon inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, C. R.; Malchow, H. L.; Merritt, D. C.; Var, R. E.; Whitney, C. K.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of determining the physical properties of aerosols globally in the altitude region of 10 to 100 km from a satellite horizon scanning experiment. The investigation utilizes a horizon inversion technique previously developed and extended. Aerosol physical properties such as number density, size distribution, and the real and imaginary components of the index of refraction are demonstrated to be invertible in the aerosol size ranges (0.01-0.1 microns), (0.1-1.0 microns), (1.0-10 microns). Extensions of previously developed radiative transfer models and recursive inversion algorithms are displayed.

  7. NASA STI Program Seminar: Electronic documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The theme of this NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program Seminar was electronic documents. Topics covered included Electronic Documents Management at the CASI, the Impact of Electronic Publishing on User Expectations and Searching Image Record Management, Secondary Publisher Considerations for Electronic Journal Literature, and the Technical Manual Publishing On Demand System (TMPODS).

  8. Modelling of thermal conductance during microthermal machining with scanning thermal microscope using an inverse methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Ching; Chang, Win-Jin; Fang, Te-Hua; Fang, Shih-Chung

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a general methodology for determining the thermal conductance between the probe tip and the workpiece during microthermal machining using Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM) has been proposed. The processing system was considered as an inverse heat conduction problem with an unknown thermal conductance. Temperature dependence for the material properties and thermal conductance in the analysis of heat conduction is taken into account. The conjugate gradient method is used to solve the inverse problem. Furthermore, this methodology can also be applied to estimate the thermal contact conductance in other transient heat conduction problems, like metal casting process, injection molding process, and electronic circuit systems.

  9. 'Wrong' bond interactions at inversion domain boundaries in GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrecht, W. R. L.; Amador, C.; Segall, B.

    1992-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations of GaAs inversion-domain boundaries (IDBs) on different planes are reported. The resulting interface energies are analyzed in terms of the number of 'wrong' bonds (Ga-Ga and As-As) and their mutual compensation. The compensation energy varies roughly inversely proportionally to the distance between the wrong bonds. This favors local compensation in stoichiometric material. This automatically occurs for 110-plane planes or by chemical reconstruction for other planes. Ga-rich IDBs are predicted to have low energy in either Ga-rich or n-type material.

  10. Spin Polarization Inversion at Benzene-Absorbed Fe4N Surface

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha; Wang, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    We report a first-principle study on electronic structure and simulation of the spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy graphic of a benzene/Fe4N interface. Fe4N is a compound ferromagnet suitable for many spintronic applications. We found that, depending on the particular termination schemes and interface configurations, the spin polarization on the benzene surface shows a rich variety of properties ranging from cosine-type oscillation to polarization inversion. Spin-polarization inversion above benzene is resulting from the hybridizations between C pz and the out-of-plane d orbitals of Fe atom. PMID:26012892

  11. Antarctic Crustal Thickness from Gravity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, A. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Using gravity anomaly inversion, we have produced the first comprehensive regional maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning (1-1/β) and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. The continental lithosphere thinning distribution, used to define the initial thermal model temperature perturbation is derived from the gravity inversion and uses no a priori isochron information; as a consequence the gravity inversion method provides a prediction of ocean-continent transition location, which is independent of ocean isochron information. The gravity anomaly contribution from ice thickness is included in the gravity inversion, as is the contribution from sediments which assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. Data used in the gravity inversion are elevation and bathymetry, free-air gravity anomaly, the most recent Bedmap2 ice thickness and bedrock topography compilation south of 60 degrees south (Fretwell et al., 2013) and relatively sparse constraints on sediment thickness. Our gravity inversion study predicts thick crust (> 45 km) under interior East Antarctica penetrated by narrow continental rifts that feature relatively thinner crust. The East Antarctic Rift System (EARS) is a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system that appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. Intermediate crustal thickness with an inferred linear rift fabric is predicted under Coates Land. An extensive region of either thick oceanic crust or highly thinned continental crust is predicted offshore Oates Land and north Victoria Land, and also off West Antarctica

  12. Uncertainty estimations for seismic source inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duputel, Z.; Rivera, L. A.; Fukahata, Y.; Kanamori, H.

    2011-12-01

    Source inversion is a very widely used practice in seismology. Magnitudes, moment tensors, slip distributions are now routinely calculated and disseminated by several agencies and research groups whenever an earthquake occurs. The estimated source models can be used as inputs for various algorithms such as ShakeMap computation, tsunami modeling, stress transfer calculation or waveform modeling for tomography studies. Despite the importance of these applications, the source inversion algorithms often do not include proper error analyses, and the results are often given without any estimates of uncertainties. In centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion studies, we often estimate the uncertainty on the model parameters by using various resampling techniques such as bootstrap or jacknife. The strength of these computer-based methods lies in their simplicity. We can implement them considering the inversion procedure as a "black-box" without any knowledge about the model and data statistical properties. However, these methods can suffer from too simplistic assumptions (such as the independence of data samples) and provide the first order error estimates only without the possibility of improving the source model itself. We explore here an alternative approach by taking errors explicitly into account in source inversion problems. In this perspective we use the W-phase source inversion algorithm recently developed to provide fast and robust CMT estimations for moderate to large earthquakes. We assume that the initial probability densities can be modeled by Gaussian distributions. Formally, we can separate two sources of error which generally contribute to the model parameter uncertainties. On one side we consider the error induced by the more or less imperfect data. This information is carried by the covariance matrix for the data Cd. A key point which is practically always ignored is the possibility of having non-diagonal elements in Cd; such non-diagonal elements are due to

  13. Anharmonic contributions to the inversion vibration in 2-aminopyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, W. J.; Lapinski, L.; Nowak, M. J.; Adamowicz, L.

    1995-07-01

    The out-of-plane vibrations of the amino group in 2-aminopyrimidine have large amplitudes, and cannot be properly described within the harmonic approximation. The normal mode analysis carried out at this level of approximation at the restricted Hartree-Fock level and at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory level failed to match the experimental transition frequency of ν≊200 cm-1 of the inversion vibration in this compound. In an effort to better understand this vibration motion, we went beyond the harmonic approximation. The inversion vibration was treated as being uncoupled from all other nuclear degrees of freedom. An internal coordinate (ω) was chosen whose displacement mimicked the out-of-plane distortion of the amino group during the inversion vibration. Electronic energy was calculated at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory level at selected values of ω to form a double-well curve describing a model potential within which the nuclei move during the vibration. This potential was incorporated into a one-dimensional Hamiltonian, and vibrational energy expectation values were variationally determined by utilizing the harmonic wavefunctions as the basis set. Two sets of calculations were performed: one in which the mirror plane of symmetry was preserved throughout the vibrational deformation limiting the internal coordinates to 17, and another in which the symmetry was unconstrained permitting description by 3N-6=30 internal coordinates. These calculations resulted in prediction of the v=0→v=1 transition energy of ν=130.1 cm-1 and ν=206.7 cm-1, respectively, reasonably matching the experimental value of ≊200 cm-1.

  14. Vacancy-Induced Formation and Growth of Inversion Domains in Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Junhao; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Zhou, Wu

    2015-04-23

    Sixty degree grain boundaries in semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers have been shown to act as conductive channels that have profound influence on both the transport properties and exciton behavior of the monolayers. We show that annealing TMDC monolayers at high temperature induces the formation of large-scale inversion domains surrounded by such 60° grain boundaries. To study the formation mechanism of such inversion domains, we use the electron beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope to activate the dynamic process within pristine TMDC monolayers. Moreover, the electron beam acts to generate chalcogen vacancies in TMDC monolayers and provide energy for them to undergo structural evolution. We directly visualize the nucleation and growth of such inversion domains and their 60° grain boundaries atom-by-atom within a MoSe2 monolayer and explore their formation mechanism. Combined with density functional theory, we conclude that the nucleation of the inversion domains and migration of their 60° grain boundaries are driven by the collective evolution of Se vacancies and subsequent displacement of Mo atoms, where such a dynamical process reduces the vacancy-induced lattice shrinkage and stabilizes the system. Our results can help to understand the performance of such materials under severe conditions (e.g., high temperature).

  15. Vacancy-Induced Formation and Growth of Inversion Domains in Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lin, Junhao; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Zhou, Wu

    2015-04-23

    Sixty degree grain boundaries in semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers have been shown to act as conductive channels that have profound influence on both the transport properties and exciton behavior of the monolayers. We show that annealing TMDC monolayers at high temperature induces the formation of large-scale inversion domains surrounded by such 60° grain boundaries. To study the formation mechanism of such inversion domains, we use the electron beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope to activate the dynamic process within pristine TMDC monolayers. Moreover, the electron beam acts to generate chalcogen vacancies in TMDC monolayers and provide energy formore » them to undergo structural evolution. We directly visualize the nucleation and growth of such inversion domains and their 60° grain boundaries atom-by-atom within a MoSe2 monolayer and explore their formation mechanism. Combined with density functional theory, we conclude that the nucleation of the inversion domains and migration of their 60° grain boundaries are driven by the collective evolution of Se vacancies and subsequent displacement of Mo atoms, where such a dynamical process reduces the vacancy-induced lattice shrinkage and stabilizes the system. Our results can help to understand the performance of such materials under severe conditions (e.g., high temperature).« less

  16. FERC sees huge potential for demand response

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-15

    The FERC study concludes that U.S. peak demand can be reduced by as much as 188 GW -- roughly 20 percent -- under the most aggressive scenario. More moderate -- and realistic -- scenarios produce smaller but still significant reductions in peak demand. The FERC report is quick to point out that these are estimates of the potential, not projections of what could actually be achieved. The main varieties of demand response programs include interruptible tariffs, direct load control (DLC), and a number of pricing schemes.

  17. Trends of jet fuel demand and properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1984-01-01

    Petroleum industry forecasts predict an increasing demand for jet fuels, a decrease in the gasoline-to-distillate (heavier fuel) demand ratio, and a greater influx of poorer quality petroleum in the next two to three decades. These projections are important for refinery product analyses. The forecasts have not been accurate, however, in predicting the recent, short term fluctuations in jet fuel and competing product demand. Changes in petroleum quality can be assessed, in part, by a review of jet fuel property inspections. Surveys covering the last 10 years show that average jet fuel freezing points, aromatic contents, and smoke points have trends toward their specification limits.

  18. Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-02-28

    The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

  19. Intersubband Auger recombination and population inversion in quantum-well subbands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borenstain, S.; Katz, J.

    1989-01-01

    The intersubband-Auger-recombination time of electrons under population-inversion conditions in a single quantum well is calculated by taking into account momentum- and energy-conservation rules, and by employing Fermi-Dirac statistics. The screened matrix element of the electron-electron interaction and the overlap integral are calculated for an infinitely deep quantum well. The results are in a good agreement with published experimental data. As a major nonradiative process, the Auger recombination is related to threshold current of infrared lasers based on intersubband transitions in quantum-well structures. The realization of these devices and other limitations to achieving population inversion are discussed. In view of the results, development of these lasers for emission wavelengths corresponding to energies below the LO-phonon energy seems feasible.

  20. Ray-based geoacoustic inversion for high frequency broad band data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siderius, Martin; Hursky, Paul; Porter, Michael

    2003-04-01

    One of the difficulties in making reliable acoustic propagation predictions in shallow water is the lack of good information about the seabed type. In recent years, matched field processing- (MFP-) based geoacoustic inversion has been shown as a practical technique for estimating properties of the seabed. The MFP inversion method compares measured acoustic fields to those generated using an acoustic propagation model. Often, thousands of forward model calculations are required to find a set of seabed parameters that correlate well with the measured data. The large number of forward model calculations is computationally demanding and this is made worse when matching at higher frequencies or over broad band data. Ray-based propagation modeling relieves some of the computational burden since the calculation time is fairly insensitive to frequency and is inherently broad band. Further, the ray arrival amplitudes and delays are well suited for interpolation and this allows the seabed parameter search space to be explored using just a few ray trace calculations. The broad band nature of the modeled data provides flexibility in choosing correlation functions and this allows for more robust inversions. In this presentation, techniques using ray-based propagation modeling will be applied to the geoacoustic inversion problem.

  1. Inversion Symmetry Breaking in Endohedral C_60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clougherty, Dennis; Anderson, Frederick

    1998-03-01

    A pseudo--Jahn--Teller model describing central atom distortions is proposed for endohedral fullerenes of the form A@C_60 where A is either a rare gas or a metal atom. A critical (dimensionless) coupling gc is found, at or below which the symmetric configuration is stable and above which inversion symmetry is broken. Vibronic parameters are given for selected endohedral fullerenes.

  2. Inverse-Square Orbits: A Geometric Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainwater, James C.; Weinstock, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Presents a derivation of Kepler's first law of planetary motion from Newtonian principles. Analogus derivations of the hyperbolic and parabolic orbits of nonreturning comets and the hyperbolic orbit for a particle in a repulsive inverse-square field are also presented. (HM)

  3. Towards Lasing Without Inversion in Neutral Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, Benjamin; Sturm, Martin R.; Walser, Reinhold; Walther, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Currently, we are implementing a lasing without inversion (LWI) scheme in mercury based on calculations by Fry et al. [1]. A recent detailed analysis predicting exact experimental parameters shows the feasibility of our LWI scheme [2]. In this paper we report on the progress of our experiment and compare its parameters with the prior analysis.

  4. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe. PMID:27578317

  5. NASA Inverse Methods/Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Third International Summer School on Inverse Methods and Data Assimilation which was conducted at Oregon State University from July 22 to August 2, 2002, is presented. Items listed include: a roster of attendees, a description of course content and talks given.

  6. Inverse halftoning with context driven prediction.

    PubMed

    Jing-Ming Guo; Yun-Fu Liu; Jen-Ho Chen; Jiann-Der Lee

    2014-04-01

    A prior work proposed by Chung-Wu considered an edge-based lookup table to obtain good inversed image quality, yet it suffers from some drawbacks in terms of image quality, memory consumption, and complexity. In this correspondence, an improved scheme is proposed to deal with these issues. PMID:24808357

  7. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  8. Sparse matrix orderings for factorized inverse preconditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Benzi, M.; Tuama, M.

    1998-09-01

    The effect of reorderings on the performance of factorized sparse approximate inverse preconditioners is considered. It is shown that certain reorderings can be very beneficial both in the preconditioner construction phase and in terms of the rate of convergence of the preconditioned iteration.

  9. Adaptive regularization of earthquake slip distribution inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chisheng; Ding, Xiaoli; Li, Qingquan; Shan, Xinjian; Zhu, Jiasong; Guo, Bo; Liu, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Regularization is a routine approach used in earthquake slip distribution inversion to avoid numerically abnormal solutions. To date, most slip inversion studies have imposed uniform regularization on all the fault patches. However, adaptive regularization, where each retrieved parameter is regularized differently, has exhibited better performances in other research fields such as image restoration. In this paper, we implement an investigation into adaptive regularization for earthquake slip distribution inversion. It is found that adaptive regularization can achieve a significantly smaller mean square error (MSE) than uniform regularization, if it is set properly. We propose an adaptive regularization method based on weighted total least squares (WTLS). This approach assumes that errors exist in both the regularization matrix and observation, and an iterative algorithm is used to solve the solution. A weight coefficient is used to balance the regularization matrix residual and the observation residual. An experiment using four slip patterns was carried out to validate the proposed method. The results show that the proposed regularization method can derive a smaller MSE than uniform regularization and resolution-based adaptive regularization, and the improvement in MSE is more significant for slip patterns with low-resolution slip patches. In this paper, we apply the proposed regularization method to study the slip distribution of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The retrieved slip distribution is less smooth and more detailed than the one retrieved with the uniform regularization method, and is closer to the existing slip model from joint inversion of the geodetic and seismic data.

  10. An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping

    2011-01-01

    A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this…

  11. An Inverse Model for TETRAD: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, George Michael; Renner, Joel Lawrence

    2002-09-01

    A model-independent parameter estimation model known as PEST has been linked to the reservoir simulator TETRAD. The method of inverse modeling is briefly reviewed, and the link between PEST and TETRAD is discussed. A single example is presented that illustrates the power of parameter estimation from well observations.

  12. An approximation for inverse Laplace transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    Programmable calculator runs simple finite-series approximation for Laplace transform inversions. Utilizing family of orthonormal functions, approximation is used for wide range of transforms, including those encountered in feedback control problems. Method works well as long as F(t) decays to zero as it approaches infinity and so is appliable to most physical systems.

  13. Applications of high resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Owyoung, A.; Esherick, P.

    1980-01-01

    The use of high-power, narrow-band lasers has significantly improved the resolving power and sensitivity of inverse Raman spectroscopy of gases. In this paper we shall describe this technique, illustrate its capabilities by showing some Q-branch spectra of heavy spherical tops, and survey some possible future applications.

  14. Dynamics of the inverse MAPLE nanoparticle deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Matthew A.; Fitz-Gerald, James M.

    2015-05-01

    Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) is a processing technique by which laser-sensitive materials are dissolved or placed into colloidal solution with a strongly absorbing sacrificial solvent, which when frozen into a solid target and irradiated under vacuum disperses the undamaged solute material onto a desired substrate. We present an inversion of the original MAPLE process, where the irradiation of metal-based acetate precursors in solution with UV transparent water results in the deposition of inorganic nanoparticles. A theory is forwarded to explain the underlying multiscale sequence of events that control the inverse MAPLE process from acetate decomposition to nanoparticle formation and subsequent ejection. Support for this theory is provided through the analysis of deposited nanoparticles and by novel characterization of MAPLE targets post-irradiation via cryostage scanning electron microscopy. Ejection is shown to proceed through the same phase-explosion mechanism that drives conventional MAPLE, relating the two techniques and advancing the broader understanding of MAPLE deposition processes.

  15. The inverse problems of wing panel manufacture processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinikov, A. I.; Bormotin, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that inverse problems of steady-state creep bending of plates in both the geometrically linear and nonlinear formulations can be represented in a variational formulation. Steady-state values of the obtained functionals corresponding to the solutions of the problems of inelastic deformation and springback are determined by applying a finite element procedure to the functionals. Optimal laws of creep deformation are formulated using the criterion of minimizing damage in the functionals of the inverse problems. The formulated problems are reduced to the problems solved by the finite element method using MSC.Marc software. Currently, forming of light metals poses tremendous challenges due to their low ductility at room temperature and their unusual deformation characteristics at hot-cold work: strong asymmetry between tensile and compressive behavior, and a very pronounced anisotropy. We used the constitutive models of steady-state creep of initially transverse isotropy structural materials the kind of the stress state has influence. The paper gives basics of the developed computer-aided system of design, modeling, and electronic simulation targeting the processes of manufacture of wing integral panels. The modeling results can be used to calculate the die tooling, determine the panel processibility, and control panel rejection in the course of forming.

  16. Inverse Compton X-ray signature of AGN feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, Martin A.; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2013-12-01

    Bright AGN frequently show ultrafast outflows (UFOs) with outflow velocities vout ˜ 0.1c. These outflows may be the source of AGN feedback on their host galaxies sought by galaxy formation modellers. The exact effect of the outflows on the ambient galaxy gas strongly depends on whether the shocked UFOs cool rapidly or not. This in turn depends on whether the shocked electrons share the same temperature as ions (one-temperature regime, 1T) or decouple (2T), as has been recently suggested. Here we calculate the inverse Compton spectrum emitted by such shocks, finding a broad feature potentially detectable either in mid-to-high energy X-rays (1T case) or only in the soft X-rays (2T). We argue that current observations of AGN do not seem to show evidence for the 1T component. The limits on the 2T emission are far weaker, and in fact it is possible that the observed soft X-ray excess of AGN is partially or fully due to the 2T shock emission. This suggests that UFOs are in the energy-driven regime outside the central few pc, and must pump considerable amounts of not only momentum but also energy into the ambient gas. We encourage X-ray observers to look for the inverse Compton components calculated here in order to constrain AGN feedback models further.

  17. The inverse problems of wing panel manufacture processes

    SciTech Connect

    Oleinikov, A. I.; Bormotin, K. S.

    2013-12-16

    It is shown that inverse problems of steady-state creep bending of plates in both the geometrically linear and nonlinear formulations can be represented in a variational formulation. Steady-state values of the obtained functionals corresponding to the solutions of the problems of inelastic deformation and springback are determined by applying a finite element procedure to the functionals. Optimal laws of creep deformation are formulated using the criterion of minimizing damage in the functionals of the inverse problems. The formulated problems are reduced to the problems solved by the finite element method using MSC.Marc software. Currently, forming of light metals poses tremendous challenges due to their low ductility at room temperature and their unusual deformation characteristics at hot-cold work: strong asymmetry between tensile and compressive behavior, and a very pronounced anisotropy. We used the constitutive models of steady-state creep of initially transverse isotropy structural materials the kind of the stress state has influence. The paper gives basics of the developed computer-aided system of design, modeling, and electronic simulation targeting the processes of manufacture of wing integral panels. The modeling results can be used to calculate the die tooling, determine the panel processibility, and control panel rejection in the course of forming.

  18. Uncertainty estimations for seismic source inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duputel, Zacharie; Rivera, Luis; Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2012-08-01

    Source inversion is a widely used practice in seismology. Magnitudes, moment tensors, slip distributions are now routinely calculated and disseminated whenever an earthquake occurs. The accuracy of such models depends on many aspects like the event magnitude, the data coverage and the data quality (instrument response, isolation, timing, etc.). Here, like in any observational problem, the error estimation should be part of the solution. It is however very rare to find a source inversion algorithm which includes realistic error analyses, and the solutions are often given without any estimates of uncertainties. Our goal here is to stress the importance of such estimation and to explore different techniques aimed at achieving such analyses. In this perspective, we use the W phase source inversion algorithm recently developed to provide fast CMT estimations for large earthquakes. We focus in particular on the linear-inverse problem of estimating the moment tensor components at a given source location. We assume that the initial probability densities can be modelled by Gaussian distributions. Formally, we can separate two sources of error which generally contribute to the model parameter uncertainties. The first source of uncertainty is the error introduced by the more or less imperfect data. This is carried by the covariance matrix for the data (Cd). The second source of uncertainty, often overlooked, is associated with modelling error or mismodelling. This is represented by the covariance matrix on the theory, CT. Among the different sources of mismodelling, we focus here on the modelling error associated with the mislocation of the centroid position. Both Cd and CT describe probability densities in the data space and it is well known that it is in fact CD=Cd+CT that should be included into the error propagation process. In source inversion problems, like in many other fields of geophysics, the data covariance (CD) is often considered as diagonal or even proportional

  19. Optical properties of silicon inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hong

    Silicon inverse opals are artificial structures in which nearly monodisperse, close-packed air bubbles are embedded in a silicon matrix. If properly tailored, this structure can exhibit a photonic band gap (PBG) in the near infrared spectral region. The PBG can block light propagation in any direction, allowing the control of light flow in the material. Silicon inverse opals can be fabricated by infiltrating amorphous silicon into silica colloidal crystals and then etching away the silica. In this thesis, the structural defects of silica colloidal crystals and the optical properties of silicon inverse opals are studied. First, by using laser-scanning confocal microscopy, the concentration and distribution of stacking faults and vacancies were quantified in silica colloidal crystals. It's shown that silica colloidal crystals show strong tendency toward face-center-cubic structure with the vacancy density as small as 5 x 10-4. Second, by combining optical microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the transmission and reflection spectra of silicon inverse opals along the [111] direction were measured. Combined with the calculation of transmission and reflection spectra by Transfer Matrix Methods, it is concluded that the strong light attenuation in silicon inverse opals is due to the enhanced absorption (>600%) in silicon materials. Third, by using optical pump-probe techniques, the photo-induced ultra-fast reflection changes in silicon inverse opals were examined. The pump-generated free carriers cause the reflection in the band gap region to change after ˜0.5 ps. For the first few ps, the main effect is a decrease in reflectivity due to nonlinear absorption. After ˜5 ps, this effect disappears and an unexpected blue spectral shift is seen in the photonic band gap. The refractive index decreases due to optically-induced strain born the thermal expansion mismatch between silicon and its native oxide. Finally, by infiltrating silicon inverse

  20. Clinical knowledge-based inverse treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Xing, Lei

    2004-11-01

    Clinical IMRT treatment plans are currently made using dose-based optimization algorithms, which do not consider the nonlinear dose-volume effects for tumours and normal structures. The choice of structure specific importance factors represents an additional degree of freedom of the system and makes rigorous optimization intractable. The purpose of this work is to circumvent the two problems by developing a biologically more sensible yet clinically practical inverse planning framework. To implement this, the dose-volume status of a structure was characterized by using the effective volume in the voxel domain. A new objective function was constructed with the incorporation of the volumetric information of the system so that the figure of merit of a given IMRT plan depends not only on the dose deviation from the desired distribution but also the dose-volume status of the involved organs. The conventional importance factor of an organ was written into a product of two components: (i) a generic importance that parametrizes the relative importance of the organs in the ideal situation when the goals for all the organs are met; (ii) a dose-dependent factor that quantifies our level of clinical/dosimetric satisfaction for a given plan. The generic importance can be determined a priori, and in most circumstances, does not need adjustment, whereas the second one, which is responsible for the intractable behaviour of the trade-off seen in conventional inverse planning, was determined automatically. An inverse planning module based on the proposed formalism was implemented and applied to a prostate case and a head-neck case. A comparison with the conventional inverse planning technique indicated that, for the same target dose coverage, the critical structure sparing was substantially improved for both cases. The incorporation of clinical knowledge allows us to obtain better IMRT plans and makes it possible to auto-select the importance factors, greatly facilitating the inverse

  1. Electronic Delivery of Scientific Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Karen A.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes market pressures and applications of use of electronic communication technology in scientific information dissemination and presents publishers' short-term response (electronic manuscript standardization, database orientation, provision of journal articles on demand, improvement of online search software); publishers' long-term response…

  2. Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand & Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.

    2006-05-18

    Presentation given at the 2006 DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Merit Review in Washington, D.C., May 16-19, 2006, discusses potential future hydrogen demand and the infrastructure needed to support hydrogen vehicles.

  3. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    ScienceCinema

    Majumdar, Arun

    2010-01-08

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  4. A historical analysis of natural gas demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbec, Nathan Richard

    This thesis analyzes demand in the US energy market for natural gas, oil, and coal over the period of 1918-2013 and examines their price relationship over the period of 2007-2013. Diagnostic tests for time series were used; Augmented Dickey-Fuller, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin, Johansen cointegration, Granger Causality and weak exogeneity tests. Directed acyclic graphs were used as a complimentary test for endogeneity. Due to the varied results in determining endogeneity, a seemingly unrelated regression model was used which assumes all right hand side variables in the three demand equations were exogenous. A number of factors were significant in determining demand for natural gas including its own price, lagged demand, a number of structural break dummies, and trend, while oil indicate some substitutability with natural gas. An error correction model was used to examine the price relationships. Natural gas price was found not to have a significant cointegrating vector.

  5. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-08-14

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  6. Structural information in the inverse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoulis, M.; Larson, T. H.; Ahmed, I.; Revil, A.; Thomason, J.

    2013-12-01

    Data integration in geophysics provides additional information to elucidate subsurface structure and reduce non-uniqueness of inverted models. There are several strategies for incorporating data integration into numerical models. A traditional approach is to use this information as a-priori knowledge, as an initial model or layer boundary specified on the mesh before the inversion. Although in some cases this approach has proven effective, the information is not directly incorporated into the inverse problem and might be lost in the final model. Another strategy is through joint inversion, where data and models are inverted simultaneous. The data integration comes from the joint operator as structural similarity or petrophysical equations. There are some limitations with this approach. In particular, structural similarity doesn't take into account different sensitivity patterns which differ for different geophysical methods, e.g. in a crosswell configuration electrical resistivity tomography is sensitive close to the borehole region while seismic waves are sensitive towards the center part. Moreover different methods have differing resolution. Therefore, a single joint operator might not be effective in all cases. In this work we demonstrate the use of image-guided inversion, where structural information is taken directly from a high resolution geophysical image (e.g. ground penetrating radar or seismic reflection) or from a geological cross-section. This structural information is introduced into the inverse problem through a weighted smoothing matrix, where it correlates and favors formations related to a specific structural feature and not just uniformly across the entire model. Both sharp and smooth features can be imaged and the recovered models can have a more realistic distribution of values. As an example of the method we use migrated seismic reflection images to extract the structural information and resistivity imaging to recover the resistivity

  7. Estimating uncertainties in complex joint inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Sources of uncertainty affecting geophysical inversions can be classified either as reflective (i.e. the practitioner is aware of her/his ignorance) or non-reflective (i.e. the practitioner does not know that she/he does not know!). Although we should be always conscious of the latter, the former are the ones that, in principle, can be estimated either empirically (by making measurements or collecting data) or subjectively (based on the experience of the researchers). For complex parameter estimation problems in geophysics, subjective estimation of uncertainty is the most common type. In this context, probabilistic (aka Bayesian) methods are commonly claimed to offer a natural and realistic platform from which to estimate model uncertainties. This is because in the Bayesian approach, errors (whatever their nature) can be naturally included as part of the global statistical model, the solution of which represents the actual solution to the inverse problem. However, although we agree that probabilistic inversion methods are the most powerful tool for uncertainty estimation, the common claim that they produce "realistic" or "representative" uncertainties is not always justified. Typically, ALL UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATES ARE MODEL DEPENDENT, and therefore, besides a thorough characterization of experimental uncertainties, particular care must be paid to the uncertainty arising from model errors and input uncertainties. We recall here two quotes by G. Box and M. Gunzburger, respectively, of special significance for inversion practitioners and for this session: "…all models are wrong, but some are useful" and "computational results are believed by no one, except the person who wrote the code". In this presentation I will discuss and present examples of some problems associated with the estimation and quantification of uncertainties in complex multi-observable probabilistic inversions, and how to address them. Although the emphasis will be on sources of uncertainty related

  8. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: New developments for Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    2006 has proved to be a very successful year for Inverse Problems. After an increase for the fourth successive year, we achieved our highest impact factor to date, 1.541 (Source: 2005 ISI® Journal Citation Report), and the Editorial Board is keen to build on this success by continuing to improve the service we offer to our readers and authors. The Board has observed that Inverse Problems receives very few Letters to the Editor submissions, and that moreover those that we do receive rarely conform to the requirements for Letters to the Editor set out in the journal's editorial policy. The Board has therefore decided to merge the current Letters to the Editor section into our regular Papers section, which will now accommodate all research articles that meet the journal's high quality standards. Any submissions that would previously have been Letters to the Editor are still very welcome as Papers, and can be submitted by e-mail to ip@iop.org or online using our online submissions form at authors.iop.org/submit. Inverse Problems' processing times are already among the fastest in the field—on average, authors receive our decision on their paper in less than three months. Thanks to our easy-to-use online refereeing system, publishing a Paper is now just as fast as publishing a Letter to the Editor, and we are striving to ensure that the journal's high standards are applied consistently to all our Papers, maintaining Inverse Problems' position as the leading journal in the field. Our highly acclaimed Topical Review section will also continue and grow; providing timely insights into the development of all topical fields within Inverse Problems. We have many exciting Topical Reviews currently in preparation for 2007 and will continue to commission articles at the cutting edge of research. We look forward to receiving your contributions and to continuing to provide the best publication service available.

  9. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  10. Measuring the capacity impacts of demand response

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, Robert; Kahn, Edward P.; Macan, Edo

    2009-07-15

    Critical peak pricing and peak time rebate programs offer benefits by increasing system reliability, and therefore, reducing capacity needs of the electric power system. These benefits, however, decrease substantially as the size of the programs grows relative to the system size. More flexible schemes for deployment of demand response can help address the decreasing returns to scale in capacity value, but more flexible demand response has decreasing returns to scale as well. (author)

  11. Estimating Maintenance Demands Of A Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bream, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    RENEW computer program simulates maintenance events and estimates data pertinent to maintenance demands. Developed in support of Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Work Package 4. Uses data on reliability and maintainability (R&M) as well as logistical data to estimate both average and time-dependent maintenance demands. Estimates failure and repair times by use of Monte Carlo simulations. Written in BASIC and Assembly language.

  12. Measurement of an inverse Compton scattering source local spectrum using k-edge filters

    SciTech Connect

    Golosio, Bruno; Oliva, Piernicola; Carpinelli, Massimo; Endrizzi, Marco; Delogu, Pasquale; Pogorelsky, Igor; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2012-04-16

    X-ray sources based on the inverse Compton scattering process are attracting a growing interest among scientists, due to their extremely fast pulse, quasi-monochromatic spectrum, and relatively high intensity. The energy spectrum of the x-ray beam produced by inverse Compton scattering sources in a fixed observation direction is a quasi-monochromatic approximately Gaussian distribution. The mean value of this distribution varies with the scattering polar angle between the electron beam direction and the x-ray beam observation direction. Previous works reported experimental measurements of the mean energy as a function of the polar angle. This work introduces a method for the measurement of the whole local energy spectrum (i.e., the spectrum in a fixed observation direction) of the x-ray beam yielded by inverse Compton scattering sources, based on a k-edge filtering technique.

  13. A new asymmetric Abel-inversion method for plasma interferometry in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.K.

    1989-02-01

    In order to get precise local electron density information from chordal interferometric measurement of a tokamak plasma, a self- consistent and reliable inversion method is necessary. In this paper, a new asymmetric Abel-inversion method is introduced. This method includes flexible boundary conditions, application to a non-circular geometry, and estimation of the plasma in the scrape-off layer. The advantages of this method are demonstrated by comparison with other methods. This new inversion method is applied to a parametric study which includes dependence on the Shafranov shift and elongation of the profile. The inverted results are integrated along different views and compared with other density measurements. This new method can also be applied to plasma spectroscopy. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  15. An empirical analysis of the demand for sleep: Evidence from the American Time Use Survey.

    PubMed

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Ólafsson, Sigurður Páll

    2015-12-01

    Using data from the American Time Use Survey, this paper empirically examined the demand for sleep, with special attention to its opportunity cost represented by wages. Variation in the unemployment rate by state was also used to investigate the cyclical nature of sleep duration. We conducted separate estimations for males and females, as well as for those who received a fixed salary and hourly wages. The findings predominantly revealed no relationship between sleep duration and the business cycle. However, an inverse relationship between sleep duration and wages was detected. This is in accordance with sleep duration being an economic choice variable, rather than a predetermined subtraction of the 24-h day. Although the inverse relationship was not significant in all the estimations for salaried subjects, it was consistent and strong for subjects who received hourly wages. For instance, elasticity measures were −.03 for those who received hourly wages and −.003 for those who received a fixed salary. PMID:26603429

  16. Rapid Evaluation of Particle Properties using Inverse SEM Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bekar, Kursat B.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.; Weber, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    This report is the final deliverable of a 3 year project whose purpose was to investigate the possibility of using simulations of X-ray spectra generated inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a means to perform quantitative analysis of the sample imaged in the SEM via an inverse analysis methodology. Using the nine point Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) typically used by the US Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this concept is now at a TRL of 3. In other words, this work has proven the feasibility of this concept and is ready to be further investigated to address some of the issues highlighted by this initial proof of concept.

  17. Strain-driven band inversion and topological aspects in Antimonene

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingwen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Linyang

    2015-01-01

    Searching for the two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) with large bulk band gaps is the key to achieve room-temperature quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE). Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrated that the recently-proposed antimonene [Zhang et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 54, 3112–3115 (2015)] can be tuned to a 2D TI by reducing the buckling height of the lattice which can be realized under tensile strain. The strain-driven band inversion in the vicinity of the Fermi level is responsible for the quantum phase transition. The buckled configuration of antimonene enables it to endure large tensile strain up to 18% and the resulted bulk band gap can be as large as 270 meV. The tunable bulk band gap makes antimonene a promising candidate material for achieving quantum spin Hall effect (QSH) at high temperatures which meets the requirement of future electronic devices with low power consumption. PMID:26537994

  18. Laser-induced topological transitions in phosphorene with inversion symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutreix, C.; Stepanov, E. A.; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2016-06-01

    Recent ab initio calculations and experiments reported insulating-semimetallic phase transitions in multilayer phosphorene under a perpendicular dc field, pressure, or doping, as a possible route to realize topological phases. In this work, we show that even a monolayer phosphorene may undergo Lifshitz transitions toward semimetallic and topological insulating phases, provided it is rapidly driven by in-plane time-periodic laser fields. Based on a four-orbital tight-binding description, we give an inversion-symmetry-based prescription in order to apprehend the topology of the photon-renormalized band structure, up to the second order in the high-frequency limit. Apart from the initial band insulating behavior, two additional phases are thus identified. A semimetallic phase with massless Dirac electrons may be induced by linear polarized fields, whereas elliptic polarized fields are likely to drive the material into an anomalous quantum Hall phase.

  19. Synthesis of core-shell composites using an inverse surfmer.

    PubMed

    Armando Zaragoza-Contreras, E; Stockton-Leal, Margarita; Hernández-Escobar, Claudia A; Hoshina, Yusuke; Guzmán-Lozano, Josué F; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2012-07-01

    Anilinium dodecylsulfate was prepared from aniline and sodium dodecylsulfate. The critical micellar concentration of the salt was determined using electrical conductimetry, which revealed that the change of countercation, sodium by anilinium, reduced the critical micellar concentration with respect to the conventional counterpart, sodium dodecylsulfate. The anilinium dodecylsulfate was used as the surfmer in the synthesis of polystyrene/polyaniline core-shell composites, first performing as the surfactant to stabilize the emulsion polymerization of styrene, and later as the monomer to synthesize polyaniline via oxidative polymerization. Here, the surfmer function was directed toward the external phase instead of to the internal phase, as with conventional surfmers with carbon-carbon double bonds. Consequently, the term inverse surfmer is proposed. Analyses of its composite microstructure using electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the core-shell arrangement. PMID:22520709

  20. Giant radio galaxies via inverse Compton weakened jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiita, Paul J.; Rosen, Alexander; Gopal-Krishna; Saripalli, L.

    Both analytical and numerical models for the propagation of relativistic jets through a hot interstellar medium (ISM) and into an even hotter intergalactic medium (IGM) have been considered. The models by Gopal-Krishna and Wiita (1987), and Wiita and Gopal-Krishna (1987, 1988) were extended to allow for intrinsically extremely powerful jets, which may start off advancing relativistically through the interstellar medium. Eventually the energy density in the lobes becomes comparable to that of the microwave background, and inverse Compton losses of the synchrotron emitting electrons against the background photons become important. It is argued that only powerful radio engines are responsible for giant radio galaxies (GRGs, those whose linear size exceeds 1.5 Mpc), most of the observed peculiarities of the GRGs, such as their rarity, moderate radio flux and relatively strong radio cores can be explained.