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Investigation of factors affecting asphalt pavement recycling and asphalt compatibility  

SciTech Connect

Both economic and environmental factors dictate that asphalt pavement be recycled. Many recycling projects have been completed using a variety of recycling additives, but little work has been done on the physiochemical aspects of pavement recycling. The present exploratory study was undertaken to better define the physiochemical variables of recycling. Objectives of the present study include: (1) to determine if molecular structuring in the asphalt binder could be observed in oxidized (air-aged) asphalt-aggregate briquets, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquits, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquet recycling and (2) to determine if recycling agents penetrate the strongly adsorbed asphalt layer on the aggregate surface. Differences were seen in asphalt component compatibility as judged by the state of peptization parameters. In extreme cases the values of the parameters correlated with properties of asphalts of known compatibility; however, a relationship between the parameters determined on a series of asphalts in pavements was not established. The parameters might be useful in evaluating additives for pavement recycling; however, more systems need to be studied to fully assess their potential usefulness. Finally, the parameters need to be correlated with performance-related measurements such as asphalt rheological and mix properties. Examination of the parameters and their changes on asphalt oxidative aging may also be informative with regard to asphalt durability inasmuch as oxidation-induced changes are a major cause of asphalt pavement failure.

Venable, R.L.; Petersen, J.C.; Robertson, R.E.; Plancher, H.



Investigation on latent factors affecting route diversion intentions  

SciTech Connect

Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) have the potential to mitigate freeway congestion. The success of ATIS depends to a great extent on understanding drivers` route switching behavior. This route diversion behavior is a complex process that depends on situational constraints, socioeconomic characteristics of motorists, and latent individual characteristics. Three latent factors, namely risk acceptance, trust in traffic information provided, and expectation level of quality of information provided, were identified in this study. These latent factors, as well as socioeconomic characteristics and situational constraints, were incorporated in a binary logit model of stated route diversion intentions. It is observed that the latent factors were statistically significant explanatory variables of the drivers` stated route diversion intentions.

Pal, R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering



Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

Jantzen, Paul G.



Investigation of factors affecting the quality of americium electroplating.  


Four different electrolyte solutions were used in the electrodeposition of americium and their influences on the quality of the thin layer of deposited americium isotopes in combination with three different cathode disc materials were investigated. The relations between alpha spectral resolution and disc surface properties were established. PMID:22424746

Trdin, M; Benedik, L; Samardžija, Z; Pihlar, B



An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Degree of Naive Impetus Theory Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates factors affecting the degree of novice physics students application of the naive impetus theory. Six hundred and fourteen first-year university engineering physics students answered the Force Concept Inventory as a pre-test for their calculus-based course. We examined the degree to which students consistently applied the…

Liu, Xiufeng; MacIsaac, Dan



Investigation of locally resonant absorption and factors affecting the absorption band of a phononic glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally and theoretically investigated the mechanisms of acoustic absorption in phononic glass to optimize its properties. First, we experimentally studied its locally resonant absorption mechanism. From these results, we attributed its strong sound attenuation to its locally resonant units and its broadband absorption to its networked structure. These experiments also indicated that the porosity and thickness of the phononic glass must be tuned to achieve the best sound absorption at given frequencies. Then, using lumped-mass methods, we studied how the absorption bandgaps of the phononic glass were affected by various factors, including the porosity and the properties of the coating materials. These calculations gave optimal ranges for selecting the porosity, modulus of the coating material, and ratio of the compliant coating to the stiff matrix to achieve absorption bandgaps in the range of 6-30 kHz. This paper provides guidelines for designing phononic glasses with proper structures and component materials to work in specific frequency ranges.

Chen, Meng; Jiang, Heng; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Yuren



An Investigation of Factors Affecting Student Participation Level in an Online Discussion Forum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the factors that affect student participation in discussion forum under the two main purposes. The first purpose was to examine the relationship between the students' individual demographics and categories of students' participation level (inactive, moderate, and active) in discussion forum of an online course. The second…

Yukselturk, Erman



A Prospective Study Investigating the Impact of School Belonging Factors on Negative Affect in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…

Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross



An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Moral Judgment of Marital Status and Family Size. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a study of how certain factors influence peoples' attitudes about other peoples' marital status and family size. For the study, stories were prepared describing single or married persons and families with different numbers of children. The stories contained information believed likely to affect the readers' attitudes or moral…

Drucker, Eugene H.


An Investigation into the Factors Affecting the Use of Language Learning Strategies by Persian EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a larger study (Rahimi, 2004), this study investigates the use of language learning strategies by post-secondary level Persian EFL learners. Particular attention is paid to the variables affecting learners' choice of strategies, and the relationship, if any, between these variables and learners' patterns of strategy use. Data were…

Rahimi, Mohammad; Riazi, Abdolmehdi; Saif, Shahrzad



A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in People with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively small numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are engaging in paid employment and those who are tend to be working only part-time. This preliminary study addressed the question of what factors motivate people with ID to work. The issue was investigated in a sample of 10 young work-age adults attending supported learning…

Andrews, Abbye; Rose, John L.



Online Course Delivery: An Empirical Investigation of Factors Affecting Student Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated potential factors impacting students' satisfaction with online course delivery using business students as participants. The findings suggest that the student who would be more satisfied with the delivery of online courses fits the following profile: graduate, married, resides more than 1 mile away from campus, and male.…

Beqiri, Mirjeta S.; Chase, Nancy M.; Bishka, Atena



Factors Affecting Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce Success: An Empirical Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally believed that Business to Business (B2B) e-commerce has a great impact on business performance improvement. Considerable research also shows that another dependent variable, B2B e-commerce success, can be a good overall measure of B2B systems. This paper investigated and examined the impact of several factors, which are either…

Chen, Chun-I Philip



An empirical investigation of competency factors affecting e-business success in European SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade there was growing interest in strategic management literature about factors that influence a company's ability to use IT. There is general consensus that knowledge and competency are necessary in developing an IT capability, but there is very little understanding of what the necessary competencies are, and how they influence IS usage in different contexts. The small

Tom R. Eikebrokk; Dag H. Olsen



An Investigation of Factors Affecting Gender Differences in Standardized Math Performance: Results from U.S. and Hong Kong 15 Year Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning strategies and affective factors could have a profound impact on student standardized mathematics performance. This study investigated gender differences in affective factors, learning strategies, and preferred learning situations, and how these variables affect math achievement of 15 year olds in the United States and Hong Kong on the…

Liu, Ou Lydia



Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

Kudela, Raphael M.


Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

4/21/13 1 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup transporters (nutrients) It slows down (curves) because the dark reactions can't process fast enough Light controlled by light and is linear Critical Depth! Given the previous assumptions, the Critical Depth (Zcr

Kudela, Raphael M.


Affective Factors: Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

Tasnimi, Mahshad



An investigation of factors affecting the performance of laboratory fume hoods  

SciTech Connect

A `user tracer gas test` was performed on laboratory hoods, with a human subject standing in front of the hood, to assess hood containment ability. The relationship of face velocity and cross draft variables to hood containment ability is investigated. The ability of these variables and other tests, such as smoke challenges or tracer gas tests performed with a manikin at the hood, to predict the results of the user tracer gas test is evaluated. All of the laboratory hoods tested in this study were identical bench top bypass hoods with horizontally sliding sashes. A face velocity traverse, cross draft measurements, a pitot traverse to measure exhaust flow, a smoke test, a manikin tracer gas test, and a user tracer gas test were performed on each hood in several different sash positions. Based on the data collected, face velocity, its distribution and variability, and the magnitude of cross drafts relative to face velocity are important variables in determining hood leakage. `Unblocked` vortices, formed such that no physical barrier exists between the vortex and room air or a person in front of the hood, are identified as important sites of leakage. For the hoods evaluated in this study, unblocked vortices were observed along the beveled side edges. The data support the hypothesis that in the presence of a person standing in front of the hood, leakage is more likely to occur if unblocked vortices are formed than if all vortices are blocked. Evidence suggests that cross drafts are more likely to cause leakage when flowing in a direction that may cause separated flow along a beveled edge of the hood and thereby augment the unblocked vortices along the edge. Results indicate that smoke tests, manikin tracer gas tests, and average face velocity all serve as useful monitoring techniques. Face velocity measurements and smoke tests, which are easy and inexpensive, may provide information which is as valuable as traditional manikin tracer gas tests.

Altemose, B.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering



Preliminary investigation of factors affecting the seismic potential of the Bartlett Springs fault zone, northern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bartlett Springs fault (BFS) extends 170 km from its south end, a large releasing bend in the Hunting Creek fault, to its north end, another large releasing bend in the Lake Mountain fault. The seismic potential of BFS is poorly known because of incomplete mapping, poorly constrained geologic slip rate and creep rates. Before our study only part of BFS was mapped as Holocene-active for a variety of reasons including the heavy rainfall and steep slopes causing extreme erosional conditions (many landslides), heavy vegetation and lack of detailed aerial photography. We acquired new 1:12,000-scale aerial photography of the entire BFS, from which we interpreted geomorphic features that indicate Holocene faulting extends along the entire BFS. The new mapping, formatted for use in geographic information systems, clarifies possible geometric constraints on fault segmentation. To better constrain the spatial variation of creep rate along BFS, we increased creep monitoring sites from two to four, presenting the latest results in our poster. The 4-yr average creep rate for our Lake Pillsbury site is 2.8 ± 0.4 mm/yr (1-SD), comparable to a creep rate estimated from a step in the velocity field (3.4 ± 0.8 mm/yr) using all USGS GPS array points across the central BSF. Lacking a geologic slip rate for BSF, we estimate an average velocity across the fault using a rigid block model of the GPS site velocities. This yields ~6.5 mm/yr, which is comparable to the 6 mm/yr long-term rate observed on the Northern Calaveras fault (NCF). Much NCF slip and probably additional slip from the Greenville fault transfers indirectly to the BSF via the Concord-Green Valley fault (CGVF). The NCF and CGVF have long-term creep rates ranging from 1.8-4.4 mm/yr, comparable to our estimates for BSF. For seismic hazard estimation, the segmentation of the BSF may depend on many factors, including the spatial variation in aseismic moment release, the size and 3D structure of the largest geometric discontinuities, the state of stress relative to the failure stress of each section and the timing and extent of previous ruptures. Microseismicity distribution is also relevant to seismic potential, because it tends to correlate with fault creep. The central third of the BSF has high microseismicity and with respect to with the plate boundary its strike ranges from transtensional to parallel, thus favoring stable sliding and unclamping. Our mapping indicates the largest BSF discontinuities are a 2.5-km left stepover at the Middle Fork of the Eel River and a 2.5-km right stepover at Wilson Valley. Some previous hazard models have assumed the BFS is likely to have a complete 170-km rupture of Mw~7.2, however, shorter rupture scenarios may be much more likely. For example, one more plausible rupture, for the ~70-km central section having high microseismicity, yields Mw~6.8, because its rupture would tend to terminate in the adjacent sections oriented favorably to locking. Many other plausible scenarios for segments of varying length can be posed, each needing to be weighted inversely to the likely difficulty of each rupture to occur.

Lienkaemper, J. J.; Brown, J.



Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances in Early Adolescence: A Structural Modeling Investigation Examining Negative Affect and Peer Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative affect mediated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and bulimic behaviors. Body

Delyse M. Hutchinson; Ronald M. Rapee; Alan Taylor



Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident\\/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is




An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two

Francis Howard Mlenga



Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances in Early Adolescence: A Structural Modeling Investigation Examining Negative Affect and Peer Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X[overbar] age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative…

Hutchinson, Delyse M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Taylor, Alan



Factors Affecting Students' Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determinants of students' performance have been the subject of ongoing debate among educators, academics, and policy makers. There have been many studies that sought to examine this issue and their findings point out to hard work, previous schooling, parents’ education, family income and self motivation as factors that have a significant effect on the students GPA. Most of those studies

Nasri Harb; Ahmed El-Shaarawi



Factors That Affect Eutrophication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this investigation, the effects of excess nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) on algae will be examined. An excess of these nutrients can lead to eutrophication in ponds and lakes. Eutrophic lakes typically are shallow, have mucky bottoms, and have warme

Van Faasen, Carl; Peaslee, Graham; Soukhome, Jennifer; Statema, William



Factors Affecting Echinacea Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

East to introduce cultivation, processing, and marketing. Today, E. purpurea in the markets originates solely from cultivation, while E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. paradoxa, E. tenneseensis, and E. sanguinea raw materi- als are sourced either from partial cultivation or totally collected from the wild. Investigations of the pharmacological and biological activities of purported echinacea extracts have fre- quently shown them

W. Letchamo; L. V. Polydeonny; T. J. Arnason; J. Livesey; D. V. C. Awang



Factors affecting running economy.  


Running economy, defined as the steady-state VO2 for a given running velocity, has been shown to account for a large and significant proportion of variation in distance-running performance among runners roughly comparable in VO2 max. Despite this recognition, relatively little is known regarding the potpourri of physiological, environmental, structural and mechanical factors potentially associated with a lower aerobic demand of running. Early attempts at quantifying the energy expenditure of exhaustive runs incorporated measurements of oxygen consumption before, during, and after exercise. The validity of this approach has been questioned, however, since recent evidence has demonstrated that only a moderate relationship exists between postexercise VO2 and anaerobic metabolism. The energy demands for submaximal running (i.e. running economy) can be quantified by calculating the steady-state VO2, expressed with respect to body mass and time, for a standardised, submaximal running speed. Since this variable represents the aerobic demand of running, the generation of energy must derive wholly from cell respiration and not from substantial protein catabolism. Research has indicated that at low to moderate work rates, the steady-state energy condition is attained in about 3 minutes. Trained individuals reach steady-state sooner than unfit subjects. While limited by methodological constraints, the existence of a steady-state has also been verified by the lack of blood lactate accumulation and the presence of a respiratory exchange ratio of less than 1.00. The ability of economy, either singly or in combination with VO2 max, to account for a substantial portion of performance variation among trained distance runners and untrained subjects of comparable ability and fitness level has been demonstrated in recent cross-sectional studies. Limited data from short and long term longitudinal research also suggests that endurance running success is linked to training and growth-related improvements in economy. Intraindividual variation in economy has been shown to vary between 2% and 11% for a given speed. Most of this variation can probably be attributed to biological error. While the majority of evidence does not support a gender difference in running economy, data from some studies suggest that males may be more economical than women. Prepubescent children are less economical than older children and adults, whereas older adults exhibit the same trend when compared to younger counterparts. Because of air and wind resistance, the aerobic demands of indoor treadmill running significantly underestimate the cost of overground running, especially at higher speeds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2662320

Morgan, D W; Martin, P E; Krahenbuhl, G S



Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero



Investigating the book-tax income gap : factors which affect the gap and details regarding its most significant component  

E-print Network

(cont.) In total, my thesis suggests that recent changes in the book-tax income gap may be exogenous and transitory, due to changes to the calculation of book income, general business conditions or other factors which ...

Seidman, Jeri



Investigation on the relationship between bioconcentration factor and distribution coefficient based on class-based compounds: The factors that affect bioconcentration.  


Bioconcentration factor (BCF) is one of the most important parameters in the assessment of the potential hazard of new compounds in aquatic ecosystems. However, the factors that influence the estimation of BCFs for a large variety of chemicals have not been systemically investigated in the literature. In this paper, a large BCF data set containing 1088 nonionic and ionic organic compounds was used to study the relationship between BCF and molecular descriptors and influencing factors. Step-by-step analysis on the class-based compounds showed that nonlinear Gaussian and Sigmoid equations could well describe relationships between logBCF and distribution coefficient for the compounds over a wide range of structures and chloro or/and bromo substituted aromatics, respectively. The quality of fit from the nonlinear models is better than the BCFBAF method from the Epi Suite program for the class-based compounds. Systemic prediction deviations have been observed for some types of compounds. The reasons for systemic deviations for these compounds can be attributed to the difference in bioconcentration mechanism for hydrophilic compounds, transformation for hydroxyphenols and three-membered rings, physical barrier for long chain and large polycyclic compounds, difference in determining methods of BCF (kinetic and steady-state), bioavailability for highly hydrophobic compounds and accuracy of BCF measurements for compounds with extremely high or low BCFs. These factors are important and should be considered in any reliable bioconcentration prediction. PMID:25124515

Wang, Yu; Wen, Yang; Li, Jin J; He, Jia; Qin, Wei C; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H



Application of a tracer gas challenge with a human subject to investigate factors affecting the performance of laboratory fume hoods.  


The results of a "user" tracer gas test were applied to investigate the effects of various parameters on hood containment ability and to evaluate accepted methods to classify hood performance. This user tracer gas test was performed with a human subject standing in front of the hood. Based on the data collected, face velocity, its variability, and cross drafts are important in determining hood leakage. Results indicate that the temporal variability of face velocity may deserve as much consideration as its spatial variability, a parameter more traditionally recognized as being important. The data collected indicate that hoods with horizontally sliding sash doors perform better with the doors positioned to provide a center opening rather than when all of the doors are pushed to one side. The observed smoke patterns suggest that this trend is caused by the location and instability of vortices formed along the perimeter edge when all doors are pushed to one side. The results of manikin tracer gas tests and the user tracer gas test are inconsistent, suggesting that more research is needed to determine how best to evaluate whether a hood protects its users. PMID:9858975

Altemose, B A; Flynn, M R; Sprankle, J



Affecting Factors in Second Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affecting factors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were…

Andreou, G.; Vlachos, F.; Andreou, E.



Factors Affecting the Speed of Free Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…

Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris



Use of personal EEG monitors in a behavioral neuroscience course to investigate natural setting sleep patterns and the factors affecting them in college students.  


Sleep is often a topic of avid interest to college students, yet it is one that does not yield itself well to hands-on, interactive learning modules. Supplementing classroom learning with interactive "real world" laboratory activities provides students with a deeper understanding of behavior and its neural control. The project described here was designed to supplement the teaching of EEGs, sleep and circadian rhythms and involved students in the empirical process from hypothesizing about the factors that affect sleep, to personal data collection, data analysis and writing in the style of a peer-reviewed manuscript. Students enrolled in Behavioral Neuroscience at Connecticut College were provided with a home-based personal EEG monitor used to collect sleep data in their natural sleep setting. Participants recorded sleep data with the use of the ZEO® Personal Sleep Coach system and completed a nightly sleep journal questionnaire for seven nights. The ZEO® system uses EEG patterns to define sleep stages including wakefulness, light, deep and REM sleep. The journal included questions about factors known to affect sleep such as stress, caffeine, academic activity, exercise and alcohol. A class data set was compiled and used by students to perform univariate correlations examining the relationships between ZEO® variables and sleep journal variables. The data set allowed students to choose specific variables to investigate, analyze and write a peer-reviewed style manuscript. Significant class-wide correlations were found between specific sleep stages and behavioral variables suggesting that the ZEO® system is sophisticated yet inexpensive enough to be used as an effective tool in the classroom setting. Overall student feedback on the exercise was positive with many students indicating that it significantly enhanced their understanding of sleep architecture and made them keenly aware of the factors that affect quality of sleep. PMID:23626495

Marshall, Jillian C; Malerba, Julie R; Schroeder, Joseph A



Factors affecting rotator cuff healing.  


Several studies have noted that increasing age is a significant factor for diminished rotator cuff healing, while biomechanical studies have suggested the reason for this may be an inferior healing environment in older patients. Larger tears and fatty infiltration or atrophy negatively affect rotator cuff healing. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, double-row repairs, performing a concomitant acromioplasty, and the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) do not demonstrate an improvement in structural healing over mini-open rotator cuff repairs, single-row repairs, not performing an acromioplasty, or not using PRP. There is conflicting evidence to support postoperative rehabilitation protocols using early motion over immobilization following rotator cuff repair. PMID:24806015

Mall, Nathan A; Tanaka, Miho J; Choi, Luke S; Paletta, George A



Factors affecting reciprocating compressor performance  

SciTech Connect

A reciprocating compressor is a positive displacement machine and, in principal, its capacity and horsepower can be calculated very easily. In practice, however, several loss mechanisms act to decrease capacity and increase horsepower from the ideal predicted values. Many of these effects are quite difficult to predict accurately and the only effective way of developing reciprocating compressor performance prediction methods is to run a large number of tests on different compressors under different operating conditions. Combined with an understanding of the physics controlling the losses, experimental results allow good empirical models of losses to be developed. However, without the benefit of a good understanding of the physics of the loss mechanisms, it is impossible to interpret test results. Some factors affecting the magnitude of losses are compressor design, compressor speed, suction and discharge pressure and temperature, gas composition, suction and discharge piping design, and valve design. Losses that are important in some applications may be negligible in others so it is essential that a wide range of compressor designs, valve designs, gas molecular weight and operating conditions be tested when developing a performance prediction model. The paper discusses the effects of clearance and pressure ratio; the primary losses affecting capacity and power, including valve and port pressure loss, valve springing, valve inertia, piston ring leakage, packing leakage, discharge valve leakage, suction valve leakage, pulsations, heat transfer in the suction passage, and heat transfer in the cylinder; heat transfer in compressor cylinders; performance prediction methods; and compressor diagnosis.

Woollatt, D. (Dresser-Rand Co., Painted Post, NY (United States))



Use of a Generalized Additive Model to Investigate Key Abiotic Factors Affecting Microcystin Cellular Quotas in Heavy Bloom Areas of Lake Taihu  

PubMed Central

Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is suffering from serious cyanobacterial blooms with the associated drinking water contamination by microcystin (MC) for millions of citizens. So far, most studies on MCs have been limited to two small bays, while systematic research on the whole lake is lacking. To explain the variations in MC concentrations during cyanobacterial bloom, a large-scale survey at 30 sites across the lake was conducted monthly in 2008. The health risks of MC exposure were high, especially in the northern area. Both Microcystis abundance and MC cellular quotas presented positive correlations with MC concentration in the bloom seasons, suggesting that the toxic risks during Microcystis proliferations were affected by variations in both Microcystis density and MC production per Microcystis cell. Use of a powerful predictive modeling tool named generalized additive model (GAM) helped visualize significant effects of abiotic factors related to carbon fixation and proliferation of Microcystis (conductivity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), water temperature and pH) on MC cellular quotas from recruitment period of Microcystis to the bloom seasons, suggesting the possible use of these factors, in addition to Microcystis abundance, as warning signs to predict toxic events in the future. The interesting relationship between macrophytes and MC cellular quotas of Microcystis (i.e., high MC cellular quotas in the presence of macrophytes) needs further investigation. PMID:22384128

Tao, Min; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Qin, Boqiang; Zhang, Dawen; Niu, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qing; Wu, Laiyan



Flight Investigation on a Fighter-type Airplane of Factors which Affect the Loads and Load Distributions on the Vertical Tail Surfaces During Rudder Kicks and Fishtails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of a flight investigation conducted on a fighter-type airplane to determine the factors which affect the loads and load distributions on the vertical tail surfaces in maneuvers. An analysis is made of the data obtained in steady flight, rudder kicks, and fishtail maneuvers. For the rudder kicks, the significant loads were the "deflection load" resulting from an abrupt control deflection and the "dynamic load" consisting of a load corresponding to the new static equilibrium condition for the rudder deflected plus a load due to a transient overshoot. The minimum time to reach the maximum control deflection attainable by the pilot in any flight condition was found to be a constant. In the fishtail maneuvers, it was found that the pilot tends to deflect the rudder in phase with the natural frequency of the airplane. The maximum loads measured in fishtails were of the same order of magnitude as those from a rudder kick in which the rudder is returned to zero at the time of maximum sideslip.

Boshar, John



Factors Affecting Onset of Puberty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans, foetal and early postnatal growth failure may have persistent consequences for growth and pubertal development in later life. During this period, the developing organs are still plastic to change their function, which may have long-lasting effects. At the time of onset of puberty, acute factors may also interfere with pubertal development. Malnutrition, as seen in anorexic patients, and

Henriette A. Delemarre-van de Waal; Silvia C. C. M. van Coeverden; Mia J. T. Engelbregt



Factors affecting leachate quality. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This technical note describes factors affecting leachate quality for dredged material in confined disposal facilities (CDFs). Factors evaluated include desorption kinetics, sediment concentration, and association of PCBs with soluble and colloidal organic matter.

Brannon, J.M.; Pennington, J.C.; Myers, T.E.; Price, C.B.



Ecological Factors Affecting Community Invasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

What makes a community invasible? For over a century ecologists have sought to understand the relative importance of biotic\\u000a and abiotic factors that determine community composition. The fact that we are still exploring this topic today hints at both\\u000a its importance and complexity. As the impacts from harmful non-native species accumulate, it has become increasingly urgent\\u000a to find answers to

Suzanne V. Olyarnik; Matthew E. S. Bracken; Jarrett E. Byrnes; A. Randall Hughes; Kristin M. Hultgren; John J. Stachowicz


Factors affecting outcomes in colonoscopy.  


There are many factors that influence successful outcomes in colonoscopy. The aims of this study were to evaluate these factors and determine ways to improve outcomes. All participants (N=229) who underwent planned colonoscopy between July and September 2004 were retrospectively included. Participants included 118 men and 111 women with a mean age of 59 years. Completion rate was 92%. Reasons of failure included poor bowel preparation (2.2%, p< .025), bowel looping (2.2%, p< .025), participant discomfort (1.3%), and obstructing lesion (1.3%). Mean midazolam dose was 3.8 mg. Three participants (1.3%) had midazolam alone, and all had complete colonoscopy. One hundred thirty-three participants (60.7%) had additional meperidine, with a completion rate of 94%. Eighty three participants (37.9%) had additional meperidine and Buscopan, with a completion rate reduced to 89.2%. There was no correlation between sedatives used and completion rate. Completion rate of colonoscopy in our unit was acceptable at 92%. A combination of midazolam and meperidine gave the best completion rates (94%). The two main reasons for incompletion were poor bowel preparation and excessive bowel looping. PMID:18300826

Selehi, Seema; Leung, Edmund; Wong, Ling



EFL teachers' factors and students' affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students ' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence students ' affect, what the teachers should do to develop and make good




Factors affecting calculation of L  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient, radio signals from billions of stars. SETI could succeed tomorrow, or it may be an endeavor for multiple generations. We are a very young technology in a very old galaxy. While our own leakage radiation continues to outshine the Sun at many frequencies, we remain detectable to others. When our use of the spectrum becomes more efficient, it will be time to consider deliberate transmissions and the really tough questions: Who will speak for Earth? What will they say?

Ciotola, Mark P.



Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

AlKandari, Nabila




EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...


Factors affecting mother-child play  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING MOTHER-CHILD PLAY A Thesis by JENNIFER COLLEEN WELCH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject...: Psychology FACTORS AFFECTING MOTHER-CHILD PLAY A Thesis by JENNIFER COLLEEN WELCH Submitted to Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content bg: T' othy A. Cavell...

Welch, Jennifer Colleen



EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

Qin, Lei




Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors affect the number of birds detected on point count surveys of breeding songbirds. The magnitude and importance of these factors are not well understood. We used a bird song simulation system to quantify the effects of detection distance, singing rate, species differences, and observer differences on detection probabilities of birds detected by ear. We simulated 40 point counts

Mathew W. Alldredge; Theodore R. Simons; Kenneth H. Pollock



Factors affecting persistence of Deaf college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of attrition after the first year of college was conducted with the 1984 entry class of the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. A path-analytic model of 9 factors affecting student persistence was tested using LISREL (N = 233). The results indicate that social integration is an important factor in college persistence. Grade point average is not a

Michael S. Stinson; Marcia J. Scherer; Gerard G. Walter



Factors That Affect Chinese EFL Learner's Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with factors affecting Chinese English-as-Second-Language (ESL) learner's acquisition in the Department of Foreign Languages at Tianjin Institute of Technology. These factors, which include language shock, culture differences, culture background knowledge, motivation, and ego permeability, create psychological distance…

Wang, Zhigang


Factors affecting outcomes young patients with diverticulitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Young age has been identified in the literature as a risk factor for complications and emergency surgery among patients with acute diverticulitis. Our objective was to determine whether or not factors such as (1) duration of symptoms before admission to the hospital, (2) body mass index (BMI), and (3) smoking affected their outcome. Materials and methods. After IRB approval,

L. S. Miranda; K. Lee



Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis



Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

Jabnoun, Naceur



Factors affecting plant absorption, transport and fate of plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the extent to which several agricultural plants control plutonium (Pu) uptake and provides a general understanding of the fate and behavior of Pu in plants after absorption. Investigations were directed toward variables affecting the accumulation of Pu by plants from soils, transport of Pu within the plant, factors affecting transport with plant age, effects of different plant

T. R. Garland; D. A. Cataldo; K. M. McFadden; R. E. Wildung



Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers’ Motor Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence\\u000a of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development.\\u000a The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status, mother’s educational level, and\\u000a the existence of siblings

Fotini Venetsanou; Antonis Kambas



Factors affecting nurses' perceptions of patient safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Nurses heavily influence patient care quality and safety. This paper aims to examine socioeconomic and organizational\\/system factors affecting patient safety and quality perceptions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was constructed to gather demographic, managerial support, information technology implementation and integration information. Data were collected from nurses in five Riyadh hospitals, Saudi Arabia. Registered nurses working in hospital departments participated

Ari Mwachofi; Stephen L. Walston; Badran A. Al-Omar



Identification of Factors That Affect Software Complexity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of computer scientists was conducted to identify factors that affect software complexity. A total of 160 items were selected from the literature to include in a questionnaire sent to 425 individuals who were employees of computer-related businesses in Lawrence and Kansas City. The items were grouped into nine categories called system…

Kaiser, Javaid


Factors Affecting Motivation to Transfer Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of trainees (n=88) in a competency-based occupational safety and health training program found that environmental factors (opportunities to use skills, peer/supervisor support, and supervisor sanctions) were most influential on motivation to transfer training. Training attitudes may be affected by prior experiences when the use of training…

Seyler, Dian L.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Burnett, Michael F.; Carvalho, Manuel A.



Critical Factors Affecting Personal Software Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal software process quality helps determine the success of software projects and organizations. Although encouraging, previous studies treated the Personal Software Process approach as a black-box tool for personal process improvement. We dig deeper into the factors affecting personal processes. It is concluded that A\\/FR (appraisal to failure ratio) and Yield (percentage of defects removed before first compile) are two

Xiaoming Zhong; Nazim H. Madhavji; Khaled El Emam



Factors Affecting ASR Model Self-Training  

E-print Network

1 Factors Affecting ASR Model Self-Training Scott Novotney Richard Schwartz BBN Technologies CUED Model Unlabeled Audio Automatic Transcriptions Confidence Selection / Weighting Labeled Audio 1. Build of untranscribed audio data. 3. Use word confidence from ASR system to select or weight observations. 4. Train new


Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

Jovanovic, Petar


Factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotics.  


In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs. PMID:22312550

Simoens, Steven



Factors Affecting the Cost Effectiveness of Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs. PMID:22312550

Simoens, Steven



Situational factors affecting Preschoolers' responses to advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of advertising directed at preschool children was investigated. An experimental design, crossing program\\u000a type, social condition of viewing, and frequency of exposure to commercials was utilized. Results indicate the possibility\\u000a that young children's preferences are only affected under special circumstances.

T. K. Clarke



Factors Affecting Intensive Care Units Nursing Workload  

PubMed Central

Background: The nursing workload has a close and strong association with the quality of services provided for the patients. Therefore, paying careful attention to the factors affecting nursing workload, especially those working in the intensive care units (ICUs), is very important. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the factors affecting nursing workload in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study that has done in Iran. All nurses (n = 400) who was working in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014 were selected and studied using census method. The required data were collected using a researcher–made questionnaire which its validity and reliability were confirmed through getting the opinions of experts and using composite reliability and internal consistency (? = 0.89). The collected data were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. Results: Twenty-five factors were divided into three major categories through EFA, including structure, process, and activity. The following factors among the structure, process and activity components had the greatest importance: lack of clear responsibilities and authorities and performing unnecessary tasks (by a coefficient of 0.709), mismatch between the capacity of wards and the number of patients (by a coefficient of 0.639), and helping the students and newly employed staff (by a coefficient of 0.589). Conclusions: The nursing workload is influenced by many factors. The clear responsibilities and authorities of nurses, patients' admission according to the capacity of wards, use of the new technologies and equipment, and providing basic training for new nurses can decrease the workload of nurses.

Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Mosavi, Seyed Masod; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Fardin



Factors affecting the determination of cerebrovascular reactivity  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), measures the ability of the cerebrovasculature to respond to vasoactive stimuli such as CO2. CVR is often expressed as the ratio of cerebral blood flow change to CO2 change. We examine several factors affecting this measurement: blood pressure, stimulus pattern, response analysis and subject position. Methods Step and ramp increases in CO2 were implemented in nine subjects, seated and supine. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined breath-by-breath. Cerebrovascular conductance (MCAc) was estimated as MCAv/MAP. CVR was calculated from both the relative and absolute measures of MCAc and MCAv responses. Results MAP increased with CO2 in some subjects so that relative CVR calculated from conductance responses were less than those calculated from CVR calculated from velocity responses. CVR measured from step responses were affected by the response dynamics, and were less than those calculated from CVR measured from ramp responses. Subject position did not affect CVR. Conclusions (1) MAP increases with CO2 and acts as a confounding factor for CVR measurement; (2) CVR depends on the stimulus pattern used; (3) CVR did not differ from the sitting versus supine in these experiments; (4) CVR calculated from absolute changes of MCAv was less than that calculated from relative changes. PMID:25328852

Regan, Rosemary E; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James



A facial electromyographic investigation of affective contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective contrast refers to the tendency for stimuli to be judged as less evocative when preceded by more evocative same- valence stimuli. The authors used facial electromyographic (EMG) activity over corrugator supercilii, which is inversely related to affective valence, to determine if context influences underlying affective reactions. In Experiment 1, moderately pleasant pictures elicited less activity over corrugator supercilii when



A facial electromyographic investigation of affective contrast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective contrast refers to the tendency for stimuli to be judged as less evocative when preceded by more evocative same-valence stimuli. The authors used facial electromyographic (EMG) activity over corrugator supercilii , which is inversely related to affective valence, to determine if context influences underlying affective reactions. In Experiment 1, moderately pleasant pictures elicited less activity over corrugator supercilii when

Jeff T. Larsen; J. Ian Norris



Factors Affecting Auction Market Operating Costs.  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Auction Market Operating Costs Texas Summary and Conclusions T THE TIME THE DATA for this study were collected A there were 178 livestock auctions operating in Texas; 140 were included in this analysis. They ranyed in size... from just over 5,000 animal units per year to alinost 350,000. It has been sl~own that opera- - tional efficiency, measured in terms of average cost per unit marketed, increases directly with firm size and that efficiency gains were most marked...

Wootan, Charley V.; McNeely, John G.



Factors Affecting the Comprehension of Global and Local Main Idea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated factors that would affect a reader's understanding of the main idea at the global level and explicit and implicit main ideas at the local level. Fifty-seven first-year university students taking a college reading course took a comprehension test on an expository text. Statistical analyses revealed that text structure had a…

Wang, Danhua



The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.



Infants in foster care: relational and environmental factors affecting attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effect of relational and environmental factors affecting attachment security in 46 infants placed in foster homes. The study found that a majority of infants (67%) in the participant group were securely attached. Additionally, of the insecurely attached, a larger percentage of infants than anticipated displayed disorganized\\/disoriented patterns of attachment. The study found that organization of

S. A. Cole



Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.



Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds.  


Many factors affect the number of birds detected on point count surveys of breeding songbirds. The magnitude and importance of these factors are not well understood. We used a bird song simulation system to quantify the effects of detection distance, singing rate, species differences, and observer differences on detection probabilities of birds detected by ear. We simulated 40 point counts consisting of 10 birds per count for five primary species (Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia, Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens, Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina, and Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus) over a range of 15 distances (34-143 m). Songs were played at low (two songs per count) and high (13-21 songs per count) singing rates. Detection probabilities averaged across observers ranged from 0.60 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.83 (Hooded Warbler) at the high singing rate and 0.41 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.67 (Hooded Warbler) at the low singing rate. Logistic regression analyses indicated that species, singing rate, distance, and observer were all significant factors affecting detection probabilities. Singing rate x species and singing rate X distance interactions were also significant. Simulations of expected counts, based on the best logistic model, indicated that observers detected between 19% (for the worst observer, lowest singing rate, and least detectable species) and 65% (for the best observer, highest singing rate, and most detectable species) of the true population. Detection probabilities on actual point count surveys are likely to vary even more because many sources of variability were controlled in our experiments. These findings strongly support the importance of adjusting measures of avian diversity or abundance from auditory point counts with direct estimates of detection probability. PMID:17494409

Alldredge, Mathew W; Simons, Theodore R; Pollock, Kenneth H



Factors affecting contraceptive use in Pakistan.  


This study postulates that contraceptive use in Pakistan is affected by the usual demographic factors as well as husband-wife communication, female autonomy, son preference, religious beliefs, and family planning service supply. Analysis is based on data obtained from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 1990-91. Findings indicate that 74% of women never talked in the past year with their husbands about family planning. Almost 60% believed that family size was "up to God." About 47% knew where to obtain contraception; only 20.4% had easy access to a source of supplies. Current use was 14% and ever use was 22.4%. Analysis is based on three basic models. Model 1 includes the control variables and son preference. Model 2 includes husband-wife communication, religious attitudes, and female autonomy. Model 3 includes the addition of family planning to model 2 variables. Urban residence increases the odds of contraceptive use considerably only in Model 1. The influence of urban residence in the other models is reduced. Husband's education is significant only in Models 1 and 2 and insignificant in Model 3 when the family planning variable is included. Increased women's age is also insignificant in Model 3. Of the supply factors in Model 3, knowledge of a source and easy access to a source were highly significant, while mass media exposure was not important. Knowledge of a source was the most important predictor. Model 3 explained 90% of use. Among urban women, lack of husband-wife communication and fatalistic beliefs reduce the log-odds of contraceptive use. For rural women, age and women's secondary education were key predictors. Findings confirm that demographic and socio-cultural factors affect contraceptive use in Pakistan. All the theorized variables exerted a strong influence on contraceptive use, which can be counteracted by improved supply and service strategies. PMID:12292564

Mahmood, N; Ringheim, K



Assisted suicide: factors affecting public attitudes.  


Public support for assisted suicide has been growing despite the ethical questions raised by members of the medical profession. Previous research suggests that age, gender, experience, and religiosity are factors affecting individuals' attitudes. This study examines the effect of demographic and ideological factors, as well as individuals' caregiving experiences, on attitudes toward assisted suicide. Random-digit-dialing procedures produced a sample of 156 residents of Denton, Texas, in March 1998. T-tests were conducted to measure significance, while gamma values were used to measure level of association and percent reduction in error. The data indicate that age, gender, and caregiving experience were not significant predictors of attitudes. Situational factors, including whether a physician or friend/family member should assist and whether a child or a terminally ill patient experiencing no pain should receive assistance, all were highly significant and positively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. Respondents were most likely to support physician-assisted suicide for individuals experiencing no pain. The data also indicated that the depth of commitment to the beliefs that suffering has meaning, that life belongs to God, and that physician-assisted suicide is murder, were highly significant and negatively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. PMID:12557886

Worthen, L T; Yeatts, D E


Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

Gonenc, Sertac; Tanrivermis, Harun




A related series of studies, most of which have been published previously, is described. These studies form a coherent whole and demonstrate the development of a theme, namely, the identification of factors in the student and the medical school which, in their interaction, influenced undergraduate academic performance at one medical school. In the population concerned no reliable positive or negative correlation could be demonstrated between cognitive ability and academic performance, when the former was measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Medical College Admission Test, and the latter by the current assessment methods of the medical school. Other factors, including socioeconomic and individual personality variables, are at present under investigation as to their effect on academic achievement. It is emphasized that the results of these studies cannot be regarded as valid for all medical schools, but the methods employed can be generalized. PMID:14278025




Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.



An Examination of Factors Affecting Perception of Workplace Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates perceptions of workplace discrimination among racial minorities in Canada. Specifically, the study\\u000a examines how objective experiences of disadvantage and expectations for equity influence racial minorities’ perceptions of\\u000a discrimination. The results indicate that while both of these factors affect perceptions of discrimination, expectations for\\u000a equity may be especially important. Although new immigrants are among the most disadvantaged groups

Rupa Banerjee



Factors Affecting Growers' Willingness to Adopt Sustainable Floriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June to Oct. 2008, a U.S. floriculture survey was conducted to examine the factors affecting growers' willingness to adopt sustainable practices. The factors affecting adoption of sustainable practices were evaluated in five areas: environmental regulations, customer value, growers' attitudes toward sustainability, age, and operation size. A logistic regression model was used to examine factors affecting growers' adoption of sustainable

Jennifer H. Dennis; Roberto G. Lopez; Maria I. Marshall


Dissertationes Forestales 130 Factors affecting perceptions of corporate social  

E-print Network

Dissertationes Forestales 130 Factors affecting perceptions of corporate social responsibility: Factors affecting perceptions of corporate social responsibility implementation: an emphasis on values:// #12;3 Wang, L. 2011. Factors Affecting Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility Implementation


Factors Affecting Arctic Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The factors discussed in this section are building blocks to understanding arctic weather and climate. Each factor plays an important role alone and in interaction with other factors. The "Arctic Energy Budget" ties all the factors together in a description of the Arctic as a climate system. The different factors are given detailed explanations and examples, and include topics like latitude, land/see distributions, solar radiation, air temperature, Air pressure, winds, humidity, clouds, precipitations, and Arctic energy budgets.



76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales...Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting...



77 FR 18862 - Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian...the Committee in investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors In Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural...



Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…

Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.



An Activity on Factors Affecting Blood Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to explore the relationship between pressure and vessel diameter and to create a model that represents how high blood pressure may affect weakened vessels. A collaborative work of Melvin Flores, Larie Laudato and Glenn Soltes

Soltes, Glenn



Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa.  


The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on incidence of sperm nuclear chromatin instability (NCI), and (2) effects of the interaction between variation of NCI within a frozen ejaculate and variation of oocytes quality due to maturation time and/or season on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Semen samples were collected once a week from six bulls using an AV and only ejaculates (n=220) of >0.30x10(9) sperm/ml and >or=60% motility were used. NCI was measured by: (1) detection of lysine-rich histones in sperm chromatin using aniline blue staining, (2) sperm susceptibility to acid-induced nuclear DNA denaturation in situ using acridine orange test, and (3) sperm susceptibility to nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD). Bovine oocytes (n=695) were matured in vitro for 18 or 24 h, fertilized after sperm selection through a swim-up procedure and cultured for 72 h. The results showed that the 2nd ejaculates were superior to the 1st ones with respect to chromatin stability. Dilution of semen to 49.67+/-8.56x10(6) sperm/ml (1:19) decreased resistance of sperm to NCD. Cooling of semen had no significant effect on chromatin stability. Cryopreservation of semen augmented sperm vulnerability to DNA denaturation. Improvement of SQC (semen volume, sperm motility, velocity, viability and morphological normalcy) was generally concomitant with increase of sperm resistance to NCI. While Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls had a resistance to NCD higher than Limousine bulls in fresh semen, the former showed a greater susceptibility to DNA denaturation than the latter in cooled semen. Individuality significantly influenced NCI. The variability of NCI within a frozen ejaculate affected efficiency of IVEP. Significant negative correlations were observed between incidence of NCI and both fertilization rate and developmental capacity of embryos after maturation of oocytes for 18 h. The significant variation in IVEP traits due to season was independent of the effect of sperm chromatin instability. PMID:17398042

Khalifa, T A A; Rekkas, C A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Sioga, A; Dimitriadis, I; Papanikolaou, Th



Factors Affecting Retention in Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to expand what is known regarding the factors that relate to successful completion of online, undergraduate college courses. It addressed 13 student factors available through archival data at Northern Kentucky University based on 1,493 students enrolled in fully online courses in fall 2008. It included programmatic…

Berling, Victoria L.



Modelling global risk factors affecting construction cost performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the core issues of global risk factors modelling, assessment and management. The research reported upon forms part of a larger study that aims to develop a fuzzy decision framework for contractors to handle global risk factors affecting construction cost performance at a project level. Major global risk factors affecting cost performance were identified through an extensive literature

Daniel Baloi; Andrew D. F. Price



INTRODUCTION Understanding factors that affect roost selection  

E-print Network

in the study of biology, ecology and conservation of bats. Roosting habits influence local and global). The thermo-physical characteristics of roosts also affect bat physiology (Altringham, 1996; Kerth et al., 2001). Almost two-thirds of the European bat species use tree cavities to roost in during part

Richner, Heinz


Factors Affecting the Power of Patent Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we identify three policy instruments governments have at their disposal to affect the power of patent rights to prevent imitation: the size of the inventive step used to make the patent granting decision, the rigour of the patent examination process and the predisposition of the courts to affirm the patent office’s decision. We develop a simple framework

Paul H. Jensen; Elizabeth Webster



Factors Affecting Sleep Quality of Patients in Intensive Care Unit  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sleep disturbance is a frequently overlooked complication of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Aim: To evaluate sleep quality among patients admitted to ICU and investigate environmental and non-environmental factors that affect sleep quality in ICU. Methods: Over a 22-month period, we consecutively recruited patients who spent ? 2 nights post-endotracheal extubation in ICU and who were orientated to time, place, and person on the day of discharge. Self-reported sleep quality, according to a modified Freedman questionnaire, which provided data on self-reported ICU sleep quality in ICU and environmental factors affecting sleep quality in the ICU, were collected. We also investigated non-environmental factors, such as severity of illness, ICU interventions, and medications that can affect sleep quality. Results: Fifty males and 50 females were recruited with a mean (± SD) age of 65.1 ± 15.2 years. APACHE II score at admission to ICU was 18.1 ± 7.5 with duration of stay 6.7 ± 6.5days. Self-reported sleep quality score at home (1 = worst; 10 = best) was 7.0 ± 2.2; this decreased to 4.0 ± 1.7 during their stay in ICU (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis with APACHE III as severity of illness (R2 = 0.25), factors [exp(b)(95% CI), p value] which significantly affected sleep in ICU were sex [0.37(0.19-0.72), p < 0.01], age and sex interaction [1.02(1.01-1.03), p < 0.01], bedside phone [0.92(0.87-0.97), p < 0.01], prior quality of sleep at home [1.30(1.05-1.62), p = 0.02], and use of steroids [0.82(0.69-0.98), p = 0.03] during the stay in ICU. Conclusion: Reduced sleep quality is a common problem in ICU with a multifactorial etiology. Citation: Bihari S; McEvoy RD; Kim S; Woodman RJ; Bersten AD. Factors affecting sleep quality of patients in intensive care unit. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):301-307. PMID:22701388

Bihari, Shailesh; Doug McEvoy, R.; Matheson, Elisha; Kim, Susan; Woodman, Richard J.; Bersten, Andrew D.



Factors Affecting Hotel Industry Development in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is essential to adapt and improve tourism supply in order to respond to new tourist demand dynamics. An empirical research was carried out to find out the factors which, in the view of Portuguese hoteliers, were of importance to the development and progress of the activity. Hotel managers and owners' attitudes related to different aspects such as: the role

Minoo Farhangmehr; Cláudia Simões



Evaluation of fixed factors affecting hoof health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoof trimming data were collected from the University of Illinois dairy farm. Normality transformed scores for six traits (corkscrew claw (CC), heel erosion (HE), interdigital dermatitis (ID), laminitis (LA), sole ulcers (SU) and white line separation (WLS)) were tested for fixed factors (breed, year, season, age, trimming interval and months postpartum) by an animal model. Ayrshires and Jerseys had ‘better’

Y. C. Huang; R. D. Shanks; G. C. McCoy



Human element factors affecting reliability and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many system reliability prediction methods are based solely on equipment failures, neglecting the human component of man-machine systems (MMS). These methods do not consider the identification of the root causes of human errors. The reliability and safety of industrial and commercial power systems and processes (i.e., MMS) are dependent upon human characteristics and many dependent and dynamic interactive factors. The

Don O. Koval; H. Landis Floyd



Human element factors affecting reliability and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many system reliability predictive methods are based solely on equipment failures neglecting the human component of man-machine systems. These methods do not consider the identification of the root causes of human errors. The reliability and safety of industrial and commercial power systems and processes are dependent upon human characteristics and many dependent and dynamic interactive factors. The consequences of human

D. O. Koval



Factors Affecting Student Choices of Instructional Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To identify factors that caused the majority of students at Los Angeles City College to prefer the traditional lecture-discussion approach to the media approach, questionnaires were administered to students in three courses--three media and two traditional. Over 200 usable questionnaires were returned. Because of scheduling variations and other…

Gold, Ben K.


Factors affecting Chinese enterprises' hedging decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to find factors that explain why some enterprises hedge but others do not. The authors' analysis relies on Heckman model (a probit and Tobit model) with the data obtained from questionnaires collected from Chinese enterprises. Given the fact that only a small portion of Chinese agribusinesses hedge, this paper provides some initial

Shi Zheng; Pei Xu; Zhigang Wang



Factors Affecting Students' Medicine-Taking Habits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines college students' beliefs about health, prescriptions, doctors, and the influence those beliefs have on adherence to prescribed medication regimens. After a brief review of attitudinal factors that influence adherence to prescription medicine directions, the authors discuss measurement issues and explain the reasons for their…

Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.; Zantow, Kenneth; Peterson, Tim O.




E-print Network

CHAPTER XVIII ENVffiONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING OYSTER POPULATIONS Paae PosItive factors worms________________________ __ 421 Oyster crab_____________________ _ 426 Bplrochaetes, and miscellaneous objects. These aggregations of live oysters and empty shells are called oyster bottoms, oyster


Factors that Affect the Lung Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lung is an external organ forming the site of unwanted material or particles. In order to protect it, the airways have to be highly effective filters and if the particle deposit they need to be cleared. Inhaled particles can cause a variety of diseases. There are various factors on which the prediction of depositing particles depends, such as age, particle size, flow rate gender, the physics of the particles, the anatomy of the respiratory tract etc.

Sankhala, Shweta; Singh, H. S.; Singh, S. K.; Lalwani, Gautam



Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of e-commerce, opportunities have arisen for students to obtain course textbooks from sources other than the traditional campus bookstore(s). This research seeks to understand the factors motivating students to select e-commerce or traditional vendors for their textbook purchases. It surveys student perceptions of e-commerce textbook purchases from the perspectives of product perception, shopping experience, customer service, and

Harry Reif; Thomas W. Dillon


Factors affecting decomposition and Diptera colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the process of corpse decomposition is basic to establishing the postmortem interval (PMI) in any death investigation even using insect evidence. The sequence of postmortem changes in soft tissues usually gives an idea of how long an individual has been dead. However, modification of the decomposition process can considerably alter the estimate of the time of death. A body

Carlo Pietro Campobasso; Giancarlo Di Vella; Francesco Introna



Factors affecting ERP system implementation effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems enhance productivity and working quality by offering integration, standardization and simplification of multiple business transactions. The present study seeks to introduce a conceptual framework that investigates the way that human inputs (top management, users, external consultants) are linked to communication effectiveness, conflict resolution and knowledge transfer in the ERP consulting process, as well

Dimitrios Maditinos; Dimitrios Chatzoudes; Charalampos Tsairidis



Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil


Factors Affecting Industrial Cogeneration of Electricity.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research addresses the need to understand the conditions under which industrial firms will generate their own electricity. Utility companies need this information to plan their future expansion. Equipment manufacturers need this information to plan their production and industrial firms need it to help make decisions. The specific purpose of this research was to determine which factors are good determinates of industrial cogeneration. This research used a two-pronged triangulation approach. The first approach was a statistical analysis of levels of cogeneration and selected production variables for industrial firms. The second approach was a survey of industrial firms, energy consultants and utility personnel. The statistical analysis found most of the variance in on-site cogeneration is explained using variables that directly impact the economics of cogeneration. These variables included the cost of energy sources, steam usage, and the use of other fuels. The survey confirmed these results and added the cost of the cogeneration equipment as an another important factor in explaining on-site cogeneration.

Richardson, Ronny Lee


Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if applied on the day of phage application but not if applied 4 or 7 days in advance. Sunlight UV was evaluated for detrimental effects on phage survival on tomato foliage in the field. Phage was applied in the early morning, midmorning, early afternoon, and late evening, while UVA plus UVB irradiation and phage populations were monitored. The intensity of UV irradiation positively correlated with phage population decline. The protective formulation reduced the UV effect. In order to demonstrate direct effects of UV, phage suspensions were exposed to UV irradiation and assayed for effectiveness against bacterial spot of tomato. UV significantly reduced phage ability to control bacterial spot. Ambient temperature had a pronounced effect on nonformulated phage but not on formulated phages. The effects of desiccation and fluorescent light illumination on phage were investigated. Desiccation caused a significant but only slight reduction in phage populations after 60 days, whereas fluorescent light eliminated phages within 2 weeks. The protective formulation eliminated the reduction caused by both of these factors. Phage persistence was dramatically affected by UV, while the other factors had less pronounced effects. Formulated phage reduced deleterious effects of the studied environmental factors. PMID:17259361

Iriarte, F. B.; Balogh, B.; Momol, M. T.; Smith, L. M.; Wilson, M.; Jones, J. B.



Fatherhood across Two Generations: Factors Affecting Early Family Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come…

Goldscheider, Frances; Hofferth, Sandra; Spearin, Carrie; Curtin, Sally



Factors affecting the MTW zeolite cristallization process  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis mechanism of the high silica zeolite types other than MFI is rarely studied in the open literature. This work is devoted to the role of different parameters governing the zeolite MTW crystallization process. The influence of the most important factors: the nature of the silica and alumina source, the type of the organic cation, the alkalinity of the reaction mixture and the crystallization temperature, was studied. The molar composition of the initial hydrogel was varied in other to determine the crystallization field of the zeolite MTW. The observed morphology and particle size of the crystallites are related to the corresponding reaction conditions. The competitive formation of the other zeolite types (prevalently MFI and BEA) is discussed.

Katovic, A.; Giordano, G. [Universita della Calabria, Rende (Italy)




EPA Science Inventory

Factors that influence the collection and measurement of atmospheric sulfate were investigated. Special emphasis was given to those factors that cause the formation of extraneous sulfate during the sampling process. The factors considered were filter type and composition, ambient...


[The psychological factors affecting athletic performance].  


The physical and mental health complex is claimed as achievement of the XXI. century, whereby also among the sportsmen and sportswomen, beside the somatic medicine, growing attention is devoted to the psyche as well. The sports psychiatry was dragged in and put into service to enhance performance after all biological weapons run out of ammunition, and the long-awaited results still failed to come about. Moreover, despite the energy increasingly invested it was going from bad to worse. Among athletes many psychiatric disorders call attention, either by the high prevalence or by the development of a specific syndrome. Symptoms of depression (depression after the competition, depression following the failure at the competition), chronic stress, anxiety, fatigue syndrome of overtraining, enervation, sleep disturbances, eating problems, burnout, eating disorders (anorexia athletics, athlete triad), personality factors and the chemical addiction are all extremely important. The present study is the first to summarize the most crucial psychiatric disorders that may have great significance in the athlete population, in varying degrees according to the individual sports. PMID:20442052

Resch, Mária



Factors Affecting the Production of Vietnamese Tones: A Study of American Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates factors that affect the accuracy of tone production by American students of Vietnamese as a second language (L2). Nine hypotheses are examined, each of which isolates a factor expected to affect production accuracy: (a) task type, (b) the position of a tone in a clause, (c) discourse distance between a model provided by a…

Nguyen, Hanh thi; Macken, Marlys A.



Factors That Affect the Academic Success of Foreign Students at Cardinal Stritch University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are limited studies in the literature on the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students in the United States. This ex post facto mixed method study investigated the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students at Cardinal Stitch University (CSU), a medium size, private university located in the Midwestern…

Annor, Peter



Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

Hazlewood, Patrick Evan


Motivational Factors Affecting Advanced Literacy Learning of Community College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the possible intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors that community college students may bring with them into the classroom. It examines how these motivational factors affect students' learning inside and outside the community college classroom walls. The motivational factors such as mastery, self-determination, belongingness, and social responsibility that drive first language learners to achieve a level of advanced

Rebecca J. Dean; Lorraine Dagostino



Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Tutorials: Factors Affecting Students' Preferences and Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to determine the factors that affect students' preferences regarding tutorial modes. A learning-habit inclinations questionnaire (LHIQ) was constructed and administered to 288 students. Factor analysis revealed four factors: "time management," "ease of access" to learning materials, "positive aspects of interaction," and "negative…

Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Saporta, Kelly; Caspi, Avner



Investigating Factors Influencing Rates of Chemical Reactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a lab investigation in which students observe the rate of generation of hydrogen gas from a reaction, and then modify the procedure to compare another variable affecting the rate of this reaction.

Derickson, Paula


Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)



Factors Affecting the Reactvity of Granular Iron in contact with Chlorinated Solvents  

E-print Network

This study investigates, at various scales, the factors that affect the reactivity of granular iron (GI) toward chlorinated solvents and link these scale-specific processes with each other. The Kinetic Iron Model (KIM), ...

Firdous, Rubina



Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojec...

M. F. Smith, S. Majewski, A. G. Weisenberger, D. A. Kieper, R. R. Raylman



REVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity  

E-print Network

productivity, disturbances induced by farming practices, and landscape heteroge- neity on plant diversity. Last biodiversity. Farming practices . Landscape pattern . Plant community. Plant functional traits . Seed bankREVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity in permanent grasslands. A review

Boyer, Edmond


Factors affecting sleep disturbances in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine factors affecting sleep disturbances in children.Background: Factors affecting sleep disturbances have been studied extensively in adults, but relatively few studies have been done in children.Methods: As part of the twelfth survey of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study of Obstructive Airways Disease (TESOAD, 1991–1992), children, ages 3–14, of adult cohort members were administered a health questionnaire which contained items

Sharon L Camhi; Wayne J Morgan; Natalie Pernisco; Stuart F Quan



Factors Affecting Teachers' Perceived Readiness for Online Collaborative Learning: A Case Study in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates factors affecting the perceived readiness for online collaborative learning (OCL) of a sample of 86 mathematics teachers from 12 secondary schools. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structure equation modeling were used to analyze the data. A moderately fit model was generated and able to inform that time constraint and insufficient access to technology such

Ah-choo Koo



The experience sampling method: Investigating students' affective experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving non-cognitive outcomes such as attitudes, efficacy, and persistence in physics courses is an important goal of physics education. This investigation implemented an in-the-moment surveying technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) [1] to measure students' affective experience in physics. Measurements included: self-efficacy, cognitive efficiency, activation, intrinsic motivation, and affect. Data are presented that show contrasts in students' experiences (e.g., in physics vs. non-physics courses).

Nissen, Jayson M.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.



The experience sampling method: Investigating students' affective experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Improving non-cognitive outcomes such as attitudes, efficacy, and persistence in physics courses is an important goal of physics education. This investigation implemented an in-the-moment surveying technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) to measure students' affective experience in physics. Measurements included: self-efficacy, cognitive efficiency, activation, intrinsic motivation, and affect. Data are presented that show contrasts in studentsâ experiences (e.g., in physics vs. non-physics courses).

Nissen, Jayson M.; Stetzer, Mackenzie R.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.



Factors affecting evaluation of e-business projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2003 survey among Slovenian companies was studying the factors affecting the formal evaluation of e-business projects. The corresponding causal model revealed that the perceptions and the attitudes towards e-business strongly affect the corresponding evaluation practice. In particular, the recognition of the needs for corresponding evaluation had the strongest effect. On the other hand, the high occurrence of problem related

Dusan Lesjak; Vasja Vehovar



Factors in Validating Affective Scales: An Applied Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of claims to the contrary, affective factors related to teaching and learning can be measured. Recent development of affective scales in reading attest to this, yet caution must be observed that as new-scales are developed, they are adequately validated so that the research emanating from their use can be regarded with a high degree of credibility. In that

Joseph Vaughan; Darrell Sabers



Analysis of factors affecting color distribution of white LEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color uniformity is a critical index in the evaluation of high quality white light emitting diodes (LEDs). The main factor affecting the color distribution is the state of the phosphor. The secondary factor is the optical structure. This paper analyzes two parameters of the phosphor layer (thickness and concentration) and six optical structures. Results indicate that the structures with

Zongyuan Liu; Sheng Liu; Kai Wang; Xiaobing Luo




EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine factors affecting metal movement in subsurface materials to groundwater and how these factors interact. Subsoil pH as with surface soils was found to be the property that most influenced metal immobilization. The inclusion of...


Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

Bista, Krishna K.



Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.



Key risk factors affecting electrical safety in hazardous (classified) locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key risk factors affecting electrical safety in hazardous locations, with emphasis on human and environmental factors are discussed. The results of a survey that provides a user view of the reliability of area classification, product specification, installation, maintenance, documentation, and practice are presented and discussed

Richard J. Buschart; Joseph H. Kuczka



Factors Affecting Mortality in Elderly Patients Hospitalized for Nonmalignant Reasons  

PubMed Central

Elderly population is hospitalized more frequently than young people, and they suffer from more severe diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for nonmalignant reasons. Demographic data, reason for hospitalization, comorbidities, duration of hospital stay, and results of routine blood testing at the time of first hospitalization were obtained from the hospital records of the patients, who were over 65 years of age and hospitalized primarily for nonmalignant reasons. The mean age of 1012 patients included in the study was 77.8 ± 7.6. The most common reason for hospitalization was diabetes mellitus (18.3%). Of the patients, 90.3% had at least a single comorbidity. Whilst 927 (91.6%) of the hospitalized patients were discharged, 85 (8.4%) died. Comparison of the characteristics of the discharged and dead groups revealed that the dead group was older and had higher rates of poor general status and comorbidity. Differences were observed between the discharged and dead groups in most of the laboratory parameters. Hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypopotassemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, and high TSH level were the predictors of mortality. In order to meet the health necessities of the elderly population, it is necessary to well define the patient profiles and to identify the risk factors. PMID:25147737

Ayaz, Teslime; Rak?c?, Halil



Factors Affecting Plant Absorption, Transport and Fate of Plutonium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study determined the extent to which several agricultural plants control plutonium (Pu) uptake and provides a general understanding of the fate and behavior of Pu in plants after absorption. Investigations were directed toward variables affecting the...

T. R. Garland, D. A. Cataldo, K. M. McFadden, R. E. Wildung



Physical environmental factors affecting factors affecting patients' stress in the accident and emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with the physical environment of our Accident and Emergency (A & E) departments, with reference to added stressors that may affect our clients' overall experience of A & E. It will hopefully highlight an awareness of the environment and what we, as nurses, can do to enhance a therapeutic, humanised department that will not only help

R. P. Gulrajani



Hemolymph factors affecting respiratory pumping in Aplysia californica  

E-print Network

HEMOLYMPH FACTORS AFFECTING RESPIRATORY PUMPING IN ~~( ~~~I A Thesis by SUSAN JILL TIGERT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1991 Major Subject: Biology HEMOLYMPH FACTORS AFFECTING RESPIRATORY PUMPING I A A Thesis by SUSAN JILL TIGERT Approved as to style and content by: Jam s E. Kanz (Co- r of Committee) I Duncan acKenzie (Co-Chair of Committee) Schwarz...

Tigert, Susan Jill



Factors affecting the porridge quality of sorghum and pearl millet  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PORRIDGE QUALITY OF SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET A Thesis by ASSA KANTE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987... Major Subject: Food Science and Technology FACTORS AFFECTING THE PORRIDGE QUALITY OF SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET A Thesis by ASSA KANTE Approved as to style and content by: oyd . o y (Chairman of Commr ee) Ra p D. Wants a (Member) C ar es W. Drl...

Kante, Assa



Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation) factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions), physical activity (eight dimensions), and stress management (eight dimensions). Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings. PMID:18302762

Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan



Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within {+-} 3 cm{sup 3}, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

Yang, Cheng-Hsiu [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Divisions of Experimental Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Alex Tong-Long [Divisions of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chao-An, E-mail: [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)



Factors affecting postharvest preservation of safou (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H.J. Lam) fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of five factors including fruit size, ripeness stage, picking mode, packaging mode, and storage temperature on safou softening was investigated. Temperature, packaging mode, and fruit size were the only factors that significantly affected safou softening during storage. Low temperature (18 °C) associated with storage without packaging or with perforated packaging improved safou postharvest shelf life. Under these conditions,

Bayi Reine Dossou; Crépin Ella Missang; Alain Baron; Catherine M. G. C. Renard; Thomas Silou



Factors Affecting the Supply of Recent College Graduates in New England. Policy Brief 09-1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief investigates factors affecting New England's supply of recent college graduates and how those factors have changed over time, and suggests steps that states might take to expand this source of skilled labor. (Contains 3 figures.) [This brief summarizes analysis in NEPPC research report 08-1: "The Future of the Skilled Labor Force…

Sasser, Alicia



Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire  

E-print Network

In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as a knowledge learning tool. This tool may be used as a standard document for selection and promotion of employees.

Muhammad Sohail; Abdur Rashid Khan



Industry Training: The Factors that Affect Demand. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in Australia, to determine the factors that affect demand for job training. The study consisted of 30 detailed industry case studies, an industry analysis, and a literature review. Each case study examined current training practices, training decision making in the business, and the determinants of training for the…

Smith, A.; Roberts, P.; Noble, C.; Hayton, G.; Thorne, E.


Pneumonectomy for malignant disease: Factors affecting early morbidity and mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this report is to analyze factors affecting morbidity and mortality after pneumonectomy for malignant disease. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who underwent pneumonectomy for malignancy at the Mayo Clinic. Between January 1, 1985, and September 30, 1998, 639 patients (469 men and 170 women) were identified. Median age was 64 years (range

Alain Bernard; Claude Deschamps; Mark S. Allen; Daniel L. Miller; Victor F. Trastek; Gregory D. Jenkins; Peter C. Pairolero



Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.



Some factors affecting the formation of furan in heated foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of furan in various foods were measured before and after heating under heating and laboratory conditions. The effect of contact with can coatings, sealing gaskets and the epoxidized oils used in gasket manufacture on furan formation was studied. The objective was to identify factors affecting furan formation. Furan present in heat-processed food samples persisted during cooking. Furan was shown

S. Hasnip; C. Crews; L. Castle



Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell



RESEARCH ARTICLE Social and Reproductive Factors Affecting Cortisol  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Social and Reproductive Factors Affecting Cortisol Levels in Wild Female Golden cortisol has been associated with different levels of ``stress'' as well as different reproductive conditions in many primates. In callitrichids, cortisol has more often been reflective of female reproduc

French, Jeffrey A.


Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to fill out a questionnaire that assesses four major domains

Ahmad Oweini; Ahmad Houri



Understanding Factors that Affect Response Rates in Twitter  

E-print Network

Understanding Factors that Affect Response Rates in Twitter Giovanni Comarela Federal University in Twitter. We ap- proach this problem in two stages. First, we perform an extensive characterization of a very large Twitter dataset which includes all users, social relations, and messages posted from

Crovella, Mark


Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria



Factors Affecting the Development and Use of Learning Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored barriers and facilitating factors affecting the development and use of learning objects in developing instructional materials and their use in supporting individualized learning. Over a two-month period, students in a graduate-level instructional design course developed instructional materials incorporating learning objects or…

Moisey, Susan D.; Ally, Mohamed; Spencer, Bob



Factors Affecting Fatty Acid Composition in Forage and Milk  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Fatty Acid Composition in Forage and Milk Katarina Arvidsson Faculty of Natural in Forage and Milk Abstract The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to evaluate variations on the FA contents of the milk. Initially, samples of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) were subjected


Factors Affecting Workers' Retirement Confidence: A Gender Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting male and female workers' retirement confidence. Retirement confidence in this study was measured with series of questions on confidence about retirement income prospects. Using the 1999 Retirement Confidence Survey, it was found that working men compared to women; who were younger; had higher levels of education; higher levels of

So-Hyun Jooi; Vanda W. Pauwelsii



Microsoft Academic Search

I NTEREST in the factors affecting birth weight grows out of its known association with postnatal viability and rate of gain (Kuhlman, 1928; Vestal, 1936; and others). The maternal contribution to variability in birth weight of the offspring is of greater importance than the paternal contri- bution in several species of mammals. Wright (1922) estimated that about 75% of the



Factors affecting couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the adjustment of women and their husbands to recurrent breast cancer and to examine the mutual effect that partners have on one another. An exploratory study was designed to determine the relationship between four predictor variables (support, uncertainty, symptom distress, hopelessness) and women's and husbands' adjustments. The sample consisted

Laurel L. Northouse; Geraldine Dorris; Carol Charron-Moore



Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth



A Causal Model of Academic Factors Affecting Student Persistence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A causal model of academic factors affecting undergraduate student persistence at a large, urban, commuter university was tested. The effects of academic variables on persistence from fall to spring semester were also assessed for transfer and native students. The model accounted for 49% of the total variance in persistence, while separate models…

Johnson, Naomi T.; Richardson, Richard C., Jr.


Factors affecting forest cooperative's participation in forestry in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses forest cooperative's participation in forestry in Turkey. The study was carried out with 71 forest cooperatives in the Kastamonu province, located in the Western Black Sea Region. By using a principal component analysis it was found that the most important factors affecting forest cooperative's participation in forestry are: (1) member involvement, (2) forest ownership and administration, and

Erdo?an Atmi?; H. Batuhan Gün?en; Banu Bayramo?lu Lise; Wietze Lise



Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem




Microsoft Academic Search

HROUGH the spring and early summer of 1964, 11 Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) nests were discovered in Toledo, Lucas County, Ohio. The determinate factors affecting nesting success, including interesting behavioral patterns in response to different stimuli, are reported. The earliest nest was located on 3 May and the latest on 15 June. The habitat varied considerably; nests were found in



Motivational Factors Affecting Online Learning by Japanese MBA Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Japan, Internet based learning is still at an early stage. However, adult learners in Japanese society expect the development of flexible e-learning programs. This case study examines motivational factors affecting online learning in a Japanese and Australian MBA program, using observations, interviews and a questionnaire survey. The data were…

Kikuchi, Hisayo



ORIGINAL PAPER Factors affecting otter (Lutra lutra) abundance and breeding  

E-print Network

tributaries of the Ebro River, with the aims to understand spatial and temporal changes in otter abundanceORIGINAL PAPER Factors affecting otter (Lutra lutra) abundance and breeding success in freshwater online: 19 February 2011 # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract Otters are elusive semi-aquatic mammals

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Factors affecting the protein quality of pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeonpea occupies an important place in human nutrition as a source of dietary proteins in several countries. Some of the important factors that affect the protein quality of pigeonpea have been reviewed and summarised in this paper. Among important food legumes, pigeonpea contained the lowest amount of limiting sulphur amino acids, methionine and cystine implicating the importance of these amino

U. SINGtt; B. O. Eggum



Mothers, Fathers, Families, and Circumstances: Factors Affecting Children's Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burgeoning empirical literature exploring the factors accounting for individual differences in psychological adjustment is reviewed. Many studies have shown that adjustment is largely affected by differences in the quality of parenting and parent–child relationships, the quality of the relationships between the parents, and the richness of the economic and social resources available to the family; more recent research signals

Michael E. Lamb



Which Factors Affect Software Projects Maintenance Cost More?  

PubMed Central

Introduction The software industry has had significant progress in recent years. The entire life of software includes two phases: production and maintenance. Software maintenance cost is increasingly growing and estimates showed that about 90% of software life cost is related to its maintenance phase. Extraction and considering the factors affecting the software maintenance cost help to estimate the cost and reduce it by controlling the factors. Methods In this study, the factors affecting software maintenance cost were determined then were ranked based on their priority and after that effective ways to reduce the maintenance costs were presented. This paper is a research study. 15 software related to health care centers information systems in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and hospitals function were studied in the years 2010 to 2011. Results and discussion Among Medical software maintenance team members, 40 were selected as sample. After interviews with experts in this field, factors affecting maintenance cost were determined. In order to prioritize the factors derived by AHP, at first, measurement criteria (factors found) were appointed by members of the maintenance team and eventually were prioritized with the help of EC software. Based on the results of this study, 32 factors were obtained which were classified in six groups. “Project” was ranked the most effective feature in maintenance cost with the highest priority. By taking into account some major elements like careful feasibility of IT projects, full documentation and accompany the designers in the maintenance phase good results can be achieved to reduce maintenance costs and increase longevity of the software. PMID:23572866

Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Hajrahimi, Nafiseh



Factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations in yellow-bellied marmots.  


1. Bound and total corticosteroid concentrations of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were lowest in May after emergence from hibernation and peaked in August prior to immergence. 2. Total corticosteroids were affected by age but not by sex or reproductive status. 3. There was no consistent relationship between measures of population density and concentrations of corticosteroids; when a significant relationship occurred, only 22-34% of the variation was explained. 4. Social status and social behavior were the major factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations. PMID:1673377

Armitage, K B



[Relationship between congenital heart disease and various factors affecting pregnancy].  


In a prospective epidemiological study data of 24,732 pregnancies were analysed by computer programmes for the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) and its relationship to various factors affecting pregnancy (age and weight of mother, smoking, alcohol-, and coffee-consumption, usage of oral contraception). Frequency of CHD was 0.9%. Data showed that CHD could be associated with alcohol consumption, smoking, maternal age. Other factors like coffee consumption or taking oral contraceptive tablets did not influence the frequency of CHD. Authors conclude that in the prevention of CHD, reduction or even omission of both alcohol consumption and smoking are highly justified. PMID:1734344

Pejtsik, B; Pintér, J; Horváth, M; Hadnagy, J



The Fibroblast Growth Factor Family: Neuromodulation of Affective Behavior  

PubMed Central

In this review we propose a broader view of the role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in modulating brain function. We suggest that some of the FGF ligands together with the FGF receptors are altered in individuals with affective disorder and modulate emotionality in animal models. Thus, we propose that members of the FGF family may be genetic predisposing factors for anxiety, depression or substance abuse; that they play a key organizing role during early development but continue to play a central role in neuroplasticity in adulthood; and that they work not only over extended time frames, but also via rapid signaling mechanisms, allowing them to exert an “on-line” influence on behavior. Therefore, the FGF family appears to be a prototype of “switch genes” that are endowed with organizational and modulatory properties across the lifespan, and that may represent molecular candidates as biomarkers and treatment targets for affective and addictive disorders. PMID:23040813

Turner, Cortney A.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda



Factors Affecting Perceptual Threshold in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Subjects  

PubMed Central

Purpose The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis has been developed to provide partial restoration of vision to subjects blinded from outer retinal degenerative disease. Participants were surgically implanted with the system in the United States and Europe in a single arm, prospective, multicenter clinical trial. The purpose of this investigation was to determine which factors affect electrical thresholds in order to inform surgical placement of the device. Methods Electrode–retina and electrode–fovea distances were determined using SD-OCT and fundus photography, respectively. Perceptual threshold to electrical stimulation of electrodes was measured using custom developed software, in which current amplitude was varied until the threshold was found. Full field stimulus light threshold was measured using the Espion D-FST test. Relationships between electrical threshold and these three explanatory variables (electrode–retina distance, electrode–fovea distance, and monocular light threshold) were quantified using regression. Results Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between electrical threshold and electrode–retina distance (R2 = 0.50, P = 0.0002; n = 703 electrodes). 90.3% of electrodes in contact with the macula (n = 207) elicited percepts at charge densities less than 1 mC/cm2/phase. These threshold data also correlated well with ganglion cell density profile (P = 0.03). A weaker, but still significant, inverse correlation was found between light threshold and electrical threshold (R2 < 0.52, P = 0.01). Multivariate modeling indicated that electrode–retina distance and light threshold are highly predictive of electrode threshold (R2 = 0.87; P < 0.0005). Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that while light threshold should be used to inform patient selection, macular contact of the array is paramount. Translational Relevance Reported Argus II clinical study results are in good agreement with prior in vitro and in vivo studies, and support the development of higher-density systems that employ smaller diameter electrodes. ( identifier: NCT00407602) PMID:24049718

Ahuja, A. K.; Yeoh, J.; Dorn, J. D.; Caspi, A.; Wuyyuru, V.; McMahon, M. J.; Humayun, M. S.; Greenberg, R. J.; daCruz, L.



Factors affecting members’ evaluation of agri-business ventures’ effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents work to identify factors affecting effectiveness of agri-business ventures (A-BVs) on the side of providers as perceived by their members. A survey was conducted among 95 members of A-BVs in Zanjan province, Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire was designed. Two distinct groups of A-BVs with low (group 1) and high (group 2) perceived (evaluated) levels of

Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi; Yousef Hedjazi



Factors Affecting Cotton Producers' Choice of Marketing Outlet  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING COTTON PRODUCERS? CHOICE OF MARKETING OUTLET A Thesis by JASON DEAN PACE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, John R.C. Robinson Committee Members, Dmitry Vedenov Calvin Parnell Head of Department, Parr Rosson December 2012 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics Copyright 2012 Jason...

Pace, Jason 1979-



Affective and physiological factors predicting maternal response to infant crying  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated physiological, affective, and perceptual factors hypothesized to predict how quickly 45 primiparous mothers of 7–9-month-old infants would respond to non-distressed infant crying. Aversiveness ratings of the non-distressed cries of one's “own” infant and physiological reactivity to one's “own” infant crying accounted for a significant amount of the variance in a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis of speed

Tamara Del Vecchio; Abbe Walter; Susan G. O’Leary



Factors Affecting the Amount of Puffing in Tomatoes.  

E-print Network

by crossings involving four varieties the first generations of which developed less puffing than those involving any two varieties. Pactors found to affect the proportion of tomato fruits puffed involve variety and strain (hereditary), pollination, available...-------------------------------------------- 4 0 Southern blight 40 Blossom end rot 41 Pollination 41 Position of fruit 42 Hereditary factors 4 4 Varieties and strains 4 4 Selections -----------1---------------------------- 5 5 Crosses 5 7 Discussion 6 0 Summary 6 1 Literature cited...

Wood, J. F. (John Fielding); Yarnell, S. H. (Sidney Howe); Friend, W. H. (William Heartsill)



Factors affecting uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study factors affecting uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation. DESIGN--Cohort study using data from computerised child health systems. SETTING--10 health districts in North East Thames and North West Thames regions. SUBJECTS--7841 children born in January to March 1990 and resident in the districts up till the end of October 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Overall uptake of measles, mumps, and

J Li; B Taylor



Factors affecting the use and non use of contraception.  


Data from the 1982 Jakarta Modular Survey were used to study the factors affecting the use and nonuse of contraception. Specific study objectives were: to present some characteristics of contraceptors and noncontraceptors; to identify the major factors affecting contraceptive use; to determine the causal structure between the factors and contraceptive use; and to understand the relationship among these factors. The data collected were organized into 4 modules: socioeconomic and migration module; contraceptive prevalence and fertility module; mortality, morbidity, nutrition, and health practice module; and contraceptive continuation module. The first 3 modules were used for collecting information from all currently married women aged 15-49 years. The last module was used for collecting information from women who used some contraceptive method through the services of a family planning clinic during the 1977-82 period. Data on 2727 women were analyzed. Users and nonusers distributed differently depending on their characteristics. The characteristics selected included age, respondent's education, husband's education, working status of the respondent, age at 1st marriage, number of living children, and experience of abortion. These variables were considered to be associated with use and nonuse of contraceptives. Compared to the nonusers, the current users were slightly older in age more educated (and had husbands who were more educated), were older when 1st married, had more living children, and had more experience in abortion. Log-linear analysis was performed on 2 groups of women. Group I included all currently married women aged 15-49 years; Group II included only "high risk" women, i.e., currently married women aged 15-34 years, not pregnant, not in menopausal stage, and have had at least 1 live birth. Contraceptive use rates were lower in Group I than in Group II. Within both groups, the users rates differed significantly according to age, age at marriage, number of living children, education, and media exposure. There were no significant differences in contraceptive use rates according to experience of abortion and working status. The analysis on the selection of a model suggests that there were 4 independent major factors affecting the use and nonuse of contraception: number of living children, frequency of exposure to mass media, level of education, and current age. There also was a relationship among the following factors: age with number of living children and with media exposure; number of living children with level of education; and education with media exposure and with age. Although the experience of abortion did not affect contraceptive use, it was strongly associated with age. Among these 4 factors, education had the strongest effects, followed consecutively by number of living children, current age, and media exposure. PMID:12280177

Utomo, B; Alimoeso, S; Park, C B



Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum.  


Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2,000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry. PMID:12487445

Suhr, K I; Haasum, I; Steenstrup, L D; Larsen, T O



Factors affecting livestock predation by lions in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviews were carried out in six villages south-west of Waza National Park, Cameroon, to investigate the impact of factors related to the occurrence of livestock raiding by lions. Data were analysed at the village and individual level. Livestock losses (cattle, sheep and\\/or goats) caused by lions differed between villages, ranging from eight to 232 animals per village per year, or

L. Van Bommel; M. D. Bij de Vaate; W. F. De Boer; H. H. De Iongh



Factors affecting the prescribing patterns of antibiotics and injections.  


There are serious problems concerning the inadequate prescription of antibiotics and overuse of injections in primary care. However, the determinants of prescription patterns in Korea are not well-documented. To examine the area characteristics affecting the prescription of antibiotics and injections in primary care practices in the treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), a nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 250 administrative districts of Korea. The outcome was modeled as a binary variable: over-prescription or not compared with the nation-wide average. Over-prescription of antibiotics was associated with the ratio of specialists to general physicians and over-prescription in previous years in the area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-14.8; and aOR, 12.0; 95% CI 5.5-25.9, respectively). Over-use of injections was associated with younger population, urban living and the number of hospital beds in the area (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.4; aOR, 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.8; and aOR, 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9; respectively). There were differences in the prescribing patterns in different districts; prescription patterns were affected more by supply factors than by demand factors. Highly competitive medical environment associated with supply factors is a significant determinant of prescription patterns in Korea. PMID:22323857

Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang-Min; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Kwon, Soonman



Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)



Risk factors affecting morbidity in typhoid enteric perforation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Typhoid enteric perforation is a cause of high morbidity and mortality. This study aim is to determine the factors affecting\\u000a morbidity in patients with typhoid enteric perforation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Ninety-six patients with typhoid enteric perforation were reviewed. The variables are defined as follows: Age, gender, complaints,\\u000a perforation–operation interval, typhoid fever treatment before the perforation or not, white blood cell (WBC)

E. Gedik; S. Girgin; I. H. Taçy?ld?z; Y. Akgün



[Psychological factors affecting medical conditions--a method of measurement].  


Improving the way of diagnosing diseases is reflected in changes which are being introduced into the existing systems of classifications. Researchers aim to create such a system that will be free of assumptions that are controversial and difficult to approve on the medical basis. Currently completed works associated with the preparation and introduced the DSM-5, in which they prepared criteria for the assessment psychological factors affecting medical conditions and their method of measurement. An interview which is presented in this article has been created for the evaluation of those groups of syndromes and has been translated into the Polish language. PMID:25344974

Basi?ska, Malgorzata A; Wo?niewicz, Agnieszka



Sociocultural and Motivational Factors Affecting Asian American Females Studying Physics and Engineering in High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study investigated whether and to what extent the motivational and sociocultural factors affect female Asian American high school physics students' achievement, their intended major in college, and their planned career goals at work fields. A survey of 62 questions, extracted from subscales of AAMAS,STPQ and PSE, were…

Sha, Saliha L.



Who Should Mark What? A Study of Factors Affecting Marking Accuracy in a Biology Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accurate marking is crucial to the reliability and validity of public examinations, in England and internationally. Factors contributing to accuracy have been conceptualised as affecting either marking task demands or markers' personal expertise. The aim of this empirical study was to develop this conceptualisation through investigating the…

Suto, Irenka; Nadas, Rita; Bell, John



Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…

Alawneh, Muhammad K.



Factors affecting strategy commitment to community-oriented policing (COP) among South Korean police officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Prior studies examining the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational behavior contain several limitations, such as mixed levels of measurement and lack of empirical study in different social contexts. Using Mowday, Porter, and Steers's approach, this study aims to investigate individual demographic, personal, departmental and community characteristics as factors affecting police officers' levels of strategy commitment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Chang-Hun Lee; Chang-Bae Lee



Factors affecting survival and recruitment of unionid mussels in small midwestern streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the survival and recruitment of unionid mussels in small midwestern streams. Unionid mussels have been undergoing a decline in many places, and it is thought that the juvenile is the most sensitive life stage. Because most studies have focused on larger rivers, the status of mussels

Melody Lynn Myers-Kinzie



Factors Affecting the Happiness of Urban Elementary School Students: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this transformative mixed methods study was to examine the school happiness of upper elementary students in three Connecticut urban demonstration schools. The study examined the differences in students' happiness based on ethnicity, gender, and their interaction. It also investigated the factors that affect students' happiness in…

Tenney, Jodiann K.



Factors affecting plant uptake and phytotoxicity of cadmium added to soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smelting and electroplating of metals, motor oils, motor vehicle tires, and fungicide sprays are sources of cadmium in the environment. The factors affecting plant uptake and phytotoxicity of cadmium added to soils were investigated. For a set of 30 surface soils, the addition of 50 mg Cd (from CdClâ) to 500 g of soil reduced yield and sharply increased Cd

Matt K. John; Cornelis J. VanLaerhoven; Hong H. Chuah



Basic Factors that Affect General Academic Motivation Levels of Candidate Preschool Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate some personal and familial factors that affect overall academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers. The study group of this research consists of 285 students attending the child development and preschool education department at Selcuk University Faculty of Vocational Education in the…

Celikoz, Nadir



Basic factors that affect general academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate some personal and familial factors that affect overall academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers. The study group of this research consists of 285 students (candidate teachers) attending the child development and preschool education department at Selcuk University Faculty of Vocational Education in the 2007-2008 academic year. General Academic Motivation Scale was

Nadir Çeliköz



Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-supply contracts, regulatory assets, and expenses for public-policy programs have book values that exceed their expected market values under full competition. This report quantifies the sensitivity of stranded- commitment estimates to the various factors that lead to these above- market-value estimates. The purpose of these sensitivity analyses is to improve understanding on the part of state and federal regulators, utilities, customers, and other electric-industry participants about the relative importance of the factors that affect stranded- commitment amounts.

Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.



Calcite and Picocyanobacteria in Lakes: Factors Affecting Their Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcites build large deposits which have been observed in the rock record throughout geological time at various localities around the globe. Carbonate deposits have affected atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. As it has been generally accepted, inorganic precipitation represents a source of carbon dioxide on short geological time scales and a sink of inorganic carbon at long time scales from millions to thousands of millions years. However, recent research indicates that calcite deposits may result from microbial calcification instead of inorganic precipitation. In this case the process may reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide on geologically short time scales. Thus the effect of carbonate sediment deposition on global carbon cycling depends on the origin of carbonate. Thus it is essential to understand the cause and the key parameters affecting calcite precipitation. The role of algae and bacteria in calcite formation in lakes has not been evaluated in detail. Some evidence, however, exists supporting precipitation of calcium carbonate by microbes as the origin of whiting. Several field studies on lakes have also produced puzzling results: The peaks of algal blooms were often not found at the same time as precipitation events of calcite. We suspect that parts of the discrepancies in the interpretation of field observations are due to the activity of autotrophic picoplankton. The unicellular autotrophic picoplankton (APP) is a ubiquitous component of pelagic ecosystems. But it has often been overlooked due to its small cell size of 0.2 - 2 ? m in diameter. Coccoid picocyanobacteria of the Synechococcus-type dominate the picoplankton community in most oligotrophic systems. Recently, laboratory experiments and field observations suggested that APP may play an important role in calcite precipitation. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of environmental factors such as saturation state, concentration of different dissolved ions and characteristics of the surface of cells on interaction between calcite and picocyanobacteria under both laboratory and field conditions. Laboratory experiments were performed with a picocyanobacteria strain Synechococcus-type. Using ion selective electrodes we monitored calcite precipitation induced by bacteria in the solutions of a different composition (calcium 0.7 - 48 mM, inorganic carbonate 6 - 35 ? M). Electron and atomic force microscopy measurements provided insight into the cell-mineral interface. Furthermore, quantitative investigations of the types and densities of proton binding sites on a bacterial surface will be reported from the acid-base titrations on bacteria. Results of these initial experiments are encouraging and demonstrate by direct measurements the potential of picocyanobacteria to precipitate calcite. The amount of the precipitated calcite varied in experiments with a different ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon and calcium. The microscopic observations provide some evidence that the cell walls of cyanobacteria act as a substrate of nucleation of calcite. Temporal and spatial correlations of cyanobacteria and calcite, as well as images of bacterial shape particles indicated that picoplankton plays an important role in calcite precipitation in Lake Lucerne. This class of phytoplankton has to be considered in studying the biogeochemical cycling of oligotrophic hardwater lakes.

Dittrich, M.; Obst, M.; Mavrocordatos, D.



Predictive factors affecting cecal intubation failure in colonoscopy trainees  

PubMed Central

Background Successful cecal intubation (SCI) is not only a quality indicator but also an important marker in a colonoscopy trainee’s progress. We conducted this study to determine factors predicting SCI in colonoscopy trainees, and to compare these factors before and after trainees achieve technical competence. Methods Design of this study was a cross-sectional studies of two time series design for one year at a single center. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total 2,050 subjects who underwent colonoscopy by four first-year gastrointestinal fellows were enrolled at Christian hospital, Wonju, Republic of Korea. Four gastrointestinal fellows have filled out the colonoscopic documentation. Main outcome measurement was predictive factors affecting cecal intubation failure and learning curves. Results Colonoscopy was successfully completed to the cecum in 1,720 patients (83.9%). Success rates gradually increased as trainees performed more colonoscopies: the rate of SCI was 62% in the first 50 cases, and grew to 93% by the 250th case. Logistic regression analysis of factors affecting cecal intubation failure showed that female gender, low BMI (BMI < 18.5?kg/m2), poor bowel preparation, and past history of stomach surgery were more often associated with cecal intubation failure, particularly before the trainees achieved technical competence. Conclusion Several patient characteristics were identified that may predict difficulty of cecal intubation in colonoscopy trainees. Particularly, low BMI, inadequate bowel cleansing, and previous stomach operation were predictors of cecal intubation failure before the trainees have reached technical competency. The results could be informative so that trainees enhance the success rate regarding better colonoscopy training programs. PMID:23331720



Factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics by microfocus radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) were investigated. Reliability of void detection in silicon nitride and silicon carbide by microfocus X-rays was affected by photon energy level, material chemistry in the immediate vicinity of the void, and the presence of loose powder aggregates inside the void cavity. The sensitivity of SLAM to voids was affected by material microstructure, the level of porosity, and the condition of the specimen surfaces. Statistical results are presented in the form of probability of detection as a function of void diameter for green compacts and sintered materials.

Klima, S.J.; Baaklini, G.Y.; Roth, D.J.



Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds  

PubMed Central

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations. PMID:23593131

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang



Factors Affecting the Toxicity of Methylmercury Injected into Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury\\u000a when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects\\u000a of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and

G. H. Heinz; D. J. Hoffman; S. L. Kondrad; C. A. Erwin



Agricultural factors affecting Verticillium wilt in olive orchards in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the spread of Verticillium wilt in olive orchards, caused by the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is often related to intensive modern farming of highly productive cultivars, planted at high densities, usually irrigated,\\u000a and under a mechanised system. The effects of agricultural factors associated with olive orchards were investigated in an\\u000a important olive-growing area in southern Spain, as

E. Rodríguez; J. M. García-garrido; P. A. García; M. Campos



Biological and physical factors affecting the body burden of organic contaminants in freshwater mussels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological and physical factors affecting the body burdens of hexachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, and four polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners in freshwater mussels from Lake St. Clair, Ontario, Canada were investigated. Specimens ofLampsilis radiata (Barnes) and the non-nativeElliptio complanata (Lightfoot) were deployed for forty days at four Lake St. Clair sites, to investigate whether the water or the sediment phase represented the primary source

B. W. Muncaster; P. D. N. Hebert; R. Lazar



Study of factors affecting the appearance of colors under microscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.

Zakizadeh, Roshanak; Martinez-Garcia, Juan; Raja, Kiran B.; Siakidis, Christos



Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America  

SciTech Connect

The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

Hill, L.J.



Factors affecting intraocular light scattering from different color straylight sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important optical parameter of the eye is intraocular light scattering. Straylight can reduce visual acuity, contrast sensitivity. It is one of the main factors for glare, especially for drivers at night, when there is light source some distance away from the fixation point. There are many factors, which can affect amount of light scattering in the eye. To assess the effect of the color of the straylight source on retinal image quality at different light scattering levels, retinal straylight was measured with and without light scattering occluder. Red, green and blue colors were choosed for straylight source. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods were used to evaluate light scattering effect on perception on different color stimuli. Results show that straylight values are the greatest for blue color with and without light scattering occluder. In measurements without light scattering occluder ratio of straylight values for red and green color are different between subjects. Using light scattering occluder straylight values for green color are greater than for red color. Optical and anatomical factors which can induce these spectral variations are discussed. Psychophysical and electrophysiological methods showed the similar changes in results with straylight values when light scattering were increased.

Ikaunieks, Gatis; Ozolinsh, Maris



Investigating the dynamics of affect: Psychological mechanisms of affective habituation to pleasurable stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective habituation (i.e., reductions in stimulus-evoked affective reactions as a result of previous exposure) may serve\\u000a a functional purpose. However, little is know about the psychological mechanisms underlying this process. To elucidate the\\u000a characteristics of affective habituation, two experiments that examined affective reactions to repeated exposures of pleasurable\\u000a stimuli were conducted. Results of these experiments indicated that habituation trajectories are

Adam M. Leventhal; Rodney L. Martin; Robert W. Seals; Evelina Tapia; Lynn P. Rehm



Factors affecting tuberculosis retreatment defaults in Nanded, India.  


This study was carried out to determine factors affecting tuberculosis retreatment defaults in Nanded, India. All patients registered as tuberculosis retreatment cases (n = 107 excluding deaths during treatment) were interviewed by home visits. Their sociodemographic characteristics and treatment history were recorded and later compared with their treatment outcomes. Among the patients registered for re-treatment of tuberculosis (n = 112), 24 (21.4%) defaulted on treatment. The rate of default was 25.8% among those who had previously defaulted on treatment. Those who were employed, illiterate and alcoholics were 3.5, 3.5 and 3.4 times more likely to default, respectively, than others; these differences were significant. PMID:21073036

Bhagat, Vijay Manohar; Gattani, Prakash Laxminarayan



Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.



Multilevel factors affecting quality: examples from the cancer care continuum.  


The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

Zapka, Jane; Taplin, Stephen H; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine



Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf  

PubMed Central

Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ? 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm). PMID:24379484

Luc, J. E.; Crow, W. T.



Factors affecting furfural as a nematicide on turf.  


Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ? 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm). PMID:24379484

Luc, J E; Crow, W T



Environmental factors affecting Galaxy Morphology - a study using COSMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to our current understanding, galaxy shapes and morphologies should depend on various factors such as the local environment. Realistic image simulations for calibration of weak lensing analysis methods that use training samples from the Hubble Space Telescope can therefore be affected by these trends, due to the limited volume of the universe that has been surveyed by Hubble. I will show how redshift slices in a volume-limited subsample of COSMOS can be classified as overdense or underdense (or neither), and how the statistical properties of various morphological parameters such as ellipticity, Sersic n, bulge-to-total ratio and color differ in these bins. This study requires a careful distinction between environment effects from large-scale structure, which we do not wish to include in simulations, and general trends in the galaxy population with redshift. We conclude with some guidance for how upcoming surveys can use COSMOS data as the basis for weak lensing simulations without having their conclusions overly affected by cosmic variance.

Jayaraman, Arun; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Lackner, Claire



What Factors Affect Macroinvertebrate Life in Big Darby Creek?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Darby Creek watershed encompasses an area of approximately 550 square miles in central Ohio. The Big and Little Darby Creeks are well known for their vast diversity and abundance of aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals. They are home to eighty-six species of fish, five of which are endangered. Forty-one species of freshwater mollusks live in these waters, eight of which are on the Ohio endangered list. In this lesson, students will identify trends and make predictions about the possible influence of climatic factors and vegetative growth on macroinvertebrates. Using three different sets of scientific data from an internet database (Live Access Server), they will generate and interpret line graphs. They will compare the graphs to identify correlations among factors investigated and make a prediction based on patterns in the data.


Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.



Renovascular hypertension: factors affecting the outcome following surgical revascularisation.  


This study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan to evaluate factors that affect outcome following revascularisation in patients with renovascular hypertension. We included all the patients diagnosed to have renovascular hypertension, confirmed by renal angiography, between July 1997 and September 2000. Of the total 15 patients, nine were males and six were females. Eleven patients received venous grafts, three received polytetraflouroethyline (PTFE) grafts while one patient underwent angioplasty and stenting. All were followed-up for a period of nine months (median) with the range from 2 to 84 months. A total of 33.3% of the study patients were completely cured, as they became normotensive without anti-hypertensive therapy after operation, while 27% showed marked improvement in blood pressure control post-operatively. Thus, extended cure or improvement of renovascular hypertension was achieved in 60% of patients. Normal pre-operative serum creatinine level, high pre-operative unstimulated peripheral renin levels and renal vein renin ratio of at least 1.75:1 were the most significant predictive factors for favorable outcome (p < 0.012). The pre-operative severity and duration of hypertension as well as degree of disparity in kidney sizes did not predict the post-operative improvement in renal function and blood pressure control. PMID:17657118

Rabbani, Malik Anas; Zaidi, Alia; Ali, Syed Sohail; Anas, Bushra; Younus, Asmooni; Shah, Syed Mansoor Ahmad



An investigation of flow regimes affecting the Mexico City region  

SciTech Connect

The Mexico City region is well-known to the meteorological community for its overwhelming air pollution problem. Several factors contribute to this predicament, namely, the 20 million people and vast amount of industry within the city. The unique geographical setting of the basin encompassing Mexico City also plays an important role. This basin covers approximately 5000 km{sup 2} of the Mexican Plateau at an average elevation of 2250 m above sea level (asl) and is surrounded on three sides by mountains averaging over 3500 m asl, with peaks over 5000 m asl. Only to the north is their a significant opening in the mountainous terrain. Mexico City sprawls over 1000 km{sup 2} in the southwestern portion of the basin. In recent years, several major research programs have been undertaken to investigate the air quality problem within Mexico City. One of these, the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI), conducted in 1990--1993, was a cooperative study between researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute. As part of this study, a field campaign was initiated in February 1991 during which numerous surface, upper air, aircraft, and LIDAR measurements were taken. Much of the work to date has focused upon defining and simulating the local meteorological conditions that are important for understanding the complex photochemistry occurring within the confines of the city. It seems reasonable to postulate, however, that flow systems originating outside of the Mexico City basin will influence conditions within the city much of the time.

Bossert, J.E.



Factors affecting couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer.  


The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the adjustment of women and their husbands to recurrent breast cancer and to examine the mutual effect that partners have on one another. An exploratory study was designed to determine the relationship between four predictor variables (support, uncertainty, symptom distress, hopelessness) and women's and husbands' adjustments. The sample consisted of 155 subjects; 81 women, who had a first recurrence of breast cancer, and 74 husbands. Multiple standardized instruments with established reliability and validity were used to measure the study variables. The independent variables were measured with the Social Support Questionnaire, the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale, McCorkle Symptom Distress Scale and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The dependent variable, psychosocial adjustment, was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. The results indicated that the independent variables accounted for 43% of the variance in women's distress and 32% of the variance in husbands' distress; they also explained 66% of the variance in women's role adjustment problems and 57% of the variance in husbands' role problems. Symptom distress and hopelessness accounted for the most variance in women's and husbands' levels of adjustment. A significant and positive relationship was found between women's and husbands' adjustment scores, indicating that partners have a mutual influence on one another. The findings suggest that there are multiple factors that influence couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer, and that these factors need to be taken into consideration when planning care for women and their partners. PMID:7667674

Northouse, L L; Dorris, G; Charron-Moore, C



Threat processing in generalized social phobia: an investigation of interpretation biases in ambiguous facial affect.  


Facial affect is one of the most important information sources during the course of social interactions, but it is susceptible to distortion due to the complex and dynamic nature. Socially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit alterations in the processing of social information, such as an attentional and interpretative bias toward threatening information. This may be one of the key factors contributing to the development and maintenance of anxious psychopathology. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a threat-related interpretation bias is evident for ambiguous facial stimuli in a population of individuals with a generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (gSAD) as compared to healthy controls. Participants judged ambiguous happy/fearful, angry/fearful and angry/happy blends varying in intensity and rated the predominant affective expression. The results obtained in this study do not indicate that gSAD is associated with a biased interpretation of ambiguous facial affect. PMID:24656896

Jusyte, Aiste; Schönenberg, Michael



Factor adjustment spikes and interrelation: an empirical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take a descriptive look at interrelated factor demand starting from the observation that adjustment of capital and labor is lumpy. We find that the adjustment dynamics of an input factor are affected by large adjustments in the other.

Wilko A. Letterie; Gerard A. Pfann; J. Michael Polder



Investigating Factors Affecting the Uptake of Automated Assessment Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automated assessment is an emerging innovation in educational praxis, however its pedagogical potential is not fully utilised in Australia, particularly regarding automated essay grading. The rationale for this research is that the usage of automated assessment currently lags behind the capacity that the technology provides, thus restricting the…

Dreher, Carl; Reiners, Torsten; Dreher, Heinz



Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

Pyo, Katrina A.


An epidemiologic investigation of injuries affecting young competitive female gymnasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study of injuries affecting 50 highly com petitive young female gymnasts was conducted over a period of 1 year. Many of the findings of this investi gation were consistent with previous studies and sug gest particular injury trends in women's gymnastics. These results included injury location, injury severity, nature of onset, event, and activity at the time of

Dennis Caine; Barbara Cochrane; Caroline Caine; Eric Zemper



Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.

Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.



Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.



Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at those institutions were surveyed by mail with electronic mail follow-up. Multiple regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The survey yielded a 41% response rate with electronic mail follow-up being particularly effective. Two dependent variables, internal diffusion (spread of diffusion) and infusion (depth of diffusion), were measured. There was little correlation between them, indicating they measured different things. Fifteen independent variables clustered into three attribute sets were measured. The innovation attributes set was significant for both internal diffusion and infusion. Significant individual variables were visibility for internal diffusion and image enhancement effects (negative relation) as well as visibility for infusion (depth of diffusion). Organizational attributes were also significant predictors for both dependent variables. No individual variables were significant for internal diffusion. Communication, management support (negative relation), rewards, and existence of champions were significant for infusion. Marketing attributes were not significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Successful diffusion of online end user literature searching is dependent on the visibility of the systems, communication among, rewards to, and peers of possible users who promote use (champions). Personal image enhancement effects have a negative relation to infusion, possibly because the use of intermediaries is still seen as the more luxurious way to have searches done. Management support also has a negative relation to infusion, perhaps indicating that depth of diffusion can increase despite top-level management actions. PMID:9934530

Ash, J S



Ecological Factors Affecting Efficiency and Health in Warships*  

PubMed Central

The environment of those who live and work in warships is closely related to the way the ships are built and employed. In stating the requirements for the atmosphere between decks the emphasis has swung during the past 50 years from the need for controlling the chemical constituents to the control of the factors which comprise the thermal environment, and now, with the advent of the nuclear-powered submarine, to the need for achieving, as nearly as possible, complete physical, chemical, and microbiological control. Between 1944 and 1953 the thermal factors between decks were investigated in a series of studies carried out in H.M. Ships. The average effective temperatures on the mess decks and in the work places of 11 ships in the Eastern Fleet in 1944 exceeded 84°F. (28·9°C.). In compartments where radiant heat was an added factor the average corrected effective temperature levels were 1° or 2°F. (0·55-1·1°C.) higher than the corresponding effective temperatures. The effects of climatic conditions on naval personnel were investigated by psychological studies to determine the levels of warmth at which performance deteriorated; by physiological experiments to show the levels of warmth at which the collapse of men working at different work rates might be expected; by comfort surveys in ships and on shore to determine the levels of warmth at which the majority enjoyed optimum comfort; and by relating the monthly incidence of the common causes of ill-health to the average monthly upper-deck temperature as recorded at noon each day in order to determine the temperature level above which sickness increased. It was concluded that the upper desirable level of warmth to consider when designing ships for hot climates was an effective temperature of 78°F. (25·5°C.). As it is usually impracticable in many compartments to achieve temperatures below 78°F. (25·5°C.) in the tropics without the generous application of air cooling, attention was then directed to the associated effects on the chemical and bacterial constituents of restricting air supplies, an unavoidable feature of most air conditioning systems, and to defining the permissible lower limits for fresh air requirements. The nuclear submarine with its capacity for remaining submerged for very long periods raises new problems relating to life in a confined space and involving very prolonged exposure to the submarine environment. These problems have still to be investigated. PMID:13726470

Ellis, F. P.



Factors affecting defaulting from DOTS therapy under the national programme of tuberculosis control in Alexandria, Egypt.  


This unmatched case-control study aimed to identify factors affecting default from therapy under the national programme of TB control in Alexandria, Egypt. Record reviews and structured interviews were made with 57 defaulters and 187 randomly selected controls. Univariate analysis showed 13 out of 54 factors, investigated were significantly associated with defaulting and, after stepwise logistic regression, 5 factors remained in the model: younger age (adjusted OR = 0.16), rural area of residence (OR = 12.9), long waiting times (OR = 5.81), poor physician-patient communication (OR = 3.06) and fear of information leakage (OR = 3.62). Reasons cited by defaulters included long distance to the clinic, unsuitable clinic times and long waiting times. The main factors associated with defaulting from the national programme of TB control in Alexandria, Egypt were service-related factors, which are amenable to improvement. PMID:23516818

El-Din, M Nour; Elhoseeny, T; Mohsen, A M M A



Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy  

PubMed Central

Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72.6% of the total eligible patients). The mean age was 51.7 years (±15.4); 58% have been on dialysis for >3 years. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3.2 (±2), and Kt/V was 1.3 (±0.44). The mean satisfaction score was (7.41 ± 2.75) and the mean score of the impact of the dialysis on the patients' lives was 5.32 ± 2.55. Male patients reported worse effect of dialysis on family life, social life, energy, and appetite. Longer period since the commencement of dialysis was associated with adverse effect on finances and energy. Lower level of education was associated with worse dialysis effect on stress, overall health, sexual life, hobbies, and exercise ability. Conclusion. The level of satisfaction is affected by gender, duration on dialysis, educational level, and standard of care given. PMID:21152200

Al Eissa, M.; Al Sulaiman, M.; Jondeby, M.; Karkar, A.; Barahmein, M.; Shaheen, F. A. M.; Al Sayyari, A.



Hydrologic and geologic factors affecting land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At an extensometer site near Eloy, Arizona, 1.09 m of land subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal were measured by leveling in 1965-83. The extensometer, which partially penetrates the compressible sediments, recorded 0.82 m of compaction during the same period. By use of a one-dimensional model, cumulative daily compaction values were simulated to within an average of 0.0038 m of the actual values. Land subsidence was simulated to within an average of 0.011 m using the same model in conjunction with geohydrologic data of the sediments below the extensometer. A highly compressible clay layer that is 24.38 m thick was partially penetrated by the extensometer. The simulation indicated that the layer was driving compaction and land subsidence linearly with respect to time, despite the presence of other compacting layers. Because of its thickness and compressibility, this layer can be expected to continue to compact after applied vertical stresses have stopped increasing and other layers have stopped compacting. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the compressibility of fine-grained sediments (expressed as specific storage) is one of the factors to which compact is most sensitive. Preconsolidation stress and hydraulic conductivity also affect land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona. (Author 's abstract)

Epstein, V. J.



Factors affecting the bacteriological contamination of commercial washing machines.  


Wash water from self-service washing machines in three commercial launderettes of Bologna (Italy) were examined to verify which factors affect their bacterial contamination and to determine which procedures in the laundering process have the most significant effects on the removal of bacteria. Four washing formulas were compared: a delicates cycle (programmed temperature 25-30 degrees C; actual temperature: 28-31 degrees C); a whites cycle (programmed temperature: 80-90 degrees C; actual temperature: 50-57.5 degrees C); a delicates cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach safe for delicate fabrics and a whites cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach. Bacterial contamination of washing machines was higher in the launderette most heavely used, and, furthermore, it was in relation with the washing temperature and the use of bleaches. The low temperature laundering cycle (20-30 degrees C) did not guarantee elimination of bacterial content from either the inside of the washing machine or from the fabric being washed. Washing with water at a higher temperature, of about 55 degrees C, or adding an oxygen-based bleach to the low temperature cycle did ensure a significant reduction in bacterial recovery from water samples and fabrics, but did not prevent bacteria such as P. aeruginosa from surviving inside the washing machine. Only the addition of bleaches to the hot water program ensured the almost total elimination of bacteria and also guaranteed their elimination from protected parts of the drum. PMID:9638885

Legnani, P P; Leoni, E



Factors Affecting Fiber Design and Selection for Advanced Ceramic Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have the potential for application in the hot sections of a variety of advanced propulsion and power systems. It is therefore necessary to have a general understanding of the key properties of CMC and Reinforcing Fibers. This need is complicated by the wide variety of application conditions and structural requirements for which CMC's will be used, and the proprietary concerns of the design engineers. CMC's, to be successful, must display properties which are competitive with the currently used high temperature structural materials: (i.e., Iron and Nickel based superalloys, tough monolithic ceramics, and carbon/carbon composites.) Structural CMC offers several areas of competition: (1) performance, (i.e., strength and strength retention, creep resistance, and thermal conductivity), (2) reliability (i.e., environmental durability, and damage tolerance) and (3) processing (i.e., capability for varying sizes and shapes, and cost effective fabrication). The presentation further discusses, and illustrates with fiber and CMC data the key fiber properties and processes which strongly affect each CMC area of competition. The presentation further discusses the current knowledge of the important factors which control the key fiber properties. A design guidelines for the optimum fiber characteristics is developed, and the currently available fibers are compared against those guidelines.

DiCarlo, James A.



Factors affecting recruitment to an observational multicentre palliative care study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care study. Methods Patient accrual to a multicentre, observational, palliative care study was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibility—did the patient fulfil the study entry criteria? (2) Accessibility—was it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the study? (3) Consent—did the patient agree to participate in the study? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12?412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for study inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, ‘gatekeeping’ by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the study 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12?412) of patients screened participated in the study. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future studies. PMID:24644750

Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen



[Factors affecting young mothers' social and family relations after pregnancy].  


This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school. PMID:24936816

Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da



Factors affecting the formulation of sustained release potassium chloride tablets.  


In this study, influence of several formulation factors on the release kinetics of potassium chloride from directly compressed matrices are investigated. Formulations containing hydrophilic (methylcellulose, carbomer), plastic (polyvinyl chloride), and wax (glycerol palmitostearate) matrix materials at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20%, incorporated with potassium chloride as active ingredient and insoluble excipients were prepared and studied in vitro using the USP XXI/NF XVI rotating paddle method. Hardness had no markedly effect on the release characteristics of formulations except for wax matrix material formulation. Results of goodness of fit analysis applied to release data had shown that the release mechanism was described by the Higuchi diffusion controlled model. Positive deviations from Higuchi equation might be due to the erosion of gel layer. Analysis of in vitro release mechanisms indicated that the most suitable results were obtained by methylcellulose and glycerol palmitostearate. PMID:1811230

Senel, S; Capan, Y; Hincal, A A



Factors affecting PEG-mediated stable transformation of maize protoplasts.  


Factors influencing the frequency of stable transformation and co-transformation of maize protoplasts utilizing a polyethylene glycol (PEG) mediated DNA uptake procedure have been investigated. Protoplast plating conditions, pre-treatment buffer composition, PEG concentration, and DNA concentration were all found to be important. Carrier DNA was not beneficial when transforming with circular plasmid DNA. The effect of linearizing plasmid DNA was inconsistent across experiments, and may be dependent on the presence of carrier DNA. Functional co-transformation of an unlinked marker gene (hygromycin phosphotransferase) was increased by increasing the ratio of nonselected:selected DNA, and varied from 39% at a 1?1 ratio to 65% at a 100?1 ratio. Under optimum conditions, up to 300 transformed calli were recovered per million input protoplasts. The protocol is simple, inexpensive, and effective, and is useful for studies in maize requiring large numbers of stably transformed or co-transformed cell lines. PMID:24226946

Armstrong, C L; Petersen, W L; Buchholz, W G; Bowen, B A; Sulc, S L



Factors that affect tomato bruise development as a result of mechanical impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

External and internal factors that affect tomato bruise susceptibility such as impact- and fruit-related properties were investigated. Logistic regression was used to establish a relationship between tomato loading conditions and the resulting damage. Impact-specific models were built for a more precise determination of the bruise risk related to a narrow range of impact energies, being low (23mJ), medium (71mJ), high

Veerle Van linden; Nico Scheerlinck; Michèle Desmet; Josse De Baerdemaeker



Learning style as a factor which affects the quality of e-learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aid of the Internet, many organizations and schools have adopted the idea of applying the e-learning system, which\\u000a is considered as one of the most important services provided by the Internet. The purpose of this paper is to investigate\\u000a the factors affecting the acceptance and use of e-learning system. There are a number of implicit and explicit frameworks

Suzana Markovi?; Nenad Jovanovi?


Factors affecting colony size, reproductive success, and foraging patterns of double-crested cormorants nesting on East Sand Island in the Columbia River Estuary.  

E-print Network

??The purpose of this study was to investigate the primary factors affecting colony size, reproductive success, and foraging patterns of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus albociliatus)… (more)

Anderson, Cynthia D.



Investigating Change in Intraindividual Factor Structure over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation of change in factor structure over time can provide new opportunities for the development of theory in psychology. The method proposed to investigate change in intraindividual factor structure over time is an extension of P-technique factor analysis, in which the P-technique factor model is fit within relatively small windows of…

Rausch, Joseph R.



Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.  


In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim



Analysis of factors that affect DQE in digital mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international standard IEC 62220-1 about DQE measurement of digital X-ray equipment was published in 2003, but mammography systems aren"t applied to this IEC standard because the factor affect measurement is complicated. Especially, the influence to the pre-sampling MTF by edge method when X-ray beam is oblique to detector. The influence of nonuniformity of x-ray intensity by the heel effect on digital Wiener spectrum (WS) doesn"t become clear. A 0.1mm-thick tungsten edge was imaged in the position where X-ray beam was perpendicular to detector plane and in 6cm from chest wall, respectively. And the pre-sampling MTFs were obtained from these edge images. The calculation area of the digital WS within irradiation area was moved in parallel direction to X-ray tube axis, and the digital WS were calculated. The pre-sampling MTFs and the digital WS are calculated by the method based on the IEC proposal. We used MAMMOMAT3000(SIEMENS), MGU-100B(TOSHIBA), M-IV(LORAD) and Senographe DMR+(GE) as X-ray generator. Images were obtained by FCR PROFECT CS (Fujifilm medical). In all equipments and both arrangement directions of the edge test device, pre-sampling MTFs are almost the same, even if the arrangement places of the edge test device varied. In all equipments, when the calculation area was moved about 10cm, the digital WS of the anode side was higher 7.2-17.9% than those of the cathode side. It was found that the dose of anode side was lower about 20% than cathode side from the profile of an exposure image. We think that digital WS modified the nonuniformity of the dose by the heel effect is obtained by multiplying the digital WS by the compensation coefficient obtained by the dose profile, in low spatial frequency.

Takamura, Miho; Higaki, Akiko; Kodera, Yoshie



Dietary and environmental factors affecting skin strength in broiler chickens.  


Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary and environmental factors involved in skin tensile strength of commercial broilers. In Experiment 1 the effect of added dietary fat (4 or 7%), environmental temperature (25 or 20.5 C after 21 d), and anticoccidial drug (halofuginone or salinomycin fed continuously) were examined factorially using male and female chicks. Skin tensile strength was measured at 21, 35, and 40 d of age. Thickness of the dermal layers was measured from skin taken at Day 35. In Experiment 2, the effect of added dietary fat (0 or 7%), environmental temperature (25 or 18.5 C after 21 d), and anticoccidial drug (halofuginone or salinomycin) were examined factorially using female chicks. Skin strength and collagen content of the skin were measured at 21, 38, and 42 d of age. Skin tensile strength increased with age in both experiments, but female skin strength was subject to periodic decline. Males had significantly strong skin than females. Levels of added fat or environmental temperature did not affect skin strength in either experiment. Continuous feeding of halofuginone significantly (P < .0001) decreased skin strength compared with that of birds fed salinomycin in both experiments. Halofuginone reduced skin strength in females more than males (25 and 9%, respectively). Dermis thickness was correspondingly reduced in the birds consuming halofuginone. In Experiment 2, soluble collagen contents were reduced at all ages in birds consuming halofuginone; insoluble collagen was significantly decreased at 21 d of age. Birds with weakened skin exhibited increased incidence of skin tears during slaughter in a commercial processing plant (P < or = .0043). These results suggest that halofuginone interferes with collagen synthesis, causing decreased collagen formation and reduced skin strength. Neither added dietary fat nor ambient temperature were involved. PMID:8146070

Christensen, K D; Zimmermann, N G; Wyatt, C L; Goodman, T N; Buhr, R J; Twining, P



Factors affecting adequate prenatal care and the prenatal care visits of immigrant women to Taiwan.  


This paper investigates prenatal care utilization, identifies factors affecting the adequacy of prenatal care, and explores the effect of adequate initial timing of prenatal care on total prenatal care visits among Taiwan new immigrant females. Data was obtained from the 2008 Prenatal Care Utilization among Taiwan New Immigrant Females Survey on women who either had at least one preschool-aged child or had delivered their infants but were still hospitalized (N = 476). The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was applied to rate the prenatal care adequacy. The logistic regression model was used to investigate factors associated with the adequacy of prenatal care utilization, and the linear regression model was estimated to identify the impact of influential factors on the prenatal care usage. Females' nationality, employment, and transportation convenience increased the likelihood of receiving adequate prenatal care. Having adequate initial timing of prenatal care was found to be positively related to the frequency of prenatal care visits. Prenatal care utilization can be affected by factors within the health care system and by characteristics of the population; therefore, a measure of prenatal care utilization cannot distinguish these factors but reflects the result of all of them in varying combinations. PMID:23065308

Liang, Yia-Wun; Chang, Hua-Pin; Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Lin, Long-Yau; Chen, Wen-Yi



Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.  


Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John



Demanding Affecting Factors Analysis for Personal Financial Management Business: An Empirical Approach Based on Factor Analysis Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the demanding affecting factors for financial management business by using factor analysis model and logistic regression through the data obtained from the survey questionnaires. It is found that the main factors that affecting financial management business are the special life cycle stages the residents are in and the external information environment for residents to purchase financial products.

Jianqiong Peng; Dehong Lu



Organisational factors affecting the quality of hospital clinical coding.  


The influence of organisational factors on the quality of hospital coding using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) was investigated using a mixed quantitative-qualitative approach. The organisational variables studied were: hospital specialty; geographical locality; structural characteristics of the coding unit; education, training and resource supports for Clinical Coders; and quality control mechanisms. Baseline data on the hospitals' coding quality, measured by the Performance Indicators for Coding Quality tool, were used as an independent index measure. No differences were found in error rates between rural and metropolitan hospitals, or general and specialist hospitals. Clinical Coder allocation to "general" rather than "specialist" unit coding resulted in fewer errors. Coding Managers reported that coding quality can be improved by: Coders engaging in a variety of role behaviours; improved Coder career opportunities; higher staffing levels; reduced throughput; fewer time constraints on coding outputs and associated work; and increased Coder interactions with medical staff. PMID:18245862

Santos, Suong; Murphy, Gregory; Baxter, Kathryn; Robinson, Kerin M



Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7%) from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ? 7). Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R). Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P < 0.013) was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P < 0.030), as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P < 0.047) in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM. PMID:22997507

Kontoangelos, K.; Raptis, A. E.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Tsiotra, P. C.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.



Literature Review of Cross-Cultural Factors Affecting Polygraph Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of a literary review of cultural factors which could influence the validity of polygraph examinations. Five general cultural factors were selected for study. For the purpose of this review, culture is defined by geographic...

R. E. Doll, J. G. Law, C. Piotrowski



Factors Affecting Characteristics, Composition, and Quality of Skimmilk Cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a comprehensive study of fac- tors affecting development of a skimmilk cheese are described. The study included variables relating to milk processing, ci~eese- making procedures, use of supplemental starters, milk treatment with animal and microbial enzymes, and the use of food additives, stabilizers, condiments, and fla- vor-enhancing substances. Flavor and tex- ture of experimental cheeses were markedly affected

R. E. Hargrove; F. E. McDonough; R. P. Tittsler




EPA Science Inventory

An investigation was made of factors affecting the use of commercially-produced CaF2:Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters for low level environmental radiation monitoring. Calibration factors and self-dosing rates were quantified for 150 thermoluminescent dosimeters. Laboratory studie...


Exploring Individual and Item Factors that Affect Assessment Validity for Diverse Learners: Results from a Large-Scale Cognitive Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cognitive lab technique (n=156) was used to investigate interactions between individual factors and item factors presumed to affect assessment validity for diverse students, including English language learners. Findings support the concept of "access"--an interaction between specific construct-irrelevant item features and individual…

Winter, Phoebe C.; Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Chen, Chen-Su; Emick, Jessica E.



Factors affecting the regeneration of northern white cedar in lowland forests of the Upper Great Lakes region, USA  

E-print Network

Factors affecting the regeneration of northern white cedar in lowland forests of the Upper Great which factors limit regeneration in lowland swamp forests at a regional scale. We investigated patterns across northern Wisconsin and the eastern Upper Peninsula of Michigan. These stands differed in ownership

Waller, Donald M.



Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers' decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors

Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi



Environmental Factors Affecting Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Have We Made Progress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against

Peter Laszlo Lakatos



Factors Affecting Hospital Employees' Knowledge Sharing Intention and Behavior, and Innovation Behavior  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the factors affecting employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior of the four top-ranked university hospitals in South Korea. Methods Data were collected from employees at three university hospitals in Seoul, Korea and one university hospital in Gyeonggi-Do, Korea through self-administered questionnaires. The survey was conducted from May 29, 2013 to July 17, 2013. A total of 779 questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 18.0. Results Factors affecting hospital employees' knowledge sharing intention, knowledge sharing behavior, and innovation behavior are reciprocity, behavioral control, and trust. Conclusion It is important to select employees who have a propensity for innovation and continuously educate them about knowledge management based on trust. PMID:25180147

Lee, Hyun Sook; Hong, Seong Ae



The "Musical Emotional Bursts": a validated set of musical affect bursts to investigate auditory affective processing.  


The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB) consist of 80 brief musical executions expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness and fear) and neutrality. These musical bursts were designed to be the musical analog of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV)-a set of brief non-verbal affective vocalizations portraying different basic emotions. The MEB consist of short (mean duration: 1.6 s) improvisations on a given emotion or of imitations of a given MAV stimulus, played on a violin (10 stimuli × 4 [3 emotions + neutral]), or a clarinet (10 stimuli × 4 [3 emotions + neutral]). The MEB arguably represent a primitive form of music emotional expression, just like the MAV represent a primitive form of vocal, non-linguistic emotional expression. To create the MEB, stimuli were recorded from 10 violinists and 10 clarinetists, and then evaluated by 60 participants. Participants evaluated 240 stimuli [30 stimuli × 4 (3 emotions + neutral) × 2 instruments] by performing either a forced-choice emotion categorization task, a valence rating task or an arousal rating task (20 subjects per task); 40 MAVs were also used in the same session with similar task instructions. Recognition accuracy of emotional categories expressed by the MEB (n:80) was lower than for the MAVs but still very high with an average percent correct recognition score of 80.4%. Highest recognition accuracies were obtained for happy clarinet (92.0%) and fearful or sad violin (88.0% each) MEB stimuli. The MEB can be used to compare the cerebral processing of emotional expressions in music and vocal communication, or used for testing affective perception in patients with communication problems. PMID:23964255

Paquette, Sébastien; Peretz, Isabelle; Belin, Pascal



Risk Factors Affecting Clinical Outcome of Ruptured Vertebrobasilar Saccular Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective Ruptured vertebrobasilar (VB) saccular aneurysm is a difficult lesion to treat, and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors associated with the clinical outcome of ruptured VB aneurysms. Methods A retrospective review of 29 patients with ruptured VB saccular aneurysms between 2002 and 2010 was conducted between Jan 2002 and Dec 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for determination of the statistical significance of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at three months, according to age, initial Hunt-Hess grade, the presence of acute hydrocephalus, and treatment modality. Results The study included 24 (82.7%) females and five (17.3%) males, with a mean age of 59 years (range, 22-78 years). Seventeen patients were treated with surgical clipping and 12 patients were treated with endovascular coil embolization. No statistical significance was observed between clinical outcome and treatment modalities (clipping or coiling; p = 0.803). Seventeen (58.6%) patients achieved favorable outcome, defined as GOS score of 4-5, at 3 months. Procedure-related complications occurred in seven patients (24.1%). Results of multivariate analysis indicated that initial Hunt-Hess grade and the presence of acute hydrocephalus were independent predictors of unfavorable outcome, defined as GOS score of 1-3 (Odds ratio (OR) = 8.63, Confidence interval (CI) [95%] 1.11-66.84, p = 0.039 and OR = 36.64, CI [95%] 2.23-599.54, p = 0.012, respectively). Conclusion The present study suggests that the clinical outcomes are related to the initial Hunt-Hess grade and the presence of acute hydrocephalus in ruptured saccular VB aneurysms. PMID:23210044

Kang, Mun Soo; Kang, Hee In; Moon, Byung Gwan; Lee, Seung Jin; Kim, Joo Seung



Utility & Regulatory Factors Affecting Cogeneration & Independent Power Plant Design & Operation  

E-print Network

considerations which could significantly affect the plant definition and, as a result, its attendant business and financing structure. Finally, suggestions are also made for facilitating the process of integration with the electric utility. INTRODUCTION... be seen from the recently encountered examples in Table I, many utility or regulatory preferences can have a significant affect on both conceptual and detailed plant design. In some instances, -they can even change the entire basic definition...

Felak, R. P.


Investigation of Solder Fatigue Acceleration Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solder fatigue was investigated experimentally for effects of the strain loading waveform in isothermal mechanical fatigue, and frequency and strain range in true thermal cycling. Rapid strain loading followed by a long hold period at constant strain was found to be very damaging compared to constant rate cycling at the same peak amplitude and period. Thermal cycle fatigue data showed




Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)

Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir



Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if

F. B. Iriarte; B. Balogh; M. T. Momol; L. M. Smith; M. Wilson; J. B. Jones



Dietary factors that affect the bioavailability of carotenoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. Various dietary factors have an effect on the bioavailability of carotenoids. The type of food matrix in which carotenoids are located is a major factor. The bioavailability of ß-carotene from vegetables in particular has been shown to be low (14?rom mixed vegetables) compared with that of purified

Hof van het K. H; C. E. West; J. A. Weststrate; J. G. A. J. Hautvast



Factors That Affect Academic Performance Among Pharmacy Students  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to examine factors such as academic competence, test competence, time management, strategic studying, and test anxiety, and identify whether these factors could distinguish differences among students, based on academic performance and enrollment in the experiential program. Methods A cross-sectional study design utilizing questionnaires measuring previously validated constructs was used to evaluate the effect of these factors on students with low and high cumulative grade point averages (GPAs). Pharmacy students (N = 198) enrolled at the University of Houston participated in the study. Results Academic performance was significantly associated with factors such as academic competence and test competence. Students with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or greater significantly differed in their level of test competence than those with a GPA of less than 3.0. Students enrolled in their experiential year differed from students enrolled in their second year of curriculum on factors such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, and time management skills. Conclusion Test competence was an important factor to distinguish students with low vs. high academic performance. Factors such as academic competence, test competence, test anxiety and time management improve as students' progress in their experiential year. PMID:17149433

Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Bhosle, Monali; Sail, Kavita



Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

Washburn, David A.



Early career development in the sport industry: factors affecting employment  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to identify the processes and factors contributing to employment in the sport industry. In order to completely address the sport industry as a whole, sport management has been pragmatically divided into five sub...

Hutchinson, Michael Daniel



Factors Affecting Science Teaching Efficacy of Preservice Elementary Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservice elementary teachers entering the specialized coursework designed to prepare them for science teaching responsibilities have a broad range of efficacy beliefs about their success as future science teachers. As they progress through science methods and practicum courses, and on to complete their student teaching, their efficacy beliefs may change. Knowing the variables that affect the development of positive efficacy

Pamela Cantrell; Suzanne Young; Alan Moore



Social cognition in schizophrenia: Cognitive and affective factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Social cognition refers to how people conceive, perceive, and draw inferences about mental and emotional states of others in the social world. Previous studies suggest that the concept of social cognition involves several abilities, including those related to affect and cognition. The present study analyses the deficits of individuals with schizophrenia in two areas of social cognition: Theory of

Ido Ziv; David Leiser; Joseph Levine



Factors affecting employee knowledge acquisition and application capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to analyze the influences of organizational context and information technology (IT) applications on employees' perceptions of knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public and five private sector organizations in South Korea. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper analyzes how employees' perceptions of organizational context and IT affect employee knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public

Soonhee Kim; Hyangsoo Lee



Beyond Random AssignmentFactors Affecting Evaluation Integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article draws on the experience gained from conducting a true experiment in the criminal justice field to discuss practical problems in maintaining the integrity of evaluation studies. Issues revolving around budgeting, randomization, data collectors, interview payments, and evaluation of black box treatments are addressed. While these nontechnical aspects of evaluation can significantly affect the validity and meaningfulness of research

Eva Lantos Rezmovic; Thomas J. Cook; L. Douglas Dobson



Factors affecting fruit and seed production in Dactylorhiza maculata (Orchidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that some of resources needed for fruit and seed production in terrestrial orchids originate from storage in underground biomass. Resources for female reproductive traits may also originate from current photosynthesis. Orchid mycorrhiza may also influence fruit and seed production. The extent to which current photosynthetic activity and nutrient uptake via mycorrhizal fungi affect fruit and seed




External Factors Affecting Gifted Girls' Academic and Career Achievements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the unique position that teachers have for observing the environmental influences affecting the career choices of gifted girls. It suggests ways for teachers to educate parents on the family's role in education and career achievement and to create an educational environment that promotes the development of talent. (Contains…

Nelson, Mary Ann; Smith, Stephen W.



Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival STEPHEN J. SMITH  

E-print Network

is a nuisance parasitic fish in Lake Champlain that negatively affects important sport fish populations lamprey abundance (Marsden et al. 2003). Lake Champlain is 193 km long, has a maximum width of 19 km nontarget mortality in regularly treated tributaries. A population model of sea lampreys in Lake Champlain

Marsden, Ellen


Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011  

PubMed Central

Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women. PMID:24520556

Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza



Factors affecting the antioxidant composition of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum).  

E-print Network

??Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) are a valuable source of antioxidant compounds such as carotenoids (especially lycopene), phenolics and ascorbic acid. This research was conducted to investigate… (more)

Toor, Ramandeep Kaur



Multiscale Factors Affecting Human Attitudes toward Snow Leopards and Wolves.  


The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged. Factores Multi-Escala que Afectan las Actitudes Humanas hacia Leopardos de las Nieves y Lobos. PMID:25039397

Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt



Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs.  


We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 microl/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose-response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation. In addition, some species of bird eggs require incubation on their sides with the eggs being rolled 180 degrees for them to develop normally. Therefore, we adopted a procedure of incubating the eggs of all species on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees every hour. Little has been published about the conditions of temperature, humidity, and the movements to which eggs of wild birds need to be subjected for them to hatch optimally under artificial incubation. Not unexpectedly, hatching success in an artificial incubator is generally less than what natural incubation by the parents can achieve. However, the survival of control embryos of most wild bird species was good (generally > or = 80%) up to within 1 or 2 days of hatching when we incubated the eggs at 37.5 degrees C (or 37.6 degrees C for gallinaceous species) at a relative humidity that resulted in an approximate 15% to 16% loss in egg weight by the end of incubation and by incubating the eggs on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees /h. To improve statistical comparisons, we used survival through 90% of incubation as our measurement to compare survival of controls with survival of eggs injected with graded concentrations of mercury. PMID:16307214

Heinz, G H; Hoffman, D J; Kondrad, S L; Erwin, C A



Factors affecting gene delivery by particle bombardment of Dendrobium orchids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Five parameters were examined for their effect on transformation ofDendrobium tissues by microprojectile bombardment. The superpromoter in pBI426 produced at least 1.5 times as many transient transformants\\u000a as the single cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in pBI121 (37 to 69% vs. 0 to 44%) with dark and frequent GUS (?-glucuronidase) staining. Tissue, genotype, and type of microparticle significantly affected transient

Guo-Ling Nan; Adelheid R. Kuehnle



Metallurgical factors affecting fracture toughness of aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the “ductile” or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1\\u000a ?m to ~10?m, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The\\u000a linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,

G. T. Hahn; A. R. Rosenfield



The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications. PMID:24600439

Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong




E-print Network

FURTHER INVESTIGATION OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING WATER HAMMER WAVE ATTENUATION, SHAPE AND TIMING PART that may affect water hammer wave attenuation, shape and timing (Bergant and Tijsseling 2001). New sources that may affect the waveform predicted by classical water hammer theory include viscoelastic behaviour

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit


A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting College Sports' Team Unity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The competitiveness of National Collegiate Association (NCAA) schools increases in intensity each year. With the increased pressure on college sport staffs to be undefeated season after season, coaches have to find ways to keep players happy; to do this, they have to find factors that contribute to unify the players. It is nearly impossible to…

Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud; Kyei, Kwasi



School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.



Factors Affecting Habitat Use by Appalachian Ruffed Grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A goal of many resource selection studies is to identify those habitats selected by a species. However, favorability of a particular habitat feature is likely contingent on such factors as landscape composition, predation risk, and an individual's resource needs. Thus, habitat selection may vary depending on context, and identifying causes of variability in habitat use could increase our understanding of




Guiding Teacher Development towards STL Teaching: Identifying Factors Affecting Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the effectiveness of an intervention training and draws attention to the most important factors to be considered in developing inservice programs for the promotion of Science and Technological Literacy (STL) teaching skills. Concludes that teachers who acknowledged the need for teaching social skills in conjunction with science concepts…

Ranniknae, Miia



Factors Affecting the Future Enrollment of Students in Vocational Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine how to reverse the downward trend in high school vocational agriculture enrollments in Iowa. The study sought to describe student perception of the agriculture program and what factors are involved in this perception; the length and names of the curriculum offerings within the agriculture department and how they…

Doese, Ellen Kae; Miller, W. Wade


Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa



Factors Affecting Recreation Preferences and Expectations of Disabled Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generalizing recreation services, one of the essential well-being sources of disabled persons who experience deprivation in many dimensions of life and which fulfill their learning needs, is a social responsibility. The present study aims to determine factors effective on recreation preferences and expectations of the disabled individuals who…

Arslan, Sibel



Factors Affecting Horseshoe Crab Limulus polyphemus Trawl Survey Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a lack of abundance information for effectively managing horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus. A trawl survey program that specifically targets horseshoe crabs would provide that information. We conducted a study to examine the factors that would influence the trawl survey design. Depth, topography, and time of day were examined as potential survey design influences. Horseshoe crab catches were

David Hata; Jim Berkson




Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which individual factors influence the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is estimated using a logit model and data from a 1990 survey of West Virginia producers. The results are, as expected, different than those for conventional agricultural technologies. For example, the effects of human capital characteristics are significant, while those for structural and institutional characteristics are not.

Gerard E. DSouza; Douglas Cyphers; Tim T. Phipps



Factors That Affect Initial Enrollment of Working Adult, Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on…

Adrignola, Matt Nolan



Factors Affecting the Success of Hmong College Students in America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own…

Xiong, Soua; Lam, Sarah K. Y.



Factors Affecting Growth and Pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elu- cidate factors contributing to yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experi- ment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow

K. I. Suhr; I. Haasum; L. D. Steenstrup; T. O. Larsen



Whether space weather factors affect the occurrence of aviation accidents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a statistical analysis of the database of the US National Transportation Safety Board, we show that space weather factors have no effect on aviation occurrences. We consider typical logical and methodological errors arising in this type of studies and bring facts to show the futility of further research regarding this problem.

Lyakhov, A. N.; Kozlov, S. L.




Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the effects of microhabitat, year, weather, time of season, stage of the nesting cycle, and brood parasitism on nest predation from a 7-year dataset on field sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) in-central Missouri, USA. Year, site, and the interaction of species and 2-week interval of the sea- son were important factors explaining nest predation. The



Factors Affecting the Misperception of Friendliness Cues in Initial Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some researchers have found men to attribute more sexual meaning to heterosexual interactions than do women. This study was conducted to examine factors which may enhance or diminish this gender difference on perceptions of sexual intent by considering the three variables of physical attractiveness of target, similarity of target's personality to…

Harnish, Richard J.; And Others


Factors that Affect Nontraditional Vocational Enrollment among Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocational training program females (N=470) completed a questionnaire assessing the role of personality and social support factors in nontraditional training enrollment. Results revealed differences in the amount of support and encouragement received from others, with nontraditional students receiving more support from female friends, family…

Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris



Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu




EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...


Environmental factors that can affect sleep and breathing: allergies.  


Allergic rhinitis and associated symptomatic nasal obstruction negatively affect sleep through a variety of mechanisms and may contribute to persistent symptoms and poor adherence with medical device therapy for sleep apnea. A history of sinonasal symptoms, particularly those that occur at night or in the supine position, is the cornerstone of the medical evaluation. Further research into the relationship between allergic rhinitis and sleep disturbance would benefit from improved anatomic and pathophysiologic phenotyping as well as more advanced outcome measures such as spectral electroencephalogram analysis or other polysomnography variables beyond the apnea-hypopnea index. PMID:25156773

Kent, David T; Soose, Ryan J



Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.  


This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds. PMID:24268675

Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W



Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

SciTech Connect

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.



Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

SciTech Connect

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.




PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review. PMID:12407964




Factors Affecting Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Rice Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have shown that a few factors control the emissions of methane from rice fields. Among the most significant factors are water management and soil amendments. Continuous flooding and organic fertilizers result in the highest emissions of methane while intermittent flooding and use of nitrogen fertilizers produce more nitrous oxide. We measured fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide from tubs planted with rice grown in a greenhouse at Portland State University. We used classical factorial experimental design to calculate interactions between water management, nitrogen fertilizer application, and organic matter (chopped rice straw) for emission of methane and nitrous oxide. We will discuss the results of three years of experiments. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02- 04ER63913.

Shearer, M. J.; Xiong, Z.; Khalil, M. K.



A biomechanical review of factors affecting rowing performance.  


This review analyses rowing by linking the biological and mechanical systems that comprise the rowing system. Blade force was found to be the only propulsive force to counter the drag forces, consisting of both air drag and hydrodynamic drag, acting on the system. Vertical oscillations of the shell are shown to have minimal impact on system dynamics. The oar acts as the link between the force generated by the rower and the blade force and transmits this force to the rowing shell through the oarlock. Blade dynamics consist of both lift and drag mechanisms. The force on the oar handle is the result of a phased muscular activation of the rower. Oar handle force and movement are affected by the joint strength and torque-velocity characteristics of the rower. Maximising sustainable power requires a matching of the rigging setup and blade design to the rower's joint torque-velocity characteristics. Coordination and synchrony between rowers in a multiple rower shell affects overall system velocity. Force-time profiles should be better understood to identify specific components of a rower's biomechanics that can be modified to achieve greater force generation. PMID:12453833

Baudouin, A; Hawkins, D



Factors affecting nurses’ decision to get the flu vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the decision whether or not to get the influenza (flu)\\u000a vaccine among nurses in Israel by using the health belief model (HBM). A questionnaire distributed among 299 nurses in Israel\\u000a in winter 2005\\/2006 included (1) socio-demographic information; (2) variables based on the HBM, including susceptibility,\\u000a seriousness, benefits, barriers and

Shosh Shahrabani; Uri Benzion; Gregory Yom Din



Factors affecting the species composition of arable field boundary vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. In recent decades the botanical diversity of arable field boundaries has declined drastically. To determine the most important factors related to the species composition of arable field boundaries, the vegetation composition of 105 herbaceous boundaries, 1-m wide, in the central and eastern Netherlands was surveyed. Biomass samples of the boundary were taken at 0-33, 34-66 and 67-100 cm from

David Kleijn; Marein Verbeek



Looking good: factors affecting the likelihood of having cosmetic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined various factors associated with the likelihood of having cosmetic surgery in a community sample\\u000a of Austrian participants. One-hundred and sixty-eight women and 151 men completed a questionnaire measuring how likely they\\u000a were to consider common cosmetic procedures. The results showed that women were more likely than men to consider most cosmetic\\u000a procedures. Path analysis revealed that

Viren Swami; Adriane Arteche; Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic; Adrian Furnham; Stefan Stieger; Tanja Haubner; Martin Voracek



Environmental factors affecting song control and song perception in songbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In songbirds, the differentiation of song and the song control system in the brain is mediated by the action of gonadal steroid\\u000a hormones that are influenced by environmental factors such as day length, food availability, and social relationships. In\\u000a particular, the Canary (Serinus canaria) and the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) have become widely used animal models to study these brain

Stefan Leitner



Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines individual factors influencing performance of 200 Israeli women-owned businesses. Whereas research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, especially in the United States and Europe, there are comparatively few studies of performance of women-owned businesses in non-OECD countries. There is evidence that social structures (work, family, and organized social life) vary among developed and developing countries

Robert Hisrich; Candida Brush



Work-family programs: factors affecting employee knowledge and accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to analyze the factors contributing to employee professed knowledge of work-family practices offered by employers and the accuracy of their knowledge. Designed\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey data from four studies (ns=276, 2,877, 2,810, and 310) were used to relate employee demographics to their professed knowledge regarding the availability from their employing organizations of work-family practices. For a

David J. Prottas; Cynthia A. Thompson; Richard E. Kopelman; Eileen W. Jahn



Faculty self-actualization: Factors affecting career success  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the degree of relationship between four personal factors related to faculty growth and development, two environmental indices, and career success and satisfaction. Maslow's notion of self-actualization guided the construction of the personal indices of self-democraticness, support, tolerance, and trust; McGregor and Likert provided the theoretical bases for the environmental indices. The data came from the American Council

Robert C. Cares; Robert T. Blackburn



Factors affecting attitudinal patterns toward education in the Dominican Republic  

E-print Network

The general objective of this thesis was to determine the attitude toward education of people in the Dominican Republic. Subsequent objectives included establishing the effect the following factors might have in relation to attitude toward education: age.... Narrowing the focus even further led to the problem centered around how the Dominican people think, feel, and react toward education, in other words, attitude toward education. There were 380 interviews conducted by trained interviewers in the northern...

Carpenter, Edwin Hugh



Factors affecting statistical power in the detection of genetic association  

PubMed Central

The mapping of disease genes to specific loci has received a great deal of attention in the last decade, and many advances in therapeutics have resulted. Here we review family-based and population-based methods for association analysis. We define the factors that determine statistical power and show how study design and analysis should be designed to maximize the probability of localizing disease genes. PMID:15931375

Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J.



Factors Affecting Antigen Uptake by Human Intestinal Epithelial Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the role of size, solubility, and prophagocytic cytokines interferon-? (IFN-?), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulatory factor (GM-CSF) in antigen uptake and kinetics by intestinal epithelial cells using keyhole limpet hemocyanin and ovalbumin. Both fluoresceinated keyhole limpet hemocyanin (3000–7500 kDa) and fluoresceinated ovalbumin (45 kDa) were internalized by human colonic epithelial cell lines, with kinetics similar to those of fluoresceinated

AgnesLaiping So; Gillian Small; Kirk Sperber; Kai Becker; Erwin Oei; Max Tyorkin; Lloyd Mayer



Factors affecting weaning weights of Santa Gertrudis calves  

E-print Network

for diverse breed types. Age of dam correction factors specifically for Santa Gertrudis cattle were developed and have been generally accepted for use within the breed. However, no subsequent studies have been made to examine the appropriateness... there was evidence of disproportionate representation of sires brought about by biased matings of certain sires to specific age of dam groups. 21 TABLE 3. EFFECTS AND LEVELS CONSIDERED IN THE LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS FOR BULLS Effect 1966 1967 1968 1969 Total...

Farris, James Willis



Factors affecting European badger (Meles meles) capture numbers in one county in Ireland.  


Understanding factors affecting the number of badgers captured at and around badger setts (burrows) is of considerable applied importance. These factors could be used to estimate probable badger densities for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control and also for monitoring badger populations from a conservation perspective. Furthermore, badger management and vaccination programs would benefit by increasing the probability of efficiently capturing the target badger populations. Within this context, it was investigated whether badger capture numbers can be estimated from field signs and previous capture histories. Badger capture records (initial and repeated capture numbers at a sett) from a large-scale removal program (405 km(2), 643 setts) were used. Univariable count models indicated that there were a number of significant potential predictors of badger numbers, during initial capture attempts. Using a multivariable zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model of initial captures we found that badger capture numbers were significantly affected by sett type, season, year, and the number of sett entrances in active use. Badger capture numbers were also affected by the total previous catch during repeated capture events and by the number of previous capture attempts. There was a significant negative trend in badger captures across events. Measures of the ability of these models to estimate badger captures suggested that the models might be useful in estimating badger numbers across a population; however the confidence intervals associated with these predictions were large. PMID:22995474

Byrne, Andrew W; O'Keeffe, James; Sleeman, D Paddy; Davenport, John; Martin, S Wayne



Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients  

SciTech Connect

A prospective study utilizing repeated intellectual testing was undertaken in 73 children with brain tumors consecutively admitted to Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles over a 3-year period to determine the effect of tumor location, extent of surgical resection, hydrocephalus, age of the child, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy on cognitive outcome. Forty-three patients were followed for at least two sequential intellectual assessments and provide the data for this study. Children with hemispheric tumors had the most general cognitive impairment. The degree of tumor resection, adequately treated hydrocephalus, and chemotherapy had no bearing on intellectual outcome. Age of the child affected outcome mainly as it related to radiation. Whole brain radiation therapy was associated with cognitive decline. This was especially true in children below 7 years of age, who experienced a very significant loss of function after whole brain radiation therapy.

Ellenberg, L.; McComb, J.G.; Siegel, S.E.; Stowe, S.



Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.



Factors affecting the color of corn tortillas and tortilla chips  

E-print Network

The effects of phenols, amino acids, reducing sugars, pH and bleaching agents on color of tortillas and tortilla chips were investigated. Baked tortillas were equilibrated for 0, 5, 15, 30, 60 min and 24 hr prior to frying to examine the effect...

Mireles, Raquel C



Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is presented to see whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet area. Significant differences between the two periods were demonstated. Current technological and operational economic perspectives were investigated in detail. Some conclusions are drawn to aircraft retirement policies.

Spencer, F. A.; Swanson, J. A.



Factors Affecting African American Counselors' Job Satisfaction: A National Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there are many job satisfaction studies, research related to the job satisfaction of African American counselors (AACs) is negligible. The purpose of this study was to investigate the job satisfaction of AACs. A total of 182 employed AACs who were members of the American Counseling Association (ACA) completed a modified Minnesota…

Jones, Cravor; Hohensil, Thomas H.; Burge, Penny



Factors Affecting High School Students' Academic Motivation in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to investigate predictive relationships among student characteristics that influence motivation for learning and achievement. A non-Western sample was chosen to test the generalisability of findings outside the Western cultural and social models. The participants were 6,539 students from 14 public high schools…

Hardre, Patricia L.; Chen, Ching-Huei; Huang, Su-Hua; Chiang, Chen-Ting; Jen, Fen-Lan; Warden, Leslie



Factors Affecting the Sensitivity of Limulus Lysate1  

PubMed Central

Limulus lysate clots when mixed with picogram quantities of endotoxins. The sensitivity of the lysate was improved 100-fold by the removal of an inhibitor and addition of divalent cations. The methods developed in this investigation eliminated much of the seasonable variability of the lysate, improved the heat stability after lyophilization, and made it possible to use the lysate with saline solutions. PMID:4615633

Sullivan, James D.; Watson, Stanley W.



Factors Affecting High School Students' Academic Motivation in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to investigate predictive relationships among student characteristics that influence motivation for learning and achievement. A non-Western sample was chosen to test the generalisability of findings outside the Western cultural and social models. The participants were 6,539 students from 14 public high schools distributed across the western half of Taiwan. They were from three grade

Patricia L. Hardré; Ching-Huei Chen; Su-Hua Huang; Chen-Ting Chiang; Fen-Lan Jen; Leslie Warden



Factors affecting biomass allocation in the riverine macrophyte Justicia americana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative effects of hydrologic disturbance, abundance of root parasites, and ambient physicochemical conditions on total biomass, biomass allocation, and architecture of the emergent macrophyte Justicia americana (L.) Vahl. (Acanthanceae) were investigated in six south-central Alabama streams, USA. Justicia total biomass was negatively related to shading by riparian vegetation, which accounted for 45 and 31% of the total variation at

Ken M. Fritz; Margaret A. Evans; Jack W. Feminella



Evaluation of factors affecting stakeholder risk perception of contaminated sediment disposal in Oslo harbor.  


The management of environmental pollution has changed considerably since the growth of environmental awareness in the late 1960s. The general increased environmental concern and involvement of stakeholders in today's environmental issues may enhance the need to consider risk in a much broader social context rather than just as an estimate of ecological hazard. Risk perception and the constructs and images of risks held by stakeholders and society are important items to address in the management of environmental projects, including the management of contaminated sediments. Here we present a retrospective case study that evaluates factors affecting stakeholder risk perception of contaminated sediment disposal that occurred during a remediation project in Oslo harbor, Norway. The choice to dispose dredged contaminated sediments in a confined aquatic disposal (CAD) site rather than at a land disposal site has received a lot of societal attention, attracted large media coverage, and caused many public discussions. A mixed method approach is used to investigate how risk perceptive affective factors (PAF), socio-demographic aspects, and participatory aspects have influenced the various stakeholders' preferences for the two different disposal options. Risk perceptive factors such as transparency in the decision making process and controllability of the disposal options have been identified as important for risk perception. The results of the study also support the view that there is no sharp distinction in risk perception between experts and other parties and emphasizes the importance of addressing risk perceptive affective factors in similar environmental decision-making processes. Indeed, PAFs such as transparency, openness, and information are fundamental to address in sensitive environmental decisions, such as sediment disposal alternatives, in order to progress to more technical questions such as the controllability and safety. PMID:20809566

Sparrevik, Magnus; Ellen, Gerald Jan; Duijn, Mike



Factors affecting computer-mediated instruction in medical education.  


Although computer technology has progressed rapidly in the last decade, the use of computer mediated instruction as an adjunct to medical education has made only limited progress. This paper will attempt to analyze some of the major factors bearing on this limitation will review those areas where computer based instruction is potentially of greatest use, and will suggest means by which medical education can make greater use of the rapidly evolving information technologies. The Medical PLATO project at the University of Illinois will be used as an example to illustrate many of the points relating to the development of this field. PMID:2695775

Levy, A H



Factors Affecting Price Differences of Cattle in the Southwest.  

E-print Network

determined. The estimates shr be useful as basic information for other rese---l .. extension projects. Regression equations were utilized to esti extent to which selected factors contribute to the , variation of feeder and slaughter cattle in the Sc... difference due to grades '0: slaughter cattle was about $1.50 per 100 pounds r' Choice over Good steers and about $1.30 for Choice 1 ' ' r7:r Good heifers. Price difference due to vary- -: neights for the same grade was small; for example, -:Ice...

James, J. B.; Farris, D. E.



Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is reviewed in order to determine whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet era. Significant differences between the two periods are noted. New factors are identified and examined. Topics discussed include concern over current policies regarding deregulation, regulatory reform, and retroactive noise regulations; financing and compliance legislation; aging; economic environment and inflation; technological progress; fuel efficiency and cost; and a financial perspective of replacement decisions.

Spencer, F. A.



Factors affecting proppant flowback with resin coated proppants  

SciTech Connect

Resin coated proppants (RCPs) have been used to prevent proppant flowback for several years in the hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas wells. Proppant flowback problems, however, still exist with the commercially available RCPs and several operators report failures around the world under a variety of well conditions. To date, a clear explanation of the RCP failure mechanisms and the conditions under which failure occurs has not been presented in the industry. A correlation between the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of RCP materials and the proppant flowback potential has been previously presented by Vreeburg, et al. This paper will present the results of a study on a variety of factors which effect the proppant flowback of a number of commercially available RCP materials. These factors include (1) the effect of fluid pH (7 to 12) and fluid type (KCL, seawater and a HPG/Borate fracturing fluid), (2) the effect of fluid/proppant slurry shear, (3) the effect of closure pressure during RCP curing, (4) the effect of stress cycling and (5) the effect of downhole flow conditions on proppant flowback.

Almond, S.W.; Penny, G.S.; Conway, M.W. [Stim-Lab, Inc., Duncan, OK (United States)



Factors affecting outcome of depressive symptoms in alcoholics.  


Eighty-eight patients consecutively admitted to an alcohol treatment program were studied to determine the amount of depressive symptoms on entry to the program and after 4 weeks of treatment. The degree of symptoms was in turn related to various aspects of their drinking behavior. Twenty-two of the patients were classified as having moderate to marked depressive symptoms, 40 had mild symptoms, and 26 had no significant symptoms at the time of entry into the program. Factors in drinking behavior that best characterized those with moderate to marked symptoms were addiction, sleep disturbance, hangover incapacitation, loss of control, neurological signs, and organicity/toxicity. At the end of treatment, only four patients could actually be diagnosed as depressed, while 12 had mild residual symptoms and 72 no longer had significant symptoms. The one factor that clearly distinguished those patients with residual depressive symptoms was the use of drinking for social facilitation. For such individuals, bars and drinking were the focus of social life. The favorable course of depressive symptoms in alcoholics soon after they stop drinking suggests that they are more likely the consequence of drinking than the cause of it. The fact that patients who drink primarily to facilitate social aspects of their lives were the most likely to have residual symptoms suggests that treatment of such individuals should involve development of alternative mechanisms of social interaction. PMID:6346922

Nakamura, M M; Overall, J E; Hollister, L E; Radcliffe, E



Factors affecting formation and rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms.  


Unruptured intracranial aneurysms represent a decisional challenge. Treatment risks have to be balanced against an unknown probability of rupture. A better understanding of the physiopathology is the basis for a better prediction of the natural history of an individual patient. Knowledge about the possible determining factors arises from a careful comparison between ruptured versus unruptured aneurysms and from the prospective observation and analysis of unbiased series with untreated, unruptured aneurysms. The key point is the correct identification of the determining variables for the fate of a specific aneurysm in a given individual. Thus, the increased knowledge of mechanisms of formation and eventual rupture of aneurysms should provide significant clues to the identification of rupture-prone aneurysms. Factors like structural vessel wall defects, local hemodynamic stress determined also by peculiar geometric configurations, and inflammation as trigger of a wall remodeling are crucial. In this sense the study of genetic modifiers of inflammatory responses together with the computational study of the vessel tree might contribute to identify aneurysms prone to rupture. The aim of this article is to underline the value of a unifying hypothesis that merges the role of geometry, with that of hemodynamics and of genetics as concerns vessel wall structure and inflammatory pathways. PMID:24306170

Bacigaluppi, S; Piccinelli, M; Antiga, L; Veneziani, A; Passerini, T; Rampini, P; Zavanone, M; Severi, P; Tredici, G; Zona, G; Krings, T; Boccardi, E; Penco, S; Fontanella, M



Identifying the factors affecting phytoplankton abundance dynamics in Shihmen Reservoir, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of multiple temporal distributions of phytoplankton dynamics through environmental variables in water bodies over extensive areas remain relatively scarce. This study focused on the determination of the key factors regulating temporal and spatial variations of phytoplankton abundance at three monitoring sites in Shihmen Reservoir within five years (2006-2010). Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a dimension-reduction technique, was designed to identify the underlying latent effects in multiple time series and interactions between explanatory variables (i.e., environmental variables) and the response variable (phytoplankton abundance). The optimal DFA model successfully described the dynamics of phytoplankton abundance in the Shihmen Reservoir. The results demonstrated that water temperature, water level, COD, BOD, and DO considerably affected phytoplankton abundance at most of the monitoring sites. Among them, water temperature, water level, and COD significantly affected phytoplankton abundance at all three sites, indicating that these variables contributed more to the long-term dynamics of phytoplankton abundance than other variables at the surface water of Shihmen Reservoir. The influx and efflux of Reservoir altering hydrological conditions in Shihmen Reservoir may attenuate the nutrients effects on phytoplankton abundance. In this study, BOD and DO are the other crucial water quality factors that control variations of phytoplankton. The explanatory variables mainly explain the dynamics of phytoplankton abundance than common trends do. In the future, the water manager may consider these variables to propose strategies to manage water quality in Shihmen Reservoir.

Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chuang, Illy; Chu, Hone-Jay; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong; Jang, Cheng-Shin




E-print Network


McMaster University


Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus) IANL. JONES'  

E-print Network

Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus) IANL. JONES., and FALLS,J. B. 1990. Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboram- phus antiquus- phus antiquus). Can. J. Zool. 68 : 433-441. Nous avons CtudiC les facteurs de variation de I

Jones, Ian L.


Factors affecting the Distribution of Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) Loans across Household Income Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the paper is to understand the soci-economic factors affecting the distribution of community reinvestment act loans across four income groups using county level information from 1996-2004 for the delta region. The specific objectives of the paper 1) Estimate an seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) to examine the factors affecting the distribution of loan across income groups 2) Prior

Rachael M. Carter; Saleem Shaik; Alan Barefield



Factors Affecting Diurnal Activity of Fishers in North-Central British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mustelids, with their long, thin bodies and poor fat storage capabilities, perform an energetic balancing act when making decisions about energy expenditure. Activity rates provide vital insights into the factors that may affect these energy balances. Using radiotelemetry, we examined factors that affected the likelihood of diurnal activity of fishers (Martes pennanti) in north-central British Columbia, Canada. We assessed the

Richard D. Weir; Fraser B. Corbould



Factors that affect women's attitudes toward domestic violence in Turkey.  


This article examines the attitudes of Turkish women toward justification of intimate partner violence. The data were gathered from the 2003 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey. A random sample of 8,075, aged 15-49, participated in the survey. The findings underline the importance of patriarchal beliefs and the associated practice of brides-money in addition to rural residence, large household, illiteracy, lack of wealth, and younger age at marriage as the sources of acceptance of violence among women. The study provides a theoretical explanation for how patriarchal ideology is translated into an accepting attitude toward violence and also discusses the factors that serve as mechanisms that help women resist patriarchal hegemony and not justify domestic violence against women. The final section of the article addresses policy implications. PMID:20514820

Marshall, Gul Aldikacti; Furr, L Allen



Factors affecting successful endoscopic sclerotherapy for oesophageal varices.  

PubMed Central

Forty patients with bleeding oesophageal varices were studied during treatment by endoscopic sclerotherapy to discover what factors determine successful outcome. Large varices required more injections than small varices for obliteration, and rebleeding during treatment occurred only in patients with large varices. Radiological studies with sclerosant contrast mixture showed that in two groups of varices of comparable size, intravenous sclerosant was significantly more effective, leading to thrombosis in 8/10 as opposed to only 3/10 after paravasal injection (p less than 0.05). Intravenous contrast was rapidly cleared upwards, whereas paravasal contrast formed a rounded opacity alongside the vein that persisted for approximately 90 minutes, responsible for the complications of oesophageal ulceration and stenosis. PMID:6352422

Rose, J D; Crane, M D; Smith, P M



Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

House, R.A. (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))



Factors affecting skin tannin extractability in ripening grapes.  


The acetone-extractable (70% v/v) skin tannin content of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was found to increase during late-stage ripening. Conversely, skin tannin content determined following ethanol extraction (10, 20, and 50% v/v) did not consistently reflect this trend. The results indicated that a fraction of tannin became less extractable in aqueous ethanol during ripening. Skin cell walls were observed to become more porous during ripening, which may facilitate the sequestering of tannin as an adsorbed fraction within cell walls. For ethanol extracts, tannin molecular mass increased with advancing ripeness, even when extractable tannin content was constant, but this effect was negligible in acetone extracts. Reconstitution experiments with isolated skin tannin and cell wall material indicated that the selectivity of tannin adsorption by cell walls changed as tannin concentration increased. Tannin concentration, tannin molecular mass, and cell wall porosity are discussed as factors that may influence skin tannin extractability. PMID:24432763

Bindon, Keren A; Madani, S Hadi; Pendleton, Phillip; Smith, Paul A; Kennedy, James A



LPN perspectives of factors that affect nurse mobility in Canada.  


Although the licensed practical nurse (LPN) workforce represents an ever-growing and valuable human resource, very little is known about reasons for practical nurse mobility. The purpose of this study was to describe LPN perspectives regarding motives for inter-provincial/territorial (P/T) movement in Canada. Participants included 200 LPNs from nine P/T, and data were analyzed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Three primary themes were identified regarding motivators for LPN migration, including (a) scope of practice, (b) education and advancement opportunities and (c) professional respect and recognition. Although current economic forces have a strong influence on nurse mobility, these findings emphasize that there are other equally important factors influencing LPNs to move between jurisdictions. As such, policy makers, administrators and researchers should further explore and address these themes in order to strengthen Canada's nursing workforce. PMID:24863722

Harris, Alexandra; Hall, Linda McGillis; Price, Sheri; Lalonde, Michelle; Andrews, Gavin; MacDonald-Rencz, Sandra



Factors Affecting Junior High School Students' Interest in Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest in physics was "neutral" (neither positive nor negative), with boys showing a higher interest than girls. We found a strong correlation between students' "neutral" interest in physics and their negative opinions about science classes. These findings raise serious questions about the implementation of changes made in the Israeli science curriculum in primary and junior high school, especially if the goal is to prepare the young generation for life in a scientific-technological era. A more in-depth analysis of the results led us to formulate curricular, behavioral, and organizational changes needed to reach this goal.

Trumper, Ricardo



Factors affecting floral herbivory in a limestone grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of herbivore damage to the petals of 41 species of herbaceous plant was surveyed from April to September in a limestone grassland in central England. Damage was recorded as the percentage of the petal area removed. Most damage was caused by invertebrates, particularly slugs. The amount of invertebrate damage differed significantly between plant species and with time of year. The mean damage across all species was only 2 %, ranging from an average of 0 % in Galium sterneri to 8 % in Primula vulgaris. In most species, less than a quarter of flowers received any damage, so those that were damaged were often severely affected. Species flowering early or late in the season received more damage, possibly because of greater slug activity. Hypotheses to explain the inter-specific variation in the amount of herbivory were examined by testing for correlations with a range of plant variables. No correlations with flower-stem length, flower-stem thickness or the longevity of flowers were apparent. The amount of petal damage correlated strongly with flower size and petal thickness. This appeared to result from the prevalence of large-flowered species early and late in the season rather than from a preference for flower size and petal thickness per se. The evolutionary significance of floral herbivory is discussed.

Breadmore, Karen N.; Kirk, William D. J.



Factors that affect social cue recognition in schizophrenia.  


Earlier research (Corrigan and Green, Am. J. Psychiatry, 150 (1993) 589-594) showed fairly symptomatic persons with schizophrenia give more false-positive responses when answering questions about abstract cues in a social situation (i.e. affect, rules, and goals inferred about an interpersonal situation) than concrete cues (i.e. actions and dialogue observed in a situation). It is unclear, however, whether differential cue recognition is due to schizophrenia per se, or some aspect of the illness commensurate with significant symptoms and in-patient care. Moreover, the abstract and concrete dimension in the earlier study had not been independently validated. In this study, the 288 items of the Social Cue Recognition Test (SCRT) were divided into three sets based on abstraction ratings provided by 38 college students. The SCRT was then completed by 48 participants with DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants with schizophrenia were divided into low and high symptom groups using scores from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Results showed both low symptom and high symptom groups exhibited a differential deficit in cue recognition. False positives were greater for items rated as more abstract. Implications for understanding the social cognitive deficits of persons with schizophrenia are discussed. PMID:9657423

Corrigan, P W; Nelson, D R



Factors affecting mechanical properties of biomass pellet from compost.  


Effectiveness of a densification process to create strong and durable bonding in pellets can be determined by testing the mechanical properties such as compressive strength (CS) and durability. Mechanical properties of pellet from composted municipal solid waste were determined at different raw material and densification conditions. Ground compost samples were compressed with three levels of moisture content (35%, 40% and 45% (wb)), piston compaction speed (2, 6 and 10 mm/s), die length (8, 10 and 12mm) and raw material particle size (0.3, 0.9 and 1.5mm) into cylindrical pellets utilizing opened-end dies under axial stress from a vertical piston applied by a hydraulic press. The effects of independent variables on mechanical properties were determined using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (BBD). All independent variables affected the durability significantly. However, different piston speed and die length not produce any significant difference on CS of pellets. Also in this research the electron photography method was used to identify the binding mechanism of compost particles. PMID:24600888

Zafari, A; Kianmehr, M H



Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.  


Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja



Digestibility as a factor affecting bioavailability of food proteins  

E-print Network

. In this investigation digestibility is consid- ered to play a role in the bioavailability of amino acids in cereal protein namely wheat gluten. An in vitro diges- tion of wheat gluten, using the enzymes pepsin and pancrea- tin was carried out simulating... as the N-terminal amino acids were determined to obtain an estimate of their size. The amount of nitrogen in the wheat gluten and in the undigested peptides was also deter- mined. The digestibility of individual proteins present in the wheat gluten...

Padmanabhan, Dhanakoti



Factors Affecting the Starting Characteristics of Gas-Turbine Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the effects of fuel volatility and engine design variables on the problem of starting gas-turbine engines at sea-level and altitude conditions. The starting operation for engines with tubular combustors is considered as three steps; namely, (1) ignition of a fuel-air mixture in the combustor, (2) propagation of flame through cross-fire tubes to all combustors, and (3) acceleration of the engine from windmilling or starting speed to the operating speed range. Pertinent data from laboratory researches, single-combustor studies, and full-scale engine investigations are presented on each phase of the starting problem.



Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics that reflect base flow and the general hydrologic dynamics of a stream are important in understanding nutrient transport from a watershed and may be useful indicators of watersheds that are likely to have higher yields of nutrients and water. Combining streamflow statistics with information on such factors as land use, soil drainage, extent of riparian vegetation, geochemical conditions, and subsurface tile drainage in the Coastal Plain can be useful in identifying watersheds that are most likely to export excessive nitrogen due to nonpoint-source loadings and watersheds that are effective in processing nitrogen.

Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.



Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo



"Receptivity": an important factor affecting supportive care provision.  


The research on psychosocial need provides the foundation informing the drive for the provision of supportive care services for patients and their families. The work on patient access, barriers to participation, and service evaluation are providing some insights that can help guide practitioners in their efforts to ensure that services designed to meet psychosocial need reach and involve the appropriate individuals. However, this direction is presently in its infancy leaving many questions unanswered. This article makes a contribution to advancing and strengthening this line of research through a fresh perspective on the topic provided by consumer research with individuals diagnosed with a hematological malignancy. The research was initiated and funded by the Leukaemia Foundation of Queensland (LFQ) with the aim of exploring the experience of survivorship for individuals diagnosed with a hematological malignancy to inform supportive care service provision and development. The findings from the research posit the notion of "receptivity" as an important new concept that can contribute to the deepening of our understanding of the myriad of factors associated with effectively engaging with individuals in supportive care service provision. PMID:23311970

McGrath, Pamela



Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (?) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David R.; Snyder, Craig D.



Upper extremity physical factors affecting tennis serve velocity.  


Forty tournament-level tennis players with expert serve technique volunteered to have their serve evaluated to determine relationships between anthropometric data, extremity strength, and functional serve velocity. All players underwent a complete physical examination, a video taped serve analysis, a radar measurement of serve velocity, and a series of upper extremity strength measurements. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which factors were related to serve velocity. Statistically significant relationships were found between serve velocity and several flexibility measurements including increased dominant wrist flexion (P < 0.05), increased dominant shoulder flexion (P < 0.05), and increased dominant shoulder internal rotation at 0 degrees of abduction (P < 0.05). Several strength measurements were also related to serve velocity including elbow extension torque production (P < 0.01) and the ratios of internal to external rotational torque production for both low- and high-speed measurements (P < 0.01 concentrically and P < 0.05 eccentrically). These findings relate strength and flexibility to serve velocity, suggesting that it may be possible to increase a tennis player's serve velocity through specifically directed muscular strengthening or stretching regimens. However, prospective studies must be undertaken to demonstrate these possibilities. PMID:7856797

Cohen, D B; Mont, M A; Campbell, K R; Vogelstein, B N; Loewy, J W



Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.  


Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered. PMID:23724578

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa



When “Sugar and Spice” Turn to “Fire and Ice”: Factors Affecting the Adverse Consequences of Relational Aggression among Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated factors affecting the relative harm of relationally aggressive acts among adolescent girls. One hundred twenty-seven high school girls completed a survey in which they described an event where another girl did something to them that was mean or hurtful. Girls also completed measures of the extent to which the aggressive act threatened their positive face, and the

Erin K. Willer; William R. Cupach



Factors affecting seasonal mortality of rosy bitterling ( Rhodeus ocellatus kurumeus ) embryos on the gills of their host mussel  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated the seasonal change in factors affecting embryonic mortality in the rosy bitterling, Rhodeus ocellatus kurumeus, a freshwater fish that spawns on the gills of living unionid mussels. Research was conducted in a small pond during 1999 and 2001 in which bitterling were provided with Anodonta sp. mussels for spawning. Bitterling spawned between April and July, peaking mid–late May.

Jyun-ichi Kitamura



The dangerous flat spin and the factors affecting it  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report deals first with the fundamental data required for the investigation. These are chiefly the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on an airplane in a flat spin. It is shown that these forces and moments depend principally on the angle of attack and on the rotation about the path axis, and can therefore either be measured in a wind tunnel or calculated from wind-tunnel measurements of lift, drag and moment about the leading edge of the wing of an airplane model at rest. The lift, drag and moments about the span axis are so greatly altered by the rapid rotation in a flat spin, that they can no longer be regarded as independent of rotation. No substantial change in the angles of attack and glide occurring in a flat spin is involved. The cross-wind force, as compared with the lift and drag, can be disregarded in a flat spin.

Fuchs, Richard; Schmidt, Wilhelm



Factors Affecting Children’s Adjustment to the Death of a Parent: The Social Work Professional’s Viewpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated factors affecting the adjustment of parentally bereaved children by reviewing existing literature and comparing it to observations made by professional social workers. Interviewees had between 1 1\\/2 and 22 years of experience in counseling bereaved children. The specific factors examined were age and sex of the bereaved child, circumstances of the death, and adjustment of remaining caregiver. Participants (n = 5)

Rebecca M. Hope; Diane M. Hodge



Meteorological factors affecting ozone profiles over the North Atlantic ocean  

SciTech Connect

Ozone measurements taken by an instrumented aircraft over the western North Atlantic in the summer of 1992 revealed numerous profiles that consisted of two principal layers with different, nearly constant mixing ratios in each layer. The lower layer was characterized by relatively small mixing ratios (<25-30 ppb), while the upper layer had values a factor of two or more higher. The depth of the lower layer frequently corresponded to the depth of the mixed layer over the ocean as estimated from potential temperature observations. The upper layer with relatively uniform ozone distribution extended at least to the maximum sampling height of the aircraft on these flights, approximately 2.5 km. A three-dimensional mesoscale model is used to simulate the meteorology over the area for a representative case study day. Trajectory analysis shows that the air in the sampling region originated over relatively pristine areas of northern and eastern Canada, followed a path that avoided major anthropogenic sources of ozone precursors over land, and eventually moved out over the ocean. Because of inhomogeneities in the sea surface temperatures in the observation area, the spatial and temporal evolution of the boundary layer over the ocean differed significantly over distances of only a few hundred kilometers. These differences are identified as mechanisms responsible for the development of the characteristic shapes of ozone and potential temperature profiles. These findings indicate the critical role played by meteorological processes irrespective of the details of the photochemical reactions. The results also imply that a failure to incorporate detailed descriptions of meteorology in photochemical models may lead to erroneous interpretations of the data.

Doran, J.C.; Zhong, S.; Berkowitz, C.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)



Factors affecting aminolaevulinic acid-induced generation of protoporphyrin IX.  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may cause tumour cell destruction by direct toxicity or by inducing cellular hypoxia as a result of microcirculatory shutdown. Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) causes cellular accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in cells exposed to it in excess. PPIX can be used as a photosensitizer for PDT. Microcirculatory shutdown may be induced by toxicity to the endothelial and vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells or by release of vasoactive substances. We have studied whether PPIX is produced by endothelial, VSM and tumour cells on exposure to ALA and whether these cell lines are directly damaged by PDT in vitro. Tumour endothelial cells are angiogenic and we have, therefore, investigated the effect of cellular proliferation rates on PPIX generation. Tumour cells generate more PPIX intracellularly than the non-neoplastic cell lines studied and are correspondingly more sensitive to PDT-induced cytotoxicity. Endothelial cells are sensitive to PDT-induced cytotoxicity and accumulate between 1.5 and four times more PPIX when proliferating (as during tumour-induced angiogenesis) than when quiescent. We conclude that PPIX-mediated PDT may exert some of its effects on the microcirculation of treated tissues by direct toxicity to endothelial and VSM cells, and that this toxicity may be enhanced in the tumour microenvironment. PMID:9310234

Wyld, L.; Burn, J. L.; Reed, M. W.; Brown, N. J.



Geochemical factors affecting PAH distribution in Chesapeake Bay sediments  

SciTech Connect

Sediment/pore water distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s) of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined with depth at two sites in the Elizabeth River, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Areas of the Elizabeth River have been historically extensively contaminated with PAHs. Varying trends in distribution coefficients were observed both across the range of molecular weights of the PAHs and with depth in the sediment. Linear relations between log K{sub d} and octanol-water partition coefficient (log K{sub ow}) were observed deep in the cores but not near the surface of the sediments. This phenomena indicates that PAH sediment/porewater distributions are not at equilibrium near the sediment-water interface. Moreover, down-core K{sub d}s decreased and were, in most cases, inversely related with fraction organic carbon. These data indicate that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may play a potentially significant role in mobilizing sediment-associated organic contaminants. The extent to which DOC and other geochemical parameters such as total lipid extract (TLE) and BET surface area control K{sub d}s of PAHs, is under further investigation.

Mitra, S.; Dickhut, R.M.; Kimbrough, K. [Coll. of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)



Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke: Factors Affecting Exposure and Remediation  

PubMed Central

Thirdhand smoke (THS) refers to components of secondhand smoke that stick to indoor surfaces and persist in the environment. Little is known about exposure levels and possible remediation measures to reduce potential exposure in contaminated areas. This study deals with the effect of aging on THS components and evaluates possible exposure levels and remediation measures. We investigated the concentration of nicotine, five nicotine related alkaloids, and three tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in smoke exposed fabrics. Two different extraction methods were used. Cotton terry cloth and polyester fleece were exposed to smoke in controlled laboratory conditions and aged before extraction. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for chemical analysis. Fabrics aged for 19 months after smoke exposure retained significant amounts of THS chemicals. During aqueous extraction, cotton cloth released about 41 times as much nicotine and about 78 times the amount of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) as polyester after one hour of aqueous extraction. Concentrations of nicotine and TSNAs in extracts of terry cloth exposed to smoke were used to estimate infant/toddler oral exposure and adult dermal exposure to THS. Nicotine exposure from THS residue can be 6.8 times higher in toddlers and 24 times higher in adults and TSNA exposure can be 16 times higher in toddlers and 56 times higher in adults than what would be inhaled by a passive smoker. In addition to providing exposure estimates, our data could be useful in developing remediation strategies and in framing public health policies for indoor environments with THS. PMID:25286392

Bahl, Vasundhra; Jacob, Peyton; Havel, Christopher; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Talbot, Prue



Factors affecting the catalytic oligomerization of methane via microwave heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalytic microwave heating has been used as a method for the oligomerization of methane to higher hydrocarbons. Many catalysts were tested in this reaction. Nickel powder, raney nickel, iron powder and activated carbon were the most active and efficient catalysts for the production of higher hydrocarbons. When helium was used as a diluent gas and the applied power was optimized, the selectivities were controlled to the most desired products. In general, the most abundant products for all the experiments were C2s. Iron powder was active only at high power (1130 W). At these conditions acetylene was avoided and ethylene and ethane were produced in the same proportion. Activated carbon catalysts with helium as diluent led to a selectivity towards benzene up to 33%. Some manganese oxides such as OMS-1, OMS-2 and MnO2 (dielectric constant, epsilon ? 104) were not active in these reactions. These data suggest that the dielectric constant is not the most important factor in the oligomerization of methane via microwave heating. Conversion and activities of these materials are not proportionally related to the surface area of the catalysts. Higher catalytic activity was observed for Raney nickel than for regular nickel powder. The maximum conversion obtained was 24% at 400 W and 10 min of irradiation time. For regular nickel powder that conversion can be achieved only after 700 W of power and more than 20 min of reaction. BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Temperature-Programmed Desorption and Reduction analysis were performed to characterize the catalyst before and after reaction. Deactivation of Raney nickel by fouling and sintering was observed after 500 W and/or 15 min of reaction. The effect of microwave radiation frequency on activity and product distribution for methane oligomerization has been studied. Nickel, iron, and activated carbon catalysts were used in these studies. Experiments were done with pure methane and using He as diluent. Changes in product distribution due to changes in frequency have been observed, and might be related to different transverse magnetic modes at different frequencies. Different transient heating may occur at different values of frequency.

Conde, Luis Daniel


Investigation of Demographic Properties and Motivation Factors of Physics Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific and technological developments resulted in an increase in the requirement of education in the society. In addition to this, the expectations from teachers differed and the need for more qualified teachers also increased. One of the factors affecting the quality of teachers is their motivation. In this research, it was aimed to reveal…

Guzel, Hatice



Scratching around mating: factors affecting anxiety in wild Lemur catta.  


Scratching has been successfully used to detect anxiety, a proxy for stress, in primates, from strepsirrhines to Homo sapiens. Here, we investigated the fluctuation of scratching in Lemur catta during the mating season. In particular we evaluated whether scratching (1) varied according to sex and rank differences, (2) increased in the period of maximum stress (around the mating days), and (3) was reduced by grooming. At Berenty (South Madagascar), we followed two lemur groups (23 adult/subadult individuals) and gathered data on self-scratching, aggression, and grooming. Based on perineal area features, we recognized two periods: low swelling (LS), with no estrus female, and high swelling (HS), when at least one female was in estrus. We predicted that aggressive behaviors and anxiety-related scratching would covary. Indeed, scratching peaked in HS, when aggression was also highest. In agreement with previous literature, this result suggests that conflicts around estrus days may raise anxiety levels in the social group. We expected scratching levels to be highest in males because they aggressively compete for females and are subject to mate choice and repeated attacks by dominant females. Instead, the scratching rates were similar in males and females, probably because the high competition, which involves both sexes, dampened intersexual differences. In contrast to our prediction, scratching was not rank dependent, probably because animal ranking positions changed from LS to HS. Finally, we showed that, in ring-tailed lemurs, as well as in other primates, scratching decreases after reciprocal grooming in both periods. This finding provides the first evidence that grooming could assist in reducing anxiety in strepsirrhines. PMID:22278710

Sclafani, Valentina; Norscia, Ivan; Antonacci, Daniela; Palagi, Elisabetta



Investigating Factors that Influence Weathering of Monuments in a Cemetery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this field activity students will discover some of the factors that influence weathering of rock by making observations, asking questions and completing an investigation of their own design in a local cemetery.


MY NASA DATA: Investigating Factors that Influence Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan employs inquiry-based methods to investigate how latitude and longitude (and distance from oceans) impact climatic factors such as temperature range, average temperature, and precipitation.




E-print Network

A MULTI-YEAR STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING FRUIT PRODUCTION IN ARISTOLOCHIA PAUCINERVIS-pollination seems to be a decisive factor in fruit production because the number of germinated pollen and the fruit can be the first factor limiting fruit production (Schemske, 1980; Howell and Roth, 1981; Arista et al

Herrera, Carlos M.


How psychopathological factors affect both the onset of and recovery from Transient Global Amnesia  

E-print Network

1 How psychopathological factors affect both the onset of and recovery from Transient Global Amnesia Short title: Role of psychopathological factors in TGA Audrey Noël, Peggy Quinette, Bérengère measures of psychopathological factors (anxiety and depression), in 38 patients (28 included in our

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Factors Affecting Placement Failure: An Analysis Of Sacramento County Juvenile Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an analysis of factors that affect failure probabilities for juvenile offenders sentenced to placement programs in Sacramento County, California. The application of regression analysis facilitates the examination of the relationship between placemen t failure and the theorized explanatory factors: criminal history, conduct and personality, family background, substance abuse, and personal characteristics. The identification of statistically significant factors

Catherine J. Burnette


Factors affecting public-supply well vulnerability in two karst aquifers.  


Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management. PMID:24841501

Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J



The Affect and Arousal Scales: Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Affect and Arousal Scales (AFARS) were inspected in a combined clinical and population sample (N = 1,215). The validity of the tripartite structure and the relations between Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH) were investigated for boys and girls, younger (8-11…

De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; Decuyper, Mieke



Factors affecting UV/H2O2 inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores in drinking water.  


This study aims at estimating the performance of the Bacillus atrophaeus spores inactivation by the UV treatment with addition of H2O2. The effect of factors affecting the inactivation was investigated, including initial H2O2 dose, UV irradiance, initial cell density, initial solution pH and various inorganic anions. Under the experimental conditions, the B. atrophaeus spores inactivation followed both the modified Hom Model and the Chick's Model. The results revealed that the H2O2 played dual roles in the reactions, while the optimum reduction of 5.88lg was received at 0.5mM H2O2 for 10min. The inactivation effect was affected by the UV irradiance, while better inactivation effect was achieved at higher irradiance. An increase in the initial cell density slowed down the inactivation process. A slight acid condition at pH 5 was considered as the optimal pH value. The inactivation effect within 10min followed the order of pH 5>pH 7>pH 9>pH 3>pH 11. The effects of three added inorganic anions were investigated and compared, including sulfate (SO4(2)(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)) and carbonate (CO3(2)(-)). The sequence of inactivation effect within 10min followed the order of control group>SO4(2)(-)>NO3(-)>CO3(2)(-). PMID:24792469

Zhang, Yongji; Zhang, Yiqing; Zhou, Lingling; Tan, Chaoqun



Analysis of Factors Affecting Stress Solution at Concrete Gravity Dam Heel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with Vietnam's development, various hydraulic constructions including concrete gravity dams have been being built. In some of these dams, the fractures occurred at the heel of the dams are even in small and media dams. There are various reasons cause the factures at dam heel but the main reason is the stress states at dam heel are not determined correctly while designing dam. In this paper, several factors affecting stress solution at concrete gravity dam heel such as element mesh size, crack joints of upstream foundation, execution process are investigated by using finite element model of Banve concrete gravity dam. This work is very significant when the more high concrete gravity dams will be constructed in Vietnam year after year.

Hung, Vu Hoang; Quoc Cong, Trinh; Tongchun, Li



Factors affecting the outcome of artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).  


Artificial insemination (AI) is an important component of captive breeding programs for endangered species, such as the giant panda. The panda has been the subject of increasingly successful captive breeding programs involving a compilation of assisted breeding techniques, including AI using cryopreserved spermatozoa. AI implementation is currently hampered by a lack of understanding of the factors that may cause failure. We investigated factors influencing the probability of success of AI for 14 giant panda females housed at the China Center for Research and Conservation of the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) inseminated in a total of 20 instances using cryopreserved spermatozoa from 11 males currently residing in 6 different captive breeding institutions. One of the pandas was the oldest giant panda female to ever successfully conceive from AI (20.5 years old). The success of AI was significantly affected by the timing of AI in relationship to both timing of peak urinary estrogen of the female and percent decline in urinary estrogen between the peak level and the first AI attempt. Our results suggest that the window for successful AI in giant pandas may be narrower than previously suspected, although individual differences in rates of decline in urinary estrogen may reflect some degree of variation in this crucial window across females. Our results are consistent with recent research on pandas and other species that demonstrates the efficacy of cryopreserved spermatozoa for AI and highlights the need for more in-depth analysis of factors related to female physiology that may influence its success. PMID:21932329

Huang, Yan; Li, Desheng; Zhou, Yingmin; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Rengui; Wang, Chengdong; Huang, Zhi; Hull, Vanessa; Zhang, Hemin



Intergenomic Rearrangements after Polyploidization of Kengyilia thoroldiana (Poaceae: Triticeae) Affected by Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Polyploidization is a major evolutionary process. Approximately 70–75% species of Triticeae (Poaceae) are polyploids, involving 23 genomes. To investigate intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Triticeae species and to determine the effects of environmental factors on them, nine populations of a typical polyploid Triticeae species, Kengyilia thoroldiana (Keng) J.L.Yang et al. (2n?=?6x?=?42, StStPPYY), collected from different environments, were studied using genome in situ hybridization (GISH). We found that intergenomic rearrangements occurred between the relatively large P genome and the small genomes, St (8.15%) and Y (22.22%), in polyploid species via various types of translocations compared to their diploid progenitors. However, no translocation was found between the relatively small St and Y chromosomes. Environmental factors may affect rearrangements among the three genomes. Chromosome translocations were significantly more frequent in populations from cold alpine and grassland environments than in populations from valley and lake-basin habitats (P<0.05). The relationship between types of chromosome translocations and altitude was significant (r?=?0.809, P<0.01). Intergenomic rearrangements associated with environmental factors and genetic differentiation of a single basic genome should be considered as equally important genetic processes during species' ecotype evolution. PMID:22363542

Wang, Qiuxia; Liu, Huitao; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xiuquan; Li, Lihui



Factors affecting the permanence of livestock projects undertaken by Heifer International-Mexico  

E-print Network

in the state of Durango, Mexico. This study identified and analyzed the factors affecting the permanence of hog and dairy cow projects in four communities in the state of Durango, Mexico. The researcher interviewed seven project managers and 35 beneficiaries...

Arispe, Sergio Adrian



Bioaccumulation of Organic Contaminants by Diporeia spp.: Kinetics and Factors Affecting Bioavailability  

E-print Network

Bioaccumulation of Organic Contaminants by Diporeia spp.: Kinetics and Factors Affecting (PAH) by Diporeia , a major benthic food web component in the Great Lakes, suggests of sediment, water, sediment-trap material and Diporeia were collected monthly from two stations


Factors Affecting Vegetable Growers' Exposure to Fungal Bioaerosols and Airborne Dust  

PubMed Central

We have quantified vegetable growers’ exposure to fungal bioaerosol components including (1?3)-?-d-glucan (?-glucan), total fungal spores, and culturable fungal units. Furthermore, we have evaluated factors that might affect vegetable growers’ exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust. Investigated environments included greenhouses producing cucumbers and tomatoes, open fields producing cabbage, broccoli, and celery, and packing facilities. Measurements were performed at different times during the growth season and during execution of different work tasks. Bioaerosols were collected with personal and stationary filter samplers. Selected fungal species (Beauveria spp., Trichoderma spp., Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium brevicompactum) were identified using different polymerase chain reaction-based methods and sequencing. We found that the factors (i) work task, (ii) crop, including growth stage of handled plant material, and (iii) open field versus greenhouse significantly affected the workers’ exposure to bioaerosols. Packing of vegetables and working in open fields caused significantly lower exposure to bioaerosols, e.g. mesophilic fungi and dust, than harvesting in greenhouses and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants. Also removing strings in cucumber greenhouses caused a lower exposure to bioaerosols than harvest of cucumbers while removal of old plants caused the highest exposure. In general, the exposure was higher in greenhouses than in open fields. The exposures to ?-glucan during harvest and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants were very high (median values ranging between 50 and 1500 ng m?3) compared to exposures reported from other occupational environments. In conclusion, vegetable growers’ exposure to bioaerosols was related to the environment, in which they worked, the investigated work tasks, and the vegetable crop. PMID:22003240

Hansen, Vinni M.; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Winding, Anne; Eilenberg, J?rgen; Madsen, Anne Mette



Factors affecting vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust.  


We have quantified vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosol components including (1?3)-?-d-glucan (?-glucan), total fungal spores, and culturable fungal units. Furthermore, we have evaluated factors that might affect vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust. Investigated environments included greenhouses producing cucumbers and tomatoes, open fields producing cabbage, broccoli, and celery, and packing facilities. Measurements were performed at different times during the growth season and during execution of different work tasks. Bioaerosols were collected with personal and stationary filter samplers. Selected fungal species (Beauveria spp., Trichoderma spp., Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium brevicompactum) were identified using different polymerase chain reaction-based methods and sequencing. We found that the factors (i) work task, (ii) crop, including growth stage of handled plant material, and (iii) open field versus greenhouse significantly affected the workers' exposure to bioaerosols. Packing of vegetables and working in open fields caused significantly lower exposure to bioaerosols, e.g. mesophilic fungi and dust, than harvesting in greenhouses and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants. Also removing strings in cucumber greenhouses caused a lower exposure to bioaerosols than harvest of cucumbers while removal of old plants caused the highest exposure. In general, the exposure was higher in greenhouses than in open fields. The exposures to ?-glucan during harvest and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants were very high (median values ranging between 50 and 1500 ng m(-3)) compared to exposures reported from other occupational environments. In conclusion, vegetable growers' exposure to bioaerosols was related to the environment, in which they worked, the investigated work tasks, and the vegetable crop. PMID:22003240

Hansen, Vinni M; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Winding, Anne; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Madsen, Anne Mette



Factors Affecting the Motor Evoked Potential Responsiveness and Parameters in Patients With Supratentorial Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the factors which affect the motor evoked potential (MEP) responsiveness and parameters and to find the correlation between the function of the upper extremities and the combined study of MEP with a diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in patients with stroke. Methods A retrospective study design was used by analyzing medical records and neuroimaging data of 70 stroke patients who underwent a MEP test between June 2011 and March 2013. MEP parameters which were recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were the resting motor threshold, latency, amplitude, and their ratios. Functional variables, Brunnstrom stage of hand, upper extremity subscore of Fugl-Meyer assessment, Manual Function Test, and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) were collected together with the biographical and neurological data. The DTT parameters were fiber number, fractional anisotropy value and their ratios of affected corticospinal tract. The data were compared between two groups, built up according to the presence (MEP-P) or absence (MEP-N) of MEP on the affected hand. Results Functional and DTT variables were significantly different between MEP-P and MEP-N groups (p<0.001). Among the MEP-P group, the amplitude ratio (unaffected/affected) was significantly correlated with the Brunnstrom stage of hand (r=-0.427, p=0.013), K-MBI (r=-0.380, p=0.029) and the time post-onset (r=-0.401, p=0.021). The functional scores were significantly better when both MEP response and DTT were present and decreased if one or both of the two studies were absent. Conclusion This study indicates MEP responsiveness and amplitude ratio are significantly associated with the upper extremity function and the activities of daily living performance, and the combined study of MEP and DTT provides useful information. PMID:24639922

Choi, Tae Woong; Jang, Seung Gul; Yang, Seung Nam



Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth characters of Charolais cattle in Southeastern Brazil  

E-print Network


Barbosa, Pedro Franklin



Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth and reproduction characters of Morada Nova sheep in Northeastern Brazil  

E-print Network


Fernandes, Antonio Amaury Oria



Factors Affecting Texas Farm Commodity Prices and Index Computation Methods, 1910-58.  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Texas Farm Commodity Prices and Index Computation Methods, 1910-58 I. A. Kincannon and G. B. strong* RICE RELATIONSHIPS GREATLY CONCERN THE shown graphically. Figures 1 through 3 illustrate P farmer. Each farmer produces a product... Factors Affecting Texas Farm Commodity Prices and Index Computation Methods, 1910-58 I. A. Kincannon and G. B. strong* RICE RELATIONSHIPS GREATLY CONCERN THE shown graphically. Figures 1 through 3 illustrate P farmer. Each farmer produces a product...

Strong, G. B.; Kincannon, J. A.



Factors affecting birth weight, gestation length and dystocia in Charolais cattle  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING BIRTH WEIGHT, GESTATION LENGTH AND DYSTOCIA IN CHAROLAIS CATTLE A Thesis by CHARLES SCHROEDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A!N University in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Animal Science FACTORS AFFECTING BIRTH 4IFIGHT, GESTATION LENGTH Al'JD OYSTOCIA IN CHAPOLAIS CATTLE A Thesis by CHARLES SCHROEDER Approved as to style and content by: ( ( (Chairman of Committe (Head of Departm t...

Schroeder, Charles



Factors affecting the coagulation properties of skimmilk and characteristics of cultured buttermilk  

E-print Network

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES. INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE Effect of Mastitis on Milk. Composition. Properties . Dairy products Factors Affecting Milk Coagulation. Heat treatment . Homogenization Starter culture. Added solids...-not-fat Protein. Calcium chloride Mastitis Minerals I'age V V111 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 Factors Affecting Properties of Cultured Pasteurization . Milk solids. Homogenization Starter culture. Ripening temperature . Aci di ty. Treatment...

Bollinger, Dean Herman



Factors affecting calf and dam weights and their effects on breeding programs  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING CALF AND DAM WEIGHTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON BREEDING PROGRAMS A Thesis By LAMRENCE ALLEN MADDOX, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulf illment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1964 Major Subject: Animal Breeding FACTORS AFFECTING CALF AND DAM WEIGHTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON BREEDING PROGRAMS A Thesis By IAWRENCE ALLEN MADDOX, JR Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Commit ee) (Head...

Maddox, Lawrence Allen



Pearl millet: parboiling methods and factors affecting the process and cooked product  

E-print Network

PEARL MILLET: PARBOILING METHODS AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROCESS AND COOKED PRODUCT A Thesis by CHALLY JOEL CLEGG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PEARL MILLET: PARBOILING METHODS AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROCESS AND COOKED PRODUCT A Thesis by CHALLY JOEL CLEGG Approved as to style and content by: LI d W. Roon...

Clegg, Chally Joel



Factors affecting persistent pinkness and premature browning of ground beef patties  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING PERSISTENT PINKNESS AND PREMATURE BROWNING OF GROUND BEEF PATTIES A Thesis by ERIN ANN CUREINGTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2000 Major Subject: Animal Science FACTORS AFFECTING PERSISTENT PINKNESS AND PREMATURE BROWNING OF GROUND BEEF PATTIES A Thesis by ERIN ANN CUREINGTON Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Cureington, Erin Ann



Factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon, with emphasis on human impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the\\u000a entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on\\u000a the factors affecting migration is essential for the protection of populations, and to increase the success of reintroduction\\u000a programmes. A number of studies have documented

Eva B. Thorstad; Finn Økland; Kim Aarestrup; Tor G. Heggberget



Factors affecting the cooking and extrusion properties of sorghum for noodle production  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE COOKING AND EXTRUSION PROPERTIES OF SORGHUM FOR NOODLE PRODUCTION A Thesis by ROSEMARY IKALAFENG LEKALAKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology FACTORS AFFECTING THE COOKING AND EXTRUSION PROPERTIES OF SORGHUM FOR NOODLE PRODUCTION A Thesis by ROSEMARy IKALAFENG LEKALAKE Approved as to style and content by...

Lekalake, Rosemary Ikalafeng



[Seedling regeneration and affecting factors of Quercus variabilis in different distribution regions].  


Twenty four fixed plots in three distribution regions of Quercus variabilis (Loess Plateau, marginal distribution zone; north slope of Qinling Mountains, semi-arid core area; and south slope of Qinling Mountains, moist core area) were installed, respectively, to investigate the age structure, growth status, and dry mass accumulation and allocation of 1-8 years old Q. variabilis seedlings, and path analysis was adopted to determine the key factors affecting the regeneration of the seedlings. In the distribution regions, the density of the seedlings decreased with their increasing age, and the density of the 1-8 years old seedlings all decreased in the order of south slope of Qin-ling Mountains > north slope of Qinling Mountains > Loess Plateau. The transformation rate of the seedlings with adjacent ages differed significantly among the three distribution regions. On Loess Plateau, the transformation rate of 7 years old to 8 years old seedlings was the lowest (30.2 +/- 2.9) %; on the north and south slopes of Qinling Mountains, the transformation rate of 4 years old to 5 years old seedlings was the lowest, being (53.9 +/- 3.7) % and (50.0 +/- 2.1) %, respectively. With the increasing age of the seedlings, their height and dry mass presented an increasing trend, with the order of south slope of Qinling Mountains > north slope of Qinling Mountains > Loess Plateau, the rate of root length to plant height tended to decline, and the rates of root breadth to canopy breadth and of root dry mass to shoot dry mass decreased after an initial increase. The rates of root length to plant height, root breadth to canopy breadth, and root dry mass to shoot dry mass were all the highest on Loess Plateau, and the lowest on south slope of Qinling Mountains. Air temperature, irradiance, canopy density and shrub coverage were the direct key factors affecting Q. variabilis seedling regeneration, among which, air temperature and irradiance were the positive factors, while canopy density and shrub coverage were the negative ones. Soil available nitrogen content and herb coverage were the indirect key factors affecting the Q. variabilis seedling regeneration positively and negatively, respectively. PMID:24380326

Wu, Min; Zhang, Wen-hui; Zhou, Jian-yun; Ma, Chuang; Ma, Li-wei



Safe Science Facilities: Reviewing Factors that Affect Classroom Environment, Curriculum, and Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science teachers often have two different curricula--the ideal framework on paper and the real, day-to-day instructional program that occurs in the classroom. A number of factors can affect how much of that ideal framework is accomplished. For example, how a facility is designed and how space is used can affect student achievement, classroom…

Texley, Juliana




Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract InIndonesia, despite the fact that some SMEs have been declining or stagnant, some others have been successful and growing. What factors affect business success among SMEs? The recent study aims toanswer this main question. Based onsurvey to 100 SMEs, the study discloses that marketing, technology and capital access affect the business success in a positive way significantly, while legality

Nurul Indarti; Marja Langenberg


Dimensions of children's classroom social behavior: A factor analytic investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimensions of children's classroom social behavior were investigated using the Social Behavior Assessment (SBA), a 136-item teacher rating scale (Stephens, T. M.Social Behavior Assessment. Columbus, Ohio: Cedars Press, 1979). Six relatively independent factors were identified as dimensions of children's classroom social behavior: Academic Responsibility, Social Responsibility, Cooperation, Compliance, Adaptive Behavior, and Participation. These six factors accounted for over two-thirds of

Vicki Stodden Stumme; Frank M. Gresham; Norman A. Scott



Factors affecting release rate of diltiazem hydrochloride from poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) matrices.  


Sustained release diltiazem hydrochloride (DIL) formulation is widely used over 110 countries worldwide, and is among the drugs recommended as a first-line therapy in the major guidelines for the management of hypertension. In search for a most suitable controlled release formulation of DIL, we investigated poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) matrix (pHEMA matrix) synthesized by photopolymerization. Factors affecting the release rate of DIL from pHEMA matrices were investigated, focusing on the internal structure of the matrices. The effects of the porosity (epsilon), the fractal dimensions (Df) and the microscopic viscosity (eta matrix) of the matrices on the release rate of DIL were investigated on the basis of the linear least square equation as well as the Higuchi's equation. A relation between the actual value and predicted value based on the linear least square equation exhibited a fairly good linearity (r=0.979). Furthermore, the release rate of DIL was represented based on the Higuchi's equation including the values of epsilon, Df and eta matrix. It is likely that the release rate of DIL from pHEMA matrices is mainly controlled by epsilon and Df, but eta matrix was less effective. PMID:18242964

Yanagawa, F; Ishii, Y; Onuki, Y; Morishita, M; Takayama, K



Engendered Analysis of the Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Smallholder Dairy Productivity: Experience from Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing gap between potential and actual milk yield in Kenyan dairy farming and the need to bridge it led to the formulation of this study. The objective was to determine the socioeconomic factors including the gender variable affecting smallholder dairy productivity. The aim of incorporating gender was to capture in detail the factors peculiar to male and female smallholder

J. M. Chengole; L. N. Kimenye; S. G. Mbogoh



Factors Affecting the Vocational Choice of Women of Different Ages Selecting Clerical and Secretarial Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attempt was made to examine the factors affecting women of different ages in their selection of clerical and secretarial occupations. The factors considered were: health, intelligence, interests, previous work experience, stated reasons for present occupational choice, knowledge of employment opportunities and job requirements, influence of…

Willmarth, John Gary


Factors Affecting the Full Use of Library and Information Management Systems by Library Personnel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide a general list of factors that affects and determines the full use of library information management systems (LIMS) by library staff. Design/methodology/approach: The factors, which were identified mainly during participation in the implementation of automation projects in Greece, are listed and briefly analysed in categories…

Skretas, Georgios



Factors affecting pouring ready mix concrete production rate using tower cranes in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor productivity of construction industry is one of the causes of cost and time overruns in construction projects. The first stage to control this problem is to identify factors affecting productivity and analyse them in order to control their effect in productivity. In Egypt, construction productivity is influenced by several factors that vary from project to project as well as

Emad El-Maghraby; Jan Frick; Christopher Irgens



The study of influenced factors affecting to quality of cylindrical grinding harden AISI 4140 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to study factors, which were affected on surface roughness and roundness in cylindrical grinding of harden AISI 4140 steel. Specimen used in the experiment was AISI 4140 steel that hardening at 51±3 HRC. Studied factors were consisted of revolution speed of workpiece, feed rate, and depth of cut. Full factorial experimental design was conducted

Komson Jirapatarasilp; Sittichai Kaewkuekool; P. Klahan



Environmental and genetic factors affecting udder characters and milk production in Chios sheep  

E-print Network

Environmental and genetic factors affecting udder characters and milk production in Chios sheep A environmental and genetic factors influencing udder characteristics and milk production in Chios sheep. All. Seasonal effects were significant for udder circumference, test-day milk and total milk production

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


A Review of Foreign Researches on Influential Factors Affecting Students' Engagement in English Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' active engagement constitutes the core of the process of learning and teaching in the student-oriented classroom. The paper centers on a review of foreign researches on influential factors affecting students' engagement in English classroom. It is expected to figure out the relevant factors in order to promote students' active engagement.

Zhou, Chun-hong



Bacillus cereus Spores in Raw Milk: Factors Affecting the Contamination of Milk During the Grazing Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus is a limiting factor for the shelf-life of pasteurized milk, particularly dur- ing the grazing season. Potential sources of contami- nation and factors that might affect the spore content of milk were studied in detail for a group of eight cows during three 2-wk study periods from June to September over 2 yr. The spore content of

A. Christiansson; J. Bertilsson; B. Svensson



Factors that Affect Synergies in Mergers, at Banking Sector: Simulation with a Dynamic Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the factors that affect the intended synergy following an M&A, as they have emerged from the study of the M&A's that have taken place as yet in the Bank Sector of an EU country. On the basis of quality research, dynamic simulation models have been created for two out of the five factors.

Yiannis, Triantafyllopoulos; Sakas, Damianos P.; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos



Risk factors affecting metaphyseal irregularities in the radius and ulna of growing Newfoundland dogs 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to study risk factors affecting metaphyseal irregularities (MI) in the distal radius and ulna of growing Newfound- land dogs. Risk factors studied included the genetic effects, effects of litters, BW, circumferences of the dis- tal radius and ulna (CDRU), and total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. The study included 118 Newfoundland dogs (60

C. Trangerud; T. Meuwissen; E. Ropstad; A. Indrebø; J. Grøndalen; L. Moe



Factors Affecting Change in the Clothing Patterns of the Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is always imperative to determine and explain the factors responsible for the change in clothing patterns of the adolescent girls, that are yet not clearly defined but are unignorable. In order to find out the affect of various factors like social status, education, mass media and peer pressure on the clothing patterns of young girls, a survey was conducted




Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of the factors affecting academic performance with the performance levels of adults in adult and continuing education in Nkulumane-Emganwini area. These factors were arbitrarily selected from the literature review. The research design selected was the empirical approach .A sample of 40 students was randomly selected from a population of 420

Precious Ndlovu; Wisdom Moyo



Predicting Factors Affecting Clinical Outcomes for Saccular Aneurysms of Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical outcomes of surgery and coiling and analyze the predicting factors affecting the clinical outcomes of ruptured posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms. Methods During the last 15 years, 20 consecutive patients with ruptured PICA aneurysms were treated and these patients were included in this study. The Fisher's exact test was used for the statistical significance of Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) according to initial Hunt-Hess (H-H) grade, treatment modalities, and the presence of acute hydrocephalus. Results Eleven (55%) and nine (45%) patients were treated with surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, respectively. Among 20 patients, thirteen (65.0%) patients had good outcomes (GOS 4 or 5). There was the statistical significance between initial poor H-H grade, the presence of acute hydrocephalus and poor GOS. Conclusion In our study, we suggest that initial H-H grade and the presence of acute hydrocephalus may affect the clinical outcome rather than treatment modalities in the ruptured PICA aneurysms. PMID:22200015

Hong, Young-Ho; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Che, Gil-Sung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Ghang, Chang-Gu



Factors Affecting the Prevalence of Gastro-oesophageal Reflux in Childhood Corrosive Oesophageal Strictures  

PubMed Central

Background: Gastro-oesophageal reflux may accompany the corrosive oesophageal damage caused by the ingestion of corrosive substances and affect its treatment. The factors that affect the development of reflux in these cases and their effects on treatment still remain unclear. Aims: Our aim is to investigate the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with corrosive oesophageal strictures, the risk factors affecting this prevalence and the effects of gastro-oesophageal reflux on treatment. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: We enrolled 52 patients with oesophageal stricture due to corrosive substance ingestion who were referred to our clinic between 2003 and 2010. Groups, which were determined according to the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER), were compared with each other in terms of clinical findings, results of examination methods, characteristics of the stricture and success of the treatment. Results: The total number of patients in our study was 52; 30 of them were male and 22 of them were female. The mean age of our study population was 4.2±2.88 years. Thirty-three patients had gastrooesophageal reflux (63.5%). Patients who had strictures caused by the ingestion of alkali substances were 1.6-times more likely to have reflux. There were no differences between patients with or without reflux in terms of number and localisation of strictures. Mean distance of stricture was longer in patients with reflux (3.7±1.8 cm) than in patients without (2.2±1.0 cm) (p<0.005). Only one patient among 17 who had a long stricture (?4 cm) did not suffer from reflux. Patients with long stricture were 1.9-times more likely to have reflux. Dilatation treatment was successful in 69.6% of patients with reflux and in 78.9% of patients without. The mean treatment period was 8.41±6.1 months in patients with reflux and 8.21±8.4 months in the other group. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of frequency of dilatation and dilator diameters (p>0.05). Conclusion: Corrosive oesophageal stricture was usually accompanied by gastro-oesophageal reflux and the length of stricture is an important risk factor. Negative effects of reflux over dilatation treatment have not yet been demonstrated in the short-term. Nevertheless, this frequent rate of reflux may eventually increase the risk of oesophagitis and Barrett’s oesophagus; therefore, we suggest that these effects should be prospectively evaluated in a large number of patients and these patients should be followed-up routinely in terms of the long-term effects of reflux.

Iskit, Serdar H.; Ozcelik, Zerrin; Alkan, Murat; Turker, Selcan; Zorludemir, Unal



Hydrologic, diel and lunar factors affecting fishes on artificial reefs off Panama City, Florida  

E-print Network

noon (ATFN) and moon phase were tested. via multiple regression to determine which factor(s) affected fish community abundance and abundance of common taxa. In addition, seasonal trends of fishes present on these reefs were reported. Water.... Seasonal trends reinforced regres- sion findings, as most common taxa's abundance declined during winter-spring. lnN and abundance of several common taxa increased with increasing visibility. Moon phase was an important factor in community index...

Sanders, Richard Morgan



Environmental Factors Affecting Large-Bodied Coral Reef Fish Assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores). Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct) or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research. PMID:22384014

Richards, Benjamin L.; Williams, Ivor D.; Vetter, Oliver J.; Williams, Gareth J.



What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?  

PubMed Central

Background Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Methods Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Results Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Conclusions Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments. PMID:22409884



Factors affecting the quality of sound recording for speech and voice analysis.  


The importance and utility of objective evidence-based measurement of the voice is well documented. Therefore, greater consideration needs to be given to the factors that influence the quality of voice and speech recordings. This manuscript aims to bring together the many features that affect acoustically acquired voice and speech. Specifically, the paper considers the practical requirements of individual speech acquisition configurations through examining issues relating to hardware, software and microphone selection, the impact of environmental noise, analogue to digital conversion and file format as well as the acoustic measures resulting from varying levels of signal integrity. The type of recording environment required by a user is often dictated by a variety of clinical and experimental needs, including: the acoustic measures being investigated; portability of equipment; an individual's budget; and the expertise of the user. As the quality of recorded signals is influenced by many factors, awareness of these issues is essential. This paper aims to highlight the importance of these methodological considerations to those previously uninitiated with voice and speech acoustics. With current technology, the highest quality recording would be made using a stand-alone hard disc recorder, an independent mixer to attenuate the incoming signal, and insulated wiring combined with a high quality microphone in an anechoic chamber or sound treated room. PMID:21271920

Vogel, Adam P; Morgan, Angela T



Factors affecting perinatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus in Sudan.  


To investigate the influence of obstetric factors and indices of maternal metabolic control on perinatal morbidity and mortality, 88 diabetic pregnant Sudanese women (type 1, n=38; type 2, n=31; gestational diabetes, n=19) and 50 non-diabetic pregnant control women were studied. The mean fasting blood glucose was 11.1+/-2.8 mmol/l and the mean HbA(1c) at booking interview was 8.8+/-2.1% in the diabetic women. Pregnancy complications such as Caesarean sections, urinary tract infections, pregnancy-induced hypertension and intrauterine foetal death were higher among diabetic compared with control women (P<0.0001) and varied with the type of diabetes. Infants of diabetic mothers had a higher incidence of neonatal complications than those of non-diabetic women (54.4% vs. 20.0%; P<0.0001). Infants without complications and who were born to diabetic mothers had better Apgar scores at 5 min (9.8+/-0.5 vs. 8.9+/-1.6; P<0.01) and lower cord C-peptide when compared to infants with complications (P<0.05). In conclusion, the prevalence of maternal and neonatal complications among Sudanese diabetic women and their infants is high. Maternal hyperglycaemia is an important factor affecting maternal wellbeing and neonatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:12639764

Abdelgadir, M; Elbagir, M; Eltom, A; Eltom, M; Berne, C



Original Articles Factors Affecting the Quality of Life After Ischemic Stroke: Young Versus Old Patients  

E-print Network

Background: Factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) may be different between young and old stroke patients. However, these issues have not yet been properly investigated. Methods: We identified 170 young-onset stroke patients (onset between 15 and 45 years of age) who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center. Three hundred and forty follow-up period matched, old-onset stroke patients (onset>45 years of age) were chosen as a control group. A follow-up interview was performed 1~5 years after the onset of stroke in 96 young patients and 160 old patients. With the use of standardized questionnaire, we assessed physical disabilities, activity of daily living (Barthel Index Score, modified Rankin scale), the presence of depression (using DSM IV criteria and Beck Depression Inventory) and socio-economic/job status. The QOL was assessed using the Stroke Specific QOL developed by Williams et al. Results: The QOL scores were significantly higher in young patients than in old ones. Univariate analysis showed that factors related to low QOL included unemployment, motor impairment, aphasia, dysarthria, dysaphagia and severe modified Rankin score in young patients while poor economic status, unemployment, supratentorial (vs. infratentorial) stroke, anterior (vs. posterior) circulation stroke, the presence of diabetes mellitus, motor impairment, aphasia, dysarthria, dysphagia, visual field defect, severe modified Rankin score, the presence of post-stroke seizures and depression were related to the low QOL in old patients. Cigarette smoking (in old patients) and alcohol

Jong S. Kim; Hee J. Lee


Ecological factors affecting plant species and travertine deposition in petrifying springs from an Italian ‘Natura 2000’ site  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated ecological factors affecting species distribution and travertine deposition in an Italian site of\\u000a the “Natura 2000” network. Vegetation plots were located along four streams in a prealpine valley (Valganna, Lombardy, Northern\\u000a Italy). Five meso-scale variables (e.g. altitude, aspect and slope) and ten micro-scale variables (e.g. shading, plot position\\u000a and soil accumulation) were recorded for each plot; in

Guido BrusaBruno; Bruno E. L. Cerabolini



Screening of yeasts for production of xylitol fromd-xylose and some factors which affect xylitol yield in Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ability to convertd-xylose to xylitol was screened in 44 yeasts from five genera. All but two of the strains produced some xylitol with varying rates and yields. The best xylitol producers were localized largely in the speciesCandida guilliermondii andC. tropicalis. Factors affecting xylitol production by a selectedC. guilliermondii strain, FTI-20037, were investigated. The results showed that xylitol yield

Maria F. S. Barbosa; Maria B. de Medeiros; Ismael M. de Mancilha; Henry Schneider; Hung Lee



Factors affecting the rectus femoris-patellar tendon Q-angle, measured using a computed tomographic scan  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We devised a method to measure the Q-angle (the angle between the rectus femoris and the patellar ligament), using computed\\u000a tomography (CT), in 1993. In this study, I investigated the lateral shift at each point forming the angle as factors affecting\\u000a the Q-angle. The study group consisted of 83 patients with recurrent patellar dislocation (83 lower limbs) and a

Takeo Ando



Factors affecting the growth of carbon nanofibers on titanium substrates and their electrical properties.  


The goal of this work is to investigate the growth mechanism of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on titanium (Ti) substrates and the factors that affect the growth the CNFs. Ti substrates were chosen because they are a biocompatible material and the results of this work have potential application for electrochemical biosensors and/or supercapacitors. CNFs were synthesized via water-assisted chemical vapor deposition at 800 degrees C and at atmospheric pressure utilizing iron (Fe) nanoparticles as catalysts, ethylene (C2H4) as the precursor gas, and argon (Ar) and hydrogen (H2) as the carrier gases. The introduction of an Al2O3 buffer layer and the thickness as well as the roughness of the Ti substrates was found to affect the morphology and distribution of the Fe nanoparticles, and thus the morphology of the CNFs. The sputtered buffer layer leads to fewer catalyst nanoparticles that diffuse into the underlying Ti layer which results in a more uniform and denser distribution of the Fe nanoparticles. Stronger catalyst-substrate interaction results in a larger and sparser distribution of the Fe nanoparticles. On the other hand, when the roughness of the substrate exceeds the thickness of the Fe catalyst layer, the nanoparticles tend to form into large sized particles. The longest and densest CNFs (10.7 microm in length) were grown on a Ti layer of 10 nm in thickness with the introduction of the buffer layer. The characterization of CNFs was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrical properties of the CNF films were investigated via the four-point probe method that showed an ohmic behavior. The sheet resistances of the CNF films on Ti substrates of different thickness were also reported. PMID:23421139

Gao, Yang; Adusumilli, Siva P; Turner, James; Lesperance, Leann; Westgate, Charles; Sammakia, Baghat



Factors affecting chick provisioning by Caspian Terns nesting in the Columbia River estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated factors affecting chick provisioning by radio-tagged Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) nesting in a large colony on East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary during 2001. Caspian Tern predation on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the estuary prompted resource managers to relocate ca. 9,000 pairs of terns nesting on Rice Island (river km 34) to East Sand Island (river km 8), where terns were expected to consume fewer salmonids in favor of marine forage fishes. This study investigated factors influencing foraging success, diet composition, and overall reproductive success at the managed Caspian Tern colony. Our results indicated that daytime colony attendance by nesting terns averaged 64% and decreased throughout the chick-rearing period, while duration of foraging trips averaged 47 min and increased during the same period; these seasonal changes were more strongly related to date than chick age. Average meal delivery rates to 2-chick broods (0.88 meals h-1) were 2.6 times greater than to 1-chick broods (0.33 meals h-1). Parents delivered more juvenile salmonids to chicks during ebb tides than flood tides, but meal delivery rates to the nest remained constant, suggesting diet composition tracks relative availability of prey species. Foraging trips resulting in delivery of juvenile salmonids averaged 68% longer than foraging trips for schooling marine forage fishes, indicating higher availability of marine prey near the colony. High availability of marine forage fish in the Columbia River estuary during 2001 was apparently responsible for high colony attendance, short foraging trips, high chick meal delivery rates, and high nesting success of Caspian Terns on East Sand Island.

Anderson, S.K.; Roby, D.D.; Lyons, D.E.; Collis, K.



Individual and Center-Level Factors Affecting Mortality Among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine factors affecting center differences in mortality for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. METHODS: We analyzed data for 5418 ELBW infants born at 16 Neonatal Research Network centers during 2006–2009. The primary outcomes of early mortality (?12 hours after birth) and in-hospital mortality were assessed by using multilevel hierarchical models. Models were developed to investigate associations of center rates of selected interventions with mortality while adjusting for patient-level risk factors. These analyses were performed for all gestational ages (GAs) and separately for GAs <25 weeks and ?25 weeks. RESULTS: Early and in-hospital mortality rates among centers were 5% to 36% and 11% to 53% for all GAs, 13% to 73% and 28% to 90% for GAs <25 weeks, and 1% to 11% and 7% to 26% for GAs ?25 weeks, respectively. Center intervention rates significantly predicted both early and in-hospital mortality for infants <25 weeks. For infants ?25 weeks, intervention rates did not predict mortality. The variance in mortality among centers was significant for all GAs and outcomes. Center use of interventions and patient risk factors explained some but not all of the center variation in mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Center intervention rates explain a portion of the center variation in mortality, especially for infants born at <25 weeks’ GA. This finding suggests that deaths may be prevented by standardizing care for very early GA infants. However, differences in patient characteristics and center intervention rates do not account for all of the observed variability in mortality; and for infants with GA ?25 weeks these differences account for only a small part of the variation in mortality. PMID:23753096

Alleman, Brandon W.; Li, Lei; Dagle, John M.; Smith, P. Brian; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Laughon, Matthew M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Cotten, C. Michael; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Ellsbury, Dan L.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Wallace, Dennis D.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.



Nurses' Experiences of Nonpatient Factors That Affect Nursing Workload: A Study of the PAONCIL Instrument's Nonpatient Factors.  


In the RAFAELA patient classification system, the professional assessment of optimal nursing care intensity level (PAONCIL) instrument is used to assess the optimal nursing intensity level per unit. The PAONCIL instrument contains an overall assessment of the actual nursing intensity level and an additional list of central nonpatient factors that may increase or decrease the total nursing workload (NWL). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess and determine which nonpatient factors affect nurses' experiences of their total NWL in both outpatient settings and hospitals, as captured through the PAONCIL instrument. The data material consisted of PAONCIL questionnaires from 38 units and 37 outpatient clinics at 11 strategically selected hospitals in Finland, and included nurses' answers (n = 1307) to the question of which factors, other than nursing intensity, affect total NWL. The methods for data analyses were qualitative content analyses. The nonpatient factors that affected nurses' experiences of total NWL are "organization of work," "working conditions," "self-control," and "cooperation." The actual list of nonpatient factors in the PAONCIL instrument is to a reasonable extent relevant, but the list should be improved to include nurses' actual working conditions and self-control. PMID:25050179

Fagerström, Lisbeth; Vainikainen, Paula



Mechanisms Affecting Recruitment of Yellow Perch in Lake Michigan Primary Investigator: Doran Mason -NOAA GLERL  

E-print Network

Mechanisms Affecting Recruitment of Yellow Perch in Lake Michigan Primary Investigator: Doran Mason, Yellow Perch is an important ecological link between the nearshore and pelagic food webs. Despite its economic and ecological importance, the Yellow Perch population has declined drastically during the last


An Empirical Investigation of How and Why Neutrality Affects Evolutionary Search  

E-print Network

of interesting studies. Harvey and Thompson studied some effects of neutral net- works in an evolvable hardwareAn Empirical Investigation of How and Why Neutrality Affects Evolutionary Search Edgar Galv Colchester, CO4 3SQ United Kingdom ABSTRACT The effects of neutrality on evolutionary

Poli, Riccardo



E-print Network


Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Understanding the Factors that Affect the Severity of Juvenile Stranger Sex Offenses: The Effect of Victim Characteristics and Number of Suspects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding factors that affect the severity of a juvenile-stranger sexual assault has implications for crime prevention, and potentially, the assessment and treatment of juvenile sex offenders. This study investigated how victim characteristics and the number of suspects affected the use of physical violence and weapons and the occurrence of…

Woodhams, Jessica; Gillett, Raphael; Grant, Tim



Factors affecting users' choice of words in speech-based interaction with public technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains three studies of factors which affect the choice of words in simple speech-based interactions. It is shown\\u000a that choice of words is affected by the level of constraint imposed on users, such that variability is much higher when no\\u000a constraint is applied than when some form of constraint is used and that variability can be reduced by

C. Baber; G. I. Johnson; D. Cleaver



Characteristics of Debris Flow-inducing Factors in Typhoon Morakot Affected Area- An Examination of the Topographic factors, rainfall intensity and Landslide Rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoon Morakot lashed Taiwan during Aug. 7 to 9, 2009. It dumped heavy rainfall in southern Taiwan, especially around the Central Mountain Range in Pingtung, Chia-Yi, and Kaohsiung County. In view of this, Comprehensive field investigation was carried out by government and private organizations after Typhoon Morakot, useful information of debris flow was gathered. Besides, after Typhoon Morakot, the debris flow-inducing factors become more challenging in Taiwan, many aspects had to be considered. The scope of this study was mainly discussed in debris flow-inducing factors in serious damaged areas which including Nantou, Chia-Yi, Tainan, Kaohsiung, Pingtung, Taitung County. Totally 218 torrents were included. Field investigation data and disaster records of Typhoon Morakot were utilized to analyze debris flow-inducing factors in three aspects: terrain, rainfall and sediment source. First, by using Principle Component Analysis(PCA) and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis(CA) to select significant factors, 101 factors were reduced to the most important 18 factors. Then through descriptive statistics and scatter diagram were selected to discuss the correlation among "Average slope gradient of watershed", "Landslide rate along the stream within 50m buffer zone" as well as the "rainfall intensity during Typhoon Morakot". The above charts of characteristics analysis were used to summarize the range of factor value which tend to occur phenomenon of debris flow in Typhoon Morakot. Besides, Random Forest Algorithm (RF) was utilized to research the relationship toward multi-variables. The significant factors which tend to affect the debris flow-inducing factor were "effective accumulated rainfall", "hourly rainfall", "landslide rate along the stream within 50m buffer zone", "average elevation value of effective watershed which higher than 10 degree", sequentially. By the results, the most significant factor is the rainfall factor during Typhoon Morakot. The results can be utilized in improving debris flow hazard management in the future. Key Words: Typhoon Morakot, Debris Flow-inducing Factors, Characteristics Analysis, Random Forest Algorithm

Shen, C.-W.; Lo, W.-C.; Hsiao, C.-Y.; Ku, B.-H.; Chen, Y.-C.



Factors affecting motivation and retention of primary health care workers in three disparate regions in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Government of Kenya alike identify a well-performing health workforce as key to attaining better health. Nevertheless, the motivation and retention of health care workers (HCWs) persist as challenges. This study investigated factors influencing motivation and retention of HCWs at primary health care facilities in three different settings in Kenya - the remote area of Turkana, the relatively accessible region of Machakos, and the disadvantaged informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi. Methods A cross-sectional cluster sample design was used to select 59 health facilities that yielded interviews with 404 health care workers, grouped into 10 different types of service providers. Data were collected in November 2011 using structured questionnaires and a Focus Group Discussion guide. Findings were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods of the associations and determinants of health worker motivation and retention. Results The levels of education and gender factors were lowest in Turkana with female HCWs representing only 30% of the workers against a national average of 53%. A smaller proportion of HCWs in Turkana feel that they have adequate training for their jobs. Overall, 13% of the HCWs indicated that they had changed their job in the last 12 months and 20% indicated that they could leave their current job within the next two years. In terms of work environment, inadequate access to electricity, equipment, transport, housing, and the physical state of the health facility were cited as most critical, particularly in Turkana. The working environment is rated as better in private facilities. Adequate training, job security, salary, supervisor support, and manageable workload were identified as critical satisfaction factors. Family health care, salary, and terminal benefits were rated as important compensatory factors. Conclusions There are distinct motivational and retention factors that affect HCWs in the three regions. Findings and policy implications from this study point to a set of recommendations to be implemented at national and county levels. These include gender mainstreaming, development of appropriate retention schemes, competitive compensation packages, strategies for career growth, establishment of a model HRH community, and the conduct of a discrete choice experiment. PMID:24906964



[Research progress in seegrass seed dormancy, germination, and seedling growth and related affecting factors].  


Seagrass bed is the main primary producer in coastal areas, having highly ecological and economical values, and being one of the most important shallow-marine ecosystems. This paper reviewed the research progress in the seed dormancy, germination, and seedling growth of seagrass and related affecting factors, summarized the seed dormancy modes and durations and their affecting factors, and discussed the effects of water salinity, temperature, transparency, hormone, dissolved oxygen, and population structure on the seed germination and the seedling survival and growth. Some issues in related researches and several research directions in the future were prospected. PMID:22303688

Zhang, Pei-Dong; Sun, Yan; Niu, Shu-Na; Zhang, Xiu-Mei



Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature, decocting time, soaking time, processing methods and treatment with different solvents\\u000a before decocting the Schisandra were

Qing Xu; Ying-hua Li; Xiu-yang Lü



Risk factors affecting metaphyseal irregularities in the radius and ulna of  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: The main,objective of this study was to study,risk factors affecting metaphyseal,irregularities (MI) in the distal radius and ulna of growing,Newfound- land,dogs. Risk factors studied,included,the genetic effects, effects of litters, BW, circumferences of the dis- tal radius and ulna (CDRU), and total serum alkaline phosphatase,(ALP) concentrations.,The study included 118 Newfoundland dogs (60 females, 58 males), derived from 32 litters. Body

C. Trangerud; T. Meuwissen; E. Ropstad; A. Indrebø; J. Grøndalen; L. Moe



Factors affecting the progression of renal disease in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting the progression of renal disease in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease results in renal failure at a varying age from childhood to old age. We postulated that factors other than the culprit gene alone contribute to the course of progression of the renal failure. We studied 580 subjects with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease and 194

Patricia A Gabow; Ann M Johnson; William D Kaehny; William J Kimberling; Dennis C Lezotte; Irene T Duley; Richard H Jones



Assessment of economic factors affecting the satellite power system. Volume 1: System cost factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors relevant to SPS costing and selection of preferred SPS satellite configurations were studied. The issues discussed are: (1) consideration of economic factors in the SPS system that relate to selection of SPS satellite configuration; (2) analysis of the proper rate of interest for use in SPS system definition studies; and (3) the impacts of differential inflation on SPS system definition costing procedures. A cost-risk comparison of the SPS satellite configurations showed a significant difference in the levelized cost of power from them. It is concluded, that this difference is the result more of differences in the procedures for assessing costs rather than in the satellite technologies required or of any advantages of one satellite configuration over the other. Analysis of the proper rate of interest for use in SPS system is 4 percent. The major item of differential inflation to be expected over this period of time is the real cost of labor. This cost is likely to double between today and the period of SPS construction.

Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.



The experience of altered states of consciousness in shamanic ritual: the role of pre-existing beliefs and affective factors.  


Much attention has been paid recently to the role of anomalous experiences in the aetiology of certain types of psychopathology, e.g. in the formation of delusions. We examine, instead, the top-down influence of pre-existing beliefs and affective factors in shaping an individual's characterisation of anomalous sensory experiences. Specifically we investigated the effects of paranormal beliefs and alexithymia in determining the intensity and quality of an altered state of consciousness (ASC). Fifty five participants took part in a sweat lodge ceremony, a traditional shamanic ritual which was unfamiliar to them. Participants reported significant alterations in their state of consciousness, quantified using the 'APZ' questionnaire, a standardized measure of ASC experience. Participants endorsing paranormal beliefs compatible with shamanic mythology, and those showing difficulty identifying feelings scored higher on positive dimensions of ASC experience. Our findings demonstrate that variation in an individual's characterisation of anomalous experiences is nuanced by pre-existing beliefs and affective factors. PMID:20558090

Polito, Vince; Langdon, Robyn; Brown, Jac



Factors affecting the variability of summertime sulfate in a rural area using principal component analysis  

SciTech Connect

The techniques of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and subsequent regression analysis were used in an attempt to describe local and upwind chemical and physical factors which affect the variability of SO/sub 4//sup -2/ concentrations observed in a rural area of the northeastern U.S. The data used in the analyses included up wind and local O/sub 3/ concentrations, temperature, relative humidity and other climatological information, SO/sub 2/, and meterological information associated with backward trajectories. The investigation identified five principal components, three major (eigenvalues >1) and two minor (eigenvalues

Lioy, P.J. (New York Univ. Medical Center); Mallon, R.P.; Lippmann, N.; Knelp, T.J.; Samson, P.J.



Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an AL-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation hardenable Al-Zn-Mg alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength but overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Results show that overaging the copper bearing alloys both inhibits hydrogen ingress from oxide covered surfaces and decreases the apparent hydrogen diffusion rates in the metal.

G.A. Young; J.R. Scully



Hydrogeological factors affecting the multiple plumes of chlorinated contaminants in an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apparent plume attenuations of multiple chlorinated contaminants such as TCE, carbon tetrachloride, and its daughter products at an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea were examined through various hydraulic tests and six rounds of groundwater quality analyses. Aquifer media properties and hydrogeologic factors affecting the distribution and attenuation of multiple contaminants were investigated and key attributes were evaluated. The study area has vertically heterogeneous properties from top alluvial layer to crystalline rocks while the weathered fractured layer above intact Jurassic biotite granite acts as the main layer for groundwater flow and aqueous phase multiple contaminants migration. Aerial heterogeneity in surface conditions plays an important role for groundwater recharge because the industrial complex is mostly paved by asphalt and concrete. Due to limited recharge area and concentrated precipitation in summer season, seasonal effects of contaminant plume distribution diminish as the distance increase from the area of recharge. This study analyzed how differently the solute and contaminant concentrations response to the seasonal recharge. For the analyses, the study site was divided into three zones and four transects were established. Groundwater and solute mass balances were estimated by computing groundwater and solute mass flux through transects. The effects of groundwater pumping, groundwater flow and contaminant degradation were examined to simulate the solutes and contaminant concentrations. General tendency of the water quality and contaminant concentration were reproducible with the effects of major components such as groundwater recharge, pumping and estimated degradation rate.

Yang, J.; Kaown, D.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.



Analysis of Newcastle disease virus quasispecies and factors affecting the emergence of virulent virus.  


Genome sequence analysis of a number of avirulent field isolates of Newcastle disease virus revealed the presence of viruses (within their quasispecies) that contained virulent F0 sequences. Detection of these virulent sequences below the ~1% level, using standard cloning and sequence analysis, proved difficult, and thus a more sensitive reverse-transcription real-time PCR procedure was developed to detect both virulent and avirulent NDV F0 sequences. Reverse-transcription real-time PCR analysis of the quasispecies of a number of Newcastle disease virus field isolates, revealed variable ratios (approximately 1:4-1:4,000) of virulent to avirulent viral F0 sequences. Since the ratios of these sequences generally remained constant in the quasispecies population during replication, factors that could affect the balance of virulent to avirulent sequences during viral infection of birds were investigated. It was shown both in vitro and in vivo that virulent virus present in the quasispecies did not emerge from the "avirulent background" unless a direct selection pressure was placed on the quasispecies, either by growth conditions or by transient immunosuppression. The effect of a prior infection of the host by infectious bronchitis virus or infectious bursal disease virus on the subsequent emergence of virulent Newcastle disease virus was examined. PMID:20602243

Kattenbelt, Jacqueline A; Stevens, Matthew P; Selleck, Paul W; Gould, Allan R



[Natural regeneration and its affecting factors of Fargesia robusta clone population after Wenchuan earthquake in 2008].  


To explore the natural regeneration and its affecting factors of Fargesia robusta clone population, the main diet bamboo for giant panda, after Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008, an investigation was conducted on the growth and emergence of the bamboo shoots at three habitats with different intensities (strong, moderate, and null) of earthquake disturbance. In the moderately and undisturbed habitats, the basal diameter of the survived bamboo shoots was significantly greater, as compared with that in strongly disturbed habitat, and the height of the survived shoots decreased in the order of undisturbed > moderately disturbed > strongly disturbed habitat. No significant difference was observed in the density of new bamboo shoots among the three habitats, but the density of the survived bamboo shoots was significantly higher in the strongly and moderately disturbed habitats than in the undisturbed habitat, and the density of 1- and 2 years old bamboos showed a significant positive correlation with the density of dead bamboos. There existed significant positive correlations between the densities of new bamboo shoots, survived bamboo shoots, and 1-, 2-, and more years old bamboos, but significant negative correlations between the density of 1- and 2 years old bamboos and the coverage of gravels and slipping soils by Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008, and between the density of survived bamboo shoots and their canopy coverage. PMID:22803464

Miao, Ning; Liao, Li-Huan; Li, Bo; Zheng, Wen



Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in women with postpartum affective disorder and suicidality.  


Our aim was to investigate serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in postpartum women, according to the presence of postpartum affective disorder (PPAD) and suicidality. A cross-sectional study was carried out with women between 45 and 90 days after delivery. PPAD (depression, manic and mixed episode) and suicide risk were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. BDNF was assessed using a commercial ELISA kit. Linear regression was used for multivariate analyses. A hundred ninety women participated in the study, 15.3 % had PPAD, 7.4 % showed PPAD with suicide risk. BDNF levels were lower in subjects with three or more Stressful Life Events (P = 0.01). The serum BDNF levels of women with PPAD presenting suicide risk were significantly lower than those of women without suicide risk (1.50 ± 1.38 and 2.33 ± 1.28 ng/ml, P = 0.02). Clinicians should enquire postpartum women about their history of stressful life events, PPAD, and suicidality. This study shows the potential role of BDNF in the neurobiology of the association of PPAD and suicidality. PMID:22851352

Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Pinheiro, Karen Amaral Tavares; da Cunha Coelho, Fábio Monteiro; de Ávila Quevedo, Luciana; Gazal, Marta; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Giovenardi, Márcia; Lucion, Aldo Bolten; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Oses, Jean Pierre



Study of major factors to affect photoresist profile on developable bottom anti-reflective coating process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As critical dimensions continue to shrink in lithography, new materials will be needed to meet the new demands imposed by this shrinkage. Recently, there are needs for novel materials with various substrates and immersing process, including double patterning process, a high resolution implant process, and so on. Among such materials, Developable Bottom Anti-reflective Coating material (DBARC) is a good candidate for high resolution implant application as well as double patterning. DBARC should have reflectivity control function as an ordinary BARC, as well as an appropriate solubility in TMAH-based conventional developer after exposure and bake process. The most distinguished advantage of DBARC is to skip BARC etch process that is required in normal BARC process. In spite of this advantage, the photoresist profile on DBARC could be influenced by components and process conditions of DBARC. Several groups have tried to solve this issue to implement DBARC to new process. We have studied material-related factors affecting photoresist profiles, such as a polymer, photo-acid generators (PAGs), and additives. And we explored the effect of process condition for photoresist and DBARC. In case of polymer, we studied the effect of dissolution rate in developer and crosslinking functionality. For PAGs and additives, the effect of acid diffusivity and cross-linking degree according to their bulkiness were examined. We also evaluated coated film stability in a photoresist solvent after BARC bake process and compared lithographic performance of various DBARC formulations. In addition, the effect of photoresist profile with bake condition of photoresist and DBARC were investigated. In this paper, we will demonstrate the most influential factors of DBARC to photoresist profile and suggest the optimum formulation and process condition for DBARC application.

Roh, Hyo Jung; Ju, Dong Kyu; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jaehyun



Factors affecting criticality for spent fuel materials in a geologic setting  

SciTech Connect

Following closure of a geologic repository for spent fuel, geologic process may change geometries and spacings, and water may enter the repository. In this study the conditions required for the criticality of spent fuel constituents are determined. Many factors affect criticality, and the effects of various possible post-closure changes are investigated. Factors having the greatest effect on criticality are identified to provide guidance for research programs and for design and evaluation studies. Section II describes the calculational methods and computer codes used to determine critical conditions. Section III of this document addresses effects of the fissile content of spent fuel on criticality. Calculations have been performed to determine the minimum critical mass of spent fuel actinides as a function of the duration of in-reactor fuel exposure for a variety of possible conditions. Section IV addresses the conditions required for criticality under a scenario believed to be highly unlikely but having a unique possibility. Pu quantities and concentrations required for criticality without water were determined for various conditions of Pu separation, rock moderation and reflection, rock impurities and isotopic content of the Pu. Section V addresses the possibility of geochemical processes separating Pu from other spent fuel constituents. Solubilities of U and Pu are calculated for groundwaters characteristic of basalt, tuff, granite, bedded and dome salt. Maximum concentrations which could be adsorbed on geologic media in contact with these groundwaters are then calculated. Comparison of these maximum adsorbed concentrations with the results presented in Section IV yields the conclusion that criticality cannot occur in sorbed deposits of Pu in geologic media due to the low Pu concentrations achievable. The possibility of selective Pu precipitation, however, is not ruled out by these arguments.

Gore, B.F.; Jenquin, U.P.; Serne, R.J.



Multicenter study of posaconazole therapeutic drug monitoring: exposure-response relationship and factors affecting concentration.  


Posaconazole has an important role in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), although poor and variable bioavailability remains an important clinical concern. Therapeutic drug monitoring of posaconazole concentrations has remained contentious, with the use of relatively small patient cohorts in previous studies hindering the assessment of exposure-response relationships. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to investigate relationships between posaconazole concentration and clinical outcomes and adverse events and to assess clinical factors and drug interactions that may affect posaconazole concentrations. Medical records were reviewed for patients who received posaconazole and had ?1 concentration measured at six hospitals in Australia. Data from 86 patients with 541 posaconazole concentrations were included in the study. Among 72 patients taking posaconazole for prophylaxis against IFIs, 12 patients (17%) developed a breakthrough fungal infection; median posaconazole concentrations were significantly lower than in those who did not develop fungal infection (median [range], 289 [50 to 471] ng/ml versus 485 [0 to 2,035] ng/ml; P < 0.01). The median posaconazole concentration was a significant predictor of breakthrough fungal infection via binary logistic regression (P < 0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis identified a number of significant drug interactions associated with reduced posaconazole exposure, including coadministration with proton pump inhibitors, metoclopramide, phenytoin or rifampin, and the H(2) antagonist ranitidine (P < 0.01). Clinical factors such as mucositis, diarrhea, and the early posttransplant period in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients were also associated with reduced posaconazole exposure (P < 0.01). Low posaconazole concentrations are common and are associated with breakthrough fungal infection, supporting the utility of monitoring posaconazole concentrations to ensure optimal systemic exposure. PMID:22890761

Dolton, Michael J; Ray, John E; Chen, Sharon C-A; Ng, Kingsley; Pont, Lisa; McLachlan, Andrew J



Factors affecting collaboration between general practitioners and community pharmacists: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Although general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) are encouraged to collaborate, a true collaborative relationship does not exist between them. Our objective was to identify and analyze factors affecting GP-CP collaboration. Methods This was a descriptive-exploratory qualitative study carried out in two Spanish regions: Catalonia (Barcelona) and Balearic Islands (Mallorca). Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and CPs from Barcelona and Mallorca (January 2010-February 2011). Analysis was conducted using Colaizzi’s method. Results Thirty-seven interviews were conducted. The factors affecting the relationship were different depending on timing: 1) Before collaboration had started (prior to collaboration) and 2) Once the collaboration had been initiated (during collaboration). Prior to collaboration, four key factors were found to affect it: the perception of usefulness; the Primary Care Health Center (PCHC) manager’s interest; the professionals’ attitude; and geography and legislation. These factors were affected by economic and organizational aspects (i.e. resources or PCHC management styles) and by professionals’ opinions and beliefs (i.e. perception of the existence of a public-private conflict). During collaboration, the achievement of objectives and the changes in the PCHC management were the key factors influencing continued collaboration. The most relevant differences between regions were due to the existence of privately-managed PCHCs in Barcelona that facilitated the implementation of collaboration. In comparison with the group with experience in collaboration, some professionals without experience reported a skeptical attitude towards it, reporting that it might not be necessary. Conclusions Factors related to economic issues, management and practitioners’ attitudes and perceptions might be crucial for triggering collaboration. Interventions and strategies derived from these identified factors could be applied to achieve multidisciplinary collaboration. PMID:22769570



Calculating impact factor: how bibliographical classification of journal items affects the impact factor of large and small journals.  


As bibliographical classification of published journal items affects the denominator in this equation, we investigated how the numerator and denominator of the impact factor (IF) equation were generated for representative journals in two categories of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). We performed a full text search of the 1st-ranked journal in 2004 JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal" (New England Journal of Medicine, NEJM, IF = 38.570) and 61st-ranked journal (Croatian Medical Journal, CMJ, IF = 0.690), 1st-ranked journal in category "Multidisciplinary Sciences" (Nature, IF = 32.182) and journal with a relative rank of CMJ (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, AABC, IF = 0.435). Large journals published more items categorized by Web of Science (WoS) as non-research items (editorial material, letters, news, book reviews, bibliographical items, or corrections): 63% out of total 5,193 items in Nature and 81% out of 3,540 items in NEJM, compared with 31% out of 283 items in CMJ and only 2 (2%) out of 126 items in AABC. Some items classified by WoS as non-original contained original research data (9.5% in Nature, 7.2% in NEJM, 13.7% in CMJ and none in AABC). These items received a significant number of citations: 6.9% of total citations in Nature, 14.7% in NEJM and 18.5% in CMJ. IF decreased for all journals when only items presenting original research and citations to them were used for IF calculation. Regardless of the journal's size or discipline, publication of non-original research and its classification by the bibliographical database have an effect on both numerator and denominator of the IF equation. PMID:18004672

Golubic, Rajna; Rudes, Mihael; Kovacic, Natasa; Marusic, Matko; Marusic, Ana



Some Factors that Affect the Deposition Rates of Sulfur Dioxide and Similar Gases on Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of sulfur dioxide on growing vegetation is affected by diverse environmental factors, many of which undergo large diurnal and spatial variations. The aerodynamic resistance to vertical transfer in the surface boundary layer can be formulated in terms of the friction velocity, height of observation, vertical heat flux, and surface roughness. Also important are the resistance in the air

M. L. Wesely; B. B. Hicks



Factors Affecting the Job Satisfaction and Retention of Nurses in Community/Migrant Health Centers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the factors affecting the job satisfaction and retention of nurses at community and migrant health centers (C/MHCs), in light of the nursing shortage that existed at the time of the study. Literature reviews, the use of a questionnair...

D. C. Jones, N. P. Rizzo, C. Mullinix



Grandchild, Grandparent, and Parent Coresidence from 1970 to 1990: Structural Factors Affecting State Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes structural forces affecting state patterns of parental presence within grandparent-grandchild coresidence by testing demographic, social change, policy environment, and social problems models. The project combines published state-level data with the 1970, 1980, and 1990 Census Public Use Microdata Samples. While factors

Hill, Twyla J.



Critical Success Factors Affecting Knowledge Management Adoption: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge management and CSFs are important issues in today's organisational world. Knowledge is understood as one of the crucial driving forces for business success and competitiveness. This study points out a number of success factors that were determined to be critical and affect knowledge management in all organisations. This paper is particularly helpful for further research on knowledge management-related issues,

Khalid Al-Mabrouk




E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF ORGANIC BY-PRODUCTS DURING WATER CHLORINATION: A BENCH conditions in water treatment plants is a critical issue that should take into account the influence, 2001; Christman et al., 1983; Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 159: 357­371, 2004. C 2004 Kluwer Academic

Arhonditsis, George B.


Identifying the key factors affecting warning message dissemination in VANET real urban scenarios.  


In recent years, new architectures and technologies have been proposed for Vehicular Ad Hoc networks (VANETs). Due to the cost and complexity of deploying such networks, most of these proposals rely on simulation. However, we find that most of the experiments made to validate these proposals tend to overlook the most important and representative factors. Moreover, the scenarios simulated tend to be very simplistic (highways or Manhattan-based layouts), which could seriously affect the validity of the obtained results. In this paper, we present a statistical analysis based on the 2k factorial methodology to determine the most representative factors affecting traffic safety applications under real roadmaps. Our purpose is to determine which are the key factors affecting Warning Message Dissemination in order to concentrate research tests on such parameters, thus avoiding unnecessary simulations and reducing the amount of simulation time required. Simulation results show that the key factors affecting warning messages delivery are the density of vehicles and the roadmap used. Based on this statistical analysis, we consider that VANET researchers must evaluate the benefits of their proposals using different vehicle densities and city scenarios, to obtain a broad perspective on the effectiveness of their solution. Finally, since city maps can be quite heterogeneous, we propose a roadmap profile classification to further reduce the number of cities evaluated. PMID:23604026

Fogue, Manuel; Garrido, Piedad; Martinez, Francisco J; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Calafate, Carlos T; Manzoni, Pietro



Affecting Factors and Outcome on Intermittent Internet Pulling Behavior in Taiwan's Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nowadays people's lives heavily rely on Internet facilities. Internet users generally have constant Internet connectivity and intermittently click on sites they want to access even amidst studying or working. In this study, we sought to examine the factors affecting intermittent Internet pulling behavior on undergraduate students. Furthermore, the…

Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long



Factors that Affect Treatment Expectations of Outpatients with Substance Use Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed treatment expectations (TE) of outpatients with substance use problems as well as factors that affect their TE. Participants were 200 outpatients presenting at three community based substance abuse treatment services. Results of general linear modelling analyses showed that outpatients with substance use problems have higher…

Raylu, Namrata; Kaur, Inderjit



Assessing achievement of primary grader students and factors affecting achievement in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to focus on achievement level of primary grade students in different subjects taught at primary level and the factors affecting the student achievement in this regard. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study was carried out on a sample of 1,080 students of grade 3 and 5 drawn from randomly selected 36 primary\\/ elementary schools from nine districts

Muhammad Saeed; Muhammad Bashir Gondal; Bushra



Factors Affecting the Identification of Hispanic English Language Learners in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative phenomenological study revealed factors affecting the overrepresentation of Hispanic English language learners (ELLs) in special education. An analysis of the lived experiences of school professionals indicate multiple causes that determine students to be disabled often in violation of state and federal guidelines. Child study…

Becker, Gail I.



Factors Affecting Self-Referral to Counselling Services in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits of psychological support in the workplace (also known as workplace counselling) are well documented. Most large organisations in the UK have staff counselling schemes. However, it is unclear what, if any, factors affect employee decisions to use such schemes. This study has used a qualitative methodology to explore the reasons that…

Athanasiades, Chrysostomos; Winthrop, Allan; Gough, Brendan



UNCORRECTED 2 Large-scale stress factors affecting coral reefs: open ocean sea  

E-print Network

UNCORRECTED PROOF REPORT1 2 Large-scale stress factors affecting coral reefs: open ocean sea 3-Verlag 2011 8 Abstract One-third of the world's coral reefs have dis- 9 appeared over the last 30 years on coral reefs have been identified as changes 12 in sea surface temperature (SST) and changes in surface

Gupta, Alex Sen