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Sample records for invertebrate neuropeptide conference

  1. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  2. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides IX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract This publication represents an introduction to the fifth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide ...

  3. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the fifteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  4. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the eleventh in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel characterization of new biologic...

  5. The Evolution and Variety of RFamide-Type Neuropeptides: Insights from Deuterostomian Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Elphick, Maurice R.; Mirabeau, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Five families of neuropeptides that have a C-terminal RFamide motif have been identified in vertebrates: (1) gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), (2) neuropeptide FF (NPFF), (3) pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide (QRFP), (4) prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), and (5) Kisspeptin. Experimental demonstration of neuropeptide–receptor pairings combined with comprehensive analysis of genomic and/or transcriptomic sequence data indicate that, with the exception of the deuterostomian PrRP system, the evolutionary origins of these neuropeptides can be traced back to the common ancestor of bilaterians. Here, we review the occurrence of homologs of vertebrate RFamide-type neuropeptides and their receptors in deuterostomian invertebrates – urochordates, cephalochordates, hemichordates, and echinoderms. Extending analysis of the occurrence of the RFamide motif in other bilaterian neuropeptide families reveals RFamide-type peptides that have acquired modified C-terminal characteristics in the vertebrate lineage (e.g., NPY/NPF), neuropeptide families where the RFamide motif is unique to protostomian members (e.g., CCK/sulfakinins), and RFamide-type peptides that have been lost in the vertebrate lineage (e.g., luqins). Furthermore, the RFamide motif is also a feature of neuropeptide families with a more restricted phylogenetic distribution (e.g., the prototypical FMRFamide-related neuropeptides in protostomes). Thus, the RFamide motif is both an ancient and a convergent feature of neuropeptides, with conservation, acquisition, or loss of this motif occurring in different branches of the animal kingdom. PMID:24994999

  6. Evidence for the involvement of opioid neuropeptides in the adherence and migration of immunocompetent invertebrate hemocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, G B; Leung, M K; Zhao, X H; Scharrer, B

    1989-01-01

    Evidence for the participation of opioid neuropeptides in immunoregulatory activities, especially cellular adherence and migration, has been obtained in representatives of two phyla of invertebrates, the mollusc Mytilus edulis and the insect Leucophaea maderae. The injection of a synthetic analog of [Met]enkephalin [( D-Ala2,Met5]enkephalinamide, DAMA; 10(-6) M) had a stimulatory, naloxone-reversible effect on the directed migration of immunocompetent hemocytes. Incubation of hemolymph in the presence of exogenous or endogenous opioid material significantly enhanced the adherence of hemocytes on albumin-coated slides as demonstrated by use of indirect Zeiss-Zonax reflectance computer analysis. Conversely, hemocyte adherence was markedly reduced by the addition of naloxone (10(-8) M) to the incubation medium, either alone or in combination with DAMA. The antagonistic effects of naloxone on the stimulatory activities of opioids indicate that, like those previously reported in mammals, they are receptor-mediated. The presence of an endogenous [Met]enkephalin-like material was demonstrated in cell-free hemolymph as well as sequestered hemocytes by use of high-pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay. These results demonstrate that the capacity of immunocytes to release and respond to opioid neuropeptide messengers is not restricted to mammalian organisms but was developed early in the course of evolution. Images PMID:2536172

  7. Unique translational modification of an invertebrate neuropeptide: a phosphorylated member of the adipokinetic hormone peptide family

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Separation of an extract of corpora cardiaca from the protea beetle, Trichostetha fascicularis, by single-step RP (reverse-phase)-HPLC and monitoring of tryptophan fluorescence resulted in two distinctive peaks, the material of which mobilized proline and carbohydrates in a bioassay performed using the beetle. Material from one of these peaks was; however, inactive in the classical bioassays of locusts and cockroaches that are used for detecting peptides belonging to the AKH (adipokinetic hormone) family. After enzymatically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) residue in the peptide material and sequencing by Edman degradation, a partial sequence was obtained: (pGlu)-Ile-Asn-Met-Thr-Xaa-Gly-Trp. The complete sequence was deduced from ESI-MSn (electrospray ionization multi-stage-MS); position six was identified as a phosphothreonine residue and the C-terminus is amidated. The peptide, code-named Trifa-CC, was chemically synthesized and used in confirmatory experiments to show that the primary structure had been correctly assigned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a phosphorylated invertebrate neuropeptide. Synthetic Trifa-CC co-elutes with the natural peptide, found in the gland of the protea beetle, after RP-HPLC. Moreover, the natural peptide can be dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase and the product of that reaction has the same retention time as a synthetic nonphosphorylated octapeptide which has the same sequence as Trifa-CC. Finally, synthetic Trifa-CC has hypertrehalosaemic and hyperprolinaemic biological activity in the protea beetle, but even high concentrations of synthetic Trifa-CC are inactive in locusts and cockroaches. Hence, the correct peptide structure has been assigned. Trifa-CC of the protea beetle is an unusual member of the AKH family that is unique in its post-translational modification. Since it increases the concentration of carbohydrates and proline in the haemolymph when injected into the protea beetle, and

  8. Demonstration of substances immunologically related to the identified arthropod neuropeptides AKH/RPCH in the CNS of several invertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Schooneveld, H; van Herp, F; van Minnen, J

    1987-03-17

    The occurrence of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH)-like neuropeptides in the central nervous system of different invertebrate species other than insects was investigated immunocytochemically with polyclonal antisera to N- and C-terminal regions of the AKH molecule. Substances reacting with the C-terminal specific antiserum code 241 were present in neurons of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, the sowbug Porcellio scaber, the centiped Lithobius forficatus and the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus. Substances revealed by the N-terminal specific antiserum code 433 were demonstrated in the latter two species. The distribution of immunoreactive substances in neuropile areas of several ganglia suggests that these substances act as neurotransmitter/neuromodulator. Their presence in neurohemal organs such as the periphery of the pedal and visceral nerves in the pond snail and in the sinus gland of the crayfish suggests a neurohormonal role in these species. PMID:3567623

  9. Stimulatory effects of opioid neuropeptides on locomotory activity and conformational changes in invertebrate and human immunocytes: evidence for a subtype of delta receptor.

    PubMed

    Stefano, G B; Cadet, P; Scharrer, B

    1989-08-01

    The presence of opioid neuropeptides was shown to stimulate conformational changes and locomotory activity in immunocytes of two representatives of invertebrates as well as in human leukocytes. Cells were examined by use of phase-contrast and Nomarski optics coupled with a Zeiss Axiophot microscope, and of the Zeiss Videoplan/Vidas Image Analysis system. Immunocompetent blood cells, activated by exogenous opioids or stressful stimuli presumed to engage endogenous opioids, showed flattening, elongation, and formation of pseudopodia. In the mollusc Mytilus edulis, ameboid movements resulted in the formation of cell clusters, an activity not observed in untreated controls, or in immunocytes simultaneously exposed to opioid and naloxone. Tests with nine immunoreactive substances revealed immunocyte stimulation by delta, mu-, kappa-, and epsilon(?)-selective ligands. One of these, [D-Ala2,D-Met5]enkephalinamide (DAMA), active at a concentration of 10 pM, proved to be considerably more effective than the rest. The high pharmacological potency of DAMA, observed in both human and invertebrate immunocytes, sets this opioid apart from the closely related [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]enkephalin, a discrepancy not occurring in the mammalian nervous system. This suggests a specific function for [Met]enkephalin in immunoregulation, mediated perhaps by a special subtype of delta receptor. PMID:2548205

  10. Invertebrate Paleontology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldmann, Rodney M.

    1983-01-01

    Indicating that, although no broad conceptual notions in invertebrate paleontology were proposed during 1982, a large number of excellent papers focusing on testing, modifying, and documenting earlier speculations were published or presented at professional meetings. Highlights of papers, conferences, and research studies are provided (including…

  11. Mini-review: the evolution of neuropeptide signaling.

    PubMed

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hauser, Frank

    2012-08-10

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in basal animals with primitive nervous systems such as cnidarians (Hydra, jellyfishes, corals, and sea anemones). Most animals emerging after the Cnidaria belong to two evolutionary lineages, the Protostomia (to which the majority of invertebrates belong) and Deuterostomia (to which some minor groups of invertebrates, and all vertebrates belong). These two lineages split about 700 million years (Myr) ago. Many mammalian neuropeptide GPCRs have orthologues in the Protostomia and this is also true for some of the mammalian neuropeptides. Examples are oxytocin/vasopressin, GnRH, gastrin/CCK, and neuropeptide Y and their GPCRs. These results implicate that protostomes (for example insects and nematodes) can be used as models to study the biology of neuropeptide signaling. PMID:22726357

  12. Neuropeptide W

    PubMed Central

    Takenoya, Fumiko; Kageyama, Haruaki; Hirako, Satoshi; Ota, Eiji; Wada, Nobuhiro; Ryushi, Tomoo; Shioda, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    Neuropeptide W (NPW), which was first isolated from the porcine hypothalamus, exists in two forms, consisting of 23 (NPW23) or 30 (NPW30) amino acids. These neuropeptides bind to one of two NPW receptors, either NPBWR1 (otherwise known as GPR7) or NPBWR2 (GPR8), which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor family. GPR7 is expressed in the brain and peripheral organs of both humans and rodents, whereas GPR8 is not found in rodents. GPR7 mRNA in rodents is widely expressed in several hypothalamic regions, including the paraventricular, supraoptic, ventromedial, dorsomedial, suprachiasmatic, and arcuate nuclei. These observations suggest that GPR7 plays a crucial role in the modulation of neuroendocrine function. The intracerebroventricular infusion of NPW has been shown to suppress food intake and body weight and to increase both heat production and body temperature, suggesting that NPW functions as an endogenous catabolic signaling molecule. Here we summarize our current understanding of the distribution and function of NPW in the brain. PMID:23267349

  13. Transcriptomic identification of starfish neuropeptide precursors yields new insights into neuropeptide evolution.

    PubMed

    Semmens, Dean C; Mirabeau, Olivier; Moghul, Ismail; Pancholi, Mahesh R; Wurm, Yannick; Elphick, Maurice R

    2016-02-01

    Neuropeptides are evolutionarily ancient mediators of neuronal signalling in nervous systems. With recent advances in genomics/transcriptomics, an increasingly wide range of species has become accessible for molecular analysis. The deuterostomian invertebrates are of particular interest in this regard because they occupy an 'intermediate' position in animal phylogeny, bridging the gap between the well-studied model protostomian invertebrates (e.g. Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans) and the vertebrates. Here we have identified 40 neuropeptide precursors in the starfish Asterias rubens, a deuterostomian invertebrate from the phylum Echinodermata. Importantly, these include kisspeptin-type and melanin-concentrating hormone-type precursors, which are the first to be discovered in a non-chordate species. Starfish tachykinin-type, somatostatin-type, pigment-dispersing factor-type and corticotropin-releasing hormone-type precursors are the first to be discovered in the echinoderm/ambulacrarian clade of the animal kingdom. Other precursors identified include vasopressin/oxytocin-type, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-type, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-type, calcitonin-type, cholecystokinin/gastrin-type, orexin-type, luqin-type, pedal peptide/orcokinin-type, glycoprotein hormone-type, bursicon-type, relaxin-type and insulin-like growth factor-type precursors. This is the most comprehensive identification of neuropeptide precursor proteins in an echinoderm to date, yielding new insights into the evolution of neuropeptide signalling systems. Furthermore, these data provide a basis for experimental analysis of neuropeptide function in the unique context of the decentralized, pentaradial echinoderm bauplan. PMID:26865025

  14. Transcriptomic identification of starfish neuropeptide precursors yields new insights into neuropeptide evolution

    PubMed Central

    Semmens, Dean C.; Mirabeau, Olivier; Moghul, Ismail; Pancholi, Mahesh R.; Wurm, Yannick; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides are evolutionarily ancient mediators of neuronal signalling in nervous systems. With recent advances in genomics/transcriptomics, an increasingly wide range of species has become accessible for molecular analysis. The deuterostomian invertebrates are of particular interest in this regard because they occupy an ‘intermediate' position in animal phylogeny, bridging the gap between the well-studied model protostomian invertebrates (e.g. Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans) and the vertebrates. Here we have identified 40 neuropeptide precursors in the starfish Asterias rubens, a deuterostomian invertebrate from the phylum Echinodermata. Importantly, these include kisspeptin-type and melanin-concentrating hormone-type precursors, which are the first to be discovered in a non-chordate species. Starfish tachykinin-type, somatostatin-type, pigment-dispersing factor-type and corticotropin-releasing hormone-type precursors are the first to be discovered in the echinoderm/ambulacrarian clade of the animal kingdom. Other precursors identified include vasopressin/oxytocin-type, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-type, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-type, calcitonin-type, cholecystokinin/gastrin-type, orexin-type, luqin-type, pedal peptide/orcokinin-type, glycoprotein hormone-type, bursicon-type, relaxin-type and insulin-like growth factor-type precursors. This is the most comprehensive identification of neuropeptide precursor proteins in an echinoderm to date, yielding new insights into the evolution of neuropeptide signalling systems. Furthermore, these data provide a basis for experimental analysis of neuropeptide function in the unique context of the decentralized, pentaradial echinoderm bauplan. PMID:26865025

  15. NeuroPep: a comprehensive resource of neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Mingxia; Yin, Sanwen; Jang, Richard; Wang, Jian; Xue, Zhidong; Xu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides play a variety of roles in many physiological processes and serve as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of some nervous-system disorders. In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of identified neuropeptides. Therefore, we have developed NeuroPep, a comprehensive resource of neuropeptides, which holds 5949 non-redundant neuropeptide entries originating from 493 organisms belonging to 65 neuropeptide families. In NeuroPep, the number of neuropeptides in invertebrates and vertebrates is 3455 and 2406, respectively. It is currently the most complete neuropeptide database. We extracted entries deposited in UniProt, the database (www.neuropeptides.nl) and NeuroPedia, and used text mining methods to retrieve entries from the MEDLINE abstracts and full text articles. All the entries in NeuroPep have been manually checked. 2069 of the 5949 (35%) neuropeptide sequences were collected from the scientific literature. Moreover, NeuroPep contains detailed annotations for each entry, including source organisms, tissue specificity, families, names, post-translational modifications, 3D structures (if available) and literature references. Information derived from these peptide sequences such as amino acid compositions, isoelectric points, molecular weight and other physicochemical properties of peptides are also provided. A quick search feature allows users to search the database with keywords such as sequence, name, family, etc., and an advanced search page helps users to combine queries with logical operators like AND/OR. In addition, user-friendly web tools like browsing, sequence alignment and mapping are also integrated into the NeuroPep database. Database URL: http://isyslab.info/NeuroPep PMID:25931458

  16. NeuroPep: a comprehensive resource of neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Mingxia; Yin, Sanwen; Jang, Richard; Wang, Jian; Xue, Zhidong; Xu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides play a variety of roles in many physiological processes and serve as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of some nervous-system disorders. In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of identified neuropeptides. Therefore, we have developed NeuroPep, a comprehensive resource of neuropeptides, which holds 5949 non-redundant neuropeptide entries originating from 493 organisms belonging to 65 neuropeptide families. In NeuroPep, the number of neuropeptides in invertebrates and vertebrates is 3455 and 2406, respectively. It is currently the most complete neuropeptide database. We extracted entries deposited in UniProt, the database (www.neuropeptides.nl) and NeuroPedia, and used text mining methods to retrieve entries from the MEDLINE abstracts and full text articles. All the entries in NeuroPep have been manually checked. 2069 of the 5949 (35%) neuropeptide sequences were collected from the scientific literature. Moreover, NeuroPep contains detailed annotations for each entry, including source organisms, tissue specificity, families, names, post-translational modifications, 3D structures (if available) and literature references. Information derived from these peptide sequences such as amino acid compositions, isoelectric points, molecular weight and other physicochemical properties of peptides are also provided. A quick search feature allows users to search the database with keywords such as sequence, name, family, etc., and an advanced search page helps users to combine queries with logical operators like AND/OR. In addition, user-friendly web tools like browsing, sequence alignment and mapping are also integrated into the NeuroPep database. Database URL: http://isyslab.info/NeuroPep PMID:25931458

  17. Invertebrate lamins

    SciTech Connect

    Melcer, Shai; Gruenbaum, Yosef . E-mail: gru@vms.huji.ac.il; Krohne, Georg . E-mail: krohne@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2007-06-10

    Lamins are the main component of the nuclear lamina and considered to be the ancestors of all intermediate filament proteins. They are localized mainly at the nuclear periphery where they form protein complexes with integral proteins of the nuclear inner membrane, transcriptional regulators, histones and chromatin modifiers. Studying lamins in invertebrate species has unique advantages including the smaller number of lamin genes in the invertebrate genomes and powerful genetic analyses in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. These simpler nuclear lamina systems allow direct analyses of their structure and functions. Here we give an overview of recent advances in the field of invertebrate nuclear lamins with special emphasis on their evolution, assembly and functions.

  18. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    PubMed

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  19. Modulation of Locomotion and Reproduction by FLP Neuropeptides in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-Jung; Burton, Tina; Ha, Lawrence; Huang, Zi; Olajubelo, Adewale; Li, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides function in animals to modulate most, if not all, complex behaviors. In invertebrates, neuropeptides can function as the primary neurotransmitter of a neuron, but more generally they co-localize with a small molecule neurotransmitter, as is commonly seen in vertebrates. Because a single neuron can express multiple neuropeptides and because neuropeptides can bind to multiple G protein-coupled receptors, neuropeptide actions increase the complexity by which the neural connectome can be activated or inhibited. Humans are estimated to have 90 plus neuropeptide genes; by contrast, nematodes, a relatively simple organism, have a slightly larger complement of neuropeptide genes. For instance, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has over 100 neuropeptide-encoding genes, of which at least 31 genes encode peptides of the FMRFamide family. To understand the function of this large FMRFamide peptide family, we isolated knockouts of different FMRFamide-encoding genes and generated transgenic animals in which the peptides are overexpressed. We assayed these animals on two basic behaviors: locomotion and reproduction. Modulating levels of different neuropeptides have strong as well as subtle effects on these behaviors. These data suggest that neuropeptides play critical roles in C. elegans to fine tune neural circuits controlling locomotion and reproduction. PMID:26406995

  20. Modulation of Locomotion and Reproduction by FLP Neuropeptides in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yan-Jung; Burton, Tina; Ha, Lawrence; Huang, Zi; Olajubelo, Adewale; Li, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides function in animals to modulate most, if not all, complex behaviors. In invertebrates, neuropeptides can function as the primary neurotransmitter of a neuron, but more generally they co-localize with a small molecule neurotransmitter, as is commonly seen in vertebrates. Because a single neuron can express multiple neuropeptides and because neuropeptides can bind to multiple G protein-coupled receptors, neuropeptide actions increase the complexity by which the neural connectome can be activated or inhibited. Humans are estimated to have 90 plus neuropeptide genes; by contrast, nematodes, a relatively simple organism, have a slightly larger complement of neuropeptide genes. For instance, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has over 100 neuropeptide-encoding genes, of which at least 31 genes encode peptides of the FMRFamide family. To understand the function of this large FMRFamide peptide family, we isolated knockouts of different FMRFamide-encoding genes and generated transgenic animals in which the peptides are overexpressed. We assayed these animals on two basic behaviors: locomotion and reproduction. Modulating levels of different neuropeptides have strong as well as subtle effects on these behaviors. These data suggest that neuropeptides play critical roles in C. elegans to fine tune neural circuits controlling locomotion and reproduction. PMID:26406995

  1. Zoology: Invertebrates that Parasitize Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-07-11

    The genome of an orthonectid, a group of highly modified parasitic invertebrates, is drastically reduced and compact, yet it shows the bilaterian gene toolkit. Phylogenetic analyses place the enigmatic orthonectids within Spiralia, although their exact placement remains uncertain. PMID:27404242

  2. Neuropeptides and diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gábriel, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy, a common complication of diabetes, develops in 75% of patients with type 1 and 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes, progressing to legal blindness in about 5%. In the recent years, considerable efforts have been put into finding treatments for this condition. It has been discovered that peptidergic mechanisms (neuropeptides and their analogues, activating a diverse array of signal transduction pathways through their multiple receptors) are potentially important for consideration in drug development strategies. A considerable amount of knowledge has been accumulated over the last three decades on human retinal neuropeptides and those elements in the pathomechanisms of diabetic retinopathy which might be related to peptidergic signal transduction. Here, human retinal neuropeptides and their receptors are reviewed, along with the theories relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy both in humans and in experimental models. By collating this information, the curative potential of certain neupeptides and their analogues/antagonists can also be discussed, along with the existing clinical treatments of diabetic retinopathy. The most promising peptidergic pathways for which treatment strategies may be developed at present are stimulation of the somatostatin-related pathway and the pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide-related pathway or inhibition of angiotensinergic mechanisms. These approaches may result in the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor production and neuronal apoptosis; therefore, both the optical quality of the image and the processing capability of the neural circuit in the retina may be saved. PMID:23043302

  3. Toward a consensus nomenclature for insect neuropeptides and peptide hormones.

    PubMed

    Coast, Geoffrey M; Schooley, David A

    2011-03-01

    The nomenclature currently in use for insect neuropeptide and peptide hormone families is reviewed and suggestions are made as to how it can be rationalized. Based upon this review, a number of conventions are advanced as a guide to a more rationale nomenclature. The scheme that is put forward builds upon the binomial nomenclature scheme proposed by Raina and Gäde in 1988, when just over 20 insect neuropeptides had been identified. Known neuropeptides and peptide hormones are assigned to 32 structurally distinct families, frequently with overlapping functions. The names given to these families are those that are currently in use, and describe a biological function, homology to known invertebrate/vertebrate peptides, or a conserved structural motif. Interspecific isoforms are identified using a five-letter code to indicate genus and species names, and intraspecific isoforms are identified by Roman or Arabic numerals, with the latter used to signify the order in which sequences are encoded on a prepropeptide. The proposed scheme is sufficiently flexible to allow the incorporation of novel peptides, and could be extended to other arthropods and non-arthropod invertebrates. PMID:21093513

  4. Invertebrates in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Charles I.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive program using invertebrates as subjects in conditioning demonstrations and experiments. Provides a bibliography of reviews about invertebrate learning in addition to information on obtaining required apparatus and invertebrates.

  5. Insight into the Molecular and Functional Diversity of Cnidarian Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshio; Takeda, Noriyo

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarians are the most primitive animals to possess a nervous system. This phylum is composed of the classes Scyphozoa (jellyfish), Cubozoa (box jellyfish), and Hydrozoa (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia), which make up the subphylum Medusozoa, as well as the class Anthozoa (sea anemones and corals). Neuropeptides have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in cnidarians. For example, from the cnidarian Hydra, a key model system for studying the peptides involved in developmental and physiological processes, we identified a wide variety of novel neuropeptides from Hydra magnipapillata (the Hydra Peptide Project). Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and induce contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. In this review, we describe FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), GLWamide-family peptides, and the neuropeptide Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide. Several hundred FLPs have been isolated from invertebrate animals such as cnidarians. GLWamide-family peptides function as signaling molecules in muscle contraction, metamorphosis, and settlement in cnidarians. Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide enhances neuronal differentiation in Hydra. Recently, GLWamide-family peptides and Hym-355; FPQSFLPRGamide were shown to trigger oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae. These findings suggest the importance of these neuropeptides in both developmental and physiological processes. PMID:25625515

  6. More than two decades of research on insect neuropeptide GPCRs: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Caers, Jelle; Verlinden, Heleen; Zels, Sven; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Vuerinckx, Kristel; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the state of the art on neuropeptide receptors in insects. Most of these receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are involved in the regulation of virtually all physiological processes during an insect's life. More than 20 years ago a milestone in invertebrate endocrinology was achieved with the characterization of the first insect neuropeptide receptor, i.e., the Drosophila tachykinin-like receptor. However, it took until the release of the Drosophila genome in 2000 that research on neuropeptide receptors boosted. In the last decade a plethora of genomic information of other insect species also became available, leading to a better insight in the functions and evolution of the neuropeptide signaling systems and their intracellular pathways. It became clear that some of these systems are conserved among all insect species, indicating that they fulfill crucial roles in their physiological processes. Meanwhile, other signaling systems seem to be lost in several insect orders or species, suggesting that their actions were superfluous in those insects, or that other neuropeptides have taken over their functions. It is striking that the deorphanization of neuropeptide GPCRs gets much attention, but the subsequent unraveling of the intracellular pathways they elicit, or their physiological functions are often hardly examined. Especially in insects besides Drosophila this information is scarce if not absent. And although great progress made in characterizing neuropeptide signaling systems, even in Drosophila several predicted neuropeptide receptors remain orphan, awaiting for their endogenous ligand to be determined. The present review gives a précis of the insect neuropeptide receptor research of the last two decades. But it has to be emphasized that the work done so far is only the tip of the iceberg and our comprehensive understanding of these important signaling systems will still increase substantially in the coming years. PMID

  7. Neuropeptide GPCRs in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Frooninckx, Lotte; Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Temmerman, Liesbet; Van Sinay, Elien; Beets, Isabel; Janssen, Tom; Husson, Steven J.; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-01-01

    Like most organisms, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans relies heavily on neuropeptidergic signaling. This tiny animal represents a suitable model system to study neuropeptidergic signaling networks with single cell resolution due to the availability of powerful molecular and genetic tools. The availability of the worm’s complete genome sequence allows researchers to browse through it, uncovering putative neuropeptides and their cognate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many predictions have been made about the number of C. elegans neuropeptide GPCRs. In this review, we report the state of the art of both verified as well as predicted C. elegans neuropeptide GPCRs. The predicted neuropeptide GPCRs are incorporated into the receptor classification system based on their resemblance to orthologous GPCRs in insects and vertebrates. Appointing the natural ligand(s) to each predicted neuropeptide GPCR (receptor deorphanization) is a crucial step during characterization. The development of deorphanization strategies resulted in a significant increase in the knowledge of neuropeptidergic signaling in C. elegans. Complementary localization and functional studies demonstrate that neuropeptides and their GPCRs represent a rich potential source of behavioral variability in C. elegans. Here, we review all neuropeptidergic signaling pathways that so far have been functionally characterized in C. elegans. PMID:23267347

  8. Sensory neuropeptides and airway function.

    PubMed

    Solway, J; Leff, A R

    1991-12-01

    Sensory nerves synthesize tachykinins and calcitonin-gene related peptide and package these neuropeptides together in synaptic vesicles. Stimulation of these C-fibers by a range of chemical and physical factors results in afferent neuronal conduction that elicits central parasympathetic reflexes and in antidromic conduction that results in local release of neuropeptides through the axon reflex. In the airways, sensory neuropeptides act on bronchial smooth muscle, the mucosal vasculature, and submucosal glands to promote airflow obstruction, hyperemia, microvascular hyperpermeability, and mucus hypersecretion. In addition, tachykinins potentiate cholinergic neurotransmission. Proinflammatory effects of these peptides also promote the recruitment, adherence, and activation of granulocytes that may further exacerbate neurogenic inflammation (i.e., neuropeptide-induced plasma extravasation and vasodilation). Enzymatic degradation limits the physiological effects of tachykinins but may be impaired by respiratory infection or other factors. Given their sensitivity to noxious compounds and physical stimuli and their potent effects on airway function, it is possible that neuropeptide-containing sensory nerves play an important role in mediating airway responses in human disease. Supporting this view are the striking phenomenological similarities between hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction (HIB) in guinea pigs and HIB in patients with exercise-induced asthma. Endogenous tachykinins released from airway sensory nerves mediate HIB in guinea pigs and also cause hyperpnea-induced bronchovascular hyperpermeability in these animals. On the basis of these observations, it is reasonable to speculate that sensory neuropeptides participate in the pathogenesis of hyperpnea-induced airflow obstruction in human asthmatic subjects as well. PMID:1663932

  9. Neuropeptides as lung cancer growth factors.

    PubMed

    Moody, Terry W; Moreno, Paola; Jensen, Robert T

    2015-10-01

    This manuscript is written in honor of the Festschrift for Abba Kastin. I met Abba at a Society for Neuroscience meeting and learned that he was Editor-in-Chief of the Journal Peptides. I submitted manuscripts to the journal on "Neuropeptides as Growth Factors in Cancer" and subsequently was named to the Editorial Advisory Board. Over the past 30 years I have published dozens of manuscripts in Peptides and reviewed hundreds of submitted manuscripts. It was always rewarding to interact with Abba, a consummate professional. When I attended meetings in New Orleans I would sometimes go out to dinner with him at the restaurant "Commanders Palace". When I chaired the Summer Neuropeptide Conference we were honored to have him receive the Fleur Strand Award one year in Israel. I think that his biggest editorial contribution has been the "Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides." I served as a Section Editor on "Cancer/Anticancer Peptides" and again found that it was a pleasure working with him. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which bombesin-like peptides, neurotensin and vasoactive intestinal peptide regulate the growth of lung cancer. PMID:25836991

  10. ASICs and neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Vick, Jonathan S; Askwith, Candice C

    2015-07-01

    The acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels expressed throughout the nervous system. ASICs are activated during acidic pH fluctuations, and recent work suggests that they are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission. ASICs can also induce neuronal degeneration and death during pathological extracellular acidosis caused by ischemia, autoimmune inflammation, and traumatic injury. Many endogenous neuromodulators target ASICs to affect their biophysical characteristics and contributions to neuronal activity. One of the most unconventional types of modulation occurs with the interaction of ASICs and neuropeptides. Collectively, FMRFamide-related peptides and dynorphins potentiate ASIC activity by decreasing the proton-sensitivity of steady state desensitization independent of G protein-coupled receptor activation. By decreasing the proton-sensitivity of steady state desensitization, the FMRFamide-related peptides and dynorphins permit ASICs to remain active at more acidic basal pH. Unlike the dynorphins, some FMRFamide-related peptides also potentiate ASIC activity by slowing inactivation and increasing the sustained current. Through mechanistic studies, the modulation of ASICs by FMRFamide-related peptides and dynorphins appears to be through distinct interactions with the extracellular domain of ASICs. Dynorphins are expressed throughout the nervous system and can increase neuronal death during prolonged extracellular acidosis, suggesting that the interaction between dynorphins and ASICs may have important consequences for the prevention of neurological injury. The overlap in expression of FMRFamide-related peptides with ASICs in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord suggests that their interaction may have important consequences for the treatment of pain during injury and inflammation. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in the Nervous System'. PMID:25592215

  11. ASICS AND NEUROPEPTIDES

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Jonathan S.; Askwith, Candice C.

    2015-01-01

    The acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels expressed throughout the nervous system. ASICs are activated during acidic pH fluctuations, and recent work suggests that they are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission. ASICs can also induce neuronal degeneration and death during pathological extracellular acidosis caused by ischemia, autoimmune inflammation, and traumatic injury. Many endogenous neuromodulators target ASICs to affect their biophysical characteristics and contributions to neuronal activity. One of the most unconventional types of modulation occurs with the interaction of ASICs and neuropeptides. Collectively, FMRFamide-related peptides and dynorphins potentiate ASIC activity by decreasing the proton-sensitivity of steady state desensitization independent of G protein-coupled receptor activation. By decreasing the proton-sensitivity of steady state desensitization, the FMRFamide-related peptides and dynorphins permit ASICs to remain active at more acidic basal pH. Unlike the dynorphins, some FMRFamide-related peptides also potentiate ASIC activity by slowing inactivation and increasing the sustained current. Through mechanistic studies, the modulation of ASICs by FMRFamide-related peptides and dynorphins appears to be through distinct interactions with the extracellular domain of ASICs. Dynorphins are expressed throughout the nervous system and can increase neuronal death during prolonged extracellular acidosis, suggesting that the interaction between dynorphins and ASICs may have important consequences for the prevention of neurological injury. The overlap in expression of FMRFamide-related peptides with ASICs in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord suggests that their interaction may have important consequences for the treatment of pain during injury and inflammation. PMID:25592215

  12. The Invertebrate Lysozyme Effector ILYS-3 Is Systemically Activated in Response to Danger Signals and Confers Antimicrobial Protection in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Gravato-Nobre, Maria João; Vaz, Filipa; Filipe, Sergio; Chalmers, Ronald; Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the relative contributions and importance of antibacterial effectors in the nematode C. elegans, despite extensive work on the innate immune responses in this organism. We report an investigation of the expression, function and regulation of the six ilys (invertebrate-type lysozyme) genes of C. elegans. These genes exhibited a surprising variety of tissue-specific expression patterns and responses to starvation or bacterial infection. The most strongly expressed, ilys-3, was investigated in detail. ILYS-3 protein was expressed constitutively in the pharynx and coelomocytes, and dynamically in the intestine. Analysis of mutants showed that ILYS-3 was required for pharyngeal grinding (disruption of bacterial cells) during normal growth and consequently it contributes to longevity, as well as being protective against bacterial pathogens. Both starvation and challenge with Gram-positive pathogens resulted in ERK-MAPK-dependent up-regulation of ilys-3 in the intestine. The intestinal induction by pathogens, but not starvation, was found to be dependent on MPK-1 activity in the pharynx rather than in the intestine, demonstrating unexpected communication between these two tissues. The coelomocyte expression appeared to contribute little to normal growth or immunity. Recombinant ILYS-3 protein was found to exhibit appropriate lytic activity against Gram-positive cell wall material. PMID:27525822

  13. The Invertebrate Lysozyme Effector ILYS-3 Is Systemically Activated in Response to Danger Signals and Confers Antimicrobial Protection in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gravato-Nobre, Maria João; Vaz, Filipa; Filipe, Sergio; Chalmers, Ronald; Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the relative contributions and importance of antibacterial effectors in the nematode C. elegans, despite extensive work on the innate immune responses in this organism. We report an investigation of the expression, function and regulation of the six ilys (invertebrate-type lysozyme) genes of C. elegans. These genes exhibited a surprising variety of tissue-specific expression patterns and responses to starvation or bacterial infection. The most strongly expressed, ilys-3, was investigated in detail. ILYS-3 protein was expressed constitutively in the pharynx and coelomocytes, and dynamically in the intestine. Analysis of mutants showed that ILYS-3 was required for pharyngeal grinding (disruption of bacterial cells) during normal growth and consequently it contributes to longevity, as well as being protective against bacterial pathogens. Both starvation and challenge with Gram-positive pathogens resulted in ERK-MAPK-dependent up-regulation of ilys-3 in the intestine. The intestinal induction by pathogens, but not starvation, was found to be dependent on MPK-1 activity in the pharynx rather than in the intestine, demonstrating unexpected communication between these two tissues. The coelomocyte expression appeared to contribute little to normal growth or immunity. Recombinant ILYS-3 protein was found to exhibit appropriate lytic activity against Gram-positive cell wall material. PMID:27525822

  14. Hypothalamic neuropeptide signaling in alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Barson, Jessica R; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2016-02-01

    The hypothalamus is now known to regulate alcohol intake in addition to its established role in food intake, in part through neuromodulatory neurochemicals termed neuropeptides. Certain orexigenic neuropeptides act in the hypothalamus to promote alcohol drinking, although they affect different aspects of the drinking response. These neuropeptides, which include galanin, the endogenous opioid enkephalin, and orexin/hypocretin, appear to stimulate alcohol intake not only through mechanisms that promote food intake but also by enhancing reward and reinforcement from alcohol. Moreover, these neuropeptides participate in a positive feedback relationship with alcohol, whereby they are upregulated by alcohol intake to promote even further consumption. They contrast with other orexigenic neuropeptides, such as melanin-concentrating hormone and neuropeptide Y, which promote alcohol intake under limited circumstances, are not consistently stimulated by alcohol, and do not enhance reward. They also contrast with neuropeptides that can be anorexigenic, including the endogenous opioid dynorphin, corticotropin-releasing factor, and melanocortins, which act in the hypothalamus to inhibit alcohol drinking as well as reward and therefore counter the ingestive drive promoted by orexigenic neuropeptides. Thus, while multiple hypothalamic neuropeptides may work together to regulate different aspects of the alcohol drinking response, excessive signaling from orexigenic neuropeptides or inadequate signaling from anorexigenic neuropeptides can therefore allow alcohol drinking to become dysregulated. PMID:25689818

  15. Select Neuropeptides and their G-Protein Coupled Receptors in Caenorhabditis Elegans and Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Bendena, William G.; Campbell, Jason; Zara, Lian; Tobe, Stephen S.; Chin-Sang, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family is comprised of seven transmembrane domain proteins and play important roles in nerve transmission, locomotion, proliferation and development, sensory perception, metabolism, and neuromodulation. GPCR research has been targeted by drug developers as a consequence of the wide variety of critical physiological functions regulated by this protein family. Neuropeptide GPCRs are the least characterized of the GPCR family as genetic systems to characterize their functions have lagged behind GPCR gene discovery. Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans are genetic model organisms that have proved useful in characterizing neuropeptide GPCRs. The strength of a genetic approach leads to an appreciation of the behavioral plasticity that can result from subtle alterations in GPCRs or regulatory proteins in the pathways that GPCRs control. Many of these invertebrate neuropeptides, GPCRs, and signaling pathway components serve as models for mammalian counterparts as they have conserved sequences and function. This review provides an overview of the methods to match neuropeptides to their cognate receptor and a state of the art account of neuropeptide GPCRs that have been characterized in D. melanogaster and C. elegans and the behaviors that have been uncovered through genetic manipulation. PMID:22908006

  16. Identification of a novel starfish neuropeptide that acts as a muscle relaxant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan-Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Go, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hye Young; Lin, Ming; Elphick, Maurice R; Park, Nam Gyu

    2016-04-01

    Neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants have been identified in chordates and protostomian invertebrates but little is known about the molecular identity of neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants in deuterostomian invertebrates (e.g. echinoderms) that are 'evolutionary intermediates' of chordates and protostomes. Here, we have used the apical muscle of the starfish Patiria pectinifera to assay for myorelaxants in extracts of this species. A hexadecapeptide with the amino acid sequence Phe-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Tyr-Asp-Pro-Leu-Ser-Ala-Gly-Phe-Thr-Asp was identified and designated starfish myorelaxant peptide (SMP). Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding the SMP precursor protein revealed that it comprises 12 copies of SMP as well as 3 peptides (7 copies in total) that are structurally related to SMP. Analysis of the expression of SMP precursor transcripts in P. pectinifera using qPCR revealed the highest expression in the radial nerve cords and lower expression levels in a range of neuromuscular tissues, including the apical muscle, tube feet and cardiac stomach. Consistent with these findings, SMP also caused relaxation of tube foot and cardiac stomach preparations. Furthermore, SMP caused relaxation of apical muscle preparations from another starfish species - Asterias amurensis. Collectively, these data indicate that SMP has a general physiological role as a muscle relaxant in starfish. Interestingly, comparison of the sequence of the SMP precursor with known neuropeptide precursors revealed that SMP belongs to a bilaterian family of neuropeptides that include molluscan pedal peptides (PP) and arthropodan orcokinins (OK). This is the first study to determine the function of a PP/OK-type peptide in a deuterostome. Pedal peptide/orcokinin (PP/OK)-type peptides are a family of structurally related neuropeptides that were first identified and functionally characterised in protostomian invertebrates. Here, we report the discovery of starfish myorelaxant

  17. Neuropeptides in the cerebral ganglia of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain: transcriptomic analysis and expression profiles during vitellogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Chenchang; Yang, Yanan; Huang, Huiyang; Ye, Haihui

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides play a critical role in regulating animal reproduction. In vertebrates, GnRH, GnIH and kisspeptin are the key neuropeptide hormones of the reproductive axis, however, the reproductive axis for invertebrates is vague. Knowledge on ovarian development of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, is critical for aquaculture and resources management of the commercially important species. This study employed Illumina sequencing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time PCR techniques to identify neuropeptides that may be involved in ovarian development of S. paramamosain. A total of 32 neuropeptide transcripts from two dozen neuropeptide families, 100 distinct mature peptides were predicted from the transcriptome data of female S. paramamosain cerebral ganglia. Among them, two families, i.e. GSEFLamide and WXXXRamide, were first identified from the cerebral ganglia of crustaceans. Of these neuropeptides, 21 transcripts of interest were selected for further confirmation and all of them were detected in the cerebral ganglia, as well as in other nervous tissues and the ovary. Most of them also had differential expression in the cerebral ganglia during various vitellogenic stages, suggesting their likely involvement in regulating vitellogenesis and ovarian maturation. Overall, these findings provide an important basis for subsequent studies on peptide function in reproduction of S. paramamosain. PMID:26592767

  18. Prevertebrate Local Gene Duplication Facilitated Expansion of the Neuropeptide GPCR Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seongsik; Furlong, Michael; Sim, Mikang; Cho, Minah; Park, Sumi; Cho, Eun Bee; Reyes-Alcaraz, Arfaxad; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Kim, Jaebum; Seong, Jae Young

    2015-11-01

    In humans, numerous genes encode neuropeptides that comprise a superfamily of more than 70 genes in approximately 30 families and act mainly through rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Two rounds of whole-genome duplication (2R WGD) during early vertebrate evolution greatly contributed to proliferation within gene families; however, the mechanisms underlying the initial emergence and diversification of these gene families before 2R WGD are largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed 25 vertebrate rhodopsin-like neuropeptide GPCR families and their cognate peptides using phylogeny, synteny, and localization of these genes on reconstructed vertebrate ancestral chromosomes (VACs). Based on phylogeny, these GPCR families can be divided into five distinct clades, and members of each clade tend to be located on the same VACs. Similarly, their neuropeptide gene families also tend to reside on distinct VACs. Comparison of these GPCR genes with those of invertebrates including Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Branchiostoma floridae, and Ciona intestinalis indicates that these GPCR families emerged through tandem local duplication during metazoan evolution prior to 2R WGD. Our study describes a presumptive evolutionary mechanism and development pathway of the vertebrate rhodopsin-like GPCR and cognate neuropeptide families from the urbilaterian ancestor to modern vertebrates. PMID:26337547

  19. Aeolian Transport of Invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, T. E.; Walsh, E. J.; Wallace, R. L.; Rojo, L.; Rivas, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Playas and other ephemeral desert wetlands are preferential terrestrial landforms for dust emission. These sites also are habitat for a diverse assemblage of minute invertebrates. When wetlands desiccate, these invertebrates survive as resting stages (propagules). Thus, playas serve as isolated, ephemeral, biogeographical islands for aquatic invertebrates, but it is unclear how propagules disperse across distances as far as hundreds of kilometers to colonize hydrologically disconnected basins. Aeolian transport (anemochory) may provide the mechanism, especially since many invertebrate propagules are long-lived, aerodynamically shaped, possess low-density, and their size (30-600 μm) falls within the same texture as aeolian dust and sand grains. We are collecting and culturing wind-transported sediment to document its ability to serve in the dispersal of aridland invertebrate propagules. Deposited aeolian sediment was collected from marble-type traps placed on the roof of the Biological Sciences Building at the University of Texas, El Paso, during 19 individual regional-scale Chihuahuan Desert blowing dust/sand events between April 2010 and May 2012. Known source areas for these dust events include playas and ephemeral streams ~40- 150 km upwind. The mean dry grain size of the deposited sediment for each event ranged from 66 to 141 μm. Clean-water rinses of material from each event or standard rehydrations for culturing invertebrates were monitored microscopically for the appearance of organisms. Invertebrates hatched from the sediment of 13 events. Ciliates were detected in each of those samples: gastrotrichs appeared in three samples, nematodes and bdelloid rotifers in two samples, and clam shrimp in one. We have also rehydrated aeolian sediments, collected in standard dust traps, from many dust-emitting playas in Southwest North America and hatched viable organisms including all those previously mentioned as well as branchiopods, fairy shrimp, copepods

  20. Identification of new members of the (short) neuropeptide F family in locusts and Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Clynen, Elke; Husson, Steven J; Schoofs, Liliane

    2009-04-01

    Both the long and short neuropeptides F (NPF) represent important families of invertebrate neuropeptides that have been implicated in the regulation of reproduction and feeding behavior. In the present study, two short NPFs (SNRSPS(L/I)R(L/I)RFamide and SPS(L/I)R(L/I)RFamide) were de novo sequenced by mass spectrometry in two major pest insects, the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria and the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria. They are two of the most widespread peptides in the locust neuroendocrine system. A peptide that was previously reported to accelerate egg development in S. gregaria is shown to represent a truncated form of long NPF. This peptide is most likely derived by a novel processing mechanism involving cleavage at RY. In addition, an NPF peptide from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was isolated and sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:19456328

  1. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. PMID:27402055

  2. Aquarium Culture of Freshwater Invertebrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Timothy S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes two methods for rearing small aquatic invertebrates using submerged surfaces in an unfiltered current of water where fish are present. Presents suggestions on how to use the invertebrate communities in the classroom. (JRH)

  3. Stalking the Neighborhood Invertebrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley, James W.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a six-week simulation of basic research in which high school students acquire, observe, describe, illustrate, and report on an invertebrate of their choice. Includes chart used to evaluate student monographs, and comments relating to student experiences while engaged in their projects. (Author/JN)

  4. Neuropeptide receptor transcriptome reveals unidentified neuroendocrine pathways.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Naoki; Yamamoto, Sachie; Zitnan, Dusan; Watanabe, Ken; Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Satake, Honoo; Kaneko, Yu; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Kataoka, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptides are an important class of molecules involved in diverse aspects of metazoan development and homeostasis. Insects are ideal model systems to investigate neuropeptide functions, and the major focus of insect neuropeptide research in the last decade has been on the identification of their receptors. Despite these vigorous efforts, receptors for some key neuropeptides in insect development such as prothoracicotropic hormone, eclosion hormone and allatotropin (AT), remain undefined. In this paper, we report the comprehensive cloning of neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptors from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and systematic analyses of their expression. Based on the expression patterns of orphan receptors, we identified the long-sought receptor for AT, which is thought to stimulate juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the corpora allata (CA). Surprisingly, however, the AT receptor was not highly expressed in the CA, but instead was predominantly transcribed in the corpora cardiaca (CC), an organ adjacent to the CA. Indeed, by using a reverse-physiological approach, we purified and characterized novel allatoregulatory peptides produced in AT receptor-expressing CC cells, which may indirectly mediate AT activity on the CA. All of the above findings confirm the effectiveness of a systematic analysis of the receptor transcriptome, not only in characterizing orphan receptors, but also in identifying novel players and hidden mechanisms in important biological processes. This work illustrates how using a combinatorial approach employing bioinformatic, molecular, biochemical and physiological methods can help solve recalcitrant problems in neuropeptide research. PMID:18725956

  5. Invertebrates in managed waterfowl marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, Joshua D.; Janke, Adam K.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrates are an important food for breeding, migrating, and wintering waterfowl. Sparse study has been devoted to understanding the influence of waterfowl and wetland management on production of invertebrates for waterfowl foods; however, manipulation of hydrology and soils may change or enhance production. Fish can compete with waterfowl for invertebrate forage in wetlands and harm aquatic macrophytes; biomanipulation (e.g., stocking piscivores) may improve waterfowl habitat quality. Similarly, some terrestrial vertebrates (e.g., beaver (Castor canadensis)) may positively or negatively impact invertebrate communities in waterfowl habitats. Various challenges exist to wetland management for invertebrates for waterfowl, but the lack of data on factors influencing production may be the most limiting.

  6. Neuropeptide evolution: Chelicerate neurohormone and neuropeptide genes may reflect one or more whole genome duplications.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Jan A

    2016-04-01

    Four genomes and two transcriptomes from six Chelicerate species were analyzed for the presence of neuropeptide and neurohormone precursors and their GPCRs. The genome from the spider Stegodyphus mimosarum yielded 87 neuropeptide precursors and 120 neuropeptide GPCRs. Many neuropeptide transcripts were also found in the transcriptomes of three other spiders, Latrodectus hesperus, Parasteatoda tepidariorum and Acanthoscurria geniculata. For the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii the numbers are 79 and 93 respectively. The very small genome of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae, on the other hand contains a much smaller number of such genes. A few new putative Arthropod neuropeptide genes were discovered. Thus, both spiders and the scorpion have an achatin gene and in spiders there are two different genes encoding myosuppressin-like peptides while spiders also have two genes encoding novel LGamides. Another finding is the presence of trissin in spiders and scorpions, while neuropeptide genes that seem to be orthologs of Lottia LFRYamide and Platynereis CCRFamide were also found. Such genes were also found in various insect species, but seem to be lacking from the Holometabola. The Chelicerate neuropeptide and neuropeptide GPCR genes often have paralogs. As the large majority of these are probably not due to local gene duplications, is plausible that they reflect the effects of one or more ancient whole genome duplications. PMID:26928473

  7. Oxygen Sensing Neurons and Neuropeptides Regulate Survival after Anoxia in Developing C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Flibotte, John J.; Jablonski, Angela M.; Kalb, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic brain injury remains a major source of neurodevelopmental impairment for both term and preterm infants. The perinatal period is a time of rapid transition in oxygen environments and developmental resetting of oxygen sensing. The relationship between neural oxygen sensing ability and hypoxic injury has not been studied. The oxygen sensing circuitry in the model organism C. elegans is well understood. We leveraged this information to investigate the effects of impairments in oxygen sensing on survival after anoxia. There was a significant survival advantage in developing worms specifically unable to sense oxygen shifts below their preferred physiologic range via genetic ablation of BAG neurons, which appear important for conferring sensitivity to anoxia. Oxygen sensing that is mediated through guanylate cyclases (gcy-31, 33, 35) is unlikely to be involved in conferring this sensitivity. Additionally, animals unable to process or elaborate neuropeptides displayed a survival advantage after anoxia. Based on these data, we hypothesized that elaboration of neuropeptides by BAG neurons sensitized animals to anoxia, but further experiments indicate that this is unlikely to be true. Instead, it seems that neuropeptides and signaling from oxygen sensing neurons operate through independent mechanisms, each conferring sensitivity to anoxia in wild type animals. PMID:24967811

  8. Urbilaterian origin of paralogous GnRH and corazonin neuropeptide signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shi; Zandawala, Meet; Beets, Isabel; Baytemur, Esra; Slade, Susan E; Scrivens, James H; Elphick, Maurice R

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproductive maturation in humans and other vertebrates. Homologs of GnRH and its cognate receptor have been identified in invertebrates-for example, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ) neuropeptide pathways in arthropods. However, the precise evolutionary relationships and origins of these signalling systems remain unknown. Here we have addressed this issue with the first identification of both GnRH-type and CRZ-type signalling systems in a deuterostome-the echinoderm (starfish) Asterias rubens. We have identified a GnRH-like neuropeptide (pQIHYKNPGWGPG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens GnRH-type receptor and a novel neuropeptide (HNTFTMGGQNRWKAG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens CRZ-type receptor. With the discovery of these ligand-receptor pairs, we demonstrate that the vertebrate/deuterostomian GnRH-type and the protostomian AKH systems are orthologous and the origin of a paralogous CRZ-type signalling system can be traced to the common ancestor of the Bilateria (Urbilateria). PMID:27350121

  9. Neuropeptide action in insects and crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Mykles, Donald L; Adams, Michael E; Gäde, Gerd; Lange, Angela B; Marco, Heather G; Orchard, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Physiological processes are regulated by a diverse array of neuropeptides that coordinate organ systems. The neuropeptides, many of which act through G protein-coupled receptors, affect the levels of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) and Ca(2+) in target tissues. In this perspective, their roles in molting, osmoregulation, metabolite utilization, and cardiovascular function are highlighted. In decapod crustaceans, inhibitory neuropeptides (molt-inhibiting hormone and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone) suppress the molting gland through cAMP- and cGMP-mediated signaling. In insects, the complex movements during ecdysis are controlled by ecdysis-triggering hormone and a cascade of downstream neuropeptides. Adipokinetic/hypertrehalosemic/hyperprolinemic hormones mobilize energy stores in response to increased locomotory activity. Crustacean cardioacceleratory (cardioactive) peptide, proctolin, and FMRFamide-related peptides act on the heart, accessory pulsatile organs, and excurrent ostia to control hemolymph distribution to tissues. The osmoregulatory challenge of blood gorging in Rhodnius prolixus requires the coordinated release of serotonin and diuretic and antidiuretic hormones acting on the midgut and Malpighian tubules. These studies illustrate how multiple neuropeptides allow for flexibility in response to physiological challenges. PMID:20550437

  10. Neuropeptide Y: A stressful review

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Florian; Holzer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Stress is defined as an adverse condition that disturbs the homeostasis of the body and activates adaptation responses. Among the many pathways and mediators involved, neuropeptide Y (NPY) stands out due to its unique stress-relieving, anxiolytic and neuroprotective properties. Stress exposure alters the biosynthesis of NPY in distinct brain regions, the magnitude and direction of this effect varying with the duration and type of stress. NPY is expressed in particular neurons of the brainstem, hypothalamus and limbic system, which explains why NPY has an impact on stress-related changes in emotional-affective behaviour and feeding as well as on stress coping. The biological actions of NPY in mammals are mediated by the Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptor, Y1 receptor stimulation being anxiolytic whereas Y2 receptor activation is anxiogenic. Emerging evidence attributes NPY a role in stress resilience, the ability to cope with stress. Thus there is a negative correlation between stress-induced behavioural disruption and cerebral NPY expression in animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder. Exogenous NPY prevents the negative consequences of stress, and polymorphisms of the NPY gene are predictive of impaired stress processing and increased risk of neuropsychiatric diseases. Stress is also a factor contributing to, and resulting from, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, in which NPY appears to play an important neuroprotective role. This review summarizes the evidence for an implication of NPY in stress-related and neurodegenerative pathologies and addresses the cerebral NPY system as a therapeutic target. PMID:26441327

  11. Does gender really matter in contaminant exposure? A case study using invertebrate models.

    PubMed

    McClellan-Green, Patricia; Romano, Jocelyn; Oberdörster, Eva

    2007-05-01

    Exposure to contaminants in the environment is indiscriminate and multiple species/populations of all sexes are potentially at risk. In this paper we examine the current information available on gender specific differences in invertebrates following exposure to environmental contaminants. Because of their close association with the environment and diversity of habitats, invertebrates are uniquely at risk for adverse responses to pollutants. Since 97% of all animal species are invertebrates, it would be impossible to cover each of the phyla in this review. Instead, this paper discusses major invertebrate species including insects (Periplaneta americana, Panorpa vulgaris, Lycosa hilaris, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), and Drosophilia melanogaster), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), crustaceans (Streptocephalus dichotomus, Amphiascus tenuiremis, Microarthridion littorale, Tisbe bulbisetosa, Acartia tonsa, and Palaemonetes pugio), mollusks (Pinctada fucata martensii, Ilyanassa obsoleta, Nucella lapillus, Hinia reticulata, Thais clavigera, and Mercenaria mercenaria), corals (Euphyllia ancora and Montipara capitata), and echinoderms (Asterias rubens) that have been used in studies examining the differences between males and females. Our discussion focuses on gender differences that occur in both toxicokinetic mechanisms (uptake and elimination, metabolism and physiology) and other toxicological endpoints (survival and behavior as well as morphology and development). It will become evident that the endocrine systems of invertebrates have many traits and/or pathways that are comparable to those observed in higher organisms. Yet the sensitivity of some elements of the invertebrate endocrine system, e.g., disruption of neuropeptide hormone signaling following TBT exposure, highlights the uniqueness of their systems and their potential for disruption. PMID:17097631

  12. Neuropeptidomics: Mass Spectrometry-Based Identification and Quantitation of Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides produced from prohormones by selective action of endopeptidases are vital signaling molecules, playing a critical role in a variety of physiological processes, such as addiction, depression, pain, and circadian rhythms. Neuropeptides bind to post-synaptic receptors and elicit cellular effects like classical neurotransmitters. While each neuropeptide could have its own biological function, mass spectrometry (MS) allows for the identification of the precise molecular forms of each peptide without a priori knowledge of the peptide identity and for the quantitation of neuropeptides in different conditions of the samples. MS-based neuropeptidomics approaches have been applied to various animal models and conditions to characterize and quantify novel neuropeptides, as well as known neuropeptides, advancing our understanding of nervous system function over the past decade. Here, we will present an overview of neuropeptides and MS-based neuropeptidomic strategies for the identification and quantitation of neuropeptides. PMID:27103886

  13. Neuropeptidomics: Mass Spectrometry-Based Identification and Quantitation of Neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun

    2016-03-01

    Neuropeptides produced from prohormones by selective action of endopeptidases are vital signaling molecules, playing a critical role in a variety of physiological processes, such as addiction, depression, pain, and circadian rhythms. Neuropeptides bind to post-synaptic receptors and elicit cellular effects like classical neurotransmitters. While each neuropeptide could have its own biological function, mass spectrometry (MS) allows for the identification of the precise molecular forms of each peptide without a priori knowledge of the peptide identity and for the quantitation of neuropeptides in different conditions of the samples. MS-based neuropeptidomics approaches have been applied to various animal models and conditions to characterize and quantify novel neuropeptides, as well as known neuropeptides, advancing our understanding of nervous system function over the past decade. Here, we will present an overview of neuropeptides and MS-based neuropeptidomic strategies for the identification and quantitation of neuropeptides. PMID:27103886

  14. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Kelsey; Angeletti, Dario; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Carere, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted. PMID:23535125

  15. The neuropeptide bursicon acts in cuticle metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bursicon is a heterodimeric neuropeptide formed of bursicon a (burs a) and bursicon B (burs B) that controls cuticle tanning and wing expansion in insects. Burs a-a and burs B-B homodimers are also formed; they act via an unknown receptor to induce expression of prophylactic immune and stress genes ...

  16. Neuropeptides: conductors of the immune orchestra.

    PubMed

    Morley, J E; Kay, N E; Solomon, G F; Plotnikoff, N P

    1987-08-01

    There is increasing evidence for a bidirectional communications system between the immune system and the brain. Many of the substances involved in this communication appear to be neuropeptides. These findings have given biochemical validity to the clinical and epidemiological studies that have suggested that psychosocial factors can modulate the response to infections and neoplasms. PMID:3298913

  17. Neuropeptides controlling energy balance: orexins and neuromedins

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Joshua P.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Novak, Colleen M.; Billington, Charles J.; Teske, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we review the feeding and energy expenditure effects of orexin (also known as hypocretin) and neuromedin. Orexins are multifunctional neuropeptides that affect energy balance by participating in regulation of appetite, arousal, and spontaneous physical activity. Central orexin signaling for all functions originates in the lateral hypothalamus–perifornical area, and is likely functionally differentiated based on site of action and on interacting neural influences. The effect of orexin on feeding is likely related to arousal in some ways, but is nonetheless a separate neural process that depends on interactions with other feeding related neuropeptides. In a pattern distinct from other neuropeptides, orexin stimulates both feeding and energy expenditure. Orexin increases in energy expenditure are mainly by increasing spontaneous physical activity, and this energy expenditure effect is more potent than the effect on feeding. Global orexin manipulations, such as in transgenic models, produce energy balance changes consistent with a dominant energy expenditure effect of orexin. Neuromedins are gut-brain peptides that reduce appetite. There are gut sources of neuromedin, but likely the key appetite related neuromedin producing neurons are in hypothalamus and parallel other key anorectic neuropeptide expression in the arcuate to paraventricular hypothalamic projection. As with other hypothalamic feeding related peptides, hindbrain sites are likely also important sources and targets of neuromedin anorectic action. Neuromedin increases physical activity in addition to reducing appetite, thus producing a consistent negative energy balance effect. Together with the various other neuro-peptides, -transmitters, -modulators and –hormones, neuromedin and orexin act in the appetite network to produce changes in food intake and energy expenditure, which ultimately influences the regulation of body weight. PMID:22249811

  18. Cannabinoid receptors in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    McPartland, J M; Agraval, J; Gleeson, D; Heasman, K; Glass, M

    2006-03-01

    Two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are expressed in mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. The presence of cannabinoid receptors in invertebrates has been controversial, due to conflicting evidence. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, using expanded search parameters. Evidence presented in the literature varied in validity, ranging from crude in vivo behavioural assays to robust in silico ortholog discovery. No research existed for several clades of invertebrates; we therefore tested for cannabinoid receptors in seven representative species, using tritiated ligand binding assays with [3H]CP55,940 displaced by the CB1-selective antagonist SR141716A. Specific binding of [3H]CP55,940 was found in neural membranes of Ciona intestinalis (Deuterstoma, a positive control), Lumbricusterrestris (Lophotrochozoa), and three ecdysozoans: Peripatoides novae-zealandiae (Onychophora), Jasus edwardi (Crustacea) and Panagrellus redivivus (Nematoda); the potency of displacement by SR141716A was comparable to measurements on rat cerebellum. No specific binding was observed in Actinothoe albocincta (Cnidaria) or Tethya aurantium (Porifera). The phylogenetic distribution of cannabinoid receptors may address taxonomic questions; previous studies suggested that the loss of CB1 was a synapomorphy shared by ecdysozoans. Our discovery of cannabinoid receptors in some nematodes, onychophorans, and crustaceans does not contradict the Ecdysozoa hypothesis, but gives it no support. We hypothesize that cannabinoid receptors evolved in the last common ancestor of bilaterians, with secondary loss occurring in insects and other clades. Conflicting data regarding Cnidarians precludes hypotheses regarding the last common ancestor of eumetazoans. No cannabinoid receptors are expressed in sponges, which probably diverged before the origin of the eumetazoan ancestor. PMID:16599912

  19. Neuropeptides in depression: role of VGF

    PubMed Central

    Thakker-Varia, Smita; Alder, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The monoamine hypothesis of depression is increasingly called into question by newer theories that revolve around changes in neuronal plasticity, primarily in the hippocampus, at both the structural and functional levels. Chronic stress negatively regulates hippocampal function while antidepressants ameliorate the effects of stress on neuronal morphology and activity. Both stress and antidepressants have been shown to affect levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) whose transcription is dependent on cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). BDNF itself has antidepressant-like actions and can induce transcription of a number of molecules. One class of genes regulated by both BDNF and serotonin (5-HT) are neuropeptides including VGF (non-acryonimic) which has a novel role in depression. Neuropeptides are important modulators of neuronal function but their role in affective disorders is just emerging. Recent studies demonstrate that VGF, which is also a CREB-dependent gene, is upregulated by antidepressant drugs and voluntary exercise and is reduced in animal models of depression. VGF enhances hippocampal synaptic plasticity as well as neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus but the mechanisms of antidepressant-like actions of VGF in behavioral paradigms are not known. We summarize experimental data describing the roles of BDNF, VGF and other neuropeptides in depression and how they may be acting through the generation of new neurons and altered synaptic activity. Understanding the molecular and cellular changes that underlie the actions of neuropeptides and how these adaptations result in antidepressant-like effects will aid in developing drugs that target novel pathways for major depressive disorders. PMID:18983874

  20. Relation between pulpal neuropeptides and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Kangarlou Haghighi, Ali; Nafarzadeh, Shima; Shantiaee, Yazdan; Naseri, Mandana; Ahangari, Zohreh

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp has neural fibers that produce neuropeptides like Substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The inflammation of dental pulp can lead to an increase amount of SP and CGRP release, especially in symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, it can be assumed that neuropeptides have some role in the progression of inflammation of the dental pulp. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the presence and concentration of neuropeptides in dental pulps of carious teeth caries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose, pulpal tissues were collected from 40 teeth (20 carious and 20 intact). Pulpal samples were cultured for 72 hours. ELISA reader was used for the detection of SP and CGRP in supernatant fluids. Statistical analysis was made by Mann-Whitney U and Chi square tests. RESULTS: SP and CGRP were present in 65% and 20% of inflamed pulpal samples, respectively and 40% and 5% of normal pulpal samples, respectively. Level of SP was significantly higher in inflamed pulp samples compared to intact pulps; however, there was no statistical difference when the other groups and neuropeptides were compared. The mean concentration of SP in normal pulps was 3.4 times greater than that of CGRP; interestingly in inflamed pulps the concentration of SP was 22.3 times greater than CGRP. CONCLUSION: We can conclude that in inflamed dental pulps, the concentration of SP is higher than CGRP. It can be hypothesized that CGRP has less effect on the inflammatory changes of dental pulps. PMID:24778684

  1. Neuropeptide Regulation of Fear and Anxiety: Implications of Cholecystokinin, Endogenous Opioids, and Neuropeptide Y

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Mallory E.; Choi, Dennis C.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    The neural circuitry of fear likely underlies anxiety and fear-related disorders such as specific and social phobia, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The primary pharmacological treatments currently utilized for these disorders include benzodiazepines, which act on the GABAergic receptor system, and antidepressants, which modulate the monamine systems. However, recent work on the regulation of fear neural circuitry suggests that specific neuropeptide modulation of this system is of critical importance. Recent reviews have examined the roles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis neuropeptides as well as the roles of neurotrophic factors in regulating fear. The present review, instead, will focus on three neuropeptide systems which have received less attention in recent years but which are clearly involved in regulating fear and its extinction. The endogenous opioid system, particularly activating the μ opioid receptors, has been demonstrated to regulate fear expression and extinction, possibly through functioning as an error signal within the amygdala to mark unreinforced conditioned stimuli. The cholecystokinin (CCK) system initially led to much excitement through its potential role in panic disorder. More recent work in the CCK neuropeptide pathway suggests that it may act in concordance with the endogenous cannabinoid system in the modulation of fear inhibition and extinction. Finally, older as well as very recent data suggests that neuropeptide Y (NPY) may play a very interesting role in counteracting stress effects, enhancing extinction, and enhancing resilience in fear and stress preclinical models. Future work in understanding the mechanisms of neuropeptide functioning, particularly within well-known behavioral circuits, are likely to provide fascinating new clues into the understanding of fear behavior as well as suggesting novel therapeutics for treating disorders of anxiety and fear dysregulation. PMID:22429904

  2. Neuropeptides in the Gonads: From Evolution to Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Nicolette L.; Bentley, George E.

    2010-01-01

    Vertebrate gonads are the sites of synthesis and binding of many peptides that were initially classified as neuropeptides. These gonadal neuropeptide systems are neither well understood in isolation, nor in their interactions with other neuropeptide systems. Further, our knowledge of the control of these gonadal neuropeptides by peripheral hormones that bind to the gonads, and which themselves are under regulation by true neuropeptide systems from the hypothalamus, is relatively meager. This review discusses the existence of a variety of neuropeptides and their receptors which have been discovered in vertebrate gonads, and the possible way in which such systems could have evolved. We then focus on two key neuropeptides for regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). Comparative studies have provided us with a degree of understanding as to how a gonadal GnRH system might have evolved, and they have been responsible for the discovery of GnIH and its gonadal counterpart. We attempt to highlight what is known about these two key gonadal neuropeptides, how their actions differ from their hypothalamic counterparts, and how we might learn from comparative studies of them and other gonadal neuropeptides in terms of pharmacology, reproductive physiology and evolutionary biology. PMID:21607065

  3. Identification of a new member of PBAN family of neuropeptides from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptide hormones produced by neurosecretory cells in the central or peripheral nervous systems regulate various physiological and behavioral events during insect development and reproduction. Pyrokinin/Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) is a major neuropeptide family, chara...

  4. Stress-related neuropeptides and alcoholism: CRH, NPY, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Gehlert, Donald R; Ryabinin, Andrey; Kaur, Simranjit; Cippitelli, Andrea; Thorsell, Annika; Lê, Anh D; Hipskind, Philip A; Hamdouchi, Chafiq; Lu, Jianliang; Hembre, Erik J; Cramer, Jeffrey; Song, Min; McKinzie, David; Morin, Michelle; Economidou, Daina; Stopponi, Serena; Cannella, Nazzareno; Braconi, Simone; Kallupi, Marsida; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Massi, Maurizio; George, David T; Gilman, Jody; Hersh, Jacqueline; Tauscher, Johannes T; Hunt, Stephen P; Hommer, Daniel; Heilig, Markus

    2009-11-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held at the conference on "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" in Volterra, Italy, May 6-9, 2008. Chaired by Markus Heilig and Roberto Ciccocioppo, this symposium offered a forum for the presentation of recent data linking neuropetidergic neurotransmission to the regulation of different alcohol-related behaviors in animals and in humans. Dr. Donald Gehlert described the development of a new corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 antagonist and showed its efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and stress-induced relapse in different animal models of alcohol abuse. Dr. Andrey Ryabinin reviewed recent findings in his laboratory, indicating a role of the urocortin 1 receptor system in the regulation of alcohol intake. Dr. Annika Thorsell showed data supporting the significance of the neuropeptide Y receptor system in the modulation of behaviors associated with a history of ethanol intoxication. Dr. Roberto Ciccocioppo focused his presentation on the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptors as treatment targets for alcoholism. Finally, Dr. Markus Heilig showed recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that neurokinin 1 antagonism may represent a promising new treatment for alcoholism. Collectively, these investigators highlighted the significance of neuropeptidergic neurotransmission in the regulation of neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol addiction. Data also revealed the importance of these systems as treatment targets for the development of new medication for alcoholism. PMID:19913192

  5. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ); )

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

  6. Mimetic analogs of three insect neuropeptide classes for pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides are potent regulators of critical life processes in insects, but are subjected to rapid degradation by peptidases in the hemolymph (blood), tissues and gut. This limitation can be overcome via replacement of peptidase susceptible portions of the insect neuropeptides to create analogs w...

  7. Mimetic analogs of pyrokinin neuropeptides for pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides are potent regulators of critical life processes in insects, but are subjected to rapid degradation by peptidases in the hemolymph (blood), tissues and gut. This limitation can be overcome via replacement of peptidase susceptible portions of the insect neuropeptides to create analogs ...

  8. METABOLISM OF AN INSECT NEUROPEPTIDE BY THE NEMATODE C. ELEGANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are interested in neuropeptides in nematodes as leads to new control agents for parasitic nematodes. This includes physiological aspects of neuropeptide action and metabolic regulation of these peptides. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, with its mapped genome, offers unique opport...

  9. Aquatic Invertebrate Development Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D.

    1985-01-01

    Little definitive evidence exists to show that gravity plays a major role in embyrogenesis of aquatic invertebrates. Two reasons for this may be: (1) few studies have been done that emphasize the role of gravity; and (2) there simply may not be any gravity effect. The buoyant nature of the aquatic environment could have obscured any evolutionary effect of gravity. The small size of most eggs and their apparent lack of orientation suggests reduced gravitational influence. Therefore, it is recommended that the term development, as applied to aquatic invertebrates, be loosely defined to encompass behavioral and morphological parameters for which baseline data already exist.

  10. Neuropeptide Y and posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sah, R; Geracioti, TD

    2016-01-01

    Resiliency to the adverse effects of extraordinary emotional trauma on the brain varies within the human population. Accordingly, some people cope better than others with traumatic stress. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino-acid peptide transmitter abundantly expressed in forebrain limbic and brain stem areas that regulate stress and emotional behaviors. Studies largely in rodents demonstrate a role for NPY in promoting coping with stress. Moreover, accruing data from the genetic to the physiological implicate NPY as a potential ‘resilience-to-stress’ factor in humans. Here, we consolidate findings from preclinical and clinical studies of NPY that are of relevance to stress-associated syndromes, most prototypically posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Collectively, these data suggest that reduced central nervous system (CNS) NPY concentrations or function may be associated with PTSD. We also link specific symptoms of human PTSD with extant findings in the NPY field to reveal potential physiological contributions of the neuropeptide to the disorder. In pursuit of understanding the physiological basis and treatment of PTSD, the NPY system is an attractive target. PMID:22801411

  11. Aplysia californica neurons express microinjected neuropeptide genes.

    PubMed Central

    DesGroseillers, L; Cowan, D; Miles, M; Sweet, A; Scheller, R H

    1987-01-01

    Neuropeptide genes are expressed in specific subsets of large polyploid neurons in Aplysia californica. We have defined the transcription initiation sites of three of these neuropeptide genes (the R14, L11, and ELH genes) and determined the nucleotide sequence of the promoter regions. The genes contain the usual eucaryotic promoter signals as well as other structures of potential regulatory importance, including inverted and direct repeats. The L11 and ELH genes, which are otherwise unrelated, have homology in the promoter regions, while the R14 promoter was distinct. When cloned plasmids were microinjected into Aplysia neurons in organ culture, transitions between supercoiled, relaxed circular, and linear DNAs occurred along with ligation into high-molecular-weight species. About 20% of the microinjected neurons expressed the genes. The promoter region of the R14 gene functioned in expression of the microinjected DNA in all cells studied. When both additional 5' and 3' sequences were included, the gene was specifically expressed only in R14, suggesting that the specificity of expression is generated by a multicomponent repression system. Finally, the R14 peptide could be expressed in L11, demonstrating that it is possible to alter the transmitter phenotype of these neurons by introduction of cloned genes. Images PMID:3670293

  12. Neuropeptide Signaling in Crustaceans Probed by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhidan

    Neuropeptides are one of the most diverse classes of signaling molecules whose identities and functions are not yet fully understood. They have been implicated in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes, including feeding-related and motivated behaviors, and also environmental adaptations. In this work, improved mass spectrometry-based analytical platforms were developed and applied to the crustacean systems to characterize signaling molecules. This dissertation begins with a review of mass spectrometry-based neuropeptide studies from both temporal- and spatial-domains. This review is then followed by several chapters detailing a few research projects related to the crustacean neuropeptidomic characterization and comparative analysis. The neuropeptidome of crayfish, Orconectes rusticus is characterized for the first time using mass spectrometry-based tools. In vivo microdialysis sampling technique offers the capability of direct sampling from extracellular space in a time-resolved manner. It is used to investigate the secreted neuropeptide and neurotransmitter content in Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, in this work. A new quantitation strategy using alternative mass spectrometry data acquisition approach is developed and applied for the first time to quantify neuropeptides. Coupling of this method with microdialysis enables the study of neuropeptide dynamics concurrent with different behaviors. Proof-of-principle experiments validating this approach have been carried out in Jonah crab, Cancer borealis to study feeding- and circadian rhythm-related neuropeptide changes using micoridialysis in a time-resolved manner. This permits a close correlation between behavioral and neurochemical changes, providing potential candidates for future validation of regulatory roles. In addition to providing spatial information, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) technique enables the characterization of signaling molecules while preserving the temporal resolution. A

  13. Control of arousal through neuropeptide afferents of the locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Zitnik, Gerard A

    2016-06-15

    The locus coeruleus-norepinephine (LC-NE) system is implicated in mediating several aspects of arousal. Alterations in LC neuronal discharge is associated with distinct changes in behavior, cognition, sensory processing and regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Changes in LC output and subsequent release of NE in target brain regions help adjust arousal state to respond appropriately to environmental conditions and behavioral circumstances. One way in which LC activity is controlled is through release of endogenous neuropeptides. Based on the sleep-wake cycle and environmental cues specific neuropeptide afferent systems are activated, innervating the LC. These neuropeptides include: corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), orexin (ORX), endogenous opioids, substance P (SP), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and somatostatin (SS). This review summarizes studies examining the neuroanatomical projections of these neuropeptides, their receptors in the LC, the actions on LC neurons and downstream NE release, as well as the behavioral and cognitive effects associated individual neuropeptide-mediated innervation of the LC. Finally, the relationship between individual neuropeptides, the LC-NE system and various clinical disorders is discussed, providing evidence for possible therapeutic targets for treatment of several arousal- and stress-related disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26688115

  14. Neuropeptides in experimental and degenerative arthritis.

    PubMed

    Niissalo, S; Hukkanen, M; Imai, S; Törnwall, J; Konttinen, Y T

    2002-06-01

    Classical symptoms of both inflammatory and degenerative arthritides may contribute to neurogenic responses like wheal, flare, edema, and pain. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with an immunogenetic background. Neurogenic inflammation has been considered to play an essential role in RA, in part because of the symmetrical involvement (cross-spinal reflexes) and the predominant involvement of the most heavily innervated small joints of the hands and the feet (highly represented in the hominiculus). In contrast, osteoarthritis (OA) is considered to arise as a result of degeneration of the hyaline articular cartilage, which secondarily results in local inflammation and pain. However, it is possible that the age-related and predominant (compared to nociceptive nerves) degeneration of the proprioceptive, kinesthetic and vasoregulatory nerves can represent the primary pathogenic events. This leads to progressive damage of tissue with extremely poor capacity for self-regeneration. Inflammation, be it primary/autoimmune or secondary/degenerative, leads to peripheral sensitization and stimulation, which may further lead to central sensitization, neurogenic amplification of the inflammatory responses and activation of the neuro-endocrine axis. Neuropeptides serve as messengers, which modulate and mediate the actions in these cascades. Accordingly, many neuropeptides have been used successfully as experimental treatments, most recently VIP, which effectively controlled collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Therefore, it can safely be concluded that better treatment/control of disease activity and pain can be achieved by blocking the cascade leading to initiation and/or amplification of inflammatory process combined with effects on central nociceptive and neuroendocrine responses. PMID:12114296

  15. Transcriptome analysis of neuropeptides and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) for neuropeptides in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Noda, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2014-03-01

    The genes encoding neuropeptides, neurohormones and their putative G-protein coupled receptors were identified in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) by transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Forty-eight candidate genes were found to encode neuropeptides or peptide hormones. These include all known insect neuropeptides and neurohormones, with the exception of neuropeptide-like precursor 2 (NPLP2) and trissin. The gene coding for prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was first identified from hemimetabolous insect. A total of 57 putative neuropeptide GPCR genes were identified and phylogenetic analysis showed most of them to be closely related to insect GPCRs. A notable finding was the occurrence of vertebrate hormone receptors, thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR)-like GPCR and parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR)-like GPCRs. These results suggest that N. lugens possesses the most comprehensive neuropeptide system yet found in insects. Moreover, our findings demonstrate the power of RNA-seq as a tool for analyzing the neuropeptide-related genes in the absence of whole genome sequence information. PMID:23932938

  16. Pharmacological Lifespan Extension of Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Lucanic, Mark; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Alavez, Silvestre

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying small, drug-like compounds that slow aging in multiple species, particularly in mammals. Such compounds may prove to be useful in treating and retarding age-related disease in humans. Just as invertebrate models have been essential in helping us understand the genetic pathways that control aging, these model organisms are also proving valuable in discovering chemical compounds that influence longevity. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has numerous advantages for such studies including its short lifespan and has been exploited by a number of investigators to find compounds that impact aging. Here, we summarize the progress being made in identifying compounds that extend the lifespan of invertebrates, and introduce the challenges we face in translating this research into human therapies. PMID:22771382

  17. GPCRs in invertebrate innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Jerome; Ewbank, Jonathan J

    2016-08-15

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a privileged point of contact between cells and their surrounding environment. They have been widely adopted in vertebrates as mediators of signals involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Invertebrates rely on innate immune defences to resist infection. We review here evidence from a number of different species, principally the genetically tractable Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster that points to an important role for GPCRs in modulating innate immunity in invertebrates too. In addition to examples of GPCRs involved in regulating the expression of defence genes, we discuss studies in C. elegans addressing the role of GPCR signalling in pathogen aversive behaviour. Despite the many lacunae in our current knowledge, it is clear that GPCR signalling contributes to host defence across the animal kingdom. PMID:27262554

  18. Marine invertebrates: communities at risk.

    PubMed

    Mather, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Our definition of the word 'animal' centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them. PMID:24832811

  19. Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them. PMID:24832811

  20. The Role of Hypothalamic Neuropeptides in Neurogenesis and Neuritogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bakos, Jan; Zatkova, Martina; Bacova, Zuzana; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a source of neural progenitor cells which give rise to different populations of specialized and differentiated cells during brain development. Newly formed neurons in the hypothalamus can synthesize and release various neuropeptides. Although term neuropeptide recently undergoes redefinition, small-size hypothalamic neuropeptides remain major signaling molecules mediating short- and long-term effects on brain development. They represent important factors in neurite growth and formation of neural circuits. There is evidence suggesting that the newly generated hypothalamic neurons may be involved in regulation of metabolism, energy balance, body weight, and social behavior as well. Here we review recent data on the role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in adult neurogenesis and neuritogenesis with special emphasis on the development of food intake and social behavior related brain circuits. PMID:26881105

  1. [Effects of neuropeptides on interferon production in vitro].

    PubMed

    Kul'chikov, A E; Makarenko, A N

    2008-01-01

    The study of an interferon-inducing action of neuropeptides (a cerebrolysin model) on production of interferons by human blood leukocytes has shown that neuropeptides induce gamma-interferon production in the titer 267 IU/ml that determines one of the mechanisms of a neuroimmunocorrecting effect of cerebrolysin (Ebewe, Austria) in many neurological diseases (acute stroke, brain traumas and different neuroinfectious diseases). PMID:18720720

  2. Ecdysteroids, juvenile hormone and insect neuropeptides: Recent successes and remaining major challenges.

    PubMed

    De Loof, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    In the recent decade, tremendous progress has been realized in insect endocrinology as the result of the application of a variety of advanced methods in neuropeptidome- and receptor research. Hormones of which the existence had been shown by bioassays four decades ago, e.g. bursicon (a member of the glycoprotein hormone family) and pupariation factor (Neb-pyrokinin 2, a myotropin), could be identified, along with their respective receptors. In control of diurnal rhythms, clock genes got company from the neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF), of which the receptor could also be identified. The discovery of Inka cells and their function in metamorphosis was a true hallmark. Analysis of the genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera yielded about 75, 100 and 200 genes coding for putative signaling peptides, respectively, corresponding to approximately 57, 100 and 100 peptides of which the expression could already be proven by means of mass spectrometry. The comparative approach invertebrates-vertebrates recently yielded indications for the existence of counterparts in insects for prolactin, atrial natriuretic hormone and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GRH). Substantial progress has been realized in identifying the Halloween genes, a membrane receptor(s) for ecdysteroids, a nuclear receptor for methylfarnesoate, and dozens of GPCRs for insect neuropeptides. The major remaining challenges concern the making match numerous orphan GPCRs with orphan peptidic ligands, and elucidating their functions. Furthermore, the endocrine control of growth, feeding-digestion, and of sexual differentiation, in particular of males, is still poorly understood. The finding that the prothoracic glands produce an autocrine factor with growth factor-like properties and secrete proteins necessitates a reevaluation of their role in development. PMID:17716674

  3. Bursicon and neuropeptide cascades during the ecdysis program of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas.

    PubMed

    Webster, Simon George; Wilcockson, David Charles; Mrinalini; Sharp, Jasmine Heloise

    2013-02-01

    Very little is known regarding the release patterns of neuropeptides involved in ecdysis of crustaceans compared to insects. In particular, the dynamics of release of the insect cuticle hardening hormone bursicon, which has only recently been discovered in crustaceans, is unknown. Bursicon has not previously been identified as a circulating neurohormone in these animals. Since patterns of release were likely to be ephemeral, bursicon, as well as two other neurohormones involved in the ecdysis program in crustaceans, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) were measured in single haemolymph samples in Carcinus maenas. For bursicon, an ultrasensitive time resolved-fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) was developed, which firstly involved its characterisation by HPLC, bioassay and immunoassay. Simultaneous measurement of three neurohormones was performed at unparalleled levels of resolution, which has not previously been reported in any invertebrate. Additionally, expression patterns and architecture of neurones expressing both bursicon and CCAP were determined in the CNS during the moult cycle. Bursicon and CCAP are released in a massive surge, likely a single global exocytotic event on emergence, just after release of CHH. Despite co-localisation of CCAP and bursicon in neurones of the CNS, observations suggest that differential packaging of CCAP can occur in the pericardial organs in a small population of secretory boutons, thus accounting for observations showing release of some CCAP during the penultimate stages of the ecdysis program. The results obtained vividly illustrate the dynamism of neuropeptide cascades occurring during crustacean ecdysis, and also allow proposal of a hypothesis of its endocrine control. PMID:23247273

  4. RF-amide neuropeptides and their receptors in Mammals: Pharmacological properties, drug development and main physiological functions.

    PubMed

    Quillet, Raphaëlle; Ayachi, Safia; Bihel, Frédéric; Elhabazi, Khadija; Ilien, Brigitte; Simonin, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    RF-amide neuropeptides, with their typical Arg-Phe-NH2 signature at their carboxyl C-termini, belong to a lineage of peptides that spans almost the entire life tree. Throughout evolution, RF-amide peptides and their receptors preserved fundamental roles in reproduction and feeding, both in Vertebrates and Invertebrates. The scope of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the RF-amide systems in Mammals from historical aspects to therapeutic opportunities. Taking advantage of the most recent findings in the field, special focus will be given on molecular and pharmacological properties of RF-amide peptides and their receptors as well as on their implication in the control of different physiological functions including feeding, reproduction and pain. Recent progress on the development of drugs that target RF-amide receptors will also be addressed. PMID:26896564

  5. Neuropeptides and alcohol addiction in monkeys.

    PubMed

    van Ree, J M; Kornet, M; Goosen, C

    1994-01-01

    Neuropeptides have been implicated in experimental drug addiction. Desglycinamide (Arg8) vasopressin (DGAVP) attenuates heroin and cocaine intake during initiation of drug self-administration in rats. beta-Endorphin is self-administered in rats and a role of endogenous opioids in cocaine reward has been proposed. The present studies deal with voluntary alcohol consumption in monkeys under free choice conditions. Monkeys initiated alcohol drinking within a few days and after a stable drinking pattern was acquired increased their ethanol consumption during a short period following interruption of the alcohol supply (relapse). The alcohol drinking behavior seems under the control of reinforcement principles. DGAVP reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking in the majority of treated monkeys. Initiation of alcohol drinking induced modifications in neuroendocrine homeostasis e.g. an increased plasma beta-endorphin. Both the opioid antagonist naltrexone and the opioid agonist morphine dose-dependently decreased alcohol intake during continuous supply and after imposed abstinence. The monkeys were more sensitive to both drugs after imposed abstinence. The effects are interpreted in the context of the endorphin compensation hypothesis of addictive behavior. It is suggested that endorphins may be particularly implicated in craving for addictive drugs and in relapse of addictive behavior. PMID:8032147

  6. The neuropeptide oxytocin modulates consumer brand relationships.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Andreas; Thron, Jesko; Scheele, Dirk; Marsh, Nina; Hurlemann, René

    2015-01-01

    Each year, companies invest billions of dollars into marketing activities to embellish brands as valuable relationship partners assuming that consumer brand relationships (CBRs) and interpersonal relationships rest upon the same neurobiological underpinnings. Given the crucial role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in social bonding, this study tests whether OXT-based mechanisms also determine the bond between consumers and brands. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study involving 101 subjects and analyzed the effect of intranasal OXT on consumers' attribution of relationship qualities to brands, brands paired with human celebrity endorsers, and familiar persons. OXT indeed promoted the attribution of relationship qualities not only in the case of social and semi-social stimuli, but also brands. Intriguingly, for subjects scoring high on autistic-like traits, the effect of OXT was completely reversed, evident in even lower relationship qualities across all stimulus categories. The importance of OXT in a CBR context is further corroborated by a three-fold increase in endogenous release of OXT following exposure to one's favorite brand and positive associations between baseline peripheral OXT concentrations and brand relationship qualities. Collectively, our findings indicate that OXT not only plays a fundamental role in developing interpersonal relationships, but also enables relationship formation with objects such as brands. PMID:26449882

  7. The neuropeptide oxytocin modulates consumer brand relationships

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, Andreas; Thron, Jesko; Scheele, Dirk; Marsh, Nina; Hurlemann, René

    2015-01-01

    Each year, companies invest billions of dollars into marketing activities to embellish brands as valuable relationship partners assuming that consumer brand relationships (CBRs) and interpersonal relationships rest upon the same neurobiological underpinnings. Given the crucial role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in social bonding, this study tests whether OXT-based mechanisms also determine the bond between consumers and brands. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study involving 101 subjects and analyzed the effect of intranasal OXT on consumers’ attribution of relationship qualities to brands, brands paired with human celebrity endorsers, and familiar persons. OXT indeed promoted the attribution of relationship qualities not only in the case of social and semi-social stimuli, but also brands. Intriguingly, for subjects scoring high on autistic-like traits, the effect of OXT was completely reversed, evident in even lower relationship qualities across all stimulus categories. The importance of OXT in a CBR context is further corroborated by a three-fold increase in endogenous release of OXT following exposure to one’s favorite brand and positive associations between baseline peripheral OXT concentrations and brand relationship qualities. Collectively, our findings indicate that OXT not only plays a fundamental role in developing interpersonal relationships, but also enables relationship formation with objects such as brands. PMID:26449882

  8. Neuropeptide Y in the olfactory microvillar cells.

    PubMed

    Montani, Giorgia; Tonelli, Simone; Elsaesser, Rebecca; Paysan, Jacques; Tirindelli, Roberto

    2006-07-01

    This paper examines a possible role of microvillar cells in coordinating cell death and regeneration of olfactory epithelial neurons. The olfactory neuroepithelium of mammals is a highly dynamic organ. Olfactory neurons periodically degenerate by apoptosis and as a consequence of chemical or physical damage. To compensate for this loss of cells, the olfactory epithelium maintains a lifelong ability to regenerate from a pool of resident multipotent stem cells. To assure functional continuity and histological integrity of the olfactory epithelium over a period of many decades, apoptosis and regeneration require to be precisely coordinated. Among the factors that have been implicated in mediating this regulation is the neuropeptide Y (NPY). Knockout mice that lack functional expression of this neurogenic peptide show defects in embryonic development of the olfactory epithelium and in its ability to regenerate in the adult. Here we show that, in postnatal olfactory epithelia, NPY is exclusively expressed by a specific population of microvillar cells. We previously characterized these cells as a novel type of putative chemosensory cells, which are provided with a phosphatidyl-inositol-mediated signal transduction cascade. Our findings allow for the first time to suggest that microvillar cells are involved in connecting apoptosis to neuronal regeneration by stimulus-induced release of NPY. PMID:16800866

  9. Uncoupling proteins of invertebrates: A review.

    PubMed

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Barylski, Jakub; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-09-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) mediate inducible proton conductance in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Herein, we summarize our knowledge regarding UCPs in invertebrates. Since 2001, the presence of UCPs has been demonstrated in nematodes, mollusks, amphioxi, and insects. We discuss the following important issues concerning invertebrate UCPs: their evolutionary relationships, molecular and functional properties, and physiological impact. Evolutionary analysis indicates that the branch of vertebrate and invertebrate UCP4-5 diverged early in the evolutionary process prior to the divergence of the animal groups. Several proposed physiological roles of invertebrate UCPs are energy control, metabolic balance, and preventive action against oxidative stress. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):691-699, 2016. PMID:27385510

  10. Arthropod use of invertebrate carrion

    SciTech Connect

    Seastedt, T.R.; Mameli, L.; Gridley, K.

    1981-01-01

    Arthropods associated with cricket carcasses placed on top and within deciduous forest litter were collected for 12 months. Vespid wasps and ants quickly removed carcasses left on top of forest litter, but carcasses placed within litter persisted throughout the study. Major consumers of carcasses in litter varied seasonally; maggots dominated on fresh carcasses in summer, but fresh carcasses placed in litter in autumn were consumed by other arthropods. A gamasid mite, Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) johnieae, dominated the microarthropod fauna found on exoskeleton fragments. A method for collecting invertebrate carrion feeders and measuring carrion disappearance is presented. 15 references, 2 tables.

  11. Arthropod use of invertebrate carrion

    SciTech Connect

    Seastedt, T.R.; Mameli, L.; Gridley, K.

    1980-08-01

    Arthropods associated with cricket carcasses placed on top and within deciduous forest litter were collected over a 12 month interval. Vespid wasps and ants quickly removed carcasses left on top of forest litter, but carcasses placed within litter persisted throughout the study. Major consumers of carcasses in litter varied seasonally; maggots dominated on fresh carcasses in summer, but fresh carcasses placed in litter in autumn were consumed by other arthropods. A gamasid mite, Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) johnieae dominated the microarthropod fauna found on exoskeleton fragments. A method for collecting invertebrate carrion feeders and measuring carrion disappearance is presented.

  12. Neuropeptide-S (NPS) Receptor Genotype Modulates Basolateral Amygdala Responsiveness to Aversive Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Dannlowski, Udo; Kugel, Harald; Franke, Friederike; Stuhrmann, Anja; Hohoff, Christa; Zwanzger, Peter; Lenzen, Thomas; Grotegerd, Dominik; Suslow, Thomas; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Domschke, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies point to a role of neuropeptide-S (NPS) in the etiology of anxiety disorders. In animal models, NPS and its receptor (NPSR) were shown to be highly expressed in the amygdala, a central structure in the fear circuit, also known to be hyper-responsive in anxiety disorders. Recently, a functional polymorphism in the NPSR gene (rs324981 A/T) has been associated with panic disorder and anxiety sensitivity. However, the role of NPSR gene variation in the modulation of fear-related amygdala responsiveness remains to be clarified. In 79 healthy subjects genotyped for NPSR rs324981, amygdala responses were assessed by means of fMRI. The participants were presented with fear-relevant faces in a robust emotion-processing paradigm frequently used to study amygdala responsiveness. We observed a strong association of NPSR T-alleles with right amygdala responsiveness to fear-relevant faces. The association peak was located in the BLA. Furthermore, responsiveness to aversive stimuli within this BLA cluster predicted a participant's self-reported harm avoidance but not depression level. We conclude that NPSR genotype is associated with increased amygdala responsiveness to fear-relevant stimuli. Thereby, NPSR rs324981 apparently causes an indirect effect on anxiety-related traits and potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders by shaping fear-related limbic activity. PMID:21525857

  13. Targeting the neuropeptide Y system in stress-related psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Enman, Nicole M.; Sabban, Esther L.; McGonigle, Paul; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated, extreme, or traumatic stressors can elicit pathological effects leading to many negative physical and psychological outcomes. Stressors can precipitate the onset of psychiatric diseases, or exacerbate pre-existing disorders including various anxiety and mood disorders. As stressors can negatively impact human psychiatric health, it is essential to identify neurochemicals that may confer protection from the negative sequelae of repeated or extreme stress exposure. Elucidating the neurobiological underpinnings of stress resilience will enhance our ability to promote resilience to, or recovery from, stress-related psychiatric disease. Herein, we will review the evidence for neuropeptide Y as an endogenous mediator of resilience and its potential relevance for the treatment of stress-related psychiatric diseases. PMID:25506604

  14. Multiple Neuropeptide-Coding Genes Involved in Planarian Pharynx Extension.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Seira; Inoue, Takeshi; Kashima, Makoto; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2016-06-01

    Planarian feeding behavior involves three steps: moving toward food, extending the pharynx from their planarian's ventral side after arriving at the food, and ingesting the food through the pharynx. Although pharynx extension is a remarkable behavior, it remains unknown what neuronal cell types are involved in its regulation. To identify neurons involved in regulating pharynx extension, we quantitatively analyzed pharynx extension and sought to identify these neurons by RNA interference (RNAi) and in situ hybridization. This assay, when performed using planarians with amputation of various body parts, clearly showed that the head portion is indispensable for inducing pharynx extension. We thus tested the effects of knockdown of brain neurons such as serotonergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic neurons by RNAi, but did not observe any effects on pharynx extension behavior. However, animals with RNAi of the Prohormone Convertase 2 (PC2, a neuropeptide processing enzyme) gene did not perform the pharynx extension behavior, suggesting the possible involvement of neuropeptide(s in the regulation of pharynx extension. We screened 24 neuropeptide-coding genes, analyzed their functions by RNAi using the pharynx extension assay system, and identified at least five neuropeptide genes involved in pharynx extension. These was expressed in different cells or neurons, and some of them were expressed in the brain, suggesting complex regulation of planarian feeding behavior by the nervous system. PMID:27268986

  15. The neuropeptide bursicon acts in cuticle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shengzhang; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Xi; Stanley, David; Yu, Xiaoping; Song, Qisheng

    2015-06-01

    Bursicon is a heterodimeric neuropeptide formed of bursicon α (burs α) and bursicon β (burs β) that controls cuticle tanning and wing expansion in insects. Burs α-α and burs β-β homodimers are also formed; they act via an unknown receptor to induce expression of prophylactic immune and stress genes during molting. Based on the hypothesis that burs β-β and/or bursicon influence expression of additional genes acting after the molt, we prepared and sequenced six Drosophila cDNA libraries from groups of flies separately injected with burs β-β, bursicon, or blank control. Compared to the control, the burs β-β treatments led to upregulation (by at least 1.5-fold) of 262 genes at 0.5 h postinjection (PI) and 298 genes at 1 h PI; 323 genes at 0.5 h PI and 269 genes at 1h PI were downregulated (by at least 0.67). Similar changes were recorded following bursicon injections. Of these genes, expression of seven transcripts encoding cuticle proteins was upregulated and three downregulated by burs β-β; expression of nine transcripts encoding cuticle proteins were upregulated and four downregulated following bursicon treatments. Expression of dozens of genes involved in chitin metabolism was altered by the experimental treatments. We recorded parallel changes in expression of selected genes by transcriptome and qPCR analysis. These findings support our hypothesis that burs β-β and bursicon influence expression of additional genes acting after the molt. We report that burs β-β and bursicon act in cuticle synthesis and degradation by regulating the expression of cuticular protein and chitin metabolizing related genes. PMID:25821138

  16. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Invertebrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buikema, A. L., Jr.; Herricks, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) toxicant effects on invertebrates; (2) microcosm and community effects, and (3) biological control of aquatic life. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. [Carbohydrate-binding proteins of marine invertebrates].

    PubMed

    Luk'ianov, P A; Chernikov, O V; Kobelev, S S; Chikalovets, I V; Molchanova, V I; Li, W

    2007-01-01

    The information on the carbohydrate specificity and molecular organization of some carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) of marine invertebrates is reported. Antiviral activity of some of the lectins against human immunodeficiency virus has been studied. Lectins of marine invertebrates are promising tools for studying natural glycoconjugates and cell effectors in vitro. PMID:17375673

  18. VIRAL DISEASES OF INVERTEBRATES OTHER THAN INSECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirteen examples of virus or viruslike related pathoses in non-insect invertebrates are described. From consideration of these examples, it becomes obvious that detailed descriptions of pathogenesis of virus diseases in non-insect invertebrates has not kept pace with the frequen...

  19. Atlas of Central Nervous System and the first Neuropeptide from Fire Ant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In some insects, especially lepidopteran species, regulation of pheromone biosynthesis and production is under hormonal control. The neuropeptide hormone responsible, PBAN (Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide), is synthesized in the subesophageal ganglion (SG) and released into the hemoly...

  20. Peptidomics for the discovery and characterization of neuropeptides and hormones

    PubMed Central

    Romanova, Elena V.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of neuropeptides as signaling molecules with paracrine or hormonal regulatory functions has led to trailblazing advances in physiology and fostered the characterization of numerous neuropeptide-binding G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) as potential drug targets. The impact on human health has been tremendous: approximately 30% of commercial drugs act via the GPCR pathway. However, about 25% of the GPCRs encoded by the mammalian genome still lack their pharmacological identity. Searching for the orphan GPCR endogenous ligands that likely are neuropeptides has proved to be a formidable task. Here we describe the mass spectrometry-based technologies and experimental strategies that have been successful in achieving high throughput characterization of endogenous peptides in nervous and endocrine systems. PMID:26143240

  1. Job Stress and Neuropeptide Response Contributing to Food Intake Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Woong; Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the correlations between food intake behavior and job stress level and neuropeptide hormone concentrations. Job strain and food intake behavior were first identified using a self-reported questionnaire, concentrations of neuropeptide hormones (adiponectin, brain derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], leptin, and ghrelin) were determined, and the correlations were analyzed. In the results, job strain showed significant correlations with adiponectin (odds ratio [OR], 1.220; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001~1.498; p < 0.05) and BDNF (OR, 0.793; 95% CI, 0.646~0.974; p < 0.05), and ghrelin exhibited a significant correlation with food intake score (OR, 0.911; 95% CI, 0.842~0.985, p < 0.05). These results suggest that job stress affects food intake regulation by altering the physiological concentrations of neuropeptide hormones as well as emotional status. PMID:26877843

  2. Brain neuropeptides in central ventilatory and cardiovascular regulation in trout

    PubMed Central

    Le Mével, Jean-Claude; Lancien, Frédéric; Mimassi, Nagi; Conlon, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Many neuropeptides and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are present within the brain area involved in ventilatory and cardiovascular regulation but only a few mammalian studies have focused on the integrative physiological actions of neuropeptides on these vital cardio-respiratory regulations. Because both the central neuroanatomical substrates that govern motor ventilatory and cardiovascular output and the primary sequence of regulatory peptides and their receptors have been mostly conserved through evolution, we have developed a trout model to study the central action of native neuropeptides on cardio-ventilatory regulation. In the present review, we summarize the most recent results obtained using this non-mammalian model with a focus on PACAP, VIP, tachykinins, CRF, urotensin-1, CGRP, angiotensin-related peptides, urotensin-II, NPY, and PYY. We propose hypotheses regarding the physiological relevance of the results obtained. PMID:23115556

  3. Mass spectrometric map of neuropeptide expression in Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Yew, Joanne Y; Kutz, Kimberly K; Dikler, Sergei; Messinger, Lynn; Li, Lingjun; Stretton, Antony O

    2005-08-01

    A mass spectrometric method was used for the localization and sequence characterization of peptides in the nervous system of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Mass spectrometric techniques utilizing MALDI-TOF, MALDI-TOF/TOF, and MALDI-FT instruments were combined with in situ chemical derivatization to examine the expression of known and putative neuropeptides in the A. suum nervous system. This first attempt at peptidomic characterization in A. suum mapped the expression of 39 neuropeptides, 17 of which are considered to be novel and whose expression has not been previously reported. These analyses also revealed that the peptide expression profile is unique to each nervous structure and that the majority of peptides observed belong to the RFamide family of neuropeptides. In addition, four new peptide sequences with a shared C-terminal PNFLRFamide motif are proposed based on in situ sequencing with mass spectrometry. PMID:15973679

  4. Neuropeptides and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address 4 information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and 4 information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex). Apart from operating as neurotransmitters, many biologically active peptides also function as gut hormones. Given that neuropeptides and gut hormones target the same cell membrane receptors (typically G protein-coupled receptors), the two messenger roles often converge in the same or similar biological implications. This is exemplified by NPY and peptide YY (PYY), two members of the PP-fold peptide family. While PYY is almost exclusively expressed by enteroendocrine cells, NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The function of PYY-releasing enteroendocrine cells is directly influenced by short chain fatty acids generated by the intestinal microbiota from indigestible fibre, while NPY may control the impact of the gut microbiota on inflammatory processes, pain, brain function and behaviour. Although the impact of neuropeptides on the interaction between the gut microbiota and brain awaits to be analysed, biologically active peptides are

  5. Neurotoxin-induced neuropeptide perturbations in striatum of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Oskar; Kultima, Kim; Wadensten, Henrik; Nilsson, Anna; Roman, Erika; Andrén, Per E; Brittebo, Eva B

    2013-04-01

    The cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is suggested to play a role in neurodegenerative disease. We have previously shown that although the selective uptake of BMAA in the rodent neonatal striatum does not cause neuronal cell death, exposure during the neonatal development leads to cognitive impairments in adult rats. The aim of the present study was to characterize the changes in the striatal neuropeptide systems of male and female rat pups treated neonatally (postnatal days 9-10) with BMAA (40-460 mg/kg). The label-free quantification of the relative levels of endogenous neuropeptides using mass spectrometry revealed that 25 peptides from 13 neuropeptide precursors were significantly changed in the rat neonatal striatum. The exposure to noncytotoxic doses of BMAA induced a dose-dependent increase of neurosecretory protein VGF-derived peptides, and changes in the relative levels of cholecystokinin, chromogranin, secretogranin, MCH, somatostatin and cortistatin-derived peptides were observed at the highest dose. In addition, the results revealed a sex-dependent increase in the relative level of peptides derived from the proenkephalin-A and protachykinin-1 precursors, including substance P and neurokinin A, in female pups. Because several of these peptides play a critical role in the development and survival of neurons, the observed neuropeptide changes might be possible mediators of BMAA-induced behavioral changes. Moreover, some neuropeptide changes suggest potential sex-related differences in susceptibility toward this neurotoxin. The present study also suggests that neuropeptide profiling might provide a sensitive characterization of the BMAA-induced noncytotoxic effects on the developing brain. PMID:23410195

  6. The insect capa neuropeptides impact desiccation and cold stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Insects are so successful because of great resistance to environmental stress, yet little is known about how such responses may be mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Results: We provide evidence that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene and peptide are critical mediators of desic...

  7. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  8. Immune Reactions Among Marine and Other Invertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the defense mechanisms and immune reaction found in invertebrates, and examines the wealth of related biological problems that need study and many of the leads that have recently been developed. (JR)

  9. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Crustacean Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    OuYang, Chuanzi; Liang, Zhidan; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides represent one of the largest classes of signaling molecules used by nervous systems to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. Over the past several years, mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies have revolutionized the discovery of neuropeptides in numerous model organisms, especially in decapod crustaceans. Here, we focus our discussion on recent advances in the use of MS-based techniques to map neuropeptides in spatial domain and monitoring their dynamic changes in temporal domain. These MS-enabled investigations provide valuable information about the distribution, secretion and potential function of neuropeptides with high molecular specificity and sensitivity. In situ MS imaging and in vivo microdialysis are highlighted as key technologies for probing spatio-temporal dynamics of neuropeptides in the crustacean nervous system. This review summarizes the latest advancement in MS-based methodologies for neuropeptide analysis including typical workflow and sample preparation strategies as well as major neuropeptide families discovered in decapod crustaceans. PMID:25448012

  10. Methanotrophic symbioses in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jillian M; Dubilier, Nicole

    2009-10-01

    Symbioses between marine animals and aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria are found at hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in the deep sea where reduced, methane-rich fluids mix with the surrounding oxidized seawater. These habitats are 'oases' in the otherwise nutrient-poor deep sea, where entire ecosystems are fueled by microbial chemosynthesis. By associating with bacteria that gain energy from the oxidation of CH4 with O2 , the animal host is indirectly able to gain nutrition from methane, an energy source that is otherwise only available to methanotrophic microorganisms. The host, in turn, provides its symbionts with continuous access to both electron acceptors and donors that are only available at a narrow oxic - anoxic interface for free-living methanotrophs. Symbiotic methane oxidizers have resisted all attempts at cultivation, so that all evidence for these symbiotic associations comes from ultrastructural, enzymatic, physiological, stable isotope and molecular biological studies of the symbiotic host tissues. In this review, we present an overview of the habitats and invertebrate hosts in which symbiotic methane oxidizers have been found, and the methods used to investigate these symbioses, focusing on the symbioses of bathymodiolin mussels that have received the most attention among methanotrophic associations. PMID:23765884

  11. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture. PMID:24567204

  12. Toll-Like Receptors of Deuterostome Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Satake, Honoo; Sekiguchi, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Defensive systems against pathogens are responsible not only for survival or lifetime of an individual but also for the evolution of a species. Innate immunity is expected to be more important for invertebrates than mammals, given that adaptive immunity has not been acquired in the former. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been shown to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity of mammals. Recent genome-wide analyses have suggested that TLR or their related genes are conserved in invertebrates. In particular, numerous TLR-related gene candidates were detected in deuterostome invertebrates, including a sea urchin (222 TLR-related gene candidates) and amphioxus (72 TLR-related gene candidates). Molecular phylogenetic analysis verified that most of sea urchin or amphioxus TLR candidates are paralogous, suggesting that these organisms expanded TLR-related genes in a species-specific manner. In contrast, another deuterostome invertebrate, the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, was found to possess only two TLR genes. Moreover, Ciona TLRs, Ci-TLR1 and Ci-TLR2, were shown to possess “hybrid” functionality of mammalian TLRs. Such functionality of Ci-TLRs could not be predicted by sequence comparison with vertebrate TLRs, indicating confounding evolutionary lineages of deuterostome invertebrate TLRs or their candidates. In this review article, we present recent advances in studies of TLRs or their candidates among deuterostome invertebrates, and provide insight into an evolutionary process of TLRs. PMID:22566918

  13. Discovery of sea urchin NGFFFamide receptor unites a bilaterian neuropeptide family

    PubMed Central

    Semmens, Dean C.; Beets, Isabel; Rowe, Matthew L.; Blowes, Liisa M.; Oliveri, Paola; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides are ancient regulators of physiology and behaviour, but reconstruction of neuropeptide evolution is often difficult owing to lack of sequence conservation. Here, we report that the receptor for the neuropeptide NGFFFamide in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (phylum Echinodermata) is an orthologue of vertebrate neuropeptide-S (NPS) receptors and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) receptors. Importantly, this has facilitated reconstruction of the evolution of two bilaterian neuropeptide signalling systems. Genes encoding the precursor of a vasopressin/oxytocin-type neuropeptide and its receptor duplicated in a common ancestor of the Bilateria. One copy of the precursor retained ancestral features, as seen in highly conserved vasopressin/oxytocin–neurophysin-type precursors. The other copy diverged, but this took different courses in protostomes and deuterostomes. In protostomes, the occurrence of a disulfide bridge in neuropeptide product(s) of the precursor was retained, as in CCAP, but with loss of the neurophysin domain. In deuterostomes, we see the opposite scenario—the neuropeptides lost the disulfide bridge, and neurophysin was retained (as in the NGFFFamide precursor) but was subsequently lost in vertebrate NPS precursors. Thus, the sea urchin NGFFFamide precursor and receptor are ‘missing links’ in the evolutionary history of neuropeptides that control ecdysis in arthropods (CCAP) and regulate anxiety in humans (NPS). PMID:25904544

  14. Molecular characterization and expression profiles of neuropeptide precursors in the migratory locust.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Pengcheng; Wang, Xianhui; Kang, Le

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptides serve as the most important regulatory signals in insects. Many neuropeptides and their precursors have been identified in terms of the contig sequences of whole genome information of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), which exhibits a typical phenotypic plasticity in morphology, behavior and physiology. However, functions of these locust neuropeptides are largely unknown. In this study, we first revised the 23 reported neuropeptide precursor genes and identified almost all the neuropeptide precursors and corresponding products in L. migratoria. We further revealed the significant expansion profiles (such as AKH) and alternative splicing of neuropeptide genes (Lom-ITP, Lom-OK and Lom-NPF1). Transcriptomic analysis indicated that several neuropeptides, such as Lom-ACP and Lom-OK, displayed development-specific expression patterns. qRT-PCR data confirmed that most neuropeptide precursors were strongly expressed in the central nervous system. Fifteen neuropeptide genes displayed different expression levels between solitarious and gregarious locusts. These findings provide valuable clues to understand neuropeptide evolution and their functional roles in basic biology and phase transition in locusts. PMID:26036749

  15. Evolution of pigment-dispersing factor neuropeptides in Panarthropoda: Insights from Onychophora (velvet worms) and Tardigrada (water bears).

    PubMed

    Mayer, Georg; Hering, Lars; Stosch, Juliane M; Stevenson, Paul A; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) denotes a conserved family of homologous neuropeptides present in several invertebrate groups, including mollusks, nematodes, insects, and crustaceans (referred to here as pigment-dispersing hormone [PDH]). With regard to their encoding genes (pdf, pdh), insects possess only one, nematodes two, and decapod crustaceans up to three, but their phylogenetic relationship is unknown. To shed light on the origin and diversification of pdf/pdh homologs in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda) and other molting animals (Ecdysozoa), we analyzed the transcriptomes of five distantly related onychophorans and a representative tardigrade and searched for putative pdf homologs in publically available genomes of other protostomes. This revealed only one pdf homolog in several mollusk and annelid species; two in Onychophora, Priapulida, and Nematoda; and three in Tardigrada. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda possessed two pdf homologs, one of which was lost in the arthropod or arthropod/tardigrade lineage, followed by subsequent duplications of the remaining homolog in some taxa. Immunolocalization of PDF-like peptides in six onychophoran species, by using a broadly reactive antibody that recognizes PDF/PDH peptides in numerous species, revealed an elaborate system of neurons and fibers in their central and peripheral nervous systems. Large varicose projections in the heart suggest that the PDF neuropeptides functioned as both circulating hormones and locally released transmitters in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda. The lack of PDF-like-immunoreactive somata associated with the onychophoran optic ganglion conforms to the hypothesis that onychophoran eyes are homologous to the arthropod median ocelli. PMID:25722044

  16. Adult exposure to tributyltin affects hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, Y1 receptor distribution, and circulating leptin in mice.

    PubMed

    Bo, E; Farinetti, A; Marraudino, M; Sterchele, D; Eva, C; Gotti, S; Panzica, G

    2016-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a pesticide used in antifouling paints, is toxic for aquatic invertebrates. In vertebrates, TBT may act in obesogen- inducing adipogenetic gene transcription for adipocyte differentiation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that acute administration of TBT induces c-fos expression in the arcuate nucleus. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult exposure to TBT may alter a part of the nervous pathways controlling animal food intake. In particular, we investigated the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity. This neuropeptide forms neural circuits dedicated to food assumption and its action is mediated by Y1 receptors that are widely expressed in the hypothalamic nuclei responsible for the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. To this purpose, TBT was orally administered at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg/day/body weight to adult animals [male and female C57BL/6 (Y1-LacZ transgenic mice] for 4 weeks. No differences were found in body weight and fat deposition, but we observed a significant increase in feed efficiency in TBT-treated male mice and a significant decrease in circulating leptin in both sexes. Computerized quantitative analysis of NPY immunoreactivity and Y1-related β-galactosidase activity demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in NPY and Y1 transgene expression in the hypothalamic circuit controlling food intake of treated male mice in comparison with controls. In conclusion, the present results indicate that adult exposure to TBT is profoundly interfering with the nervous circuits involved in the stimulation of food intake. PMID:27310180

  17. Neuropeptide signaling remodels chemosensory circuit composition in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Leinwand, Sarah G.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.

    2013-01-01

    Neural circuits detect environmental changes and drive behavior. The routes of information flow through dense neural networks are dynamic; however, the mechanisms underlying this circuit flexibility are poorly understood. Here, we define a novel, sensory context-dependent and neuropeptide-regulated switch in the composition of a C. elegans salt sensory circuit. The primary salt detectors, ASE sensory neurons, use BLI-4 endoprotease-dependent cleavage to release the insulin-like peptide INS-6 in response to large but not small changes in external salt stimuli. Insulins, signaling through the insulin receptor DAF-2, functionally switch the AWC olfactory sensory neuron into an interneuron in the salt circuit. Animals with disrupted insulin signaling have deficits in salt attraction, suggesting that peptidergic signaling potentiates responses to high salt stimuli, which may promote ion homeostasis. Our results show that sensory context and neuropeptide signaling modify neural networks and suggest general mechanisms for generating flexible behavioral outputs by modulating neural circuit composition. PMID:24013594

  18. Brain clock driven by neuropeptides and second messengers.

    PubMed

    Miro-Bueno, Jesus; Sosík, Petr

    2014-09-01

    The master circadian pacemaker in mammals is localized in a small portion of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). It is unclear how the SCN produces circadian rhythms. A common interpretation is that the SCN produces oscillations through the coupling of genetic oscillators in the neurons. The coupling is effected by a network of neuropeptides and second messengers. This network is crucial for the correct function of the SCN. However, models that study a possible oscillatory behavior of the network itself have received little attention. Here we propose and analyze a model to examine this oscillatory potential. We show that an intercellular oscillator emerges in the SCN as a result of the neuropeptide and second messenger dynamics. We find that this intercellular clock can produce circadian rhythms by itself with and without genetic clocks. We also found that the model is robust to perturbation of parameters and can be entrained by light-dark cycles. PMID:25314471

  19. Brain clock driven by neuropeptides and second messengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miro-Bueno, Jesus; Sosík, Petr

    2014-09-01

    The master circadian pacemaker in mammals is localized in a small portion of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). It is unclear how the SCN produces circadian rhythms. A common interpretation is that the SCN produces oscillations through the coupling of genetic oscillators in the neurons. The coupling is effected by a network of neuropeptides and second messengers. This network is crucial for the correct function of the SCN. However, models that study a possible oscillatory behavior of the network itself have received little attention. Here we propose and analyze a model to examine this oscillatory potential. We show that an intercellular oscillator emerges in the SCN as a result of the neuropeptide and second messenger dynamics. We find that this intercellular clock can produce circadian rhythms by itself with and without genetic clocks. We also found that the model is robust to perturbation of parameters and can be entrained by light-dark cycles.

  20. Neuropeptide signaling remodels chemosensory circuit composition in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Leinwand, Sarah G; Chalasani, Sreekanth H

    2013-10-01

    Neural circuits detect environmental changes and drive behavior. The routes of information flow through dense neural networks are dynamic, but the mechanisms underlying this circuit flexibility are poorly understood. Here, we define a sensory context-dependent and neuropeptide-regulated switch in the composition of a C. elegans salt sensory circuit. The primary salt detectors, ASE sensory neurons, used BLI-4 endoprotease-dependent cleavage to release the insulin-like peptide INS-6 in response to large, but not small, changes in external salt stimuli. Insulins, signaling through the insulin receptor DAF-2, functionally switched the AWC olfactory sensory neuron into an interneuron in the salt circuit. Worms with disrupted insulin signaling had deficits in salt attraction, suggesting that peptidergic signaling potentiates responses to high salt stimuli, which may promote ion homeostasis. Our results indicate that sensory context and neuropeptide signaling modify neural networks and suggest general mechanisms for generating flexible behavioral outputs by modulating neural circuit composition. PMID:24013594

  1. Neuropeptide S- and Neuropeptide S receptor-expressing neuron populations in the human pons

    PubMed Central

    Adori, Csaba; Barde, Swapnali; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Uhlén, Mathias; Reinscheid, Rainer R.; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Hökfelt, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a regulatory peptide with potent pharmacological effects. In rodents, NPS is expressed in a few pontine cell clusters. Its receptor (NPSR1) is, however, widely distributed in the brain. The anxiolytic and arousal-promoting effects of NPS make the NPS–NPSR1 system an interesting potential drug target in mood-related disorders. However, so far possible disease-related mechanisms involving NPS have only been studied in rodents. To validate the relevance of these animal studies for i.a. drug development, we have explored the distribution of NPS-expressing neurons in the human pons using in situ hybridization and stereological methods and we compared the distribution of NPS mRNA expressing neurons in the human and rat brain. The calculation revealed a total number of 22,317 ± 2411 NPS mRNA-positive neurons in human, bilaterally. The majority of cells (84%) were located in the parabrachial area in human: in the extension of the medial and lateral parabrachial nuclei, in the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus and around the adjacent lateral lemniscus. In human, in sharp contrast to the rodents, only very few NPS-positive cells (5%) were found close to the locus coeruleus. In addition, we identified a smaller cell cluster (11% of all NPS cells) in the pontine central gray matter both in human and rat, which has not been described previously even in rodents. We also examined the distribution of NPSR1 mRNA-expressing neurons in the human pons. These cells were mainly located in the rostral laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, the cuneiform nucleus, the microcellular tegmental nucleus region and in the periaqueductal gray. Our results show that both NPS and NPSR1 in the human pons are preferentially localized in regions of importance for integration of visceral autonomic information and emotional behavior. The reported interspecies differences must, however, be considered when looking for targets for new pharmacotherapeutical interventions. PMID:26441556

  2. Possible role of neuropeptides in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    McDougle, C J; Barr, L C; Goodman, W K; Price, L H

    1999-01-01

    The most consistent finding in clinical research of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is the significant treatment advantage of potent serotonin uptake inhibitors (SUIs) over other classes of antidepressant and antianxiety drugs. Clinical neurobiological studies of OCD, however, have yielded limited and inconsistent evidence for significant fundamental abnormalities in monoamine systems including serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. Furthermore, one-third to one-half of OCD patients do not experience a clinically meaningful improvement with SUI treatment. Investigation beyond the monoamine systems may be necessary in order to more fully understand the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and develop improved treatments. Evidence from preclinical studies suggests that neuropeptides may have important influences on memory acquisition, maintenance and retrieval; grooming, maternal, sexual and aggressive behavior; fixed action patterns; and stereotyped behavior; these phenomena may relate to some features of OCD. In addition, extensive interactions have been identified in the brain between neuropeptidergic and monoaminergic systems, including co-localization among specific populations of neurons. The purpose of this review is to present the current knowledge of the role of neuropeptides in the clinical neurobiology of children, adolescents and adults with OCD focusing primarily on results from pharmacological challenge and cerebrospinal fluid studies. Where evidence exists, developmentally regulated differences in neuropeptide function between children and adolescents versus adults with OCD will be emphasized; these data are intended to underscore the potential importance of establishing the age of symptom onset (childhood versus adult) in individual patients with OCD participating in clinical neurobiological investigations. Likewise, where information is available, differences in measures of neuropeptides between patients with non-tic-related OCD

  3. Parasite neuropeptide biology: Seeding rational drug target selection?

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Paul; Atkinson, Louise; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela; Dalzell, Johnathan J.; Sluder, Ann; Hammerland, Lance; Maule, Aaron G.

    2011-01-01

    The rationale for identifying drug targets within helminth neuromuscular signalling systems is based on the premise that adequate nerve and muscle function is essential for many of the key behavioural determinants of helminth parasitism, including sensory perception/host location, invasion, locomotion/orientation, attachment, feeding and reproduction. This premise is validated by the tendency of current anthelmintics to act on classical neurotransmitter-gated ion channels present on helminth nerve and/or muscle, yielding therapeutic endpoints associated with paralysis and/or death. Supplementary to classical neurotransmitters, helminth nervous systems are peptide-rich and encompass associated biosynthetic and signal transduction components – putative drug targets that remain to be exploited by anthelmintic chemotherapy. At this time, no neuropeptide system-targeting lead compounds have been reported, and given that our basic knowledge of neuropeptide biology in parasitic helminths remains inadequate, the short-term prospects for such drugs remain poor. Here, we review current knowledge of neuropeptide signalling in Nematoda and Platyhelminthes, and highlight a suite of 19 protein families that yield deleterious phenotypes in helminth reverse genetics screens. We suggest that orthologues of some of these peptidergic signalling components represent appealing therapeutic targets in parasitic helminths. PMID:24533265

  4. Insect capa neuropeptides impact desiccation and cold tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Terhzaz, Selim; Teets, Nicholas M.; Cabrero, Pablo; Henderson, Louise; Ritchie, Michael G.; Nachman, Ronald J.; Dow, Julian A. T.; Denlinger, David L.; Davies, Shireen-A.

    2015-01-01

    The success of insects is linked to their impressive tolerance to environmental stress, but little is known about how such responses are mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Here we show that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene is a desiccation- and cold stress-responsive gene in diverse dipteran species. Using targeted in vivo gene silencing, physiological manipulations, stress-tolerance assays, and rationally designed neuropeptide analogs, we demonstrate that the Drosophila melanogaster capa neuropeptide gene and its encoded peptides alter desiccation and cold tolerance. Knockdown of the capa gene increases desiccation tolerance but lengthens chill coma recovery time, and injection of capa peptide analogs can reverse both phenotypes. Immunohistochemical staining suggests that capa accumulates in the capa-expressing Va neurons during desiccation and nonlethal cold stress but is not released until recovery from each stress. Our results also suggest that regulation of cellular ion and water homeostasis mediated by capa peptide signaling in the insect Malpighian (renal) tubules is a key physiological mechanism during recovery from desiccation and cold stress. This work augments our understanding of how stress tolerance is mediated by neuroendocrine signaling and illustrates the use of rationally designed peptide analogs as agents for disrupting protective stress tolerance. PMID:25730885

  5. Mesolimbic neuropeptide W coordinates stress responses under novel environments.

    PubMed

    Motoike, Toshiyuki; Long, Jeffrey M; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Sinton, Christopher M; Skach, Amber; Williams, S Clay; Hammer, Robert E; Sakurai, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2016-05-24

    Neuropeptide B (NPB) and neuropeptide W (NPW) are endogenous neuropeptide ligands for the G protein-coupled receptors NPBWR1 and NPBWR2. Here we report that the majority of NPW neurons in the mesolimbic region possess tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, indicating that a small subset of dopaminergic neurons coexpress NPW. These NPW-containing neurons densely and exclusively innervate two limbic system nuclei in adult mouse brain: the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral part of the central amygdala nucleus (CeAL). In the CeAL of wild-type mice, restraint stress resulted in an inhibition of cellular activity, but this stress-induced inhibition was attenuated in the CeAL neurons of NPW(-/-) mice. Moreover, the response of NPW(-/-) mice to either formalin-induced pain stimuli or a live rat (i.e., a potential predator) was abnormal only when they were placed in a novel environment: The mice failed to show the normal species-specific self-protective and aversive reactions. In contrast, the behavior of NPW(-/-) mice in a habituated environment was indistinguishable from that of wild-type mice. These results indicate that the NPW/NPBWR1 system could play a critical role in the gating of stressful stimuli during exposure to novel environments. PMID:27140610

  6. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH sub 2 (Antho-RNamide), a sea anemone neuropeptide containing an unusual amino-terminal blocking group

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P.; Jacob, E.; Graff, D.; Reinscheid, R.K.; Nothacker, H.P. ); Rinehart, K.L.; Staley, A.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay for the carboxyl-terminal sequence Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2}, the authors have purified a peptide from acetic acid extracts of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. By classical amino acid analyses, mass spectrometry, and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, the structure of this peptide was determined as 3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2}. By using reversed-phase HPLC and a chiral mobile phase, it was shown that the 3-phenyllactyl group had the L configuration. Immunocytochemical staining with antiserum against Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2} showed that L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2} (Antho-RNamide) was localized in neutrons of sea anemones. The L-3-phenyllactyl group has not been found earlier in neuropeptides of vertebrates or higher invertebrates. They propose that this residue renders Antho-RNamide resistant to nonspecific aminopeptidases, thereby increasing the stability of the peptide after neuronal release.

  7. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically. PMID:25424353

  8. Can neuropeptides treat obesity? A review of neuropeptides and their potential role in the treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Boughton, C K; Murphy, K G

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major worldwide public health issue. The physiological systems that regulate body weight are thus of great interest as targets for anti-obesity agents. Peptidergic systems are critical to the regulation of energy homeostasis by key regions in the hypothalamus and brainstem. A number of neuropeptide systems have therefore been investigated as potential treatments for obesity. Blocking orexigenic peptide signals such as neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexins, relaxin-3 and galanin-like peptide or stimulating anorectic signalling pathways used by peptides such as the melanocortins, ciliary neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, are approaches that have shown some promise, but which have also highlighted possible concerns. Manipulation of central peptidergic systems poses a number of therapeutic problems, including brain access and side effects. Given that the homeostatic defence of body weight may limit the effectiveness of any single-target therapy developed, a combination therapy approach may offer the best hope for the effective prevention and treatment of obesity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Neuropeptides. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-7 PMID:23121386

  9. The decapod red pigment-concentrating hormone (Panbo-RPCH) is the first identified neuropeptide of the order Plecoptera and is interpreted as homoplastic character state.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents the first neuropeptide structure, identified by mass spectrometry, in two species of Plectoptera (stoneflies) and in one species of the coleopteran family Lycidae. In all three species, the octapeptide Panbo-RPCH (first identified in Pandalus borealis as a red pigment-concentrating hormone: pGlu-Leu-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Gly-Trp amide) is present. A review of the literature available on invertebrate neuropeptides that are identified or predicted from expressed sequence tags, transcriptome shotgun assemblies, and from fully sequenced genomes, show that Panbo-RPCH is found in Malacostraca (Crustacea) and certain hemipteran Heteroptera (Insecta). To date, Panbo-RPCH has not been shown present in non-Malacostracan crustaceans, nor in basal taxa of the Insecta (Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Ephemeroptera, Odonata). The present data adds to knowledge on the distribution of Panbo-RPCH, and when taking into account the most accepted, current phylogenetics of the Crustacea-Hexapoda relationship, this distribution of Panbo-RPCH in Malacostraca, Plecoptera, some hemipteran Heteroptera and in Coleoptera (Lycidae) can best be explained by homoplasy, implying parallel evolution. PMID:25733206

  10. HISTOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF INVERTEBRATES FOR EVALUATING CONTAMINANT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although many studies in toxicologic pathology evaluate the effects of toxicants on fishes because of their similarities with other vertebrates, invertebrates can also provide insights into toxicant impacts on ecosystems. Invertebrates not only serve as food resources (e.g., ...

  11. Conservation status of Chinese species: (2) Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Wang, Sung

    2007-06-01

    A total of 2441 invertebrate species were evaluated using the IUCN Red List Criteria and Regional Guidelines. Approximately 30 experts were involved in this project, which covered a wide range of species, including jellyfish, corals, planarians, snails, mollusks, bivalves, decapods, benthic crustaceans, arachnids (spiders, scorpions), butterflies, moths, beetles, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sea stars, acorn worms and lancelets. In general, invertebrate species in China were found to be severely threatened, with 0.9% being critically endangered, 13.44% endangered and 20.63% vulnerable. All species of hermatypic corals and planarians are threatened. More than 80% of evaluated species face serious threat due to habitat destruction by coral collection, logging, non-woody vegetation collection, timber plantations, non-timber plantations, extraction and/or livestock. Other threats are intrinsic factors, harvesting by humans, alien invasive species and pollution. The main intrinsic factors contributing to the high levels of threat are limited dispersal and restricted range. No conservation measures have been taken for 70% of the threatened invertebrates evaluated. Existing conservation measures include: strengthening of national and international legislation (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), increasing public awareness, studying population trends/monitoring, and establishment of protected areas. The major conservation measure employed is strengthening of policies. Relative to the situation worldwide (2006 IUCN Red List), there is little information available about invertebrate extinctions in China. PMID:21396022

  12. TOXICITY OF SYNTHETIC PYRETHROIDS TO FRESHWATER INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews the laboratory toxicity data on freshwater target and nontarget invertebrate s exposed to pyrethroids and evaluates the state of the data. Early in their development, yrethroids were shown to be highly effective insecticides gainst mosquitoes, blackflies and c...

  13. Libbie Henrietta Hyman: Eminent Invertebrate Zoologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Rose M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the life and work of the famous invertebrate zoologist Libbie Henrietta Hyman. Focuses on her work at the American Museum of History and her role as informal mentor and valued colleague and collaborator to zoologists all over the world. Contains 17 references. (DDR)

  14. The Early Years: An Invertebrate Garden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    For farmers and gardeners, slugs and snails may be serious pests that will limit the amount of harvest, but for a child, they represent a world to be explored. To teachers, however, invertebrates are tools for broadening students' understanding about animals, the connections between animals and habitats or plants, and an engaging subject to write…

  15. Effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Buikema

    1982-06-01

    The biological effects of acid rain, chlorination, heavy metals and other forms of pollution on freshwater invertebrates are examined in this review. Several methods for evaluating chronic toxicity to pesticide residues and synthetic fuels components are reviewed. The effects of pollutants is reviewed in detail for cladocera, amphipods, isopods, decapods, aquatic insects, molluscs, worms, and protozoa.(KRM)

  16. The evolution of invertebrate gene body methylation.

    PubMed

    Sarda, Shrutii; Zeng, Jia; Hunt, Brendan G; Yi, Soojin V

    2012-08-01

    DNA methylation of transcription units (gene bodies) occurs in the genomes of many animal and plant species. Phylogenetic persistence of gene body methylation implies biological significance; yet, the functional roles of gene body methylation remain elusive. In this study, we analyzed methylation levels of orthologs from four distantly related invertebrate species, including the honeybee, silkworm, sea squirt, and sea anemone. We demonstrate that in all four species, gene bodies distinctively cluster to two groups, which correspond to high and low methylation levels. This pattern resembles that of sequence composition arising from the mutagenetic effect of DNA methylation. In spite of this effect, our results show that protein sequences of genes targeted by high levels of methylation are conserved relative to genes lacking methylation. Our investigation identified many genes that either gained or lost methylation during the course of invertebrate evolution. Most of these genes appear to have lost methylation in the insect lineages we investigated, particularly in the honeybee. We found that genes that are methylated in all four invertebrate taxa are enriched for housekeeping functions related to transcription and translation, whereas the loss of DNA methylation occurred in genes whose functions include cellular signaling and reproductive processes. Overall, our study helps to illuminate the functional significance of gene body methylation and its impacts on genome evolution in diverse invertebrate taxa. PMID:22328716

  17. 76 FR 61379 - Final Recovery Plan, Bexar County Karst Invertebrates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Bexar County karst invertebrates were listed as endangered species on December 26, 2000 (65 FR 81419... Fish and Wildlife Service Final Recovery Plan, Bexar County Karst Invertebrates AGENCY: Fish and... Invertebrates under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). These species occur in Bexar...

  18. Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Emmanuel; Grunau, Christoph; Pierce, Raymond J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Gourbal, Benjamin; Galinier, Richard; Emans, Rémi; Cesari, Italo M.; Cosseau, Céline; Mitta, Guillaume

    2008-01-01

    Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs) that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism—a “controlled chaos”—based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also exist on

  19. The Role of Neuropeptides in Mouse Models of Colitis.

    PubMed

    Padua, David; Vu, John P; Germano, Patrizia M; Pisegna, Joseph R

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) constitutes an important clinically significant condition that results in morbidity and mortality. IBD can be generally classified into either ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) that differs in the clinical and histopathology. The role of neuropeptides in the pathogenesis of these conditions is becoming increasingly recognized for their importance in modulating the inflammatory state. Animal models provide the greatest insight to better understand the pathophysiology of both disorders which will hopefully allow for improved treatment strategies. This review will provide a better understanding of the role of murine models for studying colitis. PMID:26646243

  20. CGRP as a neuropeptide in migraine: lessons from mice

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a neurological disorder that is far more than just a bad headache. A hallmark of migraine is altered sensory perception. A likely contributor to this altered perception is the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Over the past decade, CGRP has become firmly established as a key player in migraine. Although the mechanisms and sites of action by which CGRP might trigger migraine remain speculative, recent advances with mouse models provide some hints. This brief review focuses on how CGRP might act as both a central and peripheral neuromodulator to contribute to the migraine-like symptom of light aversive behaviour in mice. PMID:26032833

  1. Neuropeptide Y directly affects ovarian cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Kardošová, Diana; Alwasel, Saleh Hamad; Harrath, Abdel Halim

    2015-12-01

    The effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY; 0, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/mL) on the expression of PCNA, bax and p53 were examined by immunocytochemistry in porcine luteinized granulosa cells. NPY inhibited proliferation as well as promoted apoptosis and accumulation of p53 in the cells. This is the first report to demonstrate the direct action of NPY on ovarian cell proliferation and apoptosis. The results of the study suggest that the effect is mediated by transcription factor p53. PMID:26679167

  2. Vesicle capture, not delivery, scales up neuropeptide storage in neuroendocrine terminals

    PubMed Central

    Bulgari, Dinara; Zhou, Chaoming; Hewes, Randall S.; Deitcher, David L.; Levitan, Edwin S.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons vary in their capacity to produce, store, and release neuropeptides packaged in dense-core vesicles (DCVs). Specifically, neurons used for cotransmission have terminals that contain few DCVs and many small synaptic vesicles, whereas neuroendocrine neuron terminals contain many DCVs. Although the mechanistic basis for presynaptic variation is unknown, past research demonstrated transcriptional control of neuropeptide synthesis suggesting that supply from the soma limits presynaptic neuropeptide accumulation. Here neuropeptide release is shown to scale with presynaptic neuropeptide stores in identified Drosophila cotransmitting and neuroendocrine terminals. However, the dramatic difference in DCV number in these terminals occurs with similar anterograde axonal transport and DCV half-lives. Thus, differences in presynaptic neuropeptide stores are not explained by DCV delivery from the soma or turnover. Instead, greater neuropeptide accumulation in neuroendocrine terminals is promoted by dramatically more efficient presynaptic DCV capture. Greater capture comes with tradeoffs, however, as fewer uncaptured DCVs are available to populate distal boutons and replenish neuropeptide stores following release. Finally, expression of the Dimmed transcription factor in cotransmitting neurons increases presynaptic DCV capture. Therefore, DCV capture in the terminal is genetically controlled and determines neuron-specific variation in peptidergic function. PMID:24550480

  3. Reproductive neuropeptides that stimulate spawning in the Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata).

    PubMed

    In, Vu Van; Ntalamagka, Nikoleta; O'Connor, Wayne; Wang, Tianfang; Powell, Daniel; Cummins, Scott F; Elizur, Abigail

    2016-08-01

    The Sydney Rock Oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, is a socioeconomically important species in Australia, yet little is known about the molecular mechanism that regulates its reproduction. To address this gap, we have performed a combination of high throughput transcriptomic and peptidomic analysis, to identify genes and neuropeptides that are expressed in the key regulatory tissues of S. glomerata; the visceral ganglia and gonads. Neuropeptides are known to encompass a diverse class of peptide messengers that play functional roles in many aspects of an animal's life, including reproduction. Approximately 28 neuropeptide genes were identified, primarily within the visceral ganglia transcriptome, that encode precursor proteins containing numerous neuropeptides; some were confirmed through mass spectral peptidomics analysis of the visceral ganglia. Of those, 28 bioactive neuropeptides were synthesized, and then tested for their capacity to induce gonad development and spawning in S. glomerata. Egg laying hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, APGWamide, buccalin, CCAP and LFRFamide were neuropeptides found to trigger spawning in ripe animals. Additional testing of APGWa and buccalin demonstrated their capacity to advance conditioning and gonadal maturation. In summary, our analysis of S. glomerata has identified neuropeptides that can influence the reproductive cycle of this species, specifically by accelerating gonadal maturation and triggering spawning. Other molluscan neuropeptides identified in this study will enable further research into understanding the neuroendocrinology of oysters, which may benefit their cultivation. PMID:27328253

  4. Biostable analogs of insect kinin and insectatachykinin neuropeptides: Novel antifeedants and aphicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides are potent regulators of critical life processes in insects, but are subject to rapid degradation by peptidases in the hemolymph (blood), tissues and gut. This limitation can be overcome via replacement of peptidase susceptible portions of the insect neuropeptides with non-natural resi...

  5. Short neuropeptide F is a sleep-promoting inhibitory modulator

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yuhua; Donelson, Nathan C.; Vecsey, Christopher G.; Guo, Fang; Rosbash, Michael; Griffith, Leslie C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY To advance the understanding of sleep regulation, we screened for sleep-promoting cells and identified neurons expressing neuropeptide Y-like short neuropeptide F (sNPF). Sleep-induction by sNPF meets all relevant criteria. Rebound sleep following sleep deprivation is reduced by activation of sNPF neurons and flies even experience negative sleep rebound upon cessation of sNPF neuronal stimulation, indicating that sNPF provides an important signal to the sleep homeostat. Only a subset of sNPF-expressing neurons, which includes the small ventrolateral clock neurons, is sleep-promoting. Their release of sNPF increases sleep consolidation in part by suppressing the activity of wake-promoting large ventrolateral clock neurons, and suppression of neuronal firing may be the general response to sNPF receptor activation. sNPF acutely increases sleep without altering feeding behavior, which it affects only on a much longer time scale. The profound effect of sNPF on sleep indicates that it is an important sleep-promoting molecule. PMID:24094110

  6. Allatotropin: An Ancestral Myotropic Neuropeptide Involved in Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Alzugaray, María Eugenia; Adami, Mariana Laura; Diambra, Luis Anibal; Hernandez-Martinez, Salvador; Damborenea, Cristina; Noriega, Fernando Gabriel; Ronderos, Jorge Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell-cell interactions are a basic principle for the organization of tissues and organs allowing them to perform integrated functions and to organize themselves spatially and temporally. Peptidic molecules secreted by neurons and epithelial cells play fundamental roles in cell-cell interactions, acting as local neuromodulators, neurohormones, as well as endocrine and paracrine messengers. Allatotropin (AT) is a neuropeptide originally described as a regulator of Juvenile Hormone synthesis, which plays multiple neural, endocrine and myoactive roles in insects and other organisms. Methods A combination of immunohistochemistry using AT-antibodies and AT-Qdot nanocrystal conjugates was used to identify immunoreactive nerve cells containing the peptide and epithelial-muscular cells targeted by AT in Hydra plagiodesmica. Physiological assays using AT and AT- antibodies revealed that while AT stimulated the extrusion of the hypostome in a dose-response fashion in starved hydroids, the activity of hypostome in hydroids challenged with food was blocked by treatments with different doses of AT-antibodies. Conclusions AT antibodies immunolabeled nerve cells in the stalk, pedal disc, tentacles and hypostome. AT-Qdot conjugates recognized epithelial-muscular cell in the same tissues, suggesting the existence of anatomical and functional relationships between these two cell populations. Physiological assays indicated that the AT-like peptide is facilitating food ingestion. Significance Immunochemical, physiological and bioinformatics evidence advocates that AT is an ancestral neuropeptide involved in myoregulatory activities associated with meal ingestion and digestion. PMID:24143240

  7. Neuropeptides and peptide hormones in syncope and orthostatic intolerance.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Balaji; Benditt, David G

    2014-01-01

    Syncope and orthostatic intolerance (OI) are common clinical syndromes often requiring medical attention. The former is defined as transient loss of consciousness and postural tone due to self-limited cerebral hypoperfusion, while the latter consists of inappropriate cardiovascular responses to upright posture such as occur with orthostatic hypotension (OH) or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. The most frequent causes of syncope and OI are conditions that temporarily disrupt essential moment-to-moment interaction between the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system. In this regard, many neuropeptides (NPs) or peptide hormones (PH) exert cardioactive effects that might contribute to the pathophysiology of certain forms of syncope or OI. To date, the principal peptides that have been studied in this context are: atrial and B-type-neuropeptides, adrenomedullin, endothelin-1 (ET-1), galanin, and vasopressin. While definitive conclusions cannot yet be drawn, the intrinsic vasoconstrictor ET-1 appears to be elevated in OH, presumably to compensate for vasodilation and hypotension of other etiologies. As such elevated ET-1 may become a marker for OH. Further, elevated NT-proBNP may play a role in causing vasodilation and hypotension in some forms of OH of previously unknown cause, and may be a marker in other patients of a cardiovascular cause of syncope and OI. In the end, the study of the role of NPs and PHs in syncope and OI syndromes is at an early stage, and considerable further future effort is needed. PMID:25299506

  8. Polymorphic variation as a driver of differential neuropeptide gene expression.

    PubMed

    Quinn, John P; Warburton, Alix; Myers, Paul; Savage, Abigail L; Bubb, Vivien J

    2013-12-01

    The regulation of neuropeptide gene expression and their receptors in a tissue specific and stimulus inducible manner will determine in part behaviour and physiology. This can be a dynamic process resulting from short term changes in response to the environment or long term modulation imposed by epigenetically determined mechanisms established during life experiences. The latter underpins what is termed 'nature and nurture, or 'gene×environment interactions'. Dynamic gene expression of neuropeptides or their receptors is a key component of signalling in the CNS and their inappropriate regulation is therefore a predicted target underpinning psychiatric disorders and neuropathological processes. Finding the regulatory domains within our genome which have the potential to direct gene expression is a difficult challenge as 98% of our genome is non-coding and, with the exception of proximal promoter regions, such elements can be quite distant from the gene that they regulate. This review will deal with how we can find such domains by addressing both the most conserved non-exonic regions in the genome using comparative genomics and the most recent or constantly evolving DNA such as repetitive DNA or retrotransposons. We shall also explore how polymorphic changes in such domains can be associated with CNS disorders by altering the appropriate gene expression patterns which maintain normal physiology. PMID:24210140

  9. Neuropeptide Y is an angiogenic factor in cardiovascular regeneration.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Rabya; Mahmood, Feroze; Amir, Rabia; Matyal, Robina

    2016-04-01

    In diabetic cardiomyopathy, there is altered angiogenic signaling and increased oxidative stress. As a result, anti-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory pathways are activated. These disrupt cellular metabolism and cause fibrosis and apoptosis, leading to pathological remodeling. The autonomic nervous system and neurotransmitters play an important role in angiogenesis. Therapies that promote angiogenesis may be able to relieve the pathology in these disease states. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the most abundantly produced and expressed neuropeptide in the central and peripheral nervous systems in mammals and plays an important role in promoting angiogenesis and cardiomyocyte remodeling. It produces effects through G-protein-coupled Y receptors that are widely distributed and also present on the myocardium. Some of these receptors are also involved in diseased states of the heart. NPY has been implicated as a potent growth factor, causing cell proliferation in multiple systems while the NPY3-36 fragment is selective in stimulating angiogenesis and cardiomyocyte remodeling. Current research is focusing on developing a drug delivery mechanism for NPY to prolong therapy without having significant systemic consequences. This could be a promising innovation in the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy and ischemic heart disease. PMID:26875634

  10. Inflammation and Neuropeptides: The Connection in Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Leena; Nabzdyk, Christoph; Andersen, Nicholas D; LoGerfo, Frank W; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview of the interaction between neuropeptides and inflammatory mediators as it pertains to diabetic wound healing. Abnormal wound healing is a major complication of both type I and type II diabetes and is the most frequent cause of non-traumatic lower limb amputation. Wound healing requires the orchestrated integration of complex biological and molecular events. Inflammation, proliferation and migration of cells followed by angiogenesis and re-epithelization are essential phases of wound healing. The link between wound healing and the nervous system is clinically apparent as peripheral neuropathy is reported in 30–50% of diabetic patients and is the most common and sensitive predictor of foot ulceration. The bidirectional connection between the nervous and the immune systems and the role it plays in wound healing has emerged as one of the focal features of the wound healing dogma. The mediators of this connection include neuropeptides and the cytokines released from different cells including immune and cutaneous cells. Therefore, to develop successful wound healing therapies, it is vital to understand in depth the signaling pathways in the neuro-immune axis and their implication in diabetic wound healing. PMID:19138453

  11. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mo; Loschek, Laura F.; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C.

    2016-01-01

    A female’s reproductive state influences her perception of odors and tastes along with her changed behavioral state and physiological needs. The mechanism that modulates chemosensory processing, however, remains largely elusive. Using Drosophila, we have identified a behavioral, neuronal, and genetic mechanism that adapts the senses of smell and taste, the major modalities for food quality perception, to the physiological needs of a gravid female. Pungent smelling polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are essential for cell proliferation, reproduction, and embryonic development in all animals. A polyamine-rich diet increases reproductive success in many species, including flies. Using a combination of behavioral analysis and in vivo physiology, we show that polyamine attraction is modulated in gravid females through a G-protein coupled receptor, the sex peptide receptor (SPR), and its neuropeptide ligands, MIPs (myoinhibitory peptides), which act directly in the polyamine-detecting olfactory and taste neurons. This modulation is triggered by an increase of SPR expression in chemosensory neurons, which is sufficient to convert virgin to mated female olfactory choice behavior. Together, our data show that neuropeptide-mediated modulation of peripheral chemosensory neurons increases a gravid female’s preference for important nutrients, thereby ensuring optimal conditions for her growing progeny. PMID:27145127

  12. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Ashiq; Üçpunar, Habibe K; Zhang, Mo; Loschek, Laura F; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C

    2016-05-01

    A female's reproductive state influences her perception of odors and tastes along with her changed behavioral state and physiological needs. The mechanism that modulates chemosensory processing, however, remains largely elusive. Using Drosophila, we have identified a behavioral, neuronal, and genetic mechanism that adapts the senses of smell and taste, the major modalities for food quality perception, to the physiological needs of a gravid female. Pungent smelling polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are essential for cell proliferation, reproduction, and embryonic development in all animals. A polyamine-rich diet increases reproductive success in many species, including flies. Using a combination of behavioral analysis and in vivo physiology, we show that polyamine attraction is modulated in gravid females through a G-protein coupled receptor, the sex peptide receptor (SPR), and its neuropeptide ligands, MIPs (myoinhibitory peptides), which act directly in the polyamine-detecting olfactory and taste neurons. This modulation is triggered by an increase of SPR expression in chemosensory neurons, which is sufficient to convert virgin to mated female olfactory choice behavior. Together, our data show that neuropeptide-mediated modulation of peripheral chemosensory neurons increases a gravid female's preference for important nutrients, thereby ensuring optimal conditions for her growing progeny. PMID:27145127

  13. Neuropeptide FF receptors as novel targets for limbic seizure attenuation.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Jeanelle; Meurs, Alfred; Bihel, Frederic; Hammoud, Hassan; Schmitt, Martine; De Kock, Joery; Utard, Valerie; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Buffel, Ine; Coppens, Jessica; Tourwe, Dirk; Maes, Veronique; De Prins, An; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Massie, Ann; Balasubramaniam, Ambikaipakan; Boon, Paul; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frederic; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well established anticonvulsant and first-in-class antiepileptic neuropeptide. In this study, the controversial role of NPY1 receptors in epilepsy was reassessed by testing two highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands and a mixed NPY1/NPFF receptor antagonist BIBP3226 in a rat model for limbic seizures. While BIBP3226 significantly attenuated the pilocarpine-induced seizures, neither of the highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands altered the seizure severity. Administration of the NPFF1/NPFF2 receptor antagonist RF9 also significantly attenuated limbic seizure activity. To further prove the involvement of NPFF receptors in these seizure-modulating effects, low and high affinity antagonists for the NPFF receptors were tested. We observed that the low affinity ligand failed to exhibit anticonvulsant properties while the two high affinity ligands significantly attenuated the seizures. Continuous NPFF1 receptor agonist administration also inhibited limbic seizures whereas bolus administration of the NPFF1 receptor agonist was without effect. This suggests that continuous agonist perfusion could result in NPFF1 receptor desensitization and mimic NPFF1 receptor antagonist administration. Our data unveil for the first time the involvement of the NPFF system in the management of limbic seizures. PMID:25963417

  14. Effects of nanomaterials on marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Laura; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-09-15

    The development of nanotechnology will inevitably lead to the release of consistent amounts of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) into marine ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies have been carried out to identify potential biological targets of NPs, and suitable models for predicting their impact on the health of the marine environment. Recent studies in invertebrates mainly focused on NP accumulation and sub-lethal effects, rather than acute toxicity. Among marine invertebrates, bivalves represent by large the most studied group, with polychaetes and echinoderms also emerging as significant targets of NPs. However, major scientific gaps still need to be filled. In this work, factors affecting the fate of NPs in the marine environment, and their consequent uptake/accumulation/toxicity in marine invertebrates will be summarized. The results show that in different model species, NP accumulation mainly occurs in digestive tract and gills. Data on sub-lethal effects and modes of action of different types of NPs (mainly metal oxides and metal based NPs) in marine invertebrates will be reviewed, in particular on immune function, oxidative stress and embryo development. Moreover, the possibility that such effects may be influenced by NP interactions with biomolecules in both external and internal environment will be introduced. In natural environmental media, NP interactions with polysaccharides, proteins and colloids may affect their agglomeration/aggregation and consequent bioavailability. Moreover, once within the organism, NPs are known to interact with plasma proteins, forming a protein corona that can affect particle uptake and toxicity in target cells in a physiological environment. These interactions, leading to the formation of eco-bio-coronas, may be crucial in determining particle behavior and effects also in marine biota. In order to classify NPs into groups and predict the implications of their release into the marine environment, information on

  15. At the transition from invertebrates to vertebrates, a novel GnRH-like peptide emerges in amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Roch, Graeme J; Tello, Javier A; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2014-04-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a critical reproductive regulator in vertebrates. Homologous peptides are also found in invertebrates, with a variety of characterized functions. In the amphioxus, an invertebrate that provides the best model for the transition to vertebrates, four GnRH receptors (GnRHRs) were previously described, but their native ligands were not identified. Using a more sensitive search methodology with hidden Markov models, we identified the first GnRH-like peptide confirmed in the amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae. This peptide specifically activated one of the four GnRHRs. Although the primary structure of this peptide was divergent from any previously isolated GnRH peptide, the minimal conserved residues found in all other GnRH superfamily members were retained. The peptide was immunolocalized in proximity of the central canal of the anterior nerve cord, a region where other neuropeptides and receptors have been found. Additionally, the amphioxus GnRH-like gene was positioned in a locus surrounded by syntenic homologs of the human GnRH paralogon. The amphioxus GnRH-like peptide, with its distinct primary structure, activated a receptor with equal potency to multiple ligands that span the GnRH superfamily. PMID:24361996

  16. Immunoreactive intensity of FXPRL amide neuropeptides in response to environmental conditions in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Hagino, Ayako; Kitagawa, Norio; Imai, Kunio; Yamashita, Okitsugu; Shiomi, Kunihiro

    2010-12-01

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, the diapause hormone-pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide gene, DH-PBAN, is a neuropeptide gene that encodes a polypeptide precursor consisting in five Phe-X-Pro-Arg-Leu-NH(2) (FXPRL) amide (FXPRLa) neuropeptides; DH (diapause hormone), PBAN (pheromone-biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide) and α-, β- and γ-SGNPs (subesophageal ganglion neuropeptides). These neuropeptides are synthesized in DH-PBAN-producing neurosecretory cells contained within three neuromeres, four mandibular cells, six maxillary cells, two labial cells (SLb) and four lateral cells of the subesophageal ganglion. DH is solely responsible, among the FXPRLa peptide family, for embryonic diapause. Functional differentiation has been previously suggested to occur at each neuromere, with the SLb cells releasing DH through brain innervation in order to induce embryonic diapause. We have investigated the immunoreactive intensity of DH in the SLb when thermal (25°C or 15°C) and light (continuous illumination or darkness) conditions are altered and following brain surgery that induces diapause or non-diapause eggs in the progeny. We have also examined the immunoreactivity of the other FXPRLa peptides by using anti-β-SGNP and anti-PBAN antibodies. Pupal SLb somata immunoreactivities seem to be affected by both thermal and light conditions during embryogenesis. Thus, we have been able to identify a close correlation between the immunoreactive intensity of neuropeptides and environmental conditions relating to the determination of embryonic diapause in B. mori. PMID:21103995

  17. Evolutionary conservation of neuropeptide expression in the thymus of different species

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Alberto B; Aw, Danielle; Palmer, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the immune and neuroendocrine systems cross talk by sharing ligands and receptors. Hormones and neuropeptides produced by the neuroendocrine system often modulate the function of lymphoid organs and immune cells. We have previously reported the intrathymic expression of somatostatin (SOM) in the mouse and that several neuropeptides, most notably calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), SOM and substance P (SP), can modulate thymocyte development. However, little is known about the intrathymic expression of these neuropeptides either in the mouse or in other species. Moreover, a comparative analysis of the expression of these molecules would highlight the evolutionary importance of intrathymic neuroendocrine interactions in T-cell development. We have studied the expression of different neuropeptides in the thymus of zebrafish, Xenopus, avians, rodent, porcine, equine and human by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. We found that CGRP, NPY, SOM, SP and vasointestinal polypeptide (VIP) are expressed in the thymus of all species investigated. The thymic location of many of these neuropeptides was conserved and appears to be within the stromal compartments. Interestingly, in the avian thymus the expression of CGRP, SOM and SP appears to change depending on the age of the tissue. These findings suggest that neuropeptides may play an important role in T-cell development and provide further evidence of cross talk between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. PMID:16630030

  18. Neuropeptide Y bioavailability is suppressed in the hindlimb of female Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Dwayne N; Milne, Kevin J; Noble, Earl G; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported that male, but not female, rats exhibit basal endogenous neuropeptide Y Y1-receptor modulation of hindlimb vasculature. The lack of baseline endo-genous Y1-receptor control in females was evident despite the expression of Y1-receptors and neuropeptide Y in hindlimb skeletal muscle tissue. The following study addressed the hypothesis that neuropeptide Y bioavailability is blunted in female rats under baseline conditions. It was further hypothesized that enhanced prejunctional autoinhibitory neuropeptide Y Y2-receptor expression and/or proteolytic processing of released neuropeptide Y may persist in female rats. Using western blot analysis, it was observed that females had greater overall neuropeptide Y Y2-receptor expression in skeletal muscle compared to males (P < 0.05). To address the prevalence/impact of baseline endogenous Y2-receptor activation on neuropeptide Y release in hindlimb vasculature, an arterial infusion of BIIE0246 (specific non-peptide Y2-receptor antagonist; 170 μg kg−1) was carried out on female and male rats. Y2-receptor blockade resulted in a decrease in hindlimb vascular conductance in females and males (P < 0.05). However, the BIIE0246-induced decrease in vascular conductance was Y1-receptor dependent in females, but not males (P < 0.05). In addition, compared to baseline, BIIE0246 infusion resulted in increased plasma neuropeptide Y concentration in females (P < 0.05), while there was no observable change in males. In a final experiment, systemic inhibition of proteolytic enzymes dipeptidylpeptidase IV (via 500 nm diprotin A) and aminopeptidase P (via 180 nm 2-mercaptoethanol) elicited a Y1-receptor-dependent decrease in hindlimb vascular conductance in females (P < 0.05). It was concluded that our previously reported lack of basal endogenous Y1-receptor activation in female hindlimb vasculature was (at least partially) due to prejunctional Y2-receptor autoinhibition and proteolytic processing of neuropeptide Y. PMID

  19. Estrogens and Neuropeptides in Postmenopausal Women: Un Update

    PubMed Central

    Guida, M.; Zullo, F.; Buonomo, B.; Marra, M.L.; Palatucci, V.; Pascale, R.; Visconti, F.; Guerra, G.; Spinelli, ML; Di Spiezio Sardo, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Menopause is characterized by depletion of ovarian follicles, a reduction of ovarian hormones to castrate levels and elevated levels of serum gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary gland. Although this process has significant repercussions throughout the body and affects a large proportion of our society, the neuroendocrine control mechanisms that accompany menopause are poorly understood. This review aims to examine rigorously the most accredited literature to provide an update about our current understanding of the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the onset of and transition into female reproductive senescence, focusing on the role of some specific neuropeptides in regulating the HPG axis and on their effects on several menopausal symptoms, especially referring to the cardiovascular risk, to open up new horizons for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23905050

  20. Neuropeptide Y receptors in rat brain: autoradiographic localization

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, J.C.; St-Pierre, S.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor binding sites have been characterized in rat brain using both membrane preparations and receptor autoradiography. Radiolabelled NPY binds with high affinity and specificity to an apparent single class of sites in rat brain membrane preparations. The ligand selectivity pattern reveals strong similarities between central and peripheral NPY receptors. NPY receptors are discretely distributed in rat brain with high densities found in the olfactory bulb, superficial layers of the cortex, ventral hippocampus, lateral septum, various thalamic nuclei and area postrema. The presence of high densities of NPY and NPY receptors in such areas suggests that NPY could serve important functions as a major neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the central nervous system.

  1. NEUROENDOCRINE ACTIONS AND REGULATION OF HYPOTHALAMIC NEUROPEPTIDE Y DURING LACTATION

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, W,R.; Ramoz, G.; Torto, R.; Keefe, K.A.; Wang, J. J.; Kalra, S. P.

    2007-01-01

    The expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its co-messenger, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), in arcuate neurons of the hypothalamus is increased during lactation in rats. Our research has been addressing the questions of the physiological actions of these peptides during lactation and the physiological signals associated with lactation that result in increased expression of their genes. Our studies indicate that NPY and AgRP exert pleiotropic actions during lactation that help integrate neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance with controls over anterior and posterior pituitary hormone secretion. Further, reciprocal signaling to the NPY/AgRP system by leptin and ghrelin is responsible for the changes in expression of these hypothalamic peptides in lactating animals, and thus, may contribute to regulation of food intake and the various neuroendocrine adaptations of lactation. PMID:17241697

  2. The effect of obesogenic diets on brain Neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Gumbs, Myrtille C R; van den Heuvel, José K; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is a major health problem characterized by accumulated fat mass. The availability of an energy-dense, highly palatable diet plays an important role in obesity development. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an orexigenic peptide, is affected by dietary composition and NPY can affect dietary preference. The hypothalamic NPY system is well characterized and has been studied in several models of obesity. However, findings from models of diet-induced obesity are not straightforward. In addition, NPY plays a role in (food-)motivated behaviors and interacts with the mesolimbic dopamine system, both of which are altered in obesity. We here review the effect of obesogenic diets on NPY levels in the hypothalamus and reward-related regions. PMID:27132202

  3. Sociality, pathogen avoidance, and the neuropeptides oxytocin and arginine vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena

    2011-11-01

    Both humans and nonhumans have evolved a variety of mechanisms to recognize pathogen threat and a variety of adaptive behavioral responses to minimize exposure to it. Because social interactions facilitate the spread of infection among individuals, the ability to recognize and avoid infected and potentially infected individuals is crucial. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are involved in mediating various facets of social behavior, including social recognition and responses to salient social threats. Results of studies with rodents have revealed that OT and AVP are also associated with the olfactory-mediated recognition and avoidance of actually or potentially infected individuals. The evidence reviewed here suggests that OT and AVP likely play parallel roles in modulating the recognition and avoidance of socially relevant pathogen threat in both humans and rodents. PMID:21960250

  4. Salusin-β as a powerful endogenous antidipsogenic neuropeptide

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki-Kemuriyama, Noriko; Nakano-Tateno, Tae; Tani, Yuji; Hirata, Yukio; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Salusin-β is an endogenous parasympathomimetic peptide, predominantly localized to the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary. Subcutaneously administered salusin-β (50 nmol/mouse) significantly increased water intake but did not affect locomotor activity or food intake. The salusin-β-induced increase in water intake was completely abrogated by pretreatment with muscarinic antagonist, atropine sulphate. In contrast, intracerebroventricular injection of salusin-β, at lower doses (10–100 fmol/mouse) caused a long-lasting decrease in water intake and locomotor activity throughout the entire dark phase of the diurnal cycle. Pre-injection of intracerebroventricular anti-salusin-β IgG completely abrogated the central salusin-β mediated suppression of water intake and locomotor activity. These results demonstrate contrasting actions of salusin-β in the control of water intake via the central and peripheral systems and highlight it as a potent endogenous antidipsogenic neuropeptide. PMID:26869388

  5. Cloning, expression and processing of the CP2 neuropeptide precursor of Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Vilim, F S; Alexeeva, V; Moroz, L L; Li, L; Moroz, T P; Sweedler, J V; Weiss, K R

    2001-12-01

    The cDNA sequence encoding the CP2 neuropeptide precursor is identified and encodes a single copy of the neuropeptide that is flanked by appropriate processing sites. The distribution of the CP2 precursor mRNA is described and matches the CP2-like immunoreactivity described previously. Single cell RT-PCR independently confirms the presence of CP2 precursor mRNA in selected neurons. MALDI-TOF MS is used to identify additional peptides derived from the CP2 precursor in neuronal somata and nerves, suggesting that the CP2 precursor may give rise to additional bioactive neuropeptides. PMID:11786187

  6. Platelet neuropeptide Y is critical for ischemic revascularization in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tilan, Jason U.; Everhart, Lindsay M.; Abe, Ken; Kuo-Bonde, Lydia; Chalothorn, Dan; Kitlinska, Joanna; Burnett, Mary Susan; Epstein, Stephen E.; Faber, James E.; Zukowska, Zofia

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that the sympathetic neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) is potently angiogenic, primarily through its Y2 receptor, and that endogenous NPY is crucial for capillary angiogenesis in rodent hindlimb ischemia. Here we sought to identify the source of NPY responsible for revascularization and its mechanisms of action. At d 3, NPY−/− mice demonstrated delayed recovery of blood flow and limb function, consistent with impaired collateral conductance, while ischemic capillary angiogenesis was reduced (∼70%) at d 14. This biphasic temporal response was confirmed by 2 peaks of NPY activation in rats: a transient early increase in neuronally derived plasma NPY and increase in platelet NPY during late-phase recovery. Compared to NPY-null platelets, collagen-activated NPY-rich platelets were more mitogenic (∼2-fold vs. ∼1.6-fold increase) for human microvascular endothelial cells, and Y2/Y5 receptor antagonists ablated this difference in proliferation. In NPY+/+ mice, ischemic angiogenesis was prevented by platelet depletion and then restored by transfusion of platelets from NPY+/+ mice, but not NPY−/− mice. In thrombocytopenic NPY−/− mice, transfusion of wild-type platelets fully restored ischemia-induced angiogenesis. These findings suggest that neuronally derived NPY accelerates the early response to femoral artery ligation by promoting collateral conductance, while platelet-derived NPY is critical for sustained capillary angiogenesis.—Tilan, J. U., Everhart, L. M., Abe, K., Kuo-Bonde, L., Chalothorn, D., Kitlinska, J., Burnett, M. S., Epstein, S. E., Faber, J. E., Zukowska, Z. Platelet neuropeptide Y is critical for ischemic revascularization in mice. PMID:23457218

  7. Biomedical Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    As a result of Biomedical Conferences, Vivo Metric Systems Co. has produced cardiac electrodes based on NASA technology. Frequently in science, one highly specialized discipline is unaware of relevant advances made in other areas. In an attempt to familiarize researchers in a variety of disciplines with medical problems and needs, NASA has sponsored conferences that bring together university scientists, practicing physicians and manufacturers of medical instruments.

  8. Invertebrates in testing of environmental chemicals: are they alternatives?

    PubMed Central

    Lagadic, L; Caquet, T

    1998-01-01

    An enlarged interpretation of alternatives in toxicology testing includes the replacement of one animal species with another, preferably a nonmammalian species. This paper reviews the potential of invertebrates in testing environmental chemicals and provides evidence of their usefulness in alternative testing methodologies. The first part of this review addresses the use of invertebrates in laboratory toxicology testing. Problems in extrapolating results obtained in invertebrates to those obtained from vertebrates are noted, suggesting that invertebrates can essentially be used in addition to rather than as replacements for vertebrates in laboratory toxicity tests. However, evaluation of the ecologic impact of environmental chemicals must include defining end points that may frequently differ from those classically used in biomedical research. In this context, alternative approaches using invertebrates may be more pertinent. The second part of the review therefore focuses on the use of invertebrates in situ to assess the environmental impact of pollutants. Advantages of invertebrates in ecotoxicologic investigation are presented for their usefulness for seeking mechanistic links between effects occurring at the individual level and consequences for higher levels of biologic organization (e.g., population and community). In the end, it is considered that replacement of vertebrates by invertebrates in ecotoxicity testing is likely to become a reality when basic knowledge of metabolic, physiologic, and developmental patterns in the latter will be sufficient to assess the effect of a given chemical through end points that could be different between invertebrates and vertebrates. PMID:9599707

  9. Effects of proposed physical ballast tank treatments on aquatic invertebrate resting eggs.

    PubMed

    Raikow, David F; Reid, David F; Blatchley, Ernest R; Jacobs, Gregory; Landrum, Peter F

    2007-04-01

    Adaptations in aquatic invertebrate resting eggs that confer protection from natural catastrophic events also could confer protection from treatments applied to ballast water for biological invasion vector management. To evaluate the potential efficacy of physical ballast water treatment methods, the present study examined the acute toxicity of heat (flash and holding methods), ultraviolet (UV) radiation (254 nm), and deoxygenation (acute and chronic) on resting eggs of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia mendotae and the marine brine shrimp Artemia sp. Both D. mendotae and Artemia sp. were similarly sensitive to flash exposures of heat (100% mortality at 70 degrees C), but D. mendotae were much more sensitive to prolonged exposures. Exposure to 4,000 mJ/cm2 of UV radiation resulted in mortality rates of 59% in Artemia sp. and 91% in D. mendotae. Deoxygenation to an oxygen concentration of 1 mg/L was maximally toxic to both species. Deoxygenation suppressed hatching of D. mendotae resting eggs at oxygen concentrations of less than 5.5 mg/L and of Artemia sp. resting eggs at concentrations of less than 1 mg/L. Results suggest that UV radiation and deoxygenation are not viable treatment methods with respect to invertebrate resting eggs because of the impracticality of producing sufficient UV doses and the suppression of hatching at low oxygen concentrations. Results also suggest that the treatment temperatures required to kill resting eggs are much higher than those reported to be effective against other invertebrate life stages and species. The results, however, do not preclude the effectiveness of these treatments against other organisms or life stages. Nevertheless, if ballast tank treatment systems employing the tested methods are intended to include mitigation of viable resting eggs, then physical removal of large resting eggs and ephippia via filtration would be a necessary initial step. PMID:17447556

  10. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the

  11. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  12. Developmental biology in marine invertebrate symbioses.

    PubMed

    McFall-Ngai, M J; Ruby, E G

    2000-12-01

    Associations between marine invertebrates and their cooperative bacterial symbionts offer access to an understanding of the roots of host-microbe interaction; for example, several symbioses like the squid-vibrio light organ association serve as models for investigating how each partner affects the developmental biology of the other. Previous results have identified a program of specific developmental events that unfolds as the association is initiated. In the past year, published studies have focused primarily on describing the mechanisms underlying the signaling processes that occur between the juvenile squid and the luminous bacteria that colonize it. PMID:11121780

  13. Nutrient-Specific Foraging in Invertebrate Predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayntz, David; Raubenheimer, David; Salomon, Mor; Toft, Søren; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Many herbivores and omnivores adjust their food selection behavior to regulate the intake of multiple nutrients. Carnivores, however, are generally assumed to optimize the rate of prey capture rather than select prey according to nutrient composition. We showed experimentally that invertebrate predators can forage selectively for protein and lipids to redress specific nutritional imbalances. This selection can take place at different stages of prey handling: The predator may select among foods of different nutritional composition, eat more of a prey if it is rich in nutrients that the predator is deficient in, or extract specific nutrients from a single prey item.

  14. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): developing community resources to study diverse invertebrate genomes.

    PubMed

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Collins, Allen G; Collins, Timothy; Crandall, Keith; Distel, Daniel; Dunn, Casey; Giribet, Gonzalo; Haddock, Steven; Knowlton, Nancy; Martindale, Mark; Medina, Mónica; Messing, Charles; O'Brien, Stephen J; Paulay, Gustav; Putnam, Nicolas; Ravasi, Timothy; Rouse, Greg W; Ryan, Joseph F; Schulze, Anja; Wörheide, Gert; Adamska, Maja; Bailly, Xavier; Breinholt, Jesse; Browne, William E; Diaz, M Christina; Evans, Nathaniel; Flot, Jean-François; Fogarty, Nicole; Johnston, Matthew; Kamel, Bishoy; Kawahara, Akito Y; Laberge, Tammy; Lavrov, Dennis; Michonneau, François; Moroz, Leonid L; Oakley, Todd; Osborne, Karen; Pomponi, Shirley A; Rhodes, Adelaide; Santos, Scott R; Satoh, Nori; Thacker, Robert W; Van de Peer, Yves; Voolstra, Christian R; Welch, David Mark; Winston, Judith; Zhou, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the "invertebrates," but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a "Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance" (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture. PMID:24336862

  15. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the “invertebrates,” but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a “Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance” (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture. PMID:24336862

  16. Probing Neuropeptide Signaling at the Organ and Cellular Domains via Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hui; Greer, Tyler; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has evolved to be a promising technology due to its ability to detect a broad mass range of molecular species and create density maps for selected compounds. It is currently one of the most useful techniques to determine the spatial distribution of neuropeptides in cells and tissues. Although IMS is conceptually simple, sample preparation steps, mass analyzers, and software suites are just a few of the factors that contribute to the successful design of a neuropeptide IMS experiment. This review provides a brief overview of IMS sampling protocols, instrumentation, data analysis tools, technological advancements and applications to neuropeptide localization in neurons and endocrine tissues. Future perspectives in this field are also provided, concluding that neuropeptide IMS could revolutionize neuronal network and biomarker discovery studies. PMID:22465716

  17. The invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans biosynthesizes ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    Patananan, Alexander N.; Budenholzer, Lauren M.; Pedraza, Maria E.; Torres, Eric R.; Adler, Lital N.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    L-ascorbate, commonly known as vitamin C, serves as an antioxidant and cofactor essential for many biological processes. Distinct ascorbate biosynthetic pathways have been established for animals and plants, but little is known about the presence or synthesis of this molecule in invertebrate species. We have investigated ascorbate metabolism in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where this molecule would be expected to play roles in oxidative stress resistance and as cofactor in collagen and neurotransmitter synthesis. Using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas-chromatography mass spectrometry, we determined that ascorbate is present at low amounts in the egg stage, L1 larvae, and mixed animal populations, with the egg stage containing the highest concentrations. Incubating C. elegans with precursor molecules necessary for ascorbate synthesis in plants and animals did not significantly alter ascorbate levels. Furthermore, bioinformatic analyses did not support the presence in C. elegans of either the plant or the animal biosynthetic pathway. However, we observed the complete 13C-labeling of ascorbate when C. elegans was grown with 13C-labeled Escherichia coli as a food source. These results support the hypothesis that ascorbate biosynthesis in invertebrates may proceed by a novel pathway and lay the foundation for a broader understanding of its biological role. PMID:25668719

  18. Molecular detection of marine invertebrate larvae.

    PubMed

    Goffredi, Shana K; Jones, William J; Scholin, Christopher A; Marin, Roman; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    The ecological patterns of many invertebrate larvae remain an ongoing mystery, in large part owing to the difficult task of detecting them in the water column. The development of nucleic-acid-based technology has the potential to resolve this issue by direct identification and monitoring of embryonic and larval forms in situ. We report herein on the successful development and application of nucleic-acid-based sandwich hybridization assays that detect barnacles using rRNA-targeted probes with both group-(order Thoracica) and species-(Balanus glandula) specificity. Primary results include the determination of target 18S rRNA sequences and the construction of "capture" probes for detection of larvae using hybridization techniques. In addition, we modified existing protocols for whole cell hybridization of invertebrate larvae as confirmation of the sandwich hybridization results. We used both hybridization techniques successfully in the laboratory on a plankton time series collected over 3 months, as well as a week-long in situ deployment of the technique in Monterey Bay, CA. The adaptability of this technology promises to be further applicable to various organisms and could be used to enhance our understanding of larval presence in the world's oceans. PMID:16380809

  19. The Endoparasitoid, Cotesia vestalis, Regulates Host Physiology by Reprogramming the Neuropeptide Transcriptional Network

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Min; Dong, Shuai; Li, Ming-tian; Yang, Yan-yan; Stanley, David; Chen, Xue-xin

    2015-01-01

    Endoparasitoids develop inside another insect by regulating host immunity and development via maternal factors injected into hosts during oviposition. Prior results have provided insights into parasitism-induced immunosuppression, including the neuropeptide accumulation in parasitized insects. Nonetheless, our understanding of neuropeptide influence on host development and behavior is not yet complete. We posed the hypothesis that parasitization alters expression of genes encoding pro-neuropeptides and used larvae of Plutella xylostella and its endoparasitoid, Cotesia vestalis to test our hypothesis. We prepared transcriptomes from the larval P. xylostella brain-CC-CA complex and identified transcripts encoding 19 neuropeptides. All corresponding cDNAs were confirmed by RACE. Our results demonstrate that parasitism significantly down-regulated, or delayed, expression of genes encoding pro-neuropeptides within 48 h post-parasitization. Changing expression of these genes may account for the previously reported decreased feeding behavior, reduced growth rates and aborted development in the host larvae. In effect, parasitization may operate at the molecular level within the CNS to create global changes in larval host biology. The significance of our finding is that, in addition to the known effects on immunity, parasitoids influence host pro-neuropeptide gene transcription. This finding reveals a new mechanism operating in host-parasitoid relationships to the advantage of the parasitoid. PMID:25640113

  20. The role of Neuropeptide Y in fear conditioning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Tasan, R O; Verma, D; Wood, J; Lach, G; Hörmer, B; de Lima, T C M; Herzog, H; Sperk, G

    2016-02-01

    While anxiety disorders are the brain disorders with the highest prevalence and constitute a major burden for society, a considerable number of affected people are still treated insufficiently. Thus, in an attempt to identify potential new anxiolytic drug targets, neuropeptides have gained considerable attention in recent years. Compared to classical neurotransmitters they often have a regionally restricted distribution and may bind to several distinct receptor subtypes. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a highly conserved neuropeptide that is specifically concentrated in limbic brain areas and signals via at least 5 different G-protein-coupled receptors. It is involved in a variety of physiological processes including the modulation of emotional-affective behaviors. An anxiolytic and stress-reducing property of NPY is supported by many preclinical studies. Whether NPY may also interact with processing of learned fear and fear extinction is comparatively unknown. However, this has considerable relevance since pathological, inappropriate and generalized fear expression and impaired fear extinction are hallmarks of human post-traumatic stress disorder and a major reason for its treatment-resistance. Recent evidence from different laboratories emphasizes a fear-reducing role of NPY, predominantly mediated by exogenous NPY acting on Y1 receptors. Since a reduction of fear expression was also observed in Y1 receptor knockout mice, other Y receptors may be equally important. By acting on Y2 receptors, NPY promotes fear extinction and generates a long-term suppression of fear, two important preconditions that could support cognitive behavioral therapies in human patients. A similar effect has been demonstrated for the closely related pancreatic polypeptide (PP) when acting on Y4 receptors. Preliminary evidence suggests that NPY modulates fear in particular by activation of Y1 and Y2 receptors in the basolateral and central amygdala, respectively. In the basolateral amygdala, NPY

  1. Overview of the conference and the field.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, E M

    1998-05-01

    The field of neuroimmune interactions is a prime example of interdisciplinary research spanning immunology, neurobiology, neuroendocrinology, and behavioral sciences. It also exemplifies research from the molecular to the clinical domain. The greatest challenge of the field, which this conference seeks to stimulate, is research that is at the same time precise, focused, and integrative. Several levels of interdisciplinary overlap will be highlighted. At the molecular level, neuro- and immune mediator molecules or their receptors may be members of the same superfamily or may regulate each other's expression or function. Most extensively studied are cytokine-neuropeptide/neurotransmitter interactions, including expression of cytokines within the central nervous system and production of neuropeptides by immune cells or at inflammatory sites. Advances relating cytokine-neurohormone interactions to mechanisms of apoptosis will ultimately shed light on the role of neuroimmune interactions in neuronal cell death and survival and immune cell selection, processes important in neuronal plasticity and immune specificity. At a systems level, advances have been made in cross-disciplinary application of modes of thinking. Incorporation of neurobiology's appreciation of anatomical organization, endocrinology's temporal dimension of neurohormonal secretion, and immunology's understanding of stimulus specificity all contribute to a more precise definition of how these complex systems interact at multiple levels. More precise understanding of effects of disruptions of these communications on disease susceptibility and expression will clarify how perturbations of one system, such as stimulation of the neuroendocrine stress response, might affect expression of disease in the other, such as autoimmune/inflammatory or infectious diseases. PMID:9629231

  2. 50 CFR 17.85 - Special rules-invertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-invertebrates. 17.85 Section 17.85 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....85 Special rules—invertebrates. (a) Seventeen mollusks in the Tennessee River. The species in...

  3. 50 CFR 17.85 - Special rules-invertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special rules-invertebrates. 17.85 Section 17.85 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....85 Special rules—invertebrates. (a) Seventeen mollusks in the Tennessee River. The species in...

  4. 50 CFR 17.85 - Special rules-invertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special rules-invertebrates. 17.85 Section 17.85 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....85 Special rules—invertebrates. (a) Seventeen mollusks in the Tennessee River. The species in...

  5. Attitudes toward Invertebrates: Are Educational "Bug Banquets" Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looy, Heather; Wood, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Scientists have used educational presentations and "bug banquets" to alter widespread negative attitudes toward invertebrates. In this article, the authors explore whether such presentations have a measurable affect on attitudes. Junior high, high school, and university students completed an attitude survey focusing on invertebrates in general and…

  6. 50 CFR 17.85 - Special rules-invertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special rules-invertebrates. 17.85 Section 17.85 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....85 Special rules—invertebrates. (a) Seventeen mollusks in the Tennessee River. The species in...

  7. 50 CFR 17.85 - Special rules-invertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special rules-invertebrates. 17.85 Section 17.85 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....85 Special rules—invertebrates. (a) Seventeen mollusks in the Tennessee River. The species in...

  8. Conference Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Cait

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes an original conference, organised by the Child Care Research Forum (http://www.qub.ac.uk/sites/ccrf/), which brought together experts from all over Northern Ireland to showcase some of the wealth of research with children and young people that is going on in the country today. Developed around the six high-level outcomes of…

  9. Evolution of neuropeptide Y and its related peptides.

    PubMed

    Larhammar, D; Blomqvist, A G; Söderberg, C

    1993-11-01

    1. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of peptides includes also the gut endocrine peptide YY (PYY), tetrapod pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and fish pancreatic peptide-tyrosine (PY). All peptides are 36 amino acids long. 2. Sequences from many types of vertebrates show that NPY has remained extremely well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution with 92% identity between mammals and cartilaginous fishes. 3. PYY has 97-100% identity between cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes, but is less conserved in amphibians and mammals (83% identity between amphibians and sharks and 75% identity between mammals and sharks). 4. NPY and PYY share 70-80% identity in most species. 5. Both NPY and PYY were present in the early vertebrate ancestor because both peptides have been found in lampreys. 6. The tissue distribution appears to have been largely conserved between phyla, except that PYY has more widespread neuronal expression in lower vertebrates. 7. Pancreatic polypeptide has diverged considerably among tetrapods leaving only 50% identity between mammals, birds/reptiles and frogs. 8. Several lines of evidence suggest that the PP gene arose by duplication of the PYY gene, probably in the early evolution of the tetrapods. 9. The pancreatic peptide PY found in anglerfish and daddy sculpin may have resulted from an independent duplication of the PYY gene. 10. The relationships of the recently described mollusc and worm peptides NPF and PYF with the NPY family still appear unclear. PMID:7905810

  10. Ant trail pheromone biosynthesis is triggered by a neuropeptide hormone.

    PubMed

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (∼200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

  11. Ant Trail Pheromone Biosynthesis Is Triggered by a Neuropeptide Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (∼200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

  12. Environmental enrichment induces behavioural disturbances in neuropeptide Y knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Florian; Wegerer, Vanessa; Jain, Piyush; Mayerhofer, Raphaela; Hassan, Ahmed M.; Fröhlich, Esther E.; Bock, Elisabeth; Pritz, Elisabeth; Herzog, Herbert; Holzer, Peter; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) refers to the provision of a complex and stimulating housing condition which improves well-being, behaviour and brain function of laboratory animals. The mechanisms behind these beneficial effects of EE are only partially understood. In the current report, we describe a link between EE and neuropeptide Y (NPY), based on findings from NPY knockout (KO) mice exposed to EE. Relative to EE-housed wildtype (WT) animals, NPY KO mice displayed altered behaviour as well as molecular and morphological changes in amygdala and hippocampus. Exposure of WT mice to EE reduced anxiety and decreased central glucocorticoid receptor expression, effects which were absent in NPY KO mice. In addition, NPY deletion altered the preference of EE items, and EE-housed NPY KO mice responded to stress with exaggerated hyperthermia, displayed impaired spatial memory, had higher hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels and altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity, effects which were not seen in WT mice. Accordingly, these findings suggest that NPY contributes to the anxiolytic effect of EE and that NPY deletion reverses the beneficial effects of EE into a negative experience. The NPY system could thus be a target for “enviromimetics”, therapeutics which reproduce the beneficial effects of enhanced environmental stimulation. PMID:27305846

  13. The effect of tachykinin neuropeptides on amyloid {beta} aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Flashner, Efrat; Raviv, Uri; Friedler, Assaf

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Mechanistic explanation of how tachykinin neuropeptides reduce A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity. {yields} Biophysical studies suggest that tachykinins do not modulate the distribution of A{beta} oligomeric states, but rather may incorporate into the fibrils. {yields} A possible strategy to inhibit toxicity of amyloid fibrils. -- Abstract: A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is production of amyloid {beta} peptides resulting from aberrant cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Amyloid {beta} assembles into fibrils under physiological conditions, through formation of neurotoxic intermediate oligomers. Tachykinin peptides are known to affect amyloid {beta} neurotoxicity in cells. To understand the mechanism of this effect, we studied how tachykinins affect A{beta}(1-40) aggregation in vitro. Fibrils grown in the presence of tachykinins exhibited reduced thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence, while their morphology, observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), did not alter. Cross linking studies revealed that the distribution of low molecular weight species was not affected by tachykinins. Our results suggest that there may be a specific interaction between tachykinins and A{beta}(1-40) that allows them to co-assemble. This effect may explain the reduction of A{beta}(1-40) neurotoxicity in cells treated with tachykinins.

  14. Environmental enrichment induces behavioural disturbances in neuropeptide Y knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Florian; Wegerer, Vanessa; Jain, Piyush; Mayerhofer, Raphaela; Hassan, Ahmed M; Fröhlich, Esther E; Bock, Elisabeth; Pritz, Elisabeth; Herzog, Herbert; Holzer, Peter; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) refers to the provision of a complex and stimulating housing condition which improves well-being, behaviour and brain function of laboratory animals. The mechanisms behind these beneficial effects of EE are only partially understood. In the current report, we describe a link between EE and neuropeptide Y (NPY), based on findings from NPY knockout (KO) mice exposed to EE. Relative to EE-housed wildtype (WT) animals, NPY KO mice displayed altered behaviour as well as molecular and morphological changes in amygdala and hippocampus. Exposure of WT mice to EE reduced anxiety and decreased central glucocorticoid receptor expression, effects which were absent in NPY KO mice. In addition, NPY deletion altered the preference of EE items, and EE-housed NPY KO mice responded to stress with exaggerated hyperthermia, displayed impaired spatial memory, had higher hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels and altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity, effects which were not seen in WT mice. Accordingly, these findings suggest that NPY contributes to the anxiolytic effect of EE and that NPY deletion reverses the beneficial effects of EE into a negative experience. The NPY system could thus be a target for "enviromimetics", therapeutics which reproduce the beneficial effects of enhanced environmental stimulation. PMID:27305846

  15. Nutraceutical functionalities of polysaccharides from marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byeong-Dae; Choi, Yeung Joon

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers are seeking functional materials from marine resources. These marine resources can be used as traditional food additives, and specifically, these are based on polysaccharides. To date, there is a big opportunity to develop new high-value added products with indispensable functional characteristics, which can be used in nutraceuticals either as additives or supplements. Also, a crossover in the pharmaceutical market may be established. Some glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mimetic-type molecules are already being utilized in the field of nutrition as well as in the cosmetics industry. This chemical is used as a dietary supplement to maintain the structure and function of cartilages, for the relief of pain caused by osteoarthritic joints, and can also be used as an anti-inflammatory agent. Recently, in relation to the prevalence of mad cow disease and avian influenza, the production of GAGs from marine invertebrates offers new market opportunities as compared with that obtained from bovine or avian livestock. PMID:22361178

  16. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Beketov, Mikhail A.; Kefford, Ben J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Liess, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused statistically significant effects on both the species and family richness in both regions, with losses in taxa up to 42% of the recorded taxonomic pools. Furthermore, the effects in Europe were detected at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. Thus, the current ecological risk assessment of pesticides falls short of protecting biodiversity, and new approaches linking ecology and ecotoxicology are needed. PMID:23776226

  17. JAKs and STATs in invertebrate model organisms.

    PubMed

    Dearolf, C R

    1999-09-01

    Invertebrate organisms provide systems to elucidate the developmental roles of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways, thereby complementing research conducted with mammalian cells and animals. Components of the JAK/STAT protein pathway have been identified and characterized in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. This review summarizes the molecular and genetic data obtained from these model organisms. In particular, a Drosophila JAK/STAT pathway regulates normal segmentation, cell proliferation, and differentiation, and hyperactivation of the pathway leads to tumor formation and leukemia-like defects. A Dictyostelium STAT regulates the development of stalk cells during the multicellular part of the life cycle. Future research utilizing these organisms should continue to provide insights into the roles and regulation of these proteins and their signaling pathways. PMID:10526575

  18. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Beketov, Mikhail A; Kefford, Ben J; Schäfer, Ralf B; Liess, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused statistically significant effects on both the species and family richness in both regions, with losses in taxa up to 42% of the recorded taxonomic pools. Furthermore, the effects in Europe were detected at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. Thus, the current ecological risk assessment of pesticides falls short of protecting biodiversity, and new approaches linking ecology and ecotoxicology are needed. PMID:23776226

  19. Comparison of synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors and their gene expression in response to feeding in Ixodes scapularis (Ixodidae) vs. Ornithodoros turicata (Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Egekwu, N; Sonenshine, D E; Garman, H; Barshis, D J; Cox, N; Bissinger, B W; Zhu, J; M Roe, R

    2016-02-01

    Illumina GAII high-throughput sequencing was used to compare expressed genes for female synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors of the soft tick Ornithodoros turicata with the hard tick Ixodes scapularis. Gene ontology molecular level three mapping revealed no significant differences amongst the same categories represented in O. turicata and I. scapularis. Transcripts predicting 22 neuropeptides or their receptors in the O. turicata synganglion were similar to annotations for 23 neuropeptides or receptors previously identified from I scapularis, with minor exceptions. A transcript predicting ecdysis triggering hormone receptor was identified in O. turicata; transcripts encoding for proprotein convertase and glycoprotein B were identified in both species. Transcripts predicting the same neurotransmitter receptors were found in the synganglion of both species. Gene expression of the transcripts showed numerous differences in response to feeding. Major differences were observed in expression of genes believed important in regulating slow vs. rapid feeding, blood water elimination, cuticle synthesis plasticity and in signalling reproductive activity. Although the glutamate receptor was strongly upregulated in both species, the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor, which inhibits glutamate, was upregulated significantly only in I. scapularis. These differences are consistent with the slow vs. rapid action of the pharyngeal pump in the two species. PMID:26783017

  20. Identification and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors. PMID:27353701

  1. Identification and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors. PMID:27353701

  2. Mapping of neuropeptides in the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system by imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hui; Hui, Limei; Kellersberger, Katherine; Li, Lingjun

    2013-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to characterizing the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) with great emphasis on comprehensive analysis and mapping distribution of its diverse neuropeptide complement. Previously, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been applied to this endeavor, yet with identification accuracy and throughput compromised. Therefore, molecular imaging methods are pursued to unequivocally determine the identity and location of the neuropeptides at a high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a novel, multi-faceted mass spectrometric strategy combining profiling and imaging techniques to characterize and map neuropeptides from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus STNS at the network level. In total, 55 neuropeptides from 10 families were identified from the major ganglia in the C. sapidus STNS for the first time, including the stomatogastric ganglion (STG), the paired commissural ganglia (CoG), the esophageal ganglion (OG), and the connecting nerve stomatogastric nerve (stn) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and the MS/MS capability of this technique. In addition, the locations of multiple neuropeptides were documented at a spatial resolution of 25 μm in the STG and upstream nerve using MALDI-TOF/TOF and high-mass-resolution and high-mass-accuracy MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) instrument. Furthermore, distributions of neuropeptides in the whole C. sapidus STNS were examined by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Different isoforms from the same family were simultaneously and unambiguously mapped, facilitating the functional exploration of neuropeptides present in the crustacean STNS and exemplifying the revolutionary role of this novel platform in neuronal network studies. PMID:23192703

  3. Mapping of Neuropeptides in the Crustacean Stomatogastric Nervous System by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui; Hui, Limei; Kellersberger, Katherine; Li, Lingjun

    2013-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to characterizing the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) with great emphasis on comprehensive analysis and mapping distribution of its diverse neuropeptide complement. Previously, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been applied to this endeavor, yet with identification accuracy and throughput compromised. Therefore, molecular imaging methods are pursued to unequivocally determine the identity and location of the neuropeptides at a high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a novel, multi-faceted mass spectrometric strategy combining profiling and imaging techniques to characterize and map neuropeptides from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus STNS at the network level. In total, 55 neuropeptides from 10 families were identified from the major ganglia in the C. sapidus STNS for the first time, including the stomatogastric ganglion (STG), the paired commissural ganglia (CoG), the esophageal ganglion (OG), and the connecting nerve stomatogastric nerve ( stn) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and the MS/MS capability of this technique. In addition, the locations of multiple neuropeptides were documented at a spatial resolution of 25 μm in the STG and upstream nerve using MALDI-TOF/TOF and high-mass-resolution and high-mass-accuracy MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) instrument. Furthermore, distributions of neuropeptides in the whole C. sapidus STNS were examined by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Different isoforms from the same family were simultaneously and unambiguously mapped, facilitating the functional exploration of neuropeptides present in the crustacean STNS and exemplifying the revolutionary role of this novel platform in neuronal network studies.

  4. Linking Invertebrates With Ecosystem Nitogen Cycling in a Tropical Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R. O.; Behn, K.; Taylor, B. W.; Flecker, A. S.

    2005-05-01

    Invertebrates can regulate stream nitrogen (N) cycles by excreting biologically available ammonium and by serving as a sink for benthic N in their biomass. Typically invertebrates have been considered to play a small role in stream N cycling because their biomass is low relative to other benthic stocks of N. However, if their production and excretion rates are high relative to N uptake and regeneration rates, then they may strongly regulate the N cycle in a stream. We investigated this idea in a tropical Venezuelan stream that has a high density and diversity of fishes. We measured N uptake, storage and regeneration using isotope tracers. Concurrently, we measured secondary production of invertebrates. We also measured ammonium excretion rates of several invertebrate taxa and compared these to whole ecosystem rates. Invertebrate excretion constituted one-fourth of ammonium uptake. High growth rates (up to 0.3 /d for some mayflies) contributed to high secondary production which equaled the excretion rate, thus invertebrates sequestered N at one-fourth of the cycling rate. Despite low biomass (< 1 g dry mass/m2) invertebrate activity constituted a substantial fraction of whole-stream N cycling rates.

  5. The effects of PAH contamination on soil invertebrate communities

    SciTech Connect

    Snow-Ashbrook, J.L.; Erstfeld, K.M.

    1995-12-31

    Soils were collected from an abandoned industrial site to study the effects of historic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on soil invertebrate communities. Nematode abundance and diversity, microarthropod abundance (orders Collembola and Acarina) and earthworm growth were evaluated. Physical and chemical characteristics of soils may affect both invertebrate community structure and the mobility/bioavailability of pollutants in soils. Soil characteristics were measured and included with PAH data in multiple regression analyses to identify factors which influences the responses observed in the soil invertebrate community. Positive associations were observed between eight invertebrate community endpoints and soil PAH content. For all of these endpoints but one, a higher degree of variability was explained when both PAH content and soil characteristics were considered. It is theorized that the positive response to soil PAH content may be the result of an increased abundance of PAH-degrading soil microbes. Increased microbial abundance could stimulate invertebrate communities by providing a direct food source or increasing the abundance of microbially-produced nutrients. These results suggest that both PAH content and soil characteristics significantly influenced the soil invertebrate community. It is not clear whether these factors influenced the invertebrate community independently, or whether differences in soil characteristics affected the community response by influencing the mobility or bioavailability of PAHs.

  6. Coral reef invertebrate microbiomes correlate with the presence of photosymbionts

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, David G; Dennis, Paul G; Uthicke, Sven; Soo, Rochelle M; Tyson, Gene W; Webster, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs provide habitat for an array of marine invertebrates that host symbiotic microbiomes. Photosynthetic symbionts including Symbiodinium dinoflagellates and diatoms potentially influence the diversity of their host-associated microbiomes by releasing carbon-containing photosynthates and other organic compounds that fuel microbial metabolism. Here we used 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon pyrosequencing to characterise the microbiomes of 11 common Great Barrier Reef marine invertebrate species that host photosynthetic symbionts and five taxa in which they are absent. The presence of photosynthetic symbionts influenced the composition but not the species richness, evenness and phylogenetic diversity of invertebrate-associated microbiomes. Invertebrates without photosynthetic symbionts were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, whereas those hosting photosynthetic symbionts were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Interestingly, many microbial species from photosymbiont-bearing invertebrates, including Oceanospirillales spp., Alteromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Halomonas spp., are implicated in the metabolism of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). DMSP is produced in high concentrations by photosynthetic dinoflagellates and is involved in climate regulation by facilitating cloud formation. Microbiomes correlated with host taxa and replicate individuals from most sampled species grouped in distance-based redundancy analysis of retrieved 16S rRNA gene sequences. This study highlights the complex nature of invertebrate holobionts and confirms the importance of photosynthetic symbionts in structuring marine invertebrate bacterial communities. PMID:23303372

  7. Neuropeptide B (NPB) and neuropeptide W (NPW) system in cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like (ROB) cells: NPW and NPB inhibit proliferative activity of ROB cells.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Tyczewska, Marianna; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-12-01

    Neuropeptides B (NPB) and W (NPW) have been identified as endogenous ligands of two G-protein-coupled receptors, neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 (NPBWR1, formerly known as GPR7) and neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 (NPBWR2, formerly known as GPR8). In rodents where NPBWR2 is absent, its counterpart is named the similar to neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 (similar to NPBWR2, formerly GPR8-like). Both NPB and NPW play a role in the control of feeding, neuroendocrine axis functions, memory and learning processes as well as in pain regulation. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of NPB, NPW, NPBWR1 and the similar to NPBWR2 genes in cultured rat calvarial osteoblast-like (ROB) cells and the effects of both peptides on proliferative activity and osteocalcin secretion by ROB cells. Classic RT-PCR technique revealed the presence of ppNPB mRNA, ppNPW mRNA, and NPBWR1 mRNA, but not similar to NPBWR2 mRNA in ROB cells. QPCR revealed gradual (days 7, 14 and 21 of culture) increase of the ppNPB gene expression, while expression of ppNPW gene was the highest at day 14 and was comparable to that seen in freshly isolated cells. In ROB cells, expression of NPBWR1 gene was notable at day 7 of culture, lower at day 21, and negligible at day 14. Neither NPB nor NPW changed osteocalcin secretion by cultured osteoblast-like cells while both neuropeptides inhibited their proliferative activity. Results of the present study suggest that the systems of NPW, NPB and NPBWR1 directly regulate proliferative activity of cultured rat calvaria osteoblast-like cells. The physiological significance of this osteoblastic system remains unclear, and requires further investigation. PMID:19885618

  8. APS Conference on Understanding the Biological Clock: From Genetics to Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Martin

    1996-01-01

    The Conference was designed to take advantage of the fusion of two intellectually dominant but heretofore separate lines of clock research, vertebrate physiology and invertebrate and microbial genetics. The APS Conference attracted 251 scientists, 68 of whom were students. In addition to the excellent speaker program organized by Dunlap and Loros, the attendees also submitted 93 volunteer abstracts that were programmed in poster sessions. Thirty-four percent of the submitted abstracts were first authorized by a female student or scientist.

  9. Multiple amidated neuropeptides are required for normal circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Taghert, P H; Hewes, R S; Park, J H; O'Brien, M A; Han, M; Peck, M E

    2001-09-01

    In Drosophila, the amidated neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) is expressed by the ventral subset of lateral pacemaker neurons and is required for circadian locomotor rhythms. Residual rhythmicity in pdf mutants likely reflects the activity of other neurotransmitters. We asked whether other neuropeptides contribute to such auxiliary mechanisms. We used the gal4/UAS system to create mosaics for the neuropeptide amidating enzyme PHM; amidation is a highly specific and widespread modification of secretory peptides in Drosophila. Three different gal4 drivers restricted PHM expression to different numbers of peptidergic neurons. These mosaics displayed aberrant locomotor rhythms to degrees that paralleled the apparent complexity of the spatial patterns. Certain PHM mosaics were less rhythmic than pdf mutants and as severe as per mutants. Additional gal4 elements were added to the weakly rhythmic PHM mosaics. Although adding pdf-gal4 provided only partial improvement, adding the widely expressed tim-gal4 largely restored rhythmicity. These results indicate that, in Drosophila, peptide amidation is required for neuropeptide regulation of behavior. They also support the hypothesis that multiple amidated neuropeptides, acting upstream, downstream, or in parallel to PDF, help organize daily locomotor rhythms. PMID:11517257

  10. Effects of loratadine and cetirizine on serum levels of neuropeptides in patients with chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Başak, Pinar Y; Vural, Huseyin; Kazanoglu, Oya O; Erturan, Ijlal; Buyukbayram, Halil I

    2014-12-01

    H1-receptor inhibiting drugs, namely loratadine and cetirizine, were frequently used in treatment of chronic urticaria. Urticarial weal and flare reactions, a neurogenic reflex due to neuropeptides, were reported to be more effectively inhibited by cetirizine than loratadine. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments on serum levels of selected neuropeptides in chronic urticaria. Treatment groups of either systemic loratadine or cetirizine (10 mg/d), consisting of 16 and 22 patients, respectively, were included. Serum levels of stem cell factor (SCF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nerve growth factor (NGF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP) were detected before and after one week of treatment with antihistamines. Serum NPY and VIP levels were significantly decreased when compared before and after treatment with antihistamines (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). SCF and NGF values were also decreased after antihistamine treatment (P < 0.05). Post-treatment levels of CGRP were significantly higher compared with pretreatment values, while no significant difference was detected between pre and post treatment levels of SP. Cetirizine was significantly more effective than loratadine on lowering serum levels of SCF among the other neuropeptides. Systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments in patients with chronic urticaria precisely caused variations in serum levels of neuropeptides. The predominant effect of cetirizine compared to loratadine on reducing serum SCF levels might be explained with anti-inflammatory properties of cetirizine. PMID:25209952

  11. Neuropeptide Y antagonism reduces reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in humans.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Dan P; Saad, Adham R; Bennett, Lee Ann T; Kosiba, Wojciech A; Johnson, John M

    2004-09-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence of a non-noradrenergic contributor to reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction in humans but did not identify the transmitter responsible. To test whether neuropeptide Y (NPY) has a role, in two series of experiments we slowly reduced whole body skin temperature (TSK) from 34.5 to 31.7 degrees C. In protocol 1, Ringer solution and the NPY receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 alone were delivered intradermally via microdialysis. In protocol 2, yohimbine plus propranolol (Yoh + Pro), Yoh + Pro in combination with BIBP-3226, and Ringer solution were delivered to antagonize locally the vasomotor effects of NPY and norepinephrine. Blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was monitored at the finger (Finapres). In protocol 1, cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) fell by 45%, to 55.1 +/- 5.6% of baseline at control sites (P < 0.05). At BIBP-3226-treated sites, CVC fell by 34.1% to 65.9 +/- 5.0% (P < 0.05; P < 0.05 between sites). In protocol 2, during body cooling, CVC at control sites fell by 32.6%, to 67.4 +/- 4.3% of baseline; at sites treated with Yoh + Pro, CVC fell by 18.7%, to 81.3 +/- 4.4% of baseline (P < 0.05 vs. baseline; P < 0.05 vs. control) and did not fall significantly at sites treated with BIBP-3226 + Yoh + Pro (P > 0.05; P < 0.05 vs. other sites). After cooling, exogenous norepinephrine induced vasoconstriction at control sites (P < 0.05) but not at sites treated with Yoh + Pro + BIBP-3226 (P > 0.05). These results indicate that NPY participates in sympathetically mediated cutaneous vasoconstriction in humans during whole body cooling. PMID:15165988

  12. The hypothalamic neuropeptide FF network is impaired in hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Goncharuk, Valeri D; Buijs, Ruud M; Jhamandas, Jack H; Swaab, Dick F

    2014-01-01

    Background The human hypothalamus contains the neuropeptide FF (NPFF) neurochemical network. Animal experiments demonstrated that NPFF is implicated in the central cardiovascular regulation. We therefore studied expression of this peptide in the hypothalamus of individuals who suffered from essential hypertension (n = 8) and died suddenly due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and compared to that of healthy individuals (controls) (n = 6) who died abruptly due to mechanical trauma of the chest. Methods The frozen right part of the hypothalamus was cut coronally into serial sections of 20 μm thickness, and each tenth section was stained immunohistochemically using antibody against NPFF. The central section through each hypothalamic nucleus was characterized by the highest intensity of NPFF immunostaining and thus was chosen for quantitative densitometry. Results In hypertensive patients, the area occupied by NPFF immunostained neuronal elements in the central sections through the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCh), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (Pa), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), perinuclear zone (PNZ) of the supraoptic nucleus (SON), dorso- (DMH), ventromedial (VMH) nuclei, and perifornical nucleus (PeF) was dramatically decreased compared to controls, ranging about six times less in the VMH to 15 times less in the central part of the BST (BSTC). The NPFF innervation of both nonstained neuronal profiles and microvasculature was extremely poor in hypertensive patients compared to control. Conclusions The decreased NPFF expression in the hypothalamus of hypertensive patients might be a cause of impairment of its interaction with other neurochemical systems, and thereby might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:25161813

  13. Neuropeptide Y inhibits cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and invasion

    PubMed Central

    DeMorrow, Sharon; Onori, Paolo; Venter, Julie; Invernizzi, Pietro; Frampton, Gabriel; White, Mellanie; Franchitto, Antonio; Kopriva, Shelley; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Francis, Heather; Coufal, Monique; Glaser, Shannon; Fava, Giammarco; Meng, Fanyin; Alvaro, Domenico; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    No information exists on the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cholangiocarcinoma growth. Therefore, we evaluated the expression and secretion of NPY and its subsequent effects on cholangiocarcinoma growth and invasion. Cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and nonmalignant cholangiocytes were used to assess NPY mRNA expression and protein secretion. NPY expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in human liver biopsies. Cell proliferation and migration were evaluated in vitro by MTS assays and matrigel invasion chambers, respectively, after treatment with NPY or a neutralizing NPY antibody. The effect of NPY or NPY depletion on tumor growth was assessed in vivo after treatment with NPY or the neutralizing NPY antibody in a xenograft model of cholangiocarcinoma. NPY secretion was upregulated in cholangiocarcinoma compared with normal cholangiocytes. Administration of exogenous NPY decreased proliferation and cell invasion in all cholangiocarcinoma cell lines studied and reduced tumor cell growth in vivo. In vitro, the effects of NPY on proliferation were blocked by specific inhibitors for NPY receptor Y2, but not Y1 or Y5, and were associated with an increase in intracellular d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and PKCα activation. Blocking of NPY activity using a neutralizing antibody promoted cholangiocarcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo and increased the invasiveness of cholangiocarcinoma in vitro. Increased NPY immunoreactivity in human tumor tissue occurred predominantly in the center of the tumor, with less expression toward the invasion front of the tumor. We demonstrated that NPY expression is upregulated in cholangiocarcinoma, which exerts local control on tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Modulation of NPY secretion may be important for the management of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:21270292

  14. Effects of a Skin Neuropeptide (Substance P) on Cutaneous Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Ramdani, Yasmina; Jaouen, Thomas; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Lati, Elian; Yvergnaux, Florent; Driouich, Azzedine; Lefeuvre, Luc; Farmer, Christine; Misery, Laurent; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin is the largest human neuroendocrine organ and hosts the second most numerous microbial population but the interaction of skin neuropeptides with the microflora has never been investigated. We studied the effect of Substance P (SP), a peptide released by nerve endings in the skin on bacterial virulence. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacillus cereus, a member of the skin transient microflora, was used as a model. Exposure to SP strongly stimulated the cytotoxicity of B. cereus (+553±3% with SP 10−6 M) and this effect was rapid (<5 min). Infection of keratinocytes with SP treated B. cereus led to a rise in caspase1 and morphological alterations of the actin cytoskeleton. Secretome analysis revealed that SP stimulated the release of collagenase and superoxide dismutase. Moreover, we also noted a shift in the surface polarity of the bacteria linked to a peel-off of the S-layer and the release of S-layer proteins. Meanwhile, the biofilm formation activity of B. cereus was increased. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor (Ef-Tu) was identified as the SP binding site in B. cereus. Other Gram positive skin bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis also reacted to SP by an increase of virulence. Thermal water from Uriage-les-Bains and an artificial polysaccharide (Teflose®) were capable to antagonize the effect of SP on bacterial virulence. Conclusions/Significance SP is released in sweat during stress and is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous skin diseases through neurogenic inflammation. Our study suggests that a direct effect of SP on the skin microbiote should be another mechanism. PMID:24250813

  15. A neuropeptide speeds circadian entrainment by reducing intercellular synchrony

    PubMed Central

    An, Sungwon; Harang, Rich; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; Tsai, Connie A.; Mazuski, Cristina; Kim, Jihee; Doyle, Francis J.; Petzold, Linda R.; Herzog, Erik D.

    2013-01-01

    Shift work or transmeridian travel can desynchronize the body's circadian rhythms from local light–dark cycles. The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generates and entrains daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. Paradoxically, we found that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a neuropeptide implicated in synchrony among SCN cells, can also desynchronize them. The degree and duration of desynchronization among SCN neurons depended on both the phase and the dose of VIP. A model of the SCN consisting of coupled stochastic cells predicted both the phase- and the dose-dependent response to VIP and that the transient phase desynchronization, or “phase tumbling”, could arise from intrinsic, stochastic noise in small populations of key molecules (notably, Period mRNA near its daily minimum). The model also predicted that phase tumbling following brief VIP treatment would accelerate entrainment to shifted environmental cycles. We tested this using a prepulse of VIP during the day before a shift in either a light cycle in vivo or a temperature cycle in vitro. Although VIP during the day does not shift circadian rhythms, the VIP pretreatment approximately halved the time required for mice to reentrain to an 8-h shifted light schedule and for SCN cultures to reentrain to a 10-h shifted temperature cycle. We conclude that VIP below 100 nM synchronizes SCN cells and above 100 nM reduces synchrony in the SCN. We show that exploiting these mechanisms that transiently reduce cellular synchrony before a large shift in the schedule of daily environmental cues has the potential to reduce jet lag. PMID:24167276

  16. Neuropeptide Regulation of Signaling and Behavior in the BNST

    PubMed Central

    Kash, Thomas L.; Pleil, Kristen E.; Marcinkiewcz, Catherine A.; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G.; Crowley, Nicole; Mazzone, Christopher; Sugam, Jonathan; Hardaway, J. Andrew; McElligott, Zoe A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent technical developments have transformed how neuroscientists can probe brain function. What was once thought to be difficult and perhaps impossible, stimulating a single set of long range inputs among many, is now relatively straight-forward using optogenetic approaches. This has provided an avalanche of data demonstrating causal roles for circuits in a variety of behaviors. However, despite the critical role that neuropeptide signaling plays in the regulation of behavior and physiology of the brain, there have been remarkably few studies demonstrating how peptide release is causally linked to behaviors. This is likely due to both the different time scale by which peptides act on and the modulatory nature of their actions. For example, while glutamate release can effectively transmit information between synapses in milliseconds, peptide release is potentially slower [See the excellent review by Van Den Pol on the time scales and mechanisms of release (van den Pol, 2012)] and it can only tune the existing signals via modulation. And while there have been some studies exploring mechanisms of release, it is still not as clearly known what is required for efficient peptide release. Furthermore, this analysis could be complicated by the fact that there are multiple peptides released, some of which may act in contrast. Despite these limitations, there are a number of groups making progress in this area. The goal of this review is to explore the role of peptide signaling in one specific structure, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, that has proven to be a fertile ground for peptide action. PMID:25475545

  17. Invertebrate Specific D1-like Dopamine Receptor in Control of Salivary Glands in the Black-Legged Tick Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Šimo, Ladislav; Koči, Juraj; Kim, Donghun; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-01-01

    The control of tick salivary secretion, which plays a crucial role in compromising the host immune system, involves complex neural mechanisms. Dopamine is known to be the most potent activator of salivary secretion, as a paracrine/autocrine factor. We describe the invertebrate specific D1-like dopamine receptor (InvD1L), which is highly expressed in tick salivary glands. The InvD1L phylogenic clade was found only in invertebrates, suggesting that this receptor was lost in the vertebrates during evolution. InvD1L expressed in CHO-K1 cells was activated by dopamine with a median effective dose (EC50) of 1.34 μM. Immunohistochemistry using the antibody raised against InvD1L revealed two different types of immunoreactivities: basally located axon terminals that are colocalized with myoinhibitory peptide (MIP) and SIFamide neuropeptides, and longer axon-like processes that are positive only for the InvD1L antibody and extended to the apical parts of the acini. Both structures were closely associated with the myoepithelial cell, as visualized by beta-tubulin antibody, lining the acinar lumen in a web-like fashion. Subcellular localizations of InvD1L in the salivary gland suggest that InvD1L modulates the neuronal activities including MIP/SIFamide varicosities, and leads the contraction of myoepithelial cells and/or of the acinar valve to control the efflux of the luminal content. Combining the previously described D1 receptor with its putative function for activating an influx of fluid through the epithelial cells of acini, we propose that complex control of the tick salivary glands is mediated through two different dopamine receptors, D1 and InvD1L, for different downstream responses of the acinar cells. PMID:24307522

  18. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Ewers, Robert M.; Boyle, Michael J. W.; Gleave, Rosalind A.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R.; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y.; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Davies, Richard G.; Edwards, David P.; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M.; Hardwick, Stephen R.; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L.; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H.; March, Joshua J.; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V.; Sharp, Adam C.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Stork, Nigel E.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Wearn, Oliver R.; Yusah, Kalsum M.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  19. Biogeography of Nearshore Subtidal Invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biogeography of nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Gulf of Maine was studied to compare recent data with historical biogeographic studies, define physical-chemical factors affecting species distributions, and provide information needed to calibrate benthic indices of envi...

  20. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Robert M; Boyle, Michael J W; Gleave, Rosalind A; Plowman, Nichola S; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y C; Davies, Richard G; Edwards, David P; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M; Hardwick, Stephen R; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H; March, Joshua J; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V; Sharp, Adam C; Snaddon, Jake L; Stork, Nigel E; Struebig, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  1. Biomonitors of stream quality on agricultural areas: fish versus invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, Hilary E.; Rabeni, Charles F.; Boyle, Terence P.

    1986-01-01

    Although the utility of using either fish or benthic invertebrates as biomonitors of stream quality has been clearly shown, there is little comparative information on the usefulness of the groups in any particular situation. We compared fish to invertebrate assemblages in their ability to reflect habitat quality of sediment-impacted streams in agricultural regions of northeast Missouri, USA. Habitat quality was measured by a combination of substrate composition, riparian type, buffer strip width, and land use. Invertebrates were more sensitive to habitat differences when structural measurements, species diversity and ordination, were used. Incorporating ecological measurements, by using the Index of Biological Integrity, increased the information obtained from the fish assemblage. The differential response of the two groups was attributed to the more direct impact of sediments on invertebrate life requisites; the impact of sedimentation on fish is considered more indirect and complex, affecting feeding and reproductive mechanisms.

  2. Determining detection sensitivity and methods for invertebrate sampling

    EPA Science Inventory

    This meeting is intended to communicate Great Lakes invasive species early detection science to state management agencies to assist them in implementing monitoring. My presentation summaries lessons learned concerning invertebrate monitoring in the course of ORD research on earl...

  3. Red List of macrofaunal benthic invertebrates of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, G. H.; Madsen, P. B.; Jensen, K. T.; van Bernem, K. H.; Harms, J.; Heiber, W.; Kröncke, I.; Michaelis, H.; Rachor, E.; Reise, K.; Dekker, R.; Visser, G. J. M.; Wolff, W. J.

    1996-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea, in total, 93 species of macrofaunal benthic invertebrates are threatened in at least one subregion. Of these, 72 species are threatened in the entire area and are therefore placed on the trilateral Red List. 7 species are (probably) extinct in the entire Wadden Sea area. The status of 9 species of macrofaunal invertebrates is critical, 13 species are (probably) endangered, the status of 25 species is (probably) vulnerable and of 17 species (probably) susceptible.

  4. Next conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hexemer, Alexander; Toney, Michael F.

    2010-11-01

    After the successful conference on Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science (SRPS) in Rolduc Abbey (the Netherlands), we are now looking forward to the next meeting in this topical series started in 1995 by H G Zachmann, one of the pioneers of the use of synchrotron radiation techniques in polymer science. Earlier meetings were held in Hamburg (1995), Sheffield (2002), Kyoto (2006), and Rolduc (2009). In September of 2012 the Synchrotron Radiation and Polymer Science V conferences will be organized in a joint effort by the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Advanced Light Source at LBL Advanced Light Source at LBL The conference will be organised in the heart of beautiful San Francisco. The program will consist of invited and contributed lectures divided in sessions on the use of synchrotron SAXS/WAXD, imaging and tomography, soft x-rays, x-ray spectroscopy, GISAXS and reflectivity, micro-beams and hyphenated techniques in polymer science. Poster contributions are more than welcome and will be highlighted during the poster sessions. Visits to both SLAC as well as LBL will be organised. San Francisco can easily be reached. It is served by two major international airports San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport. Both are being served by most major airlines with easy connections to Europe and Asia as well as national destinations. Both also boast excellent connections to San Francisco city centre. We are looking forward to seeing you in the vibrant city by the Bay in September 2012. Golden gate bridge Alexander Hexemer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Michael F Toney Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Pk, CA 94025, USA E-mail: ahexemer@lbl.gov, mftoney@slac.stanford.edu

  5. Mephedrone ("bath salt") pharmacology: insights from invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ramoz, L; Lodi, S; Bhatt, P; Reitz, A B; Tallarida, C; Tallarida, R J; Raffa, R B; Rawls, S M

    2012-04-19

    Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50-1000 μM) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 μM). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 μM) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e. reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 μM) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning. PMID:22300981

  6. A comparative gene expression database for invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As whole genome and transcriptome sequencing gets cheaper and faster, a great number of 'exotic' animal models are emerging, rapidly adding valuable data to the ever-expanding Evo-Devo field. All these new organisms serve as a fantastic resource for the research community, but the sheer amount of data, some published, some not, makes detailed comparison of gene expression patterns very difficult to summarize - a problem sometimes even noticeable within a single lab. The need to merge existing data with new information in an organized manner that is publicly available to the research community is now more necessary than ever. Description In order to offer a homogenous way of storing and handling gene expression patterns from a variety of organisms, we have developed the first web-based comparative gene expression database for invertebrates that allows species-specific as well as cross-species gene expression comparisons. The database can be queried by gene name, developmental stage and/or expression domains. Conclusions This database provides a unique tool for the Evo-Devo research community that allows the retrieval, analysis and comparison of gene expression patterns within or among species. In addition, this database enables a quick identification of putative syn-expression groups that can be used to initiate, among other things, gene regulatory network (GRN) projects. PMID:21861937

  7. Adeno-Associated Viral Vector-Induced Overexpression of Neuropeptide Y Y2 Receptors in the Hippocampus Suppresses Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldbye, David P. D.; Angehagen, Mikael; Gotzsche, Casper R.; Elbrond-Bek, Heidi; Sorensen, Andreas T.; Christiansen, Soren H.; Olesen, Mikkel V.; Nikitidou, Litsa; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Kanter-Schlifke, Irene; Kokaia, Merab

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors overexpressing neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus exerts seizure-suppressant effects in rodent epilepsy models and is currently considered for clinical application in patients with intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizure suppression by neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus is…

  8. Agonists/Antagonists of the insect kinin and pyrokinin/PBAN neuropeptide classes as tools for rational pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The IK and PK/PBAN insect neuropeptide classes regulate critical aspects of water balance, digestion, reproduction, defense and development in insects. These neuropeptides are nonetheless subject to degradation by peptidases in the hemolymph and gut of insects and, for the most part, lack efficient ...

  9. Conferences revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radcliffe, Jonathan

    2008-08-01

    Way back in the mid-1990s, as a young PhD student, I wrote a Lateral Thoughts article about my first experience of an academic conference (Physics World 1994 October p80). It was a peach of a trip - most of the lab decamped to Grenoble for a week of great weather, beautiful scenery and, of course, the physics. A whole new community was there for me to see in action, and the internationality of it all helped us to forget about England's non-appearance in the 1994 World Cup finals.

  10. Conference Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, James, Jr.; Thomas, Valerie

    2000-01-01

    The MU-SPIN conference focused on showcasing successful experiences with information technology to enhance faculty and student development in areas of scientific and technical research and education. And it provided a forum for discussing increased participation of MU-SPIN schools in NASA Flight Missions and NASA Educational and Public Outreach activities. Opportunities for Involvement sessions focused on Space Science, Earth Science, Education, and Aeronautics. These sessions provided insight into the missions of NASA's enterprises and NASA's Education program. Presentations by NASA scientists, university Principal Investigators, and other affiliates addressed key issues for increased minority involvement.

  11. Identification of Neuropeptide Receptors Expressed by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Gregory S.; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Civelli, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating Hormone (MCH) is a 19 amino acid cyclic neuropeptide that acts in rodents via the MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) to regulate a wide variety of physiological functions. MCH is produced by a distinct population of neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and zona incerta (ZI) but MCHR1 mRNA is widely expressed throughout the brain. The physiological responses and behaviors regulated by the MCH system have been investigated, but less is known about how MCH neurons are regulated. The effects of most classical neurotransmitters on MCH neurons have been studied, but those of neuropeptides are poorly understood. In order to gain insight into how neuropeptides regulate the MCH system, we investigated which neuropeptide receptors are expressed by MCH neurons using double in situ hybridization. In all, twenty receptors, selected based upon either a suspected interaction with the MCH system or demonstrated high expression levels in the LH and ZI, were tested to determine whether they are expressed by MCH neurons. Overall, eleven neuropeptide receptors were found to exhibit significant colocalization with MCH neurons: Nociceptin / Orphanin FQ Opioid receptor (NOP), MCHR1, both Orexin receptors (ORX), Somatostatin receptor 1 and 2 (SSTR1, SSTR2), the Kisspeptin receotor (KissR1), Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1), Neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR), Cholecystokinin receptor A (CCKAR) and the κ-opioid receptor (KOR). Of these receptors, six have never before been linked to the MCH system. Surprisingly, several receptors thought to regulate MCH neurons displayed minimal colocalization with MCH, suggesting that they may not directly regulate the MCH system. PMID:24978951

  12. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Słoniecka, Marta; Le Roux, Sandrine; Boman, Peter; Byström, Berit; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ. Cultured keratocytes expressed genes encoding for SP and NKA, and for catecholamine and glutamate synthesizing enzymes, as well as genes for neuropeptide, adrenergic and ACh (muscarinic) receptors. Keratocytes in culture produced SP, NKA, catecholamines, ACh, and glutamate, and expressed neurokinin-1 and -2 receptors (NK-1R and NK-2R), dopamine receptor D2, muscarinic ACh receptors, and NDMAR1 glutamate receptor. Human corneal sections expressed SP, NKA, NK-1R, NK-2R, receptor D2, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), M3, M4 and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors, glutamate, and NMDAR1, but not catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or the α1 and β2 adrenoreceptors, nor M1 receptor. In addition, expression profiles assumed significant differences between keratocytes from the peripheral cornea as compared to those from the central cornea, as well as differences between keratocytes cultured under various serum concentrations. In conclusion, human keratocytes express an array of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cells furthermore express receptors for neuropeptides/neurotransmitters, which suggests that they are susceptible to stimulation by these substances in the cornea, whether of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. As it has been shown that neuropeptides

  13. Invertebrate community response to a shifting mosaic of habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, David M.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Roper, A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Grazing management has focused largely on promoting vegetation homogeneity through uniform distribution of grazing to minimize area in a pasture that is either heavily disturbed or undisturbed. An alternative management model that couples grazing and fire (i.e., patch burning) to promote heterogeneity argues that grazing and fire interact through a series of positive and negative feedbacks to cause a shifting mosaic of vegetation composition and structure across the landscape. We compared patch burning with traditional homogeneity-based management in tallgrass prairie to determine the influence of the two treatments on the aboveground invertebrate community. Patch burning resulted in a temporal flush of invertebrate biomass in patches transitional between unburned and patches burned in the current year. Total invertebrate mass was about 50% greater in these transitional patches within patch-burned pastures as compared to pastures under traditional, homogeneity-based management. Moreover, the mosaic of patches in patch-burned pastures contained a wider range of invertebrate biomass and greater abundance of some invertebrate orders than did the traditionally managed pastures. Patch burning provides habitat that meets requirements for a broad range of invertebrate species, suggesting the potential for patch burning to benefit other native animal assemblages in the food chain.

  14. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vecsei, L.; Csala, B.; Widerloev, E.E.; Ekman, R.; Czopf, J.; Palffy, G. )

    1990-09-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y were investigated by use of radioimmunoassay in patients suffering from chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. The somatostatin level was significantly decreased in the CSF of patients with multiple sclerosis compared to the control group. The magnitude of this change was more pronounced in patients with severe clinical symptoms of the illness. The CSF neuropeptide Y concentration did not differ from the control values. These findings suggest a selective involvement of somatostatin neurotransmission in multiple sclerosis.

  15. THE NEUROPEPTIDE VIP: DIRECT EFFECTS ON IMMUNE CELLS AND INVOLVEMENT IN INFLAMMATORY AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Ganea, Doina; Hooper, Kirsten M.; Kong, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides represent an important category of endogenous contributors to the establishment and maintenance of immune deviation in immune privileged organs such as the CNS, and in the control of acute inflammation in the peripheral immune organs. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a major immunoregulatory neuropeptide widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system. In addition to neurons, VIP is synthesized by immune cells which also express VIP receptors. Here we review the current information on VIP production and VIP receptor mediated effects in the immune system, the role of endogenous and exogenous VIP in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, and present and future VIP therapeutic approaches. PMID:25422088

  16. Cultured human synovial fibroblasts rapidly metabolize kinins and neuropeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Bathon, J M; Proud, D; Mizutani, S; Ward, P E

    1992-01-01

    Kinins and substance P have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis by virtue of their abilities to induce vasodilation, edema, and pain. The relative biological potencies of these peptides in vivo would depend at least in part upon their rates of catabolism in the joint. We hypothesized that human synovial lining cells may regulate intraarticular levels of kinins and neuropeptides via degradation by cell surface-associated peptidases. We exposed intact human synovial fibroblasts to kinins and substance P, in the presence or absence of specific peptidase inhibitors, and measured the amount of intact substrate remaining and degradation product(s) generated over time. Aminopeptidase M (AmM; EC 3.4.11.2), neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (NEP-24.11; EC 3.4.24.11), and dipeptidyl(amino)peptidase IV (DAP IV; EC 3.4.14.5) were identified on the cell surface of synovial cells. Bradykinin degradation was due entirely to NEP-24.11 (1.39 +/- 0.29 nmol/min per well). Lysylbradykinin was also degraded by NEP-24.11 (0.80 +/- 0.19 nmol/min per well); however, in the presence of phosphoramidon, AmM-mediated conversion to bradykinin (3.74 +/- 0.46 nmol/min per well) could be demonstrated. The combined actions of NEP-24.11 (0.93 +/- 0.15 nmol/min per well) and DAP IV (0.84 +/- 0.18 nmol/min per well) were responsible for the degradation of substance P. AmM (2.44 +/- 0.33 nmol/min per well) and NEP-24.11 (1.30 +/- 0.45 nmol/min per well) were responsible for the degradation of the opioid peptide, [Leu5]enkephalin. The identity of each of the three peptidases was confirmed via synthetic substrate hydrolysis, inhibition profile, and immunological identification. The profiles of peptidase enzymes identified in cells derived from rheumatoid and osteoarthritic joints were identical. These data demonstrate the human synovial fibroblast to be a rich source of three specific peptidases and suggest that it may play a prominent role in regulating peptide levels in the joint

  17. The Conference Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolls, Blanche; Hartman, Linda; Corey, Linda; Marcoux, Betty; Jay, M. Ellen; England, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Includes five articles on conference experiences: preplanning for a library conference; top ten reasons to attend an AASL (American Association of School Librarians) national conference; why should you bother to fill out a conference evaluation form; a case for conferences; and AASL tours. (LRW)

  18. Functional Hypervariability and Gene Diversity of Cardioactive Neuropeptides*

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Carolina; Melaun, Christian; Castillo, Cecilia; Díaz, Mary E.; Renzelman, Chad M.; Estrada, Omar; Kuch, Ulrich; Lokey, Scott; Marí, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and related peptides are multifunctional regulatory neurohormones found in invertebrates. We isolated a CCAP-related peptide (conoCAP-a, for cone snail CardioActive Peptide) and cloned the cDNA of its precursor from venom of Conus villepinii. The precursor of conoCAP-a encodes for two additional CCAP-like peptides: conoCAP-b and conoCAP-c. This multi-peptide precursor organization is analogous to recently predicted molluscan CCAP-like preprohormones, and suggests a mechanism for the generation of biological diversification without gene amplification. While arthropod CCAP is a cardio-accelerator, we found that conoCAP-a decreases the heart frequency in Drosophila larvae, demonstrating that conoCAP-a and CCAP have opposite effects. Intravenous injection of conoCAP-a in rats caused decreased heart frequency and blood pressure in contrast to the injection of CCAP, which did not elicit any cardiac effect. Perfusion of rat ventricular cardiac myocytes with conoCAP-a decreased systolic calcium, indicating that conoCAP-a cardiac negative inotropic effects might be mediated via impairment of intracellular calcium trafficking. The contrasting cardiac effects of conoCAP-a and CCAP indicate that molluscan CCAP-like peptides have functions that differ from those of their arthropod counterparts. Molluscan CCAP-like peptides sequences, while homologous, differ between taxa and have unique sequences within a species. This relates to the functional hypervariability of these peptides as structure activity relationship studies demonstrate that single amino acids variations strongly affect cardiac activity. The discovery of conoCAPs in cone snail venom emphasizes the significance of their gene plasticity to have mutations as an adaptive evolution in terms of structure, cellular site of expression, and physiological functions. PMID:20923766

  19. An indirect action contributes to c-fos induction in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus by neuropeptide Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well-established orexigenic peptide and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) is one major brain site that mediates the orexigenic action of NPY. NPY induces abundant expression of C-Fos, an indicator for neuronal activation, in the PVH, which has been used extensively...

  20. Neuropeptide-like precursor 4 is uniquely expressed during pupal diapause in the flesh fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization comparing brains from diapausing and nondiapausing pupae of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis, suggested that the gene encoding neuropeptide-like precursor 4 (Nplp4) was uniquely expressed during diapause. We have sequenced the full-length cDNA encoding Npl...

  1. Feed intake of gilts following intracerebroventicular injection of the novel hypothalamic RFamide (RFa) neuropeptide, 26RFa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RFamide (RFa) peptides have been implicated in a broad spectrum of biological processes including energy expenditure and feed intake. 26RFa is a recently discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide that altered the release of pituitary hormones and stimulated feed intake via a NPY-specific mechanism in rat...

  2. Transgenic n-3 PUFAs enrichment leads to weight loss via modulating neuropeptides in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuangshuang; Ge, Yinlin; Gai, Xiaoying; Xue, Meilan; Li, Ning; Kang, Jingxuan; Wan, Jianbo; Zhang, Jinyu

    2016-01-12

    Body weight is related to fat mass, which is associated with obesity. Our study explored the effect of fat-1 gene on body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. In present study, we observed that the weight/length ratio of fat-1 transgenic mice was lower than that of wild-type mice. The serum levels of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CT), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and blood glucose (BG) in fat-1 transgenic mice were all decreased. The weights of peri-bowels fat, perirenal fat and peri-testicular fat in fat-1 transgenic mice were reduced. We hypothesized that increase of n-3 PUFAs might alter the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes and lead to loss of body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. Therefore, we measured mRNA levels of appetite neuropeptides, Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti-related peptides (AgRP), Proopiomelanocortin (POMC), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in hypothalamus by real-time PCR. Compared with wild-type mice, the mRNA levels of CART, POMC and ghrelin were higher, while the mRNA levels of NPY, AgRP and nesfatin-1 were lower in fat-1 transgenic mice. The results indicate that fat-1 gene or n-3 PUFAs participates in regulation of body weight, and the mechanism of this phenomenon involves the expression of appetite neuropeptides and lipoproteins in fat-1 transgenic mice. PMID:26610903

  3. Towards the development of novel pest management agents based upon insect kinin neuropeptide analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect kinin neuropeptides share a common C-terminal pentapeptide sequence Phe1-Xaa123-Xaa23-Trp4-Gly5-NH2 (Xaa12=His, Asn, Phe, Ser or Try; Xaa23=Pro, Ser, or Ala) and have been isolated from a number of insects. They have been associated with the regulation of such diverse processes as hindgut co...

  4. Mode of action of an insect neuropeptide Leucopyrokinin (LPK) on pupariation in fleshfly (Sarcophaga bullata) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An insect neuropeptide leucopyrokinin (LPK) (pQTSFTPRLamide) accelerates pupariation in wandering larvae of the fleshfly Sarcophaga bullata. The period of sensitivity to the action of LPK begins approximately 4 h before pupariation. Within this period the degree of acceleration of contraction into t...

  5. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough. PMID:1611233

  6. Genomic and peptidomic analyses of the neuropeptides from the emerging pest, Drosophila suzukii.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Neil; Down, Rachel E; Isaac, R Elwyn

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii is a highly polyphagous invasive pest which has been recently introduced into Europe and North America, where it is causing severe economic losses through larval infestations of stone and berry fruits. The peptidome of the selected nervous tissues of adult D. suzukii was investigated as a first step in identifying potential targets for the development of novel insecticides. Through in silico analyses of the D. suzukii genome databases 28 neuropeptide families, comprising more than 70 predicted peptides were identified. Using a combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of tissue extracts, 33 predicted peptides, representing 15 different peptide families were identified by their molecular masses and a total of 17 peptide sequences were confirmed by ion fragmentation. A comparison between the peptides and precursors of D. suzukii and D. melanogaster shows they are highly conserved, with differences only identified in the amino acid sequences of the peptides encoded in the FMRFamide, hugin and ecydysis triggering hormone precursors. All other peptides predicted and identified from D. suzukii appear to be identical to those previously characterized from D. melanogaster. Adipokinetic hormone was only identified in the corpus cardiacum, other peptides present included short neuropeptide F, a pyrokinin and myosuppressin, the latter of which was the only peptide identified from the crop nerve bundle. Peptides present in extracts of the brain and/or thoracico-abdominal ganglion included allatostatins, cardioacceleratory peptide 2b, corazonin, extended FMRFamides, pyrokinins, myoinihibitory peptides, neuropeptide-like precursor 1, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F, kinin, sulfakinins and tachykinin related peptides. PMID:25158078

  7. Microglia-Induced Maladaptive Plasticity Can Be Modulated by Neuropeptides In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Morara, Stefano; Colangelo, Anna Maria; Provini, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Microglia-induced maladaptive plasticity is being recognized as a major cause of deleterious self-sustaining pathological processes that occur in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. Microglia, the primary homeostatic guardian of the central nervous system, exert critical functions both during development, in neural circuit reshaping, and during adult life, in the brain physiological and pathological surveillance. This delicate critical role can be disrupted by neural, but also peripheral, noxious stimuli that can prime microglia to become overreactive to a second noxious stimulus or worsen underlying pathological processes. Among regulators of microglia, neuropeptides can play a major role. Their receptors are widely expressed in microglial cells and neuropeptide challenge can potently influence microglial activity in vitro. More relevantly, this regulator activity has been assessed also in vivo, in experimental models of brain diseases. Neuropeptide action in the central nervous system has been associated with beneficial effects in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory pathological experimental models. This review describes some of the mechanisms of the microglia maladaptive plasticity in vivo and how neuropeptide activity can represent a useful therapeutical target in a variety of human brain pathologies. PMID:26273481

  8. Neuropeptide Y stimulates feeding but inhibits sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Clark, J T; Kalra, P S; Kalra, S P

    1985-12-01

    The effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a tyrosine-rich peptide found in the rat brain, on feeding and sexual behavior were studied in male and female rats. Intraventricular (ivt) injections of NPY during the final hours of the light period induced feeding in a dose-related manner. While the lowest dose tested (0.02 nM) was without effect, higher doses (0.12, 0.47, 2.3 nM) uniformly elicited feeding with a latency of about 15 min in male rats. With the most effective dose, 0.47 nM, the increased food intake was due to an increased local eating rate. In contrast, the pattern of feeding behavior after a related peptide, rat pancreatic polypeptide (rPP), was quite different and less impressive. During the first hour, only one ivt dose of rPP (0.45 nM) evoked an increase in food intake, due to an increased time spent eating. Further, the effects of NPY on food intake were greater during the nocturnal period. Interestingly, increased food intake in nocturnal tests (4 h) was due solely to augmented intake during the first 60 min after ivt administration. In mating tests, initiated 2 h after the onset of darkness and 10 min after ivt administration of peptide, all but the lowest dose of NPY (0.01 nM) drastically suppressed ejaculatory behavior. Most rats treated with higher doses of NPY (0.02, 0.12, or 0.47 nM) mounted and intromitted only a few times before the cessation of sexual activity, and elongated latencies to the initial mount and intromission were observed. In contrast to the dramatic NPY-induced suppression of ejaculatory behavior, rPP (0.11 and 0.45 nM) was without effect on copulatory behavior. To substantiate further that the impairment of sexual behavior seen in NPY-treated rats was not due to an attenuated sexual ability, an additional experiment was performed. Penile reflexes, including erection, were monitored 10 min after ivt injection of NPY (0.12 nM), rPP (0.11 nM), or saline. No effect of NPY or rPP was observed on the proportion of rats showing

  9. A thesaurus for soil invertebrate trait-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Pey, Benjamin; Laporte, Marie-Angélique; Nahmani, Johanne; Auclerc, Apolline; Capowiez, Yvan; Caro, Gaël; Cluzeau, Daniel; Cortet, Jérôme; Decaëns, Thibaud; Dubs, Florence; Joimel, Sophie; Guernion, Muriel; Briard, Charlène; Grumiaux, Fabien; Laporte, Baptiste; Pasquet, Alain; Pelosi, Céline; Pernin, Céline; Ponge, Jean-François; Salmon, Sandrine; Santorufo, Lucia; Hedde, Mickaël

    2014-01-01

    Soil invertebrates are known to be much involved in soil behaviour and therefore in the provision of ecosystem services. Functional trait-based approaches are methodologies which can be used to understand soil invertebrates' responses to their environment. They (i) improve the predictions and (ii) are less dependent on space and time. The way traits have been used recently has led to misunderstandings in the integration and interpretation of data. Trait semantics are especially concerned. The aim of this paper is to propose a thesaurus for soil invertebrate trait-based approaches. T-SITA, an Internet platform, is the first initiative to deal with the semantics of traits and ecological preferences for soil invertebrates. It reflects the agreement of a scientific expert community to fix semantic properties (e.g. definition) of approximately 100 traits and ecological preferences. In addition, T-SITA has been successfully linked with a fully operational database of soil invertebrate traits. Such a link enhances data integration and improves the scientific integrity of data. PMID:25310431

  10. Invertebrates that aestivate in dry basins of Carolina bay wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz-Brantley, Susan, E.; Taylor, Barbera, E.; Batzer, Darold, P.; DeBiase, Adrienne, E.

    2002-12-01

    Dietz-Brantley, S.E., B.E. Taylor, D.P. Batzer, and A.E. DeBiase. 2002. Invertebrates that aestivate in dry basins of carolina bay wetlands. Wetlands 22(4):767-775. Water levels fluctuate widely in Carolina bay wetlands and most dry periodically. Aquatic organisims inhabiting these wetlands have the capacity to either resist desication or to recolonize newly flooded habitats. The objective of this study was to determine which invertebrates aestivate in the soil of dry Carolina bays and to describe how differences in habitat affect the composition of aestivating invertebrates. Eight Carolina bays located on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, USA were examined for this study. Although all of the wetlands dried seasonally, three of the wetlands were relatively wet (inundated 47-92% of the year on average), one was intermediate, and four were relatively dry (inundated 20% of the year on average). Sections of soil were removed from each bay during August and November when all sites were dry, placed into tubs, flooded, and covered with fine mesh. Invertebrates were sampled from the water biweekly for four weeks. Invertebrate assemblages were contrasted between naturally inundated bays and rehydrated samples, wetter and drier bays, August and November collections, and remnant ditches and the main basins.

  11. Key Factors for the Emergence of Collective Decision in Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Dussutour, Audrey; Fourcassié, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    In many species of group living invertebrates, in particular arthropods, collective decisions can emerge from the combined actions of individuals and the direct or indirect interactions between individuals. These decisions allow groups of individuals to respond quickly and accurately to changes that occur in their environment. Examples of such decisions are found in a variety of invertebrate taxa and in many different contexts, e.g., exploring a new territory, foraging for food, finding a suitable location where to aggregate or to establish a nest, defending oneself against predators, etc. In this paper we review the collective decisions that have been documented in different invertebrate taxa where individuals are known to live temporarily or permanently in social or gregarious groups. We first present some simple examples of collective decisions involving the choice between two alternatives. We then define the fundamental rules required for these collective decisions to emerge throughout the invertebrate taxon, from simple organisms such as caterpillars, to animals endowed with highly developed perceptive and cognitive capacities such as ants and bees. The presentation of these rules gives us the opportunity to illustrate one of the pitfalls of the study of collective choice in animals by showing through computer simulations how a choice between two alternatives can be misinterpreted as the result of the action of self-organized mechanisms. In the second part, we discuss the peculiarities of collective decisions in invertebrates, their properties, and characteristics. We conclude by discussing the issue of individual complexity in collective decision-making process. PMID:22933990

  12. Spatially-explicit hydrologic controls on benthic invertebrate habitat suitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Singer, Gabriel; Battin, Tom; Montanari, Alberto; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Streamflow variability is a major determinant of basin-scale distribution of benthic invertebrates. Here we present a probabilistic approach for a spatially explicit quantitative assessment of benthic invertebrate abundance as derived from near-bed flow variability throughout an entire stream network. We consider aquatic invertebrates as these are widely employed as sensitive indicators of fluvial ecosystem health and human-induced perturbations. Moving from the analytical characterization of site-specific probability distribution functions of streamflow and bottom shear stress, we achieve a spatial extension to a stream network ranging up to 5th order. Bottom shear stress distributions, coupled with habitat suitability curves derived from field studies, are then used to produce maps of invertebrate habitat suitability based on shear stress conditions. The proposed framework allows to inspect the possible impacts of human-induced perturbations of streamflow variability on river ecology. We apply our approach to an Austrian river network, for which rainfall and streamflow time series, river network hydraulic properties and local information on invertebrate abundance for a limited number of sites are available. This allows a comparison between observed species density versus modeled habitat suitability based on shear stress. Although the proposed strategy neglects ecological determinants other than hydraulic ones and thus represents an ecological minimal model, it allows derivation of important implications of water resource management and fluvial ecosystem protection for basin-scale distribution patterns of organisms.

  13. Hydrologic controls on basin-scale distribution of benthic invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, Serena; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Singer, Gabriel; Battin, Tom J.; Montanari, Alberto; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Streamflow variability is a major determinant of basin-scale distributions of benthic invertebrates. Here we present a novel procedure based on a probabilistic approach aiming at a spatially explicit quantitative assessment of benthic invertebrate abundance as derived from near-bed flow variability. Although the proposed approach neglects ecological determinants other than hydraulic ones, it is nevertheless relevant in view of its implications on the predictability of basin-scale patterns of organisms. In the present context, aquatic invertebrates are considered, given that they are widely employed as sensitive indicators of fluvial ecosystem health and human-induced perturbations. Moving from the analytical characterization of site-specific probability distribution functions of streamflow and bottom shear stress, we achieve a spatial extension to an entire stream network. Bottom shear stress distributions, coupled with habitat suitability curves derived from field studies, are used to produce maps of invertebrate suitability to shear stress conditions. Therefore, the proposed framework allows one to inspect the possible impacts on river ecology of human-induced perturbations of streamflow variability. We apply this framework to an Austrian river network for which rainfall and streamflow time series, river network hydraulic properties, and local information on invertebrate abundance for a limited number of sites are available. A comparison between observed species density versus modeled suitability to shear stress is also presented. Although the proposed strategy focuses on a single controlling factor and thus represents an ecological minimal model, it allows derivation of important implications for water resource management and fluvial ecosystem protection.

  14. Invertebrates as model organisms for research on aging biology

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Mahadev; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrate model systems, such as nematodes and fruit flies, have provided valuable information about the genetics and cellular biology involved in aging. However, limitations of these simple, genetically tractable organisms suggest the need for other model systems, some of them invertebrate, to facilitate further advances in the understanding of mechanisms of aging and longevity in mammals, including humans. This paper introduces 10 review articles about the use of invertebrate model systems for the study of aging by authors who participated in an ‘NIA-NIH symposium on aging in invertebrate model systems’ at the 2013 International Congress for Invertebrate Reproduction and Development. In contrast to the highly derived characteristics of nematodes and fruit flies as members of the superphylum Ecdysozoa, cnidarians, such as Hydra, are more ‘basal’ organisms that have a greater number of genetic orthologs in common with humans. Moreover, some other new model systems, such as the urochordate Botryllus schlosseri, the tunicate Ciona, and the sea urchins (Echinodermata) are members of the Deuterostomia, the same superphylum that includes all vertebrates, and thus have mechanisms that are likely to be more closely related to those occurring in humans. Additional characteristics of these new model systems, such as the recent development of new molecular and genetic tools and a more similar pattern to humans of regeneration and stem cell function suggest that these new model systems may have unique advantages for the study of mechanisms of aging and longevity. PMID:26241448

  15. Conservation of the function counts: homologous neurons express sequence-related neuropeptides that originate from different genes.

    PubMed

    Neupert, Susanne; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim; Predel, Reinhard

    2009-11-01

    By means of single-cell matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we analysed neuropeptide expression in all FXPRLamide/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide synthesizing neurons of the adult tobacco hawk moth, Manduca sexta. Mass spectra clearly suggest a completely identical processing of the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide-precursor in the mandibular, maxillary and labial neuromeres of the subesophageal ganglion. Only in the pban-neurons of the labial neuromere, products of two neuropeptide genes, namely the pban-gene and the capa-gene, were detected. Both of these genes expressed, amongst others, sequence-related neuropeptides (extended WFGPRLamides). We speculate that the expression of the two neuropeptide genes is a plesiomorph character typical of moths. A detailed examination of the neuroanatomy and the peptidome of the (two) pban-neurons in the labial neuromere of moths with homologous neurons of different insects indicates a strong conservation of the function of this neuroendocrine system. In other insects, however, the labial neurons either express products of the fxprl-gene or products of the capa-gene. The processing of the respective genes is reduced to extended WFGPRLamides in each case and yields a unique peptidome in the labial cells. Thus, sequence-related messenger molecules are always produced in these cells and it seems that the respective neurons recruited different neuropeptide genes for this motif. PMID:19712058

  16. Effects of opioid antagonists naloxone and naltrexone on neuropeptide Y-induced feeding and brown fat thermogenesis in the rat. Neural site of action.

    PubMed Central

    Kotz, C M; Grace, M K; Briggs, J; Levine, A S; Billington, C J

    1995-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y administered intracerebroventricularly and into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus stimulates feeding and decreases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Although specific neuropeptide Y antagonists are not yet available, previous studies had shown that the opioid antagonist naloxone blocked neuropeptide Y-induced feeding when both drugs were injected intracerebroventricularly. We wanted to find out if naloxone injected into specific brain sites would block neuropeptide Y effects on feeding and brown fat thermogenesis. Rats were double injected in specific brain sites with neuropeptide Y and either naloxone or naltrexone (a congener of naloxone). Food intake and brown fat measures were assessed. Naloxone or naltrexone in the paraventricular nucleus weakly decreased paraventricular nucleus neuropeptide Y-induced feeding and did not affect neuropeptide Y-induced reductions in brown fat activity. Peripheral naloxone blocked intracerebroventricular neuropeptide Y-induced feeding and brown fat alterations. Fourth ventricular naloxone decreased paraventricular nucleus neuropeptide Y-induced feeding, and naltrexone given into the nucleus of the solitary tract blocked paraventricular nucleus neuropeptide Y-induced alterations in feeding and brown fat. These data indicate that neuropeptide Y in the paraventricular nucleus may act on feeding and brown fat thermogenesis through opioidergic pathways in the nucleus of the solitary tract. PMID:7615787

  17. The effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleiman; Nasiri, Jafar; Tehran, Hoda Ahmari; Heidarian, Esfandiar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pregnant Muslim women choose to fast during Ramadan every year worldwide. This study aimed to examine the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women and find whether fasting during pregnancy could have a negative effect on the health of mothers and fetuses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 39 healthy volunteer fasting pregnant women. Serum leptin, neuropeptide Y, insulin levels, body mass index and weight were measured five times on 0, 7th, 14th and 28th days of Ramadan and on the 14th day post-Ramadan. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5) using repeated measures ANOVA to find whether any changes occurred in the variables of interest during the study, and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the relations among the variables. Results: A significant change in fasting blood sugar, neuropeptide Y and leptin was observed during the study (p< 0.05). Fasting blood sugar decreased significantly during Ramadan and increased after Ramadan, with the lowest value at the end of Ramadan. Neuropeptide Y increased both during Ramadan and two weeks after Ramadan. Also, leptin decreased significantly two weeks after Ramadan compared to the end of Ramadan. No significant change was observed in insulin level during the study (p>0.05). Conclusion: The result of this study revealed the important role of leptin and neuropeptide Y in the long term regulation of energy balance in pregnant women with chronic diurnal fasting, and it further revealed that Ramadan fasting did not significantly change the serum insulin level. PMID:25664293

  18. Conference Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, David B.

    2014-07-01

    This conference on ``Multi-wavelength AGN Surveys and Studies'' has provided a detailed look at the explosive growth over the past decade, of available astronomical data from a growing list of large scale sky surveys, from radio-to-gamma rays. We are entering an era were multi-epoch (months to weeks) surveys of the entire sky, and near-instantaneous follow-up observations of variable sources, are elevating time-domain astronomy to where it is becoming a major contributor to our understanding of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). While we can marvel at the range of extragalactic phenomena dispayed by sources discovered in the original ``Markarian Survey'' - the first large-scale objective prism survey of the Northern Sky carried out at the Byurakan Astronomical Observtory almost a half-century ago - it is clear from the talks and posters presented at this meeting that the data to be be obtained over the next decade will be needed if we are to finally understand which phase of galaxy evolution each Markarian Galaxy represents.

  19. Competition of Invertebrates Mixed Culture in the Closed Aquatic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisman, Tamara

    The study considers the experimental model of interactions between invertebrates (the cilates Paramecium caudatum, Paramecium bursaria and the rotifers Brachionis plicatilis) in the closed aquatic system. The infusoria P.caudatum can feed on yeast, bacteria and chlorella; in this experiment growth and reproduction were maintained by bacteria only. The P.bursaria - zoochlorella endosymbiosis is a natural model of a simple biotic cycle. P.bursaria consumes glucose and oxygen released by zoochlorella in the process of biosynthesis and releases nitrogenous compounds and carbon dioxide necessary for algal photosynthesis. The rotifers Br. plicatilis can consume algae, bacteria and detritus. Thus in experiment with the mixed culture of invertebrates they can use different food sources. However with any initial percentage of the invertebrates the end portion of P.bursaria reaches 90-99

  20. From bouncy legs to poisoned arrows: elastic movements in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Dudek, D M; Rosario, M V

    2011-06-15

    Elastic mechanisms in the invertebrates are fantastically diverse, yet much of this diversity can be captured by examining just a few fundamental physical principles. Our goals for this commentary are threefold. First, we aim to synthesize and simplify the fundamental principles underlying elastic mechanisms and show how different configurations of basic building blocks can be used for different functions. Second, we compare single rapid movements and rhythmic movements across six invertebrate examples - ranging from poisonous cnidarians to high-jumping froghoppers - and identify remarkable functional properties arising from their underlying elastic systems. Finally, we look to the future of this field and find two prime areas for exciting new discoveries - the evolutionary dynamics of elastic mechanisms and biomimicry of invertebrate elastic materials and mechanics. PMID:21613512

  1. Land Use and Hydrogeological Characteristics Influence Groundwater Invertebrate Communities.

    PubMed

    Tione, María Laura; Bedano, José Camilo; Blarasin, Mónica

    2016-08-01

    We examine the influence of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the abundance, composition and structure of groundwater invertebrate communities in a loessic aquifer from Argentina. Seven wells, selected according to surrounding land use and hydrogeological characteristics, were sampled twice. Groundwater was characterized as sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate sulfate or sulfate type. NO3(-) was detected in all samples. Land use in the area surrounding the well, unsaturated zone thickness and geochemical characteristics of groundwater influenced the abundance, composition and community structure of groundwater invertebrates. Copepoda, Oligochaeta, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Amphipoda were highly influenced by land use, particularly by point pollution sources that produced higher abundance and changes in taxonomic composition. The lowest invertebrate abundance was observed at the wells situated in areas with the thickest unsaturated zone. Groundwater salinity and geochemical type influenced the presence of certain species, particularly Stygonitocrella sp. PMID:27456146

  2. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out. PMID:23001759

  3. Impact of hexazinone on invertebrates after application to forested watersheds.

    PubMed

    Mayack, D T; Bush, P B; Neary, D G; Douglass, J E

    1982-01-01

    The impact of the herbicide, hexazinone, was assessed on aquatic macrophytes, aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate communities within forested watersheds in the Piedmont region of Georgia. Four replicate watersheds received hexazinone on April 23, 1979, and were subsequently monitored for eight months. Residue levels in terrestrial invertebrates were a maximum of two orders of magnitude greater than comparable levels (0.01 to 0.18 ppm) found in forest floor material. Aquatic organisms in a second order perennial stream were exposed to intermittent concentrations of hexazinone (6 to 44 ppb). Hexazinone and its metabolites were generally not detected (less than 0.1 ppm) in aquatic invertebrates and macrophytes. No major alterations in species composition or diversity were detected in the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. Terrestrial microarthropod samples collected near the end of the study period revealed no major community changes. PMID:7092324

  4. Predicting subtle behavioral responses of invertebrates to soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Donkin, S.G.

    1995-12-31

    At concentration levels well below those which cause death and injury to soil invertebrates, a toxic chemical plume may yet effectively damage a soil ecosystem by triggering avoidance behavior among sensitive invertebrates as they move along the concentration gradient. The result may be a soil ecosystem lacking the benefits of effective nutrient cycling and mineralization which a thriving invertebrate population provides. While determining actual detection limits of invertebrates for chemical gradients in soils is experimentally difficult, theoretical calculations have suggested that such limits may be extremely low, and hence many organisms may sense and avoid concentrations of chemicals far below levels commonly considered acceptable. The minimum gradient (G) that can be detected by a receptor depends on the receptor radius (R), the chemical concentration (C), the diffusion constant of the chemical (D), the velocity of the organism (v), and the time over which the receptor integrates the chemical signal (t). In addition, the characteristics of that gradient are determined by interactions between the chemical and the soil particles (sorption/desorption), and advection through the pore spaces. The example of lead (Pb), a neurotoxic metal with demonstrated behavioral effects on the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, is used to model a chemical migrating through a soil. Based on experimentally determined Pb concentrations which elicited avoidance behavior in nematodes, and sorption characteristics of defined Pb-soil systems, the minimum detectable gradient (G) produced by a solubilized Pb plume in several soils was modeled. The results predict maximum allowable Pb levels in a soil if a healthy invertebrate community is desired, and suggest areas for further research into the subtle behavioral effects of environmental toxicants ore sensitive invertebrates.

  5. A generalized model for estimating the energy density of invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, Daniel A.; Csargo, Isak J.; Von Eschen, Aaron; Thul, Megan D.; Baker, James M.; Hayer, Cari-Ann; Howell, Jessica; Krause, Jacob; Letvin, Alex; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Invertebrate energy density (ED) values are traditionally measured using bomb calorimetry. However, many researchers rely on a few published literature sources to obtain ED values because of time and sampling constraints on measuring ED with bomb calorimetry. Literature values often do not account for spatial or temporal variability associated with invertebrate ED. Thus, these values can be unreliable for use in models and other ecological applications. We evaluated the generality of the relationship between invertebrate ED and proportion of dry-to-wet mass (pDM). We then developed and tested a regression model to predict ED from pDM based on a taxonomically, spatially, and temporally diverse sample of invertebrates representing 28 orders in aquatic (freshwater, estuarine, and marine) and terrestrial (temperate and arid) habitats from 4 continents and 2 oceans. Samples included invertebrates collected in all seasons over the last 19 y. Evaluation of these data revealed a significant relationship between ED and pDM (r2  =  0.96, p < 0.0001), where ED (as J/g wet mass) was estimated from pDM as ED  =  22,960pDM − 174.2. Model evaluation showed that nearly all (98.8%) of the variability between observed and predicted values for invertebrate ED could be attributed to residual error in the model. Regression of observed on predicted values revealed that the 97.5% joint confidence region included the intercept of 0 (−103.0 ± 707.9) and slope of 1 (1.01 ± 0.12). Use of this model requires that only dry and wet mass measurements be obtained, resulting in significant time, sample size, and cost savings compared to traditional bomb calorimetry approaches. This model should prove useful for a wide range of ecological studies because it is unaffected by taxonomic, seasonal, or spatial variability.

  6. Effects of lamprey larvicides on invertebrates in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torblaa, Richard L.

    1968-01-01

    This study was conducted on five streams tributary to Lake Superior and four tributary to Lake Michigan. Samples of the bottom fauna before and after chemical treatment revealed that most groups of aquatic organisms were not adversely affected by exposure to larvicides. The total number of invertebrates was smaller 1 week after treatment than before treatment, increased somewhat by 6 weeks after treatment, and had returned to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Aquatic insects were affected less than other organisms, and invertebrates were more severely affected and recovered more slowly in areas of sand and detritus than in riffle areas.

  7. Copper hazards to fish, wildlife and invertebrates: a synoptic review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Selective review and synthesis of the technical literature on copper and copper salts in the environment and their effects primarily on fishes, birds, mammals, terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates, and other natural resources. The subtopics include copper sources and uses; chemical and biochemical properties; concentrations of copper in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; effects of copper deficiency; lethal and sublethal effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic organisms, birds and mammals, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, behavior, metabolism, carcinogenicity, matagenicity, and teratogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  8. Conference Scene

    PubMed Central

    Leeder, J Steven; Lantos, John; Spielberg, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge for clinicians, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies is to better understand the relative contributions of ontogeny and genetic variation to observed variability in drug disposition and response across the pediatric age spectrum from preterm and term newborns, to infants, children and adolescents. Extrapolation of adult experience with pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine to pediatric patients of different ages and developmental stages, is fraught with many challenges. Compared with adults, pediatric pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics involves an added measure of complexity as variability owing to developmental processes, or ontogeny, is superimposed upon genetic variation. Furthermore, some pediatric diseases have no adult correlate or are more prevalent in children compared with adults, and several adverse drug reactions are unique to children, or occur at a higher frequency in children. The primary objective of this conference was to initiate an ongoing series of annual meetings on ‘Pediatric Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine’ organized by the Center for Personalized Medicine and Therapeutic Innovation and Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Medical Therapeutics at Children’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics in Kansas City, MO, USA. The primary goals of the inaugural meeting were: to bring together clinicians, basic and translational scientists and allied healthcare practitioners, and engage in a multi- and cross-disciplinary dialog aimed at implementing personalized medicine in pediatric settings; to provide a forum for the presentation and the dissemination of research related to the application of pharmacogenomic strategies to investigations of variability of drug disposition and response in children; to explore the ethical, legal and societal implications of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine that are unique to children; and finally, to create networking opportunities for stimulating discussion

  9. WETLAND INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY RESPONSES TO VARYING EMERGENT LITTER IN A PRAIRIE POTHOLE EMERGENT MARSH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant litter produced in the interior of dense emergent stands may directly or indirectly influence invertebrate communities. Low litter may provide structure and refuge to invertebrates while high litter may shade out vegetation and algae and decrease oxygen concentrations. With...

  10. Invertebrate colonization of leaves and roots within sediments of intermittent coastal plain streams across hydrologic phases

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared benthic invertebrate assemblages colonizing three types of buried substrates (leaves, roots and plastic roots) among three intermittent Coastal Plain streams over a one year period. Invertebrate density was significantly lower in root litterbags than in plastic root l...

  11. Application of multiple index development approaches to benthic invertebrate data from the Virginian Biogeographic Province

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic invertebrate indices have commonly been utilized to assess benthic invertebrate communities. These indices have been constructed using different techniques, but have shown different levels of application success. For example, the EMAP Virginian Province Index did not pe...

  12. Neuropeptides: metabolism to bioactive fragments and the pharmacology of their receptors.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Mathias

    2015-05-01

    The proteolytic processing of neuropeptides has an important regulatory function and the peptide fragments resulting from the enzymatic degradation often exert essential physiological roles. The proteolytic processing generates, not only biologically inactive fragments, but also bioactive fragments that modulate or even counteract the response of their parent peptides. Frequently, these peptide fragments interact with receptors that are not recognized by the parent peptides. This review discusses tachykinins, opioid peptides, angiotensins, bradykinins, and neuropeptide Y that are present in the central nervous system and their processing to bioactive degradation products. These well-known neuropeptide systems have been selected since they provide illustrative examples that proteolytic degradation of parent peptides can lead to bioactive metabolites with different biological activities as compared to their parent peptides. For example, substance P, dynorphin A, angiotensin I and II, bradykinin, and neuropeptide Y are all degraded to bioactive fragments with pharmacological profiles that differ considerably from those of the parent peptides. The review discusses a selection of the large number of drug-like molecules that act as agonists or antagonists at receptors of neuropeptides. It focuses in particular on the efforts to identify selective drug-like agonists and antagonists mimicking the effects of the endogenous peptide fragments formed. As exemplified in this review, many common neuropeptides are degraded to a variety of smaller fragments but many of the fragments generated have not yet been examined in detail with regard to their potential biological activities. Since these bioactive fragments contain a small number of amino acid residues, they provide an ideal starting point for the development of drug-like substances with ability to mimic the effects of the degradation products. Thus, these substances could provide a rich source of new pharmaceuticals

  13. Neuropeptides in Heteroptera: Identification of allatotropin-related peptide and tachykinin-related peptides using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the peptidomic analysis of neuropeptides from the retrocerebral complex and abdominal perisympathetic organs of polyphagous stinkbugs (Pentatomidae) revealed the group-specific sequences of pyrokinins, CAPA peptides (CAPA-periviscerokinins/PVKs and CAPA-pyrokinin), myosuppressin, corazonin...

  14. Neuropeptide imaging on an LTQ with vMALDI source: The complete `all-in-one' peptidome analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaert, Peter D.; Conaway, Maria C. Prieto; Pekar, Tonya M.; Miller, Ken

    2007-02-01

    Direct tissue imaging was performed on dissected insect tissue using a MALDI ion trap to visualize endogenous neuropeptides. Coupling tissue imaging to tandem MSn allows for the identification of previously known species and the ability to identify new ones by de novo sequencing, as searchable databases for insects are sparse. Direct tissue imaging is an attractive technique for the study of neuropeptides as minimal sample preparation is required prior to mass spectrometry. We successfully identified neuropeptides present in the corpora cardiaca and allata of Acheta domesticus (the house cricket). Diagnostic fragments at low m/z were used to distinguish between lipids and neuropeptides. The distribution of peptides appears to be more differentially localized than that of phospholipids, which seem to be more evenly distributed within the tissue.

  15. Stress-related neuropeptides and alcoholism: CRH, NPY and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Gehlert, Donald R.; Ryabinin, Andrey; Kaur, Simranjit; Cippitelli, Andrea; Thorsell, Annika; Lê, Anh D.; Hipskind, Philip A.; Hamdouchi, Chafiq; Lu, Jianliang; Hembre, Erik J.; Cramer, Jeffrey; Song, Min; McKinzie, David; Morin, Michelle; Economidou, Daina; Stopponi, Serena; Cannella, Nazzareno; Braconi, Simone; Kallupi, Marsida; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Massi, Maurizio; George, David T.; Gilman, Jody; Hersh, Jacqueline; Tauscher, Johannes T.; Hunt, Stephen P.; Hommer, Daniel; Heilig, Markus

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held at the conference on “Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies” in Volterra, Italy, May 6–9, 2008. Chaired by Markus Heilig and Roberto Ciccocioppo, this symposium offered a forum for the presentation of recent data linking neuropetidergic neurotransmission to the regulation of different alcohol related behaviours in animals and in humans. Dr. Donald Gehlert described the development of a new corticotrophin releasing factor (CRH) receptor 1 antagonist and showed its efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and stress-induced relapse in different animal models of alcohol abuse. Dr. Andrey Ryabinin reviewed recent findings in his laboratory indicating a role of the urocortin 1 (Ucn) receptor system in the regulation of alcohol intake. Dr. Annika Thorsell showed data supporting the significance of the neuropetide Y (NPY) receptor system in the modulation of behaviours associated with a history of ethanol intoxication. Dr. Roberto Ciccocioppo focused his presentation on the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptors as treatment targets for alcoholism. Finally, Dr. Markus Heilig showed recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that neurokinin 1 (NK1) antagonism may represent a promising new treatment for alcoholism. Collectively, these investigators highlighted the significance of neuropeptidergic neurotransmission in the regulation of neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol addiction. Data also revealed the importance of these systems as treatment targets for the development of new medication for alcoholism. PMID:19913192

  16. Transcriptome and Peptidome Characterisation of the Main Neuropeptides and Peptidic Hormones of a Euphausiid: The Ice Krill, Euphausia crystallorophias

    PubMed Central

    Toullec, Jean-Yves; Corre, Erwan; Bernay, Benoît; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Cascella, Kévin; Ollivaux, Céline; Henry, Joël; Clark, Melody S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ice krill, Euphausia crystallorophias is one of the species at the base of the Southern Ocean food chain. Given their significant contribution to the biomass of the Southern Ocean, it is vitally important to gain a better understanding of their physiology and, in particular, anticipate their responses to climate change effects in the warming seas around Antarctica. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina sequencing was used to produce a transcriptome of the ice krill. Analysis of the assembled contigs via two different methods, produced 36 new pre-pro-peptides, coding for 61 neuropeptides or peptide hormones belonging to the following families: Allatostatins (A, B et C), Bursicon (α and β), Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormones (CHH and MIH/VIHs), Crustacean Cardioactive Peptide (CCAP), Corazonin, Diuretic Hormones (DH), the Eclosion Hormone (EH), Neuroparsin, Neuropeptide F (NPF), small Neuropeptide F (sNPF), Pigment Dispersing Hormone (PDH), Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone (RPCH) and finally Tachykinin. LC/MS/MS proteomics was also carried out on eyestalk extracts, which are the major site of neuropeptide synthesis in decapod crustaceans. Results confirmed the presence of six neuropeptides and six precursor-related peptides previously identified in the transcriptome analyses. Conclusions This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of neuropeptide hormones in a Eucarida non-decapod Malacostraca, several of which are described for the first time in a non-decapod crustacean. Additionally, there is a potential expansion of PDH and Neuropeptide F family members, which may reflect certain life history traits such as circadian rhythms associated with diurnal migrations and also the confirmation via mass spectrometry of several novel pre-pro-peptides, of unknown function. Knowledge of these essential hormones provides a vital framework for understanding the physiological response of this key Southern Ocean species to climate change and provides

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Neuropeptides and Peptide Hormones in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite: Evidence of Roles in Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xing-Cheng; Chen, Zhang-Fan; Sun, Jin; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wu, Rudolf S. S.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  18. ACUTE AND CHRONIC PARATHION TOXICITY TO FISH AND INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and chronic aquatic bioassays were conducted with a variety of organisms using parathion (0,0-diethyl 0-(p-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate) as the challenge compound. Acute LC50 values ranged from a low of 0.38 micrograms/l in invertebrates to a high of 2.0 mg/l in freshwater...

  19. METAL BIOACCUMULATION IN FISHES AND AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Literature concerning the bioaccumulation of metals by freshwater and marine fishes and invertebrates has been reviewed; metal residue levels are also reported for a few mammals and plants. Twenty-one metals are considered in individual sections of the review and a bibliography o...

  20. Invertebrates: Revealing a Hidden World in the Year of Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity means the variety of life in all its forms. It includes the variety of species and ecosystems in the world, and genetic variation. Invertebrates are one of the largest and most accessible groups of animals for primary children to study. In this article, the author explains why and how children should engage with the idea of…

  1. Trends in Children's Concepts of Vertebrate and Invertebrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braund, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of a cross-age study of 7- to 15-year-old children on their thinking about vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Suggests experiences that could be included in the school science curriculum and argues for more classroom work relating structure with function in order to address students' conceptual difficulties. (Contains 18…

  2. Use of Invertebrate Animals to Teach Physiological Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyrup-Olsen, Ingrith; Linder, Thomas M.

    1991-01-01

    The advantages of using invertebrates in teaching physiological principles are discussed. The ability to illustrate with greater clarity physiological principles, the range and variety of physiological processes available for examination, and the unlimited possibilities for student research are topics of discussion. (KR)

  3. Serotonin and Synaptic Transmission at Invertebrate Neuromuscular Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Hui

    2012-01-01

    The serotonergic system in vertebrates and invertebrates has been a focus for over 50 years and will likely continue in the future. Recently, genomic analysis and discovery of alternative splicing and differential expression in tissues have increased the knowledge of serotonin (5-HT) receptor types. Comparative studies can provide useful insights to the wide variety of mechanistic actions of 5-HT responsible for behaviors regulated or modified by 5-HT. To determine cellular responses and influences on neural systems as well as the efferent control of behaviors by the motor units, preparations amenable to detailed studies of synapses are beneficial as working models. The invertebrate neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) offer some unique advantages for such investigations; action of 5-HT at crustacean NMJs has been widely studied, and leech and Aplysia continue to be key organisms. However, there are few studies in insects likely due to the focus in modulation within the CNS and lack of evidence of substantial action of 5-HT at the Drosophila NMJs. There are only a few reports in gastropods and annelids as well as other invertebrates. In this review we highlight some of the key findings of 5-HT actions and receptor types associated at NMJs in a variety of invertebrate preparations in hopes that future studies will build on this knowledge base. PMID:23055788

  4. Invertebrate neurophylogeny: suggested terms and definitions for a neuroanatomical glossary

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'brain', 'nerve', and 'eye' have been used in various ways in the different animal groups, but no consensus on the exact meaning exists. This impedes our understanding of the architecture of the invertebrate nervous system in general and of evolutionary transformations of nervous system characters between different taxa. Results We provide a glossary of invertebrate neuroanatomical terms with a precise and consistent terminology, taxon-independent and free of homology assumptions. This terminology is intended to form a basis for new morphological descriptions. A total of 47 terms are defined. Each entry consists of a definition, discouraged terms, and a background/comment section. Conclusions The use of our revised neuroanatomical terminology in any new descriptions of the anatomy of invertebrate nervous systems will improve the comparability of this organ system and its substructures between the various taxa, and finally even lead to better and more robust homology hypotheses. PMID:21062451

  5. CADMIUM TOXICITY TO THREE SPECIES OF ESTUARINE INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three species of estuarine invertebrates, Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp), Pagurus longicarpus (hermit crab) and Argopecten irradians (bay scallop), were exposed to Cd in flowing seawater at concentrations of 0.06, 0.12, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/litre. Incipient LC50 values of 0.53...

  6. ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVELS FOR SOIL INVERTEBRATES AND PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) are being developed for 24 inorganic and inorganic chemicals for soil invertebrates and plants using procedures developed by a Task Group of the USEPA Eco-SSL Work Group. The Eco-SSL Work Group is a collaboration among USEPA, DoD, DOE, ...

  7. Detection of betanodaviruses in apparently healthy aquarium fishes and invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Dennis Kaw; Lim, Dong Joo; Baeck, Gun Wook; Youn, Hee Jeong; Shin, Nam Shik; Youn, Hwa Young; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Park, Jun Hong

    2006-01-01

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in cultured marine fish. A total of 237 apparently healthy aquarium fish, marine (65 species) and freshwater (12 species) fishes and marine invertebrates (4 species), which were stocked in a commercial aquarium in Seoul, South Korea, were collected from November 2005 to February 2006. The brains of the fish and other tissues of the invertebrates were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR to detect betanodavirus. Positive nested PCR results were obtained from the brains of 8 marine fish species (shrimp fish Aeoliscus strigatus, milkfish Chanos chanos, three spot damsel Dascyllus trimaculatus, Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus, pinecone fish Monocentris japonica, blue ribbon eel Rhinomuraena quaesita, look down fish Selene vomer, yellow tang Zebrasoma flavesenes), 1 marine invertebrate species (spiny lobster Pamulirus versicolor), and 2 freshwater fish species (South American leaf fish Monocirrhus polyacanthus and red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri). The detection rate in nested PCR was 11/237 (4.64%). These subclinically infected aquarium fish and invertebrates may constitute an inoculum source of betanodaviruses for cultured fishes in the Korean Peninsula. PMID:17106229

  8. RNAi at work: Targeting invertebrate pests and beneficial organisms' diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invertebrates present two types of large scale RNAi application opportunities: pest control and beneficial insect health. The former involves the introduction of sustainable applications to keep pest populations low, and the latter represents the challenge of keeping beneficial organisms healthy. RN...

  9. Molybdenum Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    1989-01-01

    Ecological and toxicological aspects of molybdenum (Mo) in the environment are briefly reviewed, with emphasis on fish and wildlife. Subtopics include sources and uses, chemical properties, mode of action, background concentrations in biological and nonbiological samples, and lethal and sublethal effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic organisms, birds, and mammals. Current recommendations for Mo and the protection of sensitive living resources are presented.

  10. A Thesaurus for Soil Invertebrate Trait-Based Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Nahmani, Johanne; Auclerc, Apolline; Capowiez, Yvan; Caro, Gaël; Cluzeau, Daniel; Cortet, Jérôme; Decaëns, Thibaud; Dubs, Florence; Joimel, Sophie; Guernion, Muriel; Briard, Charlène; Grumiaux, Fabien; Laporte, Baptiste; Pasquet, Alain; Pelosi, Céline; Pernin, Céline; Ponge, Jean-François; Salmon, Sandrine; Santorufo, Lucia; Hedde, Mickaël

    2014-01-01

    Soil invertebrates are known to be much involved in soil behaviour and therefore in the provision of ecosystem services. Functional trait-based approaches are methodologies which can be used to understand soil invertebrates’ responses to their environment. They (i) improve the predictions and (ii) are less dependent on space and time. The way traits have been used recently has led to misunderstandings in the integration and interpretation of data. Trait semantics are especially concerned. The aim of this paper is to propose a thesaurus for soil invertebrate trait-based approaches. T-SITA, an Internet platform, is the first initiative to deal with the semantics of traits and ecological preferences for soil invertebrates. It reflects the agreement of a scientific expert community to fix semantic properties (e.g. definition) of approximately 100 traits and ecological preferences. In addition, T-SITA has been successfully linked with a fully operational database of soil invertebrate traits. Such a link enhances data integration and improves the scientific integrity of data. PMID:25310431

  11. Detection of betanodaviruses in apparently healthy aquarium fishes and invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Dennis Kaw; Lim, Dong Joo; Baeck, Gun Wook; Youn, Hee Jeong; Shin, Nam Shik; Youn, Hwa Young; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Park, Jun Hong; Park, Se Chang

    2006-12-01

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in cultured marine fish. A total of 237 apparently healthy aquarium fish, marine (65 species) and freshwater (12 species) fishes and marine invertebrates (4 species), which were stocked in a commercial aquarium in Seoul, South Korea, were collected from November 2005 to February 2006. The brains of the fish and other tissues of the invertebrates were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR to detect betanodavirus. Positive nested PCR results were obtained from the brains of 8 marine fish species (shrimp fish Aeoliscus strigatus, milkfish Chanos chanos, three spot damsel Dascyllus trimaculatus, Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus, pinecone fish Monocentris japonica, blue ribbon eel Rhinomuraena quaesita, look down fish Selene vomer, yellow tang Zebrasoma flavesenes), 1 marine invertebrate species (spiny lobster Pamulirus versicolor), and 2 freshwater fish species (South American leaf fish Monocirrhus polyacanthus and red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri). The detection rate in nested PCR was 11/237 (4.64%). These subclinically infected aquarium fish and invertebrates may constitute an inoculum source of betanodaviruses for cultured fishes in the Korean Peninsula. PMID:17106229

  12. Invertebrate community composition differs between invasive herb alligator weed and native sedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Imogen E.; Paynter, Quentin; Beggs, Jacqueline R.

    2012-05-01

    Chemical and/or architectural differences between native and exotic plants may influence invertebrate community composition. According to the enemy release hypothesis, invasive weeds should host fewer and less specialised invertebrates than native vegetation. Invertebrate communities were compared on invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) and native sedges (Isolepis prolifer and Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani) in a New Zealand lake. A. philoxeroides is more architecturally and chemically similar to I. prolifer than to S. tabernaemontani. Lower invertebrate abundance, richness and proportionally fewer specialists were predicted on A. philoxeroides compared to native sedges, but with greatest differences between A. philoxeroides and S. tabernaemontani. A. philoxeroides is more architecturally and chemically similar to I. prolifer than to S. tabernaemontani. Invertebrate abundance showed taxa-specific responses, rather than consistently lower abundance on A. philoxeroides. Nevertheless, as predicted, invertebrate fauna of A. philoxeroides was more similar to that of I. prolifer than to S. tabernaemontani. The prediction of a depauperate native fauna on A. philoxeroides received support from some but not all taxa. All vegetation types hosted generalist-dominated invertebrate communities with simple guild structures. The enemy release hypothesis thus had minimal ability to predict patterns in this system. Results suggest the extent of architectural and chemical differences between native and invasive vegetation may be useful in predicting the extent to which they will host different invertebrate communities. However, invertebrate ecology also affects whether invertebrate taxa respond positively or negatively to weed invasion. Thus, exotic vegetation may support distinct invertebrate communities despite similar overall invertebrate abundance to native vegetation.

  13. Deficiency of prohormone convertase dPC2 (AMONTILLADO) results in impaired production of bioactive neuropeptide hormones in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Christian; Herbert, Henrik; Kahnt, Jörg; Bender, Michael; Rhea, Jeanne M

    2011-08-01

    Peptide hormones synthesized by secretory neurons in the CNS are important regulators of physiology, behavior, and development. Like other neuropeptides, they are synthesized from larger precursor molecules by a specific set of enzymes. Using a combination of neurogenetics, immunostainings, and direct mass spectrometric profiling, we show that the presence of Drosophila prohormone convertase 2 encoded by the gene amontillado (amon) is a prerequisite for the proper processing of neuropeptide hormones from the major neurohemal organs of the CNS. A loss of amon correlates with a loss of neuropeptide hormone signals from the larval ring gland and perisympathetic organs. Neuropeptide hormone signals were still detectable in the adult corpora cardiaca of older amon-deficient flies which were amon heat-shock-rescued until eclosion. A semiquantification by direct peptide profiling using stable isotopic standards showed, however, that their neuropeptide hormone levels are strongly reduced. Targeted expression of GFP under the control of amon regulatory regions revealed a co-localization with the investigated peptide hormones in secretory neurons of the brain and ventral nerve cord. The lack of AMON activity resulted in a deficiency of L3 larva to enter the wandering phase. In conclusion, our findings provide the first direct evidence that AMON is a key enzyme in the production of neuropeptides in the fruitfly. PMID:21138435

  14. Neuropeptidome of the Cephalopod Sepia officinalis: Identification, Tissue Mapping, and Expression Pattern of Neuropeptides and Neurohormones during Egg Laying.

    PubMed

    Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Cornet, Valérie; Leduc, Alexandre; Zanuttini, Bruno; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Bernay, Benoît; Garderes, Johan; Kraut, Alexandra; Couté, Yohan; Henry, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Cephalopods exhibit a wide variety of behaviors such as prey capture, communication, camouflage, and reproduction thanks to a complex central nervous system (CNS) divided into several functional lobes that express a wide range of neuropeptides involved in the modulation of behaviors and physiological mechanisms associated with the main stages of their life cycle. This work focuses on the neuropeptidome expressed during egg-laying through de novo construction of the CNS transcriptome using an RNAseq approach (Illumina sequencing). Then, we completed the in silico analysis of the transcriptome by characterizing and tissue-mapping neuropeptides by mass spectrometry. To identify neuropeptides involved in the egg-laying process, we determined (1) the neuropeptide contents of the neurohemal area, hemolymph (blood), and nerve endings in mature females and (2) the expression levels of these peptides. Among the 38 neuropeptide families identified from 55 transcripts, 30 were described for the first time in Sepia officinalis, 5 were described for the first time in the animal kingdom, and 14 were strongly overexpressed in egg-laying females as compared with mature males. Mass spectrometry screening of hemolymph and nerve ending contents allowed us to clarify the status of many neuropeptides, that is, to determine whether they were neuromodulators or neurohormones. PMID:26632866

  15. Expression and distribution of neuropeptides in the nervous system of the crab Carcinus maenas and their roles in environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuzhuo; Buchberger, Amanda; Muthuvel, Gajanthan; Li, Lingjun

    2015-12-01

    Environmental fluctuations, such as salinity, impose serious challenges to marine animal survival. Neuropeptides, signaling molecules involved in the regulation process, and the dynamic changes of their full complement in the stress response have yet to be investigated. Here, a MALDI-MS-based stable isotope labeling quantitation strategy was used to investigate the relationship between neuropeptide expression and adaptability of Carcinus maenas to various salinity levels, including high (60 parts per thousand [p.p.t.]) and low (0 p.p.t.) salinity, in both the crustacean pericardial organ (PO) and brain. Moreover, a high salinity stress time course study was conducted. MS imaging (MSI) of neuropeptide localization in C. maenas PO was also performed. As a result of salinity stress, multiple neuropeptide families exhibited changes in their relative abundances, including RFamides (e.g. APQGNFLRFamide), RYamides (e.g. SSFRVGGSRYamide), B-type allatostatins (AST-B; e.g. VPNDWAHFRGSWamide), and orcokinins (e.g. NFDEIDRSSFGFV). The MSI data revealed distribution differences in several neuropeptides (e.g. SGFYANRYamide) between color morphs, but salinity stress appeared to not have a major effect on the localization of the neuropeptides. PMID:26475201

  16. In silico cloning of genes encoding neuropeptides, neurohormones and their putative G-protein coupled receptors in a spider mite.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Jan A; Rombauts, Stephane; Grbić, Miodrag

    2012-04-01

    The genome of the spider mite was prospected for the presence of genes coding neuropeptides, neurohormones and their putative G-protein coupled receptors. Fifty one candidate genes were found to encode neuropeptides or neurohormones. These include all known insect neuropeptides and neurohormones, with the exception of sulfakinin, corazonin, neuroparsin and PTTH. True orthologs of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) were neither found, but there are three genes encoding peptides similar in structure to both AKH and the AKH-corazonin-related peptide. We were also unable to identify the precursors for pigment dispersing factor (PDF) or the recently discovered trissin. However, the spider mite probably does have such genes, as we found their putative receptors. A novel arthropod neuropeptide gene was identified that shows similarity to previously described molluscan neuropeptide genes and was called EFLamide. A total of 65 putative neuropeptide GPCR genes were also identified, of these 58 belong to the A-family and 7 to the B-family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 50 of them are closely related to insect GPCRs, which allowed the identification of their putative ligand in 39 cases with varying degrees of certainty. Other spider mite GPCRs however have no identifiable orthologs in the genomes of the four holometabolous insect species best analyzed. Whereas some of the latter have orthologs in hemimetabolous insect species, crustaceans or ticks, for others such arthropod homologs are currently unknown. PMID:22214827

  17. Hormones, hormonal agents, and neuropeptides involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Kotronoulas, Grigorios; Stamatakis, Antonios; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is an essential ubiquitous biological process, a periodical state of quiescence in which there is minimal processing of sensory information and no interaction with conspecifics or the environment. Despite relevant research on sleep structure and testing of numerous endogenous sleep-affecting chemicals, questions as to the precise mechanisms and functions of sleep remain without satisfactory responses. The purpose of this review is to report on current evidence as regards the effect of several endogenous and exogenous hormones, hormonal agents, and neuropeptides on sleep onset or wake process, when administered in humans in specific doses and via different routes. The actions of several peptides are presented in detail. Some of them (growth hormone releasing hormone, ghrelin, galanin, neuropeptide Y) seem to promote sleep, whereas others (corticotropin, somatostatin) impair its continuity. PMID:20045796

  18. CD and 31P NMR studies of tachykinin and MSH neuropeptides in SDS and DPC micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Sydney C.; Brown, Taylor C.; Gonzalez, Javier D.; Levonyak, Nicholas S.; Rush, Lydia A.; Cremeens, Matthew E.

    2016-02-01

    Secondary structural characteristics of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), α-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide (α-MSH), γ1-MSH, γ2-MSH, and melittin were evaluated with circular dichroism in phosphite buffer, DPC micelles, and SDS micelles. CD spectral properties of γ1-MSH and γ2-MSH as well as 31P NMR of DPC micelles with all the peptides are reported for the first time. Although, a trend in the neuropeptide/micelle CD data appears to show increased α-helix content for the tachykinin peptides (SP, NKA, NKB) and increased β-sheet content for the MSH peptides (α-MSH, γ1-MSH, γ2-MSH) with increasing peptide charge, the lack of perturbed 31P NMR signals for all neuropeptides could suggest that the reported antimicrobial activity of SP and α-MSH might not be related to a membrane disruption mode of action.

  19. Sensory Neurons Arouse C. elegans Locomotion via Both Glutamate and Neuropeptide Release

    PubMed Central

    Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Hu, Zhitao; Schafer, William R.; Kaplan, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    C. elegans undergoes periods of behavioral quiescence during larval molts (termed lethargus) and as adults. Little is known about the circuit mechanisms that establish these quiescent states. Lethargus and adult locomotion quiescence is dramatically reduced in mutants lacking the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1. Here, we show that the aroused locomotion of npr-1 mutants results from the exaggerated activity in multiple classes of sensory neurons, including nociceptive (ASH), touch sensitive (ALM and PLM), and stretch sensing (DVA) neurons. These sensory neurons accelerate locomotion via both neuropeptide and glutamate release. The relative contribution of these sensory neurons to arousal differs between larval molts and adults. Our results suggest that a broad network of sensory neurons dictates transitions between aroused and quiescent behavioral states. PMID:26154367

  20. New roles of a neuropeptide cortistatin in the immune system and cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Yan, Shaoyu; Fisher, William E; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi

    2005-03-01

    Cortistatin (CST) is a neuropeptide that strongly resembles somatostatin (SS) structurally and functionally. CST binds to all five SS receptors (SSTR1-SSTR5) with high affinity and exerts its function mainly through SSTRs. Despite many similar functions between these two neuropeptides, they are products of different genes. Recently, some distinct functions and receptor usage of CST have been reported. Some of the interesting functions of CST were not found with SS. Therefore CST could have potential new roles in an ex-neuronal system that regulates immune responses as well as other cellular functions in the body. In this review, we discuss the new functions of CST in the immune system, cancer pathogenesis, and possible CST-specific receptors. PMID:15696397

  1. The Overlooked Biodiversity of Flower-Visiting Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Wardhaugh, Carl W.; Stork, Nigel E.; Edwards, Will; Grimbacher, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates suggest that perhaps 40% of all invertebrate species are found in tropical rainforest canopies. Extrapolations of total diversity and food web analyses have been based almost exclusively on species inhabiting the foliage, under the assumption that foliage samples are representative of the entire canopy. We examined the validity of this assumption by comparing the density of invertebrates and the species richness of beetles across three canopy microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves and flowers) on a one hectare plot in an Australian tropical rainforest. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: 1) canopy invertebrate density and species richness are directly proportional to the amount of resource available; and 2) canopy microhabitats represent discrete resources that are utilised by their own specialised invertebrate communities. We show that flowers in the canopy support invertebrate densities that are ten to ten thousand times greater than on the nearby foliage when expressed on a per-unit resource biomass basis. Furthermore, species-level analyses of the beetle fauna revealed that flowers support a unique and remarkably rich fauna compared to foliage, with very little species overlap between microhabitats. We reject the hypothesis that the insect fauna on mature foliage is representative of the greater canopy community even though mature foliage comprises a very large proportion of canopy plant biomass. Although the significance of the evolutionary relationship between flowers and insects is well known with respect to plant reproduction, less is known about the importance of flowers as resources for tropical insects. Consequently, we suggest that this constitutes a more important piece of the ‘diversity jigsaw puzzle’ than has been previously recognised and could alter our understanding of the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions and food web dynamics, and provide a better foundation for accurately estimating global species richness. PMID

  2. Crawling to Collapse: Ecologically Unsound Ornamental Invertebrate Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Rhyne, Andrew; Rotjan, Randi; Bruckner, Andrew; Tlusty, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML) landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild) and ecosystem services (commodities) for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. Conclusions/Significance The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse. PMID:20027312

  3. Identification of the first neuropeptides from the enigmatic hexapod order Protura.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Chi, Megan

    2015-12-01

    The Hexapoda consists of two classes, the Entognatha and the Insecta, with the former group considered basal to the latter. The Protura is a basal order within the Entognatha, the members of which are minute soil dwellers first identified in the early 20th century. Recently, a transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) was generated for the proturan Acerentomon sp., providing the first significant molecular resource for this enigmatic hexapod order. As part of an ongoing effort to predict peptidomes for little studied members of the Arthropoda, we have mined this TSA dataset for transcripts encoding putative neuropeptide precursors and predicted the structures of mature peptides from the deduced proteins. Forty-seven peptide-encoding transcripts were mined from the Acerentomon TSA dataset, with 202 distinct peptides predicted from them. The peptides identified included isoforms of adipokinetic hormone, adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, allatotropin, bursicon α, bursicon β, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, ecdysis-triggering hormone, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, proctolin, pyrokinin, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide; these are the first neuropeptides described from any proturan. Comparison of the Acerentomon precursors and mature peptides with those from other arthropods revealed features characteristic of both the insects and the crustaceans, which is consistent with the hypothesized phylogenetic position of the Protura within the Pancrustacea, i.e. at or near the point of divergence of the hexapods from the crustaceans. PMID:26055220

  4. Control of sleep-to-wake transitions via fast aminoacid and slow neuropeptide transmission

    PubMed Central

    Mosqueiro, Thiago; de Lecea, Luis; Huerta, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    The Locus Coeruleus (LC) modulates cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, brainstem and spinal cord circuits and it expresses receptors for neuromodulators that operate in a time scale of several seconds. Evidences from anatomical, electrophysiological and optogenetic experiments have shown that LC neurons receive input from a group of neurons called Hypocretins (HCRTs) that release a neuropeptide called hypocretin. It is less known how these two groups of neurons can be coregulated using GABAergic neurons. Since the time scales of GABAA inhibition is several orders of magnitude faster than the hypocretin neuropeptide effect, we investigate the limits of circuit activity regulation using a realistic model of neurons. Our investigation shows that GABAA inhibition is insufficient to control the activity levels of the LCs. Despite slower forms of GABAA can in principle work, there is not much plausibility due to the low probability of the presence of slow GABAA and lack of robust stability at the maximum firing frequencies. The best possible control mechanism predicted by our modeling analysis is the presence of inhibitory neuropeptides that exert effects in a similar time scale as the hypocretin/orexin. Although the nature of these inhibitory neuropeptides has not been identified yet, it provides the most efficient mechanism in the modeling analysis. Finally, we present a reduced mean-field model that perfectly captures the dynamics and the phenomena generated by this circuit. This investigation shows that brain communication involving multiple time scales can be better controlled by employing orthogonal mechanisms of neural transmission to decrease interference between cognitive processes and hypothalamic functions. PMID:25598695

  5. Molecular characterization of a short neuropeptide F signaling system in the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans.

    PubMed

    Caers, Jelle; Peymen, Katleen; Van Hiel, Matthias B; Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Schoofs, Liliane; Beets, Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Neuropeptides of the short neuropeptide F (sNPF) family are widespread among arthropods and found in every sequenced insect genome so far. Functional studies have mainly focused on the regulatory role of sNPF in feeding behavior, although this neuropeptide family has pleiotropic effects including in the control of locomotion, osmotic homeostasis, sleep, learning and memory. Here, we set out to characterize and determine possible roles of sNPF signaling in the haematophagous tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans, a vector of African Trypanosoma parasites causing human and animal African trypanosomiasis. We cloned the G. m. morsitans cDNA sequences of an sNPF-like receptor (Glomo-sNPFR) and precursor protein encoding four Glomo-sNPF neuropeptides. All four Glomo-sNPF peptides concentration-dependently activated Glomo-sNPFR in a cell-based calcium mobilization assay, with EC50 values in the nanomolar range. Gene expression profiles in adult female tsetse flies indicate that the Glomo-sNPF system is mainly restricted to the nervous system. Glomo-snpfr transcripts were also detected in the hindgut of adult females. In contrast to the Drosophila sNPF system, tsetse larvae lack expression of Glomo-snpf and Glomo-snpfr genes. While Glomo-snpf transcript levels are upregulated in pupae, the onset of Glomo-snpfr expression is delayed to adulthood. Expression profiles in adult tissues are similar to those in other insects suggesting that the tsetse sNPF system may have similar functions such as a regulatory role in feeding behavior, together with a possible involvement of sNPFR signaling in osmotic homeostasis. Our molecular data will enable further investigations into the functions of sNPF signaling in tsetse flies. PMID:27288635

  6. Coexpression analysis of nine neuropeptides in the neurosecretory preoptic area of larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin

    2015-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in mammals coordinates neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses pivotal for homeostasis and the stress response. A large amount of studies in rodents has documented that the PVN contains diverse neuronal cell types which can be identified by the expression of distinct secretory neuropeptides. Interestingly, PVN cell types often coexpress multiple neuropeptides whose relative coexpression levels are subject to environment-induced plasticity. Due to their small size and transparency, zebrafish larvae offer the possibility to comprehensively study the development and plasticity of the PVN in large groups of intact animals, yet important anatomical information about the larval zebrafish PVN-homologous region has been missing. Therefore we recently defined the location and borders of the larval neurosecretory preoptic area (NPO) as the PVN-homologous region in larval zebrafish based on transcription factor expression and cell type clustering. To identify distinct cell types present in the larval NPO, we also generated a comprehensive 3D map of 9 zebrafish homologs of typical neuropeptides found in the mammalian PVN (arginine vasopressin (AVP), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), proenkephalin a (penka)/b (penkb), neurotensin (NTS), oxytocin (OXT), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), cholecystokinin (CCK), and somatostatin (SST)). Here we extend this chemoarchitectural map to include the degrees of coexpression of two neuropeptides in the same cell by performing systematic pairwise comparisons. Our results allowed the subclassification of NPO cell types, and differences in variability of coexpression profiles suggest potential targets of biochemical plasticity. Thus, this work provides an important basis for the analysis of the development, function, and plasticity of the primary neuroendocrine brain region in larval zebrafish. PMID:25729355

  7. Interaction of mimetic analogs of insect kinin neuropeptides with arthropod receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect kinin neuropeptides share a common C-terminal pentapeptide sequence Phe1-Xaa1-2-Xaa2-3-Trp4-Gly5-NH2 (Xaa1-2 = His, Asn, Phe, Ser or Tyr; Xaa2-3 = Pro, Ser or Ala) and have been isolated from a number of insects, including species of Dictyoptera, Lepidoptera, and Orthoptera. They have been a...

  8. Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology is designed to provide background and instruction on a broad spectrum of techniques and their use in the evaluation of entomopathogens in the field. The intended audience includes researchers, graduate students, practitioners of integrated pes...

  9. Gender and pregnancy affect neuropeptide responses of the rabbit Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Hart, D A; Kydd, A; Reno, C

    1999-08-01

    Tendons such as the Achilles tendon are complex structures that are hypocellular, hypovascular, and hyponeural. The development of pathophysiologic function in this tendon because of overuse is relatively common; however, the mechanisms responsible for the development of paratenonitis and tendinosis remain primarily undefined. To understand better a possible regulatory role for neuropeptides (substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide) known to be present in this tissue, the influence of substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide on messenger ribonucleic acid levels for numerous inflammatory molecules, growth factors, and proteinases and inhibitors have been assessed using a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method and explants of paratenon and Achilles tendon midsubstance tissue from adolescent male and female rabbits and tissue from primigravida females. Most of the significant (p < 0.01) changes observed were at the level of the growth factor transcripts and transcripts for proteinases and inhibitors. Twenty-one significant differences in the responsiveness between tissues from male and female rabbits were observed, and 12 significant differences in responsiveness between virgin females and primigravida rabbits were seen. Differences between paratenon and midsubstance responsiveness to the neuropeptides also were observed within each group of animals. The midsubstance tissue from pregnant animals was hyporesponsive to both neuropeptides. These results indicate that neurotransmitter responsiveness of Achilles tendon tissue differs in a gender specific manner and is influenced by pregnancy associated factors. PMID:10627708

  10. Radiosynthesis and in Vivo Evaluation of Neuropeptide Y5 Receptor (NPY5R) PET Tracers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J S Dileep; Walker, Mary; Packiarajan, Mathivanan; Jubian, Vrej; Prabhakaran, Jaya; Chandrasena, Gamini; Pratap, Mali; Parsey, Ramin V; Mann, J John

    2016-05-18

    Neuropeptide Y receptor type 5 (NPY5R) is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that belongs to the subfamily of neuropeptide receptors (NPYR) that mediate the action of endogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY). Animal models and preclinical studies indicate a role for NPY5R in the pathophysiology of depression, anxiety, and obesity and as a target of potential therapeutic drugs. To better understand the pathophysiological involvement of NPY5R, and to measure target occupancy by potential therapeutic drugs, it would be advantageous to measure NPY5R binding in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET). Four potent and selective NPY5R antagonists were radiolabeled via nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions with [(18)F]fluoride. Of the four radioligands investigated, PET studies in anesthetized baboons showed that [(18)F]LuAE00654 ([(18)F]N-[trans-4-({[4-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)thiazol-2-yl]amino}methyl)cyclohexyl]propane-2-sulfonamide) penetrates blood brain barrier (BBB) and a small amount is retained in the brain. Slow metabolism of [(18)F]LuAE00654 was observed in baboon plasma. Blocking studies with a specific NPY5R antagonist demonstrated up to 60% displacement of radioactivity in striatum, the brain region with highest NPY5R binding. Our studies suggest that [(18)F]LuAE00654 can be a potential PET radiotracer for the quantification and occupancy studies of NPY5R drug candidates. PMID:26886507

  11. Transcriptional regulation of neuropeptide and peptide hormone expression by the Drosophila dimmed and cryptocephal genes.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Sebastien A; Hewes, Randall S

    2006-05-01

    The regulation of neuropeptide and peptide hormone gene expression is essential for the development and function of neuroendocrine cells in integrated physiological networks. In insects, a decline in circulating ecdysteroids triggers the activation of a neuroendocrine system to stimulate ecdysis, the behaviors used to shed the old cuticle at the culmination of each molt. Here we show that two evolutionarily conserved transcription factor genes, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene dimmed (dimm) and the basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) gene cryptocephal (crc), control expression of diverse neuropeptides and peptide hormones in Drosophila. Central nervous system expression of three neuropeptide genes, Dromyosuppressin, FMRFamide-related and Leucokinin, is activated by dimm. Expression of Ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH) in the endocrine Inka cells requires crc; homozygous crc mutant larvae display markedly reduced ETH levels and corresponding defects in ecdysis. crc activates ETH expression though a 382 bp enhancer, which completely recapitulates the ETH expression pattern. The enhancer contains two evolutionarily conserved regions, and both are imperfect matches to recognition elements for activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4), the vertebrate ortholog of the CRC protein and an important intermediate in cellular responses to endoplasmic reticulum stress. These regions also contain a putative ecdysteroid response element and a predicted binding site for the products of the E74 ecdysone response gene. These results suggest that convergence between ATF-related signaling and an important intracellular steroid response pathway may contribute to the neuroendocrine regulation of insect molting. PMID:16651547

  12. Seminalplasmin: recent evolution of another member of the neuropeptide Y gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, H; Hort, Y; Schneider, R; Shine, J

    1995-01-01

    Seminalplasmin, the major basic protein of bull semen, an important regulator of calcium transport in bovine sperm and a positive modulator of the zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction, is shown to be a recently created member of the neuropeptide Y gene family. Sequence analysis of the bovine peptide YY-pancreatic polypeptide gene cluster reveals an unexpected and extensive homology between seminalplasmin and the neuropeptide Y gene family, at the level of both gene structure and primary amino acid and nucleotide sequences. The extremely high degree of homology to the peptide YY gene, in both coding and especially noncoding regions, suggests that the seminalplasmin gene has arisen by a very recent gene duplication of the bovine peptide YY gene. Despite the more than 95% nucleotide sequence identity, a few specific mutations in the seminalplasmin gene have resulted in both the loss of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal cleavage sites characteristic of all other members of the neuropeptide Y family and the acquisition of a function apparently unrelated to the neurotransmitter/endocrine role of peptide YY. PMID:7831336

  13. Amyloid-β / Neuropeptide Interactions Assessed by Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Molly T.; DeToma, Alaina S.; Hyung, Suk-Joon; Lim, Mi Hee; Ruotolo, Brandon T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, small peptides have been shown to modulate aggregation and toxicity of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ). As such, these new scaffolds may help discover a new class of biotherapeutics useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Many of these inhibitory peptide sequences have been derived from natural sources or from Aβ itself (e.g., C-terminal Aβ fragments). In addition, much earlier work indicates that tachykinins, a broad class of neuropeptides, display neurotrophic properties, presumably through direct interactions with either Aβ or its receptors. Based on this work, we undertook a limited screen of neuropeptides using ion mobility-mass spectrometry to search for similar such peptides with direct Aβ binding properties. Our results reveal that the neuropeptides leucine enkephalin (LE) and galanin interact with both the monomeric and small oligomeric forms of Aβ1-40 to create a range of complexes having diverse stoichiometries, while some tachyknins (i.e., substance P) do not. LE interacts with Aβ more strongly than galanin, and we utilized ion mobility-mass spectrometry, molecular dynamics simulations, gel electrophoresis/Western blot, and transmission electron microscopy to study the influence of this peptide on the structure of Aβ monomer, small Aβ oligomers, as well as the eventual formation of Aβ fibrils. We find that LE binds selectively within a region of Aβ between its N-terminal tail and hydrophobic core. Furthermore, our data indicate that LE modulates fibril generation, producing shorter fibrillar aggregates when added in stoichiometric excess relative to Aβ. PMID:23612608

  14. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  15. Calcium-dependent growth regulation of small cell lung cancer cells by neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Gudermann, Thomas; Roelle, Susanne

    2006-12-01

    Approximately 15-25% of all primary cancers of the lung are classified histologically as small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), a subtype characterized by rapid growth and a poor prognosis. Neuropeptide hormones like bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide, bradykinin or galanin are the principal mitogenic stimuli of this tumour entity. The mitogenic signal is transmitted into the cell via heptahelical neuropeptide hormone receptors, which couple to the heterotrimeric G proteins of the Gq/11 familiy. Subsequent activation of phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta) entails the activation of protein kinase C and the elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration. There is mounting evidence to support the notion that calcium mobilization is the key event that initiates different mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Neuropeptide-dependent proliferation of SCLC cells relies on parallel activation of the Gq/11/PLCbeta/Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase and the c-jun N-terminal kinase pathways, while selective engagement of either signalling cascade alone results in growth arrest and differentiation or apoptotic cell death. Basic experimental research has the potential to identify and validate novel therapeutic targets located at critical points of convergence of different mitogenic signal transduction pathways. In the case of SCLC, targeting the distinct components of the Ca2+ influx pathway as well as critical Ca2+-dependent cellular effectors may be rewarding in this regard. PMID:17158754

  16. Oxytocin and vasopressin: linking pituitary neuropeptides and their receptors to social neurocircuits

    PubMed Central

    Baribeau, Danielle A.; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin and vasopressin are pituitary neuropeptides that have been shown to affect social processes in mammals. There is growing interest in these molecules and their receptors as potential precipitants of, and/or treatments for, social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. Numerous behavioral-genetic studies suggest that there is an association between these peptides and individual social abilities; however, an explanatory model that links hormonal activity at the receptor level to complex human behavior remains elusive. The following review summarizes the known associations between the oxytocin and vasopressin neuropeptide systems and social neurocircuits in the brain. Following a micro- to macro- level trajectory, current literature on the synthesis and secretion of these peptides, and the structure, function and distribution of their respective receptors is first surveyed. Next, current models regarding the mechanism of action of these peptides on microcircuitry and other neurotransmitter systems are discussed. Functional neuroimaging evidence on the acute effects of exogenous administration of these peptides on brain activity is then reviewed. Overall, a model in which the local neuromodulatory effects of pituitary neuropeptides on brainstem and basal forebrain regions strengthen signaling within social neurocircuits proves appealing. However, these findings are derived from animal models; more research is needed to clarify the relevance of these mechanisms to human behavior and treatment of social deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26441508

  17. Urbilaterian origin of paralogous GnRH and corazonin neuropeptide signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shi; Zandawala, Meet; Beets, Isabel; Baytemur, Esra; Slade, Susan E.; Scrivens, James H.; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproductive maturation in humans and other vertebrates. Homologs of GnRH and its cognate receptor have been identified in invertebrates–for example, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ) neuropeptide pathways in arthropods. However, the precise evolutionary relationships and origins of these signalling systems remain unknown. Here we have addressed this issue with the first identification of both GnRH-type and CRZ-type signalling systems in a deuterostome–the echinoderm (starfish) Asterias rubens. We have identified a GnRH-like neuropeptide (pQIHYKNPGWGPG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens GnRH-type receptor and a novel neuropeptide (HNTFTMGGQNRWKAG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens CRZ-type receptor. With the discovery of these ligand-receptor pairs, we demonstrate that the vertebrate/deuterostomian GnRH-type and the protostomian AKH systems are orthologous and the origin of a paralogous CRZ-type signalling system can be traced to the common ancestor of the Bilateria (Urbilateria). PMID:27350121

  18. The General Conference Mennonites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    General Conference Mennonites and Old Order Amish are compared and contrasted in the areas of physical appearance, religious beliefs, formal education, methods of farming, and home settings. General Conference Mennonites and Amish differ in physical appearance and especially in dress. The General Conference Mennonite men and women dress the same…

  19. Parent Conferences. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Roslyn; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents six workshop sessions on parent conferences: (1) "Parents' Perspectives on Conferencing" (R. Duffy); (2) "Three Way Conferences" (G. Zeller); (3) "Conferencing with Parents of Infants" (K. Albrecht); (4) "Conferencing with Parents of School-Agers" (L. G. Miller); (5) "Cross Cultural Conferences" (J. Gonzalez-Mena); and (6) "Working with…

  20. Three different prohormones yield a variety of Hydra-RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2) neuropeptides in Hydra magnipapillata.

    PubMed Central

    Darmer, D; Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P; Bosch, T C; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1998-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra is the most frequently used model for the study of development in cnidarians. Recently we isolated four novel Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide) neuropeptides, the Hydra-RFamides I-IV, from Hydra magnipapillata. Here we describe the molecular cloning of three different preprohormones from H. magnipapillata, each of which gives rise to a variety of RFamide neuropeptides. Preprohormone A contains one copy of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide I (QWLGGRFG), II (QWFNGRFG), III/IV [(KP)HLRGRFG] and two putative neuropeptide sequences (QLMSGRFG and QLMRGRFG). Preprohormone B has the same general organization as preprohormone A, but instead of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide III/IV it contains a slightly different neuropeptide sequence [(KP)HYRGRFG]. Preprohormone C contains one copy of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide I and seven additional putative neuropeptide sequences (with the common N-terminal sequence QWF/LSGRFGL). The two Hydra-RFamide II copies (in preprohormones A and B) are preceded by Thr residues, and the single Hydra-RFamide III/IV copy (in preprohormone A) is preceded by an Asn residue, confirming that cnidarians use unconventional processing signals to generate neuropeptides from their precursor proteins. Southern blot analyses suggest that preprohormones A and B are each coded for by a single gene, whereas one or possibly two closely related genes code for preprohormone C. Northern blot analyses and in situ hybridizations show that the gene coding for preprohormone A is expressed in neurons of both the head and foot regions of Hydra, whereas the genes coding for preprohormones B and C are specifically expressed in neurons of different regions of the head. All of this shows that neuropeptide biosynthesis in the primitive metazoan Hydra is already rather complex. PMID:9601069

  1. Effects of Starvation on Brain Short Neuropeptide F-1, -2, and -3 Levels and Short Neuropeptide F Receptor Expression Levels of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Shinji; Matsumoto, Sumihiro; Nakane, Tomohiro; Ohara, Ayako; Morooka, Nobukatsu; Konuma, Takahiro; Nagai, Chiaki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    In our previous report, we demonstrated the possibility that various regulatory neuropeptides influence feeding behavior in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Among these feeding-related neuropeptides, short neuropeptide F (sNPF) exhibited feeding-accelerating activity when injected into B. mori larvae. Like other insect sNPFs, the deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA encoding the sNPF precursor appears to produce multiple sNPF and sNPF-related peptides in B. mori. The presence of three sNPFs, sNPF-1, sNPF-2, and sNPF-3, in the brain of B. mori larvae was confirmed by direct MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric profiling. In addition, all three sNPFs are present in other larval ganglia. The presence of sNPF mRNA in the central nervous system (CNS) was also confirmed by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Semi-quantitative analyses of sNPFs in the larval brain using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry further revealed that brain sNPF levels decrease in response to starvation, and that they recover with the resumption of feeding. These data suggest that sNPFs were depleted by the starvation process. Furthermore, food deprivation decreased the transcriptional levels of the sNPF receptor (BNGR-A10) in the brain and CNS, suggesting that the sNPF system is dependent on the feeding state of the insect and that the sNPF system may be linked to locomotor activity associated with foraging behavior. Since the injection of sNPFs accelerated the onset of feeding in B. mori larvae, we concluded that sNPFs are strongly related to feeding behavior. In addition, semi-quantitative MS analyses revealed that allatostatin, which is present in the larval brain, is also reduced in response to starvation, whereas the peptide level of Bommyosuppressin was not affected by different feeding states. PMID:22649403

  2. Isolation and identification of the cDNA encoding the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide and additional neuropeptides in the oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, M Y; Tanaka, M; Kataoka, H; Boo, K S; Tatsuki, S

    1998-10-01

    The present study is concerned with cloning and characterizing Has-PBAN cDNA which is 756 nucleotides long, isolated from the brain and suboesophageal ganglion complex (Br-Sg) of Helicoverpa assulta adults. The 194-amino acid sequence deduced from this cDNA possessed the proteolytic endocleavage sites to generate multiple peptides. From the processing of the prepro-hormone, it can be predicted that the cDNA has a PBAN domain with 33 amino acids and four additional peptide domains: 24 amino acid-, 7 amino acid-, 18 amino acid- and 8 amino acid-long sequences, with FXPR (or K) L (X = G, T or S) amidated at their C-termini. The amino acid sequence of all five predicted peptides, including the PBAN, are identical to that of Helicoverpa zea (Raina, A.K., Jaffe, H., Kempe, T.G., Keim, P., Blacher, R.W., Fales, H.M., Riley, C.T., Klun, J.A., Ridgway, R.L., Hayes, D.K., 1989. Identification of a neuropeptide hormone that regulates sex pheromone production in female moths. Science 244, 796-798 and Ma, P.W.K., Knipple, D.C., Roelofs, W.L., 1994. Structural organization of the Helicoverpa zea gene encoding the precursor protein for pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide and other neuropeptides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 91, 506-510). A single mRNA species corresponding to the size of Has-PBAN cDNA was detected from the Br-Sg of 1-3-day old female and male adults, and their expression was also at a similar level. Pheromone production was induced upon injection of female or male Br-Sg extracts or synthetic PBAN into the haemocoel of decapitated 1-3-day old female adults during the photophase when they are not supposed to produce pheromone. From these results, H. assulta adult females seem to use their own PBAN for regulating sex pheromone biosynthesis. Functions of the four other peptides ending with FXPR (or K) L in the Has-PBAN cDNA and of the male PBAN remain to be elucidated. PMID:9807222

  3. Enterococcus infection biology: lessons from invertebrate host models.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Grace J; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-03-01

    The enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. While they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. Recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the biology of enterococcal infections, as well as general principles underlying host innate immune defense. This review highlights recent findings on Enterococcus infection biology from two invertebrate infection models, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the free-living bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:24585051

  4. Differential niche dynamics among major marine invertebrate clades

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Melanie J; Simpson, Carl; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which organisms retain their environmental preferences is of utmost importance in predicting their fate in a world of rapid climate change. Notably, marine invertebrates frequently show strong affinities for either carbonate or terrigenous clastic environments. This affinity is due to characteristics of the sediments as well as correlated environmental factors. We assessed the conservatism of substrate affinities of marine invertebrates over geological timescales, and found that niche conservatism is prevalent in the oceans, and largely determined by the strength of initial habitat preference. There is substantial variation in niche conservatism among major clades with corals and sponges being among the most conservative. Time-series analysis suggests that niche conservatism is enhanced during times of elevated nutrient flux, whereas niche evolution tends to occur after mass extinctions. Niche evolution is not necessarily elevated in genera exhibiting higher turnover in species composition. PMID:24313951

  5. Aquatic Invertebrates as Unlikely Vectors of Buruli Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Heather; Kimbirauskas, Ryan; McIntosh, Mollie D.; Kolar, Rebecca; Quaye, Charles; Akpabey, Felix; Boakye, D.; Small, Pam; Merritt, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans and associated with exposure to aquatic habitats. To assess possible transmission of M. ulcerans by aquatic biting insects, we conducted a field examination of biting water bugs (Hemiptera: Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae) in 15 disease-endemic and 12 non–disease-endemic areas of Ghana, Africa. From collections of 22,832 invertebrates, we compared composition, abundance, and associated M. ulcerans positivity among sites. Biting hemipterans were rare and represented a small percentage (usually <2%) of invertebrate communities. No significant differences were found in hemipteran abundance or pathogen positivity between disease-endemic and non–disease-endemic sites, and between abundance of biting hemipterans and M. ulcerans positivity. Therefore, although infection through insect bites is possible, little field evidence supports the assumption that biting hemipterans are primary vectors of M. ulcerans. PMID:18680648

  6. Aquatic invertebrates as unlikely vectors of Buruli ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Benbow, M Eric; Williamson, Heather; Kimbirauskas, Ryan; McIntosh, Mollie D; Kolar, Rebecca; Quaye, Charles; Akpabey, Felix; Boakye, D; Small, Pam; Merritt, Richard W

    2008-08-01

    Buruli ulcer is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans and associated with exposure to aquatic habitats. To assess possible transmission of M. ulcerans by aquatic biting insects, we conducted a field examination of biting water bugs (Hemiptera: Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae) in 15 disease-endemic and 12 non-disease-endemic areas of Ghana, Africa. From collections of 22,832 invertebrates, we compared composition, abundance, and associated M. ulcerans positivity among sites. Biting hemipterans were rare and represented a small percentage (usually <2%) of invertebrate communities. No significant differences were found in hemipteran abundance or pathogen positivity between disease-endemic and non-disease-endemic sites, and between abundance of biting hemipterans and M. ulcerans positivity. Therefore, although infection through insect bites is possible, little field evidence supports the assumption that biting hemipterans are primary vectors of M. ulcerans. PMID:18680648

  7. Nutraceutical Interventions for Promoting Healthy Aging in Invertebrate Models

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuqing; Guha, Sujay; Sun, Xiaoping; Cao, Min; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zou, Sige

    2012-01-01

    Aging is a complex and inevitable biological process that is associated with numerous chronically debilitating health effects. Development of effective interventions for promoting healthy aging is an active but challenging area of research. Mechanistic studies in various model organisms, noticeably two invertebrates, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, have identified many genes and pathways as well as dietary interventions that modulate lifespan and healthspan. These studies have shed light on some of the mechanisms involved in aging processes and provide valuable guidance for developing efficacious aging interventions. Nutraceuticals made from various plants contain a significant amount of phytochemicals with diverse biological activities. Phytochemicals can modulate many signaling pathways that exert numerous health benefits, such as reducing cancer incidence and inflammation, and promoting healthy aging. In this paper, we outline the current progress in aging intervention studies using nutraceuticals from an evolutionary perspective in invertebrate models. PMID:22991584

  8. Invertebrates control metals and arsenic sequestration as ecosystem engineers.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Weiske, Arndt; Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

    2010-03-01

    Organic sediments are known to be a significant sink of inorganic elements in polluted freshwater ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the role of invertebrate shredders (the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex L.) in metal and arsenic enrichment into organic partitions of sediments in a wetland stream at former uranium mining site. Metal and metalloid content in leaf litter increased significantly during decomposition, while at the same time the carbon content decreased. During decomposition, G. pulex as a ecosystem engineer facilitated significantly the enrichment of magnesium (250%), manganese (560%), cobalt (310%), copper (200%), zinc (43%), arsenic (670%), cadmium (100%) and lead (1340%) into small particle sizes. The enrichments occur under very high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Small particles have high surface area that results in high biofilm development. Further, the highest amounts of elements were observed in biofilms. Therefore, invertebrate shredder like G. pulex can enhance retention of large amounts of metal and arsenic in wetlands. PMID:20132960

  9. Chemical and pharmacological significance of natural guanidines from marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ebada, S S; Proksch, P

    2011-03-01

    Natural Guanidines from marine invertebrates represent a group of bioactive secondary metabolites that revealed prominent pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiproliferative, analgesic, and anti-coagulant properties. Acyclovir (Zovirax(®)), the first guanidine-derived pharmaceutical for the treatment of herpes infections since late 1970s, was synthesized based on a marine arabinosyl nucleoside, spongosine. Recently, ziconotide (Prialt(®)), a synthetic form of the marine-derived peptide (ω-conotoxin MVIIA) comprising a guanidine moiety, has been approved for the treatment of chronic pain. This review surveys over 130 compounds of guanidine-containing secondary metabolites from marine invertebrates with emphasis on their pharmacological significance and structure-activity relationships. PMID:21534931

  10. Enterococcus Infection Biology: Lessons from Invertebrate Host Models

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Grace J.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    The enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. While they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. Recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the biology of enterococcal infections, as well as general principles underlying host innate immune defense. This review highlights recent findings on Enterococcus infection biology from two invertebrate infection models, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the free-living bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:24585051

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factors: A comparison between invertebrates and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kipryushina, Yulia O; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2015-12-01

    This review aims to summarize recent data concerning the structure and role of the members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) families in the context of early development, organogenesis and regeneration, with a particular emphasis on the role of these factors in the development of invertebrates. Homologs of VEGF and/or VEGFR have been found in all Eumetazoa, in both Radiata and Bilateria, where they are expressed in the descendants of different germ layers and play a pivotal role in the development of animals with and without a vascular system. VEGF is a well-known angiogenesis regulator, but this factor also control cell migration during neurogenesis and the development of branching organs (the trachea) in invertebrate and vertebrate species. A possible explanation for the origin of Vegf/Vegfr in the animal kingdom and a pathway of Vegf/Vegfr evolution are discussed. PMID:26066416

  12. Spawning, copulation and inbreeding coefficients in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Addison, J A; Hart, M W

    2005-12-22

    Patterns of population genetic variation have frequently been understood as consequences of life history covariates such as dispersal ability and breeding systems (e.g. selfing). For example, marine invertebrates show enormous variation in life history traits that are correlated with the extent of gene flow between populations and the magnitude of differentiation among populations at neutral genetic markers (FST). Here we document an unexpected correlation between marine invertebrate life histories and deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (non-zero values of FIS, the inbreeding coefficient). FIS values were significantly higher in studies of species with free-spawned planktonic sperm than in studies of species that copulate or have some form of direct sperm transfer to females or benthic egg masses. This result was robust to several different analytical approaches. We note several mechanisms that might contribute to this pattern, and appeal for more studies and ideas that might help to explain our observations. PMID:17148230

  13. Crude Dubai oil toxicity on some fresh-water invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ramusino, M.C.; Zanzottera, D.

    1986-01-01

    Six hundred and sixty-three tons of crude oil were accidentally spilled by a bursting pipeline into the Po River in April, 1980. Toxicity tests were carried out to determine if behavioral changes occurred in fish exposed to the oil. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of the oil on a common invertebrate species in the Po River, so as to obtain a more comprehensive picture of the possible damage caused to the river ecosystem.

  14. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-10-13

    In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.1.3.1: Electromagnetic Fields.

  15. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed. PMID:26282752

  16. When growth models are not universal: evidence from marine invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Forster, Jack

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of body mass, as growth, is fundamental to all organisms. Being able to understand which model(s) best describe this growth trajectory, both empirically and ultimately mechanistically, is an important challenge. A variety of equations have been proposed to describe growth during ontogeny. Recently, the West Brown Enquist (WBE) equation, formulated as part of the metabolic theory of ecology, has been proposed as a universal model of growth. This equation has the advantage of having a biological basis, but its ability to describe invertebrate growth patterns has not been well tested against other, more simple models. In this study, we collected data for 58 species of marine invertebrate from 15 different taxa. The data were fitted to three growth models (power, exponential and WBE), and their abilities were examined using an information theoretic approach. Using Akaike information criteria, we found changes in mass through time to fit an exponential equation form best (in approx. 73% of cases). The WBE model predominantly overestimates body size in early ontogeny and underestimates it in later ontogeny; it was the best fit in approximately 14% of cases. The exponential model described growth well in nine taxa, whereas the WBE described growth well in one of the 15 taxa, the Amphipoda. Although the WBE has the advantage of being developed with an underlying proximate mechanism, it provides a poor fit to the majority of marine invertebrates examined here, including species with determinate and indeterminate growth types. In the original formulation of the WBE model, it was tested almost exclusively against vertebrates, to which it fitted well; the model does not however appear to be universal given its poor ability to describe growth in benthic or pelagic marine invertebrates. PMID:23945691

  17. Transmission of solar ultraviolet radiation through invertebrate exteriors

    SciTech Connect

    Karentz, D.; Gast, T. )

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of springtime ozone depletion over the Antarctic has created concern about the effects of increases ultraviolet-B on marine organisms, particularly in intertidal and subtidal populations. The first line of defense that an animal has to solar radiation exposure is its outer covering. This paper examines four species of antarctic invertebrates to determine the amount of UV protection provided by their external covering (the sea urchin, the sea star; the limpet; and the tunicate). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Zebra mussel effects on benthic invertebrates: physical or biotic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Botts, P. Silver; Patterson, Benjamin A.; Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    In soft sediments, Dreissena spp. create firm substrate in the form of aggregates of living mussels (druses) that roll free on the sediments. Druses provide physical structure which increases habitat heterogeneity, and the mussels increase benthic organic matter through the production of pseudofeces and feces. Descriptive and experimental studies were used to determine: 1) whether the density of benthic invertebrates in soft sediments increased in the presence of druses, and 2) whether the invertebrate assemblage responded to the physical structure provided by a druse or to some biotic effect associated with the presence of living mussels. In core samples collected biweekly during summer in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania, amphipods, chironomids, oligochaetes, turbellarians, and hydrozoans were significantly more abundant in sand with druses than in bare sand. When mesh bags containing either a living druse, non-living druse, or no druse were incubated in the bay for 33 d, we found that chironomids were significantly more abundant in treatments with living druses than with non-living druses, and in treatments with non-living druses than with no druse; turbellarians, amphipods, and hydrozoans were significantly more abundant in treatments with living or non-living druses than with no druse; oligochaetes showed no significant differences among treatments. This study demonstrates that most taxa of benthic invertebrates in soft substrate respond specifically to the physical structure associated with aggregates of mussel shells, but further study is needed to examine chironomid responses to some biotic effect dependent on the presence of living mussels.

  19. The carboxylesterase/cholinesterase gene family in invertebrate deuterostomes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Glynis; Moore, Samuel W

    2012-06-01

    Carboxylesterase/cholinesterase family members are responsible for controlling the nerve impulse, detoxification and various developmental functions, and are a major target of pesticides and chemical warfare agents. Comparative structural analysis of these enzymes is thus important. The invertebrate deuterostomes (phyla Echinodermata and Hemichordata and subphyla Urochordata and Cephalochordata) lie in the transition zone between invertebrates and vertebrates, and are thus of interest to the study of evolution. Here we have investigated the carboxylesterase/cholinesterase gene family in the sequenced genomes of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata), Saccoglossus kowalevskii (Hemichordata), Ciona intestinalis (Urochordata) and Branchiostoma floridae (Cephalochordata), using sequence analysis of the catalytic apparatus and oligomerisation domains, and phylogenetic analysis. All four genomes show blurring of structural boundaries between cholinesterases and carboxylesterases, with many intermediate enzymes. Non-enzymatic proteins are well represented. The Saccoglossus and Branchiostoma genomes show evidence of extensive gene duplication and retention. There is also evidence of domain shuffling, resulting in multidomain proteins consisting either of multiple carboxylesterase domains, or of carboxylesterase/cholinesterase domains linked to other domains, including RING finger, chitin-binding, immunoglobulin, fibronectin type 3, CUB, cysteine-rich-Frizzled, caspase activation and 7tm-1, amongst others. Such gene duplication and domain shuffling in the carboxylesterase/cholinesterase family appears to be unique to the invertebrate deuterostomes, and we hypothesise that these factors may have contributed to the evolution of the morphological complexity, particularly of the nervous system and neural crest, of the vertebrates. PMID:22210164

  20. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    PubMed Central

    Montanaro, Jacqueline; Gruber, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing) are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer) and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2). All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates. PMID:27069800

  1. The invertebrate ecology of the Chalk aquifer in England (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, L.; Robertson, A. R.; White, D.; Knight, L.; Johns, T.; Edwards, F.; Arietti, M.; Sorensen, J. P. R.; Weitowitz, D.; Marchant, B. P.; Bloomfield, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    The Chalk is an important water supply aquifer, yet ecosystems within it remain poorly understood. Boreholes (198) in seven areas of England (UK) were sampled to determine the importance of the Chalk aquifer as a habitat, and to improve understanding of how species are distributed. Stygobitic macro-invertebrates were remarkably common, and were recorded in 67 % of boreholes in unconcealed Chalk, although they were not recorded in Chalk that is concealed by low-permeability strata and thus likely to be confined. Most species were found in shallow boreholes (<21 m) and boreholes with deep (>50 m) water tables, indicating that the habitat is vertically extensive. Stygobites were present in more boreholes in southern England than northern England (77 % compared to 38 %). Only two species were found in northern England compared to six in southern England, but overall seven of the eight stygobitic macro-invertebrate species found in England were detected in the Chalk. Two species are common in southern England, but absent from northern England despite the presence of a continuous habitat prior to the Devensian glaciation. This suggests that either they did not survive glaciations in the north where glaciers were more extensive, or dispersal rates are slow and they have never colonised northern England. Subsurface ecosystems comprising aquatic macro-invertebrates and meiofauna, as well as the microbial organisms they interact with, are likely to be widespread in the Chalk aquifer. They represent an important contribution to biodiversity, and may influence biogeochemical cycles and provide other ecosystem services.

  2. The distribution of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in tropical Pacific coral reef invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Alstyne, Kathryn L.; Schupp, Peter; Slattery, Marc

    2006-08-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an important component of the global sulfur cycle and may be involved, via its cleavage product dimethylsulfide, in climate regulation. Although it is common in many algae, reports of DMSP in animals, particularly tropical invertebrates, are limited. This study examined the distribution of DMSP in a diverse group of coral reef invertebrates. DMSP was present in all 22 species of cnidarians and ranged from 9 to 723 μmol g-1 of dry mass (DM) with a mean (± 1SD) of 110 ± 180 μmol g-1 DM. It was not detected in a flatworm and an ascidian or in two of five sponges. Concentrations in sponges ranged from undetectable to 16 μmol g-1 DM with a mean of 4 ± 7 μmol g-1 DM. Within the cnidarians, DMSP concentrations did not differ among orders. Among cnidarian species, DMSP concentrations were correlated with symbiotic zooxanthellae densities. Within cnidarian species, DMSP concentrations of individuals were positively correlated with zooxanthellae densities in three of the four species examined. We speculate that DMSP is dietarily derived in sponges and derived from zooxanthellae in the cnidarians. The functions of DMSP in coral reef invertebrates are not known.

  3. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers.

    PubMed

    Montanaro, Jacqueline; Gruber, Daniela; Leisch, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing) are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer) and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2). All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates. PMID:27069800

  4. Philosophical background of attitudes toward and treatment of invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Mather, Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    People who interact with or make decisions about invertebrate animals have an attitude toward them, although they may not have consciously worked it out. Three philosophical approaches underlie this attitude. The first is the contractarian, which basically contends that animals are only automata and that we humans need not concern ourselves with their welfare except for our own good, because cruelty and neglect demean us. A second approach is the utilitarian, which focuses on gains versus losses in interactions between animals, including humans. Given the sheer numbers of invertebrates-they constitute 99% of the animals on the planet- this attitude implicitly requires concern for them and consideration in particular of whether they can feel pain. Third is the rights-based approach, which focuses on humans-treatment of animals by calling for an assessment of their quality of life in each human-animal interaction. Here scholars debate to what extent different animals have self-awareness or even consciousness, which may dictate our treatment of them. Regardless of the philosophical approach to invertebrates, information and education about their lives are critical to an understanding of how humans ought to treat them. PMID:21709313

  5. Profiles of secreted neuropeptides and catecholamines illustrate similarities and differences in response to stimulation by distinct secretagogues.

    PubMed

    Podvin, Sonia; Bundey, Richard; Toneff, Thomas; Ziegler, Michael; Hook, Vivian

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to define profiles of secreted neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters that undergo co-release from sympathoadrenal chromaffin cells upon stimulation by distinct secretagogues. Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla participate in the dynamic responses to stress, especially that of 'fight and flight', and, thus, analyses of the co-release of multiple neurotransmitters is necessary to gain knowledge of how the stress response regulates cell-cell communication among physiological systems. Results of this study demonstrated that six different secretagogues stimulated the co-release of the neuropeptides Met-enkephalin, galanin, NPY, and VIP with the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Importantly, the quantitative profiles of the secreted neurotransmitters showed similarities and differences upon stimulation by the different secretagogues evaluated, composed of KCl depolarization, nicotine, carbachol, PACAP, bradykinin, and histamine. The rank-orders of the secreted profiles of the neurotransmitters were generally similar among these secretagogues, but differences in the secreted amounts of each neurotransmitter occurred with different secretagogues. Epinephrine among the catecholamines showed the highest level of secretion. (Met)enkephalin showed the largest levels of secretion compared to the other neuropeptides examined. Levels of secreted catecholamines were greater than that of the neuropeptides. These data support the hypothesis that profiles of secreted neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters show similarities and differences upon stimulation by distinct secretagogues. These results illustrate the co-release of concerted neurotransmitter profiles that participate in the stress response of the sympathoadrenal nervous system. PMID:26092702

  6. Matrotrophy and placentation in invertebrates: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Lidgard, Scott; Gordon, Dennis P; Schwaha, Thomas; Genikhovich, Grigory; Ereskovsky, Alexander V

    2016-08-01

    Matrotrophy, the continuous extra-vitelline supply of nutrients from the parent to the progeny during gestation, is one of the masterpieces of nature, contributing to offspring fitness and often correlated with evolutionary diversification. The most elaborate form of matrotrophy-placentotrophy-is well known for its broad occurrence among vertebrates, but the comparative distribution and structural diversity of matrotrophic expression among invertebrates is wanting. In the first comprehensive analysis of matrotrophy across the animal kingdom, we report that regardless of the degree of expression, it is established or inferred in at least 21 of 34 animal phyla, significantly exceeding previous accounts and changing the old paradigm that these phenomena are infrequent among invertebrates. In 10 phyla, matrotrophy is represented by only one or a few species, whereas in 11 it is either not uncommon or widespread and even pervasive. Among invertebrate phyla, Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda and Bryozoa dominate, with 162, 83 and 53 partly or wholly matrotrophic families, respectively. In comparison, Chordata has more than 220 families that include or consist entirely of matrotrophic species. We analysed the distribution of reproductive patterns among and within invertebrate phyla using recently published molecular phylogenies: matrotrophy has seemingly evolved at least 140 times in all major superclades: Parazoa and Eumetazoa, Radiata and Bilateria, Protostomia and Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. In Cycliophora and some Digenea, it may have evolved twice in the same life cycle. The provisioning of developing young is associated with almost all known types of incubation chambers, with matrotrophic viviparity more widespread (20 phyla) than brooding (10 phyla). In nine phyla, both matrotrophic incubation types are present. Matrotrophy is expressed in five nutritive modes, of which histotrophy and placentotrophy are most prevalent. Oophagy, embryophagy and

  7. Neuropeptide-Driven Cross-Modal Plasticity following Sensory Loss in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitch, Ithai; Laurent, Patrick; Zhao, Buyun; Walker, Denise; Beets, Isabel; Schoofs, Liliane; Bai, Jihong; Schafer, William R.; Treinin, Millet

    2016-01-01

    Sensory loss induces cross-modal plasticity, often resulting in altered performance in remaining sensory modalities. Whereas much is known about the macroscopic mechanisms underlying cross-modal plasticity, only scant information exists about its cellular and molecular underpinnings. We found that Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes deprived of a sense of body touch exhibit various changes in behavior, associated with other unimpaired senses. We focused on one such behavioral alteration, enhanced odor sensation, and sought to reveal the neuronal and molecular mechanisms that translate mechanosensory loss into improved olfactory acuity. To this end, we analyzed in mechanosensory mutants food-dependent locomotion patterns that are associated with olfactory responses and found changes that are consistent with enhanced olfaction. The altered locomotion could be reversed in adults by optogenetic stimulation of the touch receptor (mechanosensory) neurons. Furthermore, we revealed that the enhanced odor response is related to a strengthening of inhibitory AWC→AIY synaptic transmission in the olfactory circuit. Consistently, inserting in this circuit an engineered electrical synapse that diminishes AWC inhibition of AIY counteracted the locomotion changes in touch-deficient mutants. We found that this cross-modal signaling between the mechanosensory and olfactory circuits is mediated by neuropeptides, one of which we identified as FLP-20. Our results indicate that under normal function, ongoing touch receptor neuron activation evokes FLP-20 release, suppressing synaptic communication and thus dampening odor sensation. In contrast, in the absence of mechanosensory input, FLP-20 signaling is reduced, synaptic suppression is released, and this enables enhanced olfactory acuity; these changes are long lasting and do not represent ongoing modulation, as revealed by optogenetic experiments. Our work adds to a growing literature on the roles of neuropeptides in cross

  8. Regulation of Sleep by Neuropeptide Y-Like System in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunxia; Yang, Yunyan; Zhang, Mingming; Price, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY), a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF), is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1) on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies. PMID:24040211

  9. Acrolein depletes the neuropeptides CGRP and substance P in sensory nerves in rat respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Springall, D R; Edginton, J A; Price, P N; Swanston, D W; Noel, C; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M

    1990-01-01

    The mammalian respiratory tract is densely innervated by autonomic and sensory nerves around airways and blood vessels. Subsets of these nerves contain a number of putative neurotransmitter peptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in sensory nerves and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), possibly serving autonomic functions. CGRP is also found in endocrine cells in rat airway epithelium. These peptides are all pharmacologically potent effectors of bronchial and vascular smooth muscle and bronchial secretion. Their functions in vivo are less well established. We have therefore examined the effects of inhaled acrolein, a sensory irritant, on three pulmonary neuropeptides: CGRP, substance P, and VIP. Groups of rats (n = 3 each) were exposed for 10 min to acrolein in air (Ct = 510, 1858, and 5693 mg.min/m3) or to air alone. Fifteen minutes later they were killed (pentabarbitone IP) and their respiratory tracts were dissected and fixed in 0.4% p-benzoquinone solution. Cryostat sections were stained by indirect immunofluorescence for a general nerve marker (PGP 9.5) and neuropeptides. The acrolein-treated animals had a dose-related decrease in tracheal substance P- and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers compared with controls. No change was seen in total nerve fiber distribution and number (PGP 9.5) or VIP immunoreactivity, nor in CGRP-immunoreactive epithelial endocrine cells. It is concluded that the rat tracheal peptidergic nerves are a sensitive indicator of inhaled irritant substances. Their reduced immunoreactivity may be because of a release of sensory neuropeptides that could play a role in the physiological response to irritant or toxic compounds. Images FIGURE 4. a FIGURE 4. b FIGURE 5. a FIGURE 5. b FIGURE 6. a FIGURE 6. b FIGURE 7. a FIGURE 7. b FIGURE 7. c FIGURE 8. a FIGURE 8. b PMID:1696540

  10. Smoking Habits and Neuropeptides: Adiponectin, Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Leptin Levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Woong; Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun; Roh, Ji Won

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to identify changes in the level of neuropeptides among current smokers, former smokers, and individuals who had never smoked, and how smoking habits affect obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Neuropeptide levels, anthropometric parameters, and metabolic syndrome diagnostic indices were determined among male workers; 117 of these had never smoked, whereas 58 and 198 were former and current smokers, respectively. The total sample comprised 373 male workers. The results obtained from anthropometric measurements showed that current smokers attained significantly lower body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and abdominal fat thickness values than former smokers and those who had never smoked. Current smokers' eating habits proved worse than those of non-smokers and individuals who had never smoked. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the neuropeptides in the case of former smokers was 23.6 ± 9.2 pg/ml, higher than that of current smokers (20.4 ± 6.1) and individuals who had never smoked (22.4 ± 5.8) (F = 6.520, p = 0.002). The level of adiponectin among former smokers was somewhat lower than that of current smokers, whereas leptin levels were higher among former smokers than current smokers; these results were not statistically significant. A relationship was found between adiponectin and triglyceride among non-smokers (odds ratio = 0.660, β value = -0.416, p < 0.01) and smokers (odds ratio = 0.827, β value = -0.190, p < 0.05). Further, waist circumference among non-smokers (odds ratio = 1.622, β value = 0.483, p < 0.001) and smokers (odds ratio = 1.895, β value = 0.639, p < 0.001) was associated with leptin. It was concluded that cigarette smoking leads to an imbalance of energy expenditure and appetite by changing the concentration of neuropeptides such as adiponectin, BDNF, leptin, and hsCRP, and influences food intake, body weight, the body mass index, blood pressure, and abdominal fat, which are risk

  11. Theoretical study of the neuromedin U-8 (NmU-8) neuropeptide from porcine spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alieva, Irada N.; Isakova, Nigar A.; Gojayev, Niftali M.

    2004-09-01

    The spatial organization and conformational properties of the neuromedin U-8 (NmU-8) neuropeptide from porcine spinal cord have been established by the method of molecular mechanics. The conformational states corresponding to the local minimum of the whole molecule potential energy are obtained. The backbone structure comprises a type II β-turn formed by residues Arg 5-Pro 6-Arg 7-Asn 8. A large flexibility of the Tyr 1-Phe 2-Leu 3-Phe 4 amino acids sequence in contrast to other segment of the molecule was observed.

  12. Effect of manganese treatment on the levels of neurotransmitters, hormones, and neuropeptides: modulation by stress

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.S.; Jung, C.R.; Seth, P.K.; Mason, G.; Bondy, S.C.

    1984-08-01

    Six weeks of daily intraperitoneal injection with manganese chloride (15 mg/kg body wt) reduced the normal weight gain of male Fischer-344 rats. This treatment depressed plasma testosterone and corticosterone levels, but prolactin levels were unaffected. The only significant changes in the levels of a variety of neuropeptides assayed in several regions were increases in the levels of hypothalamic substance P and pituitary neurotensin. Striatal serotonin, dopamine, and their metabolites were unchanged in manganese-exposed rats relative to saline-injected controls. However, the stress of injection combined with the effect of manganese appeared to significantly increase concentrations of striatal monoamines relative to uninjected controls.

  13. Challenges for the in vivo quantification of brain neuropeptides using microdialysis sampling and LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Van Wanseele, Yannick; De Prins, An; De Bundel, Dimitri; Smolders, Ilse; Van Eeckhaut, Ann

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, neuropeptides and their receptors have received an increased interest in neuropharmacological research. Although these molecules are considered relatively small compared with proteins, their in vivo quantification using microdialysis is more challenging than for small molecules. Low microdialysis recoveries, aspecific adsorption and the presence of various multiply charged precursor ions during ESI-MS/MS detection hampers the in vivo quantification of these low abundant biomolecules. Every step in the workflow, from sampling until analysis, has to be optimized to enable the sensitive analysis of these compounds in microdialysates. PMID:27554986

  14. Spatial organization and conformational peculiarities of the callatostatin family of neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Alieva, I N; Velieva, L I; Alie, D I; Godjaev, N M

    2002-08-01

    The structures and conformational peculiarities of five members of the callatostatin family of neuropeptides, i.e. Leu- and Met-callatostatins, ranging in size from 8 to 16 amino acid residues have been investigated by a theoretical conformational analysis method. A comparative analysis of the conformational flexibilities of Met-callatostatin with those of the hydroxylated analogues, [Hyp2]- and [Hyp3]-Met-callatostatin has been carried out. Helically packed C-terminal pentapeptide in the structure of all investigated Leu-callatostatins are shown to be possible. The reason for the great number low-energy conformers for the callatostatin N-terminus is discussed. PMID:12212802

  15. Zinc regulation of food intake: new insights on the role of neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Cathy W

    2003-07-01

    The role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in feeding behavior and zinc deficiency-induced anorexia has been controversial because hypothalamic NPY levels are elevated in both zinc deficiency and food restriction. A recent report shows that while NPY is released from terminals in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of food-restricted animals, this release is significantly impaired in zinc-deficient animals. Zinc deficiency may therefore cause anorexia by inhibiting the release of NPY that is required for receptor activation. PMID:12918877

  16. Functional analysis of four neuropeptides, EH, ETH, CCAP and bursicon and their receptors, in adult ecdysis behavior of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysis behavior or shedding of the old cuticle in arthropods is driven by complex interactions among multiple neuropeptide signaling systems. To understand the roles of neuropeptides and their receptors in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed systemic RNA interference (RNAi) uti...

  17. The occurrence of chitin in the hemocytes of invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A.C.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

    2011-01-01

    The light-organ symbiosis of Euprymna scolopes, the Hawaiian bobtail squid, is a useful model for the study of animal–microbe interactions. Recent analyses have demonstrated that chitin breakdown products play a role in communication between E. scolopes and its bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri. In this study, we sought to determine the source of chitin in the symbiotic organ. We used a commercially available chitin-binding protein (CBP) conjugated to fluorescein to label the polymeric chitin in host tissues. Confocal microscopy revealed that the only cells in contact with the symbionts that labeled with the probe were the macrophage-like hemocytes, which traffic into the light-organ crypts where the bacteria reside. Labeling of extracted hemocytes by CBP was markedly decreased following treatment with purified chitinase, providing further evidence that the labeled molecule is polymeric chitin. Further, CBP-positive areas co-localized with both a halide peroxidase antibody and Lysotracker, a lysosomal marker, suggesting that the chitin-like biomolecule occurs in the lysosome or acidic vacuoles. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of hemocytes revealed mRNA coding for a chitin synthase, suggesting that the hemocytes synthesize chitin de novo. Finally, upon surveying blood cells from other invertebrate species, we observed CBP-positive regions in all granular blood cells examined, suggesting that this feature is a shared character among the invertebrates; the vertebrate blood cells that we sampled did not label with CBP. Although the function of the chitin-like material remains undetermined, its presence and subcellular location in invertebrate hemocytes suggests a conserved role for this polysaccharide in the immune system of diverse animals. PMID:21723107

  18. Transport Distance of Invertebrate Environmental DNA in a Natural River

    PubMed Central

    Deiner, Kristy; Altermatt, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) monitoring is a novel molecular technique to detect species in natural habitats. Many eDNA studies in aquatic systems have focused on lake or ponds, and/or on large vertebrate species, but applications to invertebrates in river systems are emerging. A challenge in applying eDNA monitoring in flowing waters is that a species' DNA can be transported downstream. Whether and how far eDNA can be detected due to downstream transport remains largely unknown. In this study we tested for downstream detection of eDNA for two invertebrate species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus, which are lake dwelling species in our study area. The goal was to determine how far away from the source population in a lake their eDNA could be detected in an outflowing river. We sampled water from eleven river sites in regular intervals up to 12.3 km downstream of the lake, developed new eDNA probes for both species, and used a standard PCR and Sanger sequencing detection method to confirm presence of each species' eDNA in the river. We detected D. longispina at all locations and across two time points (July and October); whereas with U. tumidus, we observed a decreased detection rate and did not detect its eDNA after 9.1 km. We also observed a difference in detection for this species at different times of year. The observed movement of eDNA from the source amounting to nearly 10 km for these species indicates that the resolution of an eDNA sample can be large in river systems. Our results indicate that there may be species' specific transport distances for eDNA and demonstrate for the first time that invertebrate eDNA can persist over relatively large distances in a natural river system. PMID:24523940

  19. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  20. The occurrence of chitin in the hemocytes of invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A C; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

    2011-09-01

    The light-organ symbiosis of Euprymna scolopes, the Hawaiian bobtail squid, is a useful model for the study of animal-microbe interactions. Recent analyses have demonstrated that chitin breakdown products play a role in communication between E. scolopes and its bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri. In this study, we sought to determine the source of chitin in the symbiotic organ. We used a commercially available chitin-binding protein (CBP) conjugated to fluorescein to label the polymeric chitin in host tissues. Confocal microscopy revealed that the only cells in contact with the symbionts that labeled with the probe were the macrophage-like hemocytes, which traffic into the light-organ crypts where the bacteria reside. Labeling of extracted hemocytes by CBP was markedly decreased following treatment with purified chitinase, providing further evidence that the labeled molecule is polymeric chitin. Further, CBP-positive areas co-localized with both a halide peroxidase antibody and Lysotracker, a lysosomal marker, suggesting that the chitin-like biomolecule occurs in the lysosome or acidic vacuoles. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of hemocytes revealed mRNA coding for a chitin synthase, suggesting that the hemocytes synthesize chitin de novo. Finally, upon surveying blood cells from other invertebrate species, we observed CBP-positive regions in all granular blood cells examined, suggesting that this feature is a shared character among the invertebrates; the vertebrate blood cells that we sampled did not label with CBP. Although the function of the chitin-like material remains undetermined, its presence and subcellular location in invertebrate hemocytes suggests a conserved role for this polysaccharide in the immune system of diverse animals. PMID:21723107

  1. A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R., II; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

  2. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  3. Electrically evoked neuropeptide release and neurogenic inflammation differ between rat and human skin.

    PubMed

    Sauerstein, K; Klede, M; Hilliges, M; Schmelz, M

    2000-12-15

    Protein extravasation and vasodilatation can be induced by neuropeptides released from nociceptive afferents (neurogenic inflammation). We measured electrically evoked neuropeptide release and concomitant protein extravasation in human and rat skin using intradermal microdialysis. Plasmapheresis capillaries were inserted intradermally at a length of 1.5 cm in the volar forearm of human subjects or abdominal skin of rats. Capillaries were perfused with Ringer solution at a flow rate of 2.5 or 1.6 microl min(-1). After a baseline period of 60 min capillaries were stimulated electrically (1 Hz, 80 mA, 0.5 ms or 4 Hz, 30 mA, 0.5 ms) for 30 min using a surface electrode directly above the capillaries and a stainless-steel wire inserted in the capillaries. Total protein concentration was assessed photometrically and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In rat skin, electrical stimulation increased CGRP and total protein concentration in the dialysate. SP measurements showed a larger variance but only for the 1 Hz stimulation was the increased release significant. In human skin, electrical stimulation provoked a large flare reaction and at a frequency of 4 Hz both CGRP and SP concentrations increased significantly. In spite of the large flare reactions no protein extravasation was induced, which suggests major species differences. It will be of interest to investigate whether the lack of neurogenic protein extravasation is also valid under pathophysiological conditions. PMID:11118507

  4. Discovery of defense- and neuropeptides in social ants by genome-mining.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Christian W; Muttenthaler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Natural peptides of great number and diversity occur in all organisms, but analyzing their peptidome is often difficult. With natural product drug discovery in mind, we devised a genome-mining approach to identify defense- and neuropeptides in the genomes of social ants from Atta cephalotes (leaf-cutter ant), Camponotus floridanus (carpenter ant) and Harpegnathos saltator (basal genus). Numerous peptide-encoding genes of defense peptides, in particular defensins, and neuropeptides or regulatory peptide hormones, such as allatostatins and tachykinins, were identified and analyzed. Most interestingly we annotated genes that encode oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (inotocins) and their putative receptors. This is the first piece of evidence for the existence of this nonapeptide hormone system in ants (Formicidae) and supports recent findings in Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) and Nasonia vitripennis (parasitoid wasp), and therefore its confinement to some basal holometabolous insects. By contrast, the absence of the inotocin hormone system in Apis mellifera (honeybee), another closely-related member of the eusocial Hymenoptera clade, establishes the basis for future studies on the molecular evolution and physiological function of oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (vasotocin nonapeptide family) and their receptors in social insects. Particularly the identification of ant inotocin and defensin peptide sequences will provide a basis for future pharmacological characterization in the quest for potent and selective lead compounds of therapeutic value. PMID:22448224

  5. Sensory Neuropeptides and Endogenous Opioids Expression in Human Dental Pulp with Asymptomatic Inflammation: In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Chavarria-Bolaños, Daniel; Flores-Reyes, Hector; Lombana-Sanchez, Nelson; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), β-endorphins (β-End), and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons) were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg), which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg), which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain. PMID:26538838

  6. Discovery by proteogenomics and characterization of an RF-amide neuropeptide from cone snail venom

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Raghuraman, Shrinivasan; Imperial, Julita S.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Teichert, Russell W.; Purcell, Anthony W.; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Norton, Raymond S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a proteogenomic annotation strategy was used to identify a novel bioactive peptide from the venom of the predatory marine snail Conus victoriae. The peptide, conorfamide-Vc1 (CNF-Vc1), defines a new gene family. The encoded mature peptide was unusual for conotoxins in that it was cysteine-free and, despite low overall sequence similarity, contained two short motifs common to known neuropeptides/hormones. One of these was the C-terminal RF-amide motif, commonly observed in neuropeptides from a range of organisms, including humans. The mature venom peptide was synthesized and characterized structurally and functionally. The peptide was bioactive upon injection into mice, and calcium imaging of mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells revealed that the peptide elicits an increase in intracellular calcium levels in a subset of DRG neurons. Unusually for most Conus venom peptides, it also elicited an increase in intracellular calcium levels in a subset of non-neuronal cells. PMID:25464369

  7. Electrically evoked neuropeptide release and neurogenic inflammation differ between rat and human skin

    PubMed Central

    Sauerstein, Katja; Klede, Monika; Hilliges, Marita; Schmelz, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Protein extravasation and vasodilatation can be induced by neuropeptides released from nociceptive afferents (neurogenic inflammation). We measured electrically evoked neuropeptide release and concomitant protein extravasation in human and rat skin using intradermal microdialysis. Plasmapheresis capillaries were inserted intradermally at a length of 1.5 cm in the volar forearm of human subjects or abdominal skin of rats. Capillaries were perfused with Ringer solution at a flow rate of 2.5 or 1.6 μl min−1. After a baseline period of 60 min capillaries were stimulated electrically (1 Hz, 80 mA, 0.5 ms or 4 Hz, 30 mA, 0.5 ms) for 30 min using a surface electrode directly above the capillaries and a stainless-steel wire inserted in the capillaries. Total protein concentration was assessed photometrically and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In rat skin, electrical stimulation increased CGRP and total protein concentration in the dialysate. SP measurements showed a larger variance but only for the 1 Hz stimulation was the increased release significant. In human skin, electrical stimulation provoked a large flare reaction and at a frequency of 4 Hz both CGRP and SP concentrations increased significantly. In spite of the large flare reactions no protein extravasation was induced, which suggests major species differences. It will be of interest to investigate whether the lack of neurogenic protein extravasation is also valid under pathophysiological conditions. PMID:11118507

  8. Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides: New Players in the Control of Islet of Langerhans' Cell Mass and Function.

    PubMed

    Di Cairano, Eliana S; Moretti, Stefania; Marciani, Paola; Sacchi, Vellea Franca; Castagna, Michela; Davalli, Alberto; Folli, Franco; Perego, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Islets of Langerhans control whole body glucose homeostasis, as they respond, releasing hormones, to changes in nutrient concentrations in the blood stream. The regulation of hormone secretion has been the focus of attention for a long time because it is related to many metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Endocrine cells of the islet use a sophisticate system of endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signals to synchronize their activities. These signals provide a fast and accurate control not only for hormone release but also for cell differentiation and survival, key aspects in islet physiology and pathology. Among the different categories of paracrine/autocrine signals, this review highlights the role of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. In a manner similar to neurons, endocrine cells synthesize, accumulate, release neurotransmitters in the islet milieu, and possess receptors able to decode these signals. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of neurotransmitter/neuropetide signaling pathways present within the islet. Then, we focus on evidence supporting the concept that neurotransmitters/neuropeptides and their receptors are interesting new targets to preserve β-cell function and mass. A greater understanding of how this network of signals works in physiological and pathological conditions would advance our knowledge of islet biology and physiology and uncover potentially new areas of pharmacological intervention. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 756-767, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332080

  9. Characterization, tissue distribution, and expression of neuropeptide Y in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Tan, Xungang; Du, Shaojun; Sun, Wei; You, Feng; Zhang, Peijun

    2015-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide of the neuropeptide Y family that plays key roles in the regulation of food intake. In this study, we focused on NPY mRNA expression changes around feeding time and during food deprivation in olive flounder. The olive flounder NPY mRNA levels were analyzed in different tissues and a high level of expression was detected in the brain. We also demonstrated a correlation between NPY expression levels in the brain and feeding schedule. NPY expression levels in olive flounder maintained on a daily scheduled feeding regimen increased shortly before feeding and decreased after the scheduled feeding time. Compared with the -1 h group before feeding, NPY expression in the 3 h group after feeding decreased significantly ( P<0.05). Food deprivation led to an 81.7% decrease in NPY mRNA levels in the 24 h fasted group ( P<0.05) and a 91.7% decrease in the 48 h fasted group ( P<0.05). Therefore, our study demonstrates that NPY expression is associated with food intake in olive flounder. This result reveals the function of NPY in regulating food intake and its potential importance in olive flounder aquaculture.

  10. Discovery of Defense- and Neuropeptides in Social Ants by Genome-Mining

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Christian W.; Muttenthaler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Natural peptides of great number and diversity occur in all organisms, but analyzing their peptidome is often difficult. With natural product drug discovery in mind, we devised a genome-mining approach to identify defense- and neuropeptides in the genomes of social ants from Atta cephalotes (leaf-cutter ant), Camponotus floridanus (carpenter ant) and Harpegnathos saltator (basal genus). Numerous peptide-encoding genes of defense peptides, in particular defensins, and neuropeptides or regulatory peptide hormones, such as allatostatins and tachykinins, were identified and analyzed. Most interestingly we annotated genes that encode oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (inotocins) and their putative receptors. This is the first piece of evidence for the existence of this nonapeptide hormone system in ants (Formicidae) and supports recent findings in Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) and Nasonia vitripennis (parasitoid wasp), and therefore its confinement to some basal holometabolous insects. By contrast, the absence of the inotocin hormone system in Apis mellifera (honeybee), another closely-related member of the eusocial Hymenoptera clade, establishes the basis for future studies on the molecular evolution and physiological function of oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (vasotocin nonapeptide family) and their receptors in social insects. Particularly the identification of ant inotocin and defensin peptide sequences will provide a basis for future pharmacological characterization in the quest for potent and selective lead compounds of therapeutic value. PMID:22448224

  11. Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.

  12. Hypothalamic Neuropeptide 26RFa Acts as an Incretin to Regulate Glucose Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Prévost, Gaëtan; Jeandel, Lydie; Arabo, Arnaud; Coëffier, Moïse; El Ouahli, Mariama; Picot, Marie; Alexandre, David; Gobet, Françoise; Leprince, Jérôme; Berrahmoune, Hind; Déchelotte, Pierre; Malagon, Maria; Bonner, Caroline; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Chigr, Fatiha; Lefebvre, Hervé; Anouar, Youssef; Chartrel, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    26RFa is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that promotes food intake. 26RFa is upregulated in obese animal models, and its orexigenic activity is accentuated in rodents fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that this neuropeptide might play a role in the development and maintenance of the obese status. As obesity is frequently associated with type 2 diabetes, we investigated whether 26RFa may be involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In the current study, we show a moderate positive correlation between plasma 26RFa levels and plasma insulin in patients with diabetes. Plasma 26RFa concentration also increases in response to an oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, we found that 26RFa and its receptor GPR103 are present in human pancreatic β-cells as well as in the gut. In mice, 26RFa attenuates the hyperglycemia induced by a glucose load, potentiates insulin sensitivity, and increases plasma insulin concentrations. Consistent with these data, 26RFa stimulates insulin production by MIN6 insulinoma cells. Finally, we show, using in vivo and in vitro approaches, that a glucose load induces a massive secretion of 26RFa by the small intestine. Altogether, the present data indicate that 26RFa acts as an incretin to regulate glucose homeostasis. PMID:25858563

  13. Effects of risperidone treatment on the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide in appetite regulation in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kursungoz, Canan; Ak, Mehmet; Yanik, Tulin

    2015-01-30

    Although the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs has been successful in the treatment of schizophrenia, they can cause some complications in the long-term use, including weight gain. Patients using these drugs tend to disrupt treatment primarily due to side effects. The atypical antipsychotic mechanism of action regulates a number of highly disrupted neurotransmitter pathways in the brains of psychotic patients but may also cause impairment of neurohormonal pathways in different brain areas. In this study, we investigated the circulating levels of hypothalamic neurohormones, which are related to appetite regulation; neuropeptide Y (NPY); alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH); cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART); agouti-related peptide (AgRP); and leptin in male Wistar rats, which were treated with risperidone, a serotonin antagonist, for four weeks. Alterations in the mRNA expression levels of these candidate genes in the hypothalamus were also analyzed. We hypothesized that risperidone treatment might alter both hypothalamic and circulating levels of neuropeptides through serotonergic antagonism, resulting in weight gain. Gene expression studies revealed that the mRNA expression levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), AgRP, and NPY decreased as well as their plasma levels, except for NPY. Unexpectedly, CART mRNA levels increased when their plasma levels decreased. Because POMC neurons express the serotonin receptor (5HT2C), the serotonergic antagonism of risperidone on POMC neurons may cause an increase in appetite and thus increase food consumption even in a short-term trial in rats. PMID:25449893

  14. Neuropeptide F neurons modulate sugar reward during associative olfactory learning of Drosophila larvae.

    PubMed

    Rohwedder, Astrid; Selcho, Mareike; Chassot, Bérénice; Thum, Andreas S

    2015-12-15

    All organisms continuously have to adapt their behavior according to changes in the environment in order to survive. Experience-driven changes in behavior are usually mediated and maintained by modifications in signaling within defined brain circuits. Given the simplicity of the larval brain of Drosophila and its experimental accessibility on the genetic and behavioral level, we analyzed if Drosophila neuropeptide F (dNPF) neurons are involved in classical olfactory conditioning. dNPF is an ortholog of the mammalian neuropeptide Y, a highly conserved neuromodulator that stimulates food-seeking behavior. We provide a comprehensive anatomical analysis of the dNPF neurons on the single-cell level. We demonstrate that artificial activation of dNPF neurons inhibits appetitive olfactory learning by modulating the sugar reward signal during acquisition. No effect is detectable for the retrieval of an established appetitive olfactory memory. The modulatory effect is based on the joint action of three distinct cell types that, if tested on the single-cell level, inhibit and invert the conditioned behavior. Taken together, our work describes anatomically and functionally a new part of the sugar reinforcement signaling pathway for classical olfactory conditioning in Drosophila larvae. PMID:26234537

  15. Central amygdalar nucleus treated with orexin neuropeptides evoke differing feeding and grooming responses in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Alò, Raffaella; Avolio, Ennio; Mele, Maria; Di Vito, Anna; Canonaco, Marcello

    2015-04-15

    Interaction of the orexinergic (ORXergic) neuronal system with the excitatory (glutamate, l-Glu) or the inhibitory (GABA) neurosignaling complexes evokes major homeostatic physiological events. In this study, effects of the two ORXergic neuropeptides (ORX-A/B) on their receptor (ORX-2R) expression changes were correlated to feeding and grooming actions of the hibernating hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Infusion of the central amygdala nucleus (CeA) with ORX-A caused hamsters to consume notable quantities of food, while ORX-B accounted for a moderate increase. Interestingly the latter neuropeptide was responsible for greater frequencies of grooming with respect to both controls and the hamsters treated with ORX-A. These distinct behavioral changes turned out to be even greater in the presence of l-Glu agonist (NMDA) while the α1 GABAA receptor agonist (zolpidem, Zol) greatly reduced ORX-A-dependent feeding bouts. Moreover, ORX-A+NMDA mainly promoted greater ORX-2R expression levels with respect to ORX-A-treated hamsters while ORX-B+Zol was instead largely responsible for a down-regulatory trend. Overall, these features point to CeA ORX-2R sites as key sensory limbic elements capable of regulating eating and grooming responses, which may provide useful insights regarding the type of molecular mechanism(s) operating during feeding bouts. PMID:25732800

  16. Beta-amyloid peptides undergo regulated co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Toneff, Thomas; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Mosier, Charles; Abagyan, Armen; Ziegler, Michael; Hook, Vivian

    2013-08-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides are secreted from neurons, resulting in extracellular accumulation of Aβ and neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Because neuronal secretion is fundamental for the release of neurotransmitters, this study assessed the hypothesis that Aβ undergoes co-release with neurotransmitters. Model neuronal-like chromaffin cells were investigated, and results illustrate regulated, co-secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with peptide neurotransmitters (galanin, enkephalin, and NPY) and catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine). Regulated secretion from chromaffin cells was stimulated by KCl depolarization and nicotine. Forskolin, stimulating cAMP, also induced co-secretion of Aβ peptides with peptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters. These data suggested the co-localization of Aβ with neurotransmitters in dense core secretory vesicles (DCSV) that store and secrete such chemical messengers. Indeed, Aβ was demonstrated to be present in DCSV with neuropeptide and catecholamine transmitters. Furthermore, the DCSV organelle contains APP and its processing proteases, β- and γ-secretases, that are necessary for production of Aβ. Thus, Aβ can be generated in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV. Human IMR32 neuroblastoma cells also displayed regulated secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with the galanin neurotransmitter. These findings illustrate that Aβ peptides are present in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV, and undergo co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters that regulate brain functions. PMID:23747840

  17. Neuropeptide co-expression in hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons of laboratory animals and the human

    PubMed Central

    Skrapits, Katalin; Borsay, Beáta Á.; Herczeg, László; Ciofi, Philippe; Liposits, Zsolt; Hrabovszky, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic peptidergic neurons using kisspeptin (KP) and its co-transmitters for communication are critically involved in the regulation of mammalian reproduction and puberty. This article provides an overview of neuropeptides present in KP neurons, with a focus on the human species. Immunohistochemical studies reveal that large subsets of human KP neurons synthesize neurokinin B, as also shown in laboratory animals. In contrast, dynorphin described in KP neurons of rodents and sheep is found rarely in KP cells of human males and postmenopausal females. Similarly, galanin is detectable in mouse, but not human, KP cells, whereas substance P, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and proenkephalin-derived opioids are expressed in varying subsets of KP neurons in humans, but not reported in ARC of other species. Human KP neurons do not contain neurotensin, cholecystokinin, proopiomelanocortin-derivatives, agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin or tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine). These data identify the possible co-transmitters of human KP cells. Neurochemical properties distinct from those of laboratory species indicate that humans use considerably different neurotransmitter mechanisms to regulate fertility. PMID:25713511

  18. The role of neuropeptide Y in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Chenliang; Song, Zhiyuan; Lin, Shu

    2016-10-01

    With average life expectancy rising greatly, the incidence rate of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has significantly increased. The heart disease has now become the number one killer that threatens the global population health, the second is stroke. It will be of great significance to investigate the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of ASCVD in order to promote effective prevention and treatment. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) has now been discovered for more than thirty years and is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. By combining with certain receptors, NPY performs a variety of physiological functions, including the regulation of food intake, cardiovascular effects, development, hormonal secretion, sexual behavior, biological rhythms, temperature and emotion. In ASCVD, increased peripheral NPY was involved in the pathophysiological process of atherosclerosis through affecting the vascular endothelial dysfunction, the formation of foam cells, the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, the local inflammatory response of plaques and the activation and aggregation of platelets. Via central and/or the peripheral nervous system, increased NPY was associated with dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and smoking which are all risk factors for ASCVD. In this review, we summarize the role of neuropeptide Y in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27389447

  19. Intranasal Neuropeptide Administration To Target the Human Brain in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Spetter, Maartje S; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    Central nervous system control of metabolic function relies on the input of endocrine messengers from the periphery, including the pancreatic hormone insulin and the adipokine leptin. This concept primarily derives from experiments in animals where substances can be directly applied to the brain. A feasible approach to study the impact of peptidergic messengers on brain function in humans is the intranasal (IN) route of administration, which bypasses the blood-brain barrier and delivers neuropeptides to the brain compartment, but induces considerably less, if any, peripheral uptake than other administration modes. Experimental IN insulin administration has been extensively used to delineate the role of brain insulin signaling in the control of energy homeostasis, but also cognitive function in healthy humans. Clinical pilot studies have found beneficial effects of IN insulin in patients with memory deficits, suggesting that the IN delivery of this and other peptides bears some promise for new, selectively brain-targeted pharmaceutical approaches in the treatment of metabolic and cognitive disorders. More recently, experiments relying on the IN delivery of the hypothalamic hormone oxytocin, which is primarily known for its involvement in psychosocial processes, have provided evidence that oxytocin influences metabolic control in humans. The IN administration of leptin has been successfully tested in animal models but remains to be investigated in the human setting. We briefly summarize the literature on the IN administration of insulin, leptin, and oxytocin, with a particular focus on metabolic effects, and address limitations and perspectives of IN neuropeptide administration. PMID:25880274

  20. Recent Advances in Drug Discovery from South African Marine Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Veale, Clinton G L

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively) and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is assuming greater global significance, and medicinal chemistry strategies to exploit the potent MRSA PK inhibition, first revealed by two marine secondary metabolites, cis-3,4-dihydrohamacanthin B and bromodeoxytopsentin from T. pachastrelloides, are compared. PMID:26473891

  1. Physiological and chemical characterization of invertebrate metallothionein-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Olafson, R W; Sim, R G; Kearns, A

    1979-01-01

    Metallothionein-like proteins have been isolated from marine invertebrates. Three crustaceans, Scyllus serratus, Cancer magister and Acetes sibogae together with a mollusc, Cryptochiton stelleri, have been investigated. S. serratus hepatopancreas was shown to contain cadmium and zinc inducible metallothionein-like proteins with an amino acid analysis very similar to vertebrate metallothioneins. The molecular weight, ultra-violet spectrum and isoelectric points of S. serratus metallothioneins are also comparable to the vertebrate proteins, suggesting a fundamental biological function conserved throughout evolution. PMID:299366

  2. Nickel Hazards to Fish, Wildlife and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    1998-01-01

    This account is a selective review and synthesis of the technical literature on nickel and nickel salts in the environment and their effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources, The subtopics include nickel sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties of nickel; nickel concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; nickel deficiency effects; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; currently proposed nickel criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  3. From Conference to Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Robert; Tenenberg, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Revising and extending conference articles for journal publication benefits both authors and readers. The new articles are more complete, and benefit from peer review, feedback from conference presentation, and greater editorial consistency. For those articles that are appropriate, we encourage authors to do this, and present two examples of such…

  4. The Effective Clinical Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wink, Diane M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the common problems with clinical conferences and suggests approaches to maximize student learning. Suggests that an effective clinical conference has three characteristics: (1) it is a group event; (2) it contributes to the achievement of course and clinical objectives; and (3) it provides a setting for students to explore personal…

  5. The Learning Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravn, Ib

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to call attention to the fact that conferences for professionals rely on massive one-way communication and hence produce little learning for delegates--and to introduce an alternative, the "learning conference", that involves delegates in fun and productive learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  6. Conference Planning Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Library Association, Burlington.

    Intended as a useful aid for organizing its annual spring meeting, this general conference planning manual developed by the Vermont Library Association provides a blueprint for planners on the responsibilities of the planning committee, the conference chair, and others; site selection and local arrangements; program and sessions planning;…

  7. Adolescent Prejudice Reduction Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketroser, Heidi

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the fifth annual Dr. Curtis C. Melnick Adolescent Prejudice Reduction Conference sponsored by the Greater Chicago (Illinois) Regional Office of the Anti-Defamation League of the B'nai B'rith. The day-long conference addressed issues of prejudice and allowed students and staff from various high schools to explore their concerns with…

  8. Lyndon Johnson's Press Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Stephen

    Because President Lyndon Johnson understood well the publicity value of the American news media, he sought to exploit them. He saw reporters as "torch bearers" for his programs and policies and used the presidential press conference chiefly for promotional purposes. Although he met with reporters often, his press conferences were usually…

  9. ASE Annual Conference 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the ASE Annual Conference 2010 which was held at Nottingham after a gap of 22 years. As always, the main conference was preceded by International Day, an important event for science educators from across the world. There were two strands to the programme: (1) "What works for me?"--sharing new ideas and tried…

  10. District Leadership Conference Planner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    This manual provides usable guidelines and planning forms and materials for planning district leadership conferences, which were designed and initiated in Washington State to meet the problems in student enrollment and, consequently, Distributive Education Clubs of America membership. The conferences have become a useful means to increase…

  11. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  12. Seasonal changes in the invertebrate community of granular activated carbon filters and control technologies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; You, Wei; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Lijun

    2014-03-15

    Invertebrate colonization of granular activated carbon (GAC) filters in the waterworks is one of the most frequently occurring and least studied biological problems of water processing in China. A survey of invertebrate colonization of GAC filters was carried out weekly from October 2010 to December 2011 at a reservoir water treatment works in South China. Twenty-six kinds of invertebrates were observed. The abundance was as high as 5600ind.m(-3) with a mean of 860ind.m(-3). Large variations in abundance were observed among different seasons and before and after GAC filtration. The dominant organisms were rotifers and copepods. The average invertebrate abundance in the filtrate was 12-18.7 times of that in the pre-filtered water. Results showed that the GAC filters were colonized by invertebrates which may lead to a higher output of organisms in the filtrate than in the pre-filtered water. The invertebrate abundance in the GAC filters was statistically correlated with the water temperature. Seasonal patterns were observed. The invertebrate abundance grew faster in the spring and summer. Copepods were dominant in the summer while rotifers dominated in all other seasons of the year. There was a transition of small invertebrates (rotifers) gradually being substituted by larger invertebrates (copepods) from spring to summer. Control measures such as backwashing with chloric water, drying filter beds and soaking with saliferous water were implemented in the waterworks to reduce invertebrate abundances in the GAC filters. The results showed that soaking with saliferous water (99%, reduction in percent) was best but drying the filter beds (84%) was more economical. Soaking filter beds with 20g/L saliferous water for one day can be implemented in case of emergency. In order to keep invertebrate abundance in the acceptable range, some of these measures should be adopted. PMID:24268057

  13. Soil nutrient additions increase invertebrate herbivore abundances, but not herbivory, across three grassland systems.

    PubMed

    La Pierre, Kimberly J; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-02-01

    Resource availability may influence invertebrate communities, with important consequences for ecosystem function, such as biomass production. We assessed: (1) the effects of experimental soil nutrient additions on invertebrate abundances and feeding rates and (2) the resultant changes in the effects of invertebrates on aboveground plant biomass at three grassland sites spanning the North American Central Plains, across which plant tissue chemistry and biomass vary. Invertebrate communities and rates of herbivory were sampled within a long-term nutrient-addition experiment established at each site along the broad Central Plains precipitation gradient. Additionally, the effects of invertebrates on aboveground plant biomass were determined under ambient and elevated nutrient conditions. At the more mesic sites, invertebrate herbivore abundances increased and their per capita rate of herbivory decreased with nutrient additions. In contrast, at the semi-arid site where plant biomass is low and plant nutrient concentrations are high, invertebrate herbivore abundances did not vary and per capita rates of herbivory increased with nutrient additions. No change in the effect of invertebrate herbivores on aboveground plant biomass was observed at any of the sites. In sum, nutrient additions induced shifts in both plant biomass and leaf nutrient content, which altered invertebrate abundances and feeding rate. However, due to the inverse relationship between changes in herbivore abundance and per capita rates of herbivory, nutrient additions did not alter the effect of invertebrates on aboveground biomass. Overall, we suggest that this inverse response of herbivore abundance and per capita feeding rate may buffer ecosystems against changes in invertebrate damage in response to fluctuations in nutrient levels. PMID:26474567

  14. ICCK Conference Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Green, William H.

    2013-05-28

    The 7th International Conference on Chemical Kinetics (ICCK) was held July 10-14, 2011, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in Cambridge, MA, hosted by Prof. William H. Green of MIT's Chemical Engineering department. This cross-disciplinary meeting highlighted the importance of fundamental understanding of elementary reactions to the full range of chemical investigations. The specific conference focus was on elementary-step kinetics in both the gas phase and in condensed phase. The meeting provided a unique opportunity to discuss how the same reactive species and reaction motifs manifest under very different reaction conditions (e.g. atmospheric, aqueous, combustion, plasma, in nonaqueous solvents, on surfaces.). The conference featured special sessions on new/improved experimental techniques, improved models and data analysis for interpreting complicated kinetics, computational kinetics (especially rate estimates for large kinetic models), and a panel discussion on how the community should document/archive kinetic data. In the past, this conference had been limited to homogeneous gas-phase and liquid-phase systems. This conference included studies of heterogeneous kinetics which provide rate constants for, or insight into, elementary reaction steps. This Grant from DOE BES covered about half of the subsidies we provided to students and postdocs who attended the conference, by charging them reduced-rate registration fees. The complete list of subsidies provided are listed in Table 1 below. This DOE funding was essential to making the conference affordable to graduate students, and indeed the attendance at this conference was higher than at previous conferences in this series. Donations made by companies provided additional subsidies, leveraging the DOE funding. The conference was very effective in educating graduate students and important in fostering scientific interactions, particularly between scientists studying gas phase and liquid phase kinetics

  15. Effects of copper on invertebrate-sediment interactions.

    PubMed

    Hunting, E R; Mulder, C; Kraak, M H S; Breure, A M; Admiraal, W

    2013-09-01

    Toxicants potentially decouple links between biodiversity and ecosystem processes. This study aimed to evaluate how toxicants affect invertebrate bioturbation and decomposition. Effects of copper on functionally distinct macrofaunal species (Asellus aquaticus and Tubifex spp.), decomposition (release of dissolved organic carbon, DOC) and Average Metabolic Response (AMR) and Community Metabolic Diversity (CMD) of bacteria were determined in 5-day microcosm experiments. Bioturbation was assessed as sediment redox potential (Eh) profiles. Concentration-response curves of the functional parameters DOC, and the faunal mediated AMR and CMD in the presence of Tubifex spp. depended on Tubifex spp. survival, i.e. similar EC50 values for both endpoints. In contrast, functional parameters in the presence of A. aquaticus were more sensitive than survival. Sediment Eh-profiles showed that reduced decomposition was caused by reduced sediment reworking by A. aquaticus at sub-lethal copper concentrations. These observations hint at a decoupling of invertebrate community structure and ecosystem functioning upon stress. PMID:23747821

  16. Natural and human impacts on invertebrate communities in Brazilian caves.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R L; Horta, L C

    2001-02-01

    Species richness, abundance, distribution and similarity between cave invertebrate communities were compared among seven caves located in the Peruaçu River valley, north of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Such comparisons aimed to determinate the degree of biological complexity in the sampled caves, calculated by the "Index of Biological Complexity in Caves", presented in this manuscript. The presence of potential or real impacts on the cave fauna was also investigated. A total of 1,468 individuals belonging to 57 families of: Acarina, Pseudoscorpionida, Araneida, Opilionida, Amblypygi, Isopoda, Geophilomorpha, Scutigeromorpha, Spirostreptida, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Dictyoptera, Ephemeroptera, Ensifera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Plecoptera, Psocoptera, and Trichoptera was collected. Caves with higher resource availability (as those hidrologicaly actives) had a higher biological complexity than those with less resource. There are two types of impacts that occur in the area: the natural (geological) and the anthropic, as intense "stepping" and visitation or use of cave entrances as cattle shelters. There are caves with different preservation degrees in the area, with invertebrate communities in varied complexity states. The communities of these caves undoubtedly deserve care, since the area is extremely important in the Brazilian biospeleological context. PMID:11340457

  17. Toxicity of abamectin and doramectin to soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Lucija; Kozuh Erzen, Nevenka; Hogerwerf, Lenny; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the toxicity of avermectins to soil invertebrates in soil and in faeces from recently treated sheep. Abamectin was more toxic than doramectin. In soil, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were most affected with LC50s of 18 and 228 mg/kg dry soil, respectively, while LC50s were 67-111 and >300 mg/kg for springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber) and enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus). EC50s for the effect on reproduction of springtails and enchytraeids were 13 and 38 mg/kg, respectively for abamectin, and 42 and 170 mg/kg for doramectin. For earthworms, NOEC was 10 and 8.4 mg/kg for abamectin and doramectin effects on body weight. When exposed in faeces, springtails and enchytraeids gave LC50s and EC50s of 1.0-1.4 and 0.94-1.1 mg/kg dry faeces for abamectin and 2.2->2.4 mg/kg for doramectin. Earthworm reproduction was not affected. This study indicates a potential risk of avermectins for soil invertebrates colonizing faeces from recently treated sheep. PMID:17434247

  18. Molecular characterization of DSC1 orthologs in invertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying-Jun; Yu, Lin-Lin; Xu, Hai-Jun; Dong, Ke; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2012-05-01

    DSC1 and BSC1 are two founding members of a novel family of invertebrate voltage-gated cation channels with close structural and evolutionary relationships to voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. In this study, we searched the published genome sequences for DSC1 orthologs. DSC1 orthologs were found in all 48 insect species, and in other invertebrate species belonging to phyla Mollusca, Cnidaria, Hemichordata and Echinodermata. However, DSC1 orthologs were not found in four arachnid species, Ixodes scapularis, Rhipicephalus microplus, Tetranychus urticae and Varroa destructor, two species in Annelida or any vertebrate species. We then cloned and sequenced NlSC1 and BmSC1 full-length cDNAs from the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and the silkworm (Bombyx mori), respectively. NlSC1 and BmSC1 share about 50% identity with DSC1, and the expression of NlSC1 and BmSC1 transcripts was most abundant in the head and antenna in adults. All DSC1 orthologs contain a unique and conserved DEEA motif, instead of the EEEE or EEDD motif in classical calcium channels or the DEKA motif in sodium channels. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that DSC1 and its orthologs form a separate group distinct from the classical voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels and constitute a unique family of cation channels. The DSC1/BSC1-family channels could be potential targets of new and safe insecticides for pest control. PMID:22321571

  19. Homology and Convergence in Vertebrate and Invertebrate Nervous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeman, David

    Each year the meeting of the American Neuroscience Society attracts over 20,000 members, reflecting the explosion of interest in this field that has occurred over the past few decades. Researchers from many disciplines are focusing their skills on the investigation of every aspect of nervous systems, and neuroscience now encompasses the entire range of endeavour from the study of the single molecules that make up neural membranes to the non-invasive observation of neural function in animals behaving in their natural environments. Advances over the past three decades in our understanding of nervous systems are impressive and come from a multifaceted approach to the study of both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. An almost unexpected by-product of the parallel investigation of vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems that is explored in this article is the emergent view of an intricate web of evolutionary homology and convergence exhibited in the structure and function of the nervous systems of these two large, paraphyletic groups of animals.

  20. Comparative ecotoxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target soil invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lavtižar, Vesna; Berggren, Kristina; Trebše, Polonca; Kraak, Michiel H S; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is gaining importance in agricultural practice, but data on its possible negative effects on non-target organisms is severely deficient. This study therefore determined CAP toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates playing a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, including springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens). In sublethal toxicity tests in Lufa 2.2 soil, chronic exposure to CAP concentrations up to 1000 mg/kgdw did not affect the survival and reproduction of E. crypticus and O. nitens nor the survival, body weight and consumption of P. scaber. In contrast, the survival and reproduction of F. candida was severely affected, with an EC50 for effects on reproduction of 0.14 mg CAP/kgdw. The toxicity of CAP to the reproduction of F. candida was tested in four different soils following OECD guideline 232, and additionally in an avoidance test according to ISO guideline 17512-2. A significantly lower toxicity in soils rich in organic matter was observed, compared to low organic soils. Observations in the avoidance test with F. candida suggest that CAP acted in a prompt way, by affecting collembolan locomotor abilities thus preventing them from escaping contaminated soil. This study shows that CAP may especially pose a risk to non-target soil arthropods closely related to insects, while other soil invertebrates seem rather insensitive. PMID:27337437

  1. Oxygen penetration through invertebrate burrow walls in Korean tidal flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bon Joo; Koh, Chul-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    Macrofaunal burrows increase the surface area of the sediment-water interface, which has a great impact on the metabolism of aerobic microbes and the oscillation of reduced metabolites within the sediment. Given the importance of macrofauna in surficial sediments, the aim of this study is to examine the effects of burrow architectures on dissolved oxygen diffusion rates in comparison with unburrowed sediment, and thereby to evaluate the theoretical assumption used for modeling solute distribution in the burrow system using field samples. Employing microsensors, horizontal oxygen profiles were measured on a micrometer scale around burrows of seven invertebrates in tidal flats of the west coast of Korea. Oxygen diffusion distance through the burrow walls of seven invertebrates showed spatio-temporal variation with a range of 0.6 to 2.9 mm. Two groups of burrows were identified based on their oxygen diffusive properties relative to unburrowed sediments: 1) oxygen penetration similar to that of ambient sediments and 2) clearly enhanced oxygen penetration. Differences in the diffusive properties of the burrow wall were related to the burrow depth and diameter, existence of mucus lining on the wall, sediment grain size, and tidal phases. Also inhabitant activity was an important factor affecting oxygen penetration, which is discussed in the paper. These results further demonstrate that simplified assumptions (i.e. burrow structures are viewed as direct biogeochemical extensions of the sediment-water interface) may not be exact representation of the nature.

  2. Stream invertebrate community functional responses to deposited sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabeni, C.F.; Doisy, K.E.; Zweig, L.D.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated functional responses of benthic invertebrates to deposited sediment in four Missouri USA streams. In each stream, invertebrates were sampled along continuums of deposited sediment (particles <2 mm in size) from 0 to 100% surface cover in reaches of fairly homogeneous substrate composition, current velocity, and water depths. Correlations, graphical representations, and the cumulative response curves of feeding and habit groups provided strong empirical support for distinct community functional changes due to deposited sediment. Feeding groups were more sensitive to deposited sediment than habit groups. Densities of all the feeding groups decreased significantly with increasing deposited sediment, while relative densities of gatherers increased significantly. Taxa richness also decreased significantly for all the feeding groups except for the shredders. Increases in deposited sediment were related to significant density decreases for only the clingers and sprawlers in the habit group, resulting in significant increases in the relative densities of both burrowers and climbers. Clingers, sprawlers, and swimmers also showed significant decreases in taxa richness. ?? Eawag, 2005.

  3. Antimicrobial peptides in marine invertebrate health and disease.

    PubMed

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Schmitt, Paulina; Barreto, Cairé; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Mitta, Guillaume; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2016-05-26

    Aquaculture contributes more than one-third of the animal protein from marine sources worldwide. A significant proportion of aquaculture products are derived from marine protostomes that are commonly referred to as 'marine invertebrates'. Among them, penaeid shrimp (Ecdysozosoa, Arthropoda) and bivalve molluscs (Lophotrochozoa, Mollusca) are economically important. Mass rearing of arthropods and molluscs causes problems with pathogens in aquatic ecosystems that are exploited by humans. Remarkably, species of corals (Cnidaria) living in non-exploited ecosystems also suffer from devastating infectious diseases that display intriguing similarities with those affecting farmed animals. Infectious diseases affecting wild and farmed animals that are present in marine environments are predicted to increase in the future. This paper summarizes the role of the main pathogens and their interaction with host immunity, with a specific focus on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and pathogen resistance against AMPs. We provide a detailed review of penaeid shrimp AMPs and their role at the interface between the host and its resident/pathogenic microbiota. We also briefly describe the relevance of marine invertebrate AMPs in an applied context.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. PMID:27160602

  4. Hydrologic variability enhances stream biofilm grazing by invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, S.; Hödl, I.; Adlboller, M.; Singer, G.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Botter, G.; Battin, T. J.; Gatto, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2012-12-01

    The temporal variability of streamflows is a key feature structuring and controlling ecological communities and ecosystem processes. The magnitude, frequency and predictability of streamflows, and thus of velocity and near-bed shear stress fields, control structure and function of benthic invertebrates and biofilms - attached and matrix-enclosed microbial communities at the base of the food chain. Although alterations of streamflow regime due to climate change, habitat fragmentation or other anthropogenic factors are ubiquitous, their ecological implications remain poorly understood. Here, by experimenting with two contrasting flow regimes in stream microcosms, we show how flow variability affects invertebrate grazing of phototrophic biofilms (i.e. periphyton). In both flow regimes, we manipulated light availability as a key control on biofilm algal productivity and grazer activity, thereby allowing the test of flow regime effects across various biofilm biomass to grazing activity ratios. Average grazing rates were significantly enhanced under variable flow conditions and highest at intermediate light availability. Our results suggest that stochastic flow regime offers increased opportunity for grazing under more favorable shear stress conditions, with implications for trophic carbon transfer in stream food webs.

  5. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes to freshwater aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Brunson, Eric L.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hydrophobic in nature and thus tend to accumulate in sediments if released into aquatic environments. As part of our overall effort to examine the toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials to sediment-dwelling invertebrates, we have evaluated the toxicity of different types of CNTs in 14-d water-only exposures to an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), a midge (Chironomus dilutus), an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus), and a mussel (Villosa iris) in advance of conducting whole-sediment toxicity tests with CNTs. The results of these toxicity tests conducted with CNTs added to water showed that 1.00g/L (dry wt) of commercial sources of CNTs significantly reduced the survival or growth of the invertebrates. Toxicity was influenced by the type and source of the CNTs, by whether the materials were precleaned by acid, by whether sonication was used to disperse the materials, and by species of the test organisms. Light and electron microscope imaging of the surviving test organisms showed the presence of CNTs in the gut as well as on the outer surface of the test organisms, although no evidence was observed to show penetration of CNTs through cell membranes. The present study demonstrated that both the metals solubilized from CNTs such as nickel and the "metal-free" CNTs contributed to the toxicity.

  6. Flow effects on benthic stream invertebrates and ecological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprivsek, Maja; Brilly, Mitja

    2010-05-01

    Flow is the main abiotic factor in the streams. Flow affects the organisms in many direct and indirect ways. The organisms are directly affected by various hydrodynamic forces and mass transfer processes like drag forces, drift, shear stress, food and gases supply and washing metabolites away. Indirect effects on the organisms are determining and distribution of the particle size and structure of the substrate and determining the morphology of riverbeds. Flow does not affect only on individual organism, but also on many ecological effects. To expose just the most important: dispersal of the organisms, habitat use, resource acquisition, competition and predator-prey interactions. Stream invertebrates are adapted to the various flow conditions in many kinds of way. Some of them are avoiding the high flow with living in a hyporeic zone, while the others are adapted to flow with physical adaptations (the way of feeding, respiration, osmoregulation and resistance to draught), morphological adaptations (dorsoventrally flattened shape of organism, streamlined shape of organism, heterogeneous suckers, silk, claws, swimming hair, bristles and ballast gravel) or with behaviour. As the flow characteristics in a particular stream vary over a broad range of space and time scales, it is necessary to measure accurately the velocity in places where the organisms are present to determine the actual impact of flow on aquatic organisms. By measuring the mean flow at individual vertical in a single cross-section, we cannot get any information about the velocity situation close to the bottom of the riverbed where the stream invertebrates are living. Just measuring the velocity near the bottom is a major problem, as technologies for measuring the velocity and flow of natural watercourses is not adapted to measure so close to the bottom. New researches in the last two decades has shown that the thickness of laminar border layer of stones in the stream is only a few 100 micrometers, what

  7. Neuropeptide Y and Agouti-Related Peptide Mediate Complementary Functions of Hyperphagia and Reduced Energy Expenditure in Leptin Receptor Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Na; Marcelin, Genevieve; Liu, Shun Mei; Schwartz, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP) can produce hyperphagia, reduce energy expenditure, and promote triglyceride deposition in adipose depots. As these two neuropeptides are coexpressed within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and mediate a major portion of the obesity caused by leptin signaling deficiency, we sought to determine whether the two neuropeptides mediated identical or complementary actions. Because of separate neuropeptide receptors and signal transduction mechanisms, there is a possibility of distinct encoding systems for the feeding and energy expenditure aspects of leptin-regulated metabolism. We have genetically added NPY deficiency and/or AGRP deficiency to LEPR deficiency isolated to AGRP cells. Our results indicate that the obesity of LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons can produce obesity with either AGRP or NPY alone with AGRP producing hyperphagia while NPY promotes reduced energy expenditure. The absence of both NPY and AGRP prevents the development of obesity attributable to isolated LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons. Operant behavioral testing indicated that there were no alterations in the reward for a food pellet from the AGRP-specific LEPR deficiency. PMID:21285324

  8. Neuropeptide signaling sequences identified by pyrosequencing of the American dog tick synganglion transcriptome during blood feeding and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Kevin V; Khalil, Sayed M S; Ross, E; Grozinger, Christina M; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Michael Roe, R

    2010-01-01

    Ticks are important vectors of numerous pathogens that impact human and animal health. The tick central nervous system represents an understudied area in tick biology and no tick synganglion-specific transcriptome has been described to date. Here we characterize whole or partial cDNA sequences of fourteen putative neuropeptides (allatostatin, insulin-like peptide, ion-transport peptide, sulfakinin, bursicon alpha/beta, eclosion hormone, glycoprotein hormone alpha/beta, corazonin, four orcokinins) and five neuropeptide receptors (gonadotropin receptor, leucokinin-like receptor, sulfakinin receptor, calcitonin receptor, pyrokinin receptor) translated from cDNA synthesized from the synganglion of unfed, partially fed and replete female American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis. Their homology to the same neuropeptides in other taxa is discussed. Many of these neuropeptides such as an allatostatin, insulin-like peptide, eclosion hormone, bursicon alpha and beta and glycoprotein hormone alpha and beta have not been previously described in the Chelicerata. An insulin-receptor substrate protein was also found indicating that an insulin signaling network is present in ticks. A putative type-2 proprotein processing convertase was also sequenced that may be involved in cleavage at monobasic and dibasic endoproteolytic cleavage sites in prohormones. The possible physiological role of the proteins discovered in adult tick blood feeding and reproduction will be discussed. PMID:20060044

  9. Gqalpha-linked PLCbeta and PLCgamma are essential components of the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) signal transduction cascade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex pheromone production for most moths is regulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN). In Bombyx mori, PBAN binding triggers the opening of store-operated Ca2+ channels, suggesting the involvement of a receptor-activated phospholipase C (PLC). In this study, we found that P...

  10. Neuropeptide Y, its localization in the human cervix and possible effect on the contractile activity of cervix smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Norström, A; Bryman, I; Dahlström, A

    1992-01-01

    Immunochemical methods were used to identify neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the cervical tissue of women at early and term pregnancy. NPY-containing fibers could not be demonstrated in the upper and lower uterine segments at term, but the cervical innervation persisted during labor. Moreover, NPY alone did not affect cervical contractile activity, although the stimulatory effect of noradrenaline was enhanced. PMID:1427420

  11. FRPR-4 Is a G-Protein Coupled Neuropeptide Receptor That Regulates Behavioral Quiescence and Posture in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    York, Neil; Lee, Kun He; Schoofs, Liliane; Raizen, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides signal through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to regulate a broad array of animal behaviors and physiological processes. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes approximately 100 predicted neuropeptide receptor GPCRs, but in vivo roles for only a few have been identified. We describe here a role for the GPCR FRPR-4 in the regulation of behavioral quiescence and locomotive posture. FRPR-4 is activated in cell culture by several neuropeptides with an amidated isoleucine-arginine-phenylalanine (IRF) motif or an amidated valine-arginine-phenylalanine (VRF) motif at their carboxy termini, including those encoded by the gene flp-13. Loss of frpr-4 function results in a minor feeding quiescence defect after heat-induced cellular stress. Overexpression of frpr-4 induces quiescence of locomotion and feeding as well as an exaggerated body bend posture. The exaggerated body bend posture requires the gene flp-13. While frpr-4 is expressed broadly, selective overexpression of frpr-4 in the proprioceptive DVA neurons results in exaggerated body bends that require flp-13 in the ALA neuron. Our results suggest that FLP-13 and other neuropeptides signal through FRPR-4 and other receptors to regulate locomotion posture and behavioral quiescence. PMID:26571132

  12. CONFERENCE NOTE: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    The next Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), will be held from 9 to 12 June 1992 at the Centre des Nouvelles Industries et Technologies (CNIT), La Défense, Paris, France. This conference, which is held every two years and whose importance and high level, confirmed by thirty years' experience, are recognized throughout the world, can be considered as a forum in which scientists, metrologists and professionals will have the opportunity to present and compare their research results on fundamental constants, standards and new techniques of precision measurement in the electromagnetic domain. Topics The following topics are regarded as the most appropriate for this conference: realization of units and fundamental constants d.c. a.c. and high voltage time and frequency radio-frequency and microwaves dielectrics, antennas, fields lasers, fibre optics advanced instrumentation, cryoelectronics. There will also be a session on international cooperation. Conference Language The conference language will be English. No translation will be provided. Organizers Société des Electriciens et des Electroniciens (SEE). Bureau National de Métrologie (BNM) Sponsors Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Instrumentation & Measurement Society Union Radio Scientifique Internationale United States National Institute of Standards and Technology Centre National d'Etudes des Télécommunications Mouvement Français pour la Qualité, Section Métrologie Comité National Français de Radioélectricité Scientifique Contact Jean Zara, CPEM 92 publicity, Bureau National de Métrologie, 22, rue Monge, 75005 Paris Tel.: (33) 1 46 34 48 16, Fax: (33) 1 46 34 48 63

  13. Marked changes in neuropeptide expression accompany broadcast spawnings in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A huge diversity of marine species reproduce by synchronously spawning their gametes into the water column. Although this species-specific event typically occurs in a particular season, the precise time and day of spawning often can not be predicted. There is little understanding of how the environment (e.g. water temperature, day length, tidal and lunar cycle) regulates a population’s reproductive physiology to synchronise a spawning event. The Indo-Pacific tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, has a highly predictable spawning cycle, where individuals release gametes on the evenings of spring high tides on new and full moons during the warmer half of the year. These calculable spawning events uniquely allow for the analysis of the molecular and cellular processes underlying reproduction. Here we characterise neuropeptides produced in H. asinina ganglia that are known in egg-laying molluscs to control vital aspects of reproduction. Results We demonstrate that genes encoding APGWamide, myomodulin, the putative proctolin homologue whitnin, FMRFamide, a schistosomin-like peptide (SLP), a molluscan insulin-related peptide (MIP) and a haliotid growth-associated peptide (HGAP) all are differentially expressed in the anterior ganglia during the two week spawning cycle in both male and female abalone. Each gene has a unique and sex-specific expression profile. Despite these differences, expression levels in most of the genes peak at or within 12 h of the spawning event. In contrast, lowest levels of transcript abundance typically occurs 36 h before and 24 h after spawning, with differences in peak and low expression levels being most pronounced in genes orthologous to known molluscan reproduction neuromodulators. Conclusions Exploiting the predictable semi-lunar spawning cycle of the gastropod H. asinina, we have identified a suite of evolutionarily-conserved, mollusc-specific and rapidly-evolving neuropeptides that appear to contribute to the

  14. Locus coeruleus response to single-prolonged stress and early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Sabban, Esther L; Laukova, Marcela; Alaluf, Lishay G; Olsson, Emelie; Serova, Lidia I

    2015-12-01

    Dysregulation of the central noradrenergic system is a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined molecular changes in locus coeruleus (LC) triggered by single-prolonged stress (SPS) PTSD model at a time when behavioral symptoms are manifested, and the effect of early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y (NPY). Immediately following SPS stressors, male SD rats were administered intranasal NPY (SPS/NPY) or vehicle (SPS/V). Seven days later, TH protein, but not mRNA, was elevated in LC only of the SPS/V group. Although 90% of TH positive cells expressed GR, its levels were unaltered. Compared to unstressed controls, LC of SPS/V, but not SPS/NPY, expressed less Y2 receptor mRNA with more CRHR1 mRNA in subset of animals, and elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in central nucleus of amygdala. Following testing for anxiety on elevated plus maze (EPM), there were significantly increased TH, DBH and NPY mRNAs in LC of SPS-treated, but not previously unstressed animals. Their levels highly correlated with each other but not with behavioral features on EPM. Thus, SPS triggers long-term noradrenergic activation and higher sensitivity to mild stressors, perhaps mediated by the up-regulation influence of amygdalar CRH input and down-regulation of Y2R presynaptic inhibition in LC. Results also demonstrate the therapeutic potential of early intervention with intranasal NPY for traumatic stress-elicited noradrenergic impairments. Single-prolonged stress (SPS)-triggered long-term changes in the locus coeruleus/norepinephrine (LC/NE) system with increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and CRH receptor 1(CRHR1) mRNA and lower neuropeptide Y receptor 2 (Y2R) mRNA levels as well as elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) that were prevented by early intervention with intranasal neuropeptide Y (NPY). SPS treatment led to increased sensitivity of LC to mild stress of elevated plus maze

  15. Slovakian and Turkish Students' Fear, Disgust and Perceived Danger of Invertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Fancovicova, Jana; Bahar, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Human perceives invertebrates less positively than vertebrates because they are small and behaviourally and morphologically unfamiliar. This cross-cultural research focused on Slovakian (n=150) and Turkish (n=164) students' fear, disgust and perceived danger regarding 25 invertebrates [including 5 disease relevant adult insects, 5 ectoparasites, 5…

  16. Pond and Stream Safari: A Guide to the Ecology of Aquatic Invertebrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelstein, Karen

    This packet includes a leader's guide, a quick reference guide to aquatic invertebrates, a checklist of common aquatic invertebrates, and activity sheets. The leader's guide includes four sections on background information and seven activities. Background sections include: Understanding Aquatic Insects; Growing Up: Aquatic Insect Forms; Adapting…

  17. Big Fleas Have Little Fleas: How discoveries of invertebrate diseases are advancing modern science.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Review of: “Big Fleas Have Little Fleas: How discoveries of invertebrate diseases are advancing modern science”. Elizabeth W. Davdison. 2006. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ. 208 pp. Dr. Davidson links many of the accomplishments in invertebrate pathology to subsequent successes in the l...

  18. Streamflow characteristics and benthic invertebrate assemblages in streams across the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brasher, Anne M.D.; Konrad, Chris P.; May, Jason T.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Close, Rebecca N.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrographic characteristics of streamflow, such as high-flow pulses, base flow (background discharge between floods), extreme low flows, and floods, significantly influence aquatic organisms. Streamflow can be described in terms of magnitude, timing, duration, frequency, and variation (hydrologic regime). These characteristics have broad effects on ecosystem productivity, habitat structure, and ultimately on resident fish, invertebrate, and algae communities. Increasing human use of limited water resources has modified hydrologic regimes worldwide. Identifying the most ecologically significant hydrographic characteristics would facilitate the development of water-management strategies. Benthic invertebrates include insects, mollusks (snails and clams), worms, and crustaceans (shrimp) that live on the streambed. Invertebrates play an important role in the food web, consuming other invertebrates and algae and being consumed by fish and birds. Hydrologic alteration associated with land and water use can change the natural hydrologic regime and may affect benthic invertebrate assemblage composition and structure through changes in density of invertebrates or taxa richness (number of different species). This study examined associations between the hydrologic regime and characteristics of benthic invertebrate assemblages across the western United States and developed tools to identify streamflow characteristics that are likely to affect benthic invertebrate assemblages.

  19. The Influence of Flood Disturbances on Interspecific Competition Between Stream Invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effenberger, M.; Diehl, S.; Matthaei, C. D.

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the influence of repeated abiotic disturbances on interspecific competition between stream invertebrates. Artificial substrates (tiles) were exposed in 2 German streams with different flow regimes (floodprone versus stable). Half the tiles were disturbed (once every 2 weeks) by scrubbing to simulate a bed-moving flood, the other half remained undisturbed. We also manipulated densities of 2 of the most common invertebrate taxa in each stream (floodprone: Baetis and Heptageniidae; stable: Simulium and Brachycentrus montanus). Three invertebrate removal treatments (removal of taxon 1, removal of taxon 2, and unmanipulated controls) were applied, and invertebrates were removed every 3 days. After 2, 4 and 6 weeks each, we sampled 8 tiles from each treatment and determined invertebrate faunal composition, epilithic algal biomass (Chl a) and biofilm biomass (AFDM) for each sample. Both disturbance and invertebrate removal affected the stream biota. Disturbance reduced algal and biofilm biomasses in both streams, and invertebrate density in the floodprone stream. Brachycentrus removal resulted in higher flatworm density. Disturbance and invertebrate removal also interacted with each other. Density of the "non-target" mayfly Baetis in the stable stream was highest in Simulium removal treatments on disturbed tiles, but lowest in Simulium removal treatments on undisturbed tiles.

  20. The Drosophila neuropeptides PDF and sNPF have opposing electrophysiological and molecular effects on central neurons.

    PubMed

    Vecsey, Christopher G; Pírez, Nicolás; Griffith, Leslie C

    2014-03-01

    Neuropeptides have widespread effects on behavior, but how these molecules alter the activity of their target cells is poorly understood. We employed a new model system in Drosophila melanogaster to assess the electrophysiological and molecular effects of neuropeptides, recording in situ from larval motor neurons, which transgenically express a receptor of choice. We focused on two neuropeptides, pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) and small neuropeptide F (sNPF), which play important roles in sleep/rhythms and feeding/metabolism. PDF treatment depolarized motor neurons expressing the PDF receptor (PDFR), increasing excitability. sNPF treatment had the opposite effect, hyperpolarizing neurons expressing the sNPF receptor (sNPFR). Live optical imaging using a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensor for cyclic AMP (cAMP) showed that PDF induced a large increase in cAMP, whereas sNPF caused a small but significant decrease in cAMP. Coexpression of pertussis toxin or RNAi interference to disrupt the G-protein Gαo blocked the electrophysiological responses to sNPF, showing that sNPFR acts via Gαo signaling. Using a fluorescent sensor for intracellular calcium, we observed that sNPF-induced hyperpolarization blocked spontaneous waves of activity propagating along the ventral nerve cord, demonstrating that the electrical effects of sNPF can cause profound changes in natural network activity in the brain. This new model system provides a platform for mechanistic analysis of how neuropeptides can affect target cells at the electrical and molecular level, allowing for predictions of how they regulate brain circuits that control behaviors such as sleep and feeding. PMID:24353297

  1. Application of Multiple Index Development Approaches to Benthic Invertebrate Data from the Virginian Biogeographic Province (SETAC NA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic invertebrate indices have commonly been utilized to assess benthic invertebrate communities. These indices have been constructed using different techniques, but have shown different levels of application success. For example, the EMAP Virginian Province Index did not pe...

  2. Effects of fish predation on invertebrates associated with a macrophyte in Lake Onalaska, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chilton, E.W., II; Margraf, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    We tested the effects of fish predation on the macroinvertebrates associated with Vallisneria americana (Michx) by using enclosure/exclosure experiments in lake Onalaska, Wisconsin. Four treatments were used: open water (cageless) controls, cage-effect controls (partially enclosed cages), exclosures (all fish removed), and enclosures (cages stocked with a known density of bluegills Lepomis macrochirus, Rafinesque). Bluegill predation at the density tested (one 70 mm fish per 0.37m2) did not depress Vallisneria associated invertebrate density. Mean invertebrate abundance and biomass (number and dry weight of invertebrates per g dry plant weight) increased in both exclosures and enclosures relative to open water controls. The most likely explanation is that the cages excluded some vertebrate predator(s) from those two treatments and decreased predation pressure within the cages. Large invertebrates, such as Hyalella azteca, Enallagma sp., Gyraulus sp., and Physa sp., increased in abundance within cages, whereas, small invertebrates such as chironomid larvae decreased in abundance.

  3. Isolation, Electron Microscopy and 3D Reconstruction of Invertebrate Muscle Myofilaments

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of muscle contraction and its regulation has been greatly influenced and aided by studies of myofilament structure in invertebrate muscles. Invertebrates are easily obtained and cover a broad spectrum of species and functional specializations. The thick (myosin-containing) filaments from some invertebrates are especially stable and simple in structure and thus much more amenable to structural analysis than those of vertebrates. Comparative studies of invertebrate filaments by electron microscopy and image processing have provided important generalizations of muscle molecular structure and function. This article reviews methods for preparing thick and thin filaments from invertebrate muscle, for imaging filaments by electron microscopy, and for determining their three dimensional structure by image processing. It also highlights some of the key insights into filament function that have come from these studies. PMID:22155190

  4. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a maJor limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other maJor sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  5. Mechanisms of amplification, deactivation, and noise reduction in invertebrate photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Lisman, J; Erickson, M A; Richard, E A; Cote, R H; Bacigalupo, J; Johnson, E; Kirkwood, A

    1992-01-01

    In this review we have discussed the problem of deactivation at both the rhodopsin and G protein levels. Of particular interest is the novel observation that rhodopsin deactivation can be modulated by light. This modulation is likely to play an important role in light adaptation by reducing the gain of transduction. One interesting possibility is that this modulation involves the phosphorylation of an arrestin-like molecule, but this remains to be tested. One of the experimental advantages of Limulus photoreceptors is the large size of the single photon responses and the fact that even single G proteins produce a detectable response. This made possible the observation that nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues produce discrete transient events rather than the step-like events that would be predicted by previous models. This observation led us to a new view of how enzyme deactivation is coupled to GTP hydrolysis on G protein. According to this view, enzymes are activated by G protein, but can be deactivated by processes that are not dependent on G protein or the hydrolysis of GTP. We have conducted several types of experiments, including some on the vertebrate rod system, that strongly support this hypothesis. A second major theme of this review is transduction noise. The available biochemical evidence suggests that both G protein and G protein-activated enzymes are likely to become spontaneously active and generate undesirable noise. Our measurements indicate, however, that this noise is orders of magnitude smaller than would be predicted by simple models, suggesting that special mechanisms must exist for suppressing this noise. We have proposed a specific mechanism by which enzymes regulated allosterically by multiple subunits could act as coincidence detectors to reduce transduction noise. Finally, there is the fundamental question of which second messengers have a direct role in invertebrate phototransduction. After Fesenko et al. (1985) showed that the light

  6. Neuropeptide Substance-P-Conjugated Chitosan Nanofibers as an Active Modulator of Stem Cell Recruiting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Sup; Park, Sang Jun; Cho, Wheemoon; Gu, Bon Kang; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The goal to successful wound healing is essentially to immobilize and recruit appropriate numbers of host stem or progenitor cells to the wound area. In this study, we developed a chitosan nanofiber-immobilized neuropeptide substance-P (SP), which mediates stem cell mobilization and migration, onto the surfaces of nanofibers using a peptide-coupling agent, and evaluated its biological effects on stem cells. The amount of immobilized SP on chitosan nanofibers was modulated over the range of 5.89 ± 3.27 to 75.29 ± 24.31 ng when reacted with 10 to 500 ng SP. In vitro migration assays showed that SP-incorporated nanofibers induced more rapid migration of human mesenchymal stem cells on nanofibers compared to pristine samples. Finally, the conjugated SP evoked a minimal foreign body reaction and recruited a larger number of CD29- and CD44-positive stem cells into nanofibers in a mouse subcutaneous pocket model. PMID:26751441

  7. Neuropeptide Substance-P-Conjugated Chitosan Nanofibers as an Active Modulator of Stem Cell Recruiting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Sup; Park, Sang Jun; Cho, Wheemoon; Gu, Bon Kang; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The goal to successful wound healing is essentially to immobilize and recruit appropriate numbers of host stem or progenitor cells to the wound area. In this study, we developed a chitosan nanofiber-immobilized neuropeptide substance-P (SP), which mediates stem cell mobilization and migration, onto the surfaces of nanofibers using a peptide-coupling agent, and evaluated its biological effects on stem cells. The amount of immobilized SP on chitosan nanofibers was modulated over the range of 5.89 ± 3.27 to 75.29 ± 24.31 ng when reacted with 10 to 500 ng SP. In vitro migration assays showed that SP-incorporated nanofibers induced more rapid migration of human mesenchymal stem cells on nanofibers compared to pristine samples. Finally, the conjugated SP evoked a minimal foreign body reaction and recruited a larger number of CD29- and CD44-positive stem cells into nanofibers in a mouse subcutaneous pocket model. PMID:26751441

  8. Analytic framework for peptidomics applied to large-scale neuropeptide identification.

    PubMed

    Secher, Anna; Kelstrup, Christian D; Conde-Frieboes, Kilian W; Pyke, Charles; Raun, Kirsten; Wulff, Birgitte S; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale mass spectrometry-based peptidomics for drug discovery is relatively unexplored because of challenges in peptide degradation and identification following tissue extraction. Here we present a streamlined analytical pipeline for large-scale peptidomics. We developed an optimized sample preparation protocol to achieve fast, reproducible and effective extraction of endogenous peptides from sub-dissected organs such as the brain, while diminishing unspecific protease activity. Each peptidome sample was analysed by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry and the resulting data set was integrated with publically available databases. We developed and applied an algorithm that reduces the peptide complexity for identification of biologically relevant peptides. The developed pipeline was applied to rat hypothalamus and identifies thousands of neuropeptides and their post-translational modifications, which is combined in a resource format for visualization, qualitative and quantitative analyses. PMID:27142507

  9. Sleep-active neuron specification and sleep induction require FLP-11 neuropeptides to systemically induce sleep

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Michal; Besseling, Judith; Spies, Jan-Philipp; König, Sabine; Bringmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an essential behavioral state. It is induced by conserved sleep-active neurons that express GABA. However, little is known about how sleep neuron function is determined and how sleep neurons change physiology and behavior systemically. Here, we investigated sleep in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is induced by the single sleep-active neuron RIS. We found that the transcription factor LIM-6, which specifies GABAergic function, in parallel determines sleep neuron function through the expression of APTF-1, which specifies the expression of FLP-11 neuropeptides. Surprisingly FLP-11, and not GABA, is the major component that determines the sleep-promoting function of RIS. FLP-11 is constantly expressed in RIS. At sleep onset RIS depolarizes and releases FLP-11 to induce a systemic sleep state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12499.001 PMID:26949257

  10. Analytic framework for peptidomics applied to large-scale neuropeptide identification

    PubMed Central

    Secher, Anna; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Conde-Frieboes, Kilian W.; Pyke, Charles; Raun, Kirsten; Wulff, Birgitte S.; Olsen, Jesper V.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale mass spectrometry-based peptidomics for drug discovery is relatively unexplored because of challenges in peptide degradation and identification following tissue extraction. Here we present a streamlined analytical pipeline for large-scale peptidomics. We developed an optimized sample preparation protocol to achieve fast, reproducible and effective extraction of endogenous peptides from sub-dissected organs such as the brain, while diminishing unspecific protease activity. Each peptidome sample was analysed by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry and the resulting data set was integrated with publically available databases. We developed and applied an algorithm that reduces the peptide complexity for identification of biologically relevant peptides. The developed pipeline was applied to rat hypothalamus and identifies thousands of neuropeptides and their post-translational modifications, which is combined in a resource format for visualization, qualitative and quantitative analyses. PMID:27142507

  11. Neuropeptide Y receptors: a promising target for cancer imaging and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Tian, Yuchen; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) was first identified from porcine brain in 1982, and plays its biological functions in humans through NPY receptors (Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5). NPY receptors are known to mediate various physiological functions and involve in a majority of human diseases, such as obesity, hypertension, epilepsy and metabolic disorders. Recently, NPY receptors have been found to be overexpressed in many cancers, so they emerged as promising target in cancer diagnosis and therapy. This review focuses on the latest research about NPY and NPY receptors, and summarizes the current knowledge on NPY receptors expression in cancers, selective ligands for NPY receptors and their application in cancer imaging and therapy. PMID:26816643

  12. Neuropeptide Y protects kidney against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by regulating p53-dependent apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namoh; Min, Woo-Kie; Park, Min Hee; Lee, Jong Kil; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-Sung

    2016-05-01

    Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug for treating various types of cancers. However, the use of cisplatin is limited by its negative effect on normal tissues, particularly nephrotoxicity. Various mechanisms such as DNA adduct formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are involved in the adverse effect induced by cisplatin treatment. Several studies have suggested that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in neuroprotection as well as restoration of bone marrow dysfunction from chemotherapy induced nerve injury. However, the role of NPY in chemotherapy- induced nephrotoxicity has not been studied. Here, we show that NPY rescues renal dysfunction by reducing the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity through Y1 receptor, suggesting that NPY can protect kidney against cisplatin nephrotoxicity as a possible useful agent to prevent and treat cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 288-292]. PMID:26728272

  13. Receptors for sensory neuropeptides in human inflammatory diseases: Implications for the effector role of sensory neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Mantyh, P.W.; Catton, M.D.; Boehmer, C.G.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Maggio, J.E.; Vigna, S.R. )

    1989-05-01

    Glutamate and several neuropeptides are synthesized and released by subpopulations of primary afferent neurons. These sensory neurons play a role in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography we have explored what changes occur in the location and concentration of receptor binding sites for sensory neurotransmitters in the colon in two human inflammatory diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The sensory neurotransmitter receptors examined included bombesin, calcitonin gene related peptide-alpha, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, neurokinin A (substance K), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Of the nine receptor binding sites examined only substance P binding sites associated with arterioles, venules and lymph nodules were dramatically up-regulated in the inflamed tissue. These data suggest that substance P is involved in regulating the inflammatory and immune responses in human inflammatory diseases and indicate a specificity of efferent action for each sensory neurotransmitter in peripheral tissues.

  14. The presence, nature, and role of gut microflora in aquatic invertebrates: A synthesis.

    PubMed

    Harris, J M

    1993-05-01

    This review of the literature concerns the gut microbiota of aquatic invertebrates and highlights the questions and processes that merit attention if an understanding of the role of gut microbes in the physiology of host invertebrates and nutrient dynamics of aquatic systems is to be gained. A substantial number of studies report the presence of gut microbes in aquatic invertebrates. Crustacea, Mollusca, and Echinodermata have received the most attention, with few studies involving other invertebrate groups. Different types of associations (e.g., ingestion, contribution of exoenzymes, incubation, parasitism) are reported to occur between gut microbes and aquatic invertebrates, and it is clear that gut bacterial communities cannot be treated as single functional entities, but that individual populations require examination. In addition, gut microbes may be either ingested transients or residents, the presence of which have different implications for the invertebrate. The most commonly reported genera of gut bacteria are Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Aeromonas. Quite a number of authors report the physiological properties of gut microbes (including enzyme activities and attributes such as nitrogen fixation), while less attention has been given to consideration of the colonization sites within the digestive tract, the density and turnover of gut bacteria, and the factors affecting the presence and nature of gut microflora. In addition, although a few studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between invertebrates and their gut microbiota, particularly with regard to nutrient gain by the invertebrate, very little conclusive evidence exists as to the role of bacteria in the physiology of host invertebrates. This has resulted from a lack of process-oriented studies. The findings for aquatic gut microbes are compared to those of gut bacteria associated with terrestrial invertebrates, where gut microbes contribute significantly to nutrient

  15. 47 CFR 1.248 - Prehearing conferences; hearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prehearing conferences; hearing conferences. 1.248 Section 1.248 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Proceedings Prehearing Procedures § 1.248 Prehearing conferences; hearing conferences. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR...

  16. 47 CFR 1.248 - Prehearing conferences; hearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prehearing conferences; hearing conferences. 1.248 Section 1.248 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Proceedings Prehearing Procedures § 1.248 Prehearing conferences; hearing conferences. (a)...

  17. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice... reliability of the Bulk-Power System. The conference will explore the progress made on the priorities for addressing risks to reliability that were identified in earlier Commission technical conferences....

  18. 10 CFR 501.32 - Conferences (other than prepetition conferences).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SANCTIONS Written Comments, Public Hearings and Conferences During Administrative Proceedings § 501.32 Conferences (other than prepetition conferences). (a) At any time following commencement of a proceeding... proceeding. Conferences held after the commencement of an administrative proceeding before OFE shall...

  19. Novel Genes Involved in Controlling Specification of Drosophila FMRFamide Neuropeptide Cells.

    PubMed

    Bivik, Caroline; Bahrampour, Shahrzad; Ulvklo, Carina; Nilsson, Patrik; Angel, Anna; Fransson, Fredrik; Lundin, Erika; Renhorn, Jakob; Thor, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    The expression of neuropeptides is often extremely restricted in the nervous system, making them powerful markers for addressing cell specification . In the developing Drosophila ventral nerve cord, only six cells, the Ap4 neurons, of some 10,000 neurons, express the neuropeptide FMRFamide (FMRFa). Each Ap4/FMRFa neuron is the last-born cell generated by an identifiable and well-studied progenitor cell, neuroblast 5-6 (NB5-6T). The restricted expression of FMRFa and the wealth of information regarding its gene regulation and Ap4 neuron specification makes FMRFa a valuable readout for addressing many aspects of neural development, i.e., spatial and temporal patterning cues, cell cycle control, cell specification, axon transport, and retrograde signaling. To this end, we have conducted a forward genetic screen utilizing an Ap4-specific FMRFa-eGFP transgenic reporter as our readout. A total of 9781 EMS-mutated chromosomes were screened for perturbations in FMRFa-eGFP expression, and 611 mutants were identified. Seventy-nine of the strongest mutants were mapped down to the affected gene by deficiency mapping or whole-genome sequencing. We isolated novel alleles for previously known FMRFa regulators, confirming the validity of the screen. In addition, we identified novel essential genes, including several with previously undefined functions in neural development. Our identification of genes affecting most major steps required for successful terminal differentiation of Ap4 neurons provides a comprehensive view of the genetic flow controlling the generation of highly unique neuronal cell types in the developing nervous system. PMID:26092715

  20. Increase in sensory neuropeptides surrounding the Achilles tendon in rats with adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bring, Daniel K-I; Heidgren, Marie-Louise; Kreicbergs, Andris; Ackermann, Paul W

    2005-03-01

    The Achilles tendon in rats with adjuvant arthritis was analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry for the occurrence of two sensory neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), and a sensory modulating peptide, galanin (GAL). The tissue concentration of SP and CGRP in the Achilles tendon and its envelope, i.e. the paratenon and bony insertion, as assessed by RIA was increased by 22% and 71%, respectively, compared to normal controls, whereas the level of GAL was unchanged. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry applied to different regions of the tendon in arthritic rats disclosed an increased occurrence of SP and CGRP positive nerve fibers in the paratenon and bone tendinous junction, whereas GAL fibers were only increased at the bone tendinous junction. Notably, neither neuropeptides nor inflammatory cells were seen in the tendon proper. The increased occurrence of SP and CGRP in the tendon envelope presumably reflects inflammatory actions, whereas that of GAL implies an endogenous anti-inflammatory response. The observed SP and CGRP upregulation in the paratenon and bony insertion suggests a pathophysiological role in paratenonitis and enthesitis often seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Presumably Achillodynia originates in the tendon envelope rather than the tendon proper. The observations could be used to define new pharmacological targets for mitigating symptoms from tendons in rheumatoid arthritis and possibly also in other disorders. Whether a neuronal pathogenic mechanism underlies tendon overuse disorders in non-arthritic tendinopathies and the development of degeneration, i.e. tendinosis, remains to be studied. PMID:15734239

  1. Novel Genes Involved in Controlling Specification of Drosophila FMRFamide Neuropeptide Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bivik, Caroline; Bahrampour, Shahrzad; Ulvklo, Carina; Nilsson, Patrik; Angel, Anna; Fransson, Fredrik; Lundin, Erika; Renhorn, Jakob; Thor, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of neuropeptides is often extremely restricted in the nervous system, making them powerful markers for addressing cell specification . In the developing Drosophila ventral nerve cord, only six cells, the Ap4 neurons, of some 10,000 neurons, express the neuropeptide FMRFamide (FMRFa). Each Ap4/FMRFa neuron is the last-born cell generated by an identifiable and well-studied progenitor cell, neuroblast 5-6 (NB5-6T). The restricted expression of FMRFa and the wealth of information regarding its gene regulation and Ap4 neuron specification makes FMRFa a valuable readout for addressing many aspects of neural development, i.e., spatial and temporal patterning cues, cell cycle control, cell specification, axon transport, and retrograde signaling. To this end, we have conducted a forward genetic screen utilizing an Ap4-specific FMRFa-eGFP transgenic reporter as our readout. A total of 9781 EMS-mutated chromosomes were screened for perturbations in FMRFa-eGFP expression, and 611 mutants were identified. Seventy-nine of the strongest mutants were mapped down to the affected gene by deficiency mapping or whole-genome sequencing. We isolated novel alleles for previously known FMRFa regulators, confirming the validity of the screen. In addition, we identified novel essential genes, including several with previously undefined functions in neural development. Our identification of genes affecting most major steps required for successful terminal differentiation of Ap4 neurons provides a comprehensive view of the genetic flow controlling the generation of highly unique neuronal cell types in the developing nervous system. PMID:26092715

  2. Neuropeptide Y family-degrading metallopeptidases in the Tityus serrulatus venom partially blocked by commercial antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Cajado Carvalho, Daniela; Kuniyoshi, Alexandre K; Kodama, Roberto T; Oliveira, Ana K; Serrano, Solange M T; Tambourgi, Denise V; Portaro, Fernanda V

    2014-12-01

    Accidents caused by scorpions represent a relevant public health issue in Brazil, being more recurring than incidents with snakes and spiders. The main species responsible for this situation is the yellow scorpion, Tityus serrulatus, due especially to the great frequency with which accidents occur and the potential of its venom to induce severe clinical manifestations, even death, mainly among children. Although neurotoxins are well characterized, little information is known about other components of scorpion venoms, such as peptidases, and their effect on envenomation. Previous results from our group showed that the metallopeptidases present in this venom are capable of hydrolyzing the neuropeptide dynorphin 1-13 in vitro, releasing Leu-enkephalin, which may interact with ion channels and promote indirect neurotoxicity. Thus, this study aims to get more information about the effect of toxic peptidase activity present in the venom on biologically active peptides, and to evaluate the in vitro neutralizing potential of commercial antivenoms produced by the Butantan Institute. A set of human bioactive peptides were studied as substrates for the peptidases, and the members of the neuropeptide Y family were found to be the most susceptible ones. All new substrate hydrolyses were totally inhibited by ethylenediaminetetracetic and not blocked by phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride, indicating that metallopeptidases were responsible for the peptidase activity. Also, peptidase activities were only partially inhibited by therapeutic Brazilian scorpion antivenom (SAV) and arachnid antivenom (AAV). The dose-response inhibition by both antivenoms indicates that AAV neutralizes better than SAV at the used doses. These characterizations, unpublished until now, can contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the venom and envenomation processes by T. serrulatus. PMID:25239630

  3. Support for involvement of glutamate decarboxylase 1 and neuropeptide Y in anxiety susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Donner, Jonas; Sipilä, Tessa; Ripatti, Samuli; Kananen, Laura; Chen, Xiangning; Kendler, Kenneth S; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Pirkola, Sami; Hettema, John M; Hovatta, Iiris

    2012-04-01

    Genetic mapping efforts have identified putative susceptibility genes for human anxiety disorders. The most intensively studied genes are involved in neurotransmitter metabolism and signaling or stress response. In addition, neuropeptides and targets of anxiolytics have been examined. It has become apparent that gene × environment interactions may explain individual variation in stress resilience and predisposition to mental disorders. We aimed to replicate previous genetic findings in 16 putative anxiety susceptibility genes and further test whether they modulate the risk for developing an anxiety disorder in adulthood after childhood stress exposure. We tested 93 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic association to anxiety disorders in the Finnish population-based Health 2000 sample (282 cases and 575 matched controls). In addition, we examined by logistic regression modeling whether the SNP genotypes modified the effect of the number of self-reported childhood adversities on anxiety disorder risk. The most significant evidence for association was observed in glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) with phobias (P = 0.0005). A subsequent meta-analysis (N = 1985) incorporating previously published findings supported involvement of a single GAD1 risk haplotype in determining susceptibility to a broad range of internalizing disorders (P = 0.0009). We additionally found that SNPs and haplotypes in neuropeptide Y (NPY) modified the effect of childhood adversities on anxiety susceptibility (P = 0.003). In conclusion, we provide further support for involvement of mainly GAD1, but also NPY in determining predisposition to anxiety disorders. PMID:22328461

  4. Neuropeptide S receptor gene variation modulates anterior cingulate cortex Glx levels during CCK-4 induced panic.

    PubMed

    Ruland, Tillmann; Domschke, Katharina; Schütte, Valerie; Zavorotnyy, Maxim; Kugel, Harald; Notzon, Swantje; Vennewald, Nadja; Ohrmann, Patricia; Arolt, Volker; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Zwanzger, Peter

    2015-10-01

    An excitatory-inhibitory neurotransmitter dysbalance has been suggested in pathogenesis of panic disorder. The neuropeptide S (NPS) system has been implicated in modulating GABA and glutamate neurotransmission in animal models and to genetically drive altered fear circuit function and an increased risk of panic disorder in humans. Probing a multi-level imaging genetic risk model of panic, in the present magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study brain glutamate+glutamine (Glx) levels in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during a pharmacological cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) panic challenge were assessed depending on the functional neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR1) rs324981 A/T variant in a final sample of 35 healthy male subjects. The subjective panic response (Panic Symptom Scale; PSS) as well as cortisol and ACTH levels were ascertained throughout the experiment. CCK-4 injection was followed by a strong panic response. A significant time×genotype interaction was detected (p=.008), with significantly lower ACC Glx/Cr levels in T allele carriers as compared to AA homozygotes 5min after injection (p=.003). CCK-4 induced significant HPA axis stimulation, but no effect of genotype was discerned. The present pilot data suggests NPSR1 gene variation to modulate Glx levels in the ACC during acute states of stress and anxiety, with blunted, i.e. possibly maladaptive ACC glutamatergic reactivity in T risk allele carriers. Our results underline the notion of a genetically driven rapid and dynamic response mechanism in the neural regulation of human anxiety and further strengthen the emerging role of the NPS system in anxiety. PMID:26235955

  5. Sensory neuropeptides and the human lower airways: present state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Joos, G F; Germonpre, P R; Kips, J C; Peleman, R A; Pauwels, R A

    1994-06-01

    The sensory neuropeptides, substance P and neurokinin A, are present in human airway nerves, beneath and within the epithelium, around blood vessels and submucosal glands, and within the bronchial smooth muscle layer. Studies on autopsy tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage and sputum suggest that in asthma the substance P content of the airways may be increased. Neurokinin A is a more potent bronchoconstrictor than substance P. Asthmatics are hyperresponsive to neurokinin A and substance P. The neuropeptide degrading enzyme, neutral endopeptidase is present in the airways and is involved in the degradation of endogenously released and exogenously administered substance P and neurokinin A, both in normal and asthmatic subjects. As for other indirect bronchoconstrictor stimuli, the effect of neurokinin A on airway calibre in asthmatics can be inhibited by pretreatment with nedocromil sodium. Evidence is accumulating, not only from studies in animals but also from experiments on human airways, that tachykinins may also cause mucus secretion and plasma extravasation. They also have important proinflammatory effects, such as the chemoattraction of eosinophils and neutrophils, the adhesion of neutrophils, and the stimulation of lymphocytes, macrophages and mast cells. The tachykinins interact with the targets on the airways by specific tachykinin receptors. The NK1 and the NK2 receptor have been characterized in human airways, both pharmacologically and by cloning. The NK2 receptor is responsible for the in vitro contraction of normal airways, whilst the NK1 receptor is responsible for most of the other airway effects. Because of their presence in the airways and because of their ability to mimic the various pathophysiological features of asthma, substance P and neurokinin A are presently considered as possible mediators of asthma. The present development of potent and selective tachykinin antagonists will allow us to further define the role of tachykinins in the pathogenesis

  6. Early postnatal exposure of mice to side-steam tobacco smoke increases neuropeptide Y in lung.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z-X; Benders, K B; Hunter, D D; Dey, R D

    2012-01-01

    Our recent study showed that prenatal and early postnatal exposure of mice to side-steam tobacco smoke (SS), a surrogate to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), leads to increased airway responsiveness and sensory innervation later in life. However, the underlying mechanism initiated in early life that affects airway responses later in life remains undefined. The concomitant increase in nerve growth factor (NGF) after exposures suggests that NGF may be involved the regulation of airway innervation. Since NGF regulates sympathetic nerve responses, as well as sensory nerves, we extended previous studies by examining neuropeptide Y (NPY), a neuropeptide associated with sympathetic nerves. Different age groups of mice, postnatal day (PD) 2 and PD21, were exposed to either SS or filtered air (FA) for 10 consecutive days. The level of NPY protein in lung and the density of NPY nerve fibers in tracheal smooth muscle were significantly increased in the PD2-11SS exposure group compared with PD2-11FA exposure. At the same time, the level of NGF in lung tissue was significantly elevated in the PD2-11SS exposure groups. However, neither NPY (protein or nerves) nor NGF levels were significantly altered in PD21-30SS exposure group compared with the PD21-30FA exposure group. Furthermore, pretreatment with NGF antibody or K252a, which inhibits a key enzyme (tyrosine kinase) in the transduction pathway for NGF receptor binding, significantly diminished SS-enhanced NPY tracheal smooth muscle innervation and the increase in methacholine-induced airway resistance. These findings show that SS exposure in early life increases NPY tracheal innervation and alters pulmonary function and that these changes are mediated through the NGF. PMID:22003086

  7. Effects and interactions of sensory neuropeptides on airway microvascular leakage in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, D. F.; Belvisi, M. G.; Aursudkij, B.; Evans, T. W.; Barnes, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    1. We have studied the effect of the sensory neuropeptides substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on microvascular permeability in guinea-pig airways in vivo and investigated whether CGRP would potentiate the effect of SP. We used the extravasation of intravenously-injected Evans blue dye as an index of permeability. 2. The tachykinins SP, NKA and NKB (0.025-5.0 nmol kg-1, i.v.) significantly (P less than 0.05) increased extravasation of dye in a dose-related manner and with a similar pattern of distribution; they were most potent in the trachea and main bronchi, less potent in the larynx and intrapulmonary airways, and had little significant effect in the bladder. 3. SP was significantly more potent in causing extravasation of dye than NKA or NKB with ED50 values (nmol kg-1) in the range 0.04-0.1, depending on the airway level, compared with values in the range 0.3-0.7 for the neurokinins. 4. CGRP (0.0025-2.5 nmol kg-1, i.v.) had no significant effect on microvascular permeability and did not potentiate SP-induced extravasation of dye. 5. Each neuropeptide decreased mean arterial blood pressure, indicating vasodilatation, in a dose-related manner. Co-injection of CGRP and SP produced additive decreases in arterial pressure. 6. We conclude that, in guinea-pig airways, tachykinins increase microvascular permeability via tachykinin receptors of the NK-1 sub-type (indicated by an order of potency of SP greater than NKA = NKB) on endothelial cells. The response appears to be related to mechanisms in addition to vasodilatation. The relevance of the responses to the tachykinins in asthma is discussed. PMID:2464389

  8. Molecular characterization of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Weon; Boo, Kyung Saeng

    2005-12-01

    Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) produced in the subesophageal ganglion stimulates pheromone production in the pheromone gland. A cDNA isolated from female adult heads of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) encodes 193 amino acids including PBAN, designated as Plx-PBAN, and four other neuropeptides (NPs): diapause hormone (DH) homologue, alpha-NP, beta-NP and gamma-NP. All of the peptides are amidated in their C-termini and shared a conserved motif, FXPR(or K)L structure, as reported from other PBAN cDNAs. Plx-PBAN consists of 30 amino acids, the shortest PBAN so far reported. Plx-PBAN exhibited below 50% homology, compared with other known PBANs. The Plx-DH homologue is structurally different from DH of Bombyx mori. The length of Plx-beta-NP (16 amino acids) was the shortest and showed relatively low similarity, whereas gamma-NP (10 amino acids in length) was the longest among examined gamma-NPs. When female adults were injected with synthetic Plx-PBAN, pheromone production showed a maximal increase 1h post-injection. RT-PCR screening revealed that Plx-PBAN cDNA was expressed in all examined body parts, with the highest expression level in the head of female adults. Analysis of RT-PCR products indicated the Plx-PBAN sequence was identical in all examined body parts of both sexes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Plx-PBAN gene is distantly related to other PBANs, demonstrated by the relatively low similarity. PMID:16005110

  9. Diarrhetic effect of okadaic acid could be related with its neuronal action: Changes in neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Louzao, M Carmen; Fernández, Diego A; Abal, Paula; Fraga, Maria; Vilariño, Natalia; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2015-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs) are a group of marine toxins that cause diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans and animals. These compounds are produced by dinoflagellates of the Prorocentrum and Dinophysis genera and can accumulate in filter-feeding bivalves, posing a serious health risk for shellfish consumers. The enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a crucial role in the regulation of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, neuropeptides produced by ENS affects the epithelial barrier functions. In the present work we used a two-compartment human coculture model containing the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line and polarized colonic epithelial monolayers (Caco-2) to study the OA intestinal permeability. First, we have determined OA cytotoxicity and we have found that OA reduces the viability of SH-SY5Y in a dose-dependent way, even though DTX1 is 4 to 5 times more potent than OA. Besides DTX1 is 15 to 18 orders of magnitude more potent than OA in decreasing transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of caco-2 cells without inducing cytotoxicity. Permeability assays indicate that OA cross the monolayer and modulates the neuropeptide Y (NPY) secretion by neuroblastoma cells. This NPY also affects the permeability of OA. This offers a novel approach to establish the influence of OA neuronal action on their diarrheic effects through a cross talk between ENS and intestine via OA induced NPY secretion. Therefore, the OA mechanisms of toxicity that were long attributed only to the inhibition of protein phosphatases, would require a reevaluation. PMID:26086426

  10. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and neuropeptides in neural areas mediating motion-induced emesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damelio, F.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Immunocytochemical methods were employed to localize the neurotransmitter amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid and the neuropeptides substance P and Met-enkephalin in the area postrema (AP), area subpostrema (ASP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV), and lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactive (GAD-IR) terminals and fibers were observed in the AP and particularly in the ASP. A gradual decrease in the density of terminals was seen towards the solitary complex. The DMNV revealed irregularly scattered GAD-IR terminals within the neuropil or closely surrounding neuronal cell bodies. The LVN, particularly the dorsal division, showed numerous axon terminals which were mostly localize around large neurons and their proximal dendrites. Substance P immunoreactive (SP-IR) terminals and fibers showed high density in the solitary complex, in particular within the lateral division. The ASP showed medium to low density of SP-IR fibers and terminals. The AP exhibited a small number of fibers and terminals irregularly distributed. The DMNV revealed a high density of SP-IR terminals and fibers that were mainly concentrated in the periphery. Very few terminals were detected in the LVN. Met-enkephalin immunoreactive (Met-Enk-IR) fibers and terminals showed high density and uniform distribution in the DMNV. Scattered terminals and fibers were observed in the AP, ASP, and NTS (particularly the lateral division). The very few fibers were observed in the LVN surrounded the neuronal cell bodies. The present report is part of a study designed to investigate the interaction between neuropeptides and conventional neurotransmitters under conditions producing motion sickness and in the process of sensory-motor adaptation.

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of the neuropeptide S receptor in the rat central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Leonard, S K; Ring, R H

    2011-01-13

    The neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR) is a G-protein coupled receptor that is potently activated by the linear 20 amino acid peptide, neuropeptide S (NPS). Central administration of NPS promotes arousal and anxiolytic-like effects in rodents, and fails to promote such effects in NPSR knockout animals or in the presence of NPSR-selective antagonists. In situ hybridization (ISH) studies in rat brain have revealed that the mRNAs encoding the NPS precursor and the NPS receptor are expressed at high levels in discrete regions of the rat CNS. The distribution of the NPSR protein in brain has not been reported due to a lack of available antibodies. We have generated and validated a NPSR-specific antibody and used it to determine the distribution of the NPSR in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat brain. The anti-NPSR antibody identified a single protein by Western blot with an estimated molecular weight of 65 kD, which was prevented by pre-incubation of the antibody with the immunizing peptide. The protein distribution identified with this antibody in rat brain was consistent both with the mRNA distribution identified by in situ hybridization, and to the localization pattern identified by a second NPSR-specific antibody against a distinct NPSR epitope. NPSR protein was identified in the medial amygdala (MeA), substantia nigra pars compacta, subiculum, dorsal raphe, and several hypothalamic and thalamic regions. Additionally, NPSR protein was localized in the pyramidal cell layer of the ventral hippocampus, the medial habenula (MHb), and was widely distributed in the cortex. The distribution of NPSR protein provides further insight into the organization of the NPS system and may guide future studies on the role of the NPSR in brain. PMID:20950671

  12. Neuropeptide Y Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Modulates Feeding Behavior and Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, José K.; Furman, Kara; Gumbs, Myrtille C.R.; Eggels, Leslie; Opland, Darren M.; Land, Benjamin B.; Kolk, Sharon M.; Narayanan, Nandakumar; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; DiLeone, Ralph J.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that plays a prominent role in feeding and energy homeostasis. Expression of the NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) is highly concentrated in the nucleus accumbens (Acb), a region important in the regulation of palatable feeding. In this study, we performed a number of experiments to investigate the actions of NPY in the Acb. Methods First, we determined caloric intake and food choice after bilateral administration of NPY in the Acb in rats on a free-choice diet of saturated fat, 30% sucrose solution, and standard chow and whether this was mediated by the Y1R. Second, we measured the effect of intra-Acb NPY on neuronal activity using in vivo electrophysiology. Third, we examined co-localization of Y1R with enkephalin and dynorphin neurons and the effect of NPY on preproenkephalin messenger RNA levels in the striatum using fluorescent and radioactive in situ hybridization. Finally, using retrograde tracing, we examined whether NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus projected to the Acb. Results In rats on the free-choice, high-fat, high-sugar diet, intra-Acb NPY increased intake of fat, but not sugar or chow, and this was mediated by the Y1R. Intra-Acb NPY reduced neuronal firing, as well as preproenkephalin messenger RNA expression in the striatum. Moreover, Acb enkephalin neurons expressed Y1R and arcuate nucleus NPY neurons projected to the Acb. Conclusions NPY reduces neuronal firing in the Acb resulting in increased palatable food intake. Together, our neuroanatomical, pharmacologic, and neuronal activity data support a role and mechanism for intra-Acb NPY-induced fat intake. PMID:25109664

  13. Symbiodinium—Invertebrate Symbioses and the Role of Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Benjamin R.; Leggat, William

    2010-01-01

    Symbioses play an important role within the marine environment. Among the most well known of these symbioses is that between coral and the photosynthetic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium spp. Understanding the metabolic relationships between the host and the symbiont is of the utmost importance in order to gain insight into how this symbiosis may be disrupted due to environmental stressors. Here we summarize the metabolites related to nutritional roles, diel cycles and the common metabolites associated with the invertebrate-Symbiodinium relationship. We also review the more obscure metabolites and toxins that have been identified through natural products and biomarker research. Finally, we discuss the key role that metabolomics and functional genomics will play in understanding these important symbioses. PMID:21116405

  14. Effects of Microgravity and Hypergravity on Invertebrate Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, J.

    1985-01-01

    Data suggest that abnormal gravity loads do not increase the rate of mutations in lower animals. Insects such as Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium confusum have been able to reproduce aboard unmanned and manned space satellites, though no precise quantitative data have been obtained on mating competence and various aspects of development. Research with Drosophila flown on Cosmos spacecraft suggests that flight behavior is seriously disturbed in insects exposed to microgravity, which is reflected in increased oxygen utilization and concomitant life shortening. The decrease in longevity was less striking when the flies were enclosed in space, which suggests that they could adapt to the altered gravitational environment when maturation of flight behavior took place in microgravity. The reviewed data suggest that further research on the development of invertebrates in space is in order for clarification of the metabolic and behavioral effects of microgravity and of the development and function of the orientation and gravity sensing mechanisms of lower animals.

  15. Impact Theory of Mass Extinctions and the Invertebrate Fossil Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Walter; Kauffman, Erle G.; Surlyk, Finn; Alvarez, Luis W.; Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.

    1984-03-01

    There is much evidence that the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary was marked by a massive meteorite impact. Theoretical consideration of the consequences of such an impact predicts sharp extinctions in many groups of animals precisely at the boundary. Paleontological data clearly show gradual declines in diversity over the last 1 to 10 million years in various invertebrate groups. Reexamination of data from careful studies of the best sections shows that, in addition to undergoing the decline, four groups (ammonites, cheilostomate bryozoans, brachiopods, and bivalves) were affected by sudden truncations precisely at the iridium anomaly that marks the boundary. The paleontological record thus bears witness to terminal-Cretaceous extinctions on two time scales: a slow decline unrelated to the impact and a sharp truncation synchronous with and probably caused by the impact.

  16. [Molecular mechanisms of the plague pathogenic agent interaction with invertebrates].

    PubMed

    Kutyrev, V V; Eroshenko, G A; Popov, N V; Vidiaeva, N A; Konnov, N P

    2009-01-01

    Microbe Russian Anti-Plague Research Institute, Saratov, Russia The literature data and experimental results of the authors on the molecular basis of plague agent interaction with invertebrates are discussed. The details of the plague agent life cycle, its genome organization, and molecular genetic mechanisms of its survival in flea vector and on the nematode cuticule are discussed. The experimental data about the ability to form biofilms at abiotic and biotic surfaces in the Yersinia pestis strains of the main and non-main subspecies are presented. Mechanisms of horizontal and vertical transmission of plague agent are considered. The suggestion about participation of the new member in the complex parasitic biocenosis (nematode, vector parasite) is put forward. PMID:20050160

  17. Impact theory of mass extinctions and the invertebrate fossil record

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, W.; Kauffman, E.G.; Surlyk, F.; Alvarez, L.W.; Asaro, F.; Michel, H.V.

    1984-03-16

    There is much evidence that the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary was marked by a massive meteorite impact. Theoretical consideration of the consequences of such an impact predicts sharp extinctions in many groups of animals precisely at the boundary. Paleontological data clearly show gradual declines in diversity over the last 1 to 10 million years in various invertebrate groups. Reexamination of data from careful studies of the best sections shows that, in addition to undergoing the decline, four groups (ammonites, cheilostomate bryozoans, brachiopods, and bivalves) were affected by sudden truncations precisely at the iridium anomaly that marks the boundary. The paleontological record thus bears witness to terminal-Cretaceous extinctions on two time scales: a slow decline unrelated to the impact and a sharp truncation synchronous with and probably caused by the impact. 50 references, 4 figures.

  18. Production ecology of invertebrates in small experimental ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.; Franco, P.J.; Goyert, J.C.; Lesslie, P.A.

    1986-07-01

    Production of invertebrates is estimated for a series of small experimental ponds in Tennessee. Annual dry weight production of predator insects is about 4.5 g/m/sup 2/ and of herbivore-detritivore insects about 3.8 g/m/sup 2/; insects whose trophic position could not be classified account for an annual dry weight production of about 0.3 g/m/sup 2/. Annual dry weight production of zooplankton is about 14.5 t/m/sup 2/, of annelids 25.4 g/m/sup 2/ and of snails 3.1 g/m/sup 2/. The data are consistent with published information that the predator insects probably depend on a variety of energy sources to support their estimated production rate.

  19. Symbiodinium-invertebrate symbioses and the role of metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Benjamin R; Leggat, William

    2010-01-01

    Symbioses play an important role within the marine environment. Among the most well known of these symbioses is that between coral and the photosynthetic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium spp. Understanding the metabolic relationships between the host and the symbiont is of the utmost importance in order to gain insight into how this symbiosis may be disrupted due to environmental stressors. Here we summarize the metabolites related to nutritional roles, diel cycles and the common metabolites associated with the invertebrate-Symbiodinium relationship. We also review the more obscure metabolites and toxins that have been identified through natural products and biomarker research. Finally, we discuss the key role that metabolomics and functional genomics will play in understanding these important symbioses. PMID:21116405

  20. The structure and host entry of an invertebrate parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Meng, Geng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Plevka, Pavel; Yu, Qian; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    The 3.5-Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of mature cricket parvovirus (Acheta domesticus densovirus [AdDNV]) has been determined. Structural comparisons show that vertebrate and invertebrate parvoviruses have evolved independently, although there are common structural features among all parvovirus capsid proteins. It was shown that raising the temperature of the AdDNV particles caused a loss of their genomes. The structure of these emptied particles was determined by cryo-electron microscopy to 5.5-Å resolution, and the capsid structure was found to be the same as that for the full, mature virus except for the absence of the three ordered nucleotides observed in the crystal structure. The viral protein 1 (VP1) amino termini could be externalized without significant damage to the capsid. In vitro, this externalization of the VP1 amino termini is accompanied by the release of the viral genome. PMID:24027306

  1. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  2. Insider conference tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Attending an educator conference and its associated exhibit hall can be a rewarding experience for your brain. But if you keep in mind these insider's tips, your feet, arms, stomach, and wallet will also thank you.

  3. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  4. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cook-Deegan, R.M.; Venter, J.C.; Gilbert, W.; Mulligan, J.; Mansfield, B.K.

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  5. Influence of UV radiation on four freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Cywinska, A; Crump, D; Lean, D

    2000-11-01

    Laboratory tests confirmed a negative and variable response of the following four species to artificial UV radiation: Cypridopsis vidua, an ostracode; Chironomus riparius, a midge larvae; Hyalella azteca, an amphipod; and Daphnia magna, a daphnid. Severe damage occurred at UV-B irradiance ranging from 50 to 80% of incident summer values. Under constant exposure to UV and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) the acute lethal response was recorded at 0.3, 0.8, 0.8 and 4.9 W m-2 UV-B for D. magna, H. azteca, C. riparius and C. vidua, respectively. Sublethal UV-B damage to invertebrates included impaired movement, partial paralysis, changes in pigmentation and altered water balance (bloating). A series of UV-B, UV-A and PAR treatments, applied separately and in combination, revealed a positive role for both UV-A and PAR in slowing down UV-B damage. Mean lethal concentration values of the species typically more tolerant to UV and PAR (Cypridopsis, Chironomus) decreased conspicuously when both UV-A and PAR were eliminated. For UV-B-sensitive species (Hyalella, Daphnia) these differences were notably smaller. We suggest that this gradation of sensitivity among the tested species demonstrates potential differences in repairing mechanisms which seem to work more efficiently for ostracodes and chironomids than for amphipods and daphnids. Manipulations with a cellulose acetate filter showed that lower range UV-B (280-290 nm), produced by FS-40 lamps, may cause excessive UV damage to invertebrates. PMID:11107851

  6. Sensitivity of six subantarctic marine invertebrates to common metal contaminants.

    PubMed

    Holan, Jessica R; King, Catherine K; Davis, Andrew R

    2016-09-01

    A long history of anthropogenic activities in the relatively pristine subantarctic has resulted in areas of accumulated waste and contaminants. Sensitivities to metals of subantarctic and Antarctic species may contrast with related species from temperate and tropical areas because of the unique characteristics of polar biota. In addition, response to contaminants may be delayed, and hence longer exposure periods may be required in toxicity tests with polar species. In the present study, the sensitivity of 6 common subantarctic marine invertebrates to copper, zinc, and cadmium contaminants was determined. Large variations in sensitivities, both between species and between metals within species, were found. The bivalve Gaimardia trapesina and the copepod Harpacticus sp. were the most sensitive to copper, with 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) values for both species ranging between 28 μg/L and 62 μg/L, whereas the copepod Tigriopus angulatus was the most tolerant of copper (7-d Cu LC50 1560 μg/L). Sensitivity to zinc varied by approximately 1 order of magnitude between species (7-d LC50: 329-3057 μg/L). Sensitivity to cadmium also varied considerably between species, with 7-d LC50 values ranging from 1612 μg/L to >4383 μg/L. The present study is the first to report the sensitivity of subantarctic marine invertebrate to metals, and contributes significantly to the understanding of latitudinal gradients in the sensitivity of biota to metals. Although sensitivity is highly variable between species, in a global comparison of copepod data, it appears that species from higher latitudes may be more sensitive to copper. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2245-2251. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26800986

  7. Definitive evidence for the existence of tight junctions in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lane, N J; Chandler, H J

    1980-09-01

    Extensive and unequivocal tight junctions are here reported between the lateral borders of the cellular layer that circumscribes the arachnid (spider) central nervous system. This account details the features of these structures, which form a beltlike reticulum that is more complex than the simple linear tight junctions hitherto found in invertebrate tissues and which bear many of the characteristics of vertebrate zonulae occludentes. We also provide evidence that these junctions form the basis of a permeability barrier to exogenous compounds. In thin sections, the tight junctions are identifiable as punctate points of membrane apposition; they are seen to exclude the stain and appear as election- lucent moniliform strands along the lines of membrane fusion in en face views of uranyl-calcium-treated tissues. In freeze-fracture replicas, the regions of close membrane apposition exhibit P-face (PF) ridges and complementary E-face (EF) furrows that are coincident across face transitions, although slightly offset with respect to one another. The free inward diffusion of both ionic and colloidal lanthanum is inhibited by these punctate tight junctions so that they appear to form the basis of a circumferential blood-brain barrier. These results support the contention that tight junctions exist in the tissues of the invertebrata in spite of earlier suggestions that (a) they are unique to vertebrates and (b) septate junctions are the equivalent invertebrate occluding structure. The component tight junctional 8- to 10-nm-particulate PF ridges are intimately intercalated with, but clearly distinct from, inverted gap junctions possessing the 13-nm EF particles typical of arthropods. Hence, no confusion can occur as to which particles belong to each of the two junctional types, as commonly happens with vertebrate tissues, especially in the analysis of developing junctions. Indeed, their coexistance in this way supports the idea, over which there has been some controversy, that

  8. An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, D G A B; Dierenfeld, E S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of eight invertebrate species and evaluate their suitability as alternative prey. The species selected were rusty red cockroaches (Blatta lateralis), six-spotted cockroaches (Eublaberus distanti), Madagascar hissing cockroaches (Gromphadorhina portentosa), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), false katydids (Microcentrum rhombifolium), beetles of the mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), and superworm beetles (Zophobas morio), as well as woodlice (Porcellio scaber). Dry matter (DM), crude protein, crude fat, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ash, macro and trace minerals, vitamins A and E, and carotenoid concentrations were quantified. Significant differences were found between species. Crude protein content ranged from 38 to 76% DM, fat from14 to 54% DM, and ash from 2 to 8% DM. In most species, calcium:phosphorus was low (0.08-0.30:1); however, P. scaber was an exception (12:1) and might prove useful as a dietary source of calcium for insectivores. Vitamin E content was low for most species (6-16 mg/kg DM), except for D. melanogaster and M. rhombifolium (112 and 110 mg/kg DM). The retinol content, as a measure of vitamin A activity, was low in all specimens, but varied greatly among samples (0.670-886 mg/kg DM). The data presented can be used to alter diets to better suit the estimated requirements of insectivores in captivity. Future research on the topic of composition of invertebrate prey species should focus on determination of nutrient differences owing to species, developmental stage, and diet. PMID:21442652

  9. Iron isotope fractionation in marine invertebrates in near shore environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel, S.; Schuessler, J. A.; Vinther, J.; Matthews, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2014-04-01

    Chitons (Mollusca) are marine invertebrates that produce radula (teeth or rasping tongue) containing high concentrations of biomineralized magnetite and other iron bearing minerals. As Fe isotope signatures are influenced by redox processes and biological fractionation, Fe isotopes in chiton radula might be expected to provide an effective tracer of ambient oceanic conditions and biogeochemical cycling. Here, in a pilot study to measure Fe isotopes in marine invertebrates, we examine Fe isotopes in modern marine chiton radula collected from different locations in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to assess the range of isotopic values, and to test whether or not the isotopic signatures reflect seawater values. Furthermore, by comparing two species that have very different feeding habits but collected from the same location, we infer a possible link between diet and Fe isotopic signatures. Values of δ56Fe (relative to IRMM-014) in chiton teeth range from -1.90 to 0.00‰ (±0.05‰ (2σ) uncertainty in δ56Fe), probably reflecting a combination of geographical control and biological fractionation processes. Comparison with published local surface seawater Fe isotope data shows a consistent negative offset of chiton teeth Fe isotope compositions relative to seawater. Strikingly, two different species from the same locality in the North Pacific (Puget Sound, Washington, USA) have distinct isotopic signatures. Tonicella lineata, which feeds on red algae, has a mean δ56Fe of -0.65 ± 0.26‰ (2σ, 3 specimens), while Mopalia muscosa, which feeds primarily on green algae, shows lighter isotopic values with a mean δ56Fe of -1.47 ± 0.98‰ (2σ, 5 specimens). Although chitons are not simple recorders of the ambient seawater Fe isotopic signature, these preliminary results suggest that Fe isotopes provide information concerning Fe biogeochemical cycling in near shore environments, and might be used to probe sources of Fe in the diets of different organisms.

  10. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Asfaw, A.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled "Ecological Risk Analysis" (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more sensitive to

  11. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  12. A method for subsampling terrestrial invertebrate samples in the laboratory: estimating abundance and taxa richness.

    PubMed

    Doğramaci, Mahmut; DeBano, Sandra J; Wooster, David E; Kimoto, Chiho

    2010-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in developing subsampling techniques to process large samples of aquatic invertebrates. However, limited information is available regarding subsampling techniques for terrestrial invertebrate samples. Therefore a novel subsampling procedure was evaluated for processing samples of terrestrial invertebrates collected using two common field techniques: pitfall and pan traps. A three-phase sorting protocol was developed for estimating abundance and taxa richness of invertebrates. First, large invertebrates and plant material were removed from the sample using a sieve with a 4 mm mesh size. Second, the sample was poured into a specially designed, gridded sampling tray, and 16 cells, comprising 25% of the sampling tray, were randomly subsampled and processed. Third, the remainder of the sample was scanned for 4-7 min to record rare taxa missed in the second phase. To compare estimated abundance and taxa richness with the true values of these variables for the samples, the remainder of each sample was processed completely. The results were analyzed relative to three sample size categories: samples with less than 250 invertebrates (low abundance samples), samples with 250-500 invertebrates (moderate abundance samples), and samples with more than 500 invertebrates (high abundance samples). The number of invertebrates estimated after subsampling eight or more cells was highly precise for all sizes and types of samples. High accuracy for moderate and high abundance samples was achieved after even as few as six subsamples. However, estimates of the number of invertebrates for low abundance samples were less reliable. The subsampling technique also adequately estimated taxa richness; on average, subsampling detected 89% of taxa found in samples. Thus, the subsampling technique provided accurate data on both the abundance and taxa richness of terrestrial invertebrate samples. Importantly, subsampling greatly decreased the time required to

  13. Neuroendocrine transcriptional programs adapt dynamically to the supply and demand for neuropeptides as revealed in NSF mutant zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kurrasch, Deborah M; Nevin, Linda M; Wong, Jinny S; Baier, Herwig; Ingraham, Holly A

    2009-01-01

    Background Regulated secretion of specialized neuropeptides in the vertebrate neuroendocrine system is critical for ensuring physiological homeostasis. Expression of these cell-specific peptide markers in the differentiating hypothalamus commences prior to birth, often predating the physiological demand for secreted neuropeptides. The conserved function and spatial expression of hypothalamic peptides in vertebrates prompted us to search for critical neuroendocrine genes in newly hatched zebrafish larvae. Results We screened mutant 5 days post-fertilization zebrafish larvae that fail to undergo visually mediated background adaptation for disruption in hypothalamic pomc expression. To our surprise, the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (nsf) was identified as an essential gene for maintenance of neuroendocrine transcriptional programs during the embryo-to-larva transition. Despite normal hypothalamic development in nsfst53 mutants, neuropeptidergic cells exhibited a dramatic loss of cell-specific markers by 5 days post-fertilization that is accompanied by elevated intracellular neuropeptide protein. Consistent with the role of NSF in vesicle-membrane fusion events and intracellular trafficking, cytoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum-like membranes accumulate in nsf-/- hypothalamic neurons similar to that observed for SEC18 (nsf ortholog) yeast mutants. Our data support a model in which unspent neuropeptide cargo feedbacks to extinguish transcription in neuropeptidergic cells just as they become functionally required. In support of this model we found that gnrh3 transcripts remained unchanged in pre-migratory, non-functional gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in nsf-/- zebrafish. Furthermore, oxytocin-like (oxtl, intp) transcripts, which are found in osmoreceptive neurons and persist in mutant zebrafish, drop precipitously after mutant zebrafish are acutely challenged with high salt. Conclusion Our analyses of nsf mutant zebrafish reveal an unexpected

  14. Grasslands, Invertebrates, and Precipitation: A Review of the Effects of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Kirk L.; Facey, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrates are the main components of faunal diversity in grasslands, playing substantial roles in ecosystem processes including nutrient cycling and pollination. Grassland invertebrate communities are heavily dependent on the plant diversity and production within a given system. Climate change models predict alterations in precipitation patterns, both in terms of the amount of total inputs and the frequency, seasonality and intensity with which these inputs occur, which will impact grassland productivity. Given the ecological, economic and biodiversity value of grasslands, and their importance globally as areas of carbon storage and agricultural development, it is in our interest to understand how predicted alterations in precipitation patterns will affect grasslands and the invertebrate communities they contain. Here, we review the findings from manipulative and observational studies which have examined invertebrate responses to altered rainfall, with a particular focus on large-scale field experiments employing precipitation manipulations. Given the tight associations between invertebrate communities and their underlying plant communities, invertebrate responses to altered precipitation generally mirror those of the plants in the system. However, there is evidence that species responses to future precipitation changes will be idiosyncratic and context dependent across trophic levels, challenging our ability to make reliable predictions about how grassland communities will respond to future climatic changes, without further investigation. Thus, moving forward, we recommend increased consideration of invertebrate communities in current and future rainfall manipulation platforms, as well as the adoption of new technologies to aid such studies. PMID:27547213

  15. Grasslands, Invertebrates, and Precipitation: A Review of the Effects of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Kirk L; Facey, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrates are the main components of faunal diversity in grasslands, playing substantial roles in ecosystem processes including nutrient cycling and pollination. Grassland invertebrate communities are heavily dependent on the plant diversity and production within a given system. Climate change models predict alterations in precipitation patterns, both in terms of the amount of total inputs and the frequency, seasonality and intensity with which these inputs occur, which will impact grassland productivity. Given the ecological, economic and biodiversity value of grasslands, and their importance globally as areas of carbon storage and agricultural development, it is in our interest to understand how predicted alterations in precipitation patterns will affect grasslands and the invertebrate communities they contain. Here, we review the findings from manipulative and observational studies which have examined invertebrate responses to altered rainfall, with a particular focus on large-scale field experiments employing precipitation manipulations. Given the tight associations between invertebrate communities and their underlying plant communities, invertebrate responses to altered precipitation generally mirror those of the plants in the system. However, there is evidence that species responses to future precipitation changes will be idiosyncratic and context dependent across trophic levels, challenging our ability to make reliable predictions about how grassland communities will respond to future climatic changes, without further investigation. Thus, moving forward, we recommend increased consideration of invertebrate communities in current and future rainfall manipulation platforms, as well as the adoption of new technologies to aid such studies. PMID:27547213

  16. Biodiversity loss in seagrass meadows due to local invertebrate fisheries and harbour activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordlund, Lina Mtwana; Gullström, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass meadows provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, but their distribution and health are adversely affected by man. In the present study, we examined the influence of coastal exploitation in terms of invertebrate harvesting and harbour activity on invertebrate community composition in subtropical seagrass meadows at Inhaca Island, Mozambique, in the Western Indian Ocean. There was a fivefold higher invertebrate density and biomass, and clearly higher invertebrate species richness, in the protected (control) site compared to the two exploited sites. The causes for the clear differences between protected and exploited sites were probably a result of (1) the directional outtake of large edible or saleable invertebrates (mostly molluscs) and the absence of boat traffic in the harvested site, and (2) harbour activities. Invertebrate community composition in the two exploited sites also differed (although less clear), which was likely due to inherent distinction in type of disturbance. Our findings revealed that protection of seagrass habitat is necessary and that disturbances of different origin might require different forms of management and conservation. Designing protected areas is however a complex process due to competition for use and space with activities such as invertebrate harvesting and harbours.

  17. Headwater riparian forest-floor invertebrate communities associated with alternative forest management practices.

    PubMed

    Rykken, Jessica J; Moldenke, Andrew R; Olson, Deanna H

    2007-06-01

    Headwater streams and their riparian zones are a common, yet poorly understood, component of Pacific Northwest, USA, landscapes. We describe the ecological importance of headwater stream riparian zones as habitat for forest-floor invertebrate communities and assess how alternative management strategies for riparian zones may impact these communities. We compared community composition of forest-floor invertebrates at increasing distances along trans-riparian (stream edge to upslope) transects in mature forests, clearcuts, and riparian buffers of approximately 30-m width with upslope clearcuts. Invertebrates were collected using pitfall traps in five replicate blocks of three treatments each in the Willamette National Forest, Oregon, USA. We measured microclimate and microhabitat variables at pitfall locations. Despite strong elevation and block effects on community composition, community analyses revealed a distinct "riparian" invertebrate community within 1 m of the stream edge in mature forest treatments, which was strongly related to cool, humid microclimate conditions. Invertebrate community composition in buffer treatments was far more similar to that of mature forests than to clearcuts; a pattern mirrored by microclimate. These results suggest that, within our study sites, forest-floor invertebrate distributions are strongly associated with microclimate and that riparian buffers of approximately 30-m width do provide habitat for many riparian and forest species. Riparian reserves may serve as effective forest refugia and/or dispersal corridors for invertebrates and other taxa, and their incorporation into watershed management plans likely will contribute to meeting persistence and connectivity objectives. PMID:17555226

  18. Invertebrate response to snow goose herbivory on moist-soil vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Kirkpatrick, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Foraging activity by snow geese (Chen caerulescens) often creates large areas devoid of vegetation ("eat-outs") in moist-soil impoundments and coastal wetlands. Open-water habitats that result from eat-outs may be valuable foraging areas for other wetland-dependent birds (i.e., waterfowl and shorebirds). However, few studies have examined the effects of goose-induced habitat changes on invertebrates, an important food source for both waterfowl and shorebirds. We quantified changes in abundance and composition of benthic invertebrates in response to snow goose herbivory in moist-soil impoundments at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Delaware, USA. We found invertebrate taxon richness and diversity and abundance of Chironomidae, Coleoptera, and Total Invertebrates to be higher in goose-excluded sites than in adjacent eat-outs. These effects were most pronounced during January, February, and early April. We also measured invertebrate abundance in shorebird exclosures in eat-outs but found few detectable effects of shorebird predation on invertebrates. Our study demonstrated that abundant snow geese may negatively influence availability of invertebrates for other nonbreeding waterbirds, suggesting that management actions to reduce local goose populations or deter feeding in impoundments may be warranted.

  19. Reduced density of neuropeptide Y neurons in the somatosensory cortex of old male and female rats: relation to cholinergic depletion and recovery after nerve growth factor treatment.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, A; Paula-Barbosa, M M; Lukoyanov, N V

    2006-02-01

    Synthesis of neuropeptide Y in the neocortex and activity of the basalocortical cholinergic system are both reduced in the aging brain. We hypothesized that, by stimulating the activity of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, nerve growth factor might also be capable of restoring the synthesis of neuropeptide Y in cortical neurons. Old male and female rats were intraventricularly infused with nerve growth factor for 14 days and their brains were analyzed in order to quantify the densities of neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons and of fiber varicosities stained for vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein in layers II/III, V and VI of the primary somatosensory barrel-field cortex. The areal densities of neuropeptide Y neurons and of vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein varicosities in all cortical laminae were found to be dramatically decreased in old rats when compared with young rats. However, infusions of nerve growth factor, known to exert a powerful trophic effect upon cortically projecting cholinergic neurons, have led to considerable recovery of vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein-positive terminal fields, which was paralleled by complete restoration of function in neuropeptide Y-producing neurons. With respect to the gender differences, although the density of cortical neuropeptide Y neurons was found to be significantly higher in young females than in young males and the opposite was true for vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein-positive varicosities, the general pattern of age- and treatment-related changes in these neurochemical markers was similar in both sexes. Overall, the age- and treatment-related variations in the density of cortical neuropeptide Y cells were found to correlate with those observed in the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein varicosities. These results lend support to the idea that there is a causal relationship between age-related changes in cortical cholinergic and neuropeptide Y

  20. The Impact of Landscape Complexity on Invertebrate Diversity in Edges and Fields in an Agricultural Area

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Tracy R.; Mahoney, Meredith J.; Cashatt, Everett D.; Noordijk, Jinze; de Snoo, Geert; Musters, C. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrate diversity is important for a multitude of ecosystem services and as a component of the larger ecological food web. A better understanding of the factors influencing invertebrate taxonomic richness and diversity at both local and landscape scales is important for conserving biodiversity within the agricultural landscape. The aim of this study was to determine if invertebrate richness and diversity in agricultural field interiors and edges in central Illinois, USA, were related to the complexity of the surrounding landscape. Our results show taxonomic richness and diversity in field edges is positively related to large scale landscape complexity, but the relationship is negative for field interiors. These unexpected results need further study. PMID:26848691

  1. Correspondence of stream benthic invertebrate assemblages to regional classification schemes in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabeni, C.F.; Doisy, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    Benthic invertebrates from 44 reference streams throughout the state of Missouri were examined for their concordance with established regionalization systems, both aquatic and terrestrial. Invertebrate assemblages coincided nicely with Pflieger's established aquatic faunal regions system, expanding its generality to more than fish assemblages. Our benthic invertebrate and Pflieger's fish assemblages coincided well with both Bailey's ecological sections and Omernik's ecoregions. Subregionalization using Pflieger's subregions and Bailey's subsections further reduced unexplained variation and is recommended for use wherever possible. The concordance of the aquatic fauna and terrestrial features implies the possibility of coordinated regional management among different natural resource disciplines.

  2. Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir F.; Mohamed, Tarik A.; Alhammady, Montaser A.; Shaheen, Alaa M.; Reda, Eman H.; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I.; Aziz, Mina; Paré, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species. PMID:26006713

  3. The Impact of Landscape Complexity on Invertebrate Diversity in Edges and Fields in an Agricultural Area.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tracy R; Mahoney, Meredith J; Cashatt, Everett D; Noordijk, Jinze; de Snoo, Geert; Musters, C J M

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrate diversity is important for a multitude of ecosystem services and as a component of the larger ecological food web. A better understanding of the factors influencing invertebrate taxonomic richness and diversity at both local and landscape scales is important for conserving biodiversity within the agricultural landscape. The aim of this study was to determine if invertebrate richness and diversity in agricultural field interiors and edges in central Illinois, USA, were related to the complexity of the surrounding landscape. Our results show taxonomic richness and diversity in field edges is positively related to large scale landscape complexity, but the relationship is negative for field interiors. These unexpected results need further study. PMID:26848691

  4. Different Neuropeptides are Expressed in Different Functional Subsets of Cholinergic Excitatory Motorneurons in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides are known to have dramatic effects on neurons and synapses; however, despite extensive studies of the motorneurons in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, their peptide content had not yet been described. We determined the peptide content of single excitatory motorneurons by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. There are 2 subsets of ventral cord excitatory motorneurons, each with neuromuscular output either anterior or posterior to their cell body, mediating forward or backward locomotion, respectively. Strikingly, the two sets of neurons contain different neuropeptides, with AF9 and 6 novel peptides (As-NLP-21.1-6) in anterior projectors, and the 6 afp-1 peptides in addition to AF2 in posterior projectors. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of these peptides, validating the integrity of the dissection technique. This work identifies new components of the functional behavioral circuit, as well as potential targets for anti-parasitic drug development. PMID:25812635

  5. Stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophage functions by neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. Involvement of protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, M; Bernaez, I; Del Rio, M; Hernanz, A

    1993-01-01

    The peptides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) at concentrations from 10(-12) M to 10(-8) M have been shown in this study to stimulate significantly, in vitro, several functions of resting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice: adherence to substrate, chemotaxis, ingestion of inert particles (latex beads) and foreign cells (Candida albicans), and production of superoxide anion measured by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. A dose-response relationship was observed, with a maximal stimulation of the macrophage functions studied at 10(-10) M. These effects seem to be produced by specific receptors for the neuropeptides studied in peritoneal macrophages. Whereas the two peptides induced no change of intracellular cyclic AMP, they caused a significant stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) in murine macrophages. These results suggest that NPY and PYY produce their effects on macrophage function through PKC activation. PMID:8262554

  6. Diurnal fluctuations in HPA and neuropeptide Y-ergic systems underlie differences in vulnerability to traumatic stress responses at different zeitgeber times.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shlomi; Vainer, Ella; Matar, Michael A; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Mathé, Aleksander A; Cohen, Hagit

    2015-02-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis displays a characteristic circadian pattern of corticosterone release, with higher levels at the onset of the active phase and lower levels at the onset of the inactive phase. As corticosterone levels modify the response to stress and influence the susceptibility to and/or severity of stress-related sequelae, we examined the effects of an acute psychological trauma applied at different zeitgeber times (ZTs) on behavioral stress responses. Rats were exposed to stress either at the onset of the inactive-(light) phase (ZT=0) or at the onset of the active-(dark) phase (ZT=12). Their behavior in the elevated plus-maze and acoustic startle response paradigms were assessed 7 days post exposure for retrospective classification into behavioral response groups. Serum corticosterone levels and the dexamethasone suppression test were used to assess the stress response and feedback inhibition of the HPA axis. Immunoreactivity for neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY-Y1 receptor (Y1R) in the paraventricular (PVN) and arcuate (ARC) hypothalamic nuclei, hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala were measured. The behavioral effects of NPY/Y1R antagonist microinfused into the PVN 30 min before stress exposure during the inactive or active phase, respectively, were evaluated. PVN immunoreactivity for NPY and Y1R was measured 1 day after the behavioral tests. The time of day of the traumatic exposure markedly affected the pattern of the behavioral stress response and the prevalence of rats showing an extreme behavioral response. Rats exposed to the stressor at the onset of their inactive phase displayed a more traumatic behavioral response, faster post-exposure corticosterone decay, and a more pronounced stress-induced decline in NPY and Y1R expression in the PVN and arcuate hypothalamic nuclei. Blocking PVN Y1R before stress applied in the active phase, or administering NPY to the PVN before stress applied in the inactive phase, had a resounding

  7. Diurnal Fluctuations in HPA and Neuropeptide Y-ergic Systems Underlie Differences in Vulnerability to Traumatic Stress Responses at Different Zeitgeber Times

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Shlomi; Vainer, Ella; Matar, Michael A; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Mathé, Aleksander A; Cohen, Hagit

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis displays a characteristic circadian pattern of corticosterone release, with higher levels at the onset of the active phase and lower levels at the onset of the inactive phase. As corticosterone levels modify the response to stress and influence the susceptibility to and/or severity of stress-related sequelae, we examined the effects of an acute psychological trauma applied at different zeitgeber times (ZTs) on behavioral stress responses. Rats were exposed to stress either at the onset of the inactive-(light) phase (ZT=0) or at the onset of the active-(dark) phase (ZT=12). Their behavior in the elevated plus-maze and acoustic startle response paradigms were assessed 7 days post exposure for retrospective classification into behavioral response groups. Serum corticosterone levels and the dexamethasone suppression test were used to assess the stress response and feedback inhibition of the HPA axis. Immunoreactivity for neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY-Y1 receptor (Y1R) in the paraventricular (PVN) and arcuate (ARC) hypothalamic nuclei, hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala were measured. The behavioral effects of NPY/Y1R antagonist microinfused into the PVN 30 min before stress exposure during the inactive or active phase, respectively, were evaluated. PVN immunoreactivity for NPY and Y1R was measured 1 day after the behavioral tests. The time of day of the traumatic exposure markedly affected the pattern of the behavioral stress response and the prevalence of rats showing an extreme behavioral response. Rats exposed to the stressor at the onset of their inactive phase displayed a more traumatic behavioral response, faster post-exposure corticosterone decay, and a more pronounced stress-induced decline in NPY and Y1R expression in the PVN and arcuate hypothalamic nuclei. Blocking PVN Y1R before stress applied in the active phase, or administering NPY to the PVN before stress applied in the inactive phase, had a

  8. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Sparling, D W; Lowe, T P

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a major limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other major sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  9. Identification and RNA Interference of the Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) in the Common Cutworm Moth Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Qin; Huang, Ling-Yan; Chen, Peng; Yu, Jin-Feng; Xu, Jin; Deng, Jian-Yu; Ye, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Spodoptera litura F. is one of the most destructive insect pests of many agricultural crops and notorious for developing insecticide resistance. Developing environmental friendly control methods such as novel pheromone and RNAi-related control strategies is imperative to control this pest. In the present study, the full-length cDNA encoding the diapause hormone and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (DH-PBAN) was identified and characterized in S. litura. This 809-bp transcript contains a 573-nucleotide ORF encoding a 191-amino acid protein, from which five putative neuropeptides, including PBAN, DH, and α-, β-, and γ-subesophageal ganglion neuropeptides, were derived. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both the whole protein and each of the five neuropeptides have high similarities to those of DH-PBANs from other insect orders particularly Lepidoptera. Females treated with TKYFSPRLamide (the active core fragment of PBAN) produced significantly more four types of pheromone compounds (A; B; C; D) than controls. RNA interference by injection of PBAN dsRNA significantly reduced the relative expression levels of this gene in adult females (approximately reduced by 60%). As a consequence, females treated with PBAN dsRNA produced significantly less four types of pheromone compounds (A; B; C; D) than controls. These results suggest that PBAN function in activating sex pheromone biosynthesis and the RNAi of DH-PBAN gene can be induced by the injection of dsRNA into the body cavity in S. litura. This study suggests the possibility of novel pheromone-related pest control strategies based on RNAi techniques. PMID:26470263

  10. The contribution of the genomes of a termite and a locust to our understanding of insect neuropeptides and neurohormones

    PubMed Central

    Veenstra, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    The genomes of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria and the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis were mined for the presence of genes encoding neuropeptides, neurohormones, and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Both species have retained a larger number of neuropeptide and neuropeptide GPCRs than the better known holometabolous insect species, while other genes that in holometabolous species appear to have a single transcript produce two different precursors in the locust, the termite or both. Thus, the recently discovered CNMa neuropeptide gene has two transcripts predicted to produce two structurally different CNMa peptides in the termite, while the locust produces two different myosuppressin peptides in the same fashion. Both these species also have a calcitonin gene, which is different from the gene encoding the calcitonin-like insect diuretic hormone. This gene produces two types of calcitonins, calcitonins A and B. It is also present in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera and some Diptera, but absent from mosquitoes and Drosophila. However, in holometabolous insect species, only the B transcript is produced. Their putative receptors were also identified. In contrast, Locusta has a highly unusual gene that codes for a salivation stimulatory peptide. The Locusta genes for neuroparsin and vasopressin are particularly interesting. The neuroparsin gene produces five different transcripts, of which only one codes for the neurohormone identified from the corpora cardiaca. The other four transcripts code for neuroparsin-like proteins, which lack four amino acid residues, and that for that reason we called neoneuroparsins. The number of transcripts for the neoneuroparsins is about 200 times larger than the number of neuroparsin transcripts. The first exon and the putative promoter of the vasopressin genes, of which there are about seven copies in the genome, is very well-conserved, but the remainder of these genes is not. The relevance of these findings is discussed

  11. Effect of short and long-term treatment with antipsychotics on orexigenic/anorexigenic neuropeptides expression in the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Rojczyk, Ewa; Pałasz, Artur; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard

    2015-06-01

    Among numerous side effects of antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics), one of the leading problems is a significant weight gain caused by disturbances in energy homeostasis. The hypothalamus is considered an important target for neuroleptics and contains some neuronal circuits responsible for food intake regulation, so we decided to study which hypothalamic signaling pathways connected with energy balance control are modified by antipsychotic drugs of different generations. We created an expression profile of different neuropeptides after single-dose and chronic neuroleptic administration. Experiments were carried out on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats injected intraperitoneally for 1 day or for 28 days by three neuroleptics: olanzapine, chlorpromazine and haloperidol. Hypothalami were isolated in order to perform PCR reactions and also whole brains were sliced for immunohistochemical analysis. We assessed the expression of orexigenic/anorexigenic neuropeptides and their receptors--neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptor type 1 (Y1R), preproorexin (PPOX), orexin A, orexin receptor type 1 (OX1R) and 2 (OX2R), nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), nesfatin-1, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), alpha-melanotropin (α-MSH) and melanocortin receptor type 4 (MC4R)--both on the mRNA and protein levels. We have shown that antipsychotics of different generations administered chronically have the ability to upregulate PPOX, orexin A and Y1R expression with little or no effect on orexigenic receptors (OX1R, OX2R) and NPY. Interestingly, antipsychotics also increased the level of some anorexigenic factors (POMC, α-MSH and MC4R), but at the same time strongly downregulated NUCB2 and nesfatin-1 signaling--a newly discovered neuropeptide known as a food-intake inhibiting factor. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of mechanisms responsible for antipsychotics' side effects. They also underline the complex nature of interactions between classical monoamine receptors and hypothalamic peptidergic

  12. Functional and Genetic Characterization of Neuropeptide Y-Like Receptors in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Liesch, Jeff; Bellani, Lindsay L.; Vosshall, Leslie B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the principal vector for dengue fever, causing 50–100 million infections per year, transmitted between human and mosquito by blood feeding. Ae. aegypti host-seeking behavior is known to be inhibited for three days following a blood meal by a hemolymph-borne humoral factor. Head Peptide-I is a candidate peptide mediating this suppression, but the mechanism by which this peptide alters mosquito behavior and the receptor through which it signals are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Head Peptide-I shows sequence similarity to short Neuropeptide-F peptides (sNPFs) that have been implicated in feeding behaviors and are known to signal through Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Like Receptors (NPYLRs). We identified eight NPYLRs in the Ae. aegypti genome and screened each in a cell-based calcium imaging assay for sensitivity against a panel of peptides. Four of the Ae. aegypti NPYLRs responded to one or more peptide ligands, but only NYPLR1 responded to Head Peptide-I as well as sNPFs. Two NPYLR1 homologues identified in the genome of the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, were also sensitive to Head Peptide-I. Injection of synthetic Head Peptide-I and sNPF-3 inhibited host-seeking behavior in non-blood-fed female mosquitoes, whereas control injections of buffer or inactive Head Peptide-I [Cys10] had no effect. To ask if NPYLR1 is necessary for blood-feeding-induced host-seeking inhibition, we used zinc-finger nucleases to generate five independent npylr1 null mutant strains and tested them for behavioral abnormalities. npylr1 mutants displayed normal behavior in locomotion, egg laying, sugar feeding, blood feeding, host seeking, and inhibition of host seeking after a blood meal. Conclusions In this work we deorphanized four Ae. aegypti NPYLRs and identified NPYLR1 as a candidate sNPF receptor that is also sensitive to Head Peptide-I. Yet npylr1 alone is not required for host-seeking inhibition and we conclude that other

  13. Oxytocin--a neuropeptide for affiliation: evidence from behavioral, receptor autoradiographic, and comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Insel, T R

    1992-01-01

    steroids can alter receptor expression in anatomically discrete target fields and thereby direct responsiveness to endogenous neuropeptide release. A model for OT's effects on social behavior is proposed, which relies on the heterologous regulation of the brain OT receptor. A third series of experiments tested the hypothesis that brain OT influences affiliation by comparing prairie and montane voles, two closely related species with dichotomous systems of social organization. Although no differences appear in the presynaptic expression of the neuropeptide, OT receptors are distributed in complementary patterns in the two species. In the highly affiliative prairie vole, receptors are most evident in the BNST and one of its primary afferents, the lateral amygdala, highlighting a circuit previously implicated in maternal behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1319071

  14. Genetic Association of Objective Sleep Phenotypes with a Functional Polymorphism in the Neuropeptide S Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Janek; Sander, Christian; Burkhardt, Ralph; Häntzsch, Madlen; Mergl, Roland; Scholz, Markus; Hegerl, Ulrich; Hensch, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Background The neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR1) and its ligand neuropeptide S (NPS) have received increased attention in the last few years, as both establish a previously unknown system of neuromodulation. Animal research studies have suggested that NPS may be involved in arousal/wakefulness and may also have a crucial role in sleep regulation. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs324981 in NPSR1 has begun to shed light on a function of the NPS-system in human sleep regulation. Due to an amino acid exchange, the T-allele leads to an increased sensitivity of the NPSR1. In the only genome-wide association study to date on circadian sleep parameters in humans, an association was found between rs324981 and regular bedtime. However, the sleep parameters in this study were only measured by self-rating. Therefore, our study aimed to replicate these findings using an objective measure of sleep. Methods The study included n = 393 white subjects (62–79 years) who participated in an actigraphic assessment for determining sleep duration, rest duration, sleep onset, rest onset and sleep onset latency. Genotyping of the SNP rs324981 was performed using the TaqMan OpenArray System. Results The genotype at rs324981 was not significantly associated with rest onset (bedtime) or sleep onset (p = .146 and p = .199, respectively). However, the SNP showed a significant effect on sleep- and rest duration (p = .007 and p = .003, respectively). Subjects that were homozygous for the minor T-allele had a significantly decreased sleep- and rest duration compared to A-allele carriers. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the sleep pattern in humans is influenced by the NPS-system. However, the previously reported association between bedtime and rs324981 could not be confirmed. The current finding of decreased sleep duration in T/T allele carriers is in accordance with studies in rodents reporting similar results after NPS application. PMID:24896296

  15. Distribution of neuropeptides in endocrine and exocrine pancreas of long-legged buzzard (Buteo rufinus): an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Atalar, Omer; Gencer Tarakci, Berrin; Ceribasi, Songul

    2011-01-17

    This study aimed to determine the existence and distribution of certain neuropeptides in endocrine and exocrine pancreas of the long-legged buzzard by using immunohistochemical methods. SOM-14-, NPY- and CGRP-IR endocrine cells were determined in both central and peripheral regions in A-islets within the pancreas, while SP-IR endocrine cells were found only in the central region, and CCK-8- and galanin-IR endocrine cells were only detected in peripheral region. On the other hand, in B-islets; SP-, NPY- and CGRP-IRendocrine cells were determined in both central and peripheral regions, while SOM-14- CCK-8- and galanin-IRendocrine cells were found only in the peripheral region. In addition; SOM-14-, NPY-, CGRP-, CCK-8- and galanin-IR cells were also observed in exocrine pancreas. This distribution pattern in the pancreas of the long-legged buzzard demonstrates that neuropeptides perform their probable affects through endocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms. In conclusion, the existence and distribution of neuropeptides in the pancreas of long-legged buzzard have been introduced in this study for the first time and this bird species has also been found to differ from other types of avian species. PMID:20959123

  16. A role for amontillado, the Drosophila homolog of the neuropeptide precursor processing protease PC2, in triggering hatching behavior.

    PubMed

    Siekhaus, D E; Fuller, R S

    1999-08-15

    Accurate proteolytic processing of neuropeptide and peptide hormone precursors by members of the kexin/furin family of proteases is key to determining both the identities and activities of signaling peptides. Here we identify amontillado (amon), the Drosophila melanogaster homolog of the mammalian neuropeptide processing protease PC2, and show that in contrast to vertebrate PC2, amontillado expression undergoes extensive regulation in the nervous system during development. In situ hybridization reveals that expression of amontillado is restricted to the final stages of embryogenesis when it is found in anterior sensory structures and in only 168 cells in the brain and ventral nerve cord. After larvae hatch from their egg shells, the sensory structures and most cells in the CNS turn off or substantially reduce amontillado expression, suggesting that amontillado plays a specific role late in embryogenesis. Larvae lacking the chromosomal region containing amontillado show no gross anatomical defects and respond to touch. However, such larvae show a greatly reduced frequency of a hatching behavior of wild-type Drosophila in which larvae swing their heads, scraping through the eggshell with their mouth hooks. Ubiquitous expression of amontillado can restore near wild-type levels of this behavior, whereas expression of amontillado with an alanine substitution for the catalytic histidine cannot. These results suggest that amontillado expression is regulated as part of a programmed modulation of neural signaling that controls hatching behavior by producing specific neuropeptides in particular neurons at an appropriate developmental time. PMID:10436051

  17. Heat Avoidance Is Regulated by Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels and a Neuropeptide Signaling Pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Dominique A.; Chen, Will C.; Agin, Rebecca; MacInnis, Bronwyn L.; Hellman, Andrew B.; Garrity, Paul A.; Tan, Man-Wah; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to avoid noxious extremes of hot and cold is critical for survival and depends on thermal nociception. The TRPV subset of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels is heat activated and proposed to be responsible for heat detection in vertebrates and fruit flies. To gain insight into the genetic and neural basis of thermal nociception, we developed assays that quantify noxious heat avoidance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and used them to investigate the genetic basis of this behavior. First, we screened mutants for 18 TRP channel genes (including all TRPV orthologs) and found only minor defects in heat avoidance in single and selected double and triple mutants, indicating that other genes are involved. Next, we compared two wild isolates of C. elegans that diverge in their threshold for heat avoidance and linked this phenotypic variation to a polymorphism in the neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1. Further analysis revealed that loss of either the NPR-1 receptor or its ligand, FLP-21, increases the threshold for heat avoidance. Cell-specific rescue of npr-1 implicates the interneuron RMG in the circuit regulating heat avoidance. This neuropeptide signaling pathway operates independently of the TRPV genes, osm-9 and ocr-2, since mutants lacking npr-1 and both TRPV channels had more severe defects in heat avoidance than mutants lacking only npr-1 or both osm-9 and ocr-2. Our results show that TRPV channels and the FLP-21/NPR-1 neuropeptide signaling pathway determine the threshold for heat avoidance in C. elegans. PMID:21368276

  18. Endogenous anti-inflammatory neuropeptides and pro-resolving lipid mediators: a new therapeutic approach for immune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Per; Delgado, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Identification of the factors that regulate the immune tolerance and control the appearance of exacerbated inflammatory conditions is crucial for the development of new therapies of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Although much is known about the molecular basis of initiating signals and pro-inflammatory chemical mediators in inflammation, it has only recently become apparent that endogenous stop signals are critical at early checkpoints within the temporal events of inflammation. Some neuropeptides and lipid mediators that are produced during the ongoing inflammatory response have emerged as endogenous anti-inflammatory agents that participate in the regulation of the processes that ensure self-tolerance and/or inflammation resolution. Here we examine the latest research findings, which indicate that neuropeptides participate in maintaining immune tolerance in two distinct ways: by regulating the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, and by inducing the emergence of regulatory T cells with suppressive activity against autoreactive T-cell effectors. On the other hand, we also focus on lipid mediators biosynthesized from ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty-acids in inflammatory exudates that promote the resolution phase of acute inflammation by regulating leucocyte influx to and efflux from local inflamed sites. Both anti-inflammatory neuropeptides and pro-resolving lipid mediators have shown therapeutic potential for a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders and could be used as biotemplates for the development of novel pharmacologic agents. PMID:18554314

  19. μ Opioid receptor A118G polymorphism in association with striatal opioid neuropeptide gene expression in heroin abusers

    PubMed Central

    Drakenberg, Katarina; Nikoshkov, Andrej; Horváth, Monika Cs; Fagergren, Pernilla; Gharibyan, Anna; Saarelainen, Kati; Rahman, Sadia; Nylander, Ingrid; Bakalkin, Georgy; Rajs, Jovan; Keller, Eva; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2006-01-01

    μ Opioid receptors are critical for heroin dependence, and A118G SNP of the μ opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) has been linked with heroin abuse. In our population of European Caucasians (n = 118), ≈90% of 118G allelic carriers were heroin users. Postmortem brain analyses showed the OPRM1 genotype associated with transcription, translation, and processing of the human striatal opioid neuropeptide system. Whereas down-regulation of preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin genes was evident in all heroin users, the effects were exaggerated in 118G subjects and were most prominent for preproenkephalin in the nucleus accumbens shell. Reduced opioid neuropeptide transcription was accompanied by increased dynorphin and enkephalin peptide concentrations exclusively in 118G heroin subjects, suggesting that the peptide processing is associated with the OPRM1 genotype. Abnormal gene expression related to peptide convertase and ubiquitin/proteosome regulation was also evident in heroin users. Taken together, alterations in opioid neuropeptide systems might underlie enhanced opiate abuse vulnerability apparent in 118G individuals. PMID:16682632

  20. Effects of Hange-koboku-to (Banxia-houpo-tang) on neuropeptide levels in human plasma and saliva.

    PubMed

    Naito, Takafumi; Itoh, Hiroki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2003-11-01

    Hange-koboku-to (Banxia-houpo-tang), a Chinese herbal (Kampo) medicine, has been used for improvement of hoarse voice, something foreign body sensation in the throat and/or esophagus, and swallowing reflex, among other conditions. One of the mechanisms of the empirical effects is assumed to be due to local changes in neuropeptide levels locally. We investigated the effects of Hange-koboku-to on neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, somatostatin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in plasma and saliva, as well as on salivary secretion in healthy subjects. A single oral administration of Hange-koboku-to caused significant increases in substance P-immunoreactive substance (IS) (40 min) in plasma, and slightly increased in CGRP-IS and somatostatin-IS in plasma compared with placebo. In saliva neuropeptides, Hange-koboku-to caused significant increases in substance P-IS (20 min) and somatostatin-IS (40, 60 min), and a slight increase in VIP-IS. However, a single Hange-koboku-to stimulation did not have a significant effect of sialosis volume. These results seem to suggest that Hange-koboku-to improves hoarse voice, something foreign body sensation in the throat and esophagus, and swallowing reflex disorder, by stimulation of neuropeptidergic nerves locally. PMID:14600411