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  1. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del estreñimiento, impacción, obstrucción intestinal y diarrea como complicaciones del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  2. Revista Investigacion Educativa, 1992-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Investigacion Educativa, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the series "Revista Investigacion Educativa" published during the 4-year period 1992-1995. This review of educational investigation seeks to promote the exchange of information about empirical research in education. It is published semiannually, and includes reports of both quantitative and qualitative…

  3. Sin and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Imrényi, Tibor

    2005-08-01

    The essay starts out with defining the biblical concept of sin in the Old and the New Testaments. The literal knowledge of divine truth is distinguished from its truthful and spiritual interpretation. A further distinction should be made between the Creator of life (God) and the medium or "intermediary creator" (man) of life. I argue for the "single wholeness" of the human race and for the unity of human responsibility in bioethics. In delineating the teaching of the Church on abortion and family planning, I show that the healing of all human diseases, from traditional interventions to genetic ones, is a Christian duty and is in accordance with Christ's mission on earth as long as one has not been directly or indirectly involved in "reproducing" or "designing" one's descendants or destroying or damaging human life even at its very beginnings. PMID:16266966

  4. Managing asbestos: Ten costly sins

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, F.A.; Onderick, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. Asbestos management is one of the toughest jobs facing a plant or environmental engineer today; even seasoned engineers can make mistakes. Much confusion exists about how best to manage this issue, especially in plant settings. Whether the company is small, medium, or large, asbestos has the power to steal from profits if not managed properly. To help POWER readers examine their current asbestos management programs, here are 10 common errors that could be stopped or avoided by practicing preventive techniques. The 10 costly sins presented are not mutually exclusive, and they certainly are not all-inclusive. They are offered as a way to stimulate ideas on how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. These include Sin 1: No written policy. Sin 2: Lack of corporate guidance. Sin 3: Not complying with regulations. Sin 4: Not worrying about other respirable fibers. Sin 5: Lawsuits--not culpable. Sin 6: No visible emissions, no problems. Sin 7: Managing asbestos manually.

  5. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del estreñimiento, la retención fecal, la obstrucción intestinal y la diarrea como complicaciones del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  6. Complicaciones orales de la quimioterapia y la radioterapia (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las complicaciones orales, como la mucositis y la disfunción de la glándula salival, que se presentan en pacientes de cáncer tratados con quimioterapia y radioterapia dirigida a la cabeza y el cuello.

  7. The ethics of sin taxes.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current global economic crisis is forcing governments to consider a variety of methods to generate funds for infrastructure. In the United States, smoking-related illness and an obesity epidemic are forcing public health institutions to consider a variety of methods to influence health behaviors of entire target groups. In this paper, the author uses a public health nursing model, the Public Health Code of Ethics (Public Health Leadership Society, 2002), the American Nurses' Association (ANA) Code of Ethics (2001), and other relevant ethical theory to weigh and balance the arguments for and against the use of sin taxes. A position advocating the limited use of sin taxes is supported as a reasonable stance for the public health professional. PMID:21198817

  8. The Bacillus subtilis sin Operon

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Christopher A.; Wolf, Denise M.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2005-01-01

    The strategy of combining genes from a regulatory protein and its antagonist within the same operon, but controlling their activities differentially, can lead to diverse regulatory functions. This protein-antagonist motif is ubiquitous and present in evolutionarily unrelated regulatory pathways. Using the sin operon from the Bacillus subtilis sporulation pathway as a model system, we built a theoretical model, parameterized it using data from the literature, and used bifurcation analyses to determine the circuit functions it could encode. The model demonstrated that this motif can generate a bistable switch with tunable control over the switching threshold and the degree of population heterogeneity. Further, the model predicted that a small perturbation of a single critical parameter can bias this architecture into functioning like a graded response, a bistable switch, an oscillator, or a pulse generator. By mapping the parameters of the model to specific DNA regions and comparing the genomic sequences of Bacillus species, we showed that phylogenetic variation tends to occur in those regions that tune the switch threshold without disturbing the circuit function. The dynamical plasticity of the protein-antagonist operon motif suggests that it is an evolutionarily convergent design selected not only for particular immediate function but also for its evolvability. PMID:15466432

  9. Complicaciones orales de la quimioterapia y la radioterapia (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las complicaciones orales, como la mucositis y la disfunción de la glándula salival, que se presentan en pacientes de cáncer tratados con quimioterapia y radioterapia a la cabeza y el cuello.

  10. Why Sin80x Looks like Sin x on Some Graphing Calculators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, J.; Osler, T. J.

    2005-01-01

    In rare cases, the use of advanced mathematical calculators can give incorrect results. One such error occurs with graphing calculators because the screen is not continuous, but a rectangular array of pixels. On some frequently used calculators, the graph of sin80x looks like sin x. We also study other related examples.

  11. William Blake and the Great Sin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Andrew M.

    1975-01-01

    Writing in his diary of 10th December, 1825, Crabb Robinson quoted from a recent conversation in which William Blake said, "There is no use in education. I hold it wrong. It is the great sin". Author believed that Blake's writings and conversations had considerable educational significance, and he considered them in this article. (Author/RK)

  12. Original Sin and T. E. Hulme's Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishler, Thomas C.

    1976-01-01

    T. E. Hulme, a vigorous opponent of romanticism in art, poetry, and philosophy, insisted that the underlying flaw of the romantic view was its rejection of the dogma of Original Sin and the fall of man. His views are explored for the significant bearing they have on the development of aesthetic insight and indirectly on value and outlook.…

  13. Characterization of Sin1 Isoforms Reveals an mTOR-Dependent and Independent Function of Sin

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuanyang; Pan, Bangfen; Sun, Haipeng; Chen, Guoqiang; Su, Bing; Huang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Sin1 or MAPKAP1 is a key component of mTORC2 signaling complex which is necessary for AKT phosphorylation at the S473 and T450 sites, and also for AKT downstream signaling as well. A number of Sin1 splicing variants have been reported that can produce different Sin1 isoforms due to exon skipping or alternative transcription initiation. In this report, we characterized four Sin1 isoforms, including a novel Sin1 isoform due to alternative 3’ termination of the exon 9a, termed Sin1γ. Sin1γ expression can be detected in multiple adult mouse tissues, and it encodes a C-terminal truncated protein comparing to the full length Sin1β isoform. In contrast to Sin1β, Sin1γ overexpression in Sin1 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts has no significant impact on mTORC2 activity or mTORC2 subunits protein level, although it still can interact with mTORC2 components. More interestingly, Sin1γ was detected in a specific cytosolic location with a distinct feature in structure, and its localization was transiently disrupted during cell cycle. Therefore, Sin1γ is a novel Sin1 isoform and may have distinct properties in cell signaling and intracellular localization from other Sin1 isoforms. PMID:26263164

  14. Polar opposites: fine-tuning cytokinesis through SIN asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alyssa E.; McCollum, Dannel; Gould, Kathleen L.

    2012-01-01

    Mitotic exit and cell division must be spatially and temporally integrated to facilitate equal division of genetic material between daughter cells. In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a spindle pole body (SPB) localized signaling cascade termed the septation initiation network (SIN) couples mitotic exit with cytokinesis. The SIN is controlled at many levels to ensure that cytokinesis is executed once per cell cycle and only after cells segregate their DNA. An interesting facet of the SIN is that its activity is asymmetric on the two SPBs during anaphase; however, how and why the SIN is asymmetric has remained elusive. Many key factors controlling SIN asymmetry have now been identified, shedding light on the significance of SIN asymmetry in regulating cytokinesis. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of SIN regulation, with an emphasis on how SIN asymmetry is achieved and how this aspect of SIN regulation fine-tunes cytokinesis. PMID:22786806

  15. Babar: Sin(2beta) With Charm

    SciTech Connect

    Grenier, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /Clermont-Ferrand U.

    2006-04-12

    We present measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries of neutral B decays to several charm and charmonium final states. Data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. In the absence of penguin contribution, the Standard Model predicts the time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters S and C are to be {eta}{sub CP} sin(2{beta}) and 0, respectively.

  16. Disease, suffering, and sin: one Anglican's perspective.

    PubMed

    Foster, Claire

    2006-08-01

    This article explores some of the implications of understanding sin as failure of perception. The theological underpinning of the argument is the choice made in the Garden of Eden to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge rather than the fruit of the tree of life, or wisdom. This has led to distorted perception, in which all things are seen as having separate, independent existences rather than joined together by their common divine source and their deep interrelatedness in the covenant made with God. The article discusses the fascination with the principle of respect for autonomy in the light of this theology. It also looks at perceptions of the HIV/AIDS crisis in Africa. It finishes with a definition of repentance that makes right perception possible. PMID:16864133

  17. [SIN census 2008: the nephrologist's workload].

    PubMed

    Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Postorino, Maurizio; Di Napoli, Anteo; Limido, Aurelio; Dal Canton, Antonio; Balducci, Alessandro; Contu, Bruno; Salomone, Mario; Nordio, Maurizio; Levialdi Ghiron, Jung Hee; Viglino, Giusto; Pizzarelli, Francesco; Coppo, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a first analysis of data of the second survey promoted by the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN), with particular regard to data referring to the nephrologist's workload. The survey was carried out through a Web-based questionnaire that participants could fill in online between March and December 2010. The data were validated against those of the Italian Dialysis and Transplant Registry (RIDT) and therefore refer to 31 December 2008, the date of the last RIDT report. Accurate completion of the questionnaires and reminders were monitored by the presidents of the regional sections of the SIN and the regional registries' chairpersons under the coordination of four area managers and a census committee. The response to the survey represented 42% of all nephrology centers, treating about 50% of all dialysis patients in Italy. The response percentage varied widely among regions (from 5% to 100% of the centers). After exclusion of the three regions with responses below 10%, it reached 68%, which was sufficient to give an idea of the state of nephrology in Italy. However, due to this wide variability, it was not possible to make an overall comparison of the regional situations, hence data for complex and simple structures were assessed separately. Despite the limits due to the incomplete participation in the survey, this article provides a clear description of the state of nephrology in Italy. The results confirm the hypothesis presented in the work of Bocconi Cergas, namely that the nephrology market is broader than nephrologists are able to control. The work of the nephrologist, which still seems to be focused mainly on dialysis in its various forms, should be directed more towards the development of methods for early detection of kidney disease and close follow-up. The ultimate aim is the early diagnosis of kidney disease and hence prevention of its complications, so that the focus no longer needs to be on ESKD treatment systems. PMID:22167614

  18. Corporate redemption and the seven deadly sins.

    PubMed

    Pearson, A E

    1992-01-01

    Competitive purgatory is the sorry state of too many formerly proud U.S. corporations. They are languishing from the devastating effects of seven familiar sins: inconsistent product quality; slow response to the marketplace; lack of innovative, competitive products; uncompetitive cost structure; inadequate employee involvement; unresponsive customer service; and inefficient resource allocation. To make matters worse, the maladies are mostly management-induced, and the remedies most managers are employing-shifting strategy, reallocating resources, focusing on operations--are proving ineffective. The cures don't address the cause of the disease: negative, risk-averse, bureaucratic work environments that flourished in decades of easy growth but today are undermining competitive performance. What's needed is a total reinvention of the soft side of the organization to produce a work environment that stresses speed, Spartanism, innovation, and marketplace focus. First, top managers must decide what their company stands for and convince their employees of this uniqueness. Second, they must set standards that drive their business to worldclass levels and be tough about enforcing and raising them. Third, they must push constantly to ensure that enough innovations take place to change the company's future significantly. Three other factors are crucial: the right talent, an effective reward system, and CEOs who can drive the desired changes personally. Creating a dynamic work environment is not easy: it takes perseverance, flexibility, and commitment. But these efforts will pay off: how people tackle problems, work together, and think about their jobs are the activities that make a company great. PMID:10118004

  19. [SIN census 2008: the management model].

    PubMed

    Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Postorino, Maurizio; Di Napoli, Anteo; Limido, Aurelio; Dal Canton, Antonio; Balducci, Alessandro; Contu, Bruno; Salomone, Mario; Nordio, Maurizio; Levialdi Ghiron, Jung Hee; Viglino, Giusto; Pizzarelli, Francesco; Coppo, Rosanna

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of the second part of the data obtained from the second SIN census and illustrates the management model of the Italian dialysis centers, highlighting its strengths but also its limits. The census was carried out between March and December 2008 with a webbased survey using fillable PDF forms. The survey was validated by comparing the data with those sent to the Italian Dialysis and Transplant Register (Registro Italiano di Dialisi e Trapianti, RIDT) and hence it refers to December 31, 2008, the date of the last RIDT report. Forty-two percent of dialysis centers, which altogether take care of 50% of Italian dialysis patients, participated in the census. The participation percentage was very variable among Italian regions (from 5% to 100% of dialysis centers). By excluding the three regions with a participation rate below 10%, the survey reached a participation rate of 68% of all Italian dialysis centers and is therefore sufficient to give an estimate of the Italian dialysis situation. However, because of this variability it was not possible to compare regional situations, and the data were evaluated only by analyzing the ''complex'' and ''simple'' dialysis centers separately. The state of affairs of dialysis in Italy on the whole proved to be complicated. It is striking, for example, that 15% of the ''complex'' dialysis centers do not have their own hospital beds and some of them lack traceability programs. Noteworthy are also the increasing use of central venous catheters and the number of patients that need an ambulance to get to the dialysis center. Despite its limits due to the reduced participation in the census, this work offers a fair description of the state of affairs of dialysis in Italy, where there is certainly space for qualitative improvement. First of all, however, every effort should be made to implement and improve the use of the existing structures and to standardize protocols and behaviors in all Italian dialysis

  20. Emerging Roles of Epigenetic Regulator Sin3 in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bansal, N; David, G; Farias, E; Waxman, S

    2016-01-01

    Revolutionizing treatment strategies is an urgent clinical need in the fight against cancer. Recently the scientific community has recognized chromatin-associated proteins as promising therapeutic candidates. However, there is a need to develop more targeted epigenetic inhibitors with less toxicity. Sin3 family is one such target which consists of evolutionary conserved proteins with two paralogues Sin3A and Sin3B. Sin3A/B are global transcription regulators that provide a versatile platform for diverse chromatin-modifying activities. Sin3 proteins regulate key cellular functions that include cell cycle, proliferation, and differentiation, and have recently been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. In this chapter, we summarize the key concepts of Sin3 biology and elaborate the recent advancements in the role of Sin3 proteins in cancer with specific examples in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and triple negative breast cancer. Finally, a program to create an integrative approach for screening antitumor agents that target chromatin-associated factors like Sin3 is presented. PMID:27037752

  1. Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

    2004-12-01

    Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

  2. Students Informing Now (S.I.N.) Challenge the Racial State in California without Shame..."SIN Verguenza!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Foundations, 2007

    2007-01-01

    On a cold and wet Friday night in January of 2006, thirteen undergraduate students gathered together in a small room on campus at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) to found Students Informing Now (S.I.N.). S.I.N. was created to support the AB 504 students, labeled in this country as "illegal aliens." Inspired by Paulo Freire's…

  3. Development and Validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS)

    PubMed Central

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    Main Objectives The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). Methods In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. Results The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. Significance The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures. PMID:25093508

  4. SinR Controls Enterotoxin Expression in Bacillus thuringiensis Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Økstad, Ole-Andreas; Verplaetse, Emilie; Gilois, Nathalie; Bennaceur, Imène; Perchat, Stéphane; Gominet, Myriam; Aymerich, Stéphane; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Lereclus, Didier; Gohar, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis produces dense biofilms under various conditions. Here, we report that the transition phase regulators Spo0A, AbrB and SinR control biofilm formation and swimming motility in B. thuringiensis, just as they control biofilm formation and swarming motility in the closely related saprophyte species B. subtilis. However, microarray analysis indicated that in B. thuringiensis, in contrast to B. subtilis, SinR does not control an eps operon involved in exopolysaccharides production, but regulates genes involved in the biosynthesis of the lipopeptide kurstakin. This lipopeptide is required for biofilm formation and was previously shown to be important for survival in the host cadaver (necrotrophism). Microarray analysis also revealed that the SinR regulon contains genes coding for the Hbl enterotoxin. Transcriptional fusion assays, Western blots and hemolysis assays confirmed that SinR controls Hbl expression, together with PlcR, the main virulence regulator in B. thuringiensis. We show that Hbl is expressed in a sustained way in a small subpopulation of the biofilm, whereas almost all the planktonic population transiently expresses Hbl. The gene coding for SinI, an antagonist of SinR, is expressed in the same biofilm subpopulation as hbl, suggesting that hbl transcription heterogeneity is SinI-dependent. B. thuringiensis and B. cereus are enteric bacteria which possibly form biofilms lining the host intestinal epithelium. Toxins produced in biofilms could therefore be delivered directly to the target tissue. PMID:24498128

  5. Seven sins in publishing (but who's counting…).

    PubMed

    Benson, P J

    2016-01-01

    , some of Francis' tips have resulted in corrections and retractions. For example, a 2006 paper in the Journal of Cell Biology was retracted after Francis raised concerns years after publication about image manipulation, which were validated by the publisher. (.2) But why does it happen? Why not? Researchers are human and subject to the same frailties as in other walks of life. If a measure of a good academic is solely the number of articles they have published, then - when quantity is rewarded over quality - scientific misconduct may reveal a glimpse of the pressure researchers are under. It is worth remembering that, despite the stress of the 'publish or perish' culture, scientific misconduct is unacceptable in any guise and likely to be discovered, with embarrassing if not downright career- and reputation-destroying consequences. Good publishing etiquette is ultimately down to the integrity and moral sensibilities of researchers and authors. In this excellent article about some of the 'sins' of publishing, Philippa Benson, who has kindly written for this series before, provides a thought-provoking insight into scientific misconduct. Jyoti Shah Commissioning Editor References Lock S. Lessons from the Pearce affair: handling scientific fraud. BMJ 1995; 310: 1,547. Retraction notice. J Cell Biol 2013; 200: 359. doi:10.1083/jcb.2005070832003r. PMID:26688391

  6. The human dark side: evolutionary psychology and original sin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph; Theol, M

    2014-04-01

    Human nature has a dark side, something important to religions. Evolutionary psychology has been used to illuminate the human shadow side, although as a discipline it has attracted criticism. This article seeks to examine the evolutionary psychology's understanding of human nature and to propose an unexpected dialog with an enduring account of human evil known as original sin. Two cases are briefly considered: murder and rape. To further the exchange, numerous theoretical and methodological criticisms and replies of evolutionary psychology are explored jointly with original sin. Evolutionary psychology can partner with original sin since they share some theoretical likenesses and together they offer insights into the nature of what it means to be human. PMID:24327261

  7. [Serotonin dysfunctions in the background of the seven deadly sins].

    PubMed

    Janka, Zoltán

    2003-11-20

    The symbolic characters of the Seven Deadly Sins can be traced from time to time in the cultural history of human mankind, being directly specified in certain artistic products. Such are, among others, the painting entitled "The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Lost Things" by Hieronymus Bosch and the poems Divina Commedia and The Foerie Queene by Dante Alighieri and Edmund Spenser, respectively. However, there are several paragraphs referring to these behaviours of the Seven Deadly Sins in the Bible and in the dramas of William Shakespeare. The objective of the present review is to propose that dysfunctions in the central serotonergic system might be involved in the neurobiology of these 'sinful' behaviour patterns. Evidences indicate that behaviour traits such as Accidia (Sloth), Luxuria (Lust, Lechery), Superbia (Pride), Ira (Wrath, Anger), Invidia (Envy), Avaritia (Greed, Avarice), and Gula (Gluttony) can relate to the functional alterations of serotonin in the brain. Results of biochemical and molecular genetic (polymorphism) studies on the human serotonergic system (receptor, transporter, enzyme), findings of functional imaging techniques, effects of depletion (or supplementation) of the serotonin precursor tryptophan, data of challenge probe investigations directed to testing central serotonergic functions, alterations in the peripheral serotonin measures (platelet), and the changes in the CSF 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid content indicate such serotonergic involvement. Furthermore, results of animal experiments on behaviour change (aggressive, dominant or submissive, appetite, alcohol preference) attributed to serotonin status modification and the clinically evidenced therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological interventions, based on the modulation and perturbation of the serotonergic system (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), in treating the 'sinful' behaviour forms and analogous pathological states reaching the severity of psychiatric disorders

  8. Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

    2011-01-01

    The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

  9. Jose Maria Albareda (1902-1966) and the Formation of the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malet, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Jose Maria Albareda (1902-1966) was an applied chemist and a prominent member of the Roman Catholic organization, Opus Dei, who played a crucial role in organizing the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas (CSIC), the new scientific institution created by the Franco regime in 1939. The paper analyses first the formative years in…

  10. Inter-isoform-dependent Regulation of the Drosophila Master Transcriptional Regulator SIN3.

    PubMed

    Chaubal, Ashlesha; Todi, Sokol V; Pile, Lori A

    2016-05-27

    SIN3 is a transcriptional corepressor that acts as a scaffold for a histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex. The SIN3 complex regulates various biological processes, including organ development, cell proliferation, and energy metabolism. Little is known, however, about the regulation of SIN3 itself. There are two major isoforms of Drosophila SIN3, 187 and 220, which are differentially expressed. Intrigued by the developmentally timed exchange of SIN3 isoforms, we examined whether SIN3 187 controls the fate of the 220 counterpart. Here, we show that in developing tissue, there is interplay between SIN3 isoforms: when SIN3 187 protein levels increase, SIN3 220 protein decreases concomitantly. SIN3 187 has a dual effect on SIN3 220. Expression of 187 leads to reduced 220 transcript, while also increasing the turnover of SIN3 220 protein by the proteasome. These data support the presence of a novel, inter-isoform-dependent mechanism that regulates the amount of SIN3 protein, and potentially the level of specific SIN3 complexes, during distinct developmental stages. PMID:27129248

  11. A New Analytic Alignment Method for a SINS

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Caiming; Zhu, Xinhua; Su, Yan; Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhiqiang; Gu, Dongbing

    2015-01-01

    Analytic alignment is a type of self-alignment for a Strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) that is based solely on two non-collinear vectors, which are the gravity and rotational velocity vectors of the Earth at a stationary base on the ground. The attitude of the SINS with respect to the Earth can be obtained directly using the TRIAD algorithm given two vector measurements. For a traditional analytic coarse alignment, all six outputs from the inertial measurement unit (IMU) are used to compute the attitude. In this study, a novel analytic alignment method called selective alignment is presented. This method uses only three outputs of the IMU and a few properties from the remaining outputs such as the sign and the approximate value to calculate the attitude. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the validity of this method, and the precision of yaw is improved using the selective alignment method compared to the traditional analytic coarse alignment method in the vehicle experiment. The selective alignment principle provides an accurate relationship between the outputs and the attitude of the SINS relative to the Earth for a stationary base, and it is an extension of the TRIAD algorithm. The selective alignment approach has potential uses in applications such as self-alignment, fault detection, and self-calibration. PMID:26556353

  12. The UNSIN project: exploring the molecular physiology of sins.

    PubMed

    Naji, Faysal; Salci, Lauren; Hoit, Graeme; Rangachari, P K

    2012-03-01

    Although active learning works, promoting it in large undergraduate science classes is difficult. Here, three students (F. Naji, L. Salci, and G. Hoit) join their teacher (P. K. Rangachari) in describing one such attempt. Two cohorts in a first-year undergraduate biology course explored the molecular underpinnings of human misbehavior. Students were divided into 18 groups and randomly allotted to deal with one of the four deadly sins: sloth, gluttony, lust, and wrath. Students were expected to read primary sources to devise molecular ways to counter these sins. Group progress was monitored over the 12-wk period by the preceptor (P. K. Rangachari) at scheduled intervals. A single randomly selected student was questioned about the work done, and future directions were provided by the preceptor. At the end of the term, randomly selected students defended their group's approaches to the entire class. A final written report was graded. The following multiple target molecules were considered for each sin: gluttony (cholecystokinin, ghrelin, GABA, leptin, peptide YY, neuropeptide Y, and the melanocortin 4 receptor); sloth (dopamine, glutamate, GABA, and orexin); wrath (serotonin, GABA, glutamate, and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2); and lust (prolactin, testosterone, oxytocin, dopamine, and estrogen). Students noted that the project provided a valuable learning experience, and the random selection approach gave students a greater sense of responsibility to their group. The project helped students hone their skills at searching, synthesizing, sharing, and presenting information, fostered group interactions, and provided a solid knowledge base for subsequent courses. PMID:22383407

  13. A New Analytic Alignment Method for a SINS.

    PubMed

    Tan, Caiming; Zhu, Xinhua; Su, Yan; Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhiqiang; Gu, Dongbing

    2015-01-01

    Analytic alignment is a type of self-alignment for a Strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) that is based solely on two non-collinear vectors, which are the gravity and rotational velocity vectors of the Earth at a stationary base on the ground. The attitude of the SINS with respect to the Earth can be obtained directly using the TRIAD algorithm given two vector measurements. For a traditional analytic coarse alignment, all six outputs from the inertial measurement unit (IMU) are used to compute the attitude. In this study, a novel analytic alignment method called selective alignment is presented. This method uses only three outputs of the IMU and a few properties from the remaining outputs such as the sign and the approximate value to calculate the attitude. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the validity of this method, and the precision of yaw is improved using the selective alignment method compared to the traditional analytic coarse alignment method in the vehicle experiment. The selective alignment principle provides an accurate relationship between the outputs and the attitude of the SINS relative to the Earth for a stationary base, and it is an extension of the TRIAD algorithm. The selective alignment approach has potential uses in applications such as self-alignment, fault detection, and self-calibration. PMID:26556353

  14. Design of a Heliostat for Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía (CIDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dávila, L. E.; Barboza, S. J.; Sánchez, G. A.; Della Prugna, F.; Cova, J.; Provenzano, S. E.; Chacón, R. D.

    2009-05-01

    This paper explains the procedure used in the design of a heliostat to be installed at the headquarters of the Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, located in the city of Mérida, Venezuela. The heliostat will be used mainly for educational and public outreach programs, so the design specifications did not require compensation for rotation of the Sun's image at the focal point. The engineering computational tools CAD-CAE were used in order to allow a seamless interaction between the two disciplines involved, Mechanical Engineering and Astronomy. It has also been taken into consideration, as a starting requirement, that all materials be easily available and that all parts, excluding the optics, could be manufactured with the equipment available at the CIDA workshop. These considerations were intended to reduce the cost of the device and to increase the feasibility of construction with limited technological facilities and financial resources. The results obtained by means of the computing tools used were validated through comparison against the analytical calculations. As a result, a robust but low cost heliostat was designed which in the near future will be used to project the Sun's image on a screen for public viewing and student research projects.

  15. Is n sin θ conserved along the light path?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorbala, Mahdiyar; Sepehrinia, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Snell’s law states that the quantity n{sin}θ is unchanged in refraction of light passing from one medium to another. We inquire whether this is true in the general case where the speed of light varies continuously within a medium. It turns out to be an instructive exercise in application of Snell’s law and Fermat’s principle. It also provides good pedagogical problems in calculus of variations to deal with the subtleties of a variable domain of integration and inclusion of constraints. The final result of these exercises is that, contrary to an initial expectation, the answer to the question in the title is negative.

  16. Structure and Organisation of SinR, the Master Regulator of Biofilm Formation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Colledge, Vicki L.; Fogg, Mark J.; Levdikov, Vladimir M.; Leech, Andrew; Dodson, Eleanor J.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    sinR encodes a tetrameric repressor of genes required for biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis. sinI, which is transcribed under Spo0A control, encodes a dimeric protein that binds to SinR to form a SinR–SinI heterodimer in which the DNA-binding functions of SinR are abrogated and repression of biofilm genes is relieved. The heterodimer-forming surface comprises residues conserved between SinR and SinI. Each forms a pair of α-helices that hook together to form an intermolecular four-helix bundle. Here, we are interested in the assembly of the SinR tetramer and its binding to DNA. Size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering and crystallographic analysis reveal that a DNA-binding fragment of SinR (residues 1–69) is a monomer, while a SinI-binding fragment (residues 74–111) is a tetramer arranged as a dimer of dimers. The SinR(74–111) chain forms two α-helices with the organisation of the dimer similar to that observed in the SinR–SinI complex. The tetramer is formed through interactions of residues at the C-termini of the four chains. A model of the intact SinR tetramer in which the DNA binding domains surround the tetramerisation core was built. Fluorescence anisotropy and surface plasmon resonance experiments showed that SinR binds to an oligonucleotide duplex, 5′-TTTGTTCTCTAAAGAGAACTTA-3′, containing a pair of SinR consensus sequences in inverted orientation with a Kd of 300 nM. The implications of these data for promoter binding and the curious quaternary structural transitions of SinR upon binding to (i) SinI and (ii) the SinR-like protein SlrR, which “repurposes” SinR as a repressor of autolysin and motility genes, are discussed. PMID:21708175

  17. SInCRe—structural interactome computational resource for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Metri, Rahul; Hariharaputran, Sridhar; Ramakrishnan, Gayatri; Anand, Praveen; Raghavender, Upadhyayula S.; Ochoa-Montaño, Bernardo; Higueruelo, Alicia P.; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Chandra, Nagasuma R.; Blundell, Tom L.; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an integrated database for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb) that collates information on protein sequences, domain assignments, functional annotation and 3D structural information along with protein–protein and protein–small molecule interactions. SInCRe (Structural Interactome Computational Resource) is developed out of CamBan (Cambridge and Bangalore) collaboration. The motivation for development of this database is to provide an integrated platform to allow easily access and interpretation of data and results obtained by all the groups in CamBan in the field of Mtb informatics. In-house algorithms and databases developed independently by various academic groups in CamBan are used to generate Mtb-specific datasets and are integrated in this database to provide a structural dimension to studies on tuberculosis. The SInCRe database readily provides information on identification of functional domains, genome-scale modelling of structures of Mtb proteins and characterization of the small-molecule binding sites within Mtb. The resource also provides structure-based function annotation, information on small-molecule binders including FDA (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drugs, protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and natural compounds that bind to pathogen proteins potentially and result in weakening or elimination of host–pathogen protein–protein interactions. Together they provide prerequisites for identification of off-target binding. Database URL: http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/sincre PMID:26130660

  18. SInCRe-structural interactome computational resource for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Metri, Rahul; Hariharaputran, Sridhar; Ramakrishnan, Gayatri; Anand, Praveen; Raghavender, Upadhyayula S; Ochoa-Montaño, Bernardo; Higueruelo, Alicia P; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Chandra, Nagasuma R; Blundell, Tom L; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an integrated database for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb) that collates information on protein sequences, domain assignments, functional annotation and 3D structural information along with protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions. SInCRe (Structural Interactome Computational Resource) is developed out of CamBan (Cambridge and Bangalore) collaboration. The motivation for development of this database is to provide an integrated platform to allow easily access and interpretation of data and results obtained by all the groups in CamBan in the field of Mtb informatics. In-house algorithms and databases developed independently by various academic groups in CamBan are used to generate Mtb-specific datasets and are integrated in this database to provide a structural dimension to studies on tuberculosis. The SInCRe database readily provides information on identification of functional domains, genome-scale modelling of structures of Mtb proteins and characterization of the small-molecule binding sites within Mtb. The resource also provides structure-based function annotation, information on small-molecule binders including FDA (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drugs, protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and natural compounds that bind to pathogen proteins potentially and result in weakening or elimination of host-pathogen protein-protein interactions. Together they provide prerequisites for identification of off-target binding. PMID:26130660

  19. Measurement of the cp violation parameter sin 2 beta

    SciTech Connect

    K.F. Kelley

    1999-01-26

    This thesis presents a measurement of the time-dependent asymmetry in the rate of {anti B}{sub d}{sup 0} versus B{sub d}{sup 0} decays to J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0}. In the context of the Standard Model this is interpreted as a measurement of the CP violation parameter sin(2{beta}). A total of 198{+-}17 B{sub d}{sup 0}/{anti B}{sub d}{sup 0} decays were observed in p{anti p} collisions at {radical}s=1.8 TeV by the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The initial B flavor (whether B{sup 0} or {anti B}{sup 0}) is determined by a same-side flavor tagging technique. The analysis results in sin(2{beta})=1.8{+-}1.1(stat.){+-}0.3(syst.). This analysis demonstrates the feasibility of studying CP violation in the B{sup 0}-{anti B}{sup 0} system at a hadron collider. By applying the methods used in this analysis, future, higher-statistics experiments should be able to tightly constrain the parameters of the Standard Model.

  20. Instantaneous Observability of Tightly Coupled SINS/GPS during Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Junxiang; Yu, Fei; Lan, Haiyu; Dong, Qianhui

    2016-01-01

    The tightly coupled strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS)/global position system (GPS) has been widely used. The system observability determines whether the system state can be estimated by a filter efficiently or not. In this paper, the observability analysis of a two-channel and a three-channel tightly coupled SINS/GPS are performed, respectively, during arbitrary translational maneuvers and angle maneuvers, where the translational maneuver and angle maneuver are modeled. A novel instantaneous observability matrix (IOM) based on a reconstructed psi-angle model is proposed to make the theoretical analysis simpler, which starts from the observability definition directly. Based on the IOM, a series of theoretical analysis are performed. Analysis results show that almost all kinds of translational maneuver and angle maneuver can make a three-channel system instantaneously observable, but there is no one translational maneuver or angle maneuver can make a two-channel system instantaneously observable. The system’s performance is investigated when the system is not instantaneously observable. A series of simulation studies based on EKF are performed to confirm the analytic conclusions. PMID:27240369

  1. [Acedia or the depressed between sin and illness].

    PubMed

    Alliez, J; Huber, J P

    1987-05-01

    Acedia is a term of the classical greek vocabulary that a christian author of the IVth century, Evagre the Pontic, uses in a special sense, to describe a mental state characterized among other things, by disgust and dejection, and which, according to him, falls into what became the first list of deadly sins. The word was conveyed to us by another monk of the egyptian deserts, Jean Cassien, with a change of meaning which made it very difficult to distinguish from sadness: his audience being very different from his predecessor's, as he wrote for Latins, little inclined to anachoretic life but among which developed the first great coenobitic institutions of the Occident. One century later, Pope Gregory the great removes acedia from the list of deadly sins, either because he does not distinguish it from sadness (and laziness) or because he considers it a morbid state and, as such, depending on medical care. The word has nevertheless survived until Thomas Aquinas and later, and its study provides valuable data on the mental states prefiguring our modern depressions. PMID:3318616

  2. Sinning against nature: the theory of background conditions

    PubMed Central

    Blackford, R

    2006-01-01

    Debates about the moral and political acceptability of particular sexual practices and new technologies often include appeals to a supposed imperative to follow nature. If nature is understood as the totality of all phenomena or as those things that are not artificial, there is little prospect of developing a successful argument to impugn interference with it or sinning against it. At the same time, there are serious difficulties with approaches that seek to identify "proper" human functioning. An alternative approach is to understand interference with nature as acting in a manner that threatens basic background conditions to human choice. Arguably, the theory of background conditions helps explain much of the hostility to practices and technologies that allegedly sin against nature. The theory does not, however, entail that appeals to nature are relevant or rational. Such appeals should be subjected to sceptical scrutiny. Indeed, the theory suggests that arguments against practices and technologies that can be seen as contrary to nature sometimes exercise a psychological attraction that is disproportional to their actual cogency. PMID:17074819

  3. Instantaneous Observability of Tightly Coupled SINS/GPS during Maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junxiang; Yu, Fei; Lan, Haiyu; Dong, Qianhui

    2016-01-01

    The tightly coupled strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS)/global position system (GPS) has been widely used. The system observability determines whether the system state can be estimated by a filter efficiently or not. In this paper, the observability analysis of a two-channel and a three-channel tightly coupled SINS/GPS are performed, respectively, during arbitrary translational maneuvers and angle maneuvers, where the translational maneuver and angle maneuver are modeled. A novel instantaneous observability matrix (IOM) based on a reconstructed psi-angle model is proposed to make the theoretical analysis simpler, which starts from the observability definition directly. Based on the IOM, a series of theoretical analysis are performed. Analysis results show that almost all kinds of translational maneuver and angle maneuver can make a three-channel system instantaneously observable, but there is no one translational maneuver or angle maneuver can make a two-channel system instantaneously observable. The system's performance is investigated when the system is not instantaneously observable. A series of simulation studies based on EKF are performed to confirm the analytic conclusions. PMID:27240369

  4. SiN etching characteristics of Ar/CH3F/O2 plasma and dependence on SiN film density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtake, Hiroto; Wanifuchi, Tomiko; Sasaki, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the silicon nitride (SiN) etching characteristics of Ar/O2/hydrofluorocarbon plasma. Ar/CH3F/O2 plasma achieved a high etching selectivity of SiN to SiO2 by increasing the oxygen flow rate. We also evaluated the dependence of SiN etching characteristics on SiN film density. A low-density film deposited at a low temperature of 200 °C (by plasma-enhanced CVD, PECVD) showed an 8–20% lower etching rate of SiN than a high-density film deposited at a high temperature of 780 °C (by low-pressure CVD, LPCVD) when we had a low RF bias of 30 W. This PECVD film might move the competitive balance to oxidation from fluorination, reducing the SiN etching rate. However, when we have a high RF bias of more than 50 W, the SiN etching rate is 2–15% higher in the PECVD film than in the LPCVD film. The etching rate of SiN at various densities depends on the balance between oxidation and ion bombardment.

  5. Association of yeast SIN1 with the tetratrico peptide repeats of CDC23.

    PubMed

    Shpungin, S; Liberzon, A; Bangio, H; Yona, E; Katcoff, D J

    1996-08-01

    The yeast SIN1 protein is a nuclear protein that together with other proteins behaves as a transcriptional repressor of a family of genes. In addition, sin1 mutants are defective in proper mitotic chromosome segregation. In an effort to understand the basis for these phenotypes, we employed the yeast two-hybrid system to identify proteins that interact with SIN1 in vivo. Here we demonstrate that CDC23, a protein known to be involved in sister chromatid separation during mitosis, is able to directly interact with SIN1. Furthermore, using recombinant molecules in vitro, we show that the N terminal of SIN1 is sufficient to bind a portion of CDC23 consisting solely of tetratrico peptide repeats. Earlier experiments identified the C-terminal domain of SIN1 to be responsible for interaction with a protein that binds the regulatory region of HO, a gene whose transcription is repressed by SIN1. Taken together with the results presented here, we suggest that SIN1 is a chromatin protein having at least a dual function: The N terminal of SIN1 interacts with the tetratrico peptide repeat domains of CDC23, a protein involved in chromosome segregation, whereas the C terminal of SIN1 binds proteins involved in transcriptional regulation. PMID:8710860

  6. Identification of Genetic Suppressors of the Sin3A Knockdown Wing Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Stephanie; Gammouh, Sarah; Pile, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the Sin3A transcriptional corepressor in regulating the cell cycle is established in various metazoans. Little is known, however, about the signaling pathways that trigger or are triggered by Sin3A function. To discover genes that work in similar or opposing pathways to Sin3A during development, we have performed an unbiased screen of deficiencies of the Drosophila third chromosome. Additionally, we have performed a targeted loss of function screen to identify cell cycle genes that genetically interact with Sin3A. We have identified genes that encode proteins involved in regulation of gene expression, signaling pathways and cell cycle that can suppress the curved wing phenotype caused by the knockdown of Sin3A. These data indicate that Sin3A function is quite diverse and impacts a wide variety of cellular processes. PMID:23166712

  7. Sin Nombre hantavirus decreases survival of male deer mice.

    PubMed

    Luis, Angela D; Douglass, Richard J; Hudson, Peter J; Mills, James N; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2012-06-01

    How pathogens affect their hosts is a key question in infectious disease ecology, and it can have important influences on the spread and persistence of the pathogen. Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is the etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans. A better understanding of SNV in its reservoir host, the deer mouse, could lead to improved predictions of the circulation and persistence of the virus in the mouse reservoir, and could help identify the factors that lead to increased human risk of HPS. Using mark-recapture statistical modeling on longitudinal data collected over 15 years, we found a 13.4% decrease in the survival of male deer mice with antibodies to SNV compared to uninfected mice (both male and female). There was also an additive effect of breeding condition, with a 21.3% decrease in survival for infected mice in breeding condition compared to uninfected, non-breeding mice. The data identified that transmission was consistent with density-dependent transmission, implying that there may be a critical host density below which SNV cannot persist. The notion of a critical host density coupled with the previously overlooked disease-induced mortality reported here contribute to a better understanding of why SNV often goes extinct locally and only seems to persist at the metapopulation scale, and why human spillover is episodic and hard to predict. PMID:22218940

  8. Original antigenic sin with human bocaviruses 1-4.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemeng; Kantola, Kalle; Hedman, Lea; Arku, Benedict; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) 1 is a widespread parvovirus causing acute respiratory disease in young children. In contrast, HBoV2 occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and is potentially associated with gastroenteritis, whilst HBoV3 and -4 infections are less frequent and have not yet been linked with human disease. Due to HBoV1 DNA persistence in the nasopharynx, serology has been advocated as a better alternative for diagnosing acute infections. In constitutionally healthy children, we previously noted that pre-existing HBoV2 immunity in a subsequent HBoV1 infection typically resulted in low or non-existent HBoV1-specific antibody responses. A phenomenon describing such immunological events among related viruses has been known since the 1950s as 'original antigenic sin' (OAS). The aim of this study was to characterize this putative OAS phenomenon in a more controlled setting. Follow-up sera of 10 rabbit pairs, inoculated twice with HBoV1-4 virus-like particles (VLPs) or control antigens, in various combinations, were analysed with HBoV1-4 IgG enzyme immunoassays with and without depletion of heterotypic HBoV antibodies. There were no significant IgG boosts after the second inoculation in either the heterologously or the homologously HBoV-inoculated rabbits, but a clear increase in cross-reactivity was seen with time. We could, however, distinguish a distinct OAS pattern from plain cross-reactivity: half of the heterologously inoculated rabbits showed IgG patterns representative of the OAS hypothesis, in line with our prior results with naturally infected children. HBoVs are the first parvoviruses to show the possible existence of OAS. Our findings provide new information on HBoV1-4 immunity and emphasize the complexity of human bocavirus diagnosis. PMID:26224569

  9. [Instituto de Investigaciones Clinicas "Dr. Américo Negrette": 55 years of excellent research versus global economic recession].

    PubMed

    Valero Cedeño, Nereida Josefina

    2014-12-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas "Dr. Américo Negrette" belongs to the Faculty of Medicine at University of Zulia in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. It was created on December 4, 1959 by Dr. Américo Negrette. Today, with 55 years of existence, the Institute seeks to fulfill the mission that characterizes it, based on the values instilled by its founder and maintained by subsequent generations, whose research projects are implemented through seven research sections: Biochemistry, Hematologic Research, Neuropharmacology and Neuroscience, Immunology and Cell Biology, Clinical Neurochemistry, Parasitology and Virology. The research originated in these laboratories have become national and international points of reference, despite the current economic situation with budget deficits that put at risk the quality and originality of their projects with negative consequences on the productivity and applications for health population, reasons of biomedical research. PMID:25558749

  10. Ceramic Technology Project database: September 1990 summary report. [SiC, SiN, whisker-reinforced SiN, ZrO-toughened aluminas, zirconias, joints

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    Data generated within the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) represent a valuable resource for both research and industry. The CTP database was created to provide easy access to this information in electronic and hardcopy forms by using a computerized database and by issuing periodic hardcopy reports on the database contents. This report is the sixth in a series of semiannual database summaries and covers recent additions to the database, including joined brazed specimen test data. It covers 1 SiC, 34 SiN, 10 whisker-reinforced SiN, 2 zirconia-toughened aluminas, 8 zirconias, and 34 joints.

  11. Integrated Positioning for Coal Mining Machinery in Enclosed Underground Mine Based on SINS/WSN

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yan, Wenxu; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition. PMID:24574891

  12. Integrated positioning for coal mining machinery in enclosed underground mine based on SINS/WSN.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qigao; Li, Wei; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yu, Zhenzhong; Yan, Wenxu; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition. PMID:24574891

  13. Sin(x)**2 + cos(x)**2 = 1. [programming identities using comparative combinatorial substitutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to achieve tasteful automatic employment of the identities sin sq x + cos sq x = 1 and cos sq h x -sin sq h x = 1 in a manner which truly minimizes the complexity of the resulting expression are described. The disappointments of trigonometric reduction, trigonometric expansion, pattern matching, Poisson series, and Demoivre's theorem are related. The advantages of using the method of comparative combinatorial substitutions are illustrated.

  14. People Who Have Committed a Certain Sin Ought to Be Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.

    2006-01-01

    People who have committed a certain sin ought to be dead; I am a person who has committed that sin; therefore, I ought to be dead. Thus is the logic of a suicidal mind. Lester, Szaz, and others argue the "sinner" should always be allowed to kill him/herself. Shneidman, Leenaars and others do not agree. Once one knows the suicidal mind, it is easy…

  15. Specific requirement of the chromatin modifier mSin3B in cell cycle exit and cellular differentiation.

    PubMed

    David, Gregory; Grandinetti, Kathryn B; Finnerty, Patricia M; Simpson, Natalie; Chu, Gerald C; Depinho, Ronald A

    2008-03-18

    The Sin3-histone deacetylase (HDAC) corepressor complex is conserved from yeast to humans. Mammals possess two highly related Sin3 proteins, mSin3A and mSin3B, which serve as scaffolds tethering HDAC enzymatic activity, and numerous sequence-specific transcription factors to enable local chromatin regulation at specific gene targets. Despite broad overlapping expression of mSin3A and mSin3B, mSin3A is cell-essential and vital for early embryonic development. Here, genetic disruption of mSin3B reveals a very different phenotype characterized by the survival of cultured cells and lethality at late stages of embryonic development with defective differentiation of multiple lineages-phenotypes that are strikingly reminiscent of those associated with loss of retinoblastoma family members or E2F transcriptional repressors. Additionally, we observe that, whereas mSin3B(-/-) cells cycle normally under standard growth conditions, they show an impaired ability to exit the cell cycle with limiting growth factors. Correspondingly, mSin3B interacts physically with the promoters of known E2F target genes, and its deficiency is associated with derepression of these gene targets in vivo. Together, these results reveal a critical role for mSin3B in the control of cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation in mammals and establish contrasting roles for the mSin3 proteins in the growth and development of specific lineages. PMID:18332431

  16. AUV Positioning Method Based on Tightly Coupled SINS/LBL for Underwater Acoustic Multipath Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Shi, Hongfei; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao; Tong, Jinwu

    2016-01-01

    This paper researches an AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) positioning method based on SINS (Strapdown Inertial Navigation System)/LBL (Long Base Line) tightly coupled algorithm. This algorithm mainly includes SINS-assisted searching method of optimum slant-range of underwater acoustic propagation multipath, SINS/LBL tightly coupled model and multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. Fuzzy correlation peak problem of underwater LBL acoustic propagation multipath could be solved based on SINS positional information, thus improving LBL positional accuracy. Moreover, introduction of SINS-centered LBL locating information could compensate accumulative AUV position error effectively and regularly. Compared to loosely coupled algorithm, this tightly coupled algorithm can still provide accurate location information when there are fewer than four available hydrophones (or within the signal receiving range). Therefore, effective positional calibration area of tightly coupled system based on LBL array is wider and has higher reliability and fault tolerance than loosely coupled. It is more applicable to AUV positioning based on SINS/LBL. PMID:26978361

  17. AUV Positioning Method Based on Tightly Coupled SINS/LBL for Underwater Acoustic Multipath Propagation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Shi, Hongfei; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao; Tong, Jinwu

    2016-01-01

    This paper researches an AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) positioning method based on SINS (Strapdown Inertial Navigation System)/LBL (Long Base Line) tightly coupled algorithm. This algorithm mainly includes SINS-assisted searching method of optimum slant-range of underwater acoustic propagation multipath, SINS/LBL tightly coupled model and multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. Fuzzy correlation peak problem of underwater LBL acoustic propagation multipath could be solved based on SINS positional information, thus improving LBL positional accuracy. Moreover, introduction of SINS-centered LBL locating information could compensate accumulative AUV position error effectively and regularly. Compared to loosely coupled algorithm, this tightly coupled algorithm can still provide accurate location information when there are fewer than four available hydrophones (or within the signal receiving range). Therefore, effective positional calibration area of tightly coupled system based on LBL array is wider and has higher reliability and fault tolerance than loosely coupled. It is more applicable to AUV positioning based on SINS/LBL. PMID:26978361

  18. First-principles study on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of Ti2SiN under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Zhenjun; Sun, Guodong; Yu, Pengfei; Zhang, Wenxue

    2016-07-01

    The structural, elastic and electronic properties of Ti2SiN under pressure range of 0-50 GPa have been systemically investigated by first-principles calculations. It is found that both Poisson's ratio and shear anisotropy factor of Ti2SiN increase with pressure, and Ti2SiN is elastic anisotropic. The DOS and Mulliken population analysis have been explored, which indicts that Ti2SiN is metallic-covalent-ionic in nature. The present calculations may contribute preliminary results and a better understanding of Ti2SiN for its applications under high pressure environments.

  19. SinEx DB: a database for single exon coding sequences in mammalian genomes

    PubMed Central

    Jorquera, Roddy; Ortiz, Rodrigo; Ossandon, F.; Cárdenas, Juan Pablo; Sepúlveda, Rene; González, Carolina; Holmes, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genes are typically interrupted by intragenic, noncoding sequences termed introns. However, some genes lack introns in their coding sequence (CDS) and are generally known as ‘single exon genes’ (SEGs). In this work, a SEG is defined as a nuclear, protein-coding gene that lacks introns in its CDS. Whereas, many public databases of Eukaryotic multi-exon genes are available, there are only two specialized databases for SEGs. The present work addresses the need for a more extensive and diverse database by creating SinEx DB, a publicly available, searchable database of predicted SEGs from 10 completely sequenced mammalian genomes including human. SinEx DB houses the DNA and protein sequence information of these SEGs and includes their functional predictions (KOG) and the relative distribution of these functions within species. The information is stored in a relational database built with My SQL Server 5.1.33 and the complete dataset of SEG sequences and their functional predictions are available for downloading. SinEx DB can be interrogated by: (i) a browsable phylogenetic schema, (ii) carrying out BLAST searches to the in-house SinEx DB of SEGs and (iii) via an advanced search mode in which the database can be searched by key words and any combination of searches by species and predicted functions. SinEx DB provides a rich source of information for advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of SEGs. Database URL: www.sinex.cl PMID:27278816

  20. Quality control of single-cell RNA-seq by SinQC

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Thomson, James A.; Stewart, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) is emerging as a promising technology for profiling cell-to-cell variability in cell populations. However, the combination of technical noise and intrinsic biological variability makes detecting technical artifacts in scRNA-seq samples particularly challenging. Proper detection of technical artifacts is critical to prevent spurious results during downstream analysis. In this study, we present ‘Single-cell RNA-seq Quality Control’ (SinQC), a method and software tool to detect technical artifacts in scRNA-seq samples by integrating both gene expression patterns and data quality information. We apply SinQC to nine different scRNA-seq datasets, and show that SinQC is a useful tool for controlling scRNA-seq data quality. Availability and Implementation: SinQC software and documents are available at http://www.morgridge.net/SinQC.html Contacts: PJiang@morgridge.org or RStewart@morgridge.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27153613

  1. SinEx DB: a database for single exon coding sequences in mammalian genomes.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Roddy; Ortiz, Rodrigo; Ossandon, F; Cárdenas, Juan Pablo; Sepúlveda, Rene; González, Carolina; Holmes, David S

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genes are typically interrupted by intragenic, noncoding sequences termed introns. However, some genes lack introns in their coding sequence (CDS) and are generally known as 'single exon genes' (SEGs). In this work, a SEG is defined as a nuclear, protein-coding gene that lacks introns in its CDS. Whereas, many public databases of Eukaryotic multi-exon genes are available, there are only two specialized databases for SEGs. The present work addresses the need for a more extensive and diverse database by creating SinEx DB, a publicly available, searchable database of predicted SEGs from 10 completely sequenced mammalian genomes including human. SinEx DB houses the DNA and protein sequence information of these SEGs and includes their functional predictions (KOG) and the relative distribution of these functions within species. The information is stored in a relational database built with My SQL Server 5.1.33 and the complete dataset of SEG sequences and their functional predictions are available for downloading. SinEx DB can be interrogated by: (i) a browsable phylogenetic schema, (ii) carrying out BLAST searches to the in-house SinEx DB of SEGs and (iii) via an advanced search mode in which the database can be searched by key words and any combination of searches by species and predicted functions. SinEx DB provides a rich source of information for advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of SEGs.Database URL: www.sinex.cl. PMID:27278816

  2. Genetic and Physical Interactions between Yeast Rgr1 and Sin4 in Chromatin Organization and Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Y. W.; Dohrmann, P. R.; Stillman, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    The SIN4 and RGR1 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified by mutations in quite different genetic screens. We have shown that the SIN4 gene product is required for proper transcriptional regulation of many genes and that a sin4 mutation can affect either activation or repression of specific genes. We have suggested that this dual nature of SIN4 in transcriptional regulation is due to its involvement in chromatin organization. We now report that the role of RGR1 in gene regulation is similar to that of SIN4. SIN4 and RGR1 both function as negative transcriptional regulators of HO and IME1, and mutations in either gene lead to decreased expression of other genes including CTS1. Strains with sin4 or rgr1 mutations both have phenotypes similar to those caused by histone mutations, including suppression of {delta small} insertion into promoters (Spt- phenotype), activation of promoters lacking UAS elements, and decreased superhelical density of plasmid DNA molecules. Overexpression of RGR1 suppresses the temperature sensitivity due to a sin4 mutation. Finally, we use yeast strains expressing GST fusion proteins to demonstrate that the Sin4p and Rgr1p proteins are physically associated in vivo. These results indicate that Sin4p and Rgr1p act together in vivo to organize chromatin structure and thus regulate transcription. PMID:7635307

  3. Improving Estimates of m sin i by Expanding RV Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2016-07-01

    We develop new techniques for estimating the fractional uncertainty ({ F }) in the projected planetary mass (m sin i) resulting from Keplerian fits to radial-velocity (RV) data sets of known Jupiter-class exoplanets. The techniques include (1) estimating the distribution of m sin i using projection, (2) detecting and mitigating chimeras, a source of systematic error, and (3) estimating the reduction in the uncertainty in m sin i if hypothetical observations were made in the future. We demonstrate the techniques on a representative set of RV exoplanets, known as the Sample of 27, which are candidates for detection and characterization by a future astrometric direct imaging mission. We estimate the improvements (reductions) in { F } due to additional, hypothetical RV measurements obtained in the future. We encounter and address a source of systematic error, “chimeras,” which can appear when multiple types of Keplerian solutions are compatible with a single data set.

  4. Isolation and characterization of the modification methylase M . SinI.

    PubMed Central

    Karreman, C; de Waard, A

    1988-01-01

    A sequence-specific modification methylase (M . SinI) was isolated and purified from Escherichia coli harboring a derivative of recombinant plasmid pSI4 (see accompanying manuscript: C. Karreman and A. de Waard, J. Bacteriol. 170:2527-2532, 1988), which contains a Salmonella infantis DNA insert. The enzyme uniquely methylates the internal deoxycytidylate residue in the nucleotide sequence GG(A/T)MeCC, thereby protecting DNA completely against cleavage by restriction endonuclease R . SinI or R . AvaII [GG(A/T)CC], and in part against cleavage by R . Sau96I (GGNCC). Images PMID:2836360

  5. Sin/sup 2/theta/sub W/ and radiative corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Precision measurements of sin/sup 2/theta/sub W/ and the effects of radiative corrections are surveyed. A world average sin/sup 2/theta/sub W/ = 0.229 +- 0.004 is obtained. Comparison of deep-inelastic ..nu../sub ..mu../N scattering and m/sub W/ or m/sub Z/ is shown to test the standard model at the quantum loop level and constrain new physics. Implications for grand unified theories are briefly discussed.

  6. Role of the Sin3-Histone Deacetylase Complex in Growth Regulation by the Candidate Tumor Suppressor p33ING1

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmichev, A.; Zhang, Y.; Erdjument-Bromage, H.; Tempst, P.; Reinberg, D.

    2002-01-01

    Sin3 is an evolutionarily conserved corepressor that exists in different complexes with the histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2. Sin3-HDAC complexes are believed to deacetylate nucleosomes in the vicinity of Sin3-regulated promoters, resulting in a repressed chromatin structure. We have previously found that a human Sin3-HDAC complex includes HDAC1 and HDAC2, the histone-binding proteins RbAp46 and RbAp48, and two novel polypeptides SAP30 and SAP18. SAP30 is a specific component of Sin3 complexes since it is absent in other HDAC1/2-containing complexes such as NuRD. SAP30 mediates interactions with different polypeptides providing specificity to Sin3 complexes. We have identified p33ING1b, a negative growth regulator involved in the p53 pathway, as a SAP30-associated protein. Two distinct Sin3-p33ING1b-containing complexes were isolated, one of which associates with the subunits of the Brg1-based Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex. The N terminus of p33ING1b, which is divergent among a family of ING1 polypeptides, associates with the Sin3 complex through direct interaction with SAP30. The N-terminal domain of p33 is present in several uncharacterized human proteins. We show that overexpression of p33ING1b suppresses cell growth in a manner dependent on the intact Sin3-HDAC-interacting domain. PMID:11784859

  7. How Secondary Schools Can Avoid the Seven Deadly School "Sins" of Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Jamie L.

    2008-01-01

    As more students with disabilities are included in general education classrooms, many obstacles must be overcome before parents, teachers, students, and administrators deem inclusion effective. This article identifies seven "sins", which are barriers to inclusive practices in secondary schools: Negative teacher perspectives; lack of knowledge…

  8. Absolute Absolution: The Forgiveness of Original Sin by Ministers of Government Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatto, John Taylor

    1994-01-01

    Traces the evolution of public schooling as an attempt by progressives and others to absolve citizens of Original Sin and unweave the world view of traditional Christianity. Argues that the removal from schools of Christian beliefs about morality, labor, self-control, and death signals a wish to collectivize the American masses and restore a…

  9. Requirement for Rgr1 and Sin4 in Rme1-Dependent Repression in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Covitz, P. A.; Song, W.; Mitchell, A. P.

    1994-01-01

    RME1 is a zinc-finger protein homolog that functions as a repressor of the meiotic activator IME1. RME1 is unusual among yeast repressors in two respects: it acts over a considerable distance (2 kbp) and it can activate transcription from a binding site separated from its natural flanking region. To identify genes required for RME1 to exert repression, we have selected mutants with improved RME1-dependent activation. One rare mutant was defective in RME1-dependent repression of an artificial reporter gene as well as the native IME1 gene. The mutation permits sporulation of a/a diploids, which express RME1 from its natural promoter, and of a/α diploids constructed to express RME1 from the GAL1 promoter. The mutation also causes temperature-sensitive growth and a methionine or cysteine requirement. Analysis of a complementing genomic clone indicates that the mutation lies in a known essential gene, RGR1. Prior studies have indicated a functional relationship between RGR1 and SIN4 (also called TSF3); we have found that a sin4 null mutation also causes a defect in RME1-dependent repression and a methionine or cysteine requirement. The rgr1 and sin4 mutations do not cause a reduction of RME1 polypeptide levels. The defect in RME1-dependent repression may result from effects of sin4 and, presumably, rgr1 on chromatin structure. PMID:7851756

  10. Roots of Sin and Destruction of the Religious Education in the Shia Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghiyan, Mehri

    2016-01-01

    The religious Education is one of the key components of the present age detachment from which poses numerous problems for the society Islamic. One of the factors effective in the destruction of the religious Education is the roots of sin avoiding which can lead to the improvement of the religious Education of the members of the society. Thus, the…

  11. Informe del NCI y los CDC sobre el tabaco sin humo

    Cancer.gov

    El primer informe sobre el consumo mundial del tabaco sin humo y sus consecuencias en la salud pública reveló que más de 300 millones de personas en al menos 70 países usan estos productos dañinos.

  12. Plagiarism and Other Sins Seem Rife in Science Journals, a Digital Sleuth Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    Faculty members gnash their teeth and wring their hands when students plagiarize. They cry for offenders to be punished. But now an online text-search program directed at their own work suggests that professors in biomedicine may be just as guilty of paper-writing sins. More than 70,000 article abstracts appeared disturbingly similar to other…

  13. A Method for Oscillation Errors Restriction of SINS Based on Forecasted Time Series.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Li, Jiushun; Cheng, Jianhua; Jia, Chun; Wang, Qiufan

    2015-01-01

    Continuity, real-time, and accuracy are the key technical indexes of evaluating comprehensive performance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS). However, Schuler, Foucault, and Earth periodic oscillation errors significantly cut down the real-time accuracy of SINS. A method for oscillation error restriction of SINS based on forecasted time series is proposed by analyzing the characteristics of periodic oscillation errors. The innovative method gains multiple sets of navigation solutions with different phase delays in virtue of the forecasted time series acquired through the measurement data of the inertial measurement unit (IMU). With the help of curve-fitting based on least square method, the forecasted time series is obtained while distinguishing and removing small angular motion interference in the process of initial alignment. Finally, the periodic oscillation errors are restricted on account of the principle of eliminating the periodic oscillation signal with a half-wave delay by mean value. Simulation and test results show that the method has good performance in restricting the Schuler, Foucault, and Earth oscillation errors of SINS. PMID:26193283

  14. Ten Sins Challenging Education in the Contemporary Global Era: A Philosophical Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinagatullin, Ilghiz M.

    2004-01-01

    According to this author, the modern epoch is characterized by a decrease of vital spirituality and an increase of materialistic values and virtues. This article discusses what the author views as the ten sins challenging education in the contemporary global era. These are: (1) the shrinking of spiritual values; (2) corruption; (3) sexual…

  15. A Method for Oscillation Errors Restriction of SINS Based on Forecasted Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lin; Li, Jiushun; Cheng, Jianhua; Jia, Chun; Wang, Qiufan

    2015-01-01

    Continuity, real-time, and accuracy are the key technical indexes of evaluating comprehensive performance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS). However, Schuler, Foucault, and Earth periodic oscillation errors significantly cut down the real-time accuracy of SINS. A method for oscillation error restriction of SINS based on forecasted time series is proposed by analyzing the characteristics of periodic oscillation errors. The innovative method gains multiple sets of navigation solutions with different phase delays in virtue of the forecasted time series acquired through the measurement data of the inertial measurement unit (IMU). With the help of curve-fitting based on least square method, the forecasted time series is obtained while distinguishing and removing small angular motion interference in the process of initial alignment. Finally, the periodic oscillation errors are restricted on account of the principle of eliminating the periodic oscillation signal with a half-wave delay by mean value. Simulation and test results show that the method has good performance in restricting the Schuler, Foucault, and Earth oscillation errors of SINS. PMID:26193283

  16. Structural Evolution of Anionic Silicon Clusters SiN (20≤N≤45)

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Jaeil; Cui, Lifeng; Wang, Jin; Yoo, Soohaeng; Li, Xi; Jellinek, Julius; Koehler, Christa; Frauenheim, Thomas; Wang, Lai S.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2006-01-26

    Results of a combined photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles density-functional study of SiN - clusters in the size range 20 e N e 45 are reported and discussed. Evidence for a prolate-to-near-spherical shape transition at N 27 is presented. It is shown that the tricapped-trigonal-prism (TTP) structural motif Si9 found in most low-lying clusters SiN -, 9 e N e 19, is replaced or augmented by a series of structural motifs consisting of a bulklike ?adamantane? fragment plus a magic-number cluster (Si6, Si7, Si10) or TTP Si9 in low-lying prolate clusters SiN -, N g 20. For 28 e N e 45, almost all low-lying near-spherical clusters SiN -adopt ?stuffed-cage?-like structures where the cages are homologous to carbon fullerenes in the sense that they are composed of only five- and six-membered rings. However the arrangement of the ?stuffing? atoms is not yet diamondlike.

  17. mSin3A corepressor regulates diverse transcriptional networks governing normal and neoplastic growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Dannenberg, Jan-Hermen; David, Gregory; Zhong, Sheng; van der Torre, Jaco; Wong, Wing H.; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2005-01-01

    mSin3A is a core component of a large multiprotein corepressor complex with associated histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymatic activity. Physical interactions of mSin3A with many sequence-specific transcription factors has linked the mSin3A corepressor complex to the regulation of diverse signaling pathways and associated biological processes. To dissect the complex nature of mSin3A's actions, we monitored the impact of conditional mSin3A deletion on the developmental, cell biological, and transcriptional levels. mSin3A was shown to play an essential role in early embryonic development and in the proliferation and survival of primary, immortalized, and transformed cells. Genetic and biochemical analyses established a role for mSin3A/HDAC in p53 deacetylation and activation, although genetic deletion of p53 was not sufficient to attenuate the mSin3A null cell lethal phenotype. Consistent with mSin3A's broad biological activities beyond regulation of the p53 pathway, time-course gene expression profiling following mSin3A deletion revealed deregulation of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, DNA repair, apoptosis, chromatin modifications, and mitochondrial metabolism. Computational analysis of the mSin3A transcriptome using a knowledge-based database revealed several nodal points through which mSin3A influences gene expression, including the Myc-Mad, E2F, and p53 transcriptional networks. Further validation of these nodes derived from in silico promoter analysis showing enrichment for Myc-Mad, E2F, and p53 cis-regulatory elements in regulatory regions of up-regulated genes following mSin3A depletion. Significantly, in silico promoter analyses also revealed specific cis-regulatory elements binding the transcriptional activator Stat and the ISWI ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor Falz, thereby expanding further the mSin3A network of regulatory factors. Together, these integrated genetic, biochemical, and computational studies demonstrate the

  18. Constructing a Counternarrative: Students Informing Now (S.I.N.) Reframes Immigration and Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Neidi; Duarte, Yazmin; Espinosa, Pedro Joel; Martinez, Luis; Nygreen, Kysa; Perez, Renato; Ramirez, Izel; Saba, Mariella

    2009-01-01

    The work of Students Informing Now (S.I.N.), an immigrant student organization at the University of California, Santa Cruz, is described in this column. The authors argue that S.I.N.'s diverse activities and textual products construct a counternarrative that challenges and reframes the debate on undocumented students and immigration. Focusing on…

  19. Novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food.

    PubMed

    Posada-Ayala, Maria; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maroto, Aroa S; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-Garcia, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Perez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-09-15

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19±3mg/kg) where mustard content is not specified. Sin a 1, used as an internal standard, allowed quantification of this mustard allergen in foods. A novel LC/MS/MS SRM-based method has been developed to detect and quantify the presence of mustard. This method could help to detect mustard allergen Sin a 1 in processed foods and protect mustard-allergic consumers. PMID:25863610

  20. SiO x /SiN y multilayers for photovoltaic and photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalini, Ramesh Pratibha; Khomenkova, Larysa; Debieu, Olivier; Cardin, Julien; Dufour, Christian; Carrada, Marzia; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

    2012-02-01

    Microstructural, electrical, and optical properties of undoped and Nd3+-doped SiO x /SiN y multilayers fabricated by reactive radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering have been investigated with regard to thermal treatment. This letter demonstrates the advantages of using SiN y as the alternating sublayer instead of SiO2. A high density of silicon nanoclusters of the order 1019 nc/cm3 is achieved in the SiO x sublayers. Enhanced conductivity, emission, and absorption are attained at low thermal budget, which are promising for photovoltaic applications. Furthermore, the enhancement of Nd3+ emission in these multilayers in comparison with the SiO x /SiO2 counterparts offers promising future photonic applications. PACS: 88.40.fh (Advanced materials development), 81.15.cd (Deposition by sputtering), 78.67.bf (Nanocrystals, nanoparticles, and nanoclusters).

  1. An Improved Inertial Frame Alignment Algorithm Based on Horizontal Alignment Information for Marine SINS.

    PubMed

    Che, Yanting; Wang, Qiuying; Gao, Wei; Yu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an improved inertial frame alignment algorithm for a marine SINS under mooring conditions is proposed, which significantly improves accuracy. Since the horizontal alignment is easy to complete, and a characteristic of gravity is that its component in the horizontal plane is zero, we use a clever method to improve the conventional inertial alignment algorithm. Firstly, a large misalignment angle model and a dimensionality reduction Gauss-Hermite filter are employed to establish the fine horizontal reference frame. Based on this, the projection of the gravity in the body inertial coordinate frame can be calculated easily. Then, the initial alignment algorithm is accomplished through an inertial frame alignment algorithm. The simulation and experiment results show that the improved initial alignment algorithm performs better than the conventional inertial alignment algorithm, and meets the accuracy requirements of a medium-accuracy marine SINS. PMID:26445048

  2. An Improved Inertial Frame Alignment Algorithm Based on Horizontal Alignment Information for Marine SINS

    PubMed Central

    Che, Yanting; Wang, Qiuying; Gao, Wei; Yu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an improved inertial frame alignment algorithm for a marine SINS under mooring conditions is proposed, which significantly improves accuracy. Since the horizontal alignment is easy to complete, and a characteristic of gravity is that its component in the horizontal plane is zero, we use a clever method to improve the conventional inertial alignment algorithm. Firstly, a large misalignment angle model and a dimensionality reduction Gauss-Hermite filter are employed to establish the fine horizontal reference frame. Based on this, the projection of the gravity in the body inertial coordinate frame can be calculated easily. Then, the initial alignment algorithm is accomplished through an inertial frame alignment algorithm. The simulation and experiment results show that the improved initial alignment algorithm performs better than the conventional inertial alignment algorithm, and meets the accuracy requirements of a medium-accuracy marine SINS. PMID:26445048

  3. AUV Underwater Positioning Algorithm Based on Interactive Assistance of SINS and LBL.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies an underwater positioning algorithm based on the interactive assistance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) and LBL, and this algorithm mainly includes an optimal correlation algorithm with aided tracking of an SINS/Doppler velocity log (DVL)/magnetic compass pilot (MCP), a three-dimensional TDOA positioning algorithm of Taylor series expansion and a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. The final simulation results show that compared to traditional underwater positioning algorithms, this scheme can not only directly correct accumulative errors caused by a dead reckoning algorithm, but also solves the problem of ambiguous correlation peaks caused by multipath transmission of underwater acoustic signals. The proposed method can calibrate the accumulative error of the AUV position more directly and effectively, which prolongs the underwater operating duration of the AUV. PMID:26729120

  4. AUV Underwater Positioning Algorithm Based on Interactive Assistance of SINS and LBL

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies an underwater positioning algorithm based on the interactive assistance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) and LBL, and this algorithm mainly includes an optimal correlation algorithm with aided tracking of an SINS/Doppler velocity log (DVL)/magnetic compass pilot (MCP), a three-dimensional TDOA positioning algorithm of Taylor series expansion and a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. The final simulation results show that compared to traditional underwater positioning algorithms, this scheme can not only directly correct accumulative errors caused by a dead reckoning algorithm, but also solves the problem of ambiguous correlation peaks caused by multipath transmission of underwater acoustic signals. The proposed method can calibrate the accumulative error of the AUV position more directly and effectively, which prolongs the underwater operating duration of the AUV. PMID:26729120

  5. Sin Fronteras Boy: Students Create Collaborative Websites to Explore the Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Around one table, four 4th-grade girls chat quietly as they write on their laptops: Ruby interviews Alejandra about her experience crossing the U.S.-Mexico border as a 6-year-old. Meanwhile, Cindy turns notes from an interview with her uncle into a narrative about his immigration experience. Next to them, four boys work on the "Sin Fronteras Boy"…

  6. A novel scheme for DVL-aided SINS in-motion alignment using UKF techniques.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanli; Wang, Jinling; Lu, Liangqing; Wu, Wenqi

    2013-01-01

    In-motion alignment of Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems (SINS) without any geodetic-frame observations is one of the toughest challenges for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). This paper presents a novel scheme for Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) aided SINS alignment using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) which allows large initial misalignments. With the proposed mechanism, a nonlinear SINS error model is presented and the measurement model is derived under the assumption that large misalignments may exist. Since a priori knowledge of the measurement noise covariance is of great importance to robustness of the UKF, the covariance-matching methods widely used in the Adaptive KF (AKF) are extended for use in Adaptive UKF (AUKF). Experimental results show that the proposed DVL-aided alignment model is effective with any initial heading errors. The performances of the adaptive filtering methods are evaluated with regards to their parameter estimation stability. Furthermore, it is clearly shown that the measurement noise covariance can be estimated reliably by the adaptive UKF methods and hence improve the performance of the alignment. PMID:23322105

  7. Transfer alignment design and experiment evaluation of the SINS for GMLRS artillery rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jinchuan; Qin, Yongyuan; Xia, Jiahe; Yang, Pengxiang; Yan, Gongmin; Song, Yong; Fu, Yingfeng

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the results of the effort to develop a transfer alignment algorithm designed to align a low-cost Fiber Optic Gyroscope Inertial Measurement Unit(FOG-IMU) with the Position and Azimuth Determining System(PADS) of Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System(GMLRS) in a short time with high accuracy. The Ring Laser Gyroscope IMU(RLG-IMU) of the PADS is defined as the Master Inertial Navigation System(MINS) and the FOG-IMU as the Slave Inertial Navigation System(SINS). The accurate attitude initializing of SINS based on the attitude information of both INSs can be accomplished by providing the normal launch motion(pitch and yaw). The relevant state equations and measurement equations of transfer alignment Kalman Filter(KF) are presented. A particular calibrating scheme is designed to determinate the parameters of the MINS and SINS just in the same time. The algorithm is verified by laboratory testing of both INSs under the compound manoeuvre of a three-axis turntable modeling the launch procedure of GMLRS.

  8. Initial Alignment of Large Azimuth Misalignment Angles in SINS Based on Adaptive UPF

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin; Xu, Xiao-Su; Liu, Yi-Ting; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The case of large azimuth misalignment angles in a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) is analyzed, and a method of using the adaptive UPF for the initial alignment is proposed. The filter is based on the idea of a strong tracking filter; through the introduction of the attenuation memory factor to effectively enhance the corrections of the current information residual error on the system, it reduces the influence on the system due to the system simplification, and the uncertainty of noise statistical properties to a certain extent; meanwhile, the UPF particle degradation phenomenon is better overcome. Finally, two kinds of non-linear filters, UPF and adaptive UPF, are adopted in the initial alignment of large azimuth misalignment angles in SINS, and the filtering effects of the two kinds of nonlinear filter on the initial alignment were compared by simulation and turntable experiments. The simulation and turntable experiment results show that the speed and precision of the initial alignment using adaptive UPF for a large azimuth misalignment angle in SINS under the circumstance that the statistical properties of the system noise are certain or not have been improved to some extent. PMID:26334277

  9. Initial Alignment of Large Azimuth Misalignment Angles in SINS Based on Adaptive UPF.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Xu, Xiao-Su; Liu, Yi-Ting; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The case of large azimuth misalignment angles in a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) is analyzed, and a method of using the adaptive UPF for the initial alignment is proposed. The filter is based on the idea of a strong tracking filter; through the introduction of the attenuation memory factor to effectively enhance the corrections of the current information residual error on the system, it reduces the influence on the system due to the system simplification, and the uncertainty of noise statistical properties to a certain extent; meanwhile, the UPF particle degradation phenomenon is better overcome. Finally, two kinds of non-linear filters, UPF and adaptive UPF, are adopted in the initial alignment of large azimuth misalignment angles in SINS, and the filtering effects of the two kinds of nonlinear filter on the initial alignment were compared by simulation and turntable experiments. The simulation and turntable experiment results show that the speed and precision of the initial alignment using adaptive UPF for a large azimuth misalignment angle in SINS under the circumstance that the statistical properties of the system noise are certain or not have been improved to some extent. PMID:26334277

  10. Stress-mediated Sin3B activation leads to negative regulation of subset of p53 target genes

    PubMed Central

    Kadamb, Rama; Mittal, Shilpi; Bansal, Nidhi; Saluja, Daman

    2015-01-01

    The multiprotein SWI-independent 3 (Sin3)–HDAC (histone deacetylase) corepressor complex mediates gene repression through its interaction with DNA-binding factors and recruitment of chromatin-modifying proteins on to the promoters of target gene. Previously, an increased expression of Sin3B and tumour suppressor protein, p53 has been established upon adriamycin treatment. We, now provide evidence that Sin3B expression is significantly up-regulated under variety of stress conditions and this response is not stress-type specific. We observed that Sin3B expression is significantly up-regulated both at transcript and at protein level upon DNA damage induced by bleomycin drug, a radiomimetic agent. This increase in Sin3B expression upon stress is found to be p53-dependent and is associated with enhanced interaction of Sin3B with Ser15 phosphorylated p53. Binding of Sin3–HDAC repressor complex on to the promoters of p53 target genes influences gene regulation by altering histone modifications (H3K9me3 and H3K27me3) at target genes. Furthermore, knockdown of Sin3B by shRNA severely compromises p53-mediated gene repression under stress conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that stress-induced Sin3B activation is p53-dependent and is essential for p53-mediated repression of its selective target genes. The present study has an implication in understanding the transrepression mechanism of p53 under DNA damaging conditions. PMID:26181367

  11. Yeast global transcriptional regulators Sin4 and Rgr1 are components of mediator complex/RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Bjorklund, S; Jiang, Y W; Kim, Y J; Lane, W S; Stillman, D J; Kornberg, R D

    1995-01-01

    Sin4 and Rgr1 proteins, previously shown by genetic studies to play both positive and negative roles in the transcriptional regulation of many genes, are identified here as components of mediator and RNA polymerase II holoenzyme complexes. Results with Sin4 deletion and Rgr1 truncation strains indicate the association of these proteins in a subcomplex comprising Sin4, Rgr1, Gal11, and a 50-kDa polypeptide. Taken together with the previous genetic evidence, our findings point to a role of the mediator in repression as well as in transcriptional activation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7479899

  12. [Institutional renovation and scientific modernization: the creation of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas during the mid-1950s].

    PubMed

    Buschini, José

    2013-12-01

    Using documentary sources, this work analyzes the creation and initial functioning of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas (Institute of Hematological Research) of the National Academy of Medicine (Buenos Aires, Argentina) in the context of the scientific modernization initiated within the country during the mid-1950s. Particular attention is paid to the generation of material bases and institutional and cultural mechanisms for the development of scientific research and of clinical practices guided by procedures and techniques rooted in the basic sciences. The formation and development of a research school in the Experimental Leukemia Section of the institute is explored as a case illustrative of the effective consolidation of initiatives oriented towards the organization of a scientific center. PMID:24500546

  13. Approximation properties of Fejér- and de la Valleé-Poussin-type means for partial sums of a special series in the system \\{\\sin x\\sin kx\\}_{k=1}^\\infty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapudinov, I. I.

    2015-04-01

    This paper is concerned with series of the form \\displaystyle Φ(θ)=A_Φ(θ)+\\sinθ\\sumk=1^∞\\varphi_k\\sin kθ, where Φ(θ) is an even 2π-periodic function with finite values Φ(0) and Φ(π), \\displaystyle A_Φ(θ)=\\fracΦ(0)+Φ(π)}{2}+\\frac{Φ(0)-Φ(π)}{2}\\cosθ,\\qquad\\varphi(θ)=Φ(θ)-A_Φ(θ), \\displaystyle \\varphi_k=\\frac{2}{π\\int_0^π\\varphi(t)\\frac{\\sin kt}{\\sin t} dt. Series of this type appear as a particular case of more general special series in ultraspherical Jacobi polynomials, which were first introduced and studied by the author. Partial sums of the form \\Pi_n(Φ)=\\Pi_n(Φ,θ)=A_Φ(θ)+\\sinθ\\sumk=1n-1\\varphi_k\\sin kθ are shown to have a number of important properties, which give them an advantage over trigonometric Fourier sums of the form S_n(Φ,θ)=\\frac{a_0}{2}+\\sumk=1^na_k\\cos kθ. Approximation properties of Fejér- and de la Valleé-Poussin-type means for the partial sums \\Pi_n(Φ,θ) are studied. Bibliography: 7 titles.

  14. Twist-four effects in deep inelastic neutrino scattering and sinStheta/sub w/

    SciTech Connect

    Fajfer, S.; Oakes, R.J.

    1985-07-01

    In addition to the standard perturbative QCD corrections to deep inelastic scattering, there are nonperturbative twist-four corrections which behave like 1/QS relative to the lnQS leading log corrections. We have calculated the twist-four, spin-one and spin-two corrections to sigma/sub NC/, sigma/sub CC/, R/sub nu/ and R/sub anti nu/ using the following procedure: The bilocal product of the weak currents is expanded into local operators using the Wilson operator product expansion. The coefficient functions obey the renormalization group equations and, neglecting the anomalous dimensions of the operators, were calculated using perturbative techniques. The nucleon matrix elements of the local operators can then be evaluated assuming some quark confinement model. We found that twist-four, spin-two corrections to the neutral current neutrino scattering decreases sinStheta/sub w/ by about 1%. Taking into account the twist-four, spin-two corrections for the charged current cross section, we found that they give a dominant contribution to the ratio R/sub nu/ and increased sinStheta/sub w/ by about 0.5%. We also have studied the model dependence of our results, and we have found that the twist-four, spin-two corrections to sinStheta/sub w/ are quite model dependent. The twist-four, spin-one corrections to the neutrino scattering were also calculated. These corrections come from two-quark, one-gluon operators and even at low QS their contribution was found to be considerably smaller than the twist-four, spin-two corrections.

  15. Precision measurement of sin2thetaW from semileptonic neutrino scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Belusevic, R.; Blondel, A.; Blümer, H.; Böckmann, P.; Brummel, H. D.; Buchholz, P.; Burkhardt, H.; Debu, P.; Duda, J.; Dydak, F.; Falkenburg, B.; Fiedler, M.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Grant, A. L.; Guyot, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Hepp, V.; Hughes, E. W.; Kampschulte, B.; Keilwerth, H.; Kleinknecht, K.; Knobloch, J.; Krasny, M.; Królikowski, J.; Kurz, N.; Lipniacka, A.; Merlo, J.-P.; Müller, E.; Para, A.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Pollman, D.; Ranjard, F.; Renk, B.; Schuller, J.-P.; Taureg, H.; Tittel, K.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wotschack, J.

    1986-07-01

    The ratio Rν of the neutral- to charged-current cross sections of neutrinos in iron has been measured in an exposure of the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay neutrino detector to a 160-GeV/c neutrino narrow-band beam at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The result is Rν=0.3072+/-0.0025(stat)+/- 0.0020(syst), for hadronic energy greater than 10 GeV. The electroweak mixing parameter is sin2thetaW=0.225+/-0.005(expt )+/-0.003(theor)+0.013(mc-1. 5 GeV/c2), where mc is the charm-quark mass.

  16. A strange and surprising debate: mountains, original sin and 'science' in seventeenth-century England.

    PubMed

    Wragge-Morley, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    It could come as a shock to learn that some seventeenth-century men of science and learning thought that mountains were bad. Even more alarmingly, some thought that God had imposed them on the earth to punish man for his sins. By the end of the seventeenth century, surprisingly many English natural philosophers and theologians were engaged in a debate about whether mountains were 'good' or 'bad', useful or useless. At stake in this debate were not just the careers of its participants, but arguments about the best ways of looking at and reckoning with 'nature' itself. PMID:19477013

  17. Determination of sin/sup 2/theta/sub w/ by muon neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering by electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Amako, K.; Aronson, S.H.; Beier, E.W.; Callas, J.L.; Connolly, P.L.; Cutts, D.; Diwan, M.V.; Doughty, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Total and differential cross sections for ..nu../sub ..mu../ and /bar /nu///sub ..mu../ elastic scattering by electrons were measured. The best value of sin/sup 2/theta/sub w/, obtained by fits to the differential distributions, was found to be sin/sup 2/theta/sub w/ = 0.195 +- 0.018 +- 0.013. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Transcriptional repression of Sin3B by Bmi-1 prevents cellular senescence and is relieved by oncogene activation.

    PubMed

    DiMauro, T; Cantor, D J; Bainor, A J; David, G

    2015-07-23

    The Polycomb group protein Bmi-1 is an essential regulator of cellular senescence and is believed to function largely through the direct repression of the Ink4a/Arf locus. However, concurrent deletion of Ink4a/Arf does not fully rescue the defects detected in Bmi-1(-/-) mice, indicating that additional Bmi-1 targets remain to be identified. The expression of the chromatin-associated Sin3B protein is stimulated by oncogenic stress, and is required for oncogene-induced senescence. Here we demonstrate that oncogenic stress leads to the dissociation of Bmi-1 from the Sin3B locus, resulting in increased Sin3B expression and subsequent entry into cellular senescence. Furthermore, Sin3B is required for the senescent phenotype and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species elicited upon Bmi-1 depletion. Altogether, these results identify Sin3B as a novel direct target of Bmi-1, and establish Bmi-1-driven repression of Sin3B as an essential regulator of cellular senescence. PMID:25263442

  19. Negative autoregulation of BMP dependent transcription by SIN3B splicing reveals a role for RBM39

    PubMed Central

    Faherty, Noel; Benson, Matthew; Sharma, Eshita; Lee, Angela; Howarth, Alison; Lockstone, Helen; Ebner, Daniel; Bhattacharya, Shoumo

    2016-01-01

    BMP signalling is negatively autoregulated by several genes including SMAD6, Noggin and Gremlin, and autoregulators are possible targets for enhancing BMP signalling in disorders such as fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. To identify novel negative regulators of BMP signalling, we used siRNA screening in mouse C2C12 cells with a BMP-responsive luciferase reporter. Knockdown of several splicing factors increased BMP4-dependent transcription and target gene expression. Knockdown of RBM39 produced the greatest enhancement in BMP activity. Transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing identified a change in Sin3b exon usage after RBM39 knockdown. SIN3B targets histone deacetylases to chromatin to repress transcription. In mouse, Sin3b produces long and short isoforms, with the short isoform lacking the ability to recruit HDACs. BMP4 induced a shift in SIN3B expression to the long isoform, and this change in isoform ratio was prevented by RBM39 knockdown. Knockdown of long isoform SIN3B enhanced BMP4-dependent transcription, whereas knockdown of the short isoform did not. We propose that BMP4-dependent transcription is negatively autoregulated in part by SIN3B alternative splicing, and that RBM39 plays a role in this process. PMID:27324164

  20. Transcriptional repression of Sin3B by Bmi-1 prevents cellular senescence and is relieved by oncogene activation

    PubMed Central

    Bainor, Anthony J.; David, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The Polycomb group protein Bmi-1 is an essential regulator of cellular senescence and is believed to function largely through the direct repression of the Ink4a/Arf locus. However, concurrent deletion of Ink4a/Arf does not fully rescue the defects detected in Bmi-1−/− mice, indicating that additional Bmi-1 targets remain to be identified. The expression of the chromatin associated Sin3B protein is stimulated by oncogenic stress, and is required for oncogene-induced senescence. Here we demonstrate that oncogenic stress leads to the dissociation of Bmi-1 from the Sin3B locus, resulting in increased Sin3B expression and subsequent entry into cellular senescence. Furthermore, Sin3B is required for the senescent phenotype and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species elicited upon Bmi-1 depletion. Altogether, these results identify Sin3B as a novel direct target of Bmi-1, and establish Bmi-1-driven repression of Sin3B as an essential regulator of cellular senescence. PMID:25263442

  1. Stress engineering in GaN structures grown on Si(111) substrates by SiN masking layer application

    SciTech Connect

    Szymański, Tomasz Wośko, Mateusz; Paszkiewicz, Bogdan; Paszkiewicz, Regina

    2015-07-15

    GaN layers without and with an in-situ SiN mask were grown by using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy for three different approaches used in GaN on silicon(111) growth, and the physical and optical properties of the GaN layers were studied. For each approach applied, GaN layers of 1.4 μm total thickness were grown, using silan SiH{sub 4} as Si source in order to grow Si{sub x}N{sub x} masking layer. The optical micrographs, scanning electron microscope images, and atomic force microscope images of the grown samples revealed cracks for samples without SiN mask, and micropits, which were characteristic for the samples grown with SiN mask. In situ reflectance signal traces were studied showing a decrease of layer coalescence time and higher degree of 3D growth mode for samples with SiN masking layer. Stress measurements were conducted by two methods—by recording micro-Raman spectra and ex-situ curvature radius measurement—additionally PLs spectra were obtained revealing blueshift of PL peak positions with increasing stress. The authors have shown that a SiN mask significantly improves physical and optical properties of GaN multilayer systems reducing stress in comparison to samples grown applying the same approaches but without SiN masking layer.

  2. Cardiac motion tracking with multilevel B-splines and SinMod from tagged MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Amini, Amir A.

    2011-03-01

    Cardiac motion analysis can play an important role in cardiac disease diagnosis. Tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the ability to directly and non-invasively alter tissue magnetization and produce tags on the deforming tissue. This paper proposes an approach to analysis of tagged MR images using a multilevel B-splines fitting model incorporating phase information. The novelty of the proposed technique is that phase information is extracted from SinMod.1 By using real tag intersections extracted directly from tagged MR image data and virtual tag intersections extracted from phase information, both considered to be scattered data, multilevel B-spline fitting can result in accurate displacement motion fields. The B-spline approximation which also serves to remove noise in the displacement measurements is performed without specifying control point locations explicitly and is very fast. Dense virtual tag intersections based on SinMod were created and incorporated into the multilevel B-spline fitting process. Experimental results on simulated data from the 13- parameter kinematic model of Arts et al.2 and in vivo canine data demonstrate further improvement in accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. From Sin to Crime: Laws on Infanticide in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This is the second of three papers investigating the legislative history concerning infanticide. It compares the efforts of various states to protect the newborn infant between 534 and 1532 CE. When the Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century, the jurisdiction of infanticide was relegated to the church, which regarded carnal delicts a sin rather than a crime. The punishment - public penance of the mother for 7-15 years - was milder than that which the murder of an adult would incur. The Council of Florence decreed in 1439 that the souls of children who died without having been baptized descend to hell. This turned infanticide from a penitential sin to the most heinous of all crimes. The states passed laws that abominated infanticide even more than the murder of older humans and punished women with ever more cruel forms of execution. Towards the men, however, who usually abandoned the women they had impregnated, the laws were lenient. Churches and society continued to vilify illegitimate birth, thus enhancing rather than preventing infanticide. The Habsburg-German legislation of 1532 ordained to torture any woman who had concealed pregnancy and birth and claimed the infant was stillborn. Legislation developed similarly in other countries, albeit at a different speed. French (1556) and British (1623) legislation reversed the burden of proof and demanded the death penalty for concealing pregnancy and birth when a dead infant was found. PMID:26583381

  4. Computational study of AuSin (n=1-9) nanoalloy clusters invoking DFT based descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Prabhat; Kumar, Ajay; Chakraborty, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    Nanoalloy clusters formed between Au and Si are topics of great interest today from both scientific and technological point of view. Due to its remarkable catalytic, electronic, mechanical and magnetic properties Au-Si nanoalloy clusters have extensive applications in the field of microelectronics, catalysis, biomedicine, and jewelry industry. Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a new paradigm of quantum mechanics, which is very much popular to study the electronic properties of materials. Conceptual DFT based descriptors have been invoked to correlate the experimental properties of nanoalloy clusters. In this venture, we have systematically investigated AuSin (n=1-9) nanoalloy clusters in the theoretical frame of the B3LYP exchange correlation. The experimental properties of AuSin (n=1-9) nanoalloy clusters are correlated in terms of DFT based descriptors viz. HOMO-LUMO gap, Electronegativity (χ), Global Hardness (η), Global Softness (S) and Electrophilicity Index (ω). The calculated HOMO-LUMO gap exhibits interesting odd-even alteration behaviour, indicating that even numbered clusters possess higher stability as compare to their neighbour odd numbered clusters. This study also reflects a very well agreement between experimental bond length and computed data.

  5. Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

  6. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-01-01

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter—SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising. PMID:26389916

  7. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-01-01

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter-SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising. PMID:26389916

  8. Conserved themes in target recognition by the PAH1 and PAH2 domains of the Sin3 transcriptional corepressor.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Sarata C; Swanson, Kurt A; Kang, Richard S; Huang, Kai; Brubaker, Kurt; Ratcliff, Kathleen; Radhakrishnan, Ishwar

    2008-02-01

    The recruitment of chromatin-modifying coregulator complexes by transcription factors to specific sites of the genome constitutes an important step in many eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory pathways. The histone deacetylase-associated Sin3 corepressor complex is recruited by a large and diverse array of transcription factors through direct interactions with the N-terminal PAH domains of Sin3. Here, we describe the solution structures of the mSin3A PAH1 domain in the apo form and when bound to SAP25, a component of the corepressor complex. Unlike the apo-mSin3A PAH2 domain, the apo-PAH1 domain is conformationally pure and is largely, but not completely, folded. Portions of the interacting segments of both mSin3A PAH1 and SAP25 undergo folding upon complex formation. SAP25 binds through an amphipathic helix to a predominantly hydrophobic cleft on the surface of PAH1. Remarkably, the orientation of the helix is reversed compared to that adopted by NRSF, a transcription factor unrelated to SAP25, upon binding to the mSin3B PAH1 domain. The reversal in helical orientations is correlated with a reversal in the underlying PAH1-interaction motifs, echoing a theme previously described for the mSin3A PAH2 domain. The definition of these so-called type I and type II PAH1-interaction motifs has allowed us to predict the precise location of these motifs within previously experimentally characterized PAH1 binders. Finally, we explore the specificity determinants of protein-protein interactions involving the PAH1 and PAH2 domains. These studies reveal that even conservative replacements of PAH2 residues with equivalent PAH1 residues are sufficient to alter the affinity and specificity of these protein-protein interactions dramatically. PMID:18089292

  9. Mutational and functional analysis of dominant SPT2 (SIN1) suppressor alleles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, L; Smith, M

    1993-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT2 gene was identified by genetic screens for mutations which are suppressors of Ty and delta insertional mutations at the HIS4 locus. The ability of spt2 mutations to suppress the transcriptional interference caused by the delta promoter insertion his-4-912 delta correlates with an increase in wild-type HIS4 mRNA levels. The SPT2 gene is identical to SIN1, which codes for a factor genetically defined as a negative regulator of HO transcription. Mutations in SPT2/SIN1 suppress the effects of trans-acting mutations in SWI genes and of partial deletions in the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Nuclear localization and protein sequence similarities suggested that the SPT2/SIN1 protein may be related to the nonhistone chromosomal protein HMG1. To assess the significance of this structural similarity and identify domains of SPT2 functionally important in the regulation of his4-912 delta, we have studied recessive and dominant spt2 mutations created by in vitro mutagenesis. We show here that several alleles carrying C-terminal deletions as well as point mutations in the C-terminal domain of the SPT2 protein exhibit a dominant suppressor phenotype. C-terminal basic residues necessary for wild-type SPT2 protein function which are absent from HMG1 have been identified. The competence of these mutant SPT2 proteins to interfere with the maintenance of the His- (Spt+) phenotype of a his4-912 delta SPT2+ strain is lost by deletion of internal HMG1-like sequences and is sensitive to the wild-type SPT2+ gene dosage. Using cross-reacting antipeptide polyclonal antibodies, we demonstrate that the intracellular level of the wild-type SPT2 protein is not affected in presence of dominant mutations and furthermore that the reversion of the dominance by internal deletion of HMG1-like sequences is not mediated by altered production or stability of the mutant polypeptides. Our results suggest that the products of dominant alleles

  10. Neutralizing Antibodies and Sin Nombre Virus RNA after Recovery from Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chunyan; Prescott, Joseph; Nofchissey, Robert; Goade, Diane

    2004-01-01

    Patients who later have a mild course of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are more likely to exhibit a high titer of neutralizing antibodies against Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of HCPS, at the time of hospital admission. Because administering plasma from patients who have recovered from HCPS to those in the early stages of disease may be an advantageous form of passive immunotherapy, we examined the neutralizing antibody titers of 21 patients who had recovered from SNV infection. Even 1,000 days after admission to the hospital, 6 of 10 patients had titers of 800 or higher, with one sample retaining a titer of 3,200 after more than 1,400 days. None of the convalescent-phase serum samples contained detectable viral RNA. These results confirm that patients retain high titers of neutralizing antibodies long after recovery from SNV infection. PMID:15109416

  11. Determination of sin2θW using ν (ν ¯)-nucleus scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, H.; Simo, I. Ruiz; Athar, M. Sajjad

    2015-05-01

    We have studied nonisoscalarity and medium effects in the extraction of weak mixing angle using Paschos and Wolfenstein relation in the iron nucleus. Paschos and Wolfenstein(PW) relation is valid for an isoscalar target. We have modified the PW relation for nonisoscalar target as well as incorporated the medium effects like Pauli blocking, Fermi motion, nuclear binding energy and pion rho cloud contributions. In our calculations we have used the relativistic nuclear spectral function which includes nucleon correlations. Finally local density approximation is applied to translate the numerical results to the finite nuclei. We have studied the dependence of sin2θW on Bjorken variables x and y, four momentum transfer square (Q2), energy of the neutrino and antineutrino, and effect of excess neutrons over protons in the nuclear target.

  12. Seroprevalence Against Sin Nombre Virus in Resident and Dispersing Deer Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lonner, Brent N.; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Hughes, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Through dispersal, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) enter peridomestic settings (e.g., outbuildings, barns, cabins) and expose humans and other deer mouse populations to Sin Nombre virus (SNV). In June 2004, research on deer mouse dispersal was initiated at 2 locations in Montana. During the course of the study, over 6000 deer mouse movements were recorded, and more than 1000 of these movements were classified as dispersal movements. More than 1700 individual deer mice were captured and tested for SNV, revealing an average SNV antibody prevalence of approximately 11%. Most of the dispersing and antibody-positive individuals were adult males. Among the few subadult dispersing mice discovered during the study, none were seropositive for SNV. Our results suggest that dispersal rates are higher in high abundance populations of deer mice and that during peak times of dispersal, human exposure to SNV, which commonly occurs in peridomestic settings, could increase. PMID:18447620

  13. A Self-Alignment Algorithm for SINS Based on Gravitational Apparent Motion and Sensor Data Denoising

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiting; Xu, Xiaosu; Liu, Xixiang; Yao, Yiqing; Wu, Liang; Sun, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Initial alignment is always a key topic and difficult to achieve in an inertial navigation system (INS). In this paper a novel self-initial alignment algorithm is proposed using gravitational apparent motion vectors at three different moments and vector-operation. Simulation and analysis showed that this method easily suffers from the random noise contained in accelerometer measurements which are used to construct apparent motion directly. Aiming to resolve this problem, an online sensor data denoising method based on a Kalman filter is proposed and a novel reconstruction method for apparent motion is designed to avoid the collinearity among vectors participating in the alignment solution. Simulation, turntable tests and vehicle tests indicate that the proposed alignment algorithm can fulfill initial alignment of strapdown INS (SINS) under both static and swinging conditions. The accuracy can either reach or approach the theoretical values determined by sensor precision under static or swinging conditions. PMID:25923932

  14. Responding to the second ghetto: Chicago's Joe Smith and Sin Corner.

    PubMed

    Pacyga, Dominic A

    2011-01-01

    World War Two and its aftermath transformed Chicago's African American community. The Great Migration entered a second and more intense phase as black migrants flooded into Northern cities. This massive relocation of Southern blacks resulted in the expansion and reformulation of Chicago's ghettoes on both the West and South Sides of the city. The question of a response to this Second Ghetto from African Americans themselves presents itself. White politicians, cultural elites and businessmen still controlled the city and could impose their will on its neighborhoods simply redrawing ghetto boundaries to reflect the new realities of the postwar era. The strange case of Joe Smith and Sin Corner sheds some light on black agency in the 1950s. The African American middle class had resources it commanded to try and protect itself from racial injustice. These resources, however, were based on class privileges not enjoyed by most in the African American community. PMID:21158199

  15. Remote sensing and geographic information systems: charting Sin Nombre virus infections in deer mice.

    PubMed Central

    Boone, J. D.; McGwire, K. C.; Otteson, E. W.; DeBaca, R. S.; Kuhn, E. A.; Villard, P.; Brussard, P. F.; St Jeor, S. C.

    2000-01-01

    We tested environmental data from remote sensing and geographic information system maps as indicators of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) infections in deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) populations in the Walker River Basin, Nevada and California. We determined by serologic testing the presence of SNV infections in deer mice from 144 field sites. We used remote sensing and geographic information systems data to characterize the vegetation type and density, elevation, slope, and hydrologic features of each site. The data retroactively predicted infection status of deer mice with up to 80% accuracy. If models of SNV temporal dynamics can be integrated with baseline spatial models, human risk for infection may be assessed with reasonable accuracy. PMID:10827114

  16. A Self-Alignment Algorithm for SINS Based on Gravitational Apparent Motion and Sensor Data Denoising.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiting; Xu, Xiaosu; Liu, Xixiang; Yao, Yiqing; Wu, Liang; Sun, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Initial alignment is always a key topic and difficult to achieve in an inertial navigation system (INS). In this paper a novel self-initial alignment algorithm is proposed using gravitational apparent motion vectors at three different moments and vector-operation. Simulation and analysis showed that this method easily suffers from the random noise contained in accelerometer measurements which are used to construct apparent motion directly. Aiming to resolve this problem, an online sensor data denoising method based on a Kalman filter is proposed and a novel reconstruction method for apparent motion is designed to avoid the collinearity among vectors participating in the alignment solution. Simulation, turntable tests and vehicle tests indicate that the proposed alignment algorithm can fulfill initial alignment of strapdown INS (SINS) under both static and swinging conditions. The accuracy can either reach or approach the theoretical values determined by sensor precision under static or swinging conditions. PMID:25923932

  17. Optimization of a bolometer detector for ITER based on Pt absorber on SiN membrane.

    PubMed

    Meister, H; Eich, T; Endstrasser, N; Giannone, L; Kannamüller, M; Kling, A; Koll, J; Trautmann, T; Detemple, P; Schmitt, S

    2010-10-01

    Any plasma diagnostic in ITER must be able to operate at temperatures in excess of 200 °C and neutron loads corresponding to 0.1 dpa over its lifetime. To achieve this aim for the bolometer diagnostic, a miniaturized metal resistor bolometer detector based on Pt absorbers galvanically deposited on SiN membranes is being developed. The first two generations of detectors featured up to 4.5 μm thick absorbers. Results from laboratory tests are presented characterizing the dependence of their calibration constants under thermal loads up to 450 °C. Several detectors have been tested in ASDEX Upgrade providing reliable data but also pointing out the need for further optimization. A laser trimming procedure has been implemented to reduce the mismatch in meander resistances below 1% for one detector and the thermal drifts from this mismatch. PMID:21061487

  18. Mutations in SIN4 and RGR1 cause constitutive expression of MAL structural genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Michels, Corinne A

    2004-10-01

    Transcription of the Saccharomyces MAL structural genes is induced 40-fold by maltose and requires the MAL-activator and maltose permease. To identify additional players involved in regulating MAL gene expression, we carried out a genetic selection for MAL constitutive mutants. Strain CMY4000 containing MAL1 and integrated copies of MAL61promoter-HIS3 and MAL61promoter-lacZ reporter genes was used to select constitutive mutants. The 29 recessive mutants fall into at least three complementation groups. Group 1 and group 2 mutants exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes and represent alleles of Mediator component genes RGR1 and SIN4, respectively. The rgr1 and sin4 constitutive phenotype does not require either the MAL-activator or maltose permease, indicating that Mediator represses MAL basal expression. Further genetic analysis demonstrates that RGR1 and SIN4 work in a common pathway and each component of the Mediator Sin4 module plays a distinct role in regulating MAL gene expression. Additionally, the Swi/Snf chromatin-remodeling complex is required for full induction, suggesting a role for chromatin remodeling in the regulation of MAL gene expression. A sin4Delta mutation is unable to suppress the defects in MAL gene expression resulting from loss of the Swi/Snf complex component Snf2p. The role of the Mediator in MAL gene regulation is discussed. PMID:15514050

  19. A density functional study of small sized silver-doped silicon clusters: Ag2Sin (n = 1-13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cai; Hao Jia, Song; Ma, Mao Fen; Zhang, Shuai; Lu, Cheng; Li, Gen Quan

    2015-11-01

    The structures and electronic properties for global minimum geometric structures of small-sized neutral Ag2Sin (n = 1-13) clusters have been investigated using the CALYPSO structure searching method coupled with density functional theory calculations. A great deal of low-energy geometric isomers are optimised at the B3LYP / GENECP theory level. The optimised structures suggest that the ground state Ag2Sin clusters are visibly distorted compared with the corresponding pure silicon clusters and favor a three-dimensional configuration. Starting with Ag2Si12, one Ag atom is fully encapsulated by the Si outer cages. Based on the averaged binding energy, fragmentation energy, second-order energy difference and HOMO-LUMO energy gap, it is seen that Ag2Si2 and Ag2Si5 are tested to be the most stable clusters, and the chemical stabilities of pure Sin+2 clusters can be reduced to some extent after doping two Ag atoms. Additionally, natural population and natural electronic configuration are discussed and the results reveal that charges transfer from the Ag atoms to the silicon frames and the spd hybridisations are present in all Ag2Sin clusters. Lastly, the results of natural bonds show that the Ag-Si bond in Ag2Sin clusters is dominated by small ionic character. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60404-1

  20. A Novel Robust H∞ Filter Based on Krein Space Theory in the SINS/CNS Attitude Reference System

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Lv, Chongyang; Dong, Qianhui

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their numerous merits, such as compact, autonomous and independence, the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) and celestial navigation system (CNS) can be used in marine applications. What is more, due to the complementary navigation information obtained from two different kinds of sensors, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system can be enhanced availably. Thus, the SINS/CNS system is widely used in the marine navigation field. However, the CNS is easily interfered with by the surroundings, which will lead to the output being discontinuous. Thus, the uncertainty problem caused by the lost measurement will reduce the system accuracy. In this paper, a robust H∞ filter based on the Krein space theory is proposed. The Krein space theory is introduced firstly, and then, the linear state and observation models of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system are established reasonably. By taking the uncertainty problem into account, in this paper, a new robust H∞ filter is proposed to improve the robustness of the integrated system. At last, this new robust filter based on the Krein space theory is estimated by numerical simulations and actual experiments. Additionally, the simulation and experiment results and analysis show that the attitude errors can be reduced by utilizing the proposed robust filter effectively when the measurements are missing discontinuous. Compared to the traditional Kalman filter (KF) method, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated system is improved, verifying the robustness and the availability of the proposed robust H∞ filter. PMID:26999153

  1. A Feasibility Analysis of Land-Based SINS/GNSS Gravimetry for Groundwater Resource Detection in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Lin, Cheng-An; Kuo, Chung-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System and Global Navigation Satellite System (SINS/GNSS) has been implemented for land-based gravimetry and has been proven to perform well in estimating gravity. Based on the mGal-level gravimetry results, this research aims to construct and develop a land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry device containing a navigation-grade Inertial Measurement Unit. This research also presents a feasibility analysis for groundwater resource detection. A preliminary comparison of the kinematic velocities and accelerations using multi-combination of GNSS data including Global Positioning System, Global Navigation Satellite System, and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, indicates that three-system observations performed better than two-system data in the computation. A comparison of gravity derived from SINS/GNSS and measured using a relative gravimeter also shows that both agree reasonably well with a mean difference of 2.30 mGal. The mean difference between repeat measurements of gravity disturbance using SINS/GNSS is 2.46 mGal with a standard deviation of 1.32 mGal. The gravity variation because of the groundwater at Pingtung Plain, Taiwan could reach 2.72 mGal. Hence, the developed land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry can sufficiently and effectively detect groundwater resources. PMID:26426019

  2. A Novel Robust H∞ Filter Based on Krein Space Theory in the SINS/CNS Attitude Reference System.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Lv, Chongyang; Dong, Qianhui

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their numerous merits, such as compact, autonomous and independence, the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) and celestial navigation system (CNS) can be used in marine applications. What is more, due to the complementary navigation information obtained from two different kinds of sensors, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system can be enhanced availably. Thus, the SINS/CNS system is widely used in the marine navigation field. However, the CNS is easily interfered with by the surroundings, which will lead to the output being discontinuous. Thus, the uncertainty problem caused by the lost measurement will reduce the system accuracy. In this paper, a robust H∞ filter based on the Krein space theory is proposed. The Krein space theory is introduced firstly, and then, the linear state and observation models of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system are established reasonably. By taking the uncertainty problem into account, in this paper, a new robust H∞ filter is proposed to improve the robustness of the integrated system. At last, this new robust filter based on the Krein space theory is estimated by numerical simulations and actual experiments. Additionally, the simulation and experiment results and analysis show that the attitude errors can be reduced by utilizing the proposed robust filter effectively when the measurements are missing discontinuous. Compared to the traditional Kalman filter (KF) method, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated system is improved, verifying the robustness and the availability of the proposed robust H∞ filter. PMID:26999153

  3. A Feasibility Analysis of Land-Based SINS/GNSS Gravimetry for Groundwater Resource Detection in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Lin, Cheng-An; Kuo, Chung-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System and Global Navigation Satellite System (SINS/GNSS) has been implemented for land-based gravimetry and has been proven to perform well in estimating gravity. Based on the mGal-level gravimetry results, this research aims to construct and develop a land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry device containing a navigation-grade Inertial Measurement Unit. This research also presents a feasibility analysis for groundwater resource detection. A preliminary comparison of the kinematic velocities and accelerations using multi-combination of GNSS data including Global Positioning System, Global Navigation Satellite System, and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, indicates that three-system observations performed better than two-system data in the computation. A comparison of gravity derived from SINS/GNSS and measured using a relative gravimeter also shows that both agree reasonably well with a mean difference of 2.30 mGal. The mean difference between repeat measurements of gravity disturbance using SINS/GNSS is 2.46 mGal with a standard deviation of 1.32 mGal. The gravity variation because of the groundwater at Pingtung Plain, Taiwan could reach 2.72 mGal. Hence, the developed land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry can sufficiently and effectively detect groundwater resources. PMID:26426019

  4. Higher order mode suppression in high-Q anomalous dispersion SiN microresonators for temporal dissipative Kerr soliton formation.

    PubMed

    Kordts, A; Pfeiffer, M H P; Guo, H; Brasch, V; Kippenberg, T J

    2016-02-01

    High-Q silicon nitride (SiN) microresonators enable optical Kerr frequency comb generation on a photonic chip and have recently been shown to support fully coherent combs based on temporal dissipative Kerr soliton formation. For bright soliton formation, it is necessary to operate SiN waveguides in the multimode regime in order to produce waveguide induced anomalous group velocity dispersion. However, this regime can lead to local disturbances of the dispersion due to avoided crossings caused by coupling between different mode families and, therefore, prevent the soliton formation. Here, we demonstrate that a single-mode "filtering" section inside high-Q resonators enables efficiently suppression of avoided crossings, while preserving high quality factors (Q∼10(6)). We verify the approach by demonstrating single soliton formation in SiN resonators with a filtering section. PMID:26907395

  5. Differential Lymphocyte and Antibody Responses in Deer Mice Infected with Sin Nombre Hantavirus or Andes Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C.; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection

  6. Rotation–Activity Correlations in K and M Dwarfs. I. Stellar Parameters and Compilations of v sin i and P/sin i for a Large Sample of Late-K and M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdebine, E. R.; Mullan, D. J.; Paletou, F.; Gebran, M.

    2016-05-01

    The reliable determination of rotation–activity correlations (RACs) depends on precise measurements of the following stellar parameters: T eff, parallax, radius, metallicity, and rotational speed v sin i. In this paper, our goal is to focus on the determination of these parameters for a sample of K and M dwarfs. In a future paper (Paper II), we will combine our rotational data with activity data in order to construct RACs. Here, we report on a determination of effective temperatures based on the (R–I) C color from the calibrations of Mann et al. and Kenyon & Hartmann for four samples of late-K, dM2, dM3, and dM4 stars. We also determine stellar parameters (T eff, log(g), and [M/H]) using the principal component analysis–based inversion technique for a sample of 105 late-K dwarfs. We compile all effective temperatures from the literature for this sample. We determine empirical radius–[M/H] correlations in our stellar samples. This allows us to propose new effective temperatures, stellar radii, and metallicities for a large sample of 612 late-K and M dwarfs. Our mean radii agree well with those of Boyajian et al. We analyze HARPS and SOPHIE spectra of 105 late-K dwarfs, and we have detected v sin i in 92 stars. In combination with our previous v sin i measurements in M and K dwarfs, we now derive P/sin i measures for a sample of 418 K and M dwarfs. We investigate the distributions of P/sin i, and we show that they are different from one spectral subtype to another at a 99.9% confidence level. Based on observations available at Observatoire de Haute Provence and the European Southern Observatory databases and on Hipparcos parallax measurements.

  7. Characterization of mustard 2S albumin allergens by bottom-up, middle-down, and top-down proteomics: a consensus set of isoforms of Sin a 1.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Marlene; Wigger, Tina; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2015-03-01

    The mustard allergen Sin a 1 belongs to the 2S-albumin family of seed-storage proteins. Because of its high abundance in mustard seeds and the potential to elicit severe allergenic reactions, Sin a 1 is considered to be a major allergen in mustard. Eight Sin a 1 isoforms have been identified using DNA cloning and sequencing, and we aim in this study to thoroughly investigate sequence heterogeneity using a novel combination of bottom-up, middle-down, and top-down proteomics. The characterization of purified Sin a 1 extract shows that sequence diversity is far more pronounced than previously assumed. We identified in total 24 sequence polymorphisms including 17 yet unpublished point mutations. Using middle-down and top-down approaches on the subunit and protein level of Sin a 1, we were able to detect eight consensus isoforms of Sin a 1(including four novel isoforms), which we detect in the majority of the four different mustard samples included in this study. In addition, we provide for the first time data on relative abundance of the main Sin a 1 isoforms and identify phytic acid as a potential ligand of Sin a 1. Together, these data can form the basis for a more detailed investigation of the effect of Sin a 1 polymorphic sites on allergenicity of isoforms. PMID:25660635

  8. The homeobox gene Mohawk represses transcription by recruiting the sin3A/HDAC co-repressor complex.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Douglas M; Beres, Brian J; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne; Rawls, Alan

    2009-03-01

    Mohawk is an atypical homeobox gene expressed in embryonic progenitor cells of skeletal muscle, tendon, and cartilage. We demonstrate that Mohawk functions as a transcriptional repressor capable of blocking the myogenic conversion of 10T1/2 fibroblasts. The repressor activity is located in three small, evolutionarily conserved domains (MRD1-3) in the carboxy-terminal half of the protein. Point mutation analysis revealed six residues in MRD1 are sufficient for repressor function. The carboxy-terminal half of Mohawk is able to recruit components of the Sin3A/HDAC co-repressor complex (Sin3A, Hdac1, and Sap18) and a subset of Polymerase II general transcription factors (Tbp, TFIIA1 and TFIIB). Furthermore, Sap18, a protein that bridges the Sin3A/HDAC complex to DNA-bound transcription factors, is co-immunoprecipitated by MRD1. These data predict that Mohawk can repress transcription through recruitment of the Sin3A/HDAC co-repressor complex, and as a result, repress target genes required for the differentiation of cells to the myogenic lineage. PMID:19235719

  9. Structural insights into the assembly of the histone deacetylase-associated Sin3L/Rpd3L corepressor complex

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Michael D.; Marcum, Ryan; Graveline, Richard; Chan, Clarence W.; Xie, Tao; Chen, Zhonglei; Ding, Yujia; Zhang, Yongbo; Mondragón, Alfonso; David, Gregory; Radhakrishnan, Ishwar

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation is correlated with chromatin decondensation and transcriptional activation, but its regulation by histone deacetylase (HDAC)-bearing corepressor complexes is poorly understood. Here, we describe the mechanism of assembly of the mammalian Sin3L/Rpd3L complex facilitated by Sds3, a conserved subunit deemed critical for proper assembly. Sds3 engages a globular, helical region of the HDAC interaction domain (HID) of the scaffolding protein Sin3A through a bipartite motif comprising a helix and an adjacent extended segment. Sds3 dimerizes through not only one of the predicted coiled-coil motifs but also, the segment preceding it, forming an ∼150-Å-long antiparallel dimer. Contrary to previous findings in yeast, Sin3A rather than Sds3 functions in recruiting HDAC1 into the complex by engaging the latter through a highly conserved segment adjacent to the helical HID subdomain. In the resulting model for the ternary complex, the two copies of the HDACs are situated distally and dynamically because of a natively unstructured linker connecting the dimerization domain and the Sin3A interaction domain of Sds3; these features contrast with the static organization described previously for the NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase) complex. The Sds3 linker features several conserved basic residues that could potentially maintain the complex on chromatin by nonspecific interactions with DNA after initial recruitment by sequence-specific DNA-binding repressors. PMID:26124119

  10. The opposing transcriptional functions of Sin3a and c-Myc are required to maintain tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Elisabete M; Cox, Claire L; MacArthur, Stewart; Hussain, Shobbir; Trotter, Matthew; Blanco, Sandra; Suraj, Menon; Nichols, Jennifer; Kübler, Bernd; Benitah, Salvador Aznar; Hendrich, Brian; Odom, Duncan T; Frye, Michaela

    2011-12-01

    How the proto-oncogene c-Myc balances the processes of stem-cell self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation in adult tissues is largely unknown. We explored c-Myc's transcriptional roles at the epidermal differentiation complex, a locus essential for skin maturation. Binding of c-Myc can simultaneously recruit (Klf4, Ovol-1) and displace (Cebpa, Mxi1 and Sin3a) specific sets of differentiation-specific transcriptional regulators to epidermal differentiation complex genes. We found that Sin3a causes deacetylation of c-Myc protein to directly repress c-Myc activity. In the absence of Sin3a, genomic recruitment of c-Myc to the epidermal differentiation complex is enhanced, and re-activation of c-Myc-target genes drives aberrant epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Simultaneous deletion of c-Myc and Sin3a reverts the skin phenotype to normal. Our results identify how the balance of two transcriptional key regulators can maintain tissue homeostasis through a negative feedback loop. PMID:22101514

  11. RESOLVING THE sin(I) DEGENERACY IN LOW-MASS MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin; Laughlin, Gregory

    2011-04-01

    Long-term orbital evolution of multi-planet systems under tidal dissipation often converges to a stationary state, known as the tidal fixed point. The fixed point is characterized by a lack of oscillations in the eccentricities and apsidal alignment among the orbits. Quantitatively, the nature of the fixed point is dictated by mutual interactions among the planets as well as non-Keplerian effects. We show that if a roughly coplanar system hosts a hot, sub-Saturn mass planet, and is tidally relaxed, separation of planet-planet interactions and non-Keplerian effects in the equations of motion leads to a direct determination of the true masses of the planets. Consequently, a 'snap-shot' observational determination of the orbital state resolves the sin(I) degeneracy and opens up a direct avenue toward identification of the true lowest-mass exoplanets detected. We present an approximate, as well as a general, mathematical framework for computation of the line-of-sight inclination of secular systems, and apply our models illustratively to the 61 Vir system. We conclude by discussing the observability of planetary systems to which our method is applicable and we set our analysis into a broader context by presenting a current summary of the various possibilities for determining the physical properties of planets from observations of their orbital states.

  12. Elevated Cytokines, Thrombin and PAI-1 in Severe HCPS Patients Due to Sin Nombre Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bondu, Virginie; Schrader, Ron; Gawinowicz, Mary Ann; McGuire, Paul; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Hjelle, Brian; Buranda, Tione

    2015-01-01

    Sin Nombre Hantavirus (SNV, Bunyaviridae Hantavirus) is a Category A pathogen that causes Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) with case fatality ratios generally ranging from 30% to 50%. HCPS is characterized by vascular leakage due to dysregulation of the endothelial barrier function. The loss of vascular integrity results in non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, shock, multi-organ failure and death. Using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) measurements, we found that plasma samples drawn from University of New Mexico Hospital patients with serologically-confirmed HCPS, induce loss of cell-cell adhesion in confluent epithelial and endothelial cell monolayers grown in ECIS cultureware. We show that the loss of cell-cell adhesion is sensitive to both thrombin and plasmin inhibitors in mild cases, and to thrombin only inhibition in severe cases, suggesting an increasing prothrombotic state with disease severity. A proteomic profile (2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) of HCPS plasma samples in our cohort revealed robust antifibrinolytic activity among terminal case patients. The prothrombotic activity is highlighted by acute ≥30 to >100 fold increases in active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) which, preceded death of the subjects within 48 h. Taken together, this suggests that PAI-1 might be a response to the severe pathology as it is expected to reduce plasmin activity and possibly thrombin activity in the terminal patients. PMID:25674766

  13. Optimization Algorithm for Kalman Filter Exploiting the Numerical Characteristics of SINS/GPS Integrated Navigation Systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaoxing; Xu, Shike; Wang, Duhu; Zhang, Aiwu

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at addressing the problem of high computational cost of the traditional Kalman filter in SINS/GPS, a practical optimization algorithm with offline-derivation and parallel processing methods based on the numerical characteristics of the system is presented in this paper. The algorithm exploits the sparseness and/or symmetry of matrices to simplify the computational procedure. Thus plenty of invalid operations can be avoided by offline derivation using a block matrix technique. For enhanced efficiency, a new parallel computational mechanism is established by subdividing and restructuring calculation processes after analyzing the extracted "useful" data. As a result, the algorithm saves about 90% of the CPU processing time and 66% of the memory usage needed in a classical Kalman filter. Meanwhile, the method as a numerical approach needs no precise-loss transformation/approximation of system modules and the accuracy suffers little in comparison with the filter before computational optimization. Furthermore, since no complicated matrix theories are needed, the algorithm can be easily transplanted into other modified filters as a secondary optimization method to achieve further efficiency. PMID:26569247

  14. Antibodies with 'Original Antigenic Sin' Properties Are Valuable Components of Secondary Immune Responses to Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Linderman, Susanne L; Hensley, Scott E

    2016-08-01

    Human antibodies (Abs) elicited by influenza viruses often bind with a high affinity to past influenza virus strains, but paradoxically, do not bind to the viral strain actually eliciting the response. This phenomena is called 'original antigenic sin' (OAS) since this can occur at the expense of generating new de novo Abs. Here, we characterized the specificity and functionality of Abs elicited in mice that were sequentially exposed to two antigenically distinct H1N1 influenza virus strains. Many Abs elicited under these conditions had an OAS phenotype, in that they bound strongly to the viral strain used for the first exposure and very weakly to the viral strain used for the second exposure. We found that OAS and non-OAS Abs target the same general region of the influenza hemagglutinin protein and that B cells expressing these two types of Abs can be clonally-related. Surprisingly, although OAS Abs bound with very low affinities, some were able to effectively protect against an antigenically drifted viral strain following passive transfer in vivo. Taken together, our data indicate that OAS Abs share some level of cross-reactivity between priming and recall viral strains and that B cells producing these Abs can be protective when recalled into secondary immune responses. PMID:27537358

  15. Smokers’ Strategic Responses to Sin Taxes: Evidence from Panel Data in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    White, Justin S.; Ross, Hana

    2014-01-01

    In addition to quitting and cutting consumption, smokers faced with higher cigarette prices may compensate in several ways that mute the health impact of cigarette taxes. This study examines three price avoidance strategies among adult male smokers in Thailand: trading down to a lower-priced brand, buying individual sticks of cigarettes instead of packs, and substituting roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco for factory-manufactured cigarettes. Using two panels of microlevel data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Study, collected in 2005 and 2006, we estimate the effects of a substantial excise tax increase implemented throughout Thailand in December 2005. We present estimates of the marginal effects and price elasticities for each of five consumer behaviors. We find that, controlling for baseline smoking characteristics, socio-demographics, and policy variables, quitting is highly sensitive to changes in cigarette prices, but so are brand choice, stick-buying, and use of RYO tobacco. Neglecting such strategic responses leads to over-estimates of a sin tax’s health impact, and neglecting product substitution distorts estimates of the price elasticity of cigarette demand. We discuss the implications for consumer welfare and several policies that mitigate the adverse impact of consumer responses. PMID:24677731

  16. Sin Nombre hantavirus nucleocapsid protein exhibits a metal-dependent DNA-specific endonucleolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Möncke-Buchner, Elisabeth; Szczepek, Michal; Bokelmann, Marcel; Heinemann, Patrick; Raftery, Martin J; Krüger, Detlev H; Reuter, Monika

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that the nucleocapsid protein of Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV-N) has a DNA-specific endonuclease activity. Upon incubation of SNV-N with DNA in the presence of magnesium or manganese, we observed DNA digestion in sequence-unspecific manner. In contrast, RNA was not affected under the same conditions. Moreover, pre-treatment of SNV-N with RNase before DNA cleavage increased the endonucleolytic activity. Structure-based protein fold prediction using known structures from the PDB database revealed that Asp residues in positions 88 and 103 of SNV-N show sequence similarity with the active site of the restriction endonuclease HindIII. Crystal structure of HindIII predicts that residues Asp93 and Asp108 are essential for coordination of the metal ions required for HindIII DNA cleavage. Therefore, we hypothesized that homologous residues in SNV-N, Asp88 and Asp103, may have a similar function. Replacing Asp88 and Asp103 by alanine led to an SNV-N protein almost completely abrogated for endonuclease activity. PMID:27261891

  17. Contact heterogeneity in deer mice: implications for Sin Nombre virus transmission

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Christine A.; Lehmer, Erin M.; Previtali, Andrea; St. Jeor, Stephen; Dearing, M. Denise

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneities within disease hosts suggest that not all individuals have the same probability of transmitting disease or becoming infected. This heterogeneity is thought to be due to dissimilarity in susceptibility and exposure among hosts. As such, it has been proposed that many host–pathogen systems follow the general pattern whereby a small fraction of the population accounts for a large fraction of the pathogen transmission. This disparity in transmission dynamics is often referred to as ‘20/80 Rule’, i.e. approximately 20 per cent of the hosts are responsible for 80 per cent of pathogen transmission. We investigated the role of heterogeneity in contact rates among potential hosts of a directly transmitted pathogen by examining Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Using foraging arenas and powder marking, we documented contacts between wild deer mice in Great Basin Desert, central Utah. Our findings demonstrated heterogeneity among deer mice, both in frequency and in duration of contacts with other deer mice. Contact dynamics appear to follow the general pattern that a minority of the population accounts for a majority of the contacts. We found that 20 per cent of individuals in the population were responsible for roughly 80 per cent of the contacts observed. Larger-bodied individuals appear to be the functional group with the greatest SNV transmission potential. Contrary to our predictions, transmission potential was not influenced by breeding condition or sex. PMID:19129136

  18. Loathing the sinner, medicalizing the sin: why sexually violent predator statutes are unjust.

    PubMed

    Douard, John

    2007-01-01

    In seventeen states, persons convicted of one or more sexually violent offenses may be involuntarily civilly committed at the end of their criminal terms if they suffer from a mental disorder that renders them likely to reoffend sexually. These statutes place the burden on states to show that the sex offender meets the United States Constitutional standard of dangerousness. The key to proving dangerousness is proof of a mental disorder. However, the United States Supreme Court recently found that the offender need not be mentally ill. He need only "suffer" from "mental abnormality" or "personality disorder" that affects his cognitive, emotional or volitional capacities such that he is highly likely to sexually reoffend. These statutes are expressions of disgust: a fear of contamination by persons who engage in sexual conduct that forces us to confront our dark impulses. We do not merely hate the sin; we hate the sinner, and we want the sinner to be removed from our presence. Moreover, the emotions these statutes express are the source of widespread moral panic not warranted by data about recidivism risk. Laws that express disgust are likely to result in the unjust treatment of sex offenders. PMID:17157910

  19. Equilibrium and Kinetics of Sin Nombre Hantavirus Binding at DAF/CD55 Functionalized Bead Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Buranda, Tione; Swanson, Scarlett; Bondu, Virginie; Schaefer, Leah; Maclean, James; Mo, Zhenzhen; Wycoff, Keith; Belle, Archana; Hjelle, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Decay accelerating factor (DAF/CD55) is targeted by many pathogens for cell entry. It has been implicated as a co-receptor for hantaviruses. To examine the binding of hantaviruses to DAF, we describe the use of Protein G beads for binding human IgG Fc domain-functionalized DAF ((DAF)2-Fc). When mixed with Protein G beads the resulting DAF beads can be used as a generalizable platform for measuring kinetic and equilibrium binding constants of DAF binding targets. The hantavirus interaction has high affinity (24–30 nM; kon ~ 105 M−1s−1, koff ~ 0.0045 s−1). The bivalent (DAF)2-Fc/SNV data agree with hantavirus binding to DAF expressed on Tanoue B cells (Kd = 14.0 nM). Monovalent affinity interaction between SNV and recombinant DAF of 58.0 nM is determined from competition binding. This study serves a dual purpose of presenting a convenient and quantitative approach of measuring binding affinities between DAF and the many cognate viral and bacterial ligands and providing new data on the binding constant of DAF and Sin Nombre hantavirus. Knowledge of the equilibrium binding constant allows for the determination of the relative fractions of bound and free virus particles in cell entry assays. This is important for drug discovery assays for cell entry inhibitors. PMID:24618810

  20. Kinetics of immune responses in deer mice experimentally infected with Sin Nombre virus.

    PubMed

    Schountz, Tony; Acuña-Retamar, Mariana; Feinstein, Shira; Prescott, Joseph; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Podell, Brendan; Peters, Staci; Ye, Chunyan; Black, William C; Hjelle, Brian

    2012-09-01

    Deer mice are the principal reservoir hosts of Sin Nombre virus, the etiologic agent of most hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases in North America. Infection of deer mice results in persistence without conspicuous pathology, and most, if not all, infected mice remain infected for life, with periods of viral shedding. The kinetics of viral load, histopathology, virus distribution, and immune gene expression in deer mice were examined. Viral antigen was detected as early as 5 days postinfection and peaked on day 15 in the lungs, hearts, kidneys, and livers. Viral RNA levels varied substantially but peaked on day 15 in the lungs and heart, and antinucleocapsid IgG antibodies appeared in some animals on day 10, but a strong neutralizing antibody response failed to develop during the 20-day experiment. No clinical signs of disease were observed in any of the infected deer mice. Most genes were repressed on day 2, suggesting a typical early downregulation of gene expression often observed in viral infections. Several chemokine and cytokine genes were elevated, and markers of a T cell response occurred but then declined days later. Splenic transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) expression was elevated early in infection, declined, and then was elevated again late in infection. Together, these data suggest that a subtle immune response that fails to clear the virus occurs in deer mice. PMID:22787210

  1. The search for the mechanism of early sympathetic islet neuropathy (eSIN) in autoimmune diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Taborsky, Gerald J.; Mei, Qi; Hackney, Daryl J.; Mundinger, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    This review outlines our search for the mechanism causing the early loss of islet sympathetic nerves in autoimmune diabetes. Since our previous work has documented the importance of autonomic stimulation of glucagon secretion during hypoglycaemia, the loss of these nerves may contribute to the known impairment of this specific glucagon response early in human type 1 diabetes. We therefore briefly review the contribution that autonomic activation, and sympathetic neural activation in particular, makes to the subsequent glucagon response to hypoglycaemia. We also detail evidence that animal models of autoimmune diabetes mimic both the early loss of islet sympathetic nerves and the impaired glucagon response seen in human type 1 diabetes. Using data from these animal models, we examine mechanisms by which this loss of islet nerves could occur. We provide evidence that it is not due to diabetic hyperglycaemia, but it is related to the lymphocytic infiltration of the islet. Ablating the p75 neurotrophin receptor, which is present on sympathetic axons, prevents eSIN, but, interestingly, not diabetes. Thus, we appear to have separated the immune-related loss of islet sympathetic nerves from the immune-mediated destruction of islet β-cells. Finally, we speculate on a way to restore the sympathetic innervation of the islet. PMID:25200302

  2. Optimization Algorithm for Kalman Filter Exploiting the Numerical Characteristics of SINS/GPS Integrated Navigation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaoxing; Xu, Shike; Wang, Duhu; Zhang, Aiwu

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at addressing the problem of high computational cost of the traditional Kalman filter in SINS/GPS, a practical optimization algorithm with offline-derivation and parallel processing methods based on the numerical characteristics of the system is presented in this paper. The algorithm exploits the sparseness and/or symmetry of matrices to simplify the computational procedure. Thus plenty of invalid operations can be avoided by offline derivation using a block matrix technique. For enhanced efficiency, a new parallel computational mechanism is established by subdividing and restructuring calculation processes after analyzing the extracted “useful” data. As a result, the algorithm saves about 90% of the CPU processing time and 66% of the memory usage needed in a classical Kalman filter. Meanwhile, the method as a numerical approach needs no precise-loss transformation/approximation of system modules and the accuracy suffers little in comparison with the filter before computational optimization. Furthermore, since no complicated matrix theories are needed, the algorithm can be easily transplanted into other modified filters as a secondary optimization method to achieve further efficiency. PMID:26569247

  3. An Improved Alignment Method for the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng; Gao, Yanbin; Li, Guangchun; Guang, Xingxing; Li, Shutong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an innovative inertial navigation system (INS) mechanization and the associated Kalman filter (KF) are developed to implement a fine alignment for the strapdown INS (SINS) on stationary base. The improved mechanization is established in the pseudo-geographic frame, which is rebuilt based on the initial position. The new mechanization eliminates the effects of linear movement errors on the heading by decoupling. Compared with the traditional local-level mechanization, it has more advantages. The proposed algorithm requires lower coarse alignment accuracy in both the open-loop and closed-loop KFs and hence can improve the system reliability and decrease the total alignment time. Moreover, for the closed-loop KF, it can decrease oscillation caused by the system errors and improve the closed-loop system stability. In addition, the proposed algorithm can also be applied to polar alignment. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by both simulations and experiments and the results exhibit the superior performance of the proposed approach. PMID:27136565

  4. Determination of sin2 θ {w/eff} using jet charge measurements in hadronic Z decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J. P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M. N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Palla, F.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J. F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Wildish, T.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J. M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Ten Have, I.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H. G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Abt, I.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H. G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J. F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A. M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M. H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J. J.; Videau, I.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J. F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J. P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Büscher, V.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Aleppo, M.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Ragusa, F.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Bellantoni, L.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I. J.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1996-03-01

    The electroweak mixing angle is determined with high precision from measurements of the mean difference between forward and backward hemisphere charges in hadronic decays of the Z. A data sample of 2.5 million hadronic Z decays recorded over the period 1990 to 1994 in the ALEPH detector at LEP is used. The mean charge separation between event hemispheres containing the original quark and antiquark is measured forbbar b andcbar c events in subsamples selected by their long lifetimes or using fast D*’s. The corresponding average charge separation for light quarks is measured in an inclusive sample from the anticorrelation between charges of opposite hemispheres and agrees with predictions of hadronisation models with a precision of 2%. It is shown that differences between light quark charge separations and the measured average can be determined using hadronisation models, with systematic uncertainties constrained by measurements of inclusive production of kaons, protons and Λ’s. The separations are used to measure the electroweak mixing angle precisely as sin2 ϑ {w/eff}=0.2322±0.0008(exp.stat.) ±0.0007(exp.syst.)±0.0008(sep.). The first two errors are due to purely experimental sources whereas the third stems from uncertainties in the quark charge separations.

  5. New York 1 and Sin Nombre Viruses Are Serotypically Distinct Viruses Associated with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilovskaya, Irina; LaMonica, Rachel; Fay, Mary-Ellen; Hjelle, Brian; Schmaljohn, Connie; Shaw, Robert; Mackow, Erich R.

    1999-01-01

    New York 1 virus (NY-1) and Sin Nombre virus (SN) are associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). NY-1 and SN are derived from unique mammalian hosts and geographic locations but have similar G1 and G2 surface proteins (93 and 97% identical, respectively). Focus reduction neutralization assays were used to define the serotypic relationship between NY-1 and SN. Sera from NY-1-positive Peromyscus leucopus neutralized NY-1 and SN at titers of ≥1/3,200 and ≤1/400, respectively (n = 12). Conversely, SN-specific rodent sera neutralized NY-1 and SN at titers of <1/400 and 1/6,400, respectively (n = 13). Acute-phase serum from a New York HPS patient neutralized NY-1 (1/640) but not SN (<1/20), while sera from HPS patients from the southwestern United States had 4- to >16-fold-lower neutralizing titers to NY-1 than to SN. Reference sera to Hantaan, Seoul, and Prospect Hill viruses also failed to neutralize NY-1. These results indicate that SN and NY-1 define unique hantavirus serotypes and implicate the presence of additional HPS-associated hantavirus serotypes in the Americas. PMID:9854075

  6. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Sin Nombre Virus Quasispecies in Naturally Infected Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Feuer, Ralph; Boone, John D.; Netski, Dale; Morzunov, Sergey P.; St. Jeor, Stephen C.

    1999-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is thought to establish a persistent infection in its natural reservoir, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), despite a strong host immune response. SNV-specific neutralizing antibodies were routinely detected in deer mice which maintained virus RNA in the blood and lungs. To determine whether viral diversity played a role in SNV persistence and immune escape in deer mice, we measured the prevalence of virus quasispecies in infected rodents over time in a natural setting. Mark-recapture studies provided serial blood samples from naturally infected deer mice, which were sequentially analyzed for SNV diversity. Viral RNA was detected over a period of months in these rodents in the presence of circulating antibodies specific for SNV. Nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were observed in viral clones from all time points analyzed, including changes in the immunodominant domain of glycoprotein 1 and the 3′ small segment noncoding region of the genome. Viral RNA was also detected in seven different organs of sacrificed deer mice. Analysis of organ-specific viral clones revealed major disparities in the level of viral diversity between organs, specifically between the spleen (high diversity) and the lung and liver (low diversity). These results demonstrate the ability of SNV to mutate and generate quasispecies in vivo, which may have implications for viral persistence and possible escape from the host immune system. PMID:10516063

  7. Transmission Ecology of Sin Nombre Hantavirus in Naturally Infected North American Deermouse Populations in Outdoor Enclosures

    PubMed Central

    Bagamian, Karoun H.; Towner, Jonathan S.; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Douglass, Richard J.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Waller, Lance A.; Mills, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV), hosted by the North American deermouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. Most transmission studies in the host were conducted under artificial conditions, or extrapolated information from mark-recapture data. Previous studies using experimentally infected deermice were unable to demonstrate SNV transmission. We explored SNV transmission in outdoor enclosures using naturally infected deermice. Deermice acquiring SNV in enclosures had detectable viral RNA in blood throughout the acute phase of infection and acquired significantly more new wounds (indicating aggressive encounters) than uninfected deermice. Naturally-infected wild deermice had a highly variable antibody response to infection, and levels of viral RNA sustained in blood varied as much as 100-fold, even in individuals infected with identical strains of virus. Deermice that infected other susceptible individuals tended to have a higher viral RNA load than those that did not infect other deermice. Our study is a first step in exploring the transmission ecology of SNV infection in deermice and provides new knowledge about the factors contributing to the increase of the prevalence of a zoonotic pathogen in its reservoir host and to changes in the risk of HPS to human populations. The techniques pioneered in this study have implications for a wide range of zoonotic disease studies. PMID:23110096

  8. An Improved Alignment Method for the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS).

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Gao, Yanbin; Li, Guangchun; Guang, Xingxing; Li, Shutong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an innovative inertial navigation system (INS) mechanization and the associated Kalman filter (KF) are developed to implement a fine alignment for the strapdown INS (SINS) on stationary base. The improved mechanization is established in the pseudo-geographic frame, which is rebuilt based on the initial position. The new mechanization eliminates the effects of linear movement errors on the heading by decoupling. Compared with the traditional local-level mechanization, it has more advantages. The proposed algorithm requires lower coarse alignment accuracy in both the open-loop and closed-loop KFs and hence can improve the system reliability and decrease the total alignment time. Moreover, for the closed-loop KF, it can decrease oscillation caused by the system errors and improve the closed-loop system stability. In addition, the proposed algorithm can also be applied to polar alignment. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by both simulations and experiments and the results exhibit the superior performance of the proposed approach. PMID:27136565

  9. Energetic Properties and Electronic Structure of [Si,N,S] and [Si,P,S] Isomers.

    PubMed

    Finney, Brian; Fang, Zongtang; Francisco, Joseph S; Dixon, David A

    2016-03-17

    Correlated molecular orbital theory at the coupled cluster CCSD(T) level with augmented correlation consistent basis sets has been used to predict the structure and energetic properties of the isomers of [Si,N,S] and [Si,P,S]. The predicted ground states are linear (2)SNSi and cyclic (2)SPSi. The other two isomers are predicted to be ∼20 to 50 kcal/mol less stable than the ground state. The excess spin is mainly on S for (2)SNSi and on P for (2)SPSi. The calculated total atomization energies with the CBS limits derived from different methods differ by ∼2 kcal/mol. The results provide the best available heats of formation for these species. The bond dissociation energies (BDEs) in (2)SNSi are comparable to those in the corresponding diatomic molecules. For cyclic (2)SPSi, the formation of (4)P + (2)SSi requires less energy than the other bond dissociation processes. The BDEs in the higher energy isomers are substantially smaller than the corresponding diatomic species. PMID:26914520

  10. The Seven (Or More) Deadly (Or Not So Deadly) Sins of Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; Stansbury, Paul S.

    2000-06-01

    This editorial considers the errors that can occur in the routine practice of radiation protection in the workplace. This work provides a tool and an incentive for radiation protection professionals to mentally examine their radiation protection responsibilities to identify actions they may take to improve their part of the practice of radiation protection for the benefit of humankind. We introduce a rating tool that is patterned after the IAEA International Nuclear Event Scale.?Sins? discussed include ignorance of the radiological situation, failure to integrate safety management, disabling safety interlocks, warning devices, access controls, omission of''reasonable'' from the policy of''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA), extrapolation of risk beyond reason, using radiation exposure as an excuse for terminating an unwanted pregnancy, escalation of safety requirements beyond reason, failure to average a concentration standard, not responding to concerns (of workers, public, patient s, etc.), over-training, and substitution of prescriptive procedures for judgment. Readers are encouraged to look at their radiation protection activities and judge which ones do not make sense from the viewpoint of protecting people against radiation. It is likely that readers will find more than one radiation protection activity that bears scrutiny.

  11. Smokers' strategic responses to sin taxes: evidence from panel data in Thailand.

    PubMed

    White, Justin S; Ross, Hana

    2015-02-01

    In addition to quitting and cutting consumption, smokers faced with higher cigarette prices may compensate in several ways that mute the health impact of cigarette taxes. This study examines three price avoidance strategies among adult male smokers in Thailand: trading down to a lower-priced brand, buying individual sticks of cigarettes instead of packs, and substituting roll-your-own tobacco for factory-manufactured cigarettes. Using two panels of microlevel data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Study, collected in 2005 and 2006, we estimate the effects of a substantial excise tax increase implemented throughout Thailand in December 2005. We present estimates of the marginal effects and price elasticities for each of five consumer behaviors. We find that, controlling for baseline smoking characteristics, sociodemographics, and policy variables, quitting is highly sensitive to changes in cigarette prices, but so are brand choice, stick-buying, and use of roll-your-own tobacco. Neglecting such strategic responses leads to overestimates of a sin tax's health impact, and neglecting product substitution distorts estimates of the price elasticity of cigarette demand. We discuss the implications for consumer welfare and several policies that mitigate the adverse impact of consumer responses. PMID:24677731

  12. Photoreflectance study of GaN grown on SiN treated sapphire substrate by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzidi, M.; Benzarti, Z.; Halidou, I.; Chine, Z.; Bchetnia, A.; El Jani, B.

    2015-08-01

    GaN films were grown on silicon nitride (SiN) treated c-plane sapphire substrates in a home-made vertical reactor by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). In order to obtain different thickness layers, the growth procedure was interrupted at diverse stages using in-situ laser reflectometry. The structural and optical properties of obtained samples were investigated by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and photoreflectance (PR). In the 0.7-2 μm epilayer thickness range, the dislocation density decreases and remains roughly constant above this range. For fully coalesced layers, PR measurements at 11 K reveal the presence of well resolved excitonic transitions related to A, B and C excitons. A strong correlation between dislocation density and exciton linewidths is observed. Based on theoretical approaches and experimental results, the electronic band structure modification of GaN films due to isotropic biaxial strain was investigated. The valence band deformation potentials D3 and D4, interband hydrostatic deformation potentials a1 and a2, spin-orbit Δso and crystal field Δcr parameters were re-examined and found to be 8.2 eV, -4.1 eV, -3.8 eV, -12 eV, 15.6 meV and 16.5 meV, respectively.

  13. Stigmatisation and commercialisation of abortion services in Poland: turning sin into gold.

    PubMed

    Chełstowska, Agata

    2011-05-01

    This paper is about the economic consequences of the stigmatisation and illegality of abortion and its almost complete removal from public health services in Poland since the late 1980s. Once abortion left the public sphere, it entered the grey zone of private arrangements, in which a woman's private worries became someone else's private gain, and her sin turned into gold. The most important consequence was social inequality, as the right to health, life, information and safety became commodities on the free market. Women with money, who are more likely to have political influence, find this bearable, while working class women lack the political capital to protest. In the private sector, there are no government controls on price, quality of care or accountability, and almost no prosecutions. With an estimated 150,000 abortions per year, a rough estimate of US$ 95 million is being generated annually for doctors, unregistered and tax-free. Thus, the combined forces of right-wing ideology and neoliberal economic reforms have created reproductive and social injustice. To address this, stigmatisation of abortion must be countered. But a change in the political climate, a less restrictive interpretation of the law, or even a new law would not resolve the problem. Given reductions in public health care spending, abortion would remain excluded from state coverage unless neoliberal health care reforms could be reversed. PMID:21555090

  14. Reliability of the Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) among radiation oncologists: an assessment of instability secondary to spinal metastases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) categorizes tumor related spinal instability. It has the potential to streamline the referral of patients with established or potential spinal instability to a spine surgeon. This study aims to define the inter- and intra-observer reliability and validity of SINS among radiation oncologists. Methods Thirty-three radiation oncologists, across ten international sites, rated 30 neoplastic spinal disease cases. For each case, the total SINS (0-18 points), three clinical categories (stable: 0-6 points, potentially unstable: 7-12 points, and unstable: 13-18 points), and a binary scale (‘stable’: 0-6 points and ‘current or possible instability’; surgical consultation recommended: 7-18 points) were recorded. Evaluation was repeated 6-8 weeks later. Inter-observer agreement and intra-observer reproducibility were calculated by means of the kappa statistic and translated into levels of agreement (slight, fair, moderate, substantial, and excellent). Validity was determined by comparing the ratings against a spinal surgeon’s consensus standard. Results Radiation oncologists demonstrated substantial (κ = 0.76) inter-observer and excellent (κ = 0.80) intra-observer reliability when using the SINS binary scale (‘stable’ versus ‘current or possible instability’). Validity of the binary scale was also excellent (κ = 0.85) compared with the gold standard. None of the unstable cases was rated as stable by the radiation oncologists ensuring all were appropriately recommended for surgical consultation. Conclusions Among radiation oncologists SINS is a highly reliable, reproducible, and valid assessment tool to address a key question in tumor related spinal disease: Is the spine ‘stable’ or is there ‘current or possible instability’ that warrants surgical assessment? PMID:24594004

  15. SIN3A, Generally Regarded as a Transcriptional Repressor, Is Required for Induction of Gene Transcription by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Solaimani, Parrisa; Wang, Feng; Hankinson, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    CYP1A1 bioactivates several procarcinogens and detoxifies several xenobiotic compounds. Transcription of CYP1A1 is highly induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. We recently described an RNAi high throughput screening performed in the Hepa-1 mouse hepatoma cell line, which revealed that SIN3A is necessary for the induction of CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) enzymatic activity by TCDD. In the current studies, we sought to provide insight into the role of SIN3A in this process, particularly because studies on SIN3A have usually focused on its repressive activity on transcription. We report that ectopic expression of human SIN3A in Hepa-1 cells enhanced EROD induction by TCDD and efficiently rescued TCDD induction of EROD activity in cells treated with an siRNA to mouse SIN3A, thus validating a role for SIN3A in CYP1A1 induction. We demonstrate that SIN3A is required for TCDD induction of the CYP1A1 protein in Hepa-1 cells but not for expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor protein. In addition, siRNAs for SIN3A decreased TCDD-mediated induction of CYP1A1 mRNA and EROD activity in human hepatoma cell line Hep3B. We establish that TCDD treatment of Hepa-1 cells rapidly increases the degree of SIN3A binding to both the proximal promoter and enhancer of the Cyp1a1 gene and demonstrate that increased binding to the promoter also occurs in human Hep3B, HepG2, and MCF-7 cells. These studies establish that SIN3A physically interacts with the CYP1A1 gene and extends the transcriptional role of SIN3A to a gene that is very rapidly and dramatically induced. PMID:25305016

  16. Superfluid helium-4: On sin phi Josephson weak links and dissipation of third sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Joan Audrey

    2005-11-01

    This dissertation reports on two different projects---the development of an experiment designed to study weak links in 4He with a sine-like current-phase relationship and a set of experiments exploring dissipation of third sound in thick films of superfluid 4He. Since Brian Josephson's proposals of phenomena in weakly-linked macroscopic quantum systems over 40 years ago, researchers have been searching for such effects in superfluid 4He. Until recently, it has been believed that technological barriers would prevent the observation of a sine-like current-phase relationship between two weakly linked volumes of superfluid 4He. In this dissertation we report on the fabrication of sub-15nm aperture arrays and preliminary measurements helium flow through the arrays below Tlambda . These measurements show the linear temperature dependence of critical velocity expected in the phase slip regime. Efforts to study the cross-over to the sin φ regime are ongoing. We measured the frequency and line shapes of third sound resonances at temperatures between 0.3 and 2.1K in saturated films approximately 30nm thick, and, from these measurements, calculated the attenuation of the third sound waves. In the past, such measurements have been inconsistent, within as well as among reported work. More recent theory, however, suggests that these variations may point toward vortex-driven dissipation mechanisms. Metastable vortex populations are known to permeate superfluid 4He. Our measurements indicate that attenuation is a strong function of the history of the film, affected by temperature excursions and physical perturbations. We also observe frequency shifting of resonances attributable to trapped circulation and a large increase in dissipation with the introduction of 3He impurities to the film. Taken together with our observation of a dissipation mechanism linear in amplitude, our results provide support for recent proposals of dissipation due to vortex-excitation interactions.

  17. The SINS/zC-SINF Survey of z ~ 2 Galaxy Kinematics: Outflow Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard; Förster-Schreiber, Natascha M.; Shapiro Griffin, Kristen; Mancini, Chiara; Lilly, Simon J.; Renzini, Alvio; Bouché, Nicolas; Burkert, Andreas; Buschkamp, Peter; Carollo, C. Marcella; Cresci, Giovanni; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Genel, Shy; Hicks, Erin K. S.; Kurk, Jaron; Lutz, Dieter; Naab, Thorsten; Peng, Yingjie; Sternberg, Amiel; Tacconi, Linda J.; Vergani, Daniela; Wuyts, Stijn; Zamorani, Gianni

    2012-12-01

    Using SINFONI Hα, [N II], and [S II] AO data of 27 z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from the SINS and zC-SINF surveys, we explore the dependence of outflow strength (via the broad flux fraction) on various galaxy parameters. For galaxies that have evidence for strong outflows, we find that the broad emission is spatially extended to at least the half-light radius (~a few kpc). Decomposition of the [S II] doublet into broad and narrow components suggests that this outflowing gas probably has a density of ~10-100 cm-3, less than that of the star-forming gas (600 cm-3). There is a strong correlation of the Hα broad flux fraction with the star formation surface density of the galaxy, with an apparent threshold for strong outflows occurring at 1 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. Above this threshold, we find that SFGs with log m * > 10 have similar or perhaps greater wind mass-loading factors (η = \\dot{M}_out/SFR) and faster outflow velocities than lower mass SFGs, suggesting that the majority of outflowing gas at z ~ 2 may derive from high-mass SFGs. The mass-loading factor is also correlated with the star formation rate (SFR), galaxy size, and inclination, such that smaller, more star-forming, and face-on galaxies launch more powerful outflows. We propose that the observed threshold for strong outflows and the observed mass loading of these winds can be explained by a simple model wherein break-out of winds is governed by pressure balance in the disk. Based on observations at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs 076.A-0527, 079.A-0341, 080.A-0330, 080.A-0339, 080.A-0635, and 183.A-0781).

  18. Singular Value Decomposition-Based Robust Cubature Kalman Filter for AN Integrated Gps/sins Navigation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Meng, X.; Zhang, S.; Wang, Y.

    2014-03-01

    A new nonlinear robust filter is proposed in this paper to deal with the outliers of an integrated GPS/SINS navigation system. The influence of different design parameters for H∞ cubature Kalman filter is analysed. It is found that when the design parameter is smaller, the robustness of the filter is stronger. However, the design parameter is easily out of step with the Riccati equation and the filter is easy to diverge. In this respect, the singular value decomposition algorithm is employed to replace Cholesky decomposition in the robust cubature Kalman filter. On the wider conditions for design parameter, the new filter is more robust. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed filter algorithm is more reliable and effective in dealing the data sets produced by the integrated GPS/SINS system.

  19. Precise Measurement of the CP Violation Parameter sin2Φ1 in B⁰→(cc̄)K⁰ Decays

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Aziz, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bay, A.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; et al

    2012-04-23

    We present a precise measurement of the CP violation parameter sin2Φ1 and the direct CP violation parameter Af using the final data sample of 772×10⁶ BB¯¯¯ pairs collected at the Υ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e⁺e⁻ collider. One neutral B meson is reconstructed in a J/ψK0S, ψ(2S)K0S, χc1K0S, or J/ψK0L CP eigenstate and its flavor is identified from the decay products of the accompanying B meson. From the distribution of proper-time intervals between the two B decays, we obtain the following CP violation parameters: sin2Φ1=0.667±0.023(stat)±0.012(syst) and Af=0.006±0.016(stat)±0.012(syst).

  20. The Legacy of Hideki Yukawa, Sin-itiro Tomonaga, and Shoichi Sakata: Some Aspects from their Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konuma, Michiji; Bando, Masako; Gotoh, Haruyoshi; Hayakawa, Hisao; Hirata, Kohji; Ito, Kazuyuki; Ito, Kenji; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Konagaya, Daisuke; Kugo, Taichiro; Namba, Chusei; Nishitani, Tadashi; Takaiwa, Yoshinobu; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Tanaka, Kio; Tanaka, Sho; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Yoshikawa, Tadashi

    Hideki Yukawa, Sin-itiro Tomonaga and Shoichi Sakata pioneered nuclear and particle physics and left enduring legacies. Their friendly collaboration and severe competition laid the foundation to bring up the active postwar generation of nuclear and particle physicists in Japan. In this presentation we illustrate milestones of nuclear and particle physics in Japan from 1930's to mid-1940's which have been clarified in Yukawa Hall Archival Library, Tomonaga Memorial Room and Sakata Memorial Archival Library.

  1. Study of Charge Trap Sites in SiN Films by Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosemura, Daisuke; Takei, Munehisa; Nagata, Kohki; Akamatsu, Hiroaki; Hattori, Maki; Katayama, Daisuke; Nishita, Tatsuo; Hirota, Yoshihiro; Machida, Masatake; Son, Jin-Young; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Hirosawa, Ichiro; Ogura, Atsushi

    2010-04-01

    Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAX-PES) was performed at SPring-8, and has enabled us to study the bulk properties of SiN films deposited by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and deeply buried SiN/SiO2 interfaces, owing to the large inelastic mean free path of a photoelectron with a high kinetic energy. The defect states in the SiN films were examined by HAX-PES in order to verify the charge-trapping mechanism in a silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon flash memory device. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) was also performed at SPring-8. There is a complementary relationship between photoelectron spectroscopy and XRR. This methodology is proposed in this paper as a powerful tool for examining material properties. The detailed depth profile analysis of the chemical states in the SiN films obtained by angle-resolved HAX-PES also helped us to examine the charge-trapping mechanism.

  2. The devil is in the details: the seven deadly sins of organizing and continuing interprofessional education in the US.

    PubMed

    Clark, Phillip G

    2011-09-01

    In spite of increased calls for expanding interprofessional practice (IPP) in the US health care system to address concerns about patient safety and quality of care, there has not been a corresponding dramatic growth in interprofessional education (IPE) programs. Indeed, the history of IPE in the US has been a roller-coaster ride of gains and losses, successes and failures. Understanding why this has been so requires the development of a personal and political economy framework, based on an understanding of the structural, ideological, and economic factors and forces that characterize IPE in American higher education. Using a metaphor of the seven deadly sins (lust, pride, greed, gluttony, envy, sloth, and wrath), this discussion focuses on both things that should not be done (sins of commission) and those that should be done but are not (sins of omission) to create successful and sustainable IPE programs. Taken together, these factors help to frame a perspective on IPE that highlights the essential knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed by faculty and administrators to create, implement, and - most importantly - sustain successful programs. Implications of this framework for promoting increased IPE are discussed, particularly with respect to insuring its successful continuation into the future. PMID:21823881

  3. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut) but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2. PMID:23231956

  4. Biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis requires an endoribonuclease-containing multisubunit complex that controls mRNA levels for the matrix gene repressor SinR.

    PubMed

    DeLoughery, Aaron; Dengler, Vanina; Chai, Yunrong; Losick, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis is largely governed by a circuit in which the response regulator Spo0A turns on the gene for the anti-repressor SinI. SinI, in turn, binds to and inactivates SinR, a dedicated repressor of genes for matrix production. Mutants of the genes ylbF, ymcA and yaaT are blocked in biofilm formation, but the mechanism by which they act has been mysterious. A recent report attributed their role in biofilm formation to stimulating Spo0A activity. However, we detect no measurable effect on the transcription of sinI. Instead, we find that the block in biofilm formation is caused by an increase in the levels of SinR and of its mRNA. Evidence is presented that YlbF, YmcA and YaaT interact with, and control the activity of, RNase Y, which is known to destabilize sinR mRNA. We also show that the processing of another target of RNase Y, cggR-gapA mRNA, similarly depends on YlbF and YmcA. Our work suggests that sinR mRNA stability is an additional posttranscriptional control mechanism governing the switch to multicellularity and raises the possibility that YlbF, YmcA and YaaT broadly regulate mRNA stability as part of an RNase Y-containing, multi-subunit complex. PMID:26434553

  5. Selective inhibition of SIN3 corepressor with avermectins as a novel therapeutic strategy in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yeon-Jin; Petrie, Kevin; Leibovitch, Boris A.; Zeng, Lei; Mezei, Mihaly; Howell, Louise; Gil, Veronica; Christova, Rossitza; Bansal, Nidhi; Yang, Shuai; Sharma, Rajal; Ariztia, Edgardo V.; Frankum, Jessica; Brough, Rachel; Sbirkov, Yordan; Ashworth, Alan; Lord, Christopher J.; Zelent, Arthur; Farias, Eduardo; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Waxman, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) lacking estrogen, progesterone and HER2 receptors account for 10–20% of breast cancer and are indicative of poor prognosis. The development of effective treatment strategies therefore represents a pressing unmet clinical need. We previously identified a molecularly-targeted approach to target aberrant epigenetics of TNBC using a peptide corresponding to the SIN3 interaction domain (SID) of MAD. SID peptide selectively blocked binding of SID-containing proteins to the paired α-helix (PAH2) domain of SIN3, resulting in epigenetic and transcriptional modulation of genes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To find small molecule inhibitor (SMI) mimetics of SID peptide we performed an in silico screen for PAH2 domain-binding compounds. This led to the identification of the avermectin macrocyclic lactone derivatives selamectin and ivermectin (Mectizan) as candidate compounds. Both selamectin and ivermectin phenocopied the effects of SID peptide to block SIN3-PAH2 interaction with MAD, induce expression of CDH1 and ESR1 and restore tamoxifen sensitivity in MDA-MB-231 human and MMTV-Myc mouse TNBC cells in vitro. Treatment with selamectin or ivermectin led to transcriptional modulation of genes associated with EMT and maintenance of a cancer stem cell phenotype in TNBC cells. This resulted in impairment of clonogenic self-renewal in vitro and inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Underlining the potential of avermectins in TNBC, pathway analysis revealed that selamectin also modulated the expression of therapeutically-targetable genes. Consistent with this, an unbiased drug screen in TNBC cells identified selamectin-induced sensitization to a number of drugs, including those targeting modulated genes. PMID:26078298

  6. Surface donor states distribution post SiN passivation of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Nitin; Fjeldly, Tor A.

    2014-07-21

    In this paper, we present a physics based analytical model to describe the effect of SiN passivation on two-dimensional electron gas density and surface barrier height in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The model is based on an extraction technique to calculate surface donor density and surface donor level at the SiN/AlGaN interface. The model is in good agreement with the experimental results and promises to become a useful tool in advanced design and characterization of GaN based heterostructures.

  7. Hamster-adapted Sin Nombre virus causes disseminated infection and efficiently replicates in pulmonary endothelial cells without signs of disease.

    PubMed

    Safronetz, David; Prescott, Joseph; Haddock, Elaine; Scott, Dana P; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2013-04-01

    To date, a laboratory animal model for the study of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) infection or associated disease has not been described. Unlike infection with Andes virus, which causes lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)-like disease in hamsters, SNV infection is short-lived, with no viremia and little dissemination. Here we investigated the effect of passaging SNV in hamsters. We found that a host-adapted SNV achieves prolonged and disseminated infection in hamsters, including efficient replication in pulmonary endothelial cells, albeit without signs of disease. PMID:23388711

  8. The stress-related, rhizobial small RNA RcsR1 destabilizes the autoinducer synthase encoding mRNA sinI in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Baumgardt, Kathrin; Šmídová, Klára; Rahn, Helen; Lochnit, Günter; Robledo, Marta; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent communication system of bacteria relying on autoinducer molecules. During the analysis of the post-transcriptional regulation of quorum sensing in the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, we predicted and verified a direct interaction between the 5'-UTR of sinI mRNA encoding the autoinducer synthase and a small RNA (sRNA), which we named RcsR1. In vitro, RcsR1 prevented cleavage in the 5'-UTR of sinI by RNase E and impaired sinI translation. In line with low ribosomal occupancy and transcript destabilization upon binding of RcsR1 to sinI, overproduction of RcsR1 in S. meliloti resulted in lower level and shorter half-life of sinI mRNA, and in decreased autoinducer amount. Although RcsR1 can influence quorum sensing via sinI, its level did not vary at different cell densities, but decreased under salt stress and increased at low temperature. We found that RcsR1 and its stress-related expression pattern, but not the interaction with sinI homologs, are conserved in Sinorhizobium, Rhizobium and Agrobacterium. Consistently, overproduction of RcsR1 in S. meliloti and Agrobacterium tumefaciens inhibited growth at high salinity. We identified conserved targets of RcsR1 and showed that most conserved interactions and the effect on growth under salt stress are mediated by the first stem-loop of RcsR1, while its central part is responsible for the species-specific interaction with sinI. We conclude that RcsR1 is an ancient, stress-related riboregulator in rhizobia and propose that it links stress responses to quorum sensing in S. meliloti. PMID:26588798

  9. The stress-related, rhizobial small RNA RcsR1 destabilizes the autoinducer synthase encoding mRNA sinI in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Baumgardt, Kathrin; Šmídová, Klára; Rahn, Helen; Lochnit, Günter; Robledo, Marta; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent communication system of bacteria relying on autoinducer molecules. During the analysis of the post-transcriptional regulation of quorum sensing in the nitrogen fixing plant symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, we predicted and verified a direct interaction between the 5'-UTR of sinI mRNA encoding the autoinducer synthase and a small RNA (sRNA), which we named RcsR1. In vitro, RcsR1 prevented cleavage in the 5'-UTR of sinI by RNase E and impaired sinI translation. In line with low ribosomal occupancy and transcript destabilization upon binding of RcsR1 to sinI, overproduction of RcsR1 in S. meliloti resulted in lower level and shorter half-life of sinI mRNA, and in decreased autoinducer amount. Although RcsR1 can influence quorum sensing via sinI, its level did not vary at different cell densities, but decreased under salt stress and increased at low temperature. We found that RcsR1 and its stress-related expression pattern, but not the interaction with sinI homologs, are conserved in Sinorhizobium, Rhizobium and Agrobacterium. Consistently, overproduction of RcsR1 in S. meliloti and Agrobacterium tumefaciens inhibited growth at high salinity. We identified conserved targets of RcsR1 and showed that most conserved interactions and the effect on growth under salt stress are mediated by the first stem-loop of RcsR1, while its central part is responsible for the species-specific interaction with sinI. We conclude that RcsR1 is an ancient, stress-related riboregulator in rhizobia and propose that it links stress responses to quorum sensing in S. meliloti. PMID:26588798

  10. Tube-shaped Pirani gauge for in situ hermeticity monitoring of SiN thin-film encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santagata, F.; Creemer, J. F.; Iervolino, E.; Sarro, P. M.

    2012-10-01

    Here the integration of a tube-shaped Pirani gauge with a SiN thin-film encapsulation process is presented. The tube geometry gives the sensor a very low detection limit with a small footprint, since the tube is buried under the silicon surface. The Pirani tube is very suitable for in situ evaluation of MEMS vacuum packaging. Moreover, since the Pirani gap is all around the tube and deep below the silicon surface, the deflection of the encapsulation shell is not a concern and wafer-level measurement of the device is possible. Pirani tubes with different lengths are encapsulated inside SiN micropackages in order to measure the resulting vacuum level achieved after the encapsulation step. The longest tube shows a detection limit of 0.1 Pa for a noise level of 50 μV and it has a footprint of only 0.006 mm2. The pressure inside the sealed micropackage was extracted to be 0.7 kPa. Furthermore, the pressure is monitored over time to evaluate the hermeticity of the packages. A leak rate of 8× 10-18 Pa m3 s-1 was measured over four months time.

  11. Review of the chronostratigraphic charts in the Sinú-San Jacinto basin based on new seismic stratigraphic interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Esteban; Holz, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Disperse and punctual studies; absence of integration of data ranging from local to regional focus; interpretations based only on lithostratigraphic features; and interpretation of data premised on an allochthonous origin of the Caribbean plate, are some of factors that increase the confusion and uncertainty in understanding the Sinú-San Jacinto Basin. The sedimentary record of Upper Cretaceous to Eocene has been traditionally interpreted as the record of deep-water settings. However, recently these sediments have been related to shallow marine and deltaic settings. Second problematic point is about the deposition environment of the Oligocene to Late Miocene succession. Some studies suggest canyons, turbidites and sediments deposited in deep-water settings. However, recent studies propose deltaic and shallow marine settings. The last stratigraphic problem is related to the controversial fluvial vs. shallow marine interpretations of the Pliocene sediments. Based upon seismic stratigraphic analysis in recent and reprocessed 2D seismic data, integrated with well data, we propose chronostratigraphic charts for the northern, central and southern zones of the Sinú-San Jacinto Basin. Twenty seismic facies based on amplitude, continuity, frequency and geometry of seismic reflectors and twelve seismic sequences were recognized. The seismic stratigraphic analysis in this study suggests that the sediments of Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene/Eocene were associated to continental to shallow marine settings. Lagoons, coastal plain and carbonate platform dominated during this period. The Oligocene to Middle Miocene record was characterized by deep-water deposition, whereas the Late Miocene to recent sedimentation was characterized by falling base level, characterized by deltaic and fluvial deposits. Five syn-rift sequences with wedge-shaped geometry were identified in this study. Three Triassic to Jurassic syn-rift sequences were characterized by seismic facies typical of fluvial

  12. Investigation of cascaded SiN microring resonators at 1.3 µm and 1.5 µm.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Vanessa; Lützow, Peter; Weiland, Martin; Pergande, Daniel

    2013-11-18

    An optical device operating at wavelengths around 1.3 µm and 1.5 µm is demonstrated experimentally. It is based on cascaded microring resonators (CMRRs) and the Vernier effect (VE). The architecture consists of two microring resonators (MRRs) connected via a common waveguide; two waveguides were added for the interrogation of CMRRs. The free spectral ranges of both MRRs are slightly different in order to activate the VE, which is known to enhance the sensitivity in optical sensors. CMRRs were fabricated on a silicon nitride (SiN) platform. Two types of buffer layers-benzocyclobutene (BCB) polymer and thermal silicon oxide (SiOx)-were tested. A study of CMRRs was carried out with three structures of different structural parameters. The experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical analysis. This approach is promising for the fabrication of highly sensitive optical sensors in wide operating wavelength range. PMID:24514273

  13. Sin(2φ) component in the current-phase relation of SFS Josephson junctions near the 0-π transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Rusanov, A. Yu.; Oboznov, V. A.; Bolginov, V. V.; Rossolenko, A. N.; Ryazanov, V. V.; van Harlingen, D. J.

    2009-03-01

    We directly determined the Josephson current-phase relation (CPR) of superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor (SFS) junctions by rf-SQUID interferometry, and corroborated it with measurements of the critical current as a function of temperature and magnetic field and rf-induced Shapiro steps in the current-voltage characteristics. Our Nb-Cu47Ni53-Nb trilayer junctions, with 2x2μm^2 area and 7nm CuNi thickness, show a transition with temperature from the usual Josephson 0-junction state to a π-junction state, defined by a phase difference of π in the ground state, at temperatures between 1.5K and 3.5K. Near the transition, we observe second harmonics in the CPR, deviations from the usual Fraunhofer diffraction pattern and half-integer Shapiro steps, all consistent with a sin(2φ) component in the CPR.

  14. Determination of sin{sup 2}θ{sub W} using ν (ν{sup ¯})-nucleus scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Haider, H.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Simo, I. Ruiz

    2015-05-15

    We have studied nonisoscalarity and medium effects in the extraction of weak mixing angle using Paschos and Wolfenstein relation in the iron nucleus. Paschos and Wolfenstein(PW) relation is valid for an isoscalar target. We have modified the PW relation for nonisoscalar target as well as incorporated the medium effects like Pauli blocking, Fermi motion, nuclear binding energy and pion rho cloud contributions. In our calculations we have used the relativistic nuclear spectral function which includes nucleon correlations. Finally local density approximation is applied to translate the numerical results to the finite nuclei. We have studied the dependence of sin{sup 2}θ{sub W} on Bjorken variables x and y, four momentum transfer square (Q{sup 2}), energy of the neutrino and antineutrino, and effect of excess neutrons over protons in the nuclear target.

  15. Influence of SST from Pacific and Atlantic Ocean and atmospheric circulation in the precipitation regime of basin from Brazilian SIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, M. D.; Ramos, C. G.; Madeira, P.; de Macedo, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    The South American climate presents tropical, subtropical and extratropical features because of its territorial extension, being influenced by a variety of dynamical systems with different spatial and temporal scales which result in different climatic regimes in their subregions. Furthermore, the precipitation regime in South America is influenced by low-frequency phenomena as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic dipole and the Madden Julian Oscilation (MJO), in other words, is directly influenced by variations of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Due to the importance of the precipitation for many sectors including the planning of productive activities, such as agriculture, livestock and hydropower energy, many studies about climate variations in Brazil have tried to determine and explain the mechanisms that affect the precipitation regime. However, because of complexity of the climate system, and consequently of their impacts on the global precipitation regime, its interactions are not totally understood and therefore misrepresented in numerical models used to forecast climate. The precipitation pattern over hydrographic basin which form the Brasilian National Interconnected System (Sistema Interligado Nacional-SIN) are not yet known and therefore the climate forecast of these regions still presents considerable failure that need to be corrected due to its economic importance. In this context, the purpose here is to determine the precipitation patterns on the Brazilian SIN, based on SST and circulation observed data. In a second phase a forecast climate model for these regions will be produced. In this first moment 30 years (1983 to 2012) of SST over Pacific and Atlantic Ocean were analyzed, along with wind in 850 and 200 hPa and precipitation observed data. The precipitation patterns were analyzed through statistical analyses for interannual (ENSO) and intraseasonal (MJO) anomalies for these variables over the SIN basin. Subsequently, these

  16. Haploinsufficiency of MeCP2-interacting transcriptional co-repressor SIN3A causes mild intellectual disability by affecting the development of cortical integrity.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Josefine S; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Dombroski, Thaís C D; van Bakel, Nick H M; Nillesen, Willy M; van Hulten, Josephus A; Jansen, Eric J R; Verkaik, Dave; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A; Wassink-Ruiter, Jolien S Klein; Vincent, Marie; David, Albert; Le Caignec, Cedric; Schieving, Jolanda; Gilissen, Christian; Foulds, Nicola; Rump, Patrick; Strom, Tim; Cremer, Kirsten; Zink, Alexander M; Engels, Hartmut; de Munnik, Sonja A; Visser, Jasper E; Brunner, Han G; Martens, Gerard J M; Pfundt, Rolph; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Kolk, Sharon M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous genes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their dysfunction is often poorly characterized. Here we identified dominant mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor and MeCP2 interactor switch-insensitive 3 family member A (SIN3A; chromosome 15q24.2) in individuals who, in addition to mild intellectual disability and ASD, share striking features, including facial dysmorphisms, microcephaly and short stature. This phenotype is highly related to that of individuals with atypical 15q24 microdeletions, linking SIN3A to this microdeletion syndrome. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed subtle abnormalities, including corpus callosum hypoplasia and ventriculomegaly. Intriguingly, in vivo functional knockdown of Sin3a led to reduced cortical neurogenesis, altered neuronal identity and aberrant corticocortical projections in the developing mouse brain. Together, our data establish that haploinsufficiency of SIN3A is associated with mild syndromic intellectual disability and that SIN3A can be considered to be a key transcriptional regulator of cortical brain development. PMID:27399968

  17. Targeting the SIN3A-PF1 interaction inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition and maintenance of a stem cell phenotype in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Nidhi; Petrie, Kevin; Leibovitch, Boris A.; Howell, Louise; Gil, Veronica; Sbirkov, Yordan; Lee, EunJee; Wexler, Joanna; Ariztia, Edgardo V.; Sharma, Rajal; Zhu, Jun; Bernstein, Emily; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Zelent, Arthur; Farias, Eduardo; Waxman, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by a poorly differentiated phenotype and limited treatment options. Aberrant epigenetics in this subtype represent a potential therapeutic opportunity, but a better understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the TNBC pathogenesis is required. The SIN3 molecular scaffold performs a critical role in multiple cellular processes, including epigenetic regulation, and has been identified as a potential therapeutic target. Using a competitive peptide corresponding to the SIN3 interaction domain of MAD (Tat-SID), we investigated the functional consequences of selectively blocking the paired amphipathic α-helix (PAH2) domain of SIN3. Here, we report the identification of the SID-containing adaptor PF1 as a factor required for maintenance of the TNBC stem cell phenotype and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Tat-SID peptide blocked the interaction between SIN3A and PF1, leading to epigenetic modulation and transcriptional downregulation of TNBC stem cell and EMT markers. Importantly, Tat-SID treatment also led to a reduction in primary tumor growth and disseminated metastatic disease in vivo. In support of these findings, knockdown of PF1 expression phenocopied treatment with Tat-SID both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate a critical role for a complex containing SIN3A and PF1 in TNBC and provide a rational for its therapeutic targeting. PMID:26460951

  18. Chronic kidney disease certification process manual by the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN): Part I: clinical care delivery and performance measurements and improvement.

    PubMed

    Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Cappelli, Gianni; Lodetti, Laura; Manno, Corrado; Petrucci, Virgilio; Spinelli, Cosimo; Tarchini, Renzo; Virgilio, Michele; Faini, Mario; Alloatti, Sandro; Cancarini, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney diseases (CKD) has now emerged as a public health priority, and there is an increasing demand by patients and health care organisations that the quality of care delivered by renal units to CKD patients be systematically monitored and evaluated. The Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN) has started an initiative aimed at promoting a quality certification process specifically focused on CKD. To this end, SIN started a collaboration with an independent Italian company which is a partner of Joint Commission International (JCI), a nonprofit international organisation dedicated to the promotion of quality improvement and safety of health services. As a result of this collaboration, a document describing a voluntary certification process developed based on JCI criteria was produced by SIN. This document comprises 2 parts. Herein (Part I) we deal with standards for clinical care delivery and performance measurements related to CKD care. Programme management and clinical information management will be presented in a separate manuscript (Part II). PMID:19662596

  19. Impacts of SiN passivation on the degradation modes of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors under reverse-bias stress

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Wei; Ma, Xiao-Hua E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn; Hou, Bin; Zhu, Jie-Jie; Chen, Yong-He; Zheng, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Hao, Yue E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn

    2014-10-27

    Impacts of SiN passivation on the degradation modes of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors are investigated. The gate leakage current decreases significantly upon removing the SiN layer and no clear critical voltage for the sudden degradation of the gate leakage current can be observed in the reverse-bias step-stress experiments. Gate-lag measurements reveal the decrease of the fast-state surface traps and the increase of slow-state traps after the passivation layer removal. It is postulated that consistent surface charging relieves the electric field peak on the gate edge, thus the inverse piezoelectric effect is shielded.

  20. Top-gated graphene field-effect transistors by low-temperature synthesized SiN x insulator on SiC substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Yasuhide; Kanai, Yasushi; Mori, Yuki; Nagase, Masao; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Top-gated devices made from an epitaxial graphene film on a 4H-SiC substrate were fabricated. Atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy results showed that a large-scale highly uniform monolayer graphene film was synthesized on the SiC substrate. A SiN x passivation film was deposited on a SiC graphene device as a top gate insulator by catalytic chemical-vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) below 65 °C. After the top gate electrode was formed on the SiN x film, no leakage current flowed between the gate and source electrodes. The transport characteristics showed clear ambipolar characteristics from 8 to 280 K, and the temperature dependences of the conductance and field-effect mobility of the devices implied that monolayer graphene devices can be successfully fabricated. Moreover, the position of the charge neutrality point after SiN x deposition was around 0 V, indicating p-doping characteristics. These results indicate that SiN x films synthesized by Cat-CVD can be used as gate insulators and that the carrier type may be controlled by adjusting the deposition conditions.

  1. An array of cold-electron bolometers with SIN tunnel junctions and JFET readout for cosmology instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, L.

    2008-02-01

    A novel concept of the parallel/series array of Cold-Electron Bolometers (CEB) with Superconductor-Insulator-Normal (SIN) Tunnel Junctions has been proposed. The concept was developed specially for matching the CEB with JFET amplifier at conditions of high optical power load. The CEB is a planar antenna-coupled superconducting detector with high sensitivity. For combination of effective HF operation and low noise properties the current-biased CEBs are connected in series for DC and in parallel for HF signal. A signal is concentrated from an antenna to the absorber through the capacitance of the tunnel junctions and through additional capacitance for coupling of superconducting islands. Using array of CEBs the applications can be considerably extended to higher power load by distributing the power between N CEBs and decreasing the electron temperature. Due to increased responsivity the noise matching is so effective that photon NEP could be easily achieved at 300 mK with a room temperature JFET for wide range of optical power loads. The concept of the CEB array has been developed for the BOOMERanG balloon telescope and other Cosmology instruments.

  2. Dynamics of a surface-modified miniaturized SiN mechanical resonator via a nanometer-scale pore array.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Joong; Cho, Myung Rae; Kim, Seunghwan; Park, Yun Daniel; Kouh, Taejoon

    2016-05-13

    We have fabricated porous miniaturized SiN resonators with various dimensions and studied their mechanical dynamics at their resonant modes. The surface modification of the resonators has been achieved by etching through a thin porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) mask, prepared by two-step anodization. Even though these porous resonators show well-defined Lorentzian line-shapes at their resonant modes, the corresponding fundamental flexural resonance frequencies are lower than those from typical non-porous resonators. The change in the resonance frequency is due to the presence of the pores on the surface, which reduces the effective tensile stress across the beam structure, as shown from both experimental measurements and the computational model. In addition, the observed quality factor reveals the level of dissipation originating from the surface modification. The principal dissipation mechanism is found to be gas damping in the free molecular flow regime. Based on the dissipation measurement, one can see an increase in the surface-to-mass ratio, which is responsible for the increased dissipation in the porous beam structure. The work presented here demonstrates simple integration of mechanical elements with a nanopatterning technique based on an AAO as well as the tuning of mechanics via surface modification at a small scale. Such a scheme could provide an additional degree of freedom in developing a mechanical sensing element with enhanced effective surface area. PMID:27039942

  3. Al Incorporation at All Growth Stages of Al x Ga1- x N Epilayers Using SiN Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzarti, Z.; Halidou, I.; Touré, A.; El Jani, B.

    2016-02-01

    Al compositional distribution of Al x Ga1- x N epilayers grown on SiN-treated sapphire substrate by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is investigated. The growth process was interrupted at various stages allowing a systematic study of Al x Ga1- x N epilayers during the smoothing process. A transition from three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) growth mode is revealed by in situ laser reflectometry (λ = 632.8 nm) as well as by atomic force microscopic images. Then, ion mass spectrometry analysis was performed to obtain the solid Al composition ( x) profile as well as by photoluminescence measurements. Moreover, the in situ reflectivity signal is simulated; thereby Al x Ga1- x N growth rate is derived and compared with that of GaN layer in order to study the effect of the aluminum incorporation on the growth mechanism. It is worth emphasising that the growth mode of Al x Ga1- x N layers is dictated by SiN treatment, which influences the Al compositional distribution. Electron mobility and refractive index against the thickness of Al x Ga1- x N layers have similar trends, which confirm a competitive mechanism between growth mode and Al incorporation. Therefore, the correlation between the Al composition and morphological, optical, and electrical properties of Al x Ga1- x N layers is established.

  4. High-temperature ultraviolet detection based on surface photovoltage effect in SiN passivated n-GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys, M.; Adamowicz, B.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Taube, A.; Kruszka, R.; Piotrowska, A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the surface photovoltage (SPV) effect in n-GaN layers passivated with various insulators, i.e., Al2O3, SiO2, and SiN for ultraviolet (UV) light detection. We revealed that SPV in SiN/GaN shows markedly different behaviour than in oxide/GaN, i.e., the photo-signal exhibited very fast response (1 s) and recovery (2 s) times, contrary to oxide/GaN, and it was thermally stable up to 523 K. Furthermore, SPV spectra for SiN/GaN showed a sharp cut-off edge directly corresponding to the GaN band gap. We explained these results in terms of the different band structure of SiN/GaN and oxide/GaN junctions. All the observed properties of SPV response from SiN/GaN indicate that this relatively simple system can be applied to sensitive high temperature visible-blind UV detection.

  5. Dynamics of a surface-modified miniaturized SiN mechanical resonator via a nanometer-scale pore array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Joong; Cho, Myung Rae; Kim, Seunghwan; Park, Yun Daniel; Kouh, Taejoon

    2016-05-01

    We have fabricated porous miniaturized SiN resonators with various dimensions and studied their mechanical dynamics at their resonant modes. The surface modification of the resonators has been achieved by etching through a thin porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) mask, prepared by two-step anodization. Even though these porous resonators show well-defined Lorentzian line-shapes at their resonant modes, the corresponding fundamental flexural resonance frequencies are lower than those from typical non-porous resonators. The change in the resonance frequency is due to the presence of the pores on the surface, which reduces the effective tensile stress across the beam structure, as shown from both experimental measurements and the computational model. In addition, the observed quality factor reveals the level of dissipation originating from the surface modification. The principal dissipation mechanism is found to be gas damping in the free molecular flow regime. Based on the dissipation measurement, one can see an increase in the surface-to-mass ratio, which is responsible for the increased dissipation in the porous beam structure. The work presented here demonstrates simple integration of mechanical elements with a nanopatterning technique based on an AAO as well as the tuning of mechanics via surface modification at a small scale. Such a scheme could provide an additional degree of freedom in developing a mechanical sensing element with enhanced effective surface area.

  6. Tumor suppressor SMAR1 mediates cyclin D1 repression by recruitment of the SIN3/histone deacetylase 1 complex.

    PubMed

    Rampalli, Shravanti; Pavithra, L; Bhatt, Altaf; Kundu, Tapas K; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2005-10-01

    Matrix attachment region binding proteins have been shown to play an important role in gene regulation by altering chromatin in a stage- and tissue-specific manner. Our previous studies report that SMAR1, a matrix-associated protein, regresses B16-F1-induced tumors in mice. Here we show SMAR1 targets the cyclin D1 promoter, a gene product whose dysregulation is attributed to breast malignancies. Our studies reveal that SMAR1 represses cyclin D1 gene expression, which can be reversed by small interfering RNA specific to SMAR1. We demonstrate that SMAR1 interacts with histone deacetylation complex 1, SIN3, and pocket retinoblastomas to form a multiprotein repressor complex. This interaction is mediated by the SMAR1(160-350) domain. Our data suggest SMAR1 recruits a repressor complex to the cyclin D1 promoter that results in deacetylation of chromatin at that locus, which spreads to a distance of at least the 5 kb studied upstream of the cyclin D1 promoter. Interestingly, we find that the high induction of cyclin D1 in breast cancer cell lines can be correlated to the decreased levels of SMAR1 in these lines. Our results establish the molecular mechanism exhibited by SMAR1 to regulate cyclin D1 by modification of chromatin. PMID:16166625

  7. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on palynofacies analyses of the Cansona Formation (Late Cretaceous), Sinú-San Jacinto Basin, northwest Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliao-Lemus, Tatiana; Carvalho, Marcelo de Araujo; Torres, Diego; Plata, Angelo; Parra, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    To reconstruct the paleoenvironments of the Cansona Formation, a Cretaceous succession in Colombia that has controversial paleoenvironmental interpretation, occasionally deep marine and occasionally shallow marine, palynofacies analyses were conducted on 93 samples from four sections of the Sinú San Jacinto Basin in the north, midwest, and southwest sectors. For the palynofacies analyses, the kerogen categories were counted and subjected to cluster analyses. Four palynofacies associations were revealed for the four sections: Palynofacies Association I (PA I), which consisted of microforaminiferal linings, scolecodonts, dinoflagellate cysts, pollen grains, and fungi hyphae; PA II, which consisted of phytoclast translucent non-biostructured and biostructured, opaque phytoclasts (equidimensional and lath shaped); PA III, which consisted of pseudoamorphous particles, cuticles, resin, and fungal spores; and PA IV, which consisted of fluorescent and non-fluorescent amorphous organic matter and the fresh-water algae Botryococcus. In contrast to early studies that suggested a generalization of the depositional environment for the Cansona Formation (deep or shallow conditions), this study suggests that the formation reflects conspicuous stratigraphic and lateral changes and hence different depositional environments. The Cerro Cansona (CC4 section) and Chalán (AP section) areas are a more marine proximal settings (Early Campanian-Maastrichtian), and there is an intermediate setting for the Lorica area (SC section) and deeper conditions for the Montería area (CP2 section).

  8. pSIN: A scalable, Parallel algorithm for Seismic INterferometry of large-N ambient-noise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po; Taylor, Nicholas J.; Dueker, Ken G.; Keifer, Ian S.; Wilson, Andra K.; McGuffy, Casey L.; Novitsky, Christopher G.; Spears, Alec J.; Holbrook, W. Steven

    2016-08-01

    Seismic interferometry is a technique for extracting deterministic signals (i.e., ambient-noise Green's functions) from recordings of ambient-noise wavefields through cross-correlation and other related signal processing techniques. The extracted ambient-noise Green's functions can be used in ambient-noise tomography for constructing seismic structure models of the Earth's interior. The amount of calculations involved in the seismic interferometry procedure can be significant, especially for ambient-noise datasets collected by large seismic sensor arrays (i.e., "large-N" data). We present an efficient parallel algorithm, named pSIN (Parallel Seismic INterferometry), for solving seismic interferometry problems on conventional distributed-memory computer clusters. The design of the algorithm is based on a two-dimensional partition of the ambient-noise data recorded by a seismic sensor array. We pay special attention to the balance of the computational load, inter-process communication overhead and memory usage across all MPI processes and we minimize the total number of I/O operations. We have tested the algorithm using a real ambient-noise dataset and obtained a significant amount of savings in processing time. Scaling tests have shown excellent strong scalability from 80 cores to over 2000 cores.

  9. Population Density and Seasonality Effects on Sin Nombre Virus Transmission in North American Deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus) in Outdoor Enclosures

    PubMed Central

    Bagamian, Karoun H.; Douglass, Richard J.; Alvarado, Arlene; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Amman, Brian R.; Waller, Lance A.; Mills, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Surveys of wildlife host-pathogen systems often document clear seasonal variation in transmission; conclusions concerning the relationship between host population density and transmission vary. In the field, effects of seasonality and population density on natural disease cycles are challenging to measure independently, but laboratory experiments may poorly reflect what happens in nature. Outdoor manipulative experiments are an alternative that controls for some variables in a relatively natural environment. Using outdoor enclosures, we tested effects of North American deermouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) population density and season on transmission dynamics of Sin Nombre hantavirus. In early summer, mid-summer, late summer, and fall 2007–2008, predetermined numbers of infected and uninfected adult wild deermice were released into enclosures and trapped weekly or bi-weekly. We documented 18 transmission events and observed significant seasonal effects on transmission, wounding frequency, and host breeding condition. Apparent differences in transmission incidence or wounding frequency between high- and low-density treatments were not statistically significant. However, high host density was associated with a lower proportion of males with scrotal testes. Seasonality may have a stronger influence on disease transmission dynamics than host population density, and density effects cannot be considered independent of seasonality. PMID:22768034

  10. THE SINS/zC-SINF SURVEY OF z {approx} 2GALAXY KINEMATICS: THE NATURE OF DISPERSION-DOMINATED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Buschkamp, Peter; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Kurk, Jaron; Lutz, Dieter; Shapiro Griffin, Kristen; Mancini, Chiara; Renzini, Alvio; Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Peng, Yingjie; Bouche, Nicolas; Burkert, Andreas; Cresci, Giovanni; Genel, Shy; Hicks, Erin K. S.; Naab, Thorsten; and others

    2013-04-20

    We analyze the spectra, spatial distributions, and kinematics of H{alpha}, [N II], and [S II] emission in a sample of 38, z {approx} 2.2 UV/optically selected star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from the SINS and zC-SINF surveys, 34 of which were observed in the adaptive optics mode of SINFONI and 30 of those contain data presented for the first time here. This is supplemented by kinematic data from 43 z {approx} 1-2.5 galaxies from the literature. None of these 81 galaxies is an obvious major merger. We find that the kinematic classification of high-z SFGs as ''dispersion dominated'' or ''rotation dominated'' correlates most strongly with their intrinsic sizes. Smaller galaxies are more likely ''dispersion-dominated'' for two main reasons: (1) the rotation velocity scales linearly with galaxy size but intrinsic velocity dispersion does not depend on size or may even increase in smaller galaxies, and as such, their ratio is systematically lower for smaller galaxies, and (2) beam smearing strongly decreases large-scale velocity gradients and increases observed dispersion much more for galaxies with sizes at or below the resolution. Dispersion-dominated SFGs may thus have intrinsic properties similar to ''rotation-dominated'' SFGs, but are primarily more compact, lower mass, less metal enriched, and may have higher gas fractions, plausibly because they represent an earlier evolutionary state.

  11. Memory: sins and virtues

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Memory plays an important role in everyday life but does not provide an exact and unchanging record of experience: research has documented that memory is a constructive process that is subject to a variety of errors and distortions. Yet these memory “sins” also reflect the operation of adaptive aspects of memory. Memory can thus be characterized as an adaptive constructive process, which plays a functional role in cognition but produces distortions, errors, or illusions as a consequence of doing so. PMID:23909686

  12. Seven Survey Sins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    As pressure builds to assess students, teachers, and schools, educational practitioners and policy makers are increasingly looking toward student perception surveys as a promising means to collect high-quality, useful data. For instance, the widely cited Measures of Effective Teaching study lists student perception surveys as one of the three key…

  13. Fabrication of hydrophilic S/In2O3 core-shell nanocomposite for enhancement of photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Sugang; Cao, Zhisheng; Fu, Xianliang; Chen, Shifu

    2015-01-01

    Recently, elemental semiconductors as new photocatalysts excited by visible light have attracted great attention due to their potential applications for environmental remediation and clean energy generation. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate elemental photocatalysts with high activity and stability. In this paper, a straightforward ball-milling method was carried out to fabricate core-shell S/In2O3 nanocomposite photocatalyst with high performance. The photocatalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and super-hydrophilic experiment. The results showed that In2O3 nanoparticles were successfully grown round of S blocks and formed core-shell heterostructures. The 10% S/In2O3 core-shell nanocomposite exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The reaction rate constant (k) of the 10% S/In2O3 core-shell nanocomposite is about 8.7 times as high as the sum of pure In2O3 and S because of the formation of core-shell S/In2O3 heterostructures, which might remedy the drawbacks of poor hydrophilicity of S, enhance visible light absorption and separate the photogenerated carriers efficiently. Furthermore, the mechanism of influence on the photocatalytic activity of the S/In2O3 core-shell nanocomposite was also discussed. It is anticipated that our work may open up a new direction for the fabrication of core-shell heterostructure to remedy the drawbacks of a photocatalyst and expand its application in the field of photocatalysis.

  14. Structural stability and Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody binding ability of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) napin during industrial-scale myrosinase inactivation process.

    PubMed

    Marambe, Harsha K; McIntosh, Tara C; Cheng, Bifang; Wanasundara, Janitha P D

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the structural stability of yellow mustard (YM, Sinapis alba L.) napin and the changes of its Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody-binding ability during myrosinase enzyme inactivation process. The food industry uses myrosinase-inactive non-pungent YM for uses beyond spice applications. Napin was isolated from seeds received from an industrial processor before (YM + M) and after (YM - M) myrosinase inactivation. Secondary and tertiary structural features and surface hydrophobicity parameters of napin were analyzed. The Sin a 1 content in YM seeds and the stability of Sin a 1-containing napin during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion were determined by a non-competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody (AE-Ab) as the primary Ab. YM napin retained the dominant alpha-helical components of secondary and tertiary structure folds during this process. YM - M napin showed changes in hydrophobicity parameters of the molecules and binding ability of AE-Ab: 2.19 ± 0.48 g per 100 g of YM - M seeds vs. 1.49 ± 0.16 g per 100 g YM + M seeds. YM - M proteins were more susceptible for in vitro GI digestion and also showed a 30% reduction in AE-Ab binding ability upon digestion of napins. This suggests that the myrosinase inactivation process has induced the surface modification of napin, exposing Sin a 1 epitope, leading to an increase in AE-Ab binding. However, the epitope region of YM - M napin showed improved susceptibility for hydrolysis during GI digestion resulting in fewer available epitope regions, suggesting a possible reduction in napin immune reactivity. PMID:26091085

  15. Reversal of SIN-1-induced eNOS dysfunction by the spin trap, DMPO, in bovine aortic endothelial cells via eNOS phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Das, Amlan; Gopalakrishnan, Bhavani; Druhan, Lawrence J; Wang, Tse-Yao; De Pascali, Francesco; Rockenbauer, Antal; Racoma, Ira; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Zweier, Jay L; Cardounel, Arturo J; Villamena, Frederick A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Nitric oxide (NO) derived from eNOS is mostly responsible for the maintenance of vascular homeostasis and its decreased bioavailability is characteristic of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED). Because 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), a commonly used spin trap, can control intracellular nitroso-redox balance by scavenging ROS and donating NO, it was employed as a cardioprotective agent against ED but the mechanism of its protection is still not clear. This study elucidated the mechanism of protection by DMPO against SIN-1-induced oxidative injury to bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Experimental Approach BAEC were treated with SIN-1, as a source of peroxynitrite anion (ONOO−), and then incubated with DMPO. Cytotoxicity following SIN-1 alone and cytoprotection by adding DMPO was assessed by MTT assay. Levels of ROS and NO generation from HEK293 cells transfected with wild-type and mutant eNOS cDNAs, tetrahydrobiopterin bioavailability, eNOS activity, eNOS and Akt kinase phosphorylation were measured. Key Results Post-treatment of cells with DMPO attenuated SIN-1-mediated cytotoxicity and ROS generation, restoration of NO levels via increased in eNOS activity and phospho-eNOS levels. Treatment with DMPO alone significantly increased NO levels and induced phosphorylation of eNOS Ser1179 via Akt kinase. Transfection studies with wild-type and mutant human eNOS confirmed the dual role of eNOS as a producer of superoxide anion (O2−) with SIN-1 treatment, and a producer of NO in the presence of DMPO. Conclusion and Implications Post-treatment with DMPO of oxidatively challenged cells reversed eNOS dysfunction and could have pharmacological implications in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24405159

  16. DELAYED DENSITY-DEPENDENT PREVALENCE OF SIN NOMBRE VIRUS INFECTION IN DEER MICE (PEROMYSCUS MANICULATUS) IN CENTRAL AND WESTERN MONTANA

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Scott; Trueax, Jeremy T.; Douglass, Richard; Kuenzi, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how transmission of zoonoses takes place within reservoir populations, such as Sin Nombre virus (SNV) among deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), is important in determining the risk of exposure to other hosts, including humans. In this study, we examined the relationship between deer mouse populations and the prevalence of antibodies to SNV, a system where the effect of host population abundance on transmission is debated. We examined the relationship between abundance of deer mice in late summer–early autumn and SNV antibody prevalence the following spring–early summer (termed delayed density-dependent [DDD] prevalence of infection) at both regional and local scales, using 12 live-trapping grids for 11–14 yr, across central and western Montana. When all trapping grids were combined (regional scale), there was a significant DDD relationship for individual months and when months within seasons were averaged. However, within individual grids (local scale), evidence of DDD prevalence of infection was observed consistently at only one location. These findings suggest that, although there is evidence of DDD prevalence of infection at regional scales, it is not always apparent at local scales, possibly because the regional pattern of DDD infection prevalence is driven by differences in abundance and prevalence among sites, rather than in autumn-spring delays. Transmission of SNV may be more complex than the original hypothesis of autumn-spring delayed density dependence suggests. This complexity is also supported by recent modeling studies. Empirical investigations are needed to determine the duration and determinants of time-lagged abundance and antibody prevalence. Our study suggests predicting local, human exposure risk to SNV in spring, based on deer mouse abundance in autumn, is unlikely to be a reliable public health tool, particularly at local scales. PMID:21269997

  17. The SINS/zC-SINF survey of z ∼ 2 galaxy kinematics: Evidence for gravitational quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Genzel, R.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Lang, P.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Burkert, A.; Buschkamp, P.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Kurk, J.; Lutz, D.; Tacchella, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Cresci, G.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Mancini, C.; Naab, T.; Newman, S.; and others

    2014-04-10

    As part of the SINS/zC-SINF surveys of high-z galaxy kinematics, we derive the radial distributions of Hα surface brightness, stellar mass surface density, and dynamical mass at ∼2 kpc resolution in 19 z ∼ 2 star-forming disks with deep SINFONI adaptive optics spectroscopy at the ESO Very Large Telescope. From these data we infer the radial distribution of the Toomre Q-parameter for these main-sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs), covering almost two decades of stellar mass (10{sup 9.6}-10{sup 11.5} M {sub ☉}). In more than half of our SFGs, the Hα distributions cannot be fit by a centrally peaked distribution, such as an exponential, but are better described by a ring, or the combination of a ring and an exponential. At the same time the kinematic data indicate the presence of a mass distribution more centrally concentrated than a single exponential distribution for 5 of the 19 galaxies. The resulting Q-distributions are centrally peaked for all, and significantly exceed unity there for three-quarters of the SFGs. The occurrence of Hα rings and of large nuclear Q-values appears to be more common for the more massive SFGs. While our sample is small and biased to larger SFGs, and there remain uncertainties and caveats, our observations are consistent with a scenario in which cloud fragmentation and global star formation are secularly suppressed in gas-rich high-z disks from the inside out, as the central stellar mass density of the disks grows.

  18. Study of Rare B-Meson Decays Related to the CPObservable sin(2beta+gamma) at the BABAR Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Orimoto, Toyoko Jennifer

    2007-08-21

    This study reports the observation of the decays B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)+}{sub S}{pi}{sup -} and B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)-}K{sup +} in a sample of 230 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The branching fractions {beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}{sub S}{pi}{sup -}) = (1.3 {+-} 0.3 (stat) {+-} 0.2 (syst)) x 10{sup -5}, {beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}{sub S}K{sup +}) = (2.5 {+-} 0.4 (stat) {+-} 0.4 (syst)) x 10{sup -5}, {beta}(B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)+}{sub S}{pi}{sup -}) = (2.8 {+-} 0.6 (stat) {+-} 0.5 (syst)) x 10{sup -5}, and {beta}(B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)-}K{sup +}) = (2.0 {+-} 0.5 (stat) {+-} 0.4 (syst)) x 10{sup -5} are measured. The significance of the measurements to differ from zero are 5, 9, 6, and 5 standard deviations, respectively. This is a first observation of the decaysB{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)+}{sub S}{pi}{sup -} and B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)-}K{sup +}. These results may potentially be useful in determining the CP asymmetry parameter sin(2{beta} + {gamma}) in the decays B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)+}{sub S}{pi}{sup -}.

  19. DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation mediates low-dose X-ray irradiation (LDI)-induced Akt activation and osteoblast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yong; Fang, Shi-ji; Zhu, Li-juan; Zhu, Lun-qing; Zhou, Xiao-zhong

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • LDI increases ALP activity, promotes type I collagen (Col I)/Runx2 mRNA expression. • LDI induces DNA–PKcs activation, which is required for osteoblast differentiation. • Akt activation mediates LDI-induced ALP activity and Col I/Runx2 mRNA increase. • DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation mediates LDI-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation. • DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation is important for osteoblast differentiation. - Abstract: Low-dose irradiation (LDI) induces osteoblast differentiation, however the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we explored the potential role of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA–PKcs)–Akt signaling in LDI-induced osteoblast differentiation. We confirmed that LDI promoted mouse calvarial osteoblast differentiation, which was detected by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as mRNA expression of type I collagen (Col I) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). In mouse osteoblasts, LDI (1 Gy) induced phosphorylation of DNA–PKcs and Akt (mainly at Ser-473). The kinase inhibitors against DNA–PKcs (NU-7026 and NU-7441) or Akt (LY294002, perifosine and MK-2206), as well as partial depletion of DNA–PKcs or Akt1 by targeted-shRNA, dramatically inhibited LDI-induced Akt activation and mouse osteoblast differentiation. Further, siRNA-knockdown of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), also inhibited LDI-induced Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation as well as ALP activity increase and Col I/Runx2 expression in mouse osteoblasts. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay results demonstrated that LDI-induced DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation, which was inhibited by NU-7441 or SIN1 siRNA-knockdown in mouse osteoblasts. In summary, our data suggest that DNA–PKcs–SIN1 complexation-mediated Akt activation (Ser-473 phosphorylation) is required for mouse osteoblast differentiation.

  20. Measuring sin2θw in PV-DIS with the Baseline Spectrometers at JLab 12 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, Paul

    2007-07-18

    The couplings of leptons to quarks are fundamental parameters of the electroweak interaction. Within the framework of the Standard Model, these couplings can be related to sin2θw. Parity violation (PV) in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) is proportional to these couplings and hence sensitive sin2θw. PV-DIS, first measured at SLAC in the mid-1970's, was used to establish the Standard Model. The high quality and intensity of the upgraded 11 GeV CEBAF beam at Jefferson Laboratory will make it an ideal tool for PV studies. In DIS the asymmetry from parity violation is large (APV ≈10-4 Q2), allowing precise measurements with modest beam-time. This talk will explore a PV-DIS measurement which can be made using the baseline spectrometers that will exist as part of the 12 GeV JLab upgrade.

  1. t(15;21) translocations leading to the concurrent downregulation of RUNX1 and its transcription factor partner genes SIN3A and TCF12 in myeloid disorders.

    PubMed

    L'Abbate, Alberto; Tolomeo, Doron; De Astis, Francesca; Lonoce, Angelo; Lo Cunsolo, Crocifissa; Mühlematter, Dominique; Schoumans, Jacqueline; Vandenberghe, Peter; Van Hoof, Achilles; Palumbo, Orazio; Carella, Massimo; Mazza, Tommaso; Storlazzi, Clelia Tiziana

    2015-01-01

    Through a combined approach integrating RNA-Seq, SNP-array, FISH and PCR techniques, we identified two novel t(15;21) translocations leading to the inactivation of RUNX1 and its partners SIN3A and TCF12. One is a complex t(15;21)(q24;q22), with both breakpoints mapped at the nucleotide level, joining RUNX1 to SIN3A and UBL7-AS1 in a patient with myelodysplasia. The other is a recurrent t(15;21)(q21;q22), juxtaposing RUNX1 and TCF12, with an opposite transcriptional orientation, in three myeloid leukemia cases. Since our transcriptome analysis indicated a significant number of differentially expressed genes associated with both translocations, we speculate an important pathogenetic role for these alterations involving RUNX1. PMID:26671595

  2. E2F mediates cell cycle-dependent transcriptional repression in vivo by recruitment of an HDAC1/mSin3B corepressor complex

    PubMed Central

    Rayman, Joseph B.; Takahashi, Yasuhiko; Indjeian, Vahan B.; Dannenberg, Jan-Hermen; Catchpole, Steven; Watson, Roger J.; te Riele, Hein; Dynlacht, Brian David

    2002-01-01

    Despite biochemical and genetic data suggesting that E2F and pRB (pocket protein) families regulate transcription via chromatin-modifying factors, the precise mechanisms underlying gene regulation by these protein families have not yet been defined in a physiological setting. In this study, we have investigated promoter occupancy in wild-type and pocket protein-deficient primary cells. We show that corepressor complexes consisting of histone deacetylase (HDAC1) and mSin3B were specifically recruited to endogenous E2F-regulated promoters in quiescent cells. These complexes dissociated from promoters once cells reached late G1, coincident with gene activation. Interestingly, recruitment of HDAC1 complexes to promoters depended absolutely on p107 and p130, and required an intact E2F-binding site. In contrast, mSin3B recruitment to certain promoters did not require p107 or p130, suggesting that recruitment of this corepressor can occur via E2F-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Remarkably, loss of pRB had no effect on HDAC1 or mSin3B recruitment. p107/p130 deficiency triggered a dramatic loss of E2F4 nuclear localization as well as transcriptional derepression, which is suggested by nucleosome mapping studies to be the result of localized hyperacetylation of nucleosomes proximal to E2F-binding sites. Taken together, these findings show that p130 escorts E2F4 into the nucleus and, together with corepressor complexes that contain mSin3B and/or HDAC1, directly represses transcription from target genes as cells withdraw from the cell cycle. PMID:11959842

  3. Composition, structure and properties of SiN x films fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zh. Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Sun, H.; Wan, G. J.; Leng, Y. X.; Chen, J. Y.

    2005-11-01

    Silicon nitride (SiNx) thin films are of special interest in both scientific research and industrial applications due to their remarkable properties such as high thermal stability, chemical inertness, high hardness and good dielectric properties. In this work, SiNx films were fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering of high purity single crystal silicon targets in an Ar-N2 mixture. The effect of N2 partial pressure on the film composition, chemical bonding configurations, surface morphology, surface free energy, optical and mechanical properties were investigated. We showed that with increased N2 partial pressure, the N to Si ratio (N/Si) in the film increased and N atoms are preferentially incorporated in the NSi3 stoichiometric configuration. It leads the Si-N network a tendency to chemical order. Films deposited at a high N2 fraction were consistently N-rich. The film surface transformed from a loose granular structure with microporosity to a homogeneous, continuous, smooth and dense structure. A progressive densification of the film microstructure occurs as the N2 fraction is increased. The reduced surface roughness and the increased N incorporation in the film give rise to the increased contact angle with double-distilled water from 24° to 49.6°. To some extent, the SiNx films deposited by pulsed magnetron sputtering are hydrophilic in nature. The as-deposited SiNx films exhibit good optical transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap Eopt can be varied from 1.68 eV for a-Si to 3.62 eV for SiNx films, depending on the synthesis parameters. With the increase of the N/Si atomic ratio, wear resistance of the SiNx films was improved, a consequence of increased hardness and elastic modulus. The SiNx films have lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance than 316L stainless steel under dry sliding friction, where the SiNx films experienced only fatigue wear.

  4. SlrA/SlrR/SinR inhibits motility gene expression upstream of a hypersensitive and hysteric switch at the level of σD in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Cozy, Loralyn M.; Phillips, Andrew M.; Calvo, Rebecca A.; Bate, Ashley R.; Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Bonneau, Richard; Eichenberger, Patrick; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Exponentially growing Bacillus subtilis cultures are epigenetically differentiated into two subpopulations in which cells are either ON or OFF for σD-dependent gene expression: a pattern suggestive of bistability. The gene encoding σD, sigD, is part of the 31-gene fla/che operon where its location at the 3′ end, 25 kb away from the strong Pfla/che promoter, determines its expression level relative to a threshold. Here we show that addition of a single extra copy of the slrA gene in the chromosome inhibited σD-dependent gene expression. SlrA together with SinR and SlrR reduced sigD transcript by potentiating a distance-dependent decrease in fla/che operon transcript abundance that was not mediated by changes in expression from the Pfla/che promoter. Consistent with acting upstream of σD, SlrA/SinR/SlrR could be bypassed by artificial ectopic expression of sigD that hysteretically maintained for 20 generations by engaging the sigD gene at the native locus. SlrA/SinR/SlrR was also bypassed by increasing fla/che transcription and resulted a hypersensitive output in flagellin expression. Thus, flagellin gene expression demonstrated hypersensitivity and hysteresis and we conclude that σD-dependent gene expression is bistable. PMID:22329926

  5. Broadband antireflection for a high-index substrate using SiN x /SiO2 by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kim Peng; Ng, Doris K. T.; Wang, Qian

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the development of broadband antireflection coating for a high-index substrate such as Si using SiN x /SiO2 by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD). The thin-film design employs a simulated annealing method for a minimal average reflectance over the wavelength range and incidence angles involved, which gives the optimized refractive index and thickness of each layer of the thin-film stack under different layer numbers. Using ICP-CVD, the SiN x material system is optimized by tuning the SiH4/N2 gas ratio. The corresponding thin-film characterization shows the precise refractive index/film thickness control in deposition, and the deposited film also has a low absorption coefficient and smooth surface. The double-layer SiN x /SiO2 coating with the optimized refractive index and thickness for broadband antireflection is demonstrated experimentally. The average reflectance of the Si surface is reduced from ~32% to ~3.17% at normal incidence for a wavelength range from 400 to 1100 nm.

  6. Long-range effects of histone point mutations on DNA remodeling revealed from computational analyses of SIN-mutant nucleosome structures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Colasanti, Andrew V.; Li, Yun; Olson, Wilma K.

    2010-01-01

    The packaging of DNA into nucleosomes impedes the binding and access of molecules involved in its processing. The SWI/SNF multi-protein assembly, found in yeast, is one of many regulatory factors that stimulate the remodeling of DNA required for its transcription. Amino-acid point mutations in histones H3 or H4 partially bypass the requirement of the SWI/SNF complex in this system. The mechanisms underlying the observed remodeling, however, are difficult to discern from the crystal structures of nucleosomes bearing these so-called SIN (SWI/SNF INdependent) mutations. Here, we report detailed analyses of the conformations and interactions of the histones and DNA in these assemblies. We find that the loss of direct protein–DNA contacts near point-mutation sites, reported previously, is coupled to unexpected additional long-range effects, i.e. loss of intermolecular contacts and accompanying DNA conformational changes at sequentially and spatially distant sites. The SIN mutations seemingly transmit information relevant to DNA binding across the nucleosome. The energetic cost of deforming the DNA to the states found in the SIN-mutant structures helps to distinguish the mutants that show phenotypes in yeast from those that do not. Models incorporating these deformed dimer steps suggest ways that nucleosomal DNA may be remodeled during its biological processing. PMID:20647418

  7. mSin3A/Histone Deacetylase 2- and PRMT5-Containing Brg1 Complex Is Involved in Transcriptional Repression of the Myc Target Gene cad

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sharmistha; Yun, Romy; Datta, Antara; Lacomis, Lynne; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Kumar, Jitendra; Tempst, Paul; Sif, Saïd

    2003-01-01

    The role of hSWI/SNF complexes in transcriptional activation is well characterized; however, little is known about their function in transcriptional repression. We have previously shown that subunits of the mSin3A/histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) corepressor complex copurify with hSWI/SNF complexes. Here we show that the type II arginine-specific methyltransferase PRMT5, which is involved in cyclin E repression, can be found in association with Brg1 and hBrm-based hSWI/SNF complexes. We also show that hSWI/SNF-associated PRMT5 can methylate hypoacetylated histones H3 and H4 more efficiently than hyperacetylated histones H3 and H4. Protein-protein interaction studies indicate that PRMT5 and mSin3A interact with the same hSWI/SNF subunits as those targeted by c-Myc. These observations prompted us to examine the expression profile of the c-Myc target genes, carbamoyl-phosphate synthase-aspartate carbamoyltransferase-dihydroorotase (cad) and nucleolin (nuc). We found that cad repression is altered in cells that express inactive Brg1 and in cells treated with the HDAC inhibitor depsipeptide. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found that Brg1, mSin3A, HDAC2, and PRMT5 are directly recruited to the cad promoter. These results suggest that hSWI/SNF complexes, through their ability to interact with activator and repressor proteins, control expression of genes involved in cell growth and proliferation. PMID:14559996

  8. The social construction of homosexuals in the nineteenth century: the shift from the sin to the influence of medicine on criminalizing sodomy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hutter, J

    1993-01-01

    Psychiatry and forensic medicine developed a medical model of deviance locating the source of homosexual behavior within the individual and postulating a physiological condition that is assumed to cause the deviant behavior. The shift in deviance designation from sexually sinful behavior to sexually unhealthy individuals affected social control and sexual criminal law in Germany during the second half of the 19th century. This research project analyzes the process of legislation and the application of sexual law in the German Reich during the period between 1860 and 1920. PMID:8505542

  9. Measurement of the CP Violating Phase $\\boldsymbol{\\sin(2\\beta_{s})}$ using $\\boldsymbol{B^{0}_{s}\\rightarrow J/\\psi\\phi}$ Decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pueschel, Elisa

    2010-05-01

    A B0 s meson can oscillate into its anti-particle, the $\\bar{B}$0 s meson, before decaying. CP violation in this system is made possible by the presence of amplitudes from both mixed and unmixed B0 s meson decays. The CP violating phase βs appears in the interference between the decay amplitudes. The quantity sin(2βs) is expected to be small in the standard model. Thus, measuring a large value for sin(2βs) would be an unequivocal sign of new physics participation in the B0 s mixing loop diagram. In this thesis, we present a latest measurement of sin(2βs), using 5.2 fb-1 of data collected at CDF from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center of mass energy of √s=1.96 TeV. A time-dependent angular analysis, with the production flavor of the B0 s meson identified with flavor tagging methods, is used to extract sin(2βs) from ~6500 B0 s→ J/ψφ decays. Other parameters of interest, such as the B0 s lifetime and the decay width difference between the heavy and light B0 s mass eigenstates are determined to high precision. Also, the effect of potential contributions to the final state from B0 s → J/ψf0 and B0 s→ J/ψK+K- decays is considered for the first time. We present 68% and 95% confidence regions in the βs plane. The probability that the observed central value is a fluctuation of the data from the standard model expected value of βs is calculated to be 44%. The observed confidence region shows better agreement with the standard model prediction than previous measurements.

  10. Measurement of sin2θefflept using e+e- pairs from γ*/Z bosons produced in p p ¯ collisions at a center-of-momentum energy of 1.96 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.

    2016-06-01

    At the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton (p p ¯) collider, Drell-Yan lepton pairs are produced in the process p p ¯→e+e-+X through an intermediate γ*/Z boson. The forward-backward asymmetry in the polar-angle distribution of the e- as a function of the e+e--pair mass is used to obtain sin2θefflept, the effective leptonic determination of the electroweak-mixing parameter sin2θW. The measurement sample, recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), corresponds to 9.4 fb-1 of integrated luminosity from p p ¯ collisions at a center-of-momentum energy of 1.96 TeV, and is the full CDF Run II data set. The value of sin2θefflept is found to be 0.23248 ±0.00053 . The combination with the previous CDF measurement based on μ+μ- pairs yields sin2θefflept=0.23221±0.00046 . This result, when interpreted within the specified context of the standard model assuming sin2θW=1 - MW2/MZ2 and that the W - and Z -boson masses are on-shell, yields sin2θW=0.22400 ±0.00045 , or equivalently a W -boson mass of 80.328 ±0.024 GeV /c2 .

  11. Measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries in B0-->D(*)+/-pi-/+ decays and constraints on sin(2beta+gamma).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Layter, J; Shen, B C; Wang, K; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Erwin, R J; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Biasini, M; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Pioppi, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-06-25

    We present a measurement of CP-violating asymmetries in fully reconstructed B0-->D(*)+/-pi-/+ decays in approximately 88 x 10(6) upsilon(4S)-->BBmacr; decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC. From a time-dependent maximum-likelihood fit we obtain the following for the CP-violating parameters: a=-0.022+/-0.038 (stat)+/-0.020 (syst), a*=-0.068+/-0.038 (stat)+/-0.020 (syst), c(lep)=+0.025+/-0.068 (stat)+/-0.033 (syst), and c*(lep)=+0.031+/-0.070 (stat)+/-0.033 (syst). Using other measurements and theoretical assumptions we interpret the results in terms of the angles of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle, and find |sin((2beta+gamma)|>0.69 at 68% confidence level. We exclude the hypothesis of no CP violation [sin(2beta+gamma)=0] at 83% confidence level. PMID:15244995

  12. The addition of strain in uniaxially strained transistors by both SiN contact etch stop layers and recessed SiGe sources and drains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneulin, Thibaud; Cooper, David; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Rouviere, Jean-Luc

    2012-11-01

    SiN contact etch stop layers (CESL) and recessed SiGe sources/drains are two uniaxial strain techniques used to boost the charge carriers mobility in p-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (pMOSFETs). It has already been shown that the electrical performances of the devices can be increased by combining both of these techniques on the same transistor. However, there are few experimental investigations of their additivity from the strain point of view. Here, spatially resolved strain mapping was performed using dark-field electron holography (DFEH) on pMOSFETs transistors strained by SiN CESL and embedded SiGe sources/drains. The influence of both processes on the strain distribution has been investigated independently before the combination was tested. This study was first performed with non-silicided devices. The results indicated that in the channel region, the strain induced by the combination of both processes is equal to the sum of the individual components. Then, the same investigation was performed after Ni-silicidation of the devices. It was found that in spite of a slight reduction of the strain due to the silicidation, the strain additivity is approximately preserved. Finally, it was also shown that DFEH can be a useful technique to characterize the strain field around dislocations.

  13. Precise Measurement of the CP Violation Parameter sin1 in B⁰→(cc̄)K⁰ Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Aziz, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bay, A.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bischofberger, M.; Bondar, A.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Chen, P.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Fast, J. E.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Higuchi, T.; Horii, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwabuchi, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Julius, T.; Kapusta, P.; Katayama, N.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Ko, B. R.; Koblitz, S.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kuhr, T.; Kumar, R.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lange, J. S.; Lee, S.-H.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Liu, C.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z. Q.; Liventsev, D.; Louvot, R.; Matvienko, D.; McOnie, S.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mori, T.; Muramatsu, N.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Neubauer, S.; Nishida, S.; Nishimura, K.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Onuki, Y.; Ozaki, H.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, H. K.; Park, K. S.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Poluektov, A.; Röhrken, M.; Rozanska, M.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, K.; Sakai, Y.; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Schneider, O.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Senyo, K.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Singh, J. B.; Smerkol, P.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stanič, S.; Starič, M.; Sumihama, M.; Sumisawa, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tanaka, S.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Tikhomirov, I.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Ushiroda, Y.; Vahsen, S. E.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yabsley, B. D.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zupanc, A.; Zyukova, O.

    2012-04-23

    We present a precise measurement of the CP violation parameter sin1 and the direct CP violation parameter Af using the final data sample of 772×10⁶ BB¯¯¯ pairs collected at the Υ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e⁺e⁻ collider. One neutral B meson is reconstructed in a J/ψK0S, ψ(2S)K0S, χc1K0S, or J/ψK0L CP eigenstate and its flavor is identified from the decay products of the accompanying B meson. From the distribution of proper-time intervals between the two B decays, we obtain the following CP violation parameters: sin1=0.667±0.023(stat)±0.012(syst) and Af=0.006±0.016(stat)±0.012(syst).

  14. SIN Retroviral Vectors Expressing COL7A1 Under Human Promoters for Ex Vivo Gene Therapy of Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Titeux, Matthias; Pendaries, Valérie; Zanta-Boussif, Maria A; Décha, Audrey; Pironon, Nathalie; Tonasso, Laure; Mejia, José E; Brice, Agnes; Danos, Olivier; Hovnanian, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in COL7A1 encoding type VII collagen which forms key structures (anchoring fibrils) for dermal–epidermal adherence. Patients suffer since birth from skin blistering, and develop severe local and systemic complications resulting in poor prognosis. We lack a specific treatment for RDEB, but ex vivo gene transfer to epidermal stem cells shows a therapeutic potential. To minimize the risk of oncogenic events, we have developed new minimal self-inactivating (SIN) retroviral vectors in which the COL7A1 complementary DNA (cDNA) is under the control of the human elongation factor 1α (EF1α) or COL7A1 promoters. We show efficient ex vivo genetic correction of primary RDEB keratinocytes and fibroblasts without antibiotic selection, and use either of these genetically corrected cells to generate human skin equivalents (SEs) which were grafted onto immunodeficient mice. We achieved long-term expression of recombinant type VII collagen with restored dermal–epidermal adherence and anchoring fibril formation, demonstrating in vivo functional correction. In few cases, rearranged proviruses were detected, which were probably generated during the retrotranscription process. Despite this observation which should be taken under consideration for clinical application, this preclinical study paves the way for a therapy based on grafting the most severely affected skin areas of patients with fully autologous SEs genetically corrected using a SIN COL7A1 retroviral vector. PMID:20485266

  15. In vacuo growth studies of Ru thin films on Si, SiN, and SiO2 by high-sensitivity low energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Sturm, J. M.; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2016-08-01

    In vacuo high-sensitivity low energy ion scattering (HS-LEIS) has been used to investigate the initial growth stages of DC sputtered Ru on top of Si, SiN, and SiO2. The high surface sensitivity of this technique allowed an accurate determination of surface coverages and thicknesses required for closing the Ru layer on all three substrates. The Ru layer closes (100% Ru surface signal) at about 2.0, 3.2, and 4.7 nm on top of SiO2, SiN, and Si, respectively. In-depth Ru concentration profiles can be reconstructed from the Ru surface coverages when considering an error function like model. The large intermixing (4.7 nm) for the Ru-on-Si system is compared to the reverse system (Si-on-Ru), where only 0.9 nm intermixing occurs. The difference is predominantly explained by the strong Si surface segregation that is observed for Ru-on-Si. This surface segregation effect is also observed for Ru-on-SiN but is absent for Ru-on-SiO2. For this last system, in vacuo HS-LEIS analysis revealed surface oxygen directly after deposition, which suggests an oxygen surface segregation effect for Ru-on-SiO2. In vacuo XPS measurements confirmed this hypothesis based on the reaction of Ru with oxygen from the SiO2, followed by oxygen surface segregation.

  16. Measurement of the CP-Violation Parameter sin2Φ₁ with a New Tagging Method at the Υ(5S) Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Aziz, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bischofberger, M.; Bondar, A.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Chang, P.; Chen, P.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, I.-S.; Cho, K.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Dalseno, J.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Fast, J. E.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hara, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Horii, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hyun, H. J.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwabuchi, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Julius, T.; Kapusta, P.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Ko, B. R.; Kobayashi, N.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kuhr, T.; Kumar, R.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lange, J. S.; Lee, S.-H.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Liu, C.; Liu, Z. Q.; Louvot, R.; McOnie, S.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moll, A.; Muramatsu, N.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nishida, S.; Nishimura, K.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Park, H. K.; Pedlar, T. K.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Poluektov, A.; Röhrken, M.; Ryu, S.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, Y.; Sanuki, T.; Schneider, O.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Seidl, R.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Smerkol, P.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stanič, S.; Starič, M.; Stypula, J.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tanaka, S.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Uchida, M.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Wicht, J.; Won, E.; Yabsley, B. D.; Yamashita, Y.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.

    2012-04-23

    We report a measurement of the CP-violation parameter sin2Φ₁ at the Υ(5S) resonance using a new tagging method, called “B-π tagging.” In Υ(5S) decays containing a neutral B meson, a charged B, and a charged pion, the neutral B is reconstructed in the J/ψK0SCP-eigenstate decay channel. The initial flavor of the neutral B meson at the moment of the Υ(5S) decay is opposite to that of the charged B and may thus be inferred from the charge of the pion without reconstructing the charged B. From the asymmetry between B-π⁺ and Bπ⁻ tagged J/ψK0S yields, we determine sin2Φ₁=0.57±0.58(stat)±0.06(syst). The results are based on 121 fb⁻¹ of data recorded by the Belle detector at the KEKB e⁺e⁻ collider.

  17. Measurement of the CP-Violation Parameter sin2Φ₁ with a New Tagging Method at the Υ(5S) Resonance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sato, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Aziz, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; et al

    2012-04-23

    We report a measurement of the CP-violation parameter sin2Φ₁ at the Υ(5S) resonance using a new tagging method, called “B-π tagging.” In Υ(5S) decays containing a neutral B meson, a charged B, and a charged pion, the neutral B is reconstructed in the J/ψK0SCP-eigenstate decay channel. The initial flavor of the neutral B meson at the moment of the Υ(5S) decay is opposite to that of the charged B and may thus be inferred from the charge of the pion without reconstructing the charged B. From the asymmetry between B-π⁺ and Bπ⁻ tagged J/ψK0S yields, we determine sin2Φ₁=0.57±0.58(stat)±0.06(syst). The resultsmore » are based on 121 fb⁻¹ of data recorded by the Belle detector at the KEKB e⁺e⁻ collider.« less

  18. New determination of sin/sup 2/theta/sub w/ from ratio of neutrino and anti-neutrino elastic scattering by electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, L.A.; Aronson, S.H.; Connolly, P.L.; Gibbard, B.G.; Murtagh, M.J.; Murtagh, S.; Terada, S.; White, D.H.; Callas, J.L.; Cutts, D.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements are made of the purely leptonic weak neutral current processes ..nu../sub ..mu../ + e/sup -/ ..-->.. ..nu../sub ..mu../ + e/sup -/ and anti ..nu../sub ..mu../ + e/sup -/ ..-->.. anti ..nu../sub ..mu../ + e/sup -/. Cross sections, the vector and axial vector couplings, and the Standard Model parameters sin/sup 2/theta/sub w/ and rho are determined. Results are: sigma/sub 0//..nu../sub ..mu../) = 1.60 +- 0.29 +- 0.26, sigma/sub 0/(anti ..nu../sub ..mu../) = 1.16 +- 0.20 +- 0.14 (both in units of 10/sup -42/cm/sup 2//GeV), g/sub v//sup e/ = -0.079 +- 0.060, g/sub A//sup e/= -0.483 +- 0.042, rho = 0.967 +- 0.082, sin/sup 2/theta/sub w/ = 0.209 +- 0.029 +- 0.013.

  19. Measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and constraints on sin(2beta+gamma) with partial reconstruction of B0-->D*-/+pi+/- decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Layter, J; Shen, B C; Wang, K; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Erwin, R J; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Won, E; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Diberder, F Le; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Cote-Ahern, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; SafaiTehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-06-25

    We present a measurement of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in decays of neutral B mesons to the final states D(*-/+)pi(+/-), using approximately 82x10(6) BBmacr; events recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e(+)e(-) storage ring. Events containing these decays are selected with a partial reconstruction technique, in which only the high-momentum pi(+/-) from the B decay and the low-momentum pi(-/+) from the D(*-/+) decay are used. We measure the amplitude of the asymmetry to be -0.063+/-0.024(stat)+/-0.014(syst) and compute bounds on |sin((2beta+gamma)|. PMID:15244996

  20. Transverse momentum dependent distribution function h1T [perpendicular] and the single spin asymmetry A(UT)sin(3 phi-\\phi_S)

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, Harutyun; V. Efremov, A.; Schweitzer, Peter; Yuan, Feng

    2008-12-01

    The leading twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function h_1T^perp, which is sometimes called ``pretzelosity,' is studied. We review the theoretical properties of this function, and present bag model predictions. We observe an interesting relation valid in a large class of relativistic models: The difference between helicity and transversity distributions, which is often said to be a 'measure of relativistic effects' in nucleon, is nothing but the pretzelosity distribution. Pretzelosity is chirally odd and can be accessed in combination with the Collins effect in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, where it gives rise to an azimuthal single spin asymmetry proportional to sin(3phi-phi_S). We discuss the preliminary deuteron target data from COMPASS, on that observable and make predictions for future experiments on various targets at JLab, COMPASS and HERMES.

  1. Direct observation of a sin(2φ) component in the current-phase relation of superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor (SFS) Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Rusanov, A. Yu.; Bahr, D. J.; Oboznov, V. A.; Bolginov, V. V.; Rossolenko, A. N.; Ryazanov, V. V.; van Harlingen, D. J.

    2008-03-01

    We present direct measurements of the current-phase relation (CPR) of SFS Josephson junctions in an rf-SQUID geometry. The junctions are fabricated from Nb-Cu47Ni53-Nb trilayers with a junction area of 2x2 μm^2 and a CuNi thickness of 7 nm. By measuring the magnetic flux through the rf-SQUID as a function of applied current, we observe transitions between an ordinary 0-Josephson junction state and a π-junction state characterized by a phase difference of π in the ground state occurring at temperatures between 1.5 K and 3.5 K. Near this temperature crossover, we observe period-doubling of the CPR indicating the existence of a term proportional to sin(2φ). Work is underway to determine if this signifies an intrinsic second-order tunneling mechanism or is the result of junction inhomogeneities.

  2. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  3. Biogeographic and ecological regulation of disease: Prevalence of Sin Nombre virus in island mice is related to island area, precipitation, and predator richness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orrock, John L.; Allan, Brian F.; Drost, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The relative roles of top-down and bottom-up forces in affecting disease prevalence in wild hosts is important for understanding disease dynamics and human disease risk. We found that the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the agent of a severe disease in humans (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome), in island deer mice from the eight California Channel Islands was greater with increased precipitation (a measure of productivity), greater island area, and fewer species of rodent predators. In finding a strong signal of the ecological forces affecting SNV prevalence, our work highlights the need for future work to understand the relative importance of average rodent density, population fluctuations, behavior, and specialist predators as they affect SNV prevalence. In addition to illustrating the importance of both bottom-up and top-down limitation of disease prevalence, our results suggest that predator richness may have important bearing on the risk of exposure to animal-borne diseases that affect humans.

  4. Effect of SiN x diffusion barrier thickness on the structural properties and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films obtained by sol-gel dip coating and reactive magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Ghazzal, Mohamed Nawfal; Aubry, Eric; Chaoui, Nouari; Robert, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of the thickness of the silicon nitride (SiN x ) diffusion barrier on the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films obtained with different processes. We show that the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films produced using soft chemistry (sol-gel) and physical methods (reactive sputtering) are affected differentially by the intercalating SiN x diffusion barrier. Increasing the thickness of the SiN x diffusion barrier induced a gradual decrease of the crystallite size of TiO2 films obtained by the sol-gel process. However, TiO2 obtained using the reactive sputtering method showed no dependence on the thickness of the SiN x barrier diffusion. The SiN x barrier diffusion showed a beneficial effect on the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films regardless of the synthesis method used. The proposed mechanism leading to the improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 films obtained by each process was discussed. PMID:26665074

  5. Geochemical distribution of harmful elements in top soils of an Italian National Interest Area (S.I.N.): the Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, M.; Grezzi, G.; Albanese, S.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano area has been classified by the Italian Ministry of Environment (Italian Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare) as a S.I.N. (Sito di Interesse Nazionale, L. 426/98 - Decreto 10 Gennaio 2000 - G.U. 29/5/01). In this category have been included all those contaminated lands that, both for their extension and their historical and present land use, are considered to be particularly harmful for human health. In Italy have been selected a total of 54 S.I.N.; among all of these, the Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano S.I.N. is one of the widest (1564 Km2). The study area is located in north-western Campania region, from the Avella Mountain to the coastline, and from the Campi Flegrei area to the northern boundaries between Campania and Latium Regions. It includes a total of 77 towns from both Naples and Caserta provinces. The Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano S.I.N. is characterized by a strongly urbanization in its internal portions, and by intensive agricultural activities in its northern and coastal portions. During past years this wide area has been the set of an unknown number of illegal activities controlled by the organized crime, including toxic waste disposal of unknown sources from different Regions of Italy, unauthorized building, intensive uncontrolled agricultural practices and so on. Part of these environmental crimes have been and are under investigations by Italian Authorities. For a geochemical characterization of this contaminated land, between May 2006 and January 2008, a total of 292 (179 in the Litorale Domizio-Flegreo and 113 in the Agro Aversano) top soils (5-15 cm depth) have been collected, with a sampling density of about 1 sample/5 Km2. The <100 mesh soil fraction has been analyzed with ICP-MS to determine the concentration of the 39 elements: Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn

  6. Cytoskeletal proteins regulate chromatin access of BR-C transcription factor and Rpd3-Sin3A histone deacetylase complex in Drosophila salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Farkaš, Robert; Kuchárová-Mahmood, Silvia; Mentelová, Lucia; Juda, Pavel; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M

    2011-01-01

    At the onset of Drosophila metamorphosis the steroid hormone ecdysone induces a process leading to a rapid degeneration of the larval salivary glands (SGs). Ecdysone acts through the ecdysone receptor heterodimer, which activates primary response genes. In particular these genes include the Broad-Complex (BR-C) gene encoding a set of BTB/POZ-transcription factors, among which the Z1 isoform is critical for SG cell death. The timing of SG disappearance depends upon of p127 (l(2)gl) , a cytoskeletal tumor suppressor that interacts with nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain (nmMHC) encoded by the zipper (zip) gene. Reduced l(2)gl expression delays SG histolysis whereas over-expression accelerates this process without affecting larval and pupal development. However, the mechanism by which l(2)gl controls SG histolysis remains yet unknown. Here we analyze the regulation controlled by p127 (l(2)gl) and nmMHC in the cytoplasm on the association of BR-C Z1 with chromatin and remodeling factors, such as Rpd3, Sin3A, and Smrter. In wild-type SGs these factors bind to chromatin but in l(2)gl SGs they accumulate in the cytoplasm and the cortical nuclear zone (CNZ). Similar chromatin exclusion occurs in SGs of developmentally delayed zip (E(br)) /+ larvae or can be achieved by high levels of nmMHC synthesis. The present data show that p127 (l(2)gl) and nmMHC regulate the access of BR-C Z1, Rpd3, Sin3A, and Smrter to chromatin. As the interaction between p127 (l(2)gl) and nmMHC occurs in the cytoplasm, we propose that these nuclear factors are processed by p127 (l(2)gl) and then released from p127 (l(2)gl) by nmMHC to allow their binding to chromatin. This process may constitute a novel mechanism of gene regulation, which in the absence of p127 (l(2)gl) , or excessive amounts of nmMHC, could lead to a fixed configuration in the pattern of gene expression that prevents further progression of SG differentiation, and programmed cell death (PCD). Such a transcriptional block could play a

  7. The Sins/zC-Sinf Survey of z ~ 2 Galaxy Kinematics: Evidence for Powerful Active Galactic Nucleus-Driven Nuclear Outflows in Massive Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Newman, S. F.; Kurk, J. D.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Burkert, A.; Buschkamp, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Cresci, G.; Daddi, E.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Lang, P.; Lilly, S. J.; Mainieri, V.; Mancini, C.; Naab, T.; Peng, Y.; Renzini, A.; Rosario, D.; Shapiro Griffin, K.; Shapley, A. E.; Sternberg, A.; Tacchella, S.; Vergani, D.; Wisnioski, E.; Wuyts, E.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-05-01

    We report the detection of ubiquitous powerful nuclear outflows in massive (>=1011 M ⊙) z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs), which are plausibly driven by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The sample consists of the eight most massive SFGs from our SINS/zC-SINF survey of galaxy kinematics with the imaging spectrometer SINFONI, six of which have sensitive high-resolution adaptive optics-assisted observations. All of the objects are disks hosting a significant stellar bulge. The spectra in their central regions exhibit a broad component in Hα and forbidden [N II] and [S II] line emission, with typical velocity FWHM ~ 1500 km s-1, [N II]/Hα ratio ≈ 0.6, and intrinsic extent of 2-3 kpc. These properties are consistent with warm ionized gas outflows associated with Type 2 AGN, the presence of which is confirmed via independent diagnostics in half the galaxies. The data imply a median ionized gas mass outflow rate of ~60 M ⊙ yr-1 and mass loading of ~3. At larger radii, a weaker broad component is detected but with lower FWHM ~485 km s-1 and [N II]/Hα ≈ 0.35, characteristic for star formation-driven outflows as found in the lower-mass SINS/zC-SINF galaxies. The high inferred mass outflow rates and frequent occurrence suggest that the nuclear outflows efficiently expel gas out of the centers of the galaxies with high duty cycles and may thus contribute to the process of star formation quenching in massive galaxies. Larger samples at high masses will be crucial in confirming the importance and energetics of the nuclear outflow phenomenon and its connection to AGN activity and bulge growth. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs 074.A-0911, 075.A-0466, 076.A-0527, 078.A-0600, 082.A-0396, 183.A-0781, 088.A-0202, 091.A-0126). Also based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the

  8. Transport mechanism of reverse surface leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor with SiN passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xue-Feng; Fan, Shuang; Chen, Yong-He; Kang, Di; Zhang, Jian-Kun; Wang, Chong; Mo, Jiang-Hui; Li, Liang; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Hao, Yue

    2015-02-01

    The transport mechanism of reverse surface leakage current in the AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) becomes one of the most important reliability issues with the downscaling of feature size. In this paper, the research results show that the reverse surface leakage current in AlGaN/GaN HEMT with SiN passivation increases with the enhancement of temperature in the range from 298 K to 423 K. Three possible transport mechanisms are proposed and examined to explain the generation of reverse surface leakage current. By comparing the experimental data with the numerical transport models, it is found that neither Fowler-Nordheim tunneling nor Frenkel-Poole emission can describe the transport of reverse surface leakage current. However, good agreement is found between the experimental data and the two-dimensional variable range hopping (2D-VRH) model. Therefore, it is concluded that the reverse surface leakage current is dominated by the electron hopping through the surface states at the barrier layer. Moreover, the activation energy of surface leakage current is extracted, which is around 0.083 eV. Finally, the SiN passivated HEMT with a high Al composition and a thin AlGaN barrier layer is also studied. It is observed that 2D-VRH still dominates the reverse surface leakage current and the activation energy is around 0.10 eV, which demonstrates that the alteration of the AlGaN barrier layer does not affect the transport mechanism of reverse surface leakage current in this paper. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61334002, 61106106, and 61474091), the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory, China (Grant No. ZHD201206), the New Experiment Development Funds for Xidian University, China (Grant No. SY1213), the 111 Project, China (Grant No. B12026), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars

  9. The Bardet–Biedl syndrome-related protein CCDC28B modulates mTORC2 function and interacts with SIN1 to control cilia length independently of the mTOR complex

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas-Rodriguez, Magdalena; Irigoín, Florencia; Osborn, Daniel P.S.; Gascue, Cecilia; Katsanis, Nicholas; Beales, Philip L.; Badano, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    CCDC28B encodes a coiled coil domain-containing protein involved in ciliogenesis that was originally identified as a second site modifier of the ciliopathy Bardet–Biedl syndrome. We have previously shown that the depletion of CCDC28B leads to shortened cilia; however, the mechanism underlying how this protein controls ciliary length is unknown. Here, we show that CCDC28B interacts with SIN1, a component of the mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), and that this interaction is important both in the context of mTOR signaling and in a hitherto unknown, mTORC-independent role of SIN1 in cilia biology. We show that CCDC28B is a positive regulator of mTORC2, participating in its assembly/stability and modulating its activity, while not affecting mTORC1 function. Further, we show that Ccdc28b regulates cilia length in vivo, at least in part, through its interaction with Sin1. Importantly, depletion of Rictor, another core component of mTORC2, does not result in shortened cilia. Taken together, our findings implicate CCDC28B in the regulation of mTORC2, and uncover a novel function of SIN1 regulating cilia length that is likely independent of mTOR signaling. PMID:23727834

  10. Pore-size reduction protocol for SiN membrane nanopore using the thermal reflow in nanoimprinting for nanobio-based sensing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Sik; Song, Hyun-Woo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Jung, Mun Youn

    2014-05-01

    Micro- and nano-fabrication methods facilitate the use of nanostructures for the separation of collections of particles and nanobio-based optical and electrochemical sensing. We have presented an easy and simple nanopore size reduction method of a low-stressed silicon nitride (SiN) membrane nanosieve (100×100  μm2) using a nanoimprinting method based on a natural thermal reflow of the contact imprinting polymer, possibly maintaining compatibility with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuit processes. The nanopore pattern size of this nanosieve membrane was precisely patterned by a nanoimprinting process using an electron beam patterned silicon master, to about 30-nm diameter. By employing mainly an electron beam resist reflow phenomena after a nanoimprinting process and anisotropic reactive ion etch, the etch holes' size was fabricated to be the same with nanopatterns on the polymer. The contact imprinting master can be used continually for the generation of nanopore patterns simply and easily. It can endure harsh conditions like high temperature up to 800°C, and it is inert to many aggressive and strong chemicals. Also, this would be a low-cost, simple, and easy fabrication method for the precise and reliable size-reduction control of nanopores for mass production of nanobio sensors or chips. PMID:24503699

  11. The suitability of negative pions for radiotherapy: 4 years preclinical research with the biomedical PiE3-beam at SIN.

    PubMed

    Fritz-Niggli, H

    1979-08-10

    The radiobiological experiences over 4 years research with the biomedical pion channel of the 590 MeV proton-accelerator of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN) have been summarized. Mainly sensitive biological systems have been chosen (limiting factor: dose-rate not more than 10 rad/min, exceptionally till 30 rad/min). The RBE values in the peak region vary between 0.7-3.3 and in the plateau region between 0.4-1. The gain factors for pion radiotherapy of cancer are, beside the excellent physical dose distribution, irradiation in the same treatment with two types of radiation: sparsely ionizing (low LET) radiation in plateau (healthy tissue) region and densely ionizing (high LET) radiation in peak (tumor) region. The biological effectiveness ratio in peak and plateau as the clinically most important relation vary between 1.4-4.2. This is valid also for clinically limiting factors such as reaction of skin, of small intestine, vascular damage, dominant lethals in hypoxic cells, tumor induction. For peak pions the RBE in hypoxic cells (tumor cells) can be much higher than in euoxic cells (healthy tissue). This preclinical work supports the hope in a highly effective cancer therapy with negative pions. PMID:116302

  12. Poole Frenkel current and Schottky emission in SiN gate dielectric in AlGaN/GaN metal insulator semiconductor heterostructure field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Mina J.; Zhao, Han; Lee, Jack C.

    2012-10-01

    We analyze the anomalous I-V behavior in SiN prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for use as a gate insulator in AlGaN/GaN metal insulator semiconductor heterostructure filed effect transistors (HFETs). We observe leakage current across the dielectric with opposite polarity with respect to the applied electric field once the voltage sweep reaches a level below a determined threshold. This is observed as the absolute minimum of the leakage current does not occur at minimum voltage level (0 V) but occurs earlier in the sweep interval. Curve-fitting analysis suggests that the charge-transport mechanism in this region is Poole-Frenkel current, followed by Schottky emission due to band bending. Despite the current anomaly, the sample devices have shown a notable reduction of leakage current of over 2 to 6 order of magnitudes compared to the standard Schottky HFET. We show that higher pressures and higher silane concentrations produce better films manifesting less trapping. This conforms to our results that we reported in earlier publications. We found that higher chamber pressure achieves higher sheet carrier concentration that was found to be strongly dependent on the trapped space charge at the SiN/GaN interface. This would suggest that a lower chamber pressure induces more trap states into the SiN/GaN interface.

  13. A first principles study of noble metal-doped silicon nanocrystals Sin-1M (n = 75 and 150 and M = Cu, Ag, Au)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Cedric; Huda, Muhammad

    2010-10-01

    Silicon nano-structures can have important roles in many useful applications, such as in nano-scale energy conversion materials, as nano-detectors of gas particles or as thermoelectric materials. To achieve efficient performance of these nano-devices, electronically tailored nano-materials are needed. For this a thorough understanding of both doped and undoped nano-structures is essential. Here we will present results of our first principles spin polarized electronic structure calculations of noble metal atom doped silicon nanocrystals using a hybrid density functional theory method (B3LYP-DFT) and a LanL2DZ basis set. The nanocrystals are used here as a test group, and are based on three different isomers of bulk silicon: diamond, wurtzite, and BC8. Geometry optimizations of the pure Sin nanocrystals were performed for spin magnetic moments of s=0 μB and s=2 μB for each isomer. Then the substitutional doping of M atom was done separately at the inside and at the surface of the nanocrystals. The doped nanocrystals' geometries were also optimized for spin magnetic moments s=1 μB and s=3 μB. For the bigger nanocrystals, the energy differences between the two spin states are very small. Binding energies and HOMO-LUMO gaps were calculated and a comparative analysis of the pure and doped silicon nanocrystals will be presented.

  14. Knockdown of Selenocysteine-Specific Elongation Factor in Amblyomma maculatum Alters the Pathogen Burden of Rickettsia parkeri with Epigenetic Control by the Sin3 Histone Deacetylase Corepressor Complex

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Steven W.; Browning, Rebecca E.; Budachetri, Khemraj; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Karim, Shahid

    2013-01-01

    Selenocysteine is the 21st naturally-occurring amino acid. Selenoproteins have diverse functions and many remain uncharacterized, but they are typically associated with antioxidant activity. The incorporation of selenocysteine into the nascent polypeptide chain recodes the TGA stop codon and this process depends upon a number of essential factors including the selenocysteine elongation factor (SEF). The transcriptional expression of SEF did not change significantly in tick midguts throughout the blood meal, but decreased in salivary glands to 20% at the end of the fast feeding phase. Since selenoprotein translation requires this specialized elongation factor, we targeted this gene for knockdown by RNAi to gain a global view of the role selenoproteins play in tick physiology. We found no significant differences in tick engorgement and embryogenesis but detected no antioxidant capacity in tick saliva. The transcriptional profile of selenoproteins in R. parkeri-infected Amblyomma maculatum revealed declined activity of selenoprotein M and catalase and increased activity of selenoprotein O, selenoprotein S, and selenoprotein T. Furthermore, the pathogen burden was significantly altered in SEF-knockdowns. We then determined the global impact of SEF-knockdown by RNA-seq, and mapped huge shifts in secretory gene expression that could be the result of downregulation of the Sin3 histone deacetylase corepressor complex. PMID:24282621

  15. The interplay of plant and animal disease in a changing landscape: the role of sudden aspen decline in moderating Sin Nombre virus prevalence in natural deer mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Lehmer, Erin M; Korb, Julie; Bombaci, Sara; McLean, Nellie; Ghachu, Joni; Hart, Lacey; Kelly, Ashley; Jara-Molinar, Edlin; O'Brien, Colleen; Wright, Kimberly

    2012-06-01

    We examined how climate-mediated forest dieback regulates zoonotic disease prevalence using the relationship between sudden aspen decline (SAD) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV) as a model system. We compared understory plant community structure, small mammal community composition, and SNV prevalence on 12 study sites within aspen forests experiencing levels of SAD ranging from <10.0% crown fade to >95.0% crown fade. Our results show that sites with the highest levels of SAD had reduced canopy cover, stand density, and basal area, and these differences were reflected by reductions in understory vegetation cover. Conversely, sites with the highest levels of SAD had greater understory standing biomass, suggesting that vegetation on these sites was highly clustered. Changes in forest and understory vegetation structure likely resulted in shifts in small mammal community composition across the SAD gradient, as we found reduced species diversity and higher densities of deer mice, the primary host for SNV, on sites with the highest levels of SAD. Sites with the highest levels of SAD also had significantly greater SNV prevalence compared to sites with lower levels of SAD, which is likely a result of their abundance of deer mice. Collectively, results of our research provide strong evidence to show SAD has considerable impacts on vegetation community structure, small mammal density and biodiversity and the prevalence of SNV. PMID:22526751

  16. Pore-size reduction protocol for SiN membrane nanopore using the thermal reflow in nanoimprinting for nanobio-based sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Sik; Song, Hyun-Woo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Jung, Mun Youn

    2014-05-01

    Micro- and nano-fabrication methods facilitate the use of nanostructures for the separation of collections of particles and nanobio-based optical and electrochemical sensing. We have presented an easy and simple nanopore size reduction method of a low-stressed silicon nitride (SiN) membrane nanosieve (100×100 μ) using a nanoimprinting method based on a natural thermal reflow of the contact imprinting polymer, possibly maintaining compatibility with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuit processes. The nanopore pattern size of this nanosieve membrane was precisely patterned by a nanoimprinting process using an electron beam patterned silicon master, to about 30-nm diameter. By employing mainly an electron beam resist reflow phenomena after a nanoimprinting process and anisotropic reactive ion etch, the etch holes' size was fabricated to be the same with nanopatterns on the polymer. The contact imprinting master can be used continually for the generation of nanopore patterns simply and easily. It can endure harsh conditions like high temperature up to 800°C, and it is inert to many aggressive and strong chemicals. Also, this would be a low-cost, simple, and easy fabrication method for the precise and reliable size-reduction control of nanopores for mass production of nanobio sensors or chips.

  17. In-situ investigation of stress conditions during expansion of bare metal stents and PLLA-coated stents using the XRD sin(2)ψ-technique.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Wolfgang; Dammer, Markus; Bakczewitz, Frank; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Grabow, Niels; Kessler, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Drug eluting stents (DES) consist of platform, coating and drug. The platform often is a balloon-expandable bare metal stent made of the CoCr alloy L-605 or stainless steel 316 L. The function of the coating, typically a permanent polymer, is to hold and release the drug, which should improve therapeutic outcome. Before implantation, DES are compressed (crimped) to allow implantation in the human body. During implantation, DES are expanded by balloon inflation. Crimping, as well as expansion, causes high stresses and high strains locally in the DES struts, as well as in the polymer coating. These stresses and strains are important design criteria of DES. Usually, they are calculated numerically by finite element analysis (FEA), but experimental results for validation are hardly available. In this work, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) sin(2)ψ-technique is applied to in-situ determination of stress conditions of bare metal L-605 stents, and Poly-(L-lactide) (PLLA) coated stents. This provides a realistic characterization of the near-surface stress state and a validation option of the numerical FEA. XRD-results from terminal stent struts of the bare metal stent show an increasing compressive load stress in tangential direction with increasing stent expansion. These findings correlate with numerical FEA results. The PLLA-coating also bears increasing compressive load stress during expansion. PMID:25974098

  18. Doublespeak: The Sins of Educationese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexford

    1975-01-01

    Describes the campaign by the National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Public Doublespeak to expose and denounce self-serving, deceptive, and sloppy uses of English. Also discusses the dangerous political and social implications of chronic language misuse by public officials, especially educators. (JG)

  19. From Rings to Bulges: Evidence for Rapid Secular Galaxy Evolution at z ~ 2 from Integral Field Spectroscopy in the SINS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, R.; Burkert, A.; Bouché, N.; Cresci, G.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Shapley, A.; Shapiro, K.; Tacconi, L. J.; Buschkamp, P.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Erb, D. K.; Genel, S.; Gerhard, O.; Hicks, E.; Lutz, D.; Naab, T.; Ott, T.; Rabien, S.; Renzini, A.; Steidel, C. C.; Sternberg, A.; Lilly, S. J.

    2008-11-01

    We present Hα integral field spectroscopy of well-resolved, UV/optically selected z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies as part of the SINS survey with SINFONI on the ESO VLT. Our laser guide star adaptive optics and good seeing data show the presence of turbulent rotating star-forming outer rings/disks, plus central bulge/inner disk components, whose mass fractions relative to the total dynamical mass appear to scale with the [N II]/Hα flux ratio and the star formation age. We propose that the buildup of the central disks and bulges of massive galaxies at z ~ 2 can be driven by the early secular evolution of gas-rich proto-disks. High-redshift disks exhibit large random motions. This turbulence may in part be stirred up by the release of gravitational energy in the rapid "cold" accretion flows along the filaments of the cosmic web. As a result, dynamical friction and viscous processes proceed on a timescale of <1 Gyr, at least an order of magnitude faster than in z ~ 0 disk galaxies. Early secular evolution thus drives gas and stars into the central regions and can build up exponential disks and massive bulges, even without major mergers. Secular evolution along with increased efficiency of star formation at high surface densities may also help to account for the short timescales of the stellar buildup observed in massive galaxies at z ~ 2. Based on observations at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile.

  20. Histone deacetylase 1/mSin3A disrupts gamma interferon-induced CIITA function and major histocompatibility complex class II enhanceosome formation.

    PubMed

    Zika, Eleni; Greer, Susanna F; Zhu, Xin-Sheng; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2003-05-01

    The class II transactivator (CIITA) is a master transcriptional regulator of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) promoters. CIITA does not bind DNA, but it interacts with the transcription factors RFX5, NF-Y, and CREB and associated chromatin-modifying enzymes to form an enhanceosome. This report examines the effects of histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/HDAC2) on MHC-II gene induction by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and CIITA. The results show that an inhibitor of HDACs, trichostatin A, enhances IFN-gamma-induced MHC-II expression, while HDAC1/HDAC2 inhibits IFN-gamma- and CIITA-induced MHC-II gene expression. mSin3A, a corepressor of HDAC1/HDAC2, is important for this inhibition, while NcoR, a corepressor of HDAC3, is not. The effect of this inhibition is directed at CIITA, since HDAC1/HDAC2 reduces transactivation by a GAL4-CIITA fusion protein. CIITA binds to overexpressed and endogenous HDAC1, suggesting that HDAC and CIITA may affect each other by direct or indirect association. Inhibition of HDAC activity dramatically increases the association of NF-YB and RFX5 with CIITA, the assembly of CIITA, NF-YB, and RFX5 enhanceosome, and the extent of H3 acetylation at the MHC-II promoter. These results suggest a model where HDAC1/HDAC2 affect the function of CIITA through a disruption of MHC-II enhanceosome and relevant coactivator-transcription factor association and provide evidence that CIITA may act as a molecular switch to modulate MHC-II transcription by coordinating the functions of both histone acetylases and HDACs. PMID:12697811

  1. Rapid and specific detection of Sin Nombre virus antibodies in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome by a strip immunoblot assay suitable for field diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hjelle, B; Jenison, S; Torrez-Martinez, N; Herring, B; Quan, S; Polito, A; Pichuantes, S; Yamada, T; Morris, C; Elgh, F; Lee, H W; Artsob, H; Dinello, R

    1997-01-01

    To develop a rapid antibody test for Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV) infection for diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in field settings where advanced instrumentation is not available, a strip immunoblot assay bearing four immobilized antigens for SNV and a recombinant nucleocapsid protein antigen of Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) was prepared. The SNV antigens included a full-length recombinant-expressed nucleocapsid (N) protein (rN), a recombinant-expressed G1 protein (residues 35 to 117), and synthetic peptides derived from N (residues 17 to 59) and G1 (residues 55 to 88). On the basis of the observed reactivities of hantavirus-infected patient and control sera, we determined that a positive assay requires reactivity with SNV or SEOV rN antigen and at least one other antigen. Isolated reactivity to either viral rN antigen is indeterminate, and any pattern of reactivity that does not include reactivity to an rN antigen is considered indeterminate but is unlikely to represent hantavirus infection. Fifty-eight of 59 samples from patients with acute SNV-associated HPS were positive according to these criteria, and one was initially indeterminate. Four of four samples from patients with HPS due to other hantaviruses were positive, as were most samples from patients with SEOV and Puumala virus infections. Of 192 control serum samples, 2 (1%) were positive and 2 were indeterminate. Acute SNV infection was distinguishable from remote SNV infection or infection with hantaviruses other than SNV by the presence of G1 peptide antigen reactivities in the former. The strip immunoblot assay shows promise for the detection of SNV antibodies early in the course of HPS. PMID:9041397

  2. Si-N membrane microcalorimetry: Thermal conductivity and specific heat of thin films from 2-500K in magnetic fields to 8 Tesla.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Barry

    2003-03-01

    Understanding the thermal behavior of mesoscopic systems and thin films is a critical issue of both fundamental and technological solid state science. Despite the wealth of knowledge in principle available from accurate measurement of specific heat and thermal conductivity of thin films, there are relatively few results of this type, due to the difficulty of isolating the small heat capacities and thermal conductivities from the typically large background contribution of conventional apparatus. Our group at UC San Diego uses amorphous Si-N membranes to thermally isolate small samples from their environment and allow accurate thermal measurements. Recent work adds the ability to measure thermal conductivity of films as thin as 150 Angstrom over a broad temperature range [1] to our well-established techniques for measuring Cp of small samples.[2] Our microcalorimeter is also particularly well-suited for measurements of both Cp and k in high magnetic fields [3]. The micromachining techniques used to fabricate the calorimeter allow production of significant numbers of calorimeters with well-controlled dimensions and highly reproducible properties which facilitates studies of the thermal properties of thin film and tiny crystals. In this talk I will briefly review the fabrication of our microcalorimeter and the techniques for measuring Cp and k. I will present example data and results of numerical heat flow simulations used to further our understanding of heat flow in the microcalorimeter [1] B. L. Zink, B. Revaz, J. J. Cherry and F. Hellman, Submitted to RSI, Sept. 2002 [2] D. W. Denlinger et al., Rev. Sci. Inst 65, 946-59 (1994) [3] B. L. Zink, B. Revaz, R. Sappey and F. Hellman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1841 (2002)

  3. The electrical, optical, and structural properties of GaN epitaxial layers grown on Si(111) substrate with SiN interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Engin; Duygulu, Özgür; Kaya, Ali Arslan; Teke, Ali; Özçelik, Süleyman; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2009-12-01

    The effect of the in situ substrate nitridation time on the electrical, structural and optical properties of GaN films grown on Si(111) substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was investigated. A thin buffer layer of silicon nitride (SiN x) with various thicknesses was achieved through the nitridation of the substrate at different nitridation times ranging from 0 to 660 s. The surface roughness of the GaN film, which was grown on the Si substrate 10 s, exhibited a root mean square (RMS) value of 1.12 nm for the surface roughness. However, further increments in the nitridation times in turn cause increments in the surface roughness in the GaN layers. The number of threading dislocation (TD) was counted from plan-view TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) images. The determined density of these threading dislocations was of the order of 9×10 9 cm -2. The sheet resistances of the GaN layers were measured. The average sheet resistance significantly increases from 2867 Ω sq -1 for sample A (without nitridation) to 8124 Ω sq -1 for sample F (with 660 s nitridation). The photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the samples nitridated at various nitridation times were done at a temperature range of 10-300 K. A strong band edge PL emission line, which was centered at approx. 3.453 eV along with its phonon replicas which was separated by approx. 92 meV in successive orders, was observed at 10 K. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this peak is approx. 14 meV, which indicates the reasonable optical quality of the GaN epilayers grown on Si substrate. At room temperature, the peak position and FWHM of this emission became 3.396 eV and 58 meV, respectively.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C binds to BATF/IRF4 or SPI1/IRF4 composite sites and recruits Sin3A to repress CDKN2A.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sizun; Willox, Bradford; Zhou, Hufeng; Holthaus, Amy M; Wang, Anqi; Shi, Tommy T; Maruo, Seiji; Kharchenko, Peter V; Johannsen, Eric C; Kieff, Elliott; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) repression of CDKN2A p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A) is essential for immortal human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) growth. EBNA3C ChIP-sequencing identified >13,000 EBNA3C sites in LCL DNA. Most EBNA3C sites were associated with active transcription; 64% were strong H3K4me1- and H3K27ac-marked enhancers and 16% were active promoters marked by H3K4me3 and H3K9ac. Using ENCODE LCL transcription factor ChIP-sequencing data, EBNA3C sites coincided (±250 bp) with RUNX3 (64%), BATF (55%), ATF2 (51%), IRF4 (41%), MEF2A (35%), PAX5 (34%), SPI1 (29%), BCL11a (28%), SP1 (26%), TCF12 (23%), NF-κB (23%), POU2F2 (23%), and RBPJ (16%). EBNA3C sites separated into five distinct clusters: (i) Sin3A, (ii) EBNA2/RBPJ, (iii) SPI1, and (iv) strong or (v) weak BATF/IRF4. EBNA3C signals were positively affected by RUNX3, BATF/IRF4 (AICE) and SPI1/IRF4 (EICE) cooccupancy. Gene set enrichment analyses correlated EBNA3C/Sin3A promoter sites with transcription down-regulation (P < 1.6 × 10(-4)). EBNA3C signals were strongest at BATF/IRF4 and SPI1/IRF4 composite sites. EBNA3C bound strongly to the p14(ARF) promoter through SPI1/IRF4/BATF/RUNX3, establishing RBPJ-, Sin3A-, and REST-mediated repression. EBNA3C immune precipitated with Sin3A and conditional EBNA3C inactivation significantly decreased Sin3A binding at the p14(ARF) promoter (P < 0.05). These data support a model in which EBNA3C binds strongly to BATF/IRF4/SPI1/RUNX3 sites to enhance transcription and recruits RBPJ/Sin3A- and REST/NRSF-repressive complexes to repress p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A) expression. PMID:24344258

  5. Poisonous milk and sinful mothers: the changing meaning of breastfeeding in the wake of the HIV epidemic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding remains normative and vital for child survival in the developing world. However, knowledge of the risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission through breastfeeding has brought to attention the controversy of whether breastfeeding can be safely practiced by HIV positive mothers. Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs provide prevention services to HIV positive mothers including infant feeding counseling based on international guidelines. This study aimed at exploring infant feeding choices and how breastfeeding and the risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding was interpreted among HIV positive mothers and their counselors in PMTCT programs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods The study was conducted in the PMTCT clinics in two governmental hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using qualitative interviews and participant observation. Twenty two HIV positive mothers and ten health professionals working in PMTCT clinics were interviewed. Results The study revealed that HIV positive mothers have developed an immense fear of breast milk which is out of proportion compared to the evidence of risk of transmission documented. The fear is expressed through avoidance of breastfeeding or, if no other choice is available, through an intense unease with the breastfeeding situation, and through expressions of sin, guilt, blame and regret. Health professionals working in the PMTCT programs seemed to largely share the fear of HIV positive mother's breast milk, and their anxiety was reflected in the counseling services they provided. Formula feeding was the preferred infant feeding method, and was chosen also by HIV positive women who had to beg in the streets for survival. Conclusions The fear of breast milk that seems to have developed among counselors and HIV positive mothers in the wake of the HIV epidemic may challenge a well established breastfeeding culture and calls for public health action. Based on strong evidence

  6. SINS/zC-SINF Survey of z ˜ 2 Galaxy Kinematics: Rest-frame Morphology, Structure, and Colors from Near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacchella, S.; Lang, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Renzini, A.; Shapley, A. E.; Wuyts, S.; Cresci, G.; Genzel, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Mancini, C.; Newman, S. F.; Tacconi, L. J.; Zamorani, G.; Davies, R. I.; Kurk, J.; Pozzetti, L.

    2015-04-01

    We present the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) J- and H-band imaging for 29 galaxies on the star-forming main sequence at z ˜ 2, which have adaptive optics Very Large Telescope SINFONI integral field spectroscopy from our SINS/zC-SINF program. The SINFONI Hα data resolve the ongoing star formation and the ionized gas kinematics on scales of 1-2 kpc; the near-IR images trace the galaxies’ rest-frame optical morphologies and distributions of stellar mass in old stellar populations at a similar resolution. The global light profiles of most galaxies show disk-like properties well described by a single Sérsic profile with n˜ 1, with only ˜ 15% requiring a high n\\gt 3 Sérsic index, all more massive than {{10}10} {{M}⊙ }. In bulge+disk fits, about 40% of galaxies have a measurable bulge component in the light profiles, with ˜ 15% showing a substantial bulge-to-total ratio (B/T) B/T≳ 0.3. This is a lower limit to the frequency of z ˜ 2 massive galaxies with a developed bulge component in stellar mass because it could be hidden by dust and/or outshined by a thick actively star-forming disk component. The galaxies’ rest-optical half-light radii range between 1 and 7 kpc, with a median of 2.1 kpc, and lie slightly above the size-mass relation at these epochs reported in the literature. This is attributed to differences in sample selection and definitions of size and/or mass measurements. The {{(u-g)}rest} color gradient and scatter within individual z ˜ 2 massive galaxies with ≳ {{10}11} {{M}⊙ } are as high as in z = 0 low-mass, late-type galaxies and are consistent with the high star formation rates of massive z ˜ 2 galaxies being sustained at large galactocentric distances. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  7. Nuclear modification difference between u{sub v} and d{sub v} distributions and its relation to the NuTeV sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W} anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, M.; Kumano, S.; Nagai, T.-H.

    2005-06-01

    We investigate a possible nuclear correction to the NuTeV measurement of the weak-mixing angle sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}. In particular, a nuclear modification difference between u{sub v} and d{sub v} distributions contributes to the NuTeV measurement with the iron target. First, the modification difference is determined by a {chi}{sup 2} analysis so as to reproduce nuclear data on the structure function F{sub 2} and Drell-Yan processes. Then, taking the NuTeV kinematics into account, we calculate a contribution to the sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W} determination. In addition, its uncertainty is estimated by the Hessian method. Although the uncertainty becomes comparable to the NuTeV deviation, the effect is not large enough to explain the whole NuTeV sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W} anomaly at this stage. However, it is difficult to determine such a nuclear modification difference, so that we need further investigations on the difference and its effect on the NuTeV anomaly.

  8. The dependency of different stress-level SiN capping films and the optimization of D-SMT process for the device performance booster in Ge n-FinFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, M.-H. Chen, P.-G.

    2015-08-17

    The capping stressed SiN film is one of the most important process steps for the dislocation stress memorization technique (D-SMT), which has been used widely in the current industry, for the electron mobility booster in the n-type transistor beyond the 32/28 nm technology node. In this work, we found that the different stress-level SiN capping films influence the crystal re-growth velocities along different directions including [100] and [110] directions in Ge a lot. It can be further used to optimize the dislocation angle in the transistor during the D-SMT process and then results in the largest channel stress distribution to boost the device performance in the Ge n-FinFETs. Based on the theoretical calculation and experimental demonstration, it shows that the Ge three dimensional (3D) n-FinFETs device performance is improved ∼55% with the usage of +3 GPa tensile stressed SiN capping film. The channel stress and dislocation angle is ∼2.5 GPa and 30°, measured by the atomic force microscope-Raman technique and transmission electron microscopy, respectively.

  9. Multiple embryos in the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group as possible indicators of palaeoenvironmental conditions: The case of the Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation (Sinú Domain, Caribbean, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rincón Martínez, Daniel; Salazar Ortiz, Edward A.

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation of the Sinú-San Jacinto folded belt (Caribbean, Colombia) contains 15-75 m thick, grey, massive limestone sequences that are interbedded with terrigenous nearshore to offshore mudstones to quartzose sandstones and conglomerates. The formation accumulated in a transitional continent-ocean setting, probably on oceanic crust. We studied over 80 polished thin sections under light microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) to analyse carbonate microfacies and Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). The overall facies distribution is 3-fold: (1) Facies close to the shoreline are dominated by low diversity operculinid assemblages, rich in detrital elements. (2) Shallow offshore facies are characterized by round lepidocyclinids, associated with, and often encrusted by, corallinacean algae, Sporolithon and structureless microbial crusts. The matrix is rich in carbonate/detrital mud and sand-sized detritals. (3) Distal offshore facies on structural highs show abundance of flat, current-sorted lepidoclinids without a noticeable detrital component. Facies 1 and 2 are clearly under the influence of suspension- and dissolved-nutrient input, probably carried offshore by freshwater lids of river plumes. Facies (2) contains abundant specimens of the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group of which the macrospheric forms show complicated embryonic apparatuses, which suppose double or multiple embryos. Detailed observation under CL allows to count up to 6-8 embryos, often seen aligned in the equatorial plane. The embryonic apparatus occupies often more than half of the diameter of specimens. The tendency towards large, very flat embryonic apparatuses (diameter measured in axial cuts up to 2,5 mm for a thickness of 0.2-0.3 mm) is closely correlated with abundant coralgal and microbial encrustations, oxide-stained carbonate/detrital mud and probably some preserved organic matter. The presence of multiple embryos has been reported by several authors and has

  10. Generation and release of nitrotyrosine O-sulfate by HepG2 human hepatoma cells upon SIN-1 stimulation: identification of SULT1A3 as the enzyme responsible

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Shin; Idell, Steven; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2006-01-01

    In addition to serving as a biomarker of oxidative/nitrative stress, elevated levels of nitrotyrosine have been shown to cause DNA damage or trigger apoptosis. Whether the body is equipped with mechanisms for protecting against the potentially harmful nitrotyrosine remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the possibility that sulfation serves as a pathway for the metabolism/regulation of nitrotyrosine. Using metabolic labelling, nitrotyrosine O-[35S]sulfate was found to be produced and released into the medium of HepG2 human hepatoma cells labelled with [35S]sulfate in the presence of nitrotyrosine. To identify the enzyme(s) responsible for nitrotyrosine sulfation, a systematic study of all eleven known human cytosolic SULTs (sulfotransferases) was performed. Of the 11 enzymes tested, only SULT1A3 displayed sulfating activity toward nitrotyrosine. The pH-dependence and kinetic constants of SULT1A3 with nitrotyrosine or dopamine as substrate were determined. To examine whether the sulfation of nitrotyrosine occurs in the context of cellular physiology, HepG2 cells labelled with [35S]sulfate were treated with SIN-1 (morpholinosydnonimine), a peroxynitrite generator. Increments of nitrotyrosine O-[35S]sulfate were detected in the medium of HepG2 cells treated with higher concentrations of SIN-1. To gain insight into the physiological relevance of nitrotyrosine sulfation, a time-course study was performed using [3H]tyrosine-labelled HepG2 cells treated with SIN-1. The findings confirm that the bulk of free [3H]nitrotyrosine inside the cells was present in the unconjugated form. The proportion of sulfated [3H]nitrotyrosine increased dramatically in the medium over time, implying that sulfation may play a significant role in the metabolism of free nitrotyrosine. PMID:17002600