Note: This page contains sample records for the topic investigate factors affecting from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Investigation of Factors Affecting Vertical Drain Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some influencing factors on vertical drain behavior were investigated by laboratory tests as well as by back-analyses of test embankments on vertical drain improved subsoil at Saga Airport, Saga, Japan. Based on the results from this study, suggestions are made on determining the design parameters for vertical drain improvement. For the discharge capacity test of a prefabricated vertical drain, confining

Jun-Chun Chai; Norihiko Miura

1999-01-01

2

Personality Factors Affecting Pilot Combat Performance: A Preliminary Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reviews of the research literature have generally concluded that personality factors contribute little to pilot performance. One possible explanation for the failure to find stronger relationships may be due to the lack of appropriate taxonomies for both ...

F. M. Siem, M. W. Murray

1997-01-01

3

Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

Jantzen, Paul G.

1978-01-01

4

Investigation of factors affecting the performance of laboratory fume hoods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 'user tracer gas test' was performed on laboratory hoods, with a human subject standing in front of the hood, to assess hood containment ability. The relationship of face velocity and cross draft variables to hood containment ability is investigated. Th...

B. A. Altemose

1995-01-01

5

An Empirical Investigation of Factors Affecting ERP Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems in an organisation often has far-reaching impacts. However the expected ERP benefits have not always materialised. When implementing ERP, most companies choose the less expensive route of modifying their business processes to fit the ERP system, but this route is not necessarily the most optimal one. This paper investigates the specific impact of Enterprise

Stanislav Prokopiev; Lisa Seymour; Jean-Paul Van Belle

6

An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Degree of Naive Impetus Theory Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates factors affecting the degree of novice physics students application of the naive impetus theory. Six hundred and fourteen first-year university engineering physics students answered the Force Concept Inventory as a pre-test for their calculus-based course. We examined the degree to which students consistently applied the…

Liu, Xiufeng; MacIsaac, Dan

2005-01-01

7

An Empirical Investigation on Factors Affecting Software Developer Acceptance and Utilization of Electronic Process Guides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective is to perform an empirical investigation on factors affecting software developer acceptance and utilization of electronic process guides (EPGs) and to discuss the implications of the findings. The potential benefits of EPGs can only be realized when key capabilities are not only adopted, but also infused across the organization. We conducted a survey of 97 software developers in

Tore Dybå; Nils Brede Moe; Edda M. Mikkelsen

2004-01-01

8

An Investigation of Factors Affecting Elementary School Students' BMI Values Based on the System Dynamics Modeling  

PubMed Central

This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student's personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students' peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students' amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students' high-calorie diets.

Chen, Kai-Ling; Ku, Chao-Tai; Chiu, Pei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Hsiang

2014-01-01

9

An investigation of factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values based on the system dynamics modeling.  

PubMed

This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student's personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students' peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students' amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students' high-calorie diets. PMID:24701250

Lan, Tian-Syung; Chen, Kai-Ling; Chen, Pin-Chang; Ku, Chao-Tai; Chiu, Pei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Hsiang

2014-01-01

10

An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Degree of Naïve Impetus Theory Application  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates factors affecting the degree of novice physics students application of the naïve impetus theory. Six hundred and fourteen first-year university engineering physics students answered the Force Concept Inventory as a pre-test for their calculus-based course. We examined the degree to which students consistently applied the naïve impetus theory across different items. We used a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA and linear regression to analyze data coded from incorrect student responses. It was found that there were statistically significant main effects for item familiarity and item requirement for explanation vs. prediction on the measured degree of impetus theory application. Student course grades had no significant effect on impetus theory application. When faced with items that were unfamiliar and predictive, students appeared to rely on non-theoretical, knowledge-in-pieces reasoning. Reasoning characteristic of naïve theories was more frequently applied when students were completing familiar problem tasks that required explanation. When considering all the above factors simultaneously, we found that the degree of naïve impetus theory application by students is attributable to variables in the following order: familiarity, prediction, and explanation.

Liu, Xiufeng; Macisaac, Dan

2013-05-28

11

An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Degree of Naïve Impetus Theory Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates factors affecting the degree of novice physics students' application of the naïve impetus theory. Six hundred and fourteen first-year university engineering physics students answered the Force Concept Inventory as a pre-test for their calculus-based course. We examined the degree to which students consistently applied the naïve impetus theory across different items. We used a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA and linear regression to analyze data coded from incorrect student responses. It was found that there were statistically significant main effects for item familiarity and item requirement for explanation vs. prediction on the measured degree of impetus theory application. Student course grades had no significant effect on impetus theory application. When faced with items that were unfamiliar and predictive, students appeared to rely on non-theoretical, knowledge-in-pieces reasoning. Reasoning characteristic of naïve theories was more frequently applied when students were completing familiar problem tasks that required explanation. When considering all the above factors simultaneously, we found that the degree of naïve impetus theory application by students is attributable to variables in the following order: familiarity, prediction, and explanation.

Liu, Xiufeng; MacIsaac, Dan

2005-03-01

12

An investigation of duration of untreated psychosis and the affecting factors.  

PubMed

One of the main goals in treatment planning of psychiatric disorders is early diagnosis of patients in the early psychosis period so that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is decreased and the treatment response and outcome is improved. The aim of this study was to investigate the DUP of psychosis and factors affecting it. In this cross-sectional study, 80 patients from the psychiatric clinic of Fatemi hospital in Ardabil and Razi hospital in Tabriz who were in the first episode of psychosis completed a questionnaire. The data were analysed by SPSS statistical software. In this study, the mean DUP measured from the appearance of the first symptoms of psychosis were 261.3 ± 110.8 and 212.5 ± 143.5 days for patients referring to Razi and Fatemi hospital, respectively. About 65% of the patients in Fatemi hospital and 32.5% of them in Razi hospital considered visiting a psychiatrist as hard and very hard. The DUP mean here was found to be higher as compared with that of the developed countries. The following factors were found to be playing a role in making DUP longer: lower education, implausible beliefs and culturally rooted social stigma status of visiting a psychiatrist. PMID:23590638

Sadeghieh Ahari, S; Nikpou, H; Molavi, P; Abdi, R; Amani, F; Shirinzadeh, B

2014-02-01

13

An Investigation of Factors Affecting Student Participation Level in an Online Discussion Forum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the factors that affect student participation in discussion forum under the two main purposes. The first purpose was to examine the relationship between the students' individual demographics and categories of students' participation level (inactive, moderate, and active) in discussion forum of an online course. The second…

Yukselturk, Erman

2010-01-01

14

A Prospective Study Investigating the Impact of School Belonging Factors on Negative Affect in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…

Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross

2011-01-01

15

[Investigation of factors affecting psychological depression in child-rearing mothers].  

PubMed

Child-rearing mothers (n = 1,459) were surveyed by questionnaire in regard to their feeling psychologically depressed and for prevalence of some conditions in their life frequently referred to as affecting factors that may be rated to the depression. A working scale of depression for this research was developed through a Multi Dimensional Scaling Procedure. Crobach's alpha of this scale was as large as 0.77 and correlational coefficients of this scale between each question were greater than 0.46 and less than 0.70. This scale was considered sufficient for the purpose of this research to obtain depressive scores. Coefficients in multiple regression analysis predictive for depressive score were obtained. Correlations were also calculated between depressive score and the factors stratifying by mothers' demographic factors. Out of a total 21.6 coefficients only 14 were greater than 0.30 and no factor showed coefficients greater than 0.80 through all the stratifications. None of the factors analyzed in this study appear to satisfactorily explain psychological depression. Therefore further search for real factors that affect the psychological depression in child-rearing mothers is required. PMID:10550976

Yahata, Y; Hata, E; Sato, C; Iwanaga, T

1999-07-01

16

Investigating Knowledge Management Factors Affecting Chinese ICT Firms Performance: An Integrated KM Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets out to investigate the critical factors of Knowledge Management (KM) which are considered to have an impact on the performance of Chinese information and communication technology (ICT) firms. This study confirms that the cultural environment of an enterprise is central to its success in the context of China. It shows that a collaborated, trusted, and learning environment

Weifeng Chen; Marwan Elnaghi; Tally Hatzakis

2011-01-01

17

Experimental investigation of factors affecting the cathode wall slag-layer resegmentation frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power-generator experiments was carried out to investigate the functional dependencies of the cathode wall slag-layer resegmentation frequency upon gas-dynamic and generator characteristics. Variations in gas conductivity, magnetic field intensity, Hall parameter, current density, and electric field intensity were investigated to establish which generator parameter(s) affects the cathode slag-shorting patterns. The validity of three proposed models for slag-layer resegmentations are tested by comparisons with measured data. The generator test results, showing that the cathode nonuniformity patterns are only a function of the Hall voltage, suggest that the high-voltage intercathode gaps might be created by axial leakage currents and maintained by arcs. The voltage across the 'open' gap is characteristic of an arc voltage.

Pian, C. C. P.; Petty, S. W.; McClaine, A. W.

1991-12-01

18

Investigations into factors affecting the cascade developer used in ESDA--a review.  

PubMed

The Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA) is a technique most commonly used for the visualisation of indented impressions on questioned documents. This work investigates some of the variables which are known to affect the results of ESDA and some variables which have, as yet, not been addressed. The investigation of variables included: examining the effects of different levels of indentation on different qualities of paper, chronological aging of cascade developer and the effects of repeated use of cascade developer on both the quality of results and the glass beads themselves, the effects of storage of cascade developer in a humidified environment and finally the effects of variation on the image development time. Results indicate that chronological aging of cascade developer does not have a negative effect on the quality of results and a 200 g portion of cascade developer will give good quality results for up to 30 traces before the quality will begin to deteriorate. Humidification of the cascade developer appears to have no advantages over storage in a normal environment and, in fact, the toner is lost sooner with humidification. The surface of the glass beads are affected through repeated use of cascade developer and appear to become visually smoother which may lead to a loss of attraction between them and the toner particles. PMID:18938051

Nic Daéid, N; Hayes, K; Allen, M

2008-10-25

19

Prenatal genetic testing: an investigation of determining factors affecting the decision-making process.  

PubMed

Despite the increase in popularity of prenatal genetic testing, relatively little is known about the role psychological factors play in the decision-making process. In this analogue study, a sample of Italian female university students was used to investigate determining factors that predict the intention of undergoing prenatal genetic testing. Structural Equation Modelling was used to describe the dynamic interplay between knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and health-related behaviour such as prenatal genetic testing. Following the Theory of Reasoned Action, three dimensions predicted the intention to undergo prenatal genetic testing: the need for more scientific information, a positive attitude towards genetic testing, and the inclination to terminate pregnancy after receiving a positive test result. Results showed that less religious women tended to be more in favour of prenatal tests and in undertaking such tests. This preliminary study provides genetic counsellors and policy makers with a clearer picture of their clients' motives and attitudes behind the decision-making process of prenatal genetic testing, contributing to improving both the communication process between counsellors and their clients and the organization of genetic services. PMID:22477148

Pivetti, Monica; Melotti, Giannino

2013-02-01

20

Investigation of factors affecting prediction of protein-protein interaction networks by phylogenetic profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of computational methods for predicting protein interaction networks will continue to grow with the number of fully sequenced genomes available. The Co-Conservation method, also known as the Phylogenetic profiles method, is a well-established computational tool for predicting functional relationships between proteins. RESULTS: Here, we examined how various aspects of this method affect the accuracy and topology of

Anis Karimpour-Fard; Lawrence Hunter; Ryan T Gill

2007-01-01

21

Investigation of factors affecting caking tendency of calcium ammonium nitrate fertilizer and coating experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caking of fertilizers is an important problem both to manufacturers and users. Manufacturers must recycle the caked fertilizer to the process resulting in an extra cost and users may have difficulties during the application of the fertilizer to the soil. In the first part of this study major factors which influence caking of a commercial grade calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN)

Ali Lafci; Kemal Gürüz; Hayrettin Yücel

1988-01-01

22

An Investigation Of Factors Affecting The Performance Of Laboratory Fume Hoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A `user tracer gas test` was performed on laboratory hoods, with a human subject standing in front of the hood, to assess hood containment ability. The relationship of face velocity and cross draft variables to hood containment ability is investigated. The ability of these variables and other tests, such as smoke challenges or tracer gas tests performed with a manikin

B A Altemose

1995-01-01

23

A Metallographic Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Notch Toughness of Maraging Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of an investigation of nine maraging steels with widely varying notch toughness (25 to 70 ft-lb Charpy V-notch energy at 190 ksi yield strength). Extraction fractography was used in conjunction with such techniques as lig...

A. J. Birkle D. S. Dabkowski J. P. Paulina L. F. Porter

1964-01-01

24

Investigation of Factors Affecting the in-Situ Combustion Retorting of Oil Shale. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research was to carry out an experimental and analytical investigation of a number of subprocesses taking place during an in situ combustion retorting of oil shale. Some of these subprocesses also occur in a surface retorting process...

H. Y. Sohn

1981-01-01

25

Microfluidic device to investigate factors affecting performance in biosensors designed for transdermal applications.  

PubMed

In this work we demonstrate a novel microfluidic based platform to investigate the performance of 3D out-of-plane microspike array based glucose and lactate biosensors. The microspike array was bonded with a glass slide and modified with glucose oxidase or lactate oxidase using covalent coupling chemistry. An epoxy-polyurethane based membrane was used to extend the linear working range (from 0 to 25 mM of substrate) of these biosensors. Both lactate and glucose sensors performed well in the clinically relevant substrate concentration range. Glucose microspikes were further investigated with respect to the effects of substrate transfer by incorporation into a microfluidic system. Data from the microfluidic system revealed that the sensor response is mainly dependent on enzyme kinetics rather than membrane permeability to glucose. The robustness of the sensors was demonstrated by its consistency in performance extending over 48 h. PMID:22130554

Trzebinski, Jakub; Sharma, Sanjiv; Moniz, Anna Radomska-Botelho; Michelakis, Kostis; Zhang, Yangyang; Cass, Anthony E G

2012-01-21

26

An Investigation of Factors Affecting How Engineers and Scientists Seek Information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigated how 872 US aerospace scientists and engineers select information carriers. When considering oral and written information carriers, the principle of least effort was supported with a strong preference for oral communication over written communication. In examining how the respondents select written carriers, the decision to use or not to use a written carrier was found to be primarily a function of the perceived importance of the carrier's information to a person's work. Task uncertainty and task complexity were found to be significant, but not the primary nor a totally consistent criteria. The perceived quality and accessibility of written carriers were not found significant. The findings reinforce the need for firms to hire knowledgeable employees, to provide them with comprehensive training programs, and to develop formal and informal communication networks.

Anderson, Claire J; Glassman, Myron; McAfee, R. Bruce; Pinelli, Thomas

2001-01-01

27

Factors Affecting Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds.

Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

2010-01-01

28

Investigation of factors affecting controlled release from photosensitive DMPC and DSPC liposomes.  

PubMed

An investigation of liposomes comprised of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) or 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) lipids with cholesterol and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPC) revealed that several fundamental liposome properties are influenced by composition and by lipid-specific features. DMPC and DSPC liposomes were synthesized, and their compositional changes, encapsulation capacities, morphologies, and release properties were evaluated. In this research, liposome degradation, lysis, and content release were initiated by photolysis, i.e., rupture induced by exposure to light. A controlled release mechanism was created through the introduction of photosensitizers (i.e., ZnPC) embedded within the cholesterol-stabilized liposome membrane. The light wavelength and light exposure time accelerated photodegradation properties of DMPC liposomes compared to DSPC liposomes, which exhibited a slower release rate. Morphological changes in the liposomes were strongly influenced by light wavelength and light exposure time. For both the DMPC and DSPC liposomes, visible light with wavelengths in the red end of the spectrum and broad spectrum ambient lighting (400-700 nm) were more effective for lysis than UV-A light (365 nm). Heating liposomes to 100 °C decreased the stability of liposomes compared to liposomes kept at room temperatures. In addition, the optimal lipid-to-cholesterol-to-photoactivator ratio that produced the most stable liposomes was determined. PMID:22592778

Aygun, Aysegul; Torrey, Kathryn; Kumar, Ashok; Stephenson, Larry D

2012-06-01

29

An investigation of factors affecting the performance of laboratory fume hoods  

SciTech Connect

A `user tracer gas test` was performed on laboratory hoods, with a human subject standing in front of the hood, to assess hood containment ability. The relationship of face velocity and cross draft variables to hood containment ability is investigated. The ability of these variables and other tests, such as smoke challenges or tracer gas tests performed with a manikin at the hood, to predict the results of the user tracer gas test is evaluated. All of the laboratory hoods tested in this study were identical bench top bypass hoods with horizontally sliding sashes. A face velocity traverse, cross draft measurements, a pitot traverse to measure exhaust flow, a smoke test, a manikin tracer gas test, and a user tracer gas test were performed on each hood in several different sash positions. Based on the data collected, face velocity, its distribution and variability, and the magnitude of cross drafts relative to face velocity are important variables in determining hood leakage. `Unblocked` vortices, formed such that no physical barrier exists between the vortex and room air or a person in front of the hood, are identified as important sites of leakage. For the hoods evaluated in this study, unblocked vortices were observed along the beveled side edges. The data support the hypothesis that in the presence of a person standing in front of the hood, leakage is more likely to occur if unblocked vortices are formed than if all vortices are blocked. Evidence suggests that cross drafts are more likely to cause leakage when flowing in a direction that may cause separated flow along a beveled edge of the hood and thereby augment the unblocked vortices along the edge. Results indicate that smoke tests, manikin tracer gas tests, and average face velocity all serve as useful monitoring techniques. Face velocity measurements and smoke tests, which are easy and inexpensive, may provide information which is as valuable as traditional manikin tracer gas tests.

Altemose, B.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering

1995-12-31

30

A factor analytic investigation of the Tripartite model of affect in a clinical sample of young Australians  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ) was designed to specifically measure the Tripartite model of affect and is proposed to offer a delineation between the core components of anxiety and depression. Factor analytic data from adult clinical samples has shown mixed results; however no studies employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) have supported the predicted structure of distinct Depression,

Joe A Buckby; Sue M Cotton; Elizabeth M Cosgrave; Eoin J Killackey; Alison R Yung

2008-01-01

31

An Analysis of the Nature of Epistemological Beliefs: Investigating Factors Affecting the Epistemological Development of South Korean High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptive study of factors influencing the development of beliefs about learning and knowledge among South Korean high school students. Finds that three of six developmental factors affected student beliefs: age, GPA, and independent self-construal. Compares findings with those of previous U.S. studies. Concludes that findings support the…

Youn, Inn; Yang, Kye-Min; Choi, In-Jae

2001-01-01

32

Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances in Early Adolescence: A Structural Modeling Investigation Examining Negative Affect and Peer Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X[overbar] age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative…

Hutchinson, Delyse M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Taylor, Alan

2010-01-01

33

An investigation of formulation factors affecting feasibility of alginate-chitosan microparticles for oral delivery of naproxen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work we investigated the feasibility of chitosan treated Ca-alginate microparticles for delivery of naproxen\\u000a in lower parts of GIT and evaluated influence of formulation factors on their physicochemical characteristics and drug release\\u000a profiles. Investigated factors were drug\\/polymer ratio, chitosan molecular weight, chitosan concentration in hardening medium,\\u000a and hardening time. Sixteen microparticle formulations were prepared utilizing 24 full

Bojan ?alija; Nebojsa Ceki?; Snežana Savi?; Danina Krajišnik; Rolf Daniels; Jela Mili?

2011-01-01

34

Factors affecting tanker safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors influencing tanker safety are discussed. For the discussion information has been gleaned from maritime labour officials, industry experts and a recent United States Coast Guard study on tanker safety. Results of other tanker safety studies and\\/or accident reports are also utilized. Some of the factors analysed are the size and age of vessel, licence qualifications for mates

Craig J. Forsyth

1991-01-01

35

Factors Affecting Coding Errors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Memorandum describes experiments which sought to identify the factors that contribute to coding errors. The experiments used code-stimulus materials: numeric codes, consisting only of numbers; alpha codes, consisting only of letters; alpha-numeric co...

S. Owsowtiz, A. Sweetland

1965-01-01

36

An Investigation of Factors Affecting Elementary Female Student Teachers' Choice of Science as a Major at College Level in Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article focuses on factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there has been an unprecedented expansion in education in the last 2 decades. This reflects the broad recognition that education contributes to national development. This expansion has not been matched with equal access and opportunity to education. The education of females still lags behind that of males in most developing countries, and in Sub-Saharan Africa in particular (Hyde, 1989). Fewer girls than boys study science at both secondary and college levels. The study took place in Zimbabwe at Mkoba Teachers' College. Two groups of elementary female student teachers participated in the study, namely science majors and nonscience majors. Ten science majors and nine nonscience majors took part in individual interviews. For focus group interviews, there were three groups of six each from science and nonscience majors. The study was conducted between May 2004 and July 2004. Out-of-school experiences, culture, and attitudes toward science emerged as factors affecting female student teachers' choice of science as a major. A number of implications have been discussed as well as suggestions for further research. Limitations of the study have been analyzed as well.

Mlenga, Francis

37

An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.

Mlenga, Francis Howard

38

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

39

Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,

K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker

2003-01-01

40

An Investigation of the Factors which Affect the Career Selection Process of Air Force Systems Command Company Grade Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the individual perceptions and attitudes which affect the career selection decision of Air Force Systems Command company grade officers. This research included a literature review of recent wor...

R. J. Mosbach T. J. Scanlan

1979-01-01

41

An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Decline of Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delta smelt is an annual fish that is endemic to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary and is protected under federal and California Endangered Species Acts. Record low abundances have occurred since 2004. Three questions are addressed here: What is the relative importance of environmental factors with direct effects on abundance? Do factors that may have indirect effects provide an explanation

William J. Miller; Bryan F. J. Manly; Dennis D. Murphy; David Fullerton; Rob Roy Ramey

2012-01-01

42

Application of a Tracer Gas Challenge with a Human Subject to Investigate Factors Affecting the Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a “user” tracer gas test were applied to investigate the effects of various parameters on hood containment ability and to evaluate accepted methods to classify hood performance. This user tracer gas test was performed with a human subject standing in front of the hood. Based on the data collected, face velocity, its variability, and cross drafts are

Brent A. Altemose; Michael R. Flynn; Jay Sprankle

1998-01-01

43

Application of a tracer gas challenge with a human subject to investigate factors affecting the performance of laboratory fume hoods.  

PubMed

The results of a "user" tracer gas test were applied to investigate the effects of various parameters on hood containment ability and to evaluate accepted methods to classify hood performance. This user tracer gas test was performed with a human subject standing in front of the hood. Based on the data collected, face velocity, its variability, and cross drafts are important in determining hood leakage. Results indicate that the temporal variability of face velocity may deserve as much consideration as its spatial variability, a parameter more traditionally recognized as being important. The data collected indicate that hoods with horizontally sliding sash doors perform better with the doors positioned to provide a center opening rather than when all of the doors are pushed to one side. The observed smoke patterns suggest that this trend is caused by the location and instability of vortices formed along the perimeter edge when all doors are pushed to one side. The results of manikin tracer gas tests and the user tracer gas test are inconsistent, suggesting that more research is needed to determine how best to evaluate whether a hood protects its users. PMID:9858975

Altemose, B A; Flynn, M R; Sprankle, J

1998-05-01

44

Dietary factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability.  

PubMed

While many epidemiological studies have associated the consumption of polyphenols within fruits and vegetables with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases, intervention studies have generally not confirmed these beneficial effects. The reasons for this discrepancy are not fully understood but include potential differences in dosing, interaction with the food matrix, and differences in polyphenol bioavailability. In addition to endogenous factors such as microbiota and digestive enzymes, the food matrix can also considerably affect bioaccessibility, uptake, and further metabolism of polyphenols. While dietary fiber (such as hemicellulose), divalent minerals, and viscous and protein-rich meals are likely to cause detrimental effects on polyphenol bioaccessibility, digestible carbohydrates, dietary lipids (especially for hydrophobic polyphenols, e.g., curcumin), and additional antioxidants may enhance polyphenol availability. Following epithelial uptake, polyphenols such as flavonoids may reduce phase II metabolism and excretion, enhancing polyphenol bioavailability. Furthermore, polyphenols may act synergistically due to their influence on efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. In order to understand polyphenol bioactivity, increased knowledge of the factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability, including dietary factors, is paramount. PMID:24828476

Bohn, Torsten

2014-07-01

45

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

PubMed Central

For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

2012-01-01

46

Factors Affecting the Earth's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses factors affecting the weather on Earth. Students learn about solar radiation, wind circulation, precipitation, and biomes that result from weather patterns. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

47

Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

2011-01-01

48

Affecting Factors in Second Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affecting factors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were…

Andreou, G.; Vlachos, F.; Andreou, E.

2005-01-01

49

Affecting Factors in Second Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second langua ge (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affecting factors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were those who had obtained

G. Andreou; F. Vlachos; E. Andreou

2005-01-01

50

Factors Affecting the Speed of Free Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…

Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris

2013-01-01

51

Factors Affecting Children's Attention on TV Viewing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated what and how preschool children view children's television programs, with a focus on cultural and ecological factors which might affect their visual attention and the nature of their immediate recall of content. The secondary task method (in which an individual is required to perform two tasks simultaneously) was applied to…

Wu, Sophia T.

52

Use of personal EEG monitors in a behavioral neuroscience course to investigate natural setting sleep patterns and the factors affecting them in college students.  

PubMed

Sleep is often a topic of avid interest to college students, yet it is one that does not yield itself well to hands-on, interactive learning modules. Supplementing classroom learning with interactive "real world" laboratory activities provides students with a deeper understanding of behavior and its neural control. The project described here was designed to supplement the teaching of EEGs, sleep and circadian rhythms and involved students in the empirical process from hypothesizing about the factors that affect sleep, to personal data collection, data analysis and writing in the style of a peer-reviewed manuscript. Students enrolled in Behavioral Neuroscience at Connecticut College were provided with a home-based personal EEG monitor used to collect sleep data in their natural sleep setting. Participants recorded sleep data with the use of the ZEO® Personal Sleep Coach system and completed a nightly sleep journal questionnaire for seven nights. The ZEO® system uses EEG patterns to define sleep stages including wakefulness, light, deep and REM sleep. The journal included questions about factors known to affect sleep such as stress, caffeine, academic activity, exercise and alcohol. A class data set was compiled and used by students to perform univariate correlations examining the relationships between ZEO® variables and sleep journal variables. The data set allowed students to choose specific variables to investigate, analyze and write a peer-reviewed style manuscript. Significant class-wide correlations were found between specific sleep stages and behavioral variables suggesting that the ZEO® system is sophisticated yet inexpensive enough to be used as an effective tool in the classroom setting. Overall student feedback on the exercise was positive with many students indicating that it significantly enhanced their understanding of sleep architecture and made them keenly aware of the factors that affect quality of sleep. PMID:23626495

Marshall, Jillian C; Malerba, Julie R; Schroeder, Joseph A

2011-01-01

53

Factors affecting rotator cuff healing.  

PubMed

? Several studies have noted that increasing age is a significant factor for diminished rotator cuff healing, while biomechanical studies have suggested the reason for this may be an inferior healing environment in older patients.? Larger tears and fatty infiltration or atrophy negatively affect rotator cuff healing.? Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, double-row repairs, performing a concomitant acromioplasty, and the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) do not demonstrate an improvement in structural healing over mini-open rotator cuff repairs, single-row repairs, not performing an acromioplasty, or not using PRP.? There is conflicting evidence to support postoperative rehabilitation protocols using early motion over immobilization following rotator cuff repair. PMID:24806015

Mall, Nathan A; Tanaka, Miho J; Choi, Luke S; Paletta, George A

2014-05-01

54

Langley full-scale-tunnel investigation of the factors affecting the static lateral-stability characteristics of a typical fighter-type airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors that affect the rate of change of rolling moment with yaw of a typical fighter-type airplane were investigated in the Langley full-scale tunnel on a typical fighter-type airplane.Eight representative flight conditions were investigated in detail. The separate effects of propeller operation, of the wing-fuselage combination, and of the vertical tail to the effective dihedral of the airplane in each condition were determined. The results of the tests showed that for the airplane with the propeller removed, the wing-fuselage combination had positive dihedral effect which increased considerably with increasing angle of attack for all conditions. Flap deflection decreased the dihedral effect of the wing-fuselage combination slightly as compared with that with the flaps retracted. Flap deflection resulted in negative dihedral effect due to the vertical tail. Propeller operation decreased the lateral stability parameter of the airplane for all the conditions investigated with larger decreases being measured for the flaps deflected conditions.

Lange, Roy H

1947-01-01

55

Flight investigation on a fighter-type airplane of factors which affect the loads and load distributions on the vertical tail surfaces during rudder kicks and fishtails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of a flight investigation conducted on a fighter-type airplane to determine the factors which affect the loads and load distributions on the vertical tail surfaces in maneuvers. An analysis is made of the data obtained in steady flight, rudder kicks, and fishtail maneuvers. For the rudder kicks, the significant loads were the "deflection load" resulting from an abrupt control deflection and the "dynamic load" consisting of a load corresponding to the new static equilibrium condition for the rudder deflected plus a load due to a transient overshoot. The minimum time to reach the maximum control deflection attainable by the pilot in any flight condition was found to be a constant. In the fishtail maneuvers, it was found that the pilot tends to deflect the rudder in phase with the natural frequency of the airplane. The maximum loads measured in fishtails were of the same order of magnitude as those from a rudder kick in which the rudder is returned to zero at the time of maximum sideslip.

Boshar, John

1947-01-01

56

Demographic Factors Affecting Faculty Salary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Specific demographic attributes that influence salary at institutions of higher education were studied through data from 420 faculty members at 9 institutions. Results suggested that experience, publication rates, time at the institution, and possession of a terminal degree affected salary levels. The presence of salary compression was noted. (SLD)

Webster, Allen L.

1995-01-01

57

Intraluminal Factors Affecting Iron Absorption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The simplest model of iron absorption must consider (1) the mucosal uptake of dietary iron and (2) the transfer of iron from intestinal cells into the body. It provides three anatomic locations for studying regulatory factors: (a) intraluminal, (b) duoden...

M. E. Conrad

1968-01-01

58

Factors affecting practical nursing student attrition.  

PubMed

This study investigated factors that affect student attrition for 151 students in a practical nursing program. The academic variables studied were scores on preadmission tests and grades in required prerequisite courses. The demographic variables included age, gender, and race. The analysis of the data obtained from student records revealed a statistically significant difference between the retention and attrition student groups for the variables of race, preadmission test scores, and prerequisite course grades. Recommendations for a retention program to reduce attrition were made based on the findings of this study. PMID:18792710

Stickney, Margaret Christine

2008-09-01

59

Factors Affecting Nontraditional Vocational Enrollments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies the internal and external factors which differentiate women who enter male-traditional vocational training programs from those who enter female-traditional programs. Data were collected from 470 women enrolled in California vocational training programs. The sample was stratified on both social class and type of vocational…

Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris

60

Pharmacologic Factors Affecting Glycemic Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among many challenges to achieving and maintaining glycemic control, the impact of pharmacologic agents on glycemia is a significant,\\u000a but often overlooked factor. Numerous medications have been implicated in the development of drug-induced hyperglycemia and\\u000a type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of these, the atypical antipsychotics (for the management of depression and psychosis), the protease-inhibitor\\u000a anti retroviral agents (for the management of

Lillian F. Lien

61

Factors That Affect Software Testability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software faults that infrequently affect software's output are dangerous. When a software fault causes frequent software failures, testing is likely to reveal the fault before the software is releases; when the fault remains undetected during testing, it can cause disaster after the software is installed. A technique for predicting whether a particular piece of software is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is found in [Voas91b]. A piece of software that is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have high testability. A piece of software that is not likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have low testability. It is preferable to design software with higher testabilities from the outset, i.e., create software with as high of a degree of testability as possible to avoid the problems of having undetected faults that are associated with low testability. Information loss is a phenomenon that occurs during program execution that increases the likelihood that a fault will remain undetected. In this paper, I identify two brad classes of information loss, define them, and suggest ways of predicting the potential for information loss to occur. We do this in order to decrease the likelihood that faults will remain undetected during testing.

Voas, Jeffrey M.

1991-01-01

62

Factors affecting fertility in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Data of the Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey of 1984-85 were used to determine whether there are any differentials in fertility levels by age at marriage, educational level, work status, region of residence (province), and place of residence (urban or rural) in Pakistan. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses examined the effects of these factors on fertility. The technique of Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) was used to determine the net effect of each factor. Among the predictors, age at marriage was the most significant variable, followed by the husband's education, woman's education, husband's occupation, woman's work status, region, and place of residence. Among the demographic variables, age and age at marriage were the most important determinants of fertility. Among the socioeconomic variables, the educational level of both husband and wife were important determinants of cumulative fertility. Age at marriage was inversely related to fertility. The mean number of children ever born was 5.1 for those who married below age 16 vs. 4.1 for age at marriage 16-19, and 3.6 for 20-24. In the multivariate analysis the effect of age at marriage was the strongest as a predictor. Education had a negative effect on fertility. The mean number of children ever born to women with no education was 4.5; to women with primary education, 3.6; to women with secondary education, 3.2; and to women with tertiary education, 2.3. Women working as salaried employees had higher fertility (5.0) compared to women working in family business or at home (4.2). Women whose husbands worked as salaried employees had comparatively lower fertility than those whose husbands were working in their own business or in agriculture. The region of residence did not yield wide differentials. Furthermore, place of residence did not reveal any significant difference in fertility. The mean number of children was marginally higher among urban women (4.4) compared to their rural counterparts (4.2), indicating that the fertility transition has not started yet. PMID:12346202

Hakim, A

1994-01-01

63

Factors affecting calculation of L  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient, radio signals from billions of stars. SETI could succeed tomorrow, or it may be an endeavor for multiple generations. We are a very young technology in a very old galaxy. While our own leakage radiation continues to outshine the Sun at many frequencies, we remain detectable to others. When our use of the spectrum becomes more efficient, it will be time to consider deliberate transmissions and the really tough questions: Who will speak for Earth? What will they say?

Ciotola, Mark P.

2001-08-01

64

Factors Affecting the Loyal Use of Knowledge Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the factors affecting the Loyal Use of a Knowledge Management System (KMS). Unlike most other types of information systems, the value from using a KMS is temporally disassociated from the instance of use. We developed a model of the factors affecting the Loyal Use of a KMS and used data gathered from 1013 users of a well-established

Paul F. Clay; Alan R. Dennis; Dong-gil Ko

2005-01-01

65

Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

AlKandari, Nabila

2008-01-01

66

Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors

Torbert, Brison

67

Investigation into the factors affecting accuracy of mass measurements on a time-of-flight mass spectrometer using Design of Experiment.  

PubMed

The results of an investigation of the parameters which have the most significant effect on the accuracy of mass measurements on a quadrupole orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer (q-oaToF) are reported. The influence of eight factors is investigated: ion abundances of reference and analyte compounds, mass difference between analyte and reference compounds, quality of calibration, number of reference acquisitions averaged and TDC (time-to-digital converter) settings (resolution, Np multiplier (number of pushes correction factor), minimum number of points, i.e. minimum acquisition width which defines a peak). To extract the maximum information from as few experiments as possible, a Design of Experiment approach was used. The data will be used as a basis for developing guidance on accurate mass measurement on q-oaToF instruments. PMID:17262896

Laures, Alice M-F; Wolff, Jean-Claude; Eckers, Christine; Borman, Phil J; Chatfield, Marion J

2007-01-01

68

EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

Qin, Lei

2007-01-01

69

Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

2010-01-01

70

Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

Jabnoun, Naceur

2009-01-01

71

Factors Affecting the Nucleosynthesis of CALCIUM48  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting the synthesis of 48Ca in stellar environments are discussed. These factors include the entropy of the matter which is being processed and the neutron richness of the matter. The production of 48Ca depends highly on the entropy of the expanding matter. High entropy environments produce little 48Ca, while low entropy environments produce abundant 48Ca. This suggests that Type

Tracy Dawn Krishnan

1997-01-01

72

Organizational factors affecting Internet technology adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - To explore the factors that affect the implementation of Internet technologies and to what extent the size of the company, as an organizational factor, influences that process. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - According to the innovation adoption theory, it was found that Internet adoption in firms is a process with different stages where a company is in one of a number

Ana R. Del Aguila-Obra; Antonio Padilla-Melendez

73

Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

1985-01-01

74

Fluorescein. Physiochemical factors affecting its fluorescence.  

PubMed

Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118

Romanchuk, K G

1982-01-01

75

Factors Affecting Motivation to Transfer Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of trainees (n=88) in a competency-based occupational safety and health training program found that environmental factors (opportunities to use skills, peer/supervisor support, and supervisor sanctions) were most influential on motivation to transfer training. Training attitudes may be affected by prior experiences when the use of training…

Seyler, Dian L.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Bates, Reid A.; Burnett, Michael F.; Carvalho, Manuel A.

1998-01-01

76

Principal Factors Affecting Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-scale batch experiments (semicontinuously fed) were conducted using a two-level factorial experimental design to investigate principal factors and interactions affecting microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon (C) steel. Factors considered included the C source as chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate (SO[sup 2[minus

C.-G. Peng; J. K. Park

1994-01-01

77

Principal factors affecting microbiologically influenced corrosion of carbon steel  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale batch experiments (semicontinuously fed) were conducted using a two-level factorial experimental design to investigate principal factors and interactions affecting microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon (C) steel. Factors considered included the C source as chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate (SO[sup 2[minus

Peng, C.G.; Park, J.K. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

1994-09-01

78

Factors affecting the wear of sonic files.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting the wear and cutting ability of sonic files. A model system was used and the following variables evaluated, file type; Heliosonic, Rispisonic or Shaper, load; 25, 50 or 100 grams and length of time in use; new, 30 or 60 seconds. A 3(3) full factorial analysis with two replications into the effect of the above variables on the cutting ability of the Heliosonic, Rispisonic and Shaper files powered by the MM1500 sonic instrument was performed. A new file size 25 (Heliosonic and Shaper) or No 3 (Rispisonic) was used for each cut together with water irrigation and the substrate used was 1 mm thick sections of bovine bone. All variables had a significant effect on cutting (ANOVA. p < 0.001). However examination of the F values showed that the most significant variable was load, followed by file type, and time. The most significant interaction was between file type and load followed by time and file type. The interaction between time and load was not significant (p > 0.05). The Rispisonic file was most susceptible to wear during use especially at higher loads and the Heliosonic file cut least. It is suggested that the Shaper file is the better design of the three with respect to cutting ability and wear with use. PMID:9028184

Lumley, P J

1996-08-01

79

Factors Affecting Tether Use and Misuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project investigated factors relating to tether use and misuse. Volunteer testing was performed with 37 subjects on 16 different vehicles using 2 forward-facing child restraints (Britax Marathon 70 or the Evenflo Triumph), with each subject performin...

C. A. Flannagan K. D. Klinich L. A. Malik M. A. Manary N. R. Orton P. Narayanaswamy

2014-01-01

80

Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

Jovanovic, Petar

81

Factors Affecting Attitudes Toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had

Kimberly J. Sahlstrom; Elizabeth L. Jeglic

2008-01-01

82

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

83

Factors Affecting the Cost Effectiveness of Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs.

Simoens, Steven

2011-01-01

84

Factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotics.  

PubMed

In an era of spiraling health care costs and limited resources, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the cost effectiveness of antibiotics. The aim of this study is to draw on published economic evaluations with a view to identify and illustrate the factors affecting the cost effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. The findings indicate that the cost effectiveness of antibiotics is influenced by factors relating to the characteristics and the use of antibiotics (i.e., diagnosis, comparative costs and comparative effectiveness, resistance, patient compliance with treatment, and treatment failure) and by external factors (i.e., funding source, clinical pharmacy interventions, and guideline implementation interventions). Physicians need to take into account these factors when prescribing an antibiotic and assess whether a specific antibiotic treatment adds sufficient value to justify its costs. PMID:22312550

Simoens, Steven

2011-01-01

85

[Factors affecting higher expenditures in health care].  

PubMed

The funds available for the health services at present are not sufficient. When assessing their desirable volume, we must consider a number of factors which influence the needs of financial means. This comprises direct and indirect action, in different spheres and direction and of different intensity. Different factors are not quantifiable to the same extent; some can be expressed only verbally. The resultant of their action which may have the same trend (then the effects add) or have an opposite trend (then the effects cancel out), is then the concrete pressure which in a concrete situation affects the concrete need of financial means. A team of specialists will have to study the identification of factors and assess the assumed forces of their action. PMID:2123749

Stastná, M

1990-09-01

86

An investigation of factors associated with the health and well-being of HIV-infected or HIV-affected older people in rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the severe impact of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the health of older people aged 50+ is often overlooked owing to the dearth of data on the direct and indirect effects of HIV on older people’s health status and well-being. The aim of this study was to examine correlates of health and well-being of HIV-infected older people relative to HIV-affected people in rural South Africa, defined as participants with an HIV-infected or death of an adult child due to HIV-related cause. Methods Data were collected within the Africa Centre surveillance area using instruments adapted from the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). A stratified random sample of 422 people aged 50+ participated. We compared the health correlates of HIV-infected to HIV-affected participants using ordered logistic regressions. Health status was measured using three instruments: disability index, quality of life and composite health score. Results Median age of the sample was 60 years (range 50–94). Women HIV-infected (aOR 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08–0.29) and HIV-affected (aOR 0.20, 95% CI 0.08–0.50), were significantly less likely than men to be in good functional ability. Women’s adjusted odds of being in good overall health state were similarly lower than men’s; while income and household wealth status were stronger correlates of quality of life. HIV-infected participants reported better functional ability, quality of life and overall health state than HIV-affected participants. Discussion and conclusions The enhanced healthcare received as part of anti-retroviral treatment as well as the considerable resources devoted to HIV care appear to benefit the overall well-being of HIV-infected older people; whereas similar resources have not been devoted to the general health needs of HIV uninfected older people. Given increasing numbers of older people, policy and programme interventions are urgently needed to holistically meet the health and well-being needs of older people beyond the HIV-related care system.

2012-01-01

87

Factors affecting financial performance of new and beginning farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors (farm, operator and household characteristics, along with farm type and regional location of the farm) affecting financial performance of new and beginning farmers and ranchers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Returns on assets (ROA), a measure of financial performance widely used in the farm management literature, is the ratio of net

Ashok Mishra; Christine Wilson; Robert Williams

2009-01-01

88

Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

2011-01-01

89

Factors Affecting the Comprehension of Global and Local Main Idea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated factors that would affect a reader's understanding of the main idea at the global level and explicit and implicit main ideas at the local level. Fifty-seven first-year university students taking a college reading course took a comprehension test on an expository text. Statistical analyses revealed that text structure had a…

Wang, Danhua

2009-01-01

90

Institutional and Managerial Factors Affecting International Student Recruitment Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international…

Ross, Mitchell; Heaney, Joo-Gim; Cooper, Maxine

2007-01-01

91

Factors Affecting Workers' Valuation of Intrinsic Job Rewards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the fit between job values and job rewards becomes more important to American workers, it is important to understand factors which may affect these values. Data from the combined General Social Surveys of 1974, 1976, 1977 and 1980 were used to investigate the influence of education, job prestige, earnings, age, sex, race, and family…

Shapiro, E. Gary

92

[Factors that affect inpatients' quality of sleep].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify factors that interfere with the sleep quality of patients admitted to a university hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was an exploratory, cross sectional study using non-probability sampling. Participants were 117 patients (59% men, mean age 48.0 years, standard deviation 16.9) hospitalized for at least 72 hours in stable clinical condition. The data were collected with an identification questionnaire and the Factors Affecting Sleep Quality (FASQ) questionnaire. Data processing was performed with descriptive statistics; each item of the FASQ underwent a test and a retest. The factors most often reported were waking up early (55.6%), disrupted sleep (52.1%), excessive lighting (34.2%), receipt of care by nursing staff (33.3%) and organic disorders such as pain and fatigue (26.5%). It is suggested that nurses should plan interventions to modify factors that require intense noise and lighting at night in order to reduce disruption and, consequently, sleep deprivation among patients. PMID:23515802

da Costa, Shíntia Viana; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

2013-02-01

93

Factors affecting the degradation of amoxicillin in composting toilet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological and non-biological factors that affect the degradation of amoxicillin in the composting process of feces have been investigated. The effect of living bacteria and the enzyme (beta-lactamase) on amoxicillin decay was examined, and our results indicated that the biological effects are likely to be negligible. Consequently, the effect of phosphate, ammonia and pH level as non-biological factors was

Takashi Kakimoto; Naoyuki Funamizu

2007-01-01

94

The Western Ghat as the water tower of the South Indian Rivers : a stable isotope investigation on the origin of water and factors affecting the water cycle.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long stretch (1600 km) of Ghats on the western side (Western Ghats) of Peninsular India separates relatively wetter west coast from drier eastern coast. The western and eastern sides of the Ghats are having distinct isotopic signatures indicating unequal distribution of the moisture sources. South India is characterized by having moisture source for southwest monsoon from Arabian Sea and northeast monsoon from Bay of Bengal. The wetter side of Peninsular region is covered by combination of evergreen tropical forest and grass lands, termed as Shola Forests which support higher vapor recycling process. Very few isotopic studies have been undertaken in these areas, except few places, mainly along the coast lines. This study presents the stable isotope results on rivers and groundwater of the Western Ghats covering Agumbe (Karnataka) to Ooty (Tamil Nadu) and its west coast river basins as observed for the three year period. The stable isotope results on the surface, subsurface and deep water pools show that the mean d18O value range from -4 o to -2 o on the west slope, and from -5 o to -4 o on the east slope, with quite no altitude or amount effect up to 2000 m asl. The more depleted values are found only in higher elevation, like the Doddabeta in the Nilgiri (2637m), with d18O close to -9 o which is exceptional for a tropical area. The hills on the west slope of the Western Ghats as well as in the mountainous Shola forest exhibit strong water vapor recycling as evidenced by high d-excess values. On the contrary on the eastern slope, the drier condition and the numerous impoundments and river damming support strong evaporation process. Thus, the study identifies the profound effect of tropical vegetation and anthropogenic factors on the recharge functioning of river and groundwater pools in Southern India.

Lambs, Luc; Tripti, Muguli; Balakrishna, Keshava

2014-05-01

95

Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

2013-01-01

96

Factors affecting alum-protein interactions.  

PubMed

Alum (or aluminum-containing) adjuvants are key components of many vaccines currently on the market. The immuno-potentiation effect of alum adjuvants is presumably due to their interaction with antigens, leading to adsorption on the alum particle surface. Understanding the mechanism of antigen adsorption/desorption and its influencing factors could provide guidance on formulation design and ensure proper in-vivo immuno-potentiation effect. In this paper, surface adsorption of several model proteins on two types of aluminum adjuvants (Alhydrogel(®) and Adjuphos(®)) are investigated to understand the underlying adsorption mechanisms, capacities, and potential influencing factors. It was found that electrostatic interactions are the major driving force for surface adsorption of all the model proteins except ovalbumin. Alhydrogel has a significantly higher adsorption capacity than Adjuphos. Several factors significantly change the adsorption capacity of both Alhydrogel and Adjuphos, including molecular weight of protein antigens, sodium chloride, phosphate buffer, denaturing agents, and size of aluminum particles. These important factors need to be carefully considered in the design of an effective protein antigen-based vaccine. PMID:24607202

Huang, Min; Wang, Wei

2014-05-15

97

Comments on "Factors Affecting Fertility in Pakistan".  

PubMed

Some critical comments are made on a paper entitled "Factors Affecting Fertility in Pakistan." The 60-page paper is considered too long and taxing for the reader with 20 tables and 8 appendix tables. The extensive literature review needs to be updated to refer to the objective of the study. Only conventional sociodemographic variables were considered, omitting information on the supply side and contraceptive use. The results on work status and fertility were ambiguous, indicating that salaried employees with higher education had higher fertility than those with lower education engaged in family business. The statement that perhaps a trend of declining fertility started in Baluchistan based on the mean number of children was contradicted by the figure for children ever born standardized by age, which indicated a slightly higher number. No substantial difference was found in urban and rural fertility, yet the author kept referring to this marginal difference by age in a detailed table. The rationale of running four separate models for four dependent variables when mean desired and ideal number of children do not differ much from each other was questioned. It would be more useful to present the results of only one dependent variable. The variation explained by the independent variables was as low as 8% in the model on children ever born and between 25% and 50% in the other 3 models. This suggests that when there is little variation in fertility, the analysis of factors explaining fertility differentials is not of much value. The conclusion that fertility transition has not started yet in Pakistan is also debatable in view of some recent evidence of fertility decline in the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 1990-91 indicating that urban, educated groups of women are in the vanguard. A more precise discussion of the results would have made the study more meaningful. PMID:12346203

Mahmood, N

1994-01-01

98

Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

Cahoon, D.R.

2007-01-01

99

Factors affecting small axial cooling fan performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many factors such as outer diameter, hub ratio, blade numbers, shape and stagger angle affect the performance of small cooling fans. A small cooling fan was simulated using CFD software for three blade stagger angles (30.5°, 37.5°, 44.5°)and obtained the internal flow field and the static characteristics. Research indicated that the stagger angle has an obvious effect on the static characteristics of a fan. For flow rates below 0.0104 m3/s, total pressure is the greatest when the stagger angle is 37.5°; flow rates higher than 0.0104 m3/s, the total pressure is greatest when the stagger angle is 44.5° For the same flow rates, the velocity at inlet of pressure surface increases with increasing stagger angle, but the change of velocity on the suction surface is very small. For one model, vortices and the speed of revolution surfaces decrease with tip clearance increasing. But for other three models, increasing the stagger angle, the vortex intensity and speed of revolution surfaces at same height tip clearance increases, simultaneously, the position of vortex offset from the top of the rotor blade to the suction surface.

Wang, Lihong; Jin, Yingzi; Cui, Baoling; Jin, Yuzhen; Lin, Jin; Wang, Yanping; Wu, Chuanyu

2010-04-01

100

Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...

101

Factors affecting outcome in liver resection  

PubMed Central

Background. Studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between institution/surgeon procedural volumes and patient outcomes. Similar studies exist for liver resections, which recommend referral of patients for liver resections to ‘high-volume’ centers. These studies did not elucidate the factors that underlie such outcomes. We believe there exists a complex interaction of patient-related and perioperative factors that determine patient outcomes after liver resection. We sought to delineate these factors. Methods. Retrospective review of 114 liver resections by a single surgeon from 1993–2003: Records were reviewed for demographics; diagnosis; type/year of surgery; American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score; preoperative albumin, creatinine, and bilirubin; operative time; intraoperative blood transfusions; epidural use; and intraoperative hypotension. Main outcome measurements were postoperative morbidities, mortalities and length of stay (LOS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model (SPSS v10.1 statistical analysis program). Results. Primary indications for resections were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (N=57), metastatic colorectal cancer (N=25), and benign disease (N=18). There were no intraoperative mortalities and 4 perioperative (30-day) mortalities (3.5%). Mortality occurred in patients with malignancies who were older than 50 years. Morbidity was higher in malignant (15.6%) versus benign (5.5%) disease. Complications included bile leak/stricture (N=6), liver insufficiency (N=3), postoperative bleeding (N=2), myocardial infarction (N=2), aspiration pneumonia (N=1), renal insufficiency (N=1), and cancer implantation into the wound (N=1). Average LOS for all resections was 8.6 days. Longer operative time (p=0.04), lower albumin (p<0.001), higher ASA score (p<0.001), no epidural use (p=0.04), and higher creatinine (p<0.001) all correlated positively with longer LOS. ASA score and creatinine were the strongest predictors of LOS. LOS was not affected by patient age, sex, diagnosis, presence of malignancy, intraoperative transfusion requirements, intraoperative hypotension, preoperative bilirubin, case volume per year or year of surgery. Conclusions. Liver resections can be performed with low mortality/morbidity and with acceptable LOS by an experienced liver surgeon. Outcome as measured by LOS is most influenced by patient comorbidities entering into surgery. Annual case volume did not influence LOS and had no impact on patient safety. Length of stay may not reflect surgeon/institution performance, as LOS is multifactorial and likely related to patient population, patient selection and increased high-risk cases with a surgeon's experience.

Lorenzo, Cedric S. F.; Limm, Whitney M. L.; Lurie, Fedor

2005-01-01

102

Factors affecting chromate reduction in Enterobacter cloacae strain HO1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting chromate reduction by cultures of Enterobacter cloacae HO1 were investigated. The reduction was sensitive to oxygen stress and E. cloacae strain HO1 could reduce chromate only under anaerobic conditions. Rates of reduction of chromate were proportional to cell number. The optimal pH was between 7.0 and 7.8, and the optimal temperature was 30°–37°C. High rates of reduction were

Kohya Komori; Pi-chao Wang; Kiyoshi Toda; Hisao Ohtake

1989-01-01

103

Factors affecting safety performance on construction sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing safety on construction sites are discussed. The impacts of the historical, economical, psychological, technical, procedural, organizational and the environmental issues are considered in terms of how these factors are linked with the level of site safety. The historical factor is assessed by the background and characteristics of the individual, such as age and experience. The economic factor

Edwin Sawacha; Shamil Naoum; Daniel Fong

1999-01-01

104

Mechanical factors affecting hemostasis and thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both physical and chemical factors can influence the activity of platelets and coagulation factors responsible for the formation of thrombotic and hemostatic masses in the vicinity of an injured vessel wall. Studies performed in controlled shear devices (viscometers) have indicated that physical factors alone can induce platelet aggregation, even in the absence of exogenous chemical factors. The physical considerations which

Vincent T. Turitto; Connie L. Hall

1998-01-01

105

Factors Affecting Arctic Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The factors discussed in this section are building blocks to understanding arctic weather and climate. Each factor plays an important role alone and in interaction with other factors. The "Arctic Energy Budget" ties all the factors together in a description of the Arctic as a climate system. The different factors are given detailed explanations and examples, and include topics like latitude, land/see distributions, solar radiation, air temperature, Air pressure, winds, humidity, clouds, precipitations, and Arctic energy budgets.

2000-01-01

106

Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…

Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

2005-01-01

107

77 FR 18862 - Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian...the Committee in investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors In Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural...

2012-03-28

108

An Activity on Factors Affecting Blood Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to explore the relationship between pressure and vessel diameter and to create a model that represents how high blood pressure may affect weakened vessels. A collaborative work of Melvin Flores, Larie Laudato and Glenn Soltes

Soltes, Glenn

2012-06-28

109

Factors Affecting Retention in Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to expand what is known regarding the factors that relate to successful completion of online, undergraduate college courses. It addressed 13 student factors available through archival data at Northern Kentucky University based on 1,493 students enrolled in fully online courses in fall 2008. It included programmatic…

Berling, Victoria L.

2010-01-01

110

How Student Satisfaction Factors Affect Perceived Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from students in two sections of a general education course offered at a research university in spring 2009 were used to explore whether student satisfaction factors are associated with perceived learning as rated by students. A list of 22 elements in the learning environment was explored. The 22 were used in creating 3 satisfaction factors

Lo, Celia C.

2010-01-01

111

Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

2009-01-01

112

Factors affecting the degradation of amoxicillin in composting toilet.  

PubMed

The biological and non-biological factors that affect the degradation of amoxicillin in the composting process of feces have been investigated. The effect of living bacteria and the enzyme (beta-lactamase) on amoxicillin decay was examined, and our results indicated that the biological effects are likely to be negligible. Consequently, the effect of phosphate, ammonia and pH level as non-biological factors was investigated by monitoring the reduction rate of amoxicillin in phosphate and ammonia buffer solutions with several pH levels. Each reduction rate constant was integrated by a simulation model, and the each calculated amoxicillin reduction profile was compared to the reduction profiles of amoxicillin in the composting process of feces. The calculated results corresponded almost exactly to the experimental profiles. We therefore concluded that the degradation of amoxicillin in a toilet matrix was dependent on the concentration of ammonia, phosphate and hydroxyl ion. PMID:17109929

Kakimoto, Takashi; Funamizu, Naoyuki

2007-02-01

113

Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue ...

G. W. Skochko T. P. Herrmann

1992-01-01

114

Factors Affecting Development of Librarianship in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The creation of the West African Library Association, library schools, the national library, the Ibadan University Library, and increase in employment opportunities due to the establishment of more libraries, are discussed as favorable factors in the development of librarianship. (MBR)

Aina, L. O.

1979-01-01

115

Some factors affecting ink transfer in gravure printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors affect the print quality and ink transfer. These are either machine factors, paper factors, or Ink factors. The aim of this work was to find out to what extent are the amount of ink transferred influenced by the previously mentioned factors. Atomic absorption was used for quantitatively measuring the amount of ink transferred. Copper phthalocyanine pigment was chosen.

S. Elsayad; F. Morsy; S. El-Sherbiny; E. Abdou

2002-01-01

116

Factors Affecting the Crevice Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affecting factors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.

Rebak, R B

2004-11-24

117

An Investigation to Develop a Probabilistic Equation of Performance in Relation to the Factors that Affect the Use of the Science Process Skill of Prediction by Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two purposes of this study were: (1) to identify those factors that significantly affect the use of the science process skill of prediction, and (2) to construct and test a probabilistic equation, based on a competence-performance model of cognitive development that accounts for a child's performance on tasks involving the skill of prediction.…

Thiel, Robert Patrick

118

Factors Affecting Visitation of Sick Newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of visiting patterns to an intensive care nursery over a 6-month period was undertaken. Data on visits were obtained from 167 admissions, 99 of which were from infants transferred from other towns. In addition, the parents were interviewed to determine factors precluding visiting. Inborn (Group A) and out-of-town (Group B) data were analyzed. For Group A, the mean

George P. Giacoia; Darnelle Rutledge; Kerstin West

1985-01-01

119

Chemical and biological factors affecting mutagen potency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review surveys the chemical and biological factors that are correlated with the mutagenic activity of the aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Particular attention is given to the predicted quantum chemical properties of the parent amines and their metabolites. A number of chemical properties have been found to correlate well with measured mutagenic potency, including log P, the enrgies of the

Michael E. Colvin; Frederick T. Hatch; James S. Felton

1998-01-01

120

Factors Affecting Information Literacy Perception and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information literacy, defined as, "the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information" (American Library Association, 2003, paragraph 1), is necessary for success in life. The present study will examine whether the factors of gender, race, and/or socioeconomic status impact information literacy performance and information…

Zehner, Drusilla Charlene Beecher

2009-01-01

121

Factors Affecting Zinc Uptake in Cropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc availabilities can change with different cropping management practices. The objective of this study was to identify some of the caus- ative factors associated with previous crops contributing to Zn uptake differences in a subsequent crop. Field studies over 3 yr evaluated the Zn availability after four precropping treatments: bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), corn (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum

M. A. Hamilton; D. T. Westermann; D. W. James

1993-01-01

122

Factors Affecting Prognosis of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

† Background : Although the poor short-term outcome of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment may represent long-term AED refractoriness in general, the same hypothesis in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has yet to come up as an important subject to be investigated. We examined to decide early drug intractability and aid treatment plan. Methods : From a prospective patient cohort of Yonsei

Ok-Joon Kim; Jang-Sung Kim; Byung-In Lee

123

Factors affecting ERP system implementation effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems enhance productivity and working quality by offering integration, standardization and simplification of multiple business transactions. The present study seeks to introduce a conceptual framework that investigates the way that human inputs (top management, users, external consultants) are linked to communication effectiveness, conflict resolution and knowledge transfer in the ERP consulting process, as well

Dimitrios Maditinos; Dimitrios Chatzoudes; Charalampos Tsairidis

2012-01-01

124

Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil

125

Environmental factors affecting chemoreceptors: an overview.  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate olfactory and gustatory receptors are necessarily exposed to the fluid which contains their relevant chemosensory environment. In terrestrial mammals, the nasal airways serve as protective accessory tissues for the olfactory receptors, but tastes receptors in all vertebrates and olfactory receptors in fish are directly exposed to the liquids which bring chemosensory stimuli to them. The differentiated epithelial cells which form taste buds and the specialized neurons which are the vertebrate olfactory receptors are constantly replaced in normal adult animals, suggesting that chemosensory function per se is damaging to the receptors. Organic and sulfur-containing air pollutants may be among those which adversely affect olfactory receptors, but adequate data are not available. Surfactants and heavy metals can produce physiological and/or morphological damage in gustatory receptors. Some heavy metals are concentrated in saliva, a liquid which interacts closely with taste receptors. A failure to evaluate human chemosensory function in relation to potential chemosensory toxicants accounts for the present inability to specify the incidence of the problem.

Halpern, B P

1982-01-01

126

Factors affecting human tolerance to sustained acceleration.  

PubMed

Linear increases in G tolerance with increases in anti-G suit (AGS) bladder inflation pressure occurred when relaxed subjects were exposed to acceleration plateaus while riding a centrifuge and were either seated upright, (15 degrees seat back angle or SBA) or supine (60 degrees SBA). Supine G tolerance with AGS bladder inflation decreased as G onset time was increased by factors of two and four. Changing the mode of operation of a new servo-controlled anti-G valve regulating AGS bladder pressure had no effect on G tolerance nor on AGS comfort scores. Comfort was unaffected by G onset time and reduced with high AGS bladder pressures. Results support the hypotheses that G protection provided by simultaneously applied anti-G techniques is additive and that the simple hydrostatic model of the circulatory system can adequately account for AGS bladder pressure changes required for G protection when body position is changed. PMID:3977799

Hrebien, L; Hendler, E

1985-01-01

127

Factors affecting frontline workers' satisfaction with supervision.  

PubMed

Objective. This research was guided by a stress and support model to examine the effects of frontline workers' background characteristics, personal stressors, job-related stressors, and workplace support on satisfaction with supervision. Method. Survey data were collected from 644 workers in 49 long-term-care settings that employed them. Regression analysis were used to determine the effects of worker level and then Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and organizational factors on the outcome. Results. Although all four variable categories made significant contributions to explaining satisfaction with supervision, the most powerful were personal stressors and job-related stressors. Results from HLM analysis showed frontline workers in nursing homes and those employed in for-profit organizations had lower levels of satisfaction with supervision. Discussion. Findings suggest organizational interventions to address workers' financial and health issues and management practices such as better training programs and peer mentoring could enhance workers' satisfaction with supervision. PMID:19144970

Noelker, Linda S; Ejaz, Farida K; Menne, Heather L; Bagaka's, Joshua G

2009-02-01

128

Factors Affecting Crowded Acuity: Eccentricity and Contrast  

PubMed Central

Purpose Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with non-foveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. Methods Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from ?2.5% to ?99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3, 5 and 10 degrees in the inferior visual field. Results When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea, and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. Conclusions The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery due to the effects of crowding.

Coates, Daniel R.; Chin, Jeremy M.; Chung, Susana T. L.

2013-01-01

129

High velocity formability and factors affecting it  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High velocity forming methods successfully address problems faced in conventional forming techniques. They can be effectively used for forming metals with low formability like aluminum alloys and high strength steel. They can be instrumental is manufacturing of lighter vehicles with higher fuel efficiency. Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is an HVF method that is gaining wide acceptance due to its advantages and scope for commercialization. A number of experimental studies were carried out with EMF with the main goal of exploring fundamentals about material formability at high velocities, which can be used to establish practical design guidelines and to make models of high velocity formability. Thus the main factors that influence high velocity formability-inertia/size effects; changes in constitutive behavior; impact; and dynamic failure modes, were studied mainly with experiments. The role of changes in constitutive behavior in improving formability was studied from existing studies and new theoretical studies involving High velocity Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) and through solving an inverse problem of ring expansion. Tube free-expansion experiments were carried out to demonstrate enhanced metal formability even in the absence of die impact. To further establish the significance of inertia, electromagnetic ring free-expansion experiments with rings of different aspect ratios were carried out. A higher aspect ratio sample had better formability in terms of uniform and total elongation and also had fewer necks than a low aspect ratio (more slender) ring at the same velocity. The results clearly demonstrated the influence of sample aspect ratio (dimensions) and hence inertia on high velocity formability. Die impact experiments were carried out with tubes and rings to show the beneficial influence of die arrest of a moving sample. It was revealed that die impact in an appropriate range of velocities can significantly suppress failure and reduce the number of tears and fractures in the samples. Further a new mode of failure in die impacted samples, spall-like dynamic rupture was observed, which had characteristics similar to classic spall failure. Thus through all these studies, the important factors influencing high velocity formability was studied and it was shown that it can be more complex than quasi-static formability. Boundary conditions for each forming operation can play a more significant role and hence simple tools like FLDs might not be practical tools for studying high velocity formability.

Dehra, Mala Seth

130

Evaluation of factors affecting heat flux sensors  

SciTech Connect

A program to evaluate heat-flux sensors employed in thermal measurements of passive solar structures has been performed. A guarded hot box was designed and built in accordance with ASTM Standard C236-80 to generate known heat fluxes through a variety of structural materials. These fluxes were compared with those measured by a heat flux transducer calibrated by both by the manufacturer and an independent laboratory. The guarded hot plate method, ASTM C117-76, was used in the latter case. The three sets of values were often in substantial disagreement, the extent of which varied with the substrate to which the transducer was attached. An analysis of the data indicates that the cause of disagreement lies in a local distortion of the heat flux through the substrate caused by the presence of the transducer. Disturbance of the air flow over the transducer and mismatch of surface thermal emissivities of the transducer and substrate are contributing factors. This work has demonstrated a need for a standardized procedure for heat flux sensor calibration, and the ASTM guarded hot plate method is recommended for this purpose. An approximate method for correcting the heat flux indicated by a transducer calibrated in this manner to bring it in agreement with the measured by the guarded hot box is presented.

Darnell, A.J.; McCoy, L.R.; Ingle, W.B.

1983-01-01

131

Factors affecting drug adsorption on beta zeolites.  

PubMed

The adsorption behaviour of three commonly used drugs, namely ketoprofen, hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol, from diluted aqueous solutions on beta zeolites with different SiO2/Al2O3 ratio (i.e. 25, 38 and 360) was investigated by changing the ionic strength and the pH, before and after thermal treatment of the adsorbents. The selective adsorption of drugs was confirmed by thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction. The adsorption capacity of beta zeolites was strongly dependent on both the solution pH and the alumina content of the adsorbent. Such a remarkable difference was interpreted as a function of the interactions between drug molecules and zeolite surface functional groups. Atenolol was readily adsorbed on the less hydrophobic zeolite, under pH conditions in which electrostatic interactions were predominant. On the other hand, ketoprofen adsorption was mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions. For undissociated molecules the adsorption capability increased with the increase of hydrophobicity. PMID:23436460

Pasti, Luisa; Sarti, Elena; Cavazzini, Alberto; Marchetti, Nicola; Dondi, Francesco; Martucci, Annalisa

2013-05-01

132

FACTORS AFFECTING THE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF ATMOSPHERIC SULFATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors that influence the collection and measurement of atmospheric sulfate were investigated. Special emphasis was given to those factors that cause the formation of extraneous sulfate during the sampling process. The factors considered were filter type and composition, ambient...

133

Factors affecting transmission of fungal pathogens of aphids.  

PubMed

Fungal pathogens are the most important pathogens of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae), and epizootics, particularly those caused by Entomophthorales (Zygomycota), are frequently observed and often rapidly reduce aphid populations. Fungi in the Hypocreales (Ascomycota) are less commonly found infecting aphids but can be important. The transmission of aphid fungal pathogens is affected by many factors, including: host biology and structure, pathogen characteristics, host-plant characteristics, and environmental factors. This paper is an overview of selected factors affecting transmission of aphid pathogens. PMID:16780867

Steinkraus, Donald C

2006-07-01

134

Factors That Affect the Academic Success of Foreign Students at Cardinal Stritch University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are limited studies in the literature on the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students in the United States. This ex post facto mixed method study investigated the factors that affect the academic success of foreign students at Cardinal Stitch University (CSU), a medium size, private university located in the Midwestern…

Annor, Peter

2010-01-01

135

Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Tutorials: Factors Affecting Students' Preferences and Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to determine the factors that affect students' preferences regarding tutorial modes. A learning-habit inclinations questionnaire (LHIQ) was constructed and administered to 288 students. Factor analysis revealed four factors: "time management," "ease of access" to learning materials, "positive aspects of interaction," and "negative…

Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Saporta, Kelly; Caspi, Avner

2005-01-01

136

Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojec...

M. F. Smith S. Majewski A. G. Weisenberger D. A. Kieper R. R. Raylman

2001-01-01

137

What makes listening difficult. Factors affecting second language listening comprehension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To establish what is currently known about factors that affect foreign language listening comprehension, with a focus on characteristics of the listener, passage, and testing conditions. Research on second language (L2) listening comprehension strongly su...

A. Blodgett A. Bloomfield E. Rhoades J. Linck S. C. Wayland

2010-01-01

138

Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations ...

M. A. Gugan

1990-01-01

139

Factors affecting adoption in China, 1950-87.  

PubMed

Though adoption in China is known to have increased as more girls were abandoned and became available for adoption following the introduction of the country's one-child policy in the 1980s, little is known about Chinese adoption practices. This paper investigates the factors affecting adoption in China in the period 1950-87 using data from the National Two-Per-Thousand Sample Survey on Fertility and Contraception of 1988. The results show that the national adoption rate was 2.3 per cent. Childless women were more likely than women with children to adopt and did not show a sex preference. Women with children by birth used adoption to secure a child of the 'missing' sex. Women who had experienced the death of a child were more likely to adopt than those who had not. Women with children may have used adoption as a strategy to circumvent the strict family planning policies. PMID:15204260

Liu, Jihong; Larsen, Ulla; Wyshak, Grace

2004-01-01

140

Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne 210Pb, daughter of 222Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO3, and available phosphorus (P2O5) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil.

Mihailovi?, Aleksandra; Vu?ini? Vasi?, Milica; Todorovi?, Nataša; Hansman, Jan; Vasin, Jovica; Krmar, Miodrag

2014-06-01

141

Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement.  

PubMed

Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved. PMID:22073657

Pérez Lapeña, B; Wijnberg, K M; Stein, A; Hulscher, S J M H

2011-10-01

142

Factors affecting the bid\\/no bid decision in the Saudi Arabian construction contractors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bid\\/no bid decision requires an understanding of a company's assessment in relation to factors affecting the decision. Different companies might have different assessment values. The aim is to investigate how bid\\/no bid decisions are influenced by different characteristics of contractors. Various factors are identified and then analysed in order to investigate their influence and relative significance. A questionnaire survey

Abdulrahman Salem Bageis; Chris Fortune

2009-01-01

143

Factors affecting knowledge management adoption of Taiwan small and medium-sized enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge Management (KM) has become a critical component for maintaining competitive advantages. Most existing research looks at individual industries or general concepts; few studies have investigated KM use in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). This research empirically investigates factors affecting the adoption of KM. Results indicate that important factors maturing of Information Technology (IT) applications, the complexity of management and

Ru-Ching Hsu; Diana Lawson; Ting-Peng Liang

2007-01-01

144

Effect of Experimental Factors on the Recognition of Affective Mental States through Physiological Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable classification of affective mental states through processing of physiological response requires the use of appropriate machine learning techniques, and the analysis of how experimental factors influence the data recorded. While many studies have been conducted in this field, the effect of many of these factors is yet to be properly investigated and understood. This study investigates the relative effects

Rafael A. Calvo; Iain Brown; Steve Scheding

2009-01-01

145

Key risk factors affecting electrical safety in hazardous (classified) locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key risk factors affecting electrical safety in hazardous locations, with emphasis on human and environmental factors are discussed. The results of a survey that provides a user view of the reliability of area classification, product specification, installation, maintenance, documentation, and practice are presented and discussed

Richard J. Buschart; Joseph H. Kuczka

1993-01-01

146

Methods of Combinatorial Optimization to Reveal Factors Affecting Gene Length  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present a novel method for genome ranking according to gene lengths. The main outcomes described in this paper are the following: the formulation of the genome ranking problem, presentation of relevant approaches to solve it, and the demonstration of preliminary results from prokaryotic genomes ordering. Using a subset of prokaryotic genomes, we attempted to uncover factors affecting gene length. We have demonstrated that hyperthermophilic species have shorter genes as compared with mesophilic organisms, which probably means that environmental factors affect gene length. Moreover, these preliminary results show that environmental factors group together in ranking evolutionary distant species.

Bolshoy, Alexander; Tatarinova, Tatiana

2012-01-01

147

Investigating Factors Influencing Rates of Chemical Reactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a lab investigation in which students observe the rate of generation of hydrogen gas from a reaction, and then modify the procedure to compare another variable affecting the rate of this reaction.

Derickson, Paula

148

The Factor Game (i-Math Investigations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online, interactive, multimedia math investigation. The Factor Game engages students in a friendly contest in which winning strategies involve distinguishing between numbers with many factors and numbers with few factors. Students are then guided through an analysis of game strategies and introduced to the definitions of prime and composite numbers.

Forum, Math; Illuminations; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

2001-01-01

149

Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

150

Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. PMID:22225033

Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil

2011-12-01

151

Statistical Analysis of the Different Factors Affecting the Diarrhea  

PubMed Central

Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The response variable for the study was the recovery time of diarrhea. The results of the analysis show that the Zinc is the main factor which affect the recovery time in Peshawar.

Zaman, Qamruz; Khan, Imtiaz

2011-01-01

152

Factors affecting slip melting point of palm oil products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different factors affecting the slip melting point of palm oil has been evaluated. The most important factor\\u000a appears to be the difference in tempering temperatures. The influence of different tempering temperatures on slip point values\\u000a is, however, dependent on the nature of the sample. For hydrogenated oils and for some high-melting palm stearins, tempering\\u000a has no effect.

K. G. Berger; W. L. Siew; Flingoh C. H. OH

1982-01-01

153

Factors Affecting Information Processing in Short-Term Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three experiments were conducted to investigate several of the variables that affect information processing in short-term memory as reflected by the strategies used by Ss in a visual search task. The first study investigated differences in strategy as a f...

S. M. Moss J. F. Hearns J. B. Soward

1966-01-01

154

Factors affecting the long-term results of endodontic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of various factors that may affect the outcome of root canal therapy was evaluated in 356 patients 8 to 10 yr after the treatment. The results of treatment were directly dependent on the preop- erative status of the pulp and periapical tissues. The rate of success for cases with vital or nonvital pulps but having no periapical radiolucency

Ulf Sjögren; Björn Hägglund; Göran Sundqvist; Kenneth Wing

1990-01-01

155

Factors Affecting Coefficient Alpha: A Mini Monte Carlo Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors affecting a lower-bound estimate of internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, are explored. Theoretically, coefficient alpha is an estimate of the correlation between two tests drawn at random from a pool of items like the items in the test under consideration. As a practical matter, coefficient alpha can be an index…

Reinhardt, Brian M.

156

Factor Analytic Strategies Partitioning Children's Verbal Expression of Affectivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies a variety of factor analytic approaches to data obtained from the Structured Pediatric Psychosocial Interview (SPPI), an instrument designed to gain information about children's social background and the process by which they relate affective distress. Subjects were independent samples of 500, 400, 519 and 1,000 pediatric patients and…

Webb, Thomas E.; Van Devere, Chris A.

1981-01-01

157

Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell

2011-01-01

158

Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

Kilday, Carolyn R.

2010-01-01

159

Factors Affecting Use of Environmental Services by the Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to function independently in the later years has been defined as a combination of capability and support. To examine factors affecting older adults' use of services provided in an accommodating environment, 52 physically independent residents of an Arizona apartment complex for the elderly were surveyed. Time spent living in the…

Hartwigsen, Gail

160

Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

Myers, Stephanie E.

2010-01-01

161

Factors affecting Iran`s future. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.

Sinai, J.

1993-05-28

162

Factors Affecting the Demand for Congregate Meals at Nutrition Sites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined factors affecting attendance by elderly persons at 660 congregate meal sites. Results showed that measures of the quality of services provided (method of food preparation, type of building used, presence of other nutrition programs in the community) predicted attendance more than conventional demographic measures of need. (WAS)

Burkhardt, Jon E.; And Others

1983-01-01

163

Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

2009-01-01

164

Factors affecting use of fission foils as dosimetry sensors  

SciTech Connect

Fission foils are commonly used as dosimetry sensors. They play a very important role in neutron spectrum determinations. This paper provides a combination of experimental measurements and calculations to quantify the importance and synergy of several factors that affect the fission response of a dosimeter. Only when these effects are properly treated can fission dosimeters be used with sufficient fidelity.

Griffin, P.J.; Vehar, D.W.; Kelly, J.G.; Holm, C.V.

1996-12-31

165

Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

2009-01-01

166

Factors affecting transmission of fungal pathogens of aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal pathogens are the most important pathogens of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae), and epizootics, particularly those caused by Entomophthorales (Zygomycota), are frequently observed and often rapidly reduce aphid populations. Fungi in the Hypocreales (Ascomycota) are less commonly found infecting aphids but can be important. The transmission of aphid fungal pathogens is affected by many factors, including: host biology and structure, pathogen

Donald C. Steinkraus

2006-01-01

167

Factors affecting soil microbial community structure in tomato cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. The management and environmental factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure were identified in a three-year field experiment. The experiment consisted of a tomato production agroecosystem with the following nine treatments: bare soil, black polyethylene mulch, white polyethylene mulch, vetch cover crop, vetch

Jeffrey S. Buyer; John R. Teasdale; Daniel P. Roberts; Inga A. Zasada; Jude E. Maul

2010-01-01

168

Understanding Correlation: Factors that Affect the Size of r  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe and illustrate 6 factors that affect the size of a Pearson correlation: (a) the amount of variability in the data, (b) differences in the shapes of the 2 distributions, (c) lack of linearity, (d) the presence of 1 or more "outliers," (e) characteristics of the sample, and (f) measurement error. Also discussed are ways to…

Goodwin, Laura D.; Leech, Nancy L.

2006-01-01

169

Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

Kwan, Eugene E.

2005-01-01

170

Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

Nergis, Aysegul

2013-01-01

171

Factors Affecting Quality of Life In Persons on Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) in persons with end stage renal disease and explore factors that may affect QOL. Biological function, symptoms, function, general health perception, and characteristics of the individual and environment explained 61% of the variability in overall QOL. Only anxiety, depression, and general health perception significantly contributed

Daria L. Kring; Patricia B. Crane

172

Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

2010-01-01

173

Factors affecting Internet use in a saturated-access population  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large body of literature that focuses on technology and innovation adoption. Much of that deals with the factors that affect adoption at different stages. Some research deals with early adoption, such as that by Rogers (1995). Other research looks at innovations as they begin to penetrate the general population, such as Lin’s (1998) study of personal computer

Rick Busselle; Joey Reagan; Bruce Pinkleton; Kim Jackson

1999-01-01

174

Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

2010-01-01

175

Factors Affecting Online Bibliographic Retrieval: A Conceptual Framework for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents conceptual framework for organization of factors (independent variables) affecting online bibliographic retrieval. Roles that variables play in research studies are described and examples considering various elements--setting, user, request, database, search system, searcher, search process, search outcome--are provided. Twenty-one…

Fidel, Raya; Soergel, Dagobert

1983-01-01

176

Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

2009-01-01

177

Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5–9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N=211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles ?5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall

Melanie J Starbuck; Robert A Dailey; E. Keith Inskeep

2004-01-01

178

Critical Factors Affecting the Evaluation of Information Control Systems with the COBIT Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically investigates the factors affecting auditors in evaluating information technology (IT) control structures by employing the COBIT framework, a popular IT internal control with integrated platform, and examines the relationship between monitoring function and other COBIT dimensions. The results of our empirical analysis indicate that key factors of IT governance endorsed by certified public accountants (CPAs) in Taiwan

Fengyi Lin; Liming Guan; Wenchang Fang

2010-01-01

179

A Review of Published Quantitative Experimental Studies on Factors Affecting Laboratory Fume Hood Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempted to identify the important factors that affect the performance of a laboratory fume hood and the relationship between the factors and hood performance under various conditions by analyzing and generalizing the results from other studies that quantitatively investigated fume hood performance. A literature search identified 43 studies that were published from 1966 to 2006. For each of

Kwangseog Ahn; Susan Woskie; Louis DiBerardinis; Michael Ellenbecker

2008-01-01

180

Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis in Prunus incisa cv. February Pink.  

PubMed

Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis from root explants of Prunus incisa Thunb. cv. February Pink were investigated. Using a medium containing Murashige and Skoog salts and vitamins supplemented with 10 microM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D), we evaluated the effects of light, growth regulators, amino acids, carbohydrate source, and root induction medium. Explants cultured under light or dark conditions both resulted in the formation of embryos. Embryogenesis was inhibited by the addition of 6-benzyladenine, thidiazuron, or gibberellic acid to the medium. Amino acids were not effective in promoting embryogenesis, with high levels of amino acids actually inhibiting it. Sucrose and glucose effectively induced embryogenesis, while sorbitol and mannitol completely inhibited it. Sucrose and glucose also promoted secondary embryogenesis. Embryos that formed in medium containing 4% or 5% sucrose were abnormally shaped and did not fully develop, while those that formed in medium with sucrose concentrations of 2% or 3% were much more vigorous. Root explants that were induced on medium containing 1.0 micro M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) produced more somatic embryos than explants induced on medium without IBA. Approximately 50% of the roots induced on medium containing 1.0 microM IBA produced somatic embryos on medium containing 10 microM 2,4-D and 3% sucrose. PMID:15022015

Cheong, E J; Pooler, M R

2004-06-01

181

Factors affecting benthic impacts at Scottish fish farms.  

PubMed

The factors affecting patterns of benthic [seabed] biology and chemistry around 50 Scottish fish farms were investigated using linear mixed-effects models that account for inherent correlations between observations from the same farm. The abundance of benthic macrofauna and sediment concentrations of organic carbon were both influenced by a significant, albeit weak, interaction between farm size, defined as the maximum weight of fish permitted on site at any one time, and current speed. Above a farm size threshold of between 800 and 1000 t, the magnitude of effects at farms located in areas of elevated current speeds were greater than at equivalent farms located in more quiescent waters. Sediment concentrations of total organic matter were influenced by an interaction between distance and depth, indicating that wind-driven resuspension events may help reduce the accumulation of organic waste at farms located in shallow waters. The analyses presented here demonstrate that the production and subsequent fate of organic waste at fish farms is more complex than is often assumed; in isolation, current speed, water depth, and farr size are not necessarily good predictors of benthic impact. PMID:20178333

Mayor, Daniel J; Zuur, Alain F; Solan, Martin; Paton, Graeme I; Killham, Ken

2010-03-15

182

Factors affecting development of a motion imagery quality metric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion imagery community would benefit from the availability of standard measures for assessing image interpretability. The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) has served as a community standard for still imagery, but no comparable scale exists for motion imagery. Several considerations unique to motion imagery indicate that the standard methodology employed in the past for NIIRS development may not be applicable or, at a minimum, require modifications. Traditional methods for NIIRS development rely on a close linkage between perceived image quality, as captured by specific image interpretation tasks, and the sensor parameters associated with image acquisition. The dynamic nature of motion imagery suggests that this type of linkage may not exist or may be modulated by other factors. An initial study was conducted to understand the effects target motion, camera motion, and scene complexity have on perceived image interpretability for motion imagery. This paper summarizes the findings from this evaluation. In addition, several issues emerged that require further investigation: - The effect of frame rate on the perceived interpretability of motion imagery - Interactions between color and target motion which could affect perceived interpretability - The relationships among resolution, viewing geometry, and image interpretability - The ability of an analyst to satisfy specific image exploitation tasks relative to different types of motion imagery clips Plans are being developed to address each of these issues through direct evaluations. This paper discusses each of these concerns, presents the plans for evaluations, and explores the implications for development of a motion imagery quality metric.

Irvine, John M.; Fenimore, Charles; Cannon, David; Roberts, John; Israel, Steven A.; Simon, Larry; Watts, Charles; Miller, James D.; Aviles, Ana I.; Tighe, Paul F.; Behrens, Richard J.; Haverkamp, Donna

2005-05-01

183

Advancing Research Into Affective Factors in Mathematics Learning: Clarifying Key Factors, Terminology and Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on affective factors in the learning of mathematics is difficult to interpret because of differences and inconsistencies in terminology and measurement. To advance research in this field of affect, I compare and clarify terminology, and reconcile scales for measurement by examining the factors and research instruments targeted by four research teams. The findings reveal two distinct broad primary

Patricia C. Cretchley

2008-01-01

184

Factors affecting bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD). Methods 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient's quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29). Results Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site. Conclusion As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

Ayatollahi, Azin; Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

185

Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health  

PubMed Central

The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health.

Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

186

A study of factors affecting indoor radon properties  

SciTech Connect

The factors affecting indoor radon properties in Hong Kong have been studied, including the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon progeny, the equilibrium factor, and the fraction of unattached radon progeny. These factors fall into three categories, namely, (1) the building characteristics, including cooling method, age of the buildings, wall coverings and floor coverings; (2) the location of sites, including nearby environments, geological materials of the area, and the elevation of the sites; and (3) the meteorological parameters, including rainfall, relative humidity, pressure, temperature, and wind speeds. For category (1), only the ventilation is found to affect the indoor radon properties. For category (2), only the nearby environments have effects. For category (3), the rainfall and temperature are found to have significant effects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Li, K.C. [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

1996-08-01

187

Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

2011-01-01

188

Investigations of the relationship between use of in vitro cell culture-quantitative PCR and a mouse-based bioassay for evaluating critical factors affecting the disinfection performance of pulsed UV light for treating Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in saline.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium parvum is an enteric coccidian parasite that is recognised as a frequent cause of water-borne disease in humans. We report for the first time on use of the in vitro HCT-8 cell culture-quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay and the in vivo SCID-mouse bioassay for evaluating critical factors that reduce or eliminate infectivity of C. parvum after irradiating oocysts in saline solution under varying operational conditions with pulsed UV light. Infections post UV treatments were detected by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy and by quantitative PCR in cell culture, and by IF staining of faeces and by hematoxylin and eosin staining of intestinal villi in mice. There was a good agreement between using cell culture-qPCR and the mouse assay for determining reduction or elimination of C. parvum infectivity as a consequence of varying UV operating conditions. Reduction in infectivity depended on the intensity of lamp discharge energy applied, amount of pulsing and population size of oocysts (P < or = 0.05). Conventional radiometer was unable to measure fluence or UV dose in saline samples due to the ultra-short non-continuous nature of the high-energy light pulses. Incorporation of humic acid at a concentration above that found in surface water (i.e., < or =10 ppm) did not significantly affect PUV disinfection capability irrespective of parameters tested (P < or = 0.05). These observations show that use of this HCT-8 cell culture assay is equivalent to using the 'gold standard' mouse-based infectivity assay for determining disinfection performances of PUV for treating C. parvum in saline solution. PMID:20096310

Garvey, Mary; Farrell, Hugh; Cormican, Martin; Rowan, Neil

2010-03-01

189

Which Factors Affect Software Projects Maintenance Cost More?  

PubMed Central

Introduction The software industry has had significant progress in recent years. The entire life of software includes two phases: production and maintenance. Software maintenance cost is increasingly growing and estimates showed that about 90% of software life cost is related to its maintenance phase. Extraction and considering the factors affecting the software maintenance cost help to estimate the cost and reduce it by controlling the factors. Methods In this study, the factors affecting software maintenance cost were determined then were ranked based on their priority and after that effective ways to reduce the maintenance costs were presented. This paper is a research study. 15 software related to health care centers information systems in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and hospitals function were studied in the years 2010 to 2011. Results and discussion Among Medical software maintenance team members, 40 were selected as sample. After interviews with experts in this field, factors affecting maintenance cost were determined. In order to prioritize the factors derived by AHP, at first, measurement criteria (factors found) were appointed by members of the maintenance team and eventually were prioritized with the help of EC software. Based on the results of this study, 32 factors were obtained which were classified in six groups. “Project” was ranked the most effective feature in maintenance cost with the highest priority. By taking into account some major elements like careful feasibility of IT projects, full documentation and accompany the designers in the maintenance phase good results can be achieved to reduce maintenance costs and increase longevity of the software.

Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Hajrahimi, Nafiseh

2013-01-01

190

Factors affecting quality and performance – a case study of Korean aircraft maintenance unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the Korean aviation system's reputation for aviation safety, in the case of military aircraft, there have been accidents involving jet fighters. As the results of investigations into the causes of the accidents revealed that maintenance errors made by mechanics contributed to some degree to the accidents, it is crucial to investigate factors affecting individual mechanic's maintenance errors and to

Heejun Park; Min Jung Kang; Seokhee Son

2012-01-01

191

Fatherhood Across Two Generations Factors Affecting Early Family Roles  

PubMed Central

This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come from the linked Child-Mother and Young Adult Samples of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood, and from the original youth sample of parallel ages. The results support previous research showing the importance of economic and educational disadvantages and nontraditional family structure on being a non-resident father. The effects of family structure appear to have attenuated between generations as determinants of men's early parental roles.

Goldscheider, Frances; Hofferth, Sandra; Spearin, Carrie; Curtin, Sally

2013-01-01

192

Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))

1990-01-01

193

Factors Affecting Perceived Stigma in Leprosy Affected Persons in Western Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background There are various factors which construct the perception of stigma in both leprosy affected persons and unaffected persons. The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of perceived stigma and the risk factors contributing to it among leprosy affected person attending the Green Pastures Hospital, Pokhara municipality of western Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 people affected by leprosy at Green Pastures Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre. Persons above the age of 18 were interviewed using a set of questionnaire form and Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). In addition, two sets of focused group discussions each containing 10 participants from the ward were conducted with the objectives of answering the frequently affected EMIC items. Results Among 135 leprosy affected persons, the median score of perceived stigma was 10 while it ranged from 0–34. Higher perceived stigma score was found in illiterate persons (p?=?0.008), participants whose incomes were self-described as inadequate (p?=?0.014) and who had changed their occupation due to leprosy (p?=?0.018). Patients who lacked information on leprosy (p?=?0.025), knowledge about the causes (p?=?0.02) and transmission of leprosy (p?=?0.046) and those who had perception that leprosy is a severe disease (p<0.001) and is difficult to treat (p<0.001) had higher perceived stigma score. Participants with disfigurement or deformities (p?=?0.014), ulcers (p?=?0.022) and odorous ulcers (p?=?0.043) had higher perceived stigma score. Conclusion The factors associated with higher stigma were illiteracy, perceived economical inadequacy, change of occupation due to leprosy, lack of knowledge about leprosy, perception of leprosy as a severe disease and difficult to treat. Similarly, visible deformities and ulcers were associated with higher stigma. There is an urgent need of stigma reduction strategies focused on health education and health awareness programs in addition to the necessary rehabilitation support.

Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Chapman, Robert S.; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul

2014-01-01

194

Factors Affecting the ${Z}$Width of a Haptic Display  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the performance of force-reflecting interfaces (“haptic displays”). The authors suggest that an important measure of performance is the dynamic range of achievable impedances-“Z-Width”-and that an impedance is achievable if it satisfies a robustness property such as passivity. Several factors affecting Z-Width-sample-and-hold, inherent interface dynamics, displacement sensor quantization, and velocity filtering-are discussed. A set of experiments designed to

J. Edward Colgate; J. Michael Brown

1994-01-01

195

Factors affecting Canadian teachers' willingness to teach sexual health education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual health education (SHE) and their perceptions of factors affecting their willingness to

Jacqueline N. Cohen; E. Sandra Byers; Heather A. Sears

2011-01-01

196

Factors affecting Canadian teachers' willingness to teach sexual health education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual health education (SHE) and their perceptions of factors affecting their willingness to

Jacqueline N. Cohen; E. Sandra Byers; Heather A. Sears

2012-01-01

197

Factors Affecting Exhalation of Radon From a Gravelly Sandy Loam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of radon exhalation from a gravely sandy loam have been made in a semi-arid climate by using a combination of closed accumulation, flow-through accumulation, and 222Rn and 2Xøpb soil profiles. The meteorological factors that most affected the instantaneous value of exhalation of 222Rn were atmospheric pressure and rain. Effects due to other parameters such as wind or temperature were

S. D. Schery; D. H. Gaeddert; M. H. Wilkening

1984-01-01

198

Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

2005-01-01

199

Factors Affecting Patients' Graft Choice in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple studies have reported that allografts are acceptable alternatives to autografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions. Our clinical practice allows patient involvement in graft decision-making. This study examined the patients' preference for graft selection and the factors affecting their decision. Methods Patients scheduled to undergo an ACL reconstruction surgery (n = 129) at a university medical center in Korea were enrolled in this study. Information leaflets with graft descriptions were provided prior to hospital admission, and the patients were allowed to choose one of two surgical graft types. The patients were asked to complete a questionnaire that reflected their decision-making processes, and the patients' trends and factors affecting their choice of graft were analyzed based on their responses. Results Most patients (54.3%) selected autografts for the ACL reconstruction. The surgeon's explanation was the most important factor affecting the final patient decision followed by the information derived from Internet searches. Patients who derived the majority of their understanding of the graft types from the Internet chose allografts at significantly higher rates. Conclusions Patient graft selection is a reasonable way of designating the type of surgical procedure. Most patients selected autografts for their ACL reconstruction. However, patients who performed significant Internet-based research tended to prefer allografts.

Koh, Hae Seok; Kong, Chae-Gwan; Won, Ho-Yeon; Kim, Kun-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Han

2010-01-01

200

Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

201

Foot sarcomas: Factors affecting oncological and functional outcomes  

PubMed Central

Oncological and functional prognostic factors for patients with foot sarcomas have yet to be clarified. This study was undertaken to identify the prognostic factors for oncological and functional outcomes and the significance of adjuvant radiotherapy in achieving local control in patients with foot sarcomas. We reviewed 31 consecutive patients with soft tissue (24), and bone (7) sarcomas arising in the foot and analyzed the impact of patient characteristics on the functional and oncological outcomes. There were seven cases with clear cell or epithelioid sarcomas. Two of the 31 cases experienced local recurrence despite the fact that only two cases received adjuvant radiotherapy. Sixteen out of 18 cases of soft tissue sarcomas with limb salvage surgery underwent reconstructive procedures for soft tissue defects. Amputation required as a surgical treatment (p=0.002) was a poor prognostic factor. Larger size (p=0.029) and bone reconstruction (p=0.018) were poor prognostic factors for local recurrence-free survival, and amputation (p=0.001) and bone reconstruction (p=0.008) for metastasis-free survival in patients with soft tissue sarcomas. No significant factors were derived in patients with bone sarcomas. Larger size (p=0.021), amputation (p=0.016) and bone reconstruction (p=0.03) were poor prognostic factors affecting function in patients with soft tissue sarcomas, and hindfoot site (p=0.028) and amputation (p=0.028) were poor prognostic factors affecting function in patients with bone sarcomas. Surgery with a negative operative margin and reconstructive procedures achieved good local control and function. Patients that had tumors with larger size, necessitating amputation or bone reconstruction, required novel multimodal treatment in order to improve their outcomes.

KOZAWA, EIJI; NISHIDA, YOSHIHIRO; NAKASHIMA, HIROATSU; TSUKUSHI, SATOSHI; TORIYAMA, KAZUHIRO; KAMEI, YUZURU; ISHIGURO, NAOKI

2012-01-01

202

Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Methods: Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. Results: A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.

Mahesh, P.A.; Archana, S.; Jayaraj, B.S.; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S.K.; Shashidhar, H.P.; Sunitha, B.S.; Prabhakar, A.K.

2012-01-01

203

Recruitment and retention: factors that affect pericyte migration.  

PubMed

Pericytes are critical for vascular morphogenesis and contribute to several pathologies, including cancer development and progression. The mechanisms governing pericyte migration and differentiation are complex and have not been fully established. Current literature suggests that platelet-derived growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-?, sphingosine 1-phosphate/endothelial differentiation gene-1, angiopoietin-1/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, angiopoietin-2/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 1, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 5, Semaphorin-3A/Neuropilin, and matrix metalloproteinase activity regulate the recruitment of pericytes to nascent vessels. Interestingly, many of these pathways are directly affected by secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Here, we summarize the function of these factors in pericyte migration and discuss if and how SPARC might influence these activities and thus provide an additional layer of control for the recruitment of vascular support cells. Additionally, the consequences of targeted inhibition of pericytes in tumors and the current understanding of pericyte recruitment in pathological environments are discussed. PMID:23912898

Aguilera, Kristina Y; Brekken, Rolf A

2014-01-01

204

Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue  

PubMed Central

Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.

Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogerio S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

2013-01-01

205

The investigation of parameters affecting boron removal by electrocoagulation method.  

PubMed

Boron removal from wastewaters by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, boron concentration and type and concentration of supporting electrolyte were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. The experiments were carried out by keeping the pH of solution constant and optimum pH of solution was determined 8.0 for the aluminum electrode. Although energy consumption increased with decreasing boron concentration, which conductivity of these solutions were low, boron removal efficiency was higher at 100 mg/L than that of 1000 mg/L. Current density was an important parameter affecting removal efficiency. Boron removal efficiency and energy consumption increased with increasing current density from 1.2 to 6.0 mA/cm2. The types of different supporting electrolyte were experimented in order to investigate to this parameter effect on boron removal. The highest boron removal efficiency, 97%, was found by CaCl2. Added CaCl2 increased more the conductivity of solution according to other supporting electrolytes, but decreased energy consumption. The results showed to have a high effectiveness of the electrocoagulation method in removing boron from aqueous solutions. PMID:15985328

Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuo?lu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar; Keskinler, Bülent

2005-10-17

206

Factors affecting laser-trim stability of thick film resistors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various factors affecting precision of trim and resistor stability were considered. The influence of machine operating parameters on resistor performance was examined and quantified through statistically designed experiments for a Q switched YAG laser system. Laser kerf quality was studied by scanning electron microscopy and related to kerf isolation resistance measurements. A relatively simple production oriented, quality control test is proposed for rapid determination of kerf electrical stability. In addition, the effect of cut design and extent of trim on precision and stability were discussed.

Cote, R. E.; Headley, R. C.

1977-01-01

207

Factors affecting the level of success of community information systems.  

PubMed

The factors that influence the ultimate level of success or failure of systems development projects have received considerable attention in the academic literature. However, previous research has rarely targeted different instances of a common type of system within a homogeneous organisational sector. This paper presents the results of a survey of IM&T managers within Community Trusts to gain insights into the factors affecting the success of Community Information Systems. The results demonstrate that the most successful operational systems were thoroughly tested prior to implementation and enjoyed high levels of user and senior management commitment. Furthermore, it has been shown that there is a relationship between the level of organisational impact and systems success, with the most successful systems engendering changes to the host organisation's culture, level of empowerment and clinical working practices. In addition to being of academic interest, this research provides many important insights for practising IM&T managers. PMID:10747445

Coombs, C R; Doherty, N F; Loan-Clarke, J

1999-01-01

208

The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities within local school districts, the use of formal and informal professional development, and the needs of rural science teachers compared to urban and suburban teachers.

Roux, Judi Ann

209

Factors affecting the bid\\/no bid decision in the Palestinian construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify and rank the factors that affect the bid\\/no bid decision according to their relative importance from the perspective of the contracting parties operating in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The objectives of this research were investigated through a postal questionnaire, which covered a randomly selected sample of 63 contractors,

Adnan Enshassi; Sherif Mohamed; Ala'a El Karriri

2010-01-01

210

Risk-Taking among Adolescents: Associations with Social and Affective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research investigated the associations of social and affective factors with risk-taking in male and female adolescents. A sample of 269 Israeli adolescents completed questionnaires measuring frequency of involvement in risk-taking behaviours, relationships with parents, orientation towards peer group, depressive mood, and aggressive behaviour.…

Michael, Keren; Ben-Zur, Hasida

2007-01-01

211

Factors Affecting Applications to Oxford and Cambridge--Repeat Survey. Executive Summary with Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research follows up a study conducted in 1998 by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to investigate teachers' and students' views on the factors affecting students' choices of whether or not to apply to Oxford and Cambridge universities. It identifies what has changed since 1998 and areas in which the universities could…

Ridley, Kate; White, Kerensa; Styles, Ben; Morrison, Jo

2005-01-01

212

Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret ( Mustela putorius furo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous

Ziyi Li; Xingshen Sun; Juan Chen; Gregory H. Leno; John F. Engelhardt

2006-01-01

213

Personal and Situational Factors Affecting Exercise Involvement: The Importance of Enjoyment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews were conducted with participants and dropouts of a male employee fitness program in order to investigate factors affecting involvement. A combination of items pertaining to reactions to the program, initial goals for joining, and social support for the program could effectively discriminate between participants and dropouts. (Author/MT)

Wankel, Leonard M.

1985-01-01

214

Who Should Mark What? A Study of Factors Affecting Marking Accuracy in a Biology Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accurate marking is crucial to the reliability and validity of public examinations, in England and internationally. Factors contributing to accuracy have been conceptualised as affecting either marking task demands or markers' personal expertise. The aim of this empirical study was to develop this conceptualisation through investigating the…

Suto, Irenka; Nadas, Rita; Bell, John

2011-01-01

215

Cellular and environmental factors affecting the synthesis of polygalacturonate lyase by Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular and environmental factors affecting the synthesis of polygalacturonate lyase in batch and chemostat cultures ofBacillus subtilis were investigated. The lyase was produced constitutively during growth on a wide range of carbon sources in a defined minimal medium and in medium containing complex organic carbon and nitrogen sources. The highest activity was obtained during batch growth in minimal medium containing

W. M. Kurowski; J. A. Dunleavy

1976-01-01

216

Basic factors that affect general academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate some personal and familial factors that affect overall academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers. The study group of this research consists of 285 students (candidate teachers) attending the child development and preschool education department at Selcuk University Faculty of Vocational Education in the 2007-2008 academic year. General Academic Motivation Scale was

Nadir Çeliköz

2009-01-01

217

SocioEconomics Factors Affecting Poultry Farmers in Ejigbo Local Government Area of Osun State  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Poultry. Productivity. Constraints. Household Food. Socio-economics ABSTRACT The study investigated factors affecting poultry farmers in Ejigbo Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire were used in interviewing 80 poultry farmers randomly selected in the study area. Frequency distribution and Pearson correlation technique were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that a national support to strengthen

O. O. Adebayo; R. G. Adeola

218

Hydrogeological factors affecting the multiple plumes of chlorinated contaminants in an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent plume attenuations of multiple chlorinated contaminants such as TCE, carbon tetrachloride, and its daughter products at an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea were examined through various hydraulic tests and six rounds of groundwater quality analyses. Aquifer media properties and hydrogeologic factors affecting the distribution and attenuation of multiple contaminants were investigated and key attributes were evaluated. The study area has

J. Yang; D. Kaown; H. Lee; K. Lee

2010-01-01

219

Psychological distress: A hierarchical factor model of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigations of the structure of psychological distress have indicated that hierarchical models can accommodate both unitary and multifaceted conceptions of distress. The present study tested the hierarchical framework suggested by Zuckerman, Lubin, and Rinck (1983) for the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL), a commonly used measure of psychological distress. One- and two-factor models were estimated using maximum-likelihood methods.

Julian F. Thayer; Robert C. Sinclair

1987-01-01

220

Factors Affecting the Motivation of Turkish Primary Students for Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, Turkish primary students' (sixth to eighth grade) motivation toward science learning was investigated and factors affecting this determined. The sample for the study consisted of 376 students from 5 different primary schools in Izmir. The data were collected through a Students' Motivation toward Science Learning (SMTSL)…

Cavas, Pinar

2011-01-01

221

Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in humans and factors affecting endogenous production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endogenous nature of the drug of abuse gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has caused various interpretative problems for toxicologists. In order to obtain data for the presence of endogenous GHB in humans and to investigate any factors that may affect this, a volunteer study was undertaken. The GHB concentrations in 119 urine specimens from GHB-free subjects and 25 urine specimens

Simon P Elliott

2003-01-01

222

Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.  

PubMed

The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

2012-01-01

223

Factors affecting productive efficiency in primary care clinics.  

PubMed

This study examines factors affecting the productive efficiency of primary care clinics. The empirical analysis uses a single-stage stochastic frontier regression model, in which factors affecting productive efficiency are specified as part of the inefficiency error component and estimated simultaneously with the production function. The study population includes primary care clinics in the US Military Health System from 1999 through 2003; the analytical data set is an unbalanced panel of 442 observations. The study's main results were that primary care clinics not associated with medical centres had significantly higher levels of productive efficiency than those associated with medical centres and that having proportionately more civilian staff (and thus less turnover) had a positive impact on productive efficiency. Due to their nature, these findings would be expected to also be applicable to the production of primary care in other settings. A key implication of the results is that improvements in productive efficiency should be a top priority, given the possibility for providing more primary care visits without increases in cost. PMID:18275665

Schmacker, Eric R; McKay, Niccie L

2008-02-01

224

Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds  

PubMed Central

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations.

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

225

Factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics by microfocus radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) were investigated. Reliability of void detection in silicon nitride and silicon carbide by microfocus X-rays was affected by photon energy level, material chemistry in the immediate vicinity of the void, and the presence of loose powder aggregates inside the void cavity. The sensitivity of SLAM to voids was affected by material microstructure, the level of porosity, and the condition of the specimen surfaces. Statistical results are presented in the form of probability of detection as a function of void diameter for green compacts and sintered materials.

Klima, S. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.; Roth, D. J.

1986-01-01

226

Factors affecting residual platelet aggregation in prasugrel treated patients.  

PubMed

Identification of factors affecting platelet reactivity (PR) and high PR (HPR) or high platelet inhibition (HPI) rates while on prasugrel maintenance dose (MD) might be helpful in avoiding ischemic or bleeding complications. We retrospectively analyzed all patients (n=233) treated in our institution between April 2010 and November 2012 who had platelet function assessment pre-prasugrel and following prasugrel 10 mg MD for at least 5 days, using the Verify Now P2Y12 platelet function assay. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were applied to identify independent factors affecting post-prasugrel PR level, HPR and HPI status. The amount of variance in PR under prasugrel MD that could be explained by the model was 25.9% (adjusted R²), p<0.001. Pre-prasugrel treatment PR, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), prasugrel loading and smoking uniquely accounted for 10.8%, 1.3%, 3.5% and 1.2% of the observed variance, respectively. HPR and HPI were observed in 7.7% and 13.7% of the cases, respectively. On multivariate analysis, pre-prasugrel PR in the upper quartile (>313 PRU) was the only independent factor associated with HPR under prasugrel MD. In contrast, pre-prasugrel PR in the lower quartile (<242 PRU) and prasugrel loading emerged as the only independent predictors of HPI. In patients under different clinical settings receiving prasugrel 10 mg MD a significant amount of the PR variability in response to prasugrel may be explained by pre- treatment PR level, ACS, prasugrel loading and smoking status. A high pre- treatment PR is associated with HPR, while a low pre-treatment PR and prasugrel loading predict HPI. PMID:23651444

Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Xanthopoulou, Ioanna; Perperis, Angelos; Siapika, Argyro; Stavrou, Katerina; Tsoni, Evropi; Davlouros, Periklis; Hahalis, George

2013-01-01

227

Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America  

SciTech Connect

The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

Hill, L.J.

1994-01-01

228

Study of factors affecting the appearance of colors under microscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.

Zakizadeh, Roshanak; Martinez-Garcia, Juan; Raja, Kiran B.; Siakidis, Christos

2013-11-01

229

Sleeve lobectomy for bronchogenic cancers: factors affecting survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Sleeve lobectomy is a parenchyma-sparing procedure that is particularly valuable in patients with cardiac or pulmonary contraindications to pneumonectomy. The purpose of this study is to report our experience with sleeve lobectomy for bronchogenic cancer and to investigate factors associated with long-term survival.Methods. Between January 1981 and June 2001, 169 patients underwent sleeve lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer (n

Elie Fadel; Bedrettin Yildizeli; Alain R Chapelier; Isabelle Dicenta; Sacha Mussot; Philippe G Dartevelle

2002-01-01

230

Factors Affecting the Toxicity of Methylmercury Injected into Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury\\u000a when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects\\u000a of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and

G. H. Heinz; D. J. Hoffman; S. L. Kondrad; C. A. Erwin

2006-01-01

231

Factors affecting combustion efficiency in wood-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion efficiency of wood-fired spreader-stoker boilers is limited primarily by carry-over of unburned char from the furnace. This carry-over is caused by incomplete combustion of entrained fuel particles. Data from four experimental studies and one computer study of wood-particle entrainment and combustion are brought together to investigate the factors that cause char carry-over in these units. Single-particle data on

R. A. Spurrell; P. A. Thorn; T. N. Adams

1987-01-01

232

What Are Some Factors That Affect Seasonal Patterns?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to have students use GLOBE data and graphing tools to compare the influence of latitude, elevation, and geography on seasonal patterns. Students analyze the graph of the past year's maximum and minimum temperatures at their site. They compare this graph to similar graphs for two other sites and list which factors that might cause the patterns to be different and investigate one in depth.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

233

Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.  

PubMed

A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures. PMID:20595751

Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

2010-01-01

234

Factors affecting population variation in eastern Adriatic isolates (Croatia).  

PubMed

Inhabitants of the Croatian islands of Brac, Hvar, Korcula, and the Peljesac Peninsula have been the subject of extensive previous studies of local population differentiation. Most of these studies used biological and ecological variables, but some also considered historical and sociological factors. In this study we use genetic, morphological, kinship, and language distance data, collected for individuals from 26 rural communities on the islands of Brac, Hvar, Korcula, and the Peljesac Peninsula in the Adriatic, to further explore the interaction of historical, sociological, and biological factors in small populations and to test the significance of some of these proposed causes. First, we use matrix correlation methods to evaluate the relationships among different types of distance measures. The specific measures of genetic distance used here do not correlate well with other measures of population distance, and it appears that for the studied genetic systems the populations are not strongly differentiated. As expected, kinship and language distances have a high degree of association. Morphological differences among populations seem to be more closely tied to kinship distances than to genetic distances. This may result from modification of some morphological features by environmental rather than genetic factors, or it may be attributed to extensive, selective, nonrandom emigration of the population during the first decade of the twentieth century. In the second part of our analysis we use matrix correlation methods to evaluate and possibly identify the external factors that have contributed to the population differences. Specifically, we use design matrices to test hypotheses that population differences can be explained by one of the following factors: geographic isolation on the islands and peninsula, distance from the mainland, geographic barriers within the islands and peninsula, and the historical factors that differentially affected the three islands and the peninsula. Most of these design matrices reflect geographic distances; although correlations between morphological variables and simple geographic distance between localities were not significant, correlations between these localities and a design matrix incorporating geographic distance along with geographic barriers, such as bodies of water and mountain ranges, are particularly important for explaining distances among kin. Design matrices provide an important tool for quantifying the relationship between historical and geographic factors, and measures of population distance. PMID:9780515

Waddle, D M; Sokal, R R; Rudan, P

1998-10-01

235

Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait  

PubMed Central

Background Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). Conclusion A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

Al-Fouzan, Rawan; Al-Ajlan, Sarah; Marwan, Yousef; Al-Saleh, Mervat

2012-01-01

236

Multilevel Factors Affecting Quality: Examples From the Cancer Care Continuum  

PubMed Central

The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges.

Taplin, Stephen H.; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine

2012-01-01

237

Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.  

PubMed

The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3kcalmol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0kcalmol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. PMID:25027809

Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric

2014-09-01

238

Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P < 0.01; 73% versus 91%). Pregnancy retention was associated positively with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol during week 5 (P < 0.05). Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P < 0.05). Days postpartum, milk production, parity, service number, inseminator, synchronization of estrus, diameter of follicles and size of CL did not affect pregnancy retention. In conclusion, retention of pregnancy during placentation varied with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, age of cow, body condition and service sire. PMID:15302385

Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

2004-08-01

239

Factors affecting furfural as a nematicide on turf.  

PubMed

Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for either 24 or 48 hr, followed by inoculation onto bermudagrass. A second experiment evaluated effects of exposure of B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural in soil solution on bermudagrass with or without an organic thatch layer. A third experiment evaluated effects on B. longicaudatus of increasing concentrations of furfural applied as a spray treatment to creeping bentgrass. Results from the in vitro exposure experiment found decreasing numbers of B. longicaudatus with increasing furfural concentration beginning with the lowest concentration tested (270 ppm). Belonolaimus longicaudatus were virtually eliminated with furfural concentrations ? 720 ppm. Similarly, exposure to increasing concentration of furfural in soil solution resulted in increasing reduction in numbers of B. longicaudatus. Presence of thatch slightly reduced the population density of B. longicaudatus. Spray application of furfural only reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus at the two highest rates (3,600 and 4,950 ppm). PMID:24379484

Luc, J E; Crow, W T

2013-12-01

240

Environmental factors affecting Galaxy Morphology - a study using COSMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to our current understanding, galaxy shapes and morphologies should depend on various factors such as the local environment. Realistic image simulations for calibration of weak lensing analysis methods that use training samples from the Hubble Space Telescope can therefore be affected by these trends, due to the limited volume of the universe that has been surveyed by Hubble. I will show how redshift slices in a volume-limited subsample of COSMOS can be classified as overdense or underdense (or neither), and how the statistical properties of various morphological parameters such as ellipticity, Sersic n, bulge-to-total ratio and color differ in these bins. This study requires a careful distinction between environment effects from large-scale structure, which we do not wish to include in simulations, and general trends in the galaxy population with redshift. We conclude with some guidance for how upcoming surveys can use COSMOS data as the basis for weak lensing simulations without having their conclusions overly affected by cosmic variance.

Jayaraman, Arun; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Lackner, Claire

2014-06-01

241

Factors that affect the flow of patients through triage  

PubMed Central

Objective To use observational methods to objectively evaluate the organisation of triage and what issues may affect the effectiveness of the process. Design A two?phase study comprising observation of 16?h of triage in a London hospital emergency department and interviews with the triage staff to build a qualitative task analysis and study protocol for phase 2; observation and timing in triage for 1870?min including 257 patients and for 16 different members of the triage staff. Results No significant difference was found between grades of staff for the average triage time or the fraction of time absent from triage. In all, 67% of the time spent absent from triage was due to escorting patients into the department. The average time a patient waited in the reception before triage was 13?min 34?s; the average length of time to triage for a patient was 4?min 17?s. A significant increase in triage time was found when patients were triaged to a specialty, expected by a specialty, or were actively “seen and treated” in triage. Protocols to prioritise patients with potentially serious conditions to the front of the queue had a significantly positive effect on their waiting time. Supplementary tasks and distractions had varying effects on the timely assessment and triage of patients. Conclusions The human factors method is applicable to the triage process and can identify key factors that affect the throughput at triage. Referring a patient to a specialty at triage affects significantly the triage workload; hence, alternative methods or management should be suggested. The decision to offer active treatment at triage increases the time taken, and should be based on clinical criteria and the workload determined by staffing levels. The proportion of time absent from triage could be markedly improved by support from porters or other non?qualified staff, as well as by proceduralised handovers from triage to the main clinical area. Triage productivity could be improved by all staff by becoming aware of the effect of the number of interruptions on the throughput of patients.

Lyons, Melinda; Brown, Ruth; Wears, Robert

2007-01-01

242

Factors affecting indoor radon concentrations in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Data collected in a nationwide study on natural radiation exposure in UK dwellings (Wrixon et al. 1988) were re-analyzed to investigate the effects of rock type and various building and lifestyle characteristics, taken into account simultaneously, on indoor radon concentrations. A multiplicative model which takes into consideration the outdoor radon concentration is used. Indoor radon concentrations were found to be influenced by type of rock underlying the dwelling, double glazing, house type, floor level of rooms in which measurements were taken, window opening habits in the main bedroom, building materials used in the construction of the walls, floor type, and draught proofing. However, these eight factors together account for only 22% of the variation between dwellings. Estimates of the size of the effect associated with each factor are given. PMID:8416211

Gunby, J A; Darby, S C; Miles, J C; Green, B M; Cox, D R

1993-01-01

243

The Peru Urban versus Rural Asthma (PURA) Study: methods and baseline quality control data from a cross-sectional investigation into the prevalence, severity, genetics, immunology and environmental factors affecting asthma in adolescence in Peru  

PubMed Central

Objectives According to a large-scale international survey, Peru has one of the highest prevalences of asthma worldwide; however, data from this survey were limited to participants from urban Lima. The authors sought to characterise the epidemiology of asthma in Peru in two regions with disparate degrees of urbanisation. In this manuscript, the authors summarise the study design and implementation. Design A cross-sectional study. Participants Using census data of 13–15-year-old adolescents from two communities in Peru, the authors invited a random sample of participants in Lima (n=725) and all adolescents in Tumbes (n=716) to participate in our study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The authors asked participants to complete a questionnaire on asthma symptoms, environmental exposures and socio-demographics and to undergo spirometry before and after bronchodilator, skin allergy testing and exhaled nitric oxide testing. The authors obtained blood samples for haematocrit, total IgE levels, vitamin D levels and DNA in all participants and measured indoor particulate matter concentrations for 48?h in a random subset of 70–100 households at each site. Results Of 1851 eligible participants, 1441 (78%) were enrolled and 1159 (80% of enrolled) completed all physical tests. 1283 (89%) performed spirometry according to standard guidelines, of which 86% of prebronchodilator tests and 92% of postbronchodilator tests were acceptable and reproducible. 92% of allergy skin tests had an adequate negative control. The authors collected blood from 1146 participants (79%) and saliva samples from 148 participants (9%). Overall amounts of DNA obtained from blood or saliva were 25.8??g, with a 260/280 ratio of 1.86. Conclusions This study will contribute to the characterisation of a variety of risk factors for asthma, including urbanisation, total IgE levels, vitamin D levels and candidate genes, in a resource-poor setting. The authors present data to support high quality of survey, allergic, spirometric and genetic data collected in our study.

Robinson, Colin L; Baumann, Lauren M; Gilman, Robert H; Romero, Karina; Combe, Juan Manuel; Cabrera, Lilia; Hansel, Nadia N; Barnes, Kathleen; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Wise, Robert A; Breysse, Patrick N

2012-01-01

244

Factors affecting strain gauge selection for smart structure applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review and orientation to strain gage technology presents the historical development of the bonded foil resistance strain gage as well as modern design and selection criteria for the successful use of strain gages in smart structure technology. Discovered in 1865 by Lord Kelvin, the principle of using resistance change in conductors to measure strain has existed in its present form of the foil strain gage since the late 1950s. Since then, advances in manufacturing and applications techniques have made the bonded foil resistance strain gage one of the most economical and easy to use sensors available for direct measurement and transducer applications alike. Millions are produced and use each year throughout the world. The factors affecting strain gage design and construction include of foil alloy, backing, pattern, and temperature characteristics. Over 250,000 unique strain gage constructions are possible, each particularly suited to a specific set of application conditions. The effect of each of these factors on smart structure performance is considered.

Katz, Stephen R.

1998-07-01

245

Factors affecting mortality in stage 3b necrotizing enterocolitis.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the factors that may affect the development of mortality in patients with stage 3b necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Between January 2005 and December 2012, patients with the diagnosis of stage 3b NEC who were surgically treated were enrolled in the study. Gestational age, birth weight, presence of hypoxemia history, major congenital heart diseases, enteral feeding, age at perforation, drainage type, operation, and laboratory findings were considered regarding their possible relationship with mortality. Thirty-one patients were enrolled in this study. Following treatment, 15 patients died, while 16 patients recovered and were discharged. Feeding type, high levels of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), creatinine, and low platelet count, as well as need of inotropic support were associated with mortality. When the cut-off point of platelet level for mortality development in stage 3b NEC was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the cut-off point for thrombocyte level was found to be 110,000/µL, with 93.3% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. Despite the innovations in newborn intensive care, the mortality rate of stage 3b NEC remains very high. Breastfeeding has a significantly positive impact on the survival of patients with NEC. Thrombocytopenia is the most important risk factor of mortality in stage 3b NEC. PMID:24911845

At?c?, Ahmet; Karaman, Ay?e; Zenciro?lu, Ay?egül; Karaman, Ibrahim; Af?arlar, Ca?atay Evrim; Y?lmaz, Engin; Okumu?, Nurullah; Cavu?o?lu, Yusuf Hakan; Ozgüner, Ismet Faruk; Erdo?an, Derya

2014-01-01

246

Causative factors affecting peripheral neuropathy in burn patients.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy in burn patients may be frequently missed in clinical settings. Although its incidence has been reported, little is known regarding the factors that cause burn-related peripheral neuropathy. A retrospective chart review of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted to a university hospital based burn center was conducted to explore the characteristics of burn-related neuropathy and factors affecting its types or extent. The variables collected were gender, age, length of hospital stay, site and surface area of burn, type of burn, and electrodiagnostic findings. We found that flame injuries, and third degree injuries were the most common in patients with peripheral neuropathy. Axonotmesis was more common than demyelinating injury and polyneuropathy was more common than mononeuropathy. Higher degree and larger area burns were more frequently associated with axonotmesis than with demyelination. Length of hospital stay was significantly longer in patients with axonotmesis. Overall, more severe burns showed a significant association with axonotmesis and a tendency to be related to polyneuropathy. PMID:18951702

Lee, Michael Y; Liu, Gloria; Kowlowitz, Vicki; Hwang, Jeong Hye; Lee, Jung Hwan; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Lee, Eun Shin

2009-05-01

247

An investigation of flow regimes affecting the Mexico City region  

SciTech Connect

The Mexico City region is well-known to the meteorological community for its overwhelming air pollution problem. Several factors contribute to this predicament, namely, the 20 million people and vast amount of industry within the city. The unique geographical setting of the basin encompassing Mexico City also plays an important role. This basin covers approximately 5000 km{sup 2} of the Mexican Plateau at an average elevation of 2250 m above sea level (asl) and is surrounded on three sides by mountains averaging over 3500 m asl, with peaks over 5000 m asl. Only to the north is their a significant opening in the mountainous terrain. Mexico City sprawls over 1000 km{sup 2} in the southwestern portion of the basin. In recent years, several major research programs have been undertaken to investigate the air quality problem within Mexico City. One of these, the Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative (MARI), conducted in 1990--1993, was a cooperative study between researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute. As part of this study, a field campaign was initiated in February 1991 during which numerous surface, upper air, aircraft, and LIDAR measurements were taken. Much of the work to date has focused upon defining and simulating the local meteorological conditions that are important for understanding the complex photochemistry occurring within the confines of the city. It seems reasonable to postulate, however, that flow systems originating outside of the Mexico City basin will influence conditions within the city much of the time.

Bossert, J.E.

1995-05-01

248

Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factors affecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.

Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

249

Geographical factors affecting variability of precipitation regime in Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compares the precipitation regimes by using harmonic analysis during the last four decades (1965-2004). We used the measured precipitation data from 428 rain-gauge sites and weather stations distributed across Iran by applying 15 × 15 km spatial grids to generate the interpolated data. Data validations were carried out by statistical tests. In this study, first three harmonics of precipitation variances were evaluated. Variability of precipitation regime was explored by using three harmonic analysis methods. In addition, the effect of geographical factors (GF) (site elevation, latitude, and longitude) affecting the precipitation regime (P) was verified by multivariate regression method. The resulted regression equation between P and GF for spring showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.79). For other seasons, r was lower than for spring and varied between 0.26 (summer) to 0.58 (autumn). Analysis of the first harmonic proved that the main precipitation regime in Iran tends to concentrate in one specific season (winter) as a result of large-scale Mediterranean systems passing over the country. In other words, the first harmonic is able to explain most of the precipitation variations which are caused by large-scale atmospheric circulation. For all the three harmonics, variances of precipitation were mainly a function of the geographical factors. This effect was more evident in the third harmonic; in such a way that increasing the latitudes caused higher precipitation variance. This means that the precipitation regime in northern sites is more sensitive to the local factors than those of southern sites. The results of this research can be used for reliable estimation of precipitation in ungauged sites.

Sabziparvar, A. A.; Movahedi, S.; Asakereh, H.; Maryanaji, Z.; Masoodian, S. A.

2014-05-01

250

Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

Conway, C. J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M. D.; Hughes, K.

2008-01-01

251

Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

Yager, T. J.

1983-01-01

252

Factors Affecting Differential Item Functioning for Black Examinees on Scholastic Aptitude Test Analogy Items. Research Report No. 87-23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to identify item factors that may contribute to differential item functioning (DIF) for black examinees on Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) analogy items. Initially, items were classified according to several possible explanatory factors. Preliminary analyses identified several factors that seemed to affect DIF…

Schmitt, Alicia P.; Bleistein, Carole A.

253

Investigating affective prosody in psychosis: a study using the Comprehensive Affective Testing System.  

PubMed

Affective prosody is substantially impaired in schizophrenia, yet little is known about affective prosody in bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this study was to examine affective prosody performance in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and BD on a newly released standardised assessment to further our understanding of BD performance. Fifty-four schizophrenia, 11 schizoaffective and 43 BD patients were compared with 112 healthy controls (HC) on four affective prosody subtests of the Comprehensive Affective Testing System (CATS). Schizophrenia patients showed a 10% reduction in accuracy on two subtests compared to HC. BD showed a trend for performance intermediary to schizophrenia and HC; and schizoaffective patients performed more like HC on these four affective prosody measures. Severity of current auditory hallucination, across all patients, was related to task performance on three of the measures. These data confirm that schizophrenia and BD have reduced affective prosody performance, with deficits in BD being less pronounced than schizophrenia. The schizoaffective results in this study should be interpreted with caution due to small sample size. PMID:24012143

Rossell, Susan L; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Groot, Christopher; Gogos, Andrea; O'Regan, Alison; Joshua, Nicole R

2013-12-30

254

Threat processing in generalized social phobia: An investigation of interpretation biases in ambiguous facial affect.  

PubMed

Facial affect is one of the most important information sources during the course of social interactions, but it is susceptible to distortion due to the complex and dynamic nature. Socially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit alterations in the processing of social information, such as an attentional and interpretative bias toward threatening information. This may be one of the key factors contributing to the development and maintenance of anxious psychopathology. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a threat-related interpretation bias is evident for ambiguous facial stimuli in a population of individuals with a generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (gSAD) as compared to healthy controls. Participants judged ambiguous happy/fearful, angry/fearful and angry/happy blends varying in intensity and rated the predominant affective expression. The results obtained in this study do not indicate that gSAD is associated with a biased interpretation of ambiguous facial affect. PMID:24656896

Jusyte, Aiste; Schönenberg, Michael

2014-06-30

255

Factors affecting the shrinkage of fly ash geopolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shrinkage of fly ash geopolymers was studied in the present study. Fly ash was used as the source material for making the geopolymers. The effects of the concentration of NaOH, sodium silicate-to-NaOH ratio, liquid-to-ash ratio, curing temperature, and curing time on shrinkage were investigated. The geopolymers were cured at 25, 40, and 60°C, respectively. The results indicate that the shrinkage of geopolymers is strongly dependent on curing temperature and liquid-to-ash ratio. The increase in shrinkage is associated with the low strength development of geopolymers. It is also found that NaOH concentration and sodium silicate-to-NaOH ratio also affect the shrinkage of geopolymers but to a lesser extent.

Ridtirud, Charoenchai; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Pimraksa, Kedsarin

2011-02-01

256

Traffic environment and demographic factors affecting impaired driving and crashes  

PubMed Central

Introduction Data availability has forced researchers to examine separately the role of alcohol among drivers who crashed and drivers who did not crash. Such a separation fails to account fully for the transition from impaired driving to an alcohol-related crash. Method In this study, we analyzed recent data to investigate how traffic-related environments, conditions, and drivers’ demographics shape the likelihood of a driver being either involved in a crash (alcohol impaired or not) or not involved in a crash (alcohol impaired or not). Our data, from a recent case–control study, included a comprehensive sampling of the drivers in nonfatal crashes and a matched set of comparison drivers in two U.S. locations. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to investigate the likelihood that a driver would crash or would not crash, either with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC)=.00 or with a BAC?.05. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine how different driver characteristics and environmental factors simultaneously contribute to alcohol use by crash-involved and non-crash-involved drivers. This effort calls attention to the need for research on the simultaneous roles played by all the factors that may contribute to motor vehicle crashes.

Romano, Eduardo O.; Peck, Raymond C.; Voas, Robert B.

2012-01-01

257

Cryotherapy for anogenital warts: factors affecting therapeutic response.  

PubMed

Human papilloma virus genital infection remains a treatment dilemma; there is still no gold standard therapy, treatment options are limited, expensive and often ineffective, and recurrence rates are relatively high. The primary objective of this study is to establish the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of cryotherapy in the treatment of these lesions. From 1999 to 2003, 100 consecutive patients with at least ten genital warts were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy using a cotton-tipped applicator and two freeze-thaw cycles at the outpatient dermatology clinic of Hazrat-e Rasool University Hospital. Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks until the disappearance of all visible lesions was achieved. Patients were followed up every 4 months for 18 months. Complete clinical cure (CCC) was defined as complete clearance of all lesions and no evidence of disease for a minimum of 18 months. The CCC and relapse rate were evaluated based on different demographic and clinical characteristics. Overall, 86 percent of the patients achieved CCC after an average of 3.31 treatment sessions. All of the failed cases were attributed to recurrence of warts in new sites. The cure rate increased in parallel with increasing treatment sessions until the 6th session, after which it remained constant. The cure rate was lower and the number of treatment sessions higher in older patients. The age of the patient and number of treatment sessions affect the cure rate. The recurrence rate was significantly higher for the married or multi-partner group than for unmarried patients. We concluded that cryotherapy is an effective method for treatment of anogenital warts. The age of the patient and size of the lesions affect the cure rate. However, the most important factor in relapse of the lesions is unprotected sexual contact during and after treatment. PMID:18318999

Rasi, Abbas; Soltani-Arabshahi, Razieh; Khatami, Alireza

2007-01-01

258

Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

Pyo, Katrina A.

259

Biologics formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel.  

PubMed

An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. PMID:21360314

Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K

2011-03-01

260

Investigating Learner Affective Performance in Web-Based Learning by Using Entrepreneurship as a Metaphor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the era of the Internet, factors which influence effective learning in a Web-based learning environment are well worth exploring. In addition to knowledge acquisition and skills training, affect is also an important factor, since successful learning requires excellent affective performance. Thus this study focuses on learners' affective

Liu, Ming-Chou; Chi, Ming-Hsiao

2012-01-01

261

Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

2013-12-01

262

Factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine in water.  

PubMed

In this study, the major factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine (SMT), a typical pharmaceutically active compound, in water were evaluated. The factors tested included two operational parameters (i.e. initial SMT concentration and ultrasonic power), three dissolved gases (i.e. Ar, O2 and N2), five most frequently found anions in water (NO3(-),Cl(-),SO4(2-),HCO3(-)andBr(-)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and four alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol). Typically, the degradation rate was increased with the increasing initial SMT concentration and power. The degradation rate was accelerated in the presence of argon or oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. Effects of anions on the ultrasonic treatment were species-dependent. The SMT degradation rate was slightly inhibited by NO3(-),Cl(-),and,SO4(2-) but significantly improved by HCO3(-)andBr(-). The negative effects of alcohols acted as hydroxyl radicals scavengers with the following order: tert-butyl alcohol>isopropyl alcohol>ethanol>methanol. The synergetic effect of ferrous ion was mainly due to production of additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) through Fenton chemistry. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the degradation of SMT by ultrasonic irradiation is mainly ascribed to ·OH oxidation. Of interest, although the SMT could be rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, the degradation products were rarely mineralized. For example, ~100% of 180 ?M SMT was decomposed, but only 8.31% TOC was reduced, within 2h at an irradiation frequency of 800 kHz and a power of 100 W. However, the products became much biodegradable (BOD5/COD was increased from 0.04 to 0.45). Therefore, an aerobic biological treatment may be an appropriate post-treatment to further decompose the SMT degradation products. PMID:23711347

Gao, Yu-qiong; Gao, Nai-yun; Deng, Yang; Gu, Jin-shan; Gu, Yu-liang; Zhang, Dong

2013-11-01

263

Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at those institutions were surveyed by mail with electronic mail follow-up. Multiple regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: The survey yielded a 41% response rate with electronic mail follow-up being particularly effective. Two dependent variables, internal diffusion (spread of diffusion) and infusion (depth of diffusion), were measured. There was little correlation between them, indicating they measured different things. Fifteen independent variables clustered into three attribute sets were measured. The innovation attributes set was significant for both internal diffusion and infusion. Significant individual variables were visibility for internal diffusion and image enhancement effects (negative relation) as well as visibility for infusion (depth of diffusion). Organizational attributes were also significant predictors for both dependent variables. No individual variables were significant for internal diffusion. Communication, management support (negative relation), rewards, and existence of champions were significant for infusion. Marketing attributes were not significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Successful diffusion of online end user literature searching is dependent on the visibility of the systems, communication among, rewards to, and peers of possible users who promote use (champions). Personal image enhancement effects have a negative relation to infusion, possibly because the use of intermediaries is still seen as the more luxurious way to have searches done. Management support also has a negative relation to infusion, perhaps indicating that depth of diffusion can increase despite top-level management actions.

Ash, J S

1999-01-01

264

Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface mixed layer, which is useful for predicting integral biomass and primary production.

Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

1994-01-01

265

The Development and Validation of a Math Affect Trait Questionnaire for the Investigation of Affect during Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and validation of the Math Affect Trait Questionnaire (MATQ) for the investigation of affect during mathematical problem solving is presented. Anxiety, math interest, and self-esteem under problem solving conditions are the main constructs measured by the MATQ. The instrument validation process revealed that problem correctness…

Allen, Bradford D.; Carifio, James

266

Hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia: factors affecting phenotype.  

PubMed

The phenotype of E-beta-thalassemia is affected by several genetic factors. The aim of this study was to analyze severity of E-beta-thalassemia and correlate with HbE, HbF, E/F ratios, beta-mutation and Xmn I polymorphism. Thirty cases of E-beta-thalassemia (23 with childhood onset) were studied. HbE levels were quantitated by HPLC. Xmn1 polymorphism and beta-mutations were studied by PCR-RFLP and ARMS respectively. Commonest features were pallor (100%), splenomegaly (74%), and hepatomegaly (65%), 43% (10/23) were on regular transfusions at diagnosis. One case presented with paraplegia. Patients heterozygous for Xmn I polymorphism (+/-) had later onset (>3 yrs) compared to homozygous (-/-) absence (0.5-2.8 yrs). Most (69.6%) showed beta-mutation IVS 1-5 (G-->C). Negative correlation was found between age of onset and HbE. Thus, presentation is similar to previously reported Thai cases. Heterozygosity of Xmn I polymorphism also delays disease onset. Early diagnosis facilitates appropriate management and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:15876597

Panigrahi, I; Agarwal, S; Gupta, T; Singhal, P; Pradhan, M

2005-04-01

267

Factors affecting the biodegradation of PCP by Pseudomonas mendocina NSYSU.  

PubMed

A pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading bacterium was isolated from PCP-contaminated soils and identified as Pseudomonas mendocina NSYSU (P. mendocina NSYSU). The main objectives of this study were to (1) clarify the factors affecting the ability and efficiency of PCP biodegradation by P. mendocina NSYSU, and (2) optimize the use of this bacterium in bioremediation of PCP. Microcosm experiments were conducted to fulfill the objectives. In batch cultures, P. mendocina NSYSU used PCP as its sole source of carbon and energy and was capable of completely degrading this compound. This was confirmed by the stoichiometric release of chloride ion. Moreover, P. mendocina NSYSU was able to mineralize a high concentration of PCP (150 mg/L). Results from the oxygen concentration experiment reveal that the growth of P. mendocina NSYSU was inhibited under low oxygen and anaerobic conditions. Results indicate that the optimal growth conditions for P. mendocina NSYSU include the following: slightly acidic (6

Kao, C M; Liu, J K; Chen, Y L; Chai, C T; Chen, S C

2005-09-30

268

Factors Affecting Fiber Design and Selection for Advanced Ceramic Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have the potential for application in the hot sections of a variety of advanced propulsion and power systems. It is therefore necessary to have a general understanding of the key properties of CMC and Reinforcing Fibers. This need is complicated by the wide variety of application conditions and structural requirements for which CMC's will be used, and the proprietary concerns of the design engineers. CMC's, to be successful, must display properties which are competitive with the currently used high temperature structural materials: (i.e., Iron and Nickel based superalloys, tough monolithic ceramics, and carbon/carbon composites.) Structural CMC offers several areas of competition: (1) performance, (i.e., strength and strength retention, creep resistance, and thermal conductivity), (2) reliability (i.e., environmental durability, and damage tolerance) and (3) processing (i.e., capability for varying sizes and shapes, and cost effective fabrication). The presentation further discusses, and illustrates with fiber and CMC data the key fiber properties and processes which strongly affect each CMC area of competition. The presentation further discusses the current knowledge of the important factors which control the key fiber properties. A design guidelines for the optimum fiber characteristics is developed, and the currently available fibers are compared against those guidelines.

DiCarlo, James A.

1998-01-01

269

Factors affecting the survival of frozen-thawed mouse spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Mouse epididymal spermatozoa were frozen in solutions containing various compounds with different molecular weights, and the factors affecting the postthawing survival were examined. Monosaccharides (glucose, galactose) had almost no protective effect regardless of the concentration and the temperature of exposure. On the other hand, disaccharides (sucrose, trehalose) and trisaccharides (raffinose, melezitose) resulted in higher survival rates, especially at a concentration of around 0.35 mol/kg H(2)O (0.381-0.412 Osm/kg). Macromolecules, such as PVP10, Ficoll 70, bovine serum albumin, and skim milk had almost no effect, but compounds with a molecular weight of about 800, such as metrizamide and Nycodenz, had some protective effect. When a raffinose solution was supplemented with 10% metrizamide, resulting in an osmolality of approximately 0.400 Osm/kg, a high survival rate was obtained. Solutions at about 0.400 Osm/kg containing trehalose alone, trehalose + metrizamide, raffinose alone, and raffinose + metrizamide, were all effective for sperm freezing; frozen-thawed sperm could fertilize oocytes, and the resultant embryos could develop to live young after transfer. For freezing mouse spermatozoa, aqueous solutions at approximately 0.400 Osm/kg containing a disaccharide or a trisaccharide seem to be effective. PMID:10860623

An, T Z; Iwakiri, M; Edashige, K; Sakurai, T; Kasai, M

2000-05-01

270

[Aerodynamic parameters and their affecting factors over Panjin reed wetland].  

PubMed

Based on the observation data from eddy covariance tower and meteorological gradient tower in Panjin reed wetland observation plot, and by the method combined eddy covariance with microclimate gradient observation, two fundamental aerodynamic parameters, i. e., zero-plane displacement (d) and roughness length (z0), were evaluated, with their affecting factors analyzed. The results showed that the method adopted was suitable for estimating the aerodynamic parameters. There existed obvious seasonal variations in d and z0, with the maximum (1.85 and 0.24 m) in September and the minimum (0.02 and 0.03 m) in December, respectively. The seasonal variations were closely related to vegetation characteristics, plant height (h) and leaf area index (LAI). There was a close linear relationship between d and h, and a conic relationship between z0 and h. Both d/h and d/z0 had power relationships with LAI, and the R2 values were 0.99 and 0.78, respectively. PMID:18533513

He, Qi-Jin; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yun-Long

2008-03-01

271

Factors Affecting Tumor Ablation during High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) utilizes a targeted extracorporeal focused ultrasound beam to ablate neoplastic pancreatic tissue. We used an in vitro model to examine the effects of bone, metallic stents, plastic stents, metal plates, and cyst-like lesions on HIFU treatment. Methods HIFU was delivered to the phantom models implanted with foreign bodies, and the location, shape, and size of the ablated zones were evaluated. Results Bone and metallic plates reflected the ultrasound beam, shifting the ablation zone from the focal zone to the prefocal area. In the phantoms containing metal stent, plastic stent, and cyst, most of the ablative energy was reflected to the prefocal area by the surface, with the remainder penetrating through the phantom. The area of the ablated margins was significantly larger in size and volume than the intended focal ablation zone. Conclusions During HIFU therapy, artificial or anatomical barriers could affect the direction of the ultrasound beams, shifting the ablation zone from the focal area to a prefocal site with a larger than expected ablation zone. These factors should be considered prior to HIFU treatment for pancreatic tumors because they could limit ablation success, in addition to causing complications.

Hassanuddin, Aizan; Choi, Jun-Ho; Seo, Dong-Wan; Ryu, Choong Heon; Kim, Su-Hui; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan

2014-01-01

272

Factors affecting graded and ungraded memory loss following hippocampal lesions.  

PubMed

This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed. PMID:24120426

Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Sekeres, Melanie J

2013-11-01

273

Factors affecting recruitment to an observational multicentre palliative care study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify those factors which adversely affected recruitment to a large multicentre palliative care study. Methods Patient accrual to a multicentre, observational, palliative care study was monitored at three critical junctures in the research process. (1) Eligibility—did the patient fulfil the study entry criteria? (2) Accessibility—was it possible to access the patient to be able to inform them about the study? (3) Consent—did the patient agree to participate in the study? The reasons why patients were ineligible, inaccessible or refused consent were recorded. Results 12?412 consecutive referrals to participating clinical services were screened for study inclusion of whom 5394 (43%) were deemed to be ineligible. Of the remaining patients 4617/7018 (66%) were inaccessible to the research team. The most common reasons being precipitous death, ‘gatekeeping’ by clinical staff or rapid discharge. Of the 2410 patients who were visited by the research team and asked to participate in the study 1378 (57%) declined. Overall 8.2% (1018/12?412) of patients screened participated in the study. There were significant differences in recruitment patterns between hospice inpatient units, hospital support and community palliative care teams. Conclusions Systematic monitoring and analysis of patient flows through the clinical trial accrual process provided valuable insights about the reasons for failure to recruit patients to a clinical trial and may help to improve recruitment in future studies.

Stone, Patrick C; Gwilliam, Bridget; Keeley, Vaughan; Todd, Chris; Kelly, Laura C; Barclay, Stephen

2013-01-01

274

Factors affecting nurses' decision to get the flu vaccine.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the decision whether or not to get the influenza (flu) vaccine among nurses in Israel by using the health belief model (HBM). A questionnaire distributed among 299 nurses in Israel in winter 2005/2006 included (1) socio-demographic information; (2) variables based on the HBM, including susceptibility, seriousness, benefits, barriers and cues to action; and (3) knowledge about influenza and the vaccine, and health motivation. A probit model was used to analyze the data. In Israel, the significant HBM categories affecting nurses' decision to get a flu shot are the perceived benefits from vaccination and cues to action. In addition, nurses who are vaccinated have higher levels of (1) knowledge regarding the vaccine and influenza, (2) perceived seriousness of the illness, (3) perceived susceptibility, and (4) health motivation than do those who do not get the vaccine. Immunization of healthcare workers may reduce the risk of flu outbreaks in all types of healthcare facilities and reduce morbidity and mortality among high-risk patients. In order to increase vaccination rates among nurses, efforts should be made to educate them regarding the benefits of vaccination and the potential health consequences of influenza for their patients, and themselves. PMID:18781347

Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri; Yom Din, Gregory

2009-05-01

275

Investigation of Various Factors Affecting Bond in Bonded Concrete Overlays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bonded concrete overlays (BCO) are rapidly becoming a preferred strategy for Texas highway rehabilitation projects. These overlays have worked well in most areas, but have had occasional problems with debonding and subsequent cracking. The report describe...

D. P. Whitney P. Isis B. F. McCullough D. W. Fowler

1992-01-01

276

Investigating Factors Affecting the Uptake of Automated Assessment Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automated assessment is an emerging innovation in educational praxis, however its pedagogical potential is not fully utilised in Australia, particularly regarding automated essay grading. The rationale for this research is that the usage of automated assessment currently lags behind the capacity that the technology provides, thus restricting the…

Dreher, Carl; Reiners, Torsten; Dreher, Heinz

2011-01-01

277

Chronotype and personality factors of predisposition to seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

The study aimed to recognize the personality factors of a predisposition to seasonal mood fluctuations in a non-clinical sample. A group of 101 subjects (57 women, 44 men; mean age 26.4?±?6.5 years) completed a battery of tests comprising a Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), Chronotype Questionnaire (ChQ), a NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). A smaller sample (n?=?44) completed a Winter Blues Scale (WBS). Women scored significantly higher than men in seasonality (p?=?0.014), neuroticism (p?=?0.049), agreeableness (p?=?0.010), and avoidance-oriented coping style (p?=?0.041). Subjects with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (n?=?41) or sub-SAD (n?=?33), as diagnosed with SPAQ, exhibited higher levels of neuroticism (p?=?0.017) and openness (p?=?0.016) in comparison to non-SAD individuals. The latter declared a less frequent avoidance coping style. Both measures of seasonality, i.e. the SPAQ Global Seasonality Score and WBS, correlated significantly (r?=?0.28 and 0.44, respectively) with the subjective amplitude of the circadian rhythm, as described with the "distinctness" scale of ChQ. Female gender, neuroticism and openness were confirmed as factors linked to seasonal mood variability. Additionally, the study revealed an association between susceptibility to mild winter depression and an avoidance-oriented coping style. The avoidance coping style was correlated positively with all the aspects of seasonality described by SPAQ (correlation coefficients from 0.21 to 0.34). Both sub-types of avoidance-oriented style, i.e. distraction and social diversion, were associated with marked subjective seasonal changes in sleep length, mood and the energy level. While the subjective amplitude of circadian rhythm proved to be connected with seasonality, the subjective acrophase of the rhythm (morningness-eveningness preference) did not. It may be hypothesized that sensitivity to natural environmental conditions/synchronizers is a separate individual trait shaping the subject's proneness to energy and mood changes both in diurnal and year scale, i.e. circadian and seasonal mood variations. PMID:24397301

Oginska, Halszka; Oginska-Bruchal, Katarzyna

2014-05-01

278

An experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from low-level radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the results of an experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from several types of solidified low-level radioactive waste forms. The goal of these investigations was to determine those factors that accelerate leaching without changing its mechanism(s). Typically, although not in every case,the accelerating factors include: increased temperature, increased waste loading (i.e., increased waste to binder ratio), and decreased size (i.e., decreased waste form volume to surface area ratio). Additional factors that were studied were: increased leachant volume to waste form surface area ratio, pH, leachant composition (groundwaters, natural and synthetic chelating agents), leachant flow rate or replacement frequency and waste form porosity and surface condition. Other potential factors, including the radiation environment and pressure, were omitted based on a survey of the literature. 82 refs., 236 figs., 13 tabs.

Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

1988-09-01

279

Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

2010-12-01

280

Factors affecting combustion efficiency in wood-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

The combustion efficiency of wood-fired spreader-stoker boilers is limited primarily by carry-over of unburned char from the furnace. This carry-over is caused by incomplete combustion of entrained fuel particles. Data from four experimental studies and one computer study of wood-particle entrainment and combustion are brought together to investigate the factors that cause char carry-over in these units. Single-particle data on entrainment and combustion are first presented, followed by data for multiple-particle combustion. This information is then used in a model of the processes occurring in a wood-fired furnace. It is shown that for typical fuel size distribution, the fraction of fuel entrained can be as little as 10% but is typically greater than 50%. The state of the largest particle entrained is that of dry wood. Under typical furnace conditions, the volatile fraction of the wood is approximately 90%, so that char will constitute only about 10% of the original dry wood mass. Devolatilization is very rapid for the entrained particles, so that the char combustion rate will be the most important factor in determining carry-over. Because particles smaller than about 1 mm usually burn out in the furnace, char carry-over is attributable to the fraction of the fuel that is initially larger than 1mm but smaller than the largest particle entrained. (Refs. 4).

Spurrell, R.A.; Thorn, P.A.; Adams, T.N.

1987-08-01

281

Factors affecting the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of cereals, fats and other food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in oils and fats, cereals and related foodstuffs have been investigated. Levels of PAHs were low in retail fish and animal?derived oils and fats, such as butter, where the mean benzo(a)pyrene concentration was 0.06 ?g\\/kg. Higher and more variable amounts were present in retail vegetable oils for which the mean level of benzo(a)pyrene

M. J. Dennis; R. C. Massey; G. Cripps; I. Venn; N. Howarth; G. Lee

1991-01-01

282

Factors affecting phosphorus retention in small constructed wetlands treating agricultural non-point source pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four surface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) have been intensively investigated for phosphorus retention, from 3 to 7 years in the cold temperate climate of Norway. The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect phosphorus retention from non-point sources. The wetlands were located in first order streams, with surface areas of 0.06–0.4% of the watershed (CW-area 350–900 m2).

B. C Braskerud

2002-01-01

283

Factors affecting N 2 fixation by the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. GBRTRLI101  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various factors affecting N2 fixation of a cultured strain of Trichodesmium sp. (GBRTRLI101) from the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon were investigated. The diurnal pattern of N2 fixation demonstrated that it was primarily light-induced although fixation continued to occur for at least 1 h in the dark in samples that had been actively fixing N2. N2 fixation was dependent on the

Fei-Xue Fu; P. R. F Bell

2003-01-01

284

Factors affecting the spawning period of sardine in two highly oligotrophic Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian histology and weight dynamics of reproductive and somatic tissues were used to investigate seasonality of spawning\\u000a and factors affecting reproductive period in two E Mediterranean sardine, Sardina pilchardus, populations (central Aegean and Ionian Seas), between September 1999 and May 2001. Despite similarities in the general spawning\\u000a pattern of the two populations, i.e. protracted spawning season during the colder months

Konstantinos Ganias; Stylianos Somarakis; Constantin Koutsikopoulos; Athanassios Machias

2007-01-01

285

Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

2014-05-01

286

Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.  

PubMed

In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

2013-01-01

287

Factors affecting the induction of secondary dormancy in lettuce.  

PubMed

The relationship between the temperature at which germination of 50% of the seeds is inhibited in the light (GT(50) Light) and secondary dormancy was investigated in three cultivars of Lactuca sativa L. Seeds were incubated for varying periods under non-germinating conditions and subsequent germination in response to red light (R) was determined over a wide range of temperatures. Dark incubation at 32 C reduced the GT(50) Light of cv. New York but did not affect germination at temperatures below 24 C. Dark, 32 C incubation had no effect on the GT(50) Light of cv. Great Lakes. In cv. Grand Rapids, dark incubation at 15, 24, 32, or 35 C initially reduced the GT(50) Light. However, longer incubations induced a secondary dormancy, i.e., the seeds became unable to germinate at all temperatures in response to R given after the high temperature incubation. A single exposure to R at the beginning of a 32 C incubation slowed the induction of secondary dormancy. Repeated exposures to R prevented the induction of secondary dormancy, but did not prevent a decline in the GT(50) Light. GA(3) mimicked the effect of repeated R.The differences in the germination behavior of the three cultivars suggest that there may be qualitative differences in the germination mechanism of these cultivars. This research demonstrates the significance of monitoring germination at a range of temperatures to avoid misinterpretation of the data. PMID:16661841

Kristie, D N; Bassi, P K; Spencer, M S

1981-06-01

288

Factors Affecting the Disposition of Research-Based Innovations in the Development of a Basal Reading Program: A Case Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated how the beliefs of literacy scholars affect the development of basal reading programs, the roles literacy scholars play in the development of new reading programs, and some of the critical factors that affect the disposition of innovative ideas. Two literacy scholars who had actively collaborated on the development of separate…

Wile, J. M.

289

Intestinal Microbial Ecology and Environmental Factors Affecting Necrotizing Enterocolitis  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating intestinal disease affecting preterm infants. In addition to being associated with short term mortality and morbidity, survivors are left with significant long term sequelae. The cost of caring for these infants is high. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that use of antibiotics and type of feeding may cause an intestinal dysbiosis important in the pathogenesis of NEC, but the contribution of specific infectious agents is poorly understood. Fecal samples from preterm infants ?32 weeks gestation were analyzed using 16S rRNA based methods at 2, 1, and 0 weeks, prior to diagnosis of NEC in 18 NEC cases and 35 controls. Environmental factors such as antibiotic usage, feeding type (human milk versus formula) and location of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were also evaluated. Microbiota composition differed between the three neonatal units where we observed differences in antibiotic usage. In NEC cases we observed a higher proportion of Proteobacteria (61%) two weeks and of Actinobacteria (3%) 1 week before diagnosis of NEC compared to controls (19% and 0.4%, respectively) and lower numbers of Bifidobacteria counts and Bacteroidetes proportions in the weeks before NEC diagnosis. In the first fecal samples obtained during week one of life we detected a novel signature sequence, distinct from but matching closest to Klebsiella pneumoniae, that was strongly associated with NEC development later in life. Infants who develop NEC exhibit a different pattern of microbial colonization compared to controls. Antibiotic usage correlated with these differences and combined with type of feeding likely plays a critical role in the development of NEC.

Torrazza, Roberto Murgas; Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Sharma, Renu; Hudak, Mark Lawrence; Neu, Josef; Mai, Volker

2013-01-01

290

Factors affecting the pullout strength of cancellous bone screws.  

PubMed

Screws placed into cancellous bone in orthopedic surgical applications, such as fixation of fractures of the femoral neck or the lumbar spine, can be subjected to high loads. Screw pullout is a possibility, especially if low density osteoporotic bone is encountered. The overall goal of this study was to determine how screw thread geometry, tapping, and cannulation affect the holding power of screws in cancellous bone and determine whether current designs achieve maximum purchase strength. Twelve types of commercially available cannulated and noncannulated cancellous bone screws were tested for pullout strength in rigid unicellular polyurethane foams of apparent densities and shear strengths within the range reported for human cancellous bone. The experimentally derived pullout strength was compared to a predicted shear failure force of the internal threads formed in the polyurethane foam. Screws embedded in porous materials pullout by shearing the internal threads in the porous material. Experimental pullout force was highly correlated to the predicted shear failure force (slope = 1.05, R2 = 0.947) demonstrating that it is controlled by the major diameter of the screw, the length of engagement of the thread, the shear strength of the material into which the screw is embedded, and a thread shape factor (TSF) which accounts for screw thread depth and pitch. The average TSF for cannulated screws was 17 percent lower than that of noncannulated cancellous screws, and the pullout force was correspondingly less. Increasing the TSF, a result of decreasing thread pitch or increasing thread depth, increases screw purchase strength in porous materials. Tapping was found to reduce pullout force by an average of 8 percent compared with nontapped holes (p = 0.0001). Tapping in porous materials decreases screw pullout strength because the removal of material by the tap enlarges hole volume by an average of 27 percent, in effect decreasing the depth and shear area of the internal threads in the porous material. PMID:8872262

Chapman, J R; Harrington, R M; Lee, K M; Anderson, P A; Tencer, A F; Kowalski, D

1996-08-01

291

Factors affecting the degradation of pharmaceuticals in agricultural soils.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals may be released to the soil environment through the application of biosolids to land. To understand those factors affecting the persistence of pharmaceuticals in the soil environment, the present study was performed to assess the effects of soil type, the presence of biosolids, and the impact of chemical mixture interactions on the degradation of three pharmaceuticals: naproxen, carbamazepine, and fluoxetine. Single-compound studies showed that naproxen degraded in a range of soils with half-lives ranging from 3.1 to 6.9 d and in biosolids with a half-life of 10.2 d. No relationships were observed between degradation rate and soil physicochemical properties and soil bioactivity. For naproxen, addition of biosolids to soils reduced the degradation rate observed in the soil-only studies, with half-lives in the soil-biosolid systems ranging from 3.9 to 15.1 d. Carbamazepine and fluoxetine were found to be persistent in soils, biosolids, and soil-biosolid mixtures. When degradation was assessed using a mixture of the three study compounds and the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethazine, the degradation behavior of fluoxetine and carbamazepine was similar to that observed in the single compound studies (i.e., no degradation). However, the degradation rate of naproxen in soils, biosolids, and soil-biosolid systems spiked with the mixture was significantly slower than in the single-compound studies. As degradation studies for risk assessment purposes are performed using single substances in soil-only studies, it is possible that current risk assessment procedures will underestimate environmental impacts. Further work is therefore warranted on a larger range of substances, soils, biosolid types, and chemical mixtures to better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in terrestrial systems. PMID:19580336

Monteiro, Sara C; Boxall, Alistair B A

2009-12-01

292

Factors affecting sperm fertilizing capacity in men infected with HIV.  

PubMed

Studies on the sperm-fertilizing capacity of HIV-seropositive men show conflicting results for reasons that are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and relationships of some factors such as patient age, CD4(+) cells count, fathering offspring, concomitant sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and receipt of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on sperm fertilizing capacity. Semen samples were collected from 33 HIV-seropositive men. Data on the above factors were acquired from a self-designed questionnaire. Computer-assisted sperm analysis, a hypo-osmotic swelling, and zona-free hamster oocyte penetration tests were performed according to criteria of the World Health Organization. CD4(+) cells in peripheral blood were examined using a flow cytometric (FCM) analyzer. Sperm vitality, sperm motility (grades a?+?b), total sperm motility, and sperm penetration rates were significantly higher in patients whose CD4(+) counts were ?350/µl than in those whose CD4(+) counts were <350/µl (P?

Wang, Dian; Li, Lianbing; Xie, Qingdong; Hou, Zhiwei; Yu, Xiaojun; Ma, Mingfu; Huang, Tianhua

2014-09-01

293

Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.  

PubMed

Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John

2013-04-01

294

Factors affecting adequate prenatal care and the prenatal care visits of immigrant women to Taiwan.  

PubMed

This paper investigates prenatal care utilization, identifies factors affecting the adequacy of prenatal care, and explores the effect of adequate initial timing of prenatal care on total prenatal care visits among Taiwan new immigrant females. Data was obtained from the 2008 Prenatal Care Utilization among Taiwan New Immigrant Females Survey on women who either had at least one preschool-aged child or had delivered their infants but were still hospitalized (N = 476). The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was applied to rate the prenatal care adequacy. The logistic regression model was used to investigate factors associated with the adequacy of prenatal care utilization, and the linear regression model was estimated to identify the impact of influential factors on the prenatal care usage. Females' nationality, employment, and transportation convenience increased the likelihood of receiving adequate prenatal care. Having adequate initial timing of prenatal care was found to be positively related to the frequency of prenatal care visits. Prenatal care utilization can be affected by factors within the health care system and by characteristics of the population; therefore, a measure of prenatal care utilization cannot distinguish these factors but reflects the result of all of them in varying combinations. PMID:23065308

Liang, Yia-Wun; Chang, Hua-Pin; Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Lin, Long-Yau; Chen, Wen-Yi

2014-02-01

295

The investigation of parameters affecting boron removal by electrocoagulation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron removal from wastewaters by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, boron concentration and type and concentration of supporting electrolyte were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. The experiments were carried out by keeping the pH of solution constant and optimum pH of solution

A. Erdem Yilmaz; Recep Boncukcuo?lu; M. Muhtar Kocakerim; Bülent Keskinler

2005-01-01

296

An Investigation into How ADABOOST Affects Classifier Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

AdaBoost is a method for incrementally creating a classifier ensemble. We investigate how the diversity of an ensemble of classifiers created by AdaBoost varies as the number of classifiers in the ensemble increases. We consider two data sets from the UCI machine learning repository and use ten different measures of diversity. We show that AdaBoost does indeed initially increase the

Catherine A. Shipp; Ludmila I. Kuncheva

297

Factors Affecting Physician Communication and Parent-Physician Dialogues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Iowa study examined whether increased medical knowledge affects medical students' interviewing skills in each or any year of medical school. Results suggest interviewing skills are not affected by increased knowledge about medical conditions but can be improved with technique training. (MSE)

Wolraich, Mark L.; And Others

1982-01-01

298

Investigation of Various Essential Factors for Optimum Infrared Thermography  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We investigated various essential factors for optimum infrared thermography for cattle clinics. The effect of various factors on the detection of surface temperature was investigated in an experimental room with a fixed ambient temperature using a square positioned on a wall. Various factors of animal objects were examined using cattle to determine the relationships among presence of hair, body surface temperature, surface temperature of the eyeball, the highest temperature of the eye circle, rectum temperature and ambient temperature. Also, the surface temperature of the flank at different time points after eating was examined. The best conditions of thermography for cattle clinics were determined and were as follows: (1) The distance between a thermal camera and an object should be fixed, and the camera should be set within a 45-degree angle with respect to the objects using the optimum focal length. (2) Factors that affect the camera temperature, such as extreme cold or heat, direct sunshine, high humidity and wind, should be avoided. (3) For the comparison of thermographs, imaging should be performed under identical conditions. If this is not achievable, hairless parts should be used.

OKADA, Keiji; TAKEMURA, Kei; SATO, Shigeru

2013-01-01

299

Investigation of various essential factors for optimum infrared thermography.  

PubMed

We investigated various essential factors for optimum infrared thermography for cattle clinics. The effect of various factors on the detection of surface temperature was investigated in an experimental room with a fixed ambient temperature using a square positioned on a wall. Various factors of animal objects were examined using cattle to determine the relationships among presence of hair, body surface temperature, surface temperature of the eyeball, the highest temperature of the eye circle, rectum temperature and ambient temperature. Also, the surface temperature of the flank at different time points after eating was examined. The best conditions of thermography for cattle clinics were determined and were as follows: (1) The distance between a thermal camera and an object should be fixed, and the camera should be set within a 45-degree angle with respect to the objects using the optimum focal length. (2) Factors that affect the camera temperature, such as extreme cold or heat, direct sunshine, high humidity and wind, should be avoided. (3) For the comparison of thermographs, imaging should be performed under identical conditions. If this is not achievable, hairless parts should be used. PMID:23759714

Okada, Keiji; Takemura, Kei; Sato, Shigeru

2013-10-01

300

Multiple factors affecting superovulation in Poll Dorset in China.  

PubMed

To expand the breeding flock of Poll Dorset sheep in China, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding program was applied to the limited number of imported Australian Poll Dorset sheep. This study investigated the effects of FSH from three different manufacturers, parity (nulliparous vs multiparous), repeated superovulation, oestrus induction, corpus luteum regression and oestrus delay on Poll Dorset superovulation. The results showed that gonadotropin FSH from Canada Folltropin-V (Ca-FSH) was successfully used for superovulatory treatment with 160 mg-200 mg dosage per ewe and recovered 12.91 ± 7.80 embryos. Multiparous ewes for superovulation treatment were significantly better nulliparous ewes (p<0.05). The successive superovalution treatment reduced significantly embryo collection but did not affect transferable embryo number. Ewes with natural oestrus resulted in significantly higher number of embryos (13.83 ± 4.64) and of transferable embryos (12.00 ± 5.76) than ewes with induced oestrus (7.00 ± 4.92; 4.22 ± 3.42) and unknown oestrus cycle (5.94 ± 3.38; 3.19 ± 2.56, p<0.05). The delayed oestrus ewes at 24 h after superovulatory treatment produced significantly fewer embryos and transferable embryos (0.92 ± 1.51 vs 0.42 ± 0.90) than those with normal oestrus (p<0.01). Furthermore, the more transferable embryos were recovered from ewes with normal corpus luteum than those with corpus luteum regression (5.88 ± 5.09 vs 3.59 ± 4.30 and 8.83 ± 5.75 vs. 6.66 ± 5.41, p<0.01). These results suggest that in our farm practice, a comprehensive treatment method by using the Canadian FSH (Folltropin-V), plus choosing multiparous and natural oestrus ewes with normal corpus luteum might obtain an optimum embryo collection and embryos transfer in sheep. PMID:19968834

Quan, F; Zhang, Z; An, Z; Hua, S; Zhao, X; Zhang, Y

2011-02-01

301

Factors affecting the cutting ability of sonic files.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the cutting ability of sonic files. A model system was developed and the following variables evaluated: file type. Heliosonic or Shaper; file length, 21 or 29 mm; power, air inlet ring opening of half or fully open; stroke length, 2 or 4 mm; stroke rate, one or two cycles per second; and load 50 or 100 g. A 2(6) full-factorial analysis with two replications into the effect of the above variables on the cutting ability of the MM1500 sonic instrument was performed. A new size 25 file was used for each cut, together with water irrigation, and the substrate used was 1-mm thick sections of bovine bone. The differences between the variables were significant (ANOVA, P < 0.001). However, examination of the F-values showed that the most significant variable to affect cutting was load, followed by power, file type, stroke length and stroke rate, with the least significant variable being file length. The most significant interaction was between rate and length of stroke. An increase in stroke rate from one to two cycles per second at a stroke length of 2 mm produced an increase in cutting for both the Heliosonic and Shaper files. However, at the longer stroke length of 4 mm, the same increase in rate resulted in a decrease in cutting for the Shaper files. Therefore, it is suggested that operators should press the file against the canal wall and move it slowly to maximise cutting. PMID:9206423

Lumley, P J; Harrington, E; Aspinwall, E; Blunt, L; Walmsley, A D; Marquis, P M

1996-05-01

302

Literature Review of Cross-Cultural Factors Affecting Polygraph Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of a literary review of cultural factors which could influence the validity of polygraph examinations. Five general cultural factors were selected for study. For the purpose of this review, culture is defined by geographic...

R. E. Doll J. G. Law C. Piotrowski

1990-01-01

303

Factors affecting optical dispersion in borate glass systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Series of ternary glass systems namely, Na2O, B2O3, and RO (R=Ba or Mg) doped with TiO2 are synthesized. The present glasses are dictated by requirement for a small refractive index and a small nonlinear coefficient needed for waveguide and laser fabrication requirements. The effect of MgO and BaO as alkaline earth metals on the optical properties of the glass systems is investigated. The dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient dispersion curves on composition is carried out over a wavelength range of 0.3 2.5?m. Applying a genetic algorithm technique, the parameters of Sellmeier dispersion formula that fit index data to accuracy consistent well with the measurements are given. The zero material dispersion-wavelength (ZMDW) and group velocity are also determined using the refractive index data. The Fermi level is calculated exploiting the extinction coefficient dispersion curves. The absorption coefficient, both direct and indirect optical energy gaps, and Urbach energy are evaluated using the absorption edge calculations. The different factors that play a role for controlling the refractive indices such as coordination number, electronic polarizability, field strength of cations, bridging and nonbridging oxygen, and optical basicity are discussed in accordance with the obtained index data. IR spectroscopy is used as a structural probe of the nearest-neighbor environment in the glass network.

Abdel-Baki, Manal; Abdel-Wahab, F. A.; Radi, Amr; El-Diasty, Fouad

2007-08-01

304

Factors Affecting the Musculoskeletal Symptoms of Korean Police Officers  

PubMed Central

] This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of police officers (353 subjects) who visited the National Police Hospital from March 2013 to May 2013 was conducted using a structured questionnaire. [Results] The incidence of pain was 44.2% in the shoulder, 41.4% in the waist, 31.2% in the neck, 26.1% in the legs/foot, 16.7% in the hand/wrist/finger, and 14.7% in the arm/elbow. The comparative risk of the relevant part factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The shoulder had a 4.87 times higher risk in police lieutenants compared with those under the rank of corporal and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with chronic diseases than those without chronic diseases. The arm/elbow had a 2.37 times higher risk in people who exercised than those who did not exercise and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with a chronic disease than those without chronic diseases. Generally, people with a chronic disease showed a higher risk than those without chronic diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this study could be useful as basic data for improvement of police welfare, specialized treatment for the health safety of the police, and efficient management of police resources.

Cho, Taek-Sang; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Lee, Jin-Gu; Seok, Jong-Min; Cho, Jae-Hwan

2014-01-01

305

Factors Affecting the Intensity of Solar Energetic Particle Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported that is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running into the ambient solar wind. SEP events with CME interaction generally have a higher intensity. New possibilities such as the influence of coronal holes on the SEP intensity are also discussed. For example, the presence of a large coronal hole between a well-connected eruption and the solar disk center may render the shock poorly connected because of the interaction between the CME and the coronal hole. This point is illustrated using the 2004 December 3 SEP event delayed by about 12 hours from the onset of the associated CME. There is no other event at the Sun that can be associated with the SEP onset. This event is consistent with the possibility that the coronal hole interaction influences the connectivity of the CMEs that produce SEPs, and hence the intensity of the SEP event.

Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

2011-01-01

306

Environmental factors affecting indole metabolism under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed Central

The influence of physiological and environmental factors on the accumulation of oxindole during anaerobic indole metabolism was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under methanogenic conditions, indole was temporarily converted to oxindole in stoichiometric amounts in media inoculated with three freshwater sediments and an organic soil. In media inoculated with methanogenic sewage sludge, the modest amounts of oxindole detected at 35 degrees C reached higher concentrations and persisted longer when the incubation temperature was decreased from 35 to 15 degrees C. Also, decreasing the concentration of sewage sludge used as an inoculum from 50 to 1% caused an increase in the accumulation of oxindole from 10 to 75% of the indole added. Under denitrifying conditions, regardless of the concentration or source of the inoculum, oxindole appeared in trace amounts but did not accumulate during indole metabolism. In addition, denitrifying consortia which previously metabolized indole degraded oxindole with no lag period. Our data suggest that oxindole accumulation under methanogenic, but not under denitrifying conditions is caused by differences between relative rates of oxindole production and destruction.

Madsen, E L; Francis, A J; Bollag, J M

1988-01-01

307

Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U) by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT), stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessments followed by ESWL treatment. Statistical analyses including chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation, regression were performed for statistical significance between ESWL treatment, stone fragmentation and stone density, size and location in the renal pelvis. ESWL success rate was high (94%) for low density stones (< 500 Hounsfield units). In general CT densities of 750 Hounsfield units or less were almost always successfully treated by ESWL. An inverse association between ESWL treatment outcome and stone size was also documented. CT stone density and stone size combined account for nearly 73% of the variation in the number of shock waves required to attain fragmentation. Stones located in lower calyceal area had less success rates. In conclusion, stones with higher density, large size and lower location may better be managed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy. PMID:20587869

Tarawneh, Emad; Awad, Zeyad; Hani, Audy; Haroun, Azmi Amin; Hadidy, Azmi; Mahafza, Waleed; Samarah, Osama

2010-07-01

308

Demanding Affecting Factors Analysis for Personal Financial Management Business: An Empirical Approach Based on Factor Analysis Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the demanding affecting factors for financial management business by using factor analysis model and logistic regression through the data obtained from the survey questionnaires. It is found that the main factors that affecting financial management business are the special life cycle stages the residents are in and the external information environment for residents to purchase financial products.

Jianqiong Peng; Dehong Lu

2011-01-01

309

Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. Prior attempts to uncouple and quantify these processes have relied on column experiments, where the effluent concentration was monitored under different conditions in an effort to quantify the contributions from a single process. In real porous media these processes occur simultaneously and are inter-related. Further, the contribution from each of these processes varies at the pore scale and with time. This research aims to determine the pore-scale processes that limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. The specific objectives are to: (1) determine the effect of unswept zones on DNAPL removal during SVE, (2) determine the effect of retarded vapor phase transport on DNAPL removal during SVE, and (3) determine the effect of interphase mass transfer on DNAPL removal during SVE, all as a function of changing moisture and DNAPL content. To fulfill these objectives we propose to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to observe and quantify the location and size of individual pores containing DNAPL, water, and vapor in flow through columns filled with model and natural sediments. Imaging results will be used in conjunction with modeling techniques to develop spatially and temporally dependent constitutive relations that describe the transient distribution of phases inside a column experiment. These constitutive relations will be incorporated into a site-scale transport model to evaluate how the different processes affect SVE performance in practical applications. This will allow decision makers to better assess the risk associated with vadose zone contamination and the effectiveness of SVE at hazardous waste sites.

Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.; Webb, Andrew G.

2001-06-01

310

Factors That Affect Generation of Collant Mists, December 14, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this research was to characterize the mist formation process. The salient machining and metalworking fluid parameters affecting the mist generation rate and size distribution of each mist formation mechanism were identified. Empirical equation...

D. Leith J. Thornburg

1998-01-01

311

A review of published quantitative experimental studies on factors affecting laboratory fume hood performance.  

PubMed

This study attempted to identify the important factors that affect the performance of a laboratory fume hood and the relationship between the factors and hood performance under various conditions by analyzing and generalizing the results from other studies that quantitatively investigated fume hood performance. A literature search identified 43 studies that were published from 1966 to 2006. For each of those studies, information on the type of test methods used, the factors investigated, and the findings were recorded and summarized. Among the 43 quantitative experimental studies, 21 comparable studies were selected, and then a meta-analysis of the comparable studies was conducted. The exposure concentration variable from the resulting 617 independent test conditions was dichotomized into acceptable or unacceptable using the control level of 0.1 ppm tracer gas. Regression analysis using Cox proportional hazards models provided hood failure ratios for potential exposure determinants. The variables that were found to be statistically significant were the presence of a mannequin/human subject, the distance between a source and breathing zone, and the height of sash opening. In summary, performance of laboratory fume hoods was affected mainly by the presence of a mannequin/human subject, distance between a source and breathing zone, and height of sash opening. Presence of a mannequin/human subject in front of the hood adversely affects hood performance. Worker exposures to air contaminants can be greatly reduced by increasing the distance between the contaminant source and breathing zone and by reducing the height of sash opening. Many other factors can also affect hood performance. Checking face velocity by itself is unlikely to be sufficient in evaluating hood performance properly. An evaluation of the performance of a laboratory fume hood should be performed with a human subject or a mannequin in front of the hood and should address the effects of the activities performed by a hood user. PMID:18780237

Ahn, Kwangseog; Woskie, Susan; DiBerardinis, Louis; Ellenbecker, Michael

2008-11-01

312

You Want Me to Use THAT Robot? Identifying Underlying Factors Affecting Robot Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building on traditional technology acceptance and human-robot interaction (HRI) research, this research sought to investigate operational HRI factors affecting robot use within the context of a high-risk environment. Technology acceptance models have previously focused on perceived usefulness and ease of use, but have tended to ignore barriers or external factors associated with technology adoption. The present studies investigate the role of barriers such as operational risk and lack of HRI trust in determining acceptance of robots. Experiment 1 empirically refined the experimental methodology used in Experiment 2 to investigate factors affecting robot use. Overall, the results highlighted the influence of HRI trust and operational risk on the likelihood of robot use; in addition, they shed light on the importance of the configuration of the robot capabilities needed for task completion. With the proposition that these relationships were moderated by the robot configuration, HRI trust was shown to increase the overall likelihood of robot use and only slight variations were attributed to increased operational risk. HRI trust was shown to have both a positive and negative influence in terms of the operational risks associated with on robot use. In fact, instances when HRI trust is high may lead to using a robot that is not even properly configured for the high-risk task. Therefore, it is beneficial to understand the underlying mechanisms that influence the perception (right or wrong) surrounding unmanned systems. The findings from this research can be used to enhance the utility and acceptance of new or existing unmanned systems.

Yagoda, Rosemarie Elaine

313

Caries-risk factors for Hispanic children affected by early childhood caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with early child- hood caries (ECC) and to develop a profile of risk factors for Hispanic families affected by this condition. Methods: Sixty Hispanic families with at least 1 child affected by ECC and 60 Hispanic families without any affected children were included in the study. Data was collected

Noelle L. Huntington; Joon Kim; Christopher V. Hughes

314

Factors affecting international staffing in Chinese multinationals (MNEs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the existing models explain factors determining approaches to international staffing of multinational enterprises (MNEs) from developed countries, there is little known about MNEs of developing and transforming economies. This qualitative empirical research explores the factors determining international staffing in Chinese MNEs and argues that Western models are generally applicable to the Chinese context. However, the same categories of determining

Jie Shen

2006-01-01

315

Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)

Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

2003-01-01

316

Factors Affecting EWS-FLI1 Activity in Ewing's Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease.

Herrero-Martin, David; Fourtouna, Argyro; Niedan, Stephan; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N. T.

2011-01-01

317

A discussion of the factors affecting surge in centrifugal compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of surge in a centrifugal compressor has been studied and found to be dependent on a number of complex and often interrelated factors. A major factor defining surge in high-speed, vaned diffuser designs appears to be the flow in the semivaneless space. By developing work initiated by others it has been possible to propose some explanation of previously

R. L. Elder; M. E. Gill

1984-01-01

318

Bioclimatic factors affecting daily Cupressaceae flowering in southwest Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily variations in Cupressaceae pollen counts were analysed, together with climatic variables in the southwest of Spain, in order to understand the bioclimatic variables affecting Cupressaceae flowering in a Mediterranean climate. The study was carried out using the Spanish Aerobiology Network recommendations, using a Burkard Hirst-type spore trap. Regression analyses were applied to the pollen counts of the winter months of 13 consecutive years. The regression analysis applied to each year indicated that temperature is the most important variable to include in the model. Temperature affected the pollen counts differently according to the yearly climatic trend. During the coldest years, pollen counts depended on the minimum temperature, while in the warmest ones they were affected by higher temperatures. However, during the driest years, pollen counts depended more on the humidity level, while in the wettest years they depended more on the hours of sunshine.

Galán, C.; Fuillerat, M. Jose; Comtois, Paul; Dominguez-Vilches, Eugenio

319

Factors affecting the performance of detectors that use secondary electron emission from a thin foil to determine ion impact position  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors affecting the performance of a Position-Sensitive Timing Detector (PSTD), based on the detection of secondary electrons ejected from a thin foil by the passing ion, were investigated. Different contributions to the observed (generally poor) position resolution were investigated. The effects of multiple scattering in the foil were determined first. We then measured the contribution of the position-sensitive detector

D. Shapira; T. A. Lewis; L. D. Hulett; Z. Ciao

2000-01-01

320

Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3) and 3.4 (1.8) respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812) and 26.2% (213/812) were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13%) and 130 (16%) respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%. In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education < secondary level (OR=7.8; CI=5.6-10.9; P=0.00), husband education < secondary level (OR=1.9; CI=1.3-2.6, P = 0.00) and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00) were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman’s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.

2013-01-01

321

Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

2009-01-01

322

Factors Affecting the Personal and Social Outcomes of Organized Camping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined features of camps and camp staff that might affect the personal and social benefits of organized camping for children. Questionnaires were completed by 29 camp directors and 270 campers aged 8-14 from 33 residential camps across the United States. Results indicate that higher personal and social outcomes were associated with…

Moorman, Marta

323

Factors affecting phenol transfer through polydimethylsiloxane composite membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polydimethylsiloxane composite membrane was employed for the separation of phenol and sodium chloride in synthetic wastewater. The major operational parameters affecting phenol transfer through this composite membrane were screened by the orthogonal array and range analysis. The results showed that the significance of parameters on the permeate flux followed the order of phenol concentration, membrane skin layer thickness, recirculation rate,

Mao-Sung Lee; Chihpin Huang; Kueir-Rarn Lee; Jill R. Pan; Wang-Kuan Chang

2008-01-01

324

Factors affecting employee knowledge acquisition and application capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to analyze the influences of organizational context and information technology (IT) applications on employees' perceptions of knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public and five private sector organizations in South Korea. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper analyzes how employees' perceptions of organizational context and IT affect employee knowledge acquisition and application capabilities in five public

Soonhee Kim; Hyangsoo Lee

2010-01-01

325

SKI SKATING TECHNIQUE CHOICE: MECHANICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ski skating technique choice can potentially influence economy of motion which in turn affects racing performance. Comparisons of skating techniques have demonstrated that uphill slope can influence the relative advantage of one technique versus another. On slopes greater than about 4 to 5 degrees, V1 technique may have physiological advantages over V2 technique. Mechanically this can be explained by positioning

Gerald Smith; Bent Kvamme; Vidar Jakobsen

326

Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

Coleman, Eric A.

2009-01-01

327

Dimensional factors affecting magnetic properties of wound cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic properties of wound cores constructed from electrical steel strips have been found to be affected by their geometry, in particular the inner and outer diameters, the strip width and the build-up thickness of the toroids. Assessment of the effect of aspect ratio and winding ratio have been carried out in various sizes of toroid. An increase in aspect

A J Moses; P C Y Ling

1989-01-01

328

FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENT FLOCCULATION OF TAILINGS BY POLYACRYLAMIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flocculation of coal preparation plant tailings is an established technology, and the scientific basis of flocculation is well understood, Nevertheless, conditions specific to the preparation plant affect the efficiency of the process. The sedimentation rate obtained with flocculated tailings depends on the molecular size of the polyacrylamide. Modern flocculants are very high molecular weight polymers and the size of

J. M. HENDERSON; A. D. WHEATLEY

1987-01-01

329

Factors affecting the safety of the construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was concluded from the survey that safety officers and workers agreed on the top six factors, the first three being maintaining safe working conditions, establishing safety training and educating workers and supervisors.

M. Osama Jannadi

1996-01-01

330

Factors affecting transient overvoltages of electric submersible pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a theoretical simulation and analysis of all possible factors due to transient overvoltages (TOVs) that could contribute to electrical failures of electric submersible pump (ESP) motors used in oil fields. A transient calculations software package PSCAD is used to simulate a single cable-fed, 3.3-kV induction motor including the mains of the 33-kV distribution system. The factors studied

IBRAHIM A. METWALLY; ADEL GASTLI

2006-01-01

331

Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1984-01-01

332

Synopsis of discussion session on physicochemical factors affecting toxicity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The paper documents the workshop discussion regarding the role of these factors in altering toxicity. For each factor, the nature, magnitude, and uncertainty of its empirical relation to the toxicity of various chemicals or chemical classes is discussed. Limitations in the empirical database regarding the variety of species and endpoints tested were addressed. Possible mechanisms underlying the empirical relations are identified. Finally, research needed to better understand these effects is identified.

Erickson, R. J.; Bills, T. D.; Clark, J. R.; Hansen, D. J.; Knezovich, J.

1994-01-01

333

Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011  

PubMed Central

Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women.

Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

334

Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

Washburn, David A.

1992-01-01

335

Metallurgical factors affecting fracture toughness of aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the “ductile” or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1\\u000a ?m to ~10?m, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The\\u000a linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,

G. T. Hahn; A. R. Rosenfield

1975-01-01

336

Factors affecting leak around tracheal tubes in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined which variables affected endotracheal tube“leak”pressures in 80 surgical patients, two weeks to 11 years\\u000a of age, intubated with uncuffed tracheal tubes. We defined “leak” pressure as the inspiratory pressure needed to cause an\\u000a audible escape of gas around the endotracheal tube.“Leak”pressure was measured after varying either head position, tracheal\\u000a tube depth within the trachea, fresh gas flow

David A. Finholt; Desmond B. Henry; Russell C. Raphaely

1985-01-01

337

Metallurgical factors affecting fracture toughness of aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the ``ductile'' or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1 mum to ~10mum, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,

G. T. Hahn; A. R. Rosenfield

1975-01-01

338

Factors affecting the development of biodeterioration in wooden constructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water leakages are the general cause of moisture stress exceeding the moisture tolerances of constructions. Moisture stress\\u000a causes biodeterioration (mould, rot and insect damage) in wooden constructions. The degree of damage is affected by the severity\\u000a and duration of moisture exposure and temperature, together with the sensitivity of the wooden construction to environmental\\u000a stress. The growth of mould fungi on

Hannu Viitanen

1994-01-01

339

Metallurgical factors affecting the crack growth resistance of a superalloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During creep loading of IN-792, grain boundary morphology in conjunction with grain size strongly affected crack propagation.\\u000a Compositional variations and fabrication techniques showed no significant effect. A primary requirement for materials to be\\u000a used in gas turbine engine discs is satisfactory resistance to crack growth resistance in the 650 to 760?C range. Both conventional\\u000a smooth and machine notched stress-rupture samples

J. M. Larson; S. Floreen

1977-01-01

340

A discussion of the factors affecting surge in centrifugal compressors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of surge in a centrifugal compressor has been studied and found to be dependent on a number of complex and often interrelated factors. A major factor defining surge in high-speed, vaned diffuser designs appears to be the flow in the semivaneless space. By developing work initiated by others it has been possible to propose some explanation of previously presented apparently conflicting data. In addition, a more complex mathematical model capable of assessing additional factors is proposed. Using this model good agreement with experimental surge has been obtained. This model takes into consideration pressure losses in the impeller, diffuser, and collector, and by using this model it was possible to identify the stalling elements that are responsible for overall compressor instability.

Elder, R. L.; Gill, M. E.

1984-06-01

341

Factors affecting bovine corneal endothelial cell density in vitro.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To examine factors influencing the density and contact inhibition of bovine corneal endothelial cells cultured in vitro. METHODS: Cell counts were performed on bovine corneal endothelial cells cultured for various times in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, with or without varying concentrations of growth factors, 5% dextran T-500, or 2% chondroitin sulphate, at 32 degrees C or 37 degrees C, and after treatment with beta galactosidase. RESULTS: Both basic fibroblast growth factor (FGFb) and retinal crude extract (RCE), but neither epidermal growth factor (EGF) nor acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGFa), increased endothelial cell density in vitro (p < 0.05). Continuous exposure to RCE resulted in a higher cell density than did a 24 hour pulse (p < 0.01), and higher cell densities were achieved at 37 degrees C than at 32 degrees C (p < 0.0001). In the absence of RCE, dextran T-500 increased cell density modestly (p < 0.05); in the presence of RCE, the addition of dextran T-500 had no effect on final cell density, whereas chondroitin sulphate significantly decreased final cell density (p < 0.01). In the absence of exogenous growth factors, beta galactosidase treatment resulted in a 50% increase in final cell density compared with controls (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Bovine corneal endothelial cell growth can be augmented under conditions different from those used in corneal preservation systems. The final cell density in a confluent monolayer can be increased by treatment with beta galactosidase, suggesting that corneal endothelial cells may be contact inhibited through a beta galactosidase sensitive receptor system. Images

Johnstone, E W; Wong, H C; Coster, D J; Williams, K A

1996-01-01

342

Factors affecting aromatic VOC removal by electron beam treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been conducted to investigate the effects of dose, humidity, and temperature on the decomposition of representative volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by electron beam irradiation. For this study, toluene—a commonly used VOC in the various industrial coating processes, was selected as a representative VOC. The degradation characteristics under different concentrations and irradiation doses were extensively investigated to determine

Jo-Chun Kim

2002-01-01

343

The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications.

Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong

2014-01-01

344

Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

2014-01-01

345

Factors affecting the implementation of green specifications in construction.  

PubMed

Green specifications constitute one of the important elements in green construction. New sustainability requirements and changing priorities in construction management have spurred the emerging green specifications to a faster pace of development. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted in Hong Kong in 2007 to identify principal factors leading to the success of preparing green specifications. Based on extensive construction management literature, 20 variables concerning sustainable construction were summarized. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, the subtle differences between stakeholders in specifying construction work have been detected even with the high consistency of the responses among the groups. Moreover, five independent factors for successful specification of green construction have been categorized by factor analysis. They are related to (1) green technology and techniques, (2) reliability and quality of specification, (3) leadership and responsibility, (4) stakeholder involvement, and (5) guide and benchmarking systems. Whilst the first and fourth factors are generally more important, different stakeholder groups have different emphases. The results of the survey have been validated against established principles. PMID:19853367

Lam, Patrick T I; Chan, Edwin H W; Poon, C S; Chau, C K; Chun, K P

2010-01-01

346

Older Farmers: Factors Affecting Their Health and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture has been recognized as one of the most hazardous occupations in the United States. In an industry where according to the 1997 Agricultural Census, an estimated 500,000 farm workers, 1\\/4 of all farm operators are 65 years of age or older, age becomes a serious factor when considering potential risk for injuries among this population. Because no mandatory retirement

Maria C. Hernandez-Peck

347

Factors affecting the survivability of bovine oocytes vitrified in droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitrification of bovine oocytes performed using the traditional, in straw system has not given satisfactory results. Although an alternative approach based on minimizing the volume of the vitrified sample has recently resulted in a much more promising survival rate of vitrified oocytes, we attempted to examine some additional factors influencing the survival and subsequent fertilization and development rates of bovine

K. Papis; M. Shimizu; Y. Izaike

2000-01-01

348

School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

2009-01-01

349

Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors

Zhao, Yong; Frank, Kenneth A.

2003-01-01

350

The Study of Factor that Affect Financial Distress Prediction Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of building predictive financial models is that find latent crisis advance the data. The researcher before study the predictive financial models usually use the statistics method, as factors analysis, cluster analysis, etc. They use those methods to reduce variable. Then the researcher building predictive financial model by university regression model, multivariate regression model, and neural networks. Will reducing

I-wien Chen; Ling-jung Huang

351

Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and con...

J. Pelham

1991-01-01

352

Factors That Affect Initial Enrollment of Working Adult, Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on…

Adrignola, Matt Nolan

2010-01-01

353

FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

354

Factors Affecting the Oxidative Gelation of Wheat Water-Solubles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 67(l):81-84 Viscometry of wheat flour extracts was used to study factors con- acid, and cysteine inhibited increases in viscosity. The mechanism of this tributing to oxidative gelation. Addition of hydrogen peroxide did not oxidative gelation appears to be complicated and influenced greatly by increase viscosity of dilute aqueous extracts of wheat flour but did increase the concentrations of

A. M. MOORE; I. MARTINEZ-MUNOZ; R. C. HOSENEY

355

Factors Affecting Hospital Staff Judgments About Sickle Cell Disease Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Judgments about people with pain are influenced by contextual factors that can lead to stigmatization of patients who present in certain ways. Misplaced staff perceptions of addiction may contribute to this, because certain pain behaviors superficially resemble symptoms of analgesic addiction. We used a vignette study to examine hospital staff judgments about patients with genuine symptoms of analgesic addiction and

James Elander; Malgorzata Marczewska; Roger Amos; Aldine Thomas; Sekayi Tangayi

2006-01-01

356

Environmental and Management Factors Affecting Estrous Activity in Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

One thousand periods of estrus of Hol- stein and Jersey cows and heifers of breeding age during 27 mo were used to evaluate environmental and management factors related to estrous behavior during twice-daily heat checks. Mounting activ- ity at the first observation of estrus was influenced by sire within genetic selection group fog milk yield, lactation number, primary housing location,

F. C. Gwazdauskas; J. A. Lineweaver; M. L. McGilliard

1983-01-01

357

Factors affecting webpage's visual interface design and style  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, many researches of web interface were focused on usability and technical aspects. Instead, this research takes the visual communication-oriented approach to see how much the visual interface style adds to its rating. The main purpose of this study is to understand the design criteria and major factors that influenced different web visual interface styles. First of all,

Chun-Cheng Hsu

2011-01-01

358

Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

2008-01-01

359

Teachers' Perspectives on Factors that Affect Computer Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of 36 K-12 teachers focused on computer use for noninstructional activities and their perspectives on facilitating and impeding factors. Study revealed that computers were used 94% for preparing instructional materials and 58% for finding subject area information. Most common obstacle to computer use was not enough time to learn new…

Chiero, Robin T.

1997-01-01

360

Whether space weather factors affect the occurrence of aviation accidents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a statistical analysis of the database of the US National Transportation Safety Board, we show that space weather factors have no effect on aviation occurrences. We consider typical logical and methodological errors arising in this type of studies and bring facts to show the futility of further research regarding this problem.

Lyakhov, A. N.; Kozlov, S. L.

2012-02-01

361

Students' Perceptions of Factors that Affect College Funding Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examines the factors that college students perceive are important in helping them make good financial decisions about paying for a college education. The study categorizes and summarizes students' self-reported responses to an open-ended survey question about recommendations for changes in financial aid counseling practices.…

Porter, Julia Y.; Fossey, W. Richard; Davis, William E.; Burnett, Michael F.; Stuhlmann, Janice; Suchy, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

362

Factors Affecting the Success of Hmong College Students in America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own…

Xiong, Soua; Lam, Sarah K. Y.

2013-01-01

363

Factors that Affect Nontraditional Vocational Enrollment among Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocational training program females (N=470) completed a questionnaire assessing the role of personality and social support factors in nontraditional training enrollment. Results revealed differences in the amount of support and encouragement received from others, with nontraditional students receiving more support from female friends, family…

Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris

1985-01-01

364

Social Life Factors Affecting Suicide in Japanese Men and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship between social and demographic indicators and age-adjusted suicide mortality in 46 prefectures in Japan. Rural residence was the major factor for male mortality in 1970 and 1975. In 1970, home help for the elderly, depopulation by social mobility, and urban residence were positively associated with male mortality. In women,…

Araki, Shunichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

1986-01-01

365

Factors Affecting Teachers' Use of Information and Communication Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers' decisions to use ICT in the…

Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Fooi, Foo Say

2009-01-01

366

FACTORS AFFECTING SENSITIVITY OF CHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MARINE EMBAYMEMTS TO NITROGEN LOADING  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes an ongoing examination of the primary factors that affect sensitivity of marine embayment responses to nitrogen loading. Included is a discussion of two methods for using these factors: classification of embayments into discrete sensitivity classes and norma...

367

FACTORS AFFECTING ALKYLBENZENE SORPTION TO MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE. (R827131)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

368

A biomechanical review of factors affecting rowing performance.  

PubMed

This review analyses rowing by linking the biological and mechanical systems that comprise the rowing system. Blade force was found to be the only propulsive force to counter the drag forces, consisting of both air drag and hydrodynamic drag, acting on the system. Vertical oscillations of the shell are shown to have minimal impact on system dynamics. The oar acts as the link between the force generated by the rower and the blade force and transmits this force to the rowing shell through the oarlock. Blade dynamics consist of both lift and drag mechanisms. The force on the oar handle is the result of a phased muscular activation of the rower. Oar handle force and movement are affected by the joint strength and torque-velocity characteristics of the rower. Maximising sustainable power requires a matching of the rigging setup and blade design to the rower's joint torque-velocity characteristics. Coordination and synchrony between rowers in a multiple rower shell affects overall system velocity. Force-time profiles should be better understood to identify specific components of a rower's biomechanics that can be modified to achieve greater force generation. PMID:12453833

Baudouin, A; Hawkins, D

2002-12-01

369

SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review.

MORALES, LEO S.; LARA, MARIELENA; KINGTON, RAYNARD S.; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; ESCARCE, JOSE J.

2006-01-01

370

Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

SciTech Connect

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.

1991-01-01

371

Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

SciTech Connect

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.

1991-12-31

372

Factors affecting curved versus straight path heading perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Displays commonly used for testing heading judgments in the presence of rotations are ambiguous to observers. They can be\\u000a interpreted equally well as motion in a straight line while rotating the eyes or as motion on a curved path. This has led\\u000a to conflicting results from studies that use these displays. In this study, we tested several factors that might

Constance S. Royden; James M. Cahill; Daniel M. Conti

2006-01-01

373

Factors affecting the morphology of isocitrate lyase crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isocitrate lyase crystals have been grown by the hanging drop vapor equilibration method in both 1-g and microgravity and by vapor equilibrium in small capillaries. The crystal morphologies obtained have ranged from dendritic to 'octagonal' prisms. Theoretical evaporation models have been applied to these growth regimes. The results of these analyses along with other experimental results, indicate the factors which must be controlled to produce good growth morphologies.

Demattei, Robert C.; Feigelson, Robert S.; Weber, Patricia C.

1992-01-01

374

Prognostic Factors Affecting Progression and Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the role of age, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA doubling time (PSADT), and PSA half-time (PSAT1\\/2) as prognostic factors in metastatic prostate cancer to predict long-term outcome. Patients and Methods: 412 patients with metastatic prostate cancer diagnosed after January 1995, with at least 6 months of follow-up, were enrolled. Serum PSA was determined at diagnosis and

Rishi Nayyar; Nitin Sharma; Narmada P. Gupta

2010-01-01

375

Factors motivating and affecting health information exchange usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveHealth information exchange (HIE) is the process of electronically sharing patient-level information between providers. However, where implemented, reports indicate HIE system usage is low. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with different types of HIE usage.DesignCross-sectional analysis of clinical data from emergency room encounters included in an operational HIE effort linked to system user logs

Joshua R Vest; Hongwei Zhao; Jon Jaspserson; Larry D Gamm; Robert L Ohsfeldt

2011-01-01

376

Factors Affecting Attrition in a Longitudinal Smoking Prevention Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.In longitudinal smoking prevention studies, a difficulty in evaluating treatment effects is understanding whether bias is associated with those who do not complete the study. This study presents the significant predictors of attrition and suggests how to reduce attrition bias in evaluating program effects.Methods.Survival analysis methods were used to assess factors associated with attrition at different time points of the

Ohidul Siddiqui; Brian R. Flay; Frank B. Hu

1996-01-01

377

Analysis on some factors affecting MIMO in tunnel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the 3D-GBSB (three-dimensional Geometrically Based Single-Bounce) model and MIMO channel capacity function, by geometric analysis, it is analyzed that transceiver antenna arrays, antenna spacing, antenna array angle, SNR and Rician K-factor and so on impact on the frequency-nonselective fading MIMO channel capacity. Monte Carlo method can be applied to stimulate the wireless fading channel and demonstrate Cumulative Distribution Function of above.

Zheng, Hong-Dang; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Zhao

2009-07-01

378

Factors affecting the oxidation of elemental sulfur in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of elemental sulfur (S0) to alleviate widespread S deficiencies in agricultural soils is limited by the unpredictability of its oxidation to plant\\u000a available sulfate. Here we review the biological, fertilizer and soil-related factors that control S0 oxidation. Sulfur oxidation in soil is mediated primarily by microorganisms, and thus it is the size, composition and activity\\u000a of the microbial

J. J. Germida; H. H. Janzen

1993-01-01

379

Factors influencing student perceptions of unethical behavior by personal salespeople: An experimental investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, students have held negative perceptions about the ethics of salespeople. Using an experiment, this study explores which factors affect students' perceptions of how frequently salespeople behave unethically. Additionally, the study investigates whether the same factors influence the degree to which certain behaviors are considered serious ethical violations.

John R. Sparks; Mark Johlke

1996-01-01

380

Factors affecting swimming economy in children and adults.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of several explanatory factors: anthropometry, buoyancy, passive underwater torque, drag and swimming technique on the energy cost of swimming front crawl in children and adults. Submaximal V(.)O(2) was measured in ten children (age 12) and 13 adults (age 21), as well as body length (BL), body mass, arm length, propelling size, active drag, hydrostatic lift, passive torque, intracyclic velocity fluctuation, hand slip, stroke length and body angle. The results show that body length ( r=0.74), body mass ( r=0.86) propelling size ( r=0.61), arm length ( r=0.66), distance between the center of mass and the center of volume (Delta d, r=0.74) and body angle during swimming ( r=-0.56) all showed significant linear relationships with the cost of swimming at 1.0 m x s(-1) (CS(1.0)). When normalizing the cost of swimming to body size (CS(1.0) x BL(-1)) there were no differences between the two groups. The conclusions of this study are that the combination of BL, body mass, active drag factor, passive torque, drag efficiency and hydrostatic lift were able to explain 97% of the variation in the cost of swimming for the whole group of swimmers. The size-independent factors of torque and floating abilities (density and Delta d in % of BL), together with swimming technique and active drag were found to explain 75% of the variations in CS(1.0) x BL(-1). The identical values for CS(1.0) x BL(-1) for children and adults are explained through the opposing effects of a better swimming technique in the adults, and a better passive torque in the children. PMID:15243747

Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Ingjer, Frank; Stallman, Robert Keig; Stray-Gundersen, James

2004-10-01

381

Factors Affecting Middle School Students' Reading Motivation in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed a triangulated mixed method to investigate reading motivation of Chinese middle school students in Taiwan. A total of 247 seventh grade students (122 boys and 125 girls) participated voluntarily by completing the Chinese Motivation for Research Questionnaire (CMRQ). Sixteen of the 247 students were purposely selected to…

Huang, SuHua

2013-01-01

382

Factors Affecting Optical Limiting and Scanning with Thin Nonlinear Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descriptions of the optical transmission from simple devices designed to behave as optical power limiters have been studied in both the weak and strong nonlinear regimes. The models investigated feature an active medium whose third-order nonlinear susceptibility possesses both a refractive (real) and absorptive (imaginary) component. It has been found that the behaviour of the transmission with strong nonlinearities differs

J. A. Hermann; P. J. Wilson

1993-01-01

383

Factors Affecting High School Students' Academic Motivation in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to investigate predictive relationships among student characteristics that influence motivation for learning and achievement. A non-Western sample was chosen to test the generalisability of findings outside the Western cultural and social models. The participants were 6,539 students from 14 public high schools distributed across the western half of Taiwan. They were from three grade

Patricia L. Hardré; Ching-Huei Chen; Su-Hua Huang; Chen-Ting Chiang; Fen-Lan Jen; Leslie Warden

2006-01-01

384

Factors affecting online research by nurses in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate predictors of online medical research by nurses. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A cross-sectional study was conducted and a representative sample of nurses was selected from three Taiwanese hospitals from 1 January to 31 March 2007. A total of 274 female nurses completed the questionnaire. Findings – The results indicate that the expectancy

Hung-yi Lu; James E. Andrews; Hsin-ya Hou; Su-yen Chen; Yen-hwa Tu; Yung-chang Yu

2008-01-01

385

Factors Affecting Cold Injury of Sugarbeat Seedlings1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarbeet seedlings (Beta vulgaris L.) may be killed by Spring frost just as they emerge from the soil. Possible solutions to this problem were investigated under closely controlled laboratory and growth chamber condi- tions. The seedlings were germinated at different tempera- tures in contact with solutions containing both varying osmotic pressures and compounds known to promote cold- hardiness in other

J. W. Cary

1975-01-01

386

Factors affecting contact-angle measurement of reservoir rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much attention has been devoted to the study of the improved oil recovery (IOR) method(s). However, it still remains a challenge to evaluate the reservoir wettability quantitatively using actual core samples. Contact angle is considered as one of the most common methods to measure the preferential affinity of reservoir rocks. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the

Shedid A. Shedid; Mamdouh T. Ghannam

2004-01-01

387

Some Factors affecting the Viability of Faecal Bacteria in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The effect of various conditions on the rate of death of Bacterium coli and of Streptococcus faecalis in dilute buffer solutions was followed by making colony counts at intervals during prolonged periods of incubation and then constructing mortality curves. The form of these curves was characteristic for each organism. Of the pH values investigated (approximately 5, 6, 7 and

L. A. Allen; S. M. Pasley; M. A. F. Pierce

1952-01-01

388

Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is reviewed in order to determine whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet era. Significant differences between the two periods are noted. New factors are identified and examined. Topics discussed include concern over current policies regarding deregulation, regulatory reform, and retroactive noise regulations; financing and compliance legislation; aging; economic environment and inflation; technological progress; fuel efficiency and cost; and a financial perspective of replacement decisions.

Spencer, F. A.

1979-01-01

389

Environmental Factors Affecting the Transmission of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

Many viruses are capable of infecting the human respiratory tract to cause disease. These viruses display various transmission patterns among humans; however, they all share the ability to transmit from person to person, and their human transmissibility is influenced by the environment in which pathogen and host meet. This review aims to summarize recent and significant observations regarding the impact of environmental factors such as weather and climate, humidity, temperature, and airflow on the transmission of human respiratory viruses. Where possible, knowledge gaps that require further scientific study will be identified.

Pica, Natalie; Bouvier, Nicole M.

2012-01-01

390

Evaluation of factors affecting stakeholder risk perception of contaminated sediment disposal in Oslo harbor.  

PubMed

The management of environmental pollution has changed considerably since the growth of environmental awareness in the late 1960s. The general increased environmental concern and involvement of stakeholders in today's environmental issues may enhance the need to consider risk in a much broader social context rather than just as an estimate of ecological hazard. Risk perception and the constructs and images of risks held by stakeholders and society are important items to address in the management of environmental projects, including the management of contaminated sediments. Here we present a retrospective case study that evaluates factors affecting stakeholder risk perception of contaminated sediment disposal that occurred during a remediation project in Oslo harbor, Norway. The choice to dispose dredged contaminated sediments in a confined aquatic disposal (CAD) site rather than at a land disposal site has received a lot of societal attention, attracted large media coverage, and caused many public discussions. A mixed method approach is used to investigate how risk perceptive affective factors (PAF), socio-demographic aspects, and participatory aspects have influenced the various stakeholders' preferences for the two different disposal options. Risk perceptive factors such as transparency in the decision making process and controllability of the disposal options have been identified as important for risk perception. The results of the study also support the view that there is no sharp distinction in risk perception between experts and other parties and emphasizes the importance of addressing risk perceptive affective factors in similar environmental decision-making processes. Indeed, PAFs such as transparency, openness, and information are fundamental to address in sensitive environmental decisions, such as sediment disposal alternatives, in order to progress to more technical questions such as the controllability and safety. PMID:20809566

Sparrevik, Magnus; Ellen, Gerald Jan; Duijn, Mike

2011-01-01

391

Factors affecting PBSC mobilization and collection in healthy donors.  

PubMed

Peripheral blood stem cells are widely used as stem cell source for allografting. Progenitor cells can be effectively mobilized into peripheral blood in majority of healthy donors with a brief administration of G-CSF. A mobilization course in 111 donors (median age 40years) was retrospectively studied and the factors influencing the efficacy of mobilization were analyzed. The median number of CD34+ cells per kg recipient weight 5.1x10(6) was obtained after a median of two aphereses. The target cell dose (4.0x10(6)/kg) was reached in 69% of donors. Circulating CD34+ count and CD34+ yield were negatively associated with donor's age. Other independent factors associated with superior yield were precollection platelet and WBC counts. In multivariate analysis only CD34+ precount predicted for CD34+ yield. G-CSF had an acceptable short-term safety profile. Our data confirm that apheresis is a safe procedure in healthy including aged donors and suggest that older donors could be poorer mobilizers than younger. PMID:16209935

Lysák, Daniel; Koza, Vladimír; Jindra, Pavel

2005-11-01

392

Factors affecting the relative age effect in NHL athletes  

PubMed Central

Background The relative age effect (RAE) has been reported for a number of different activities. The RAE is the phenomena whereby players born in the first few months of a competition year are advantaged for selection to elite sports. Much of the literature has identified elite male athletics, such as the National Hockey League (NHL), as having consistently large RAEs. We propose that RAE may be lessened in the NHL since the last examination. Methods We examined demographic and selection factors to understand current NHL selection biases. Results We found that RAE was weak and was only evident when birth dates were broken into year halves. Players born in the first half of the year were relatively advantaged for entry into the NHL. We found that the RAE is smaller than reported in previous studies. Intraplayer comparisons for multiple factors, including place of birth, country of play, type of hockey played, height and weight, revealed no differences. Players who were not drafted (e.g., free agents) or who played university hockey in North America had no apparent RAE. Conclusion We found little evidence of an RAE in the current NHL player rosters. A larger study of all Canadian minor hockey intercity teams could help determine the existence of an RAE.

Parent-Harvey, Caroline I.; Desjardins, Christophe; Harvey, Edward J.

2014-01-01

393

Factors affecting the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products.  

PubMed

Fluoride is considered important for health because of its beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries and on bone development in the child population. However, excessive intake has negative effects. The main pathway for exposure is oral, through consumption of drinking water, and some food products. Therefore its bioaccessibility (quantity of the element solubilized during the digestive process) is a parameter to be considered when estimating the risk/benefit associated with this element. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the digestion phase, gastrointestinal digestion factors (pH, pepsin and bile salt concentrations) and the presence of cations on the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products. The results show that the solubilization of fluoride takes place entirely during the gastric phase. Its bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by conditions that favor the formation of insoluble complexes of fluoride with other elements present in the matrix. The factors that are most influential in reducing its bioaccessibility are the increase in pH in the gastric phase, the presence of cations, especially in the intestinal phase, and a low concentration of bile salts. PMID:23747712

Rocha, R A; de la Fuente, B; Clemente, M J; Ruiz, A; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

2013-09-01

394

Factors affecting pore water hydrocarbon concentrations in Puget Sound sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations have been determined for sediments and associated pore waters collected at 2 sites (11 stations) in Puget Sound, Washington (northwest U.S.A.). These sediments have been contaminated to varying degrees by hydrocarbons from a creosote plant and from various combustion sources. PAH were not detected in pore waters of sediments whose PAH were primarily derived from combustion and natural sources, even though pore water concentrations predicted from sediment concentrations and two-phase equilibrium partitioning models were above detection limits from most PAH. Equilibrium partition coefficients calculated from field aqueous and solid phase data from an area contaminated with creosote agreed with laboratory-derived coefficients to within a factor of ± 4. Pore water concentrations of creosote-derived aliphatic hydrocarbons increase with increasing concentration in bulk sediments. However, pore water concentrations of natural and contaminant aliphatic hydrocarbons are much higher than predicted by solubility data, possibly due to association with nonfilterable dissolved organic matter and colloids. Other major factors controlling hydrocarbon pore water concentrations include differential hydrocarbon sources, specific particle associations and solubility.

Socha, Stephen B.; Carpenter, Roy

1987-05-01

395

Factors affecting pore water hydrocarbon concentrations in Puget Sound sediments  

SciTech Connect

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations have been determined for sediments and associated pore waters collected at 2 sites (11 stations) in Puget Sound, Washington (northwest U.S.A.). These sediments have been contaminated to varying degrees by hydrocarbons from a creosote plant and from various combustion sources. PAH were not detected in pore waters of sediments whose PAH were primarily derived from combustion and natural sources, even though pore water concentrations predicted from sediment concentrations and two-phase equilibrium partitioning models were above detection limits from most PAH. Equilibrium partition coefficients calculated from field aqueous and solid phase data from an area contaminated with creosote agreed with laboratory-derived coefficients to within a factor of +/- 4. Pore water concentrations of creosote-derived aliphatic hydrocarbons increase with increasing concentration in bulk sediments. However, pore water concentrations of natural and contaminant aliphatic hydrocarbons are much higher than predicted by solubility data, possible due to association with nonfilterable dissolved organic matter and colloids. Other major factors controlling hydrocarbon pore water concentrations include differential hydrocarbon sources, specific particle associations and solubility.

Socha, S.B.; Carpenter, R.

1987-05-01

396

Factors Affecting the Ability to Sustain Maximal Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the ability to sustain a maximal running effort. Furthermore, the effects of aerobic fitness level, gender, anaerobic capacity, efficiency of energy production and utilization, and lactate threshold on maximal performance were examined.\\u000aMethods: Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), ventilatory threshold (VT) and anaerobic capacity (AC) were determined for 22 subjects. Subjects then

Miranda Kaye Undem

2010-01-01

397

Chemical and Biological Factors Affecting Acid Tolerance of Smallmouth Bass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated effects of starvation on acid tolerance of young-of-year smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui in the laboratory. Juvenile smallmouth bass, held under simulated winter conditions for up to 5 months, experienced losses in ash-free dry weight of up to 30%. However, consecutive tests failed to demonstrate any decline in the short-term (?7 d) tolerance of these fish for pH levels

Brian J. Shuter; Peter E. Ihssen

1991-01-01

398

The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

2010-01-01

399

Variability and covariance of factors affecting canopy reflectance within a 6 ha corn field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of factors affecting landscape reflectance are of interest for remote sensing validation experiments, remote sensing parameter retrieval efforts, and plant canopy simulation studies among others. Leaf optical properties and foliage density, expressed as leaf area index (LAI) are significant factors affecting canopy reflectance. Canopy height can be important when using a 3-dimensional simulation model. Variations in these elements

C. L. Walthall; C. S. T. Daughtry; S. E. Loechel; W. P. Dulaney; D. Timlin

2000-01-01

400

Factors affecting snakebite mortality in north-eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Snakebite is an important cause of mortality among rural dwellers in the savannah region of West Africa. We conducted a retrospective review of snakebite patients managed by experienced medical staff at Kaltungo in north-eastern Nigeria to determine the cause of death. During a 36 month period there were 94 deaths among 6687 victims (1.41%). Relative risk (RR) of mortality increased to 2.29 (95% CI 1.35-3.89) during a period when source of antivenom became unreliable. The increase was not due to seasonal variation. In a logistic regression model predictors of mortality were new central nervous system (CNS) features (Odds ratio (OR) = 24.61; 95% CI 6.93-87.41) and delay from bite to hospitalization (OR for every 1 h delay = 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.02). Treatment with antivenom was protective (OR = 0.17; 95% CI 0.03-0.96). Relationship of anaemia and shock to mortality were not maintained following adjustment. Effort should be made to provide regionally appropriate, affordable and effective antivenoms in addition to enforcement of continuous regulatory control measures. Antivenoms should be distributed to affected areas and treatment access points of care expanded to communities to diminish travel time. The populations at risk should be educated on avoiding unnecessary delays and on prevention of bites. PMID:24038050

Habib, A G; Abubakar, S B

2011-03-01

401

Dimensional factors affecting magnetic properties of wound cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic properties of wound cores constructed from electrical steel strips have been found to be affected by their geometry, in particular the inner and outer diameters, the strip width and the build-up thickness of the toroids. Assessment of the effect of aspect ratio and winding ratio have been carried out in various sizes of toroid. An increase in aspect ratio resulted in better magnetic performance, whereas increase in winding ratio degraded the original magnetic properties. However, when the inner and outer diameters are varied with constant build-up and strip width, better performance is obtained by increasing the winding ratio. The initial rate of rise of temperature technique using thermistors has been used to measured power loss on the inner and outer wraps of a wound toroid. The power loss of a 60 × 44 × 40mm toroid at 1.0 T before stress relief annealing was 0.88 and 0.52 W kg-1 at the inner and outer layers respectively. After stress relief annealing, the power loss fell to 0.44 and 0.43 W kg-1 at the inner and outer layers respectively. This indicates the higher stress produced by small diameter wrapping can be reduced by normal stress relief annealing.

Moses, A. J.; Ling, P. C. Y.

1989-08-01

402

Factors affecting the incidence of postoperative wound infection.  

PubMed

A prospective study of postoperative wounds was carried out in West Dorset to determine the incidence of infection, describe the time distribution of presentation before and after discharge from hospital and identify possible contributory factors. There were 702 consecutive patients admitted to the study (600 in-patients and 102 day cases). Fifty one became infected (47 in-patients and 4 day cases), corresponding to an overall infection rate of 7.3%. Over 50% of infections presented during the first week after operation, and almost 90% were diagnosed within 2 weeks of surgery Twenty-eight (55%) wounds that became infected presented after hospital discharge. Of 23 specific aetiological variables studied, four (age, preoperative stay, shaving and the surgeon) were shown to have a statistically significant association with the development of wound infection. A strong association between the individual surgeon and the development of a wound infection was demonstrated and this supports the need for routine surgical audit. PMID:1979572

Mishriki, S F; Law, D J; Jeffery, P J

1990-10-01

403

Factors affecting umbilical venous perfusion during experimental cord knotting.  

PubMed

The aim was to determine experimentally the factors that increase the risk of venous occlusion by applying a standardised tightening force to isolated perfused umbilical cords tied in a true knot in vitro. Umbilical cords were collected from patients undergoing Caesarean section. Cords were clamped, isolated and studied within 15 min. The umbilical vein was cannulated, the cord tied in a true knot and traction was applied using standard weights. The umbilical vein was perfused with modified Krebs solution at a constant pressure of 40 mmHg and the attached weight increased until perfusion ceased. The cord mass index (weight/length), hydration index/100-[(dry weight/wet weight)x100], and coiling index (coils/length) were determined. Cord morphometric analysis was performed on 193 cords. Intra uterine growth restriction was associated with decreased cord mass index (p=0.002) and increased coiling index (p=0.002). Venous perfusion experiments were performed on 75 cords. Using multivariate regression analysis, cord morphometric factors that increased the risk of cord occlusion were decreased cord mass index (p=0.008), decreased cord hydration index (p=0.004), and low venous flow capacity (p=0.001). During experimental cord knotting with applied traction, the susceptibility to venous occlusion was increased with low cord mass index, low cord hydration index and low venous flow capacity. These cord characteristics were associated with low fetal body weight and intrauterine growth restriction. An increased susceptibility to cord occlusion may contribute to the higher perinatal morbidity and mortality in growth restricted pregnancies. PMID:16226125

Tuxen, A J; Permezel, M; Walker, S P; Georgiou, H M

2005-11-01

404

Factors affecting a student's choice of dietetics as a profession.  

PubMed

In order to design more effective recruitment strategies, 419 junior students in 38 coordinated dietetics programs completed self-administered questionnaires to identify factors that attracted them to the profession. The majority (43.9%) first became interested in a dietetics career while in college; 24.9% became interested before or during secondary school; and 17.7% were making a career change. Factors that most frequently led to a career in dietetics were a course in nutrition (32.9%), a friend or relative other than parent (31.0%), and a dietitian (30.3%). Students rated the opportunity to help others (95.2%) and the relationship of nutrition to health (94.0%) as characteristics of the profession that had a highly positive influence on their decision. Interests in health, disease, and health care (70.5%); teaching and health promotion (42.7%); sports and fitness (40.7%); counseling and behavior change (35.6%); and food and cooking (35.4%) were most frequently cited as influencing the choice of a dietetics career. Students were most interested in practicing dietetics as a consultant or in private practice (37.5%) or as a clinical dietitian (34.8%). New and innovative recruitment strategies should target high school and college students and pay special attention to second-career students. Interests such as health, disease, and health care and health promotion and characteristics of the profession such as the opportunity to help others attracted present dietetics students and should be emphasized in recruiting. The best marketing tools may be the practicing dietitian and a course in nutrition. PMID:1640034

Markley, E J; Huyck, N I

1992-08-01

405

Factors that affect Pickering emulsions stabilized by graphene oxide.  

PubMed

Stable Pickering emulsions were prepared using only graphene oxide (GO) as a stabilizer, and the effects of the type of oil, the sonication time, the GO concentration, the oil/water ratio, and the pH value on the stability, type, and morphology of these emulsions were investigated. In addition, the effects of salt and the extent of GO reduction on emulsion formation and stability were studied and discussed. The average droplet size decreased with sonication time and with GO concentration, and the emulsions tended to achieve good stability at intermediate oil/water ratios and at low pH values. In all solvents, the emulsions were of the oil-in-water type, but interestingly, some water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) multiple emulsion droplets were also observed with low GO concentrations, low pH values, high oil/water ratios, high salt concentrations, or moderately reduced GO in the benzyl chloride-water system. A Pickering emulsion stabilized by Ag/GO was also prepared, and its catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol was investigated. This research paves the way for the fabrication of graphene-based functional materials with novel nanostructures and microstructures. PMID:23647467

He, Yongqiang; Wu, Fei; Sun, Xiying; Li, Ruqiang; Guo, Yongqin; Li, Chuanbao; Zhang, Lu; Xing, Fubao; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping

2013-06-12

406

Environmental Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Mycobacteria in Brook Waters  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of environmental mycobacteria, viable counts of mycobacteria were measured in samples of brook water collected from 53 drainage areas located in a linear belt crossing Finland at 63° north latitude. The numbers of mycobacteria were correlated with characteristics of the drainage area, climatic parameters, chemical and physical characteristics of the water, and counts of other heterotrophic bacteria in the water. The numbers of mycobacteria in the water ranged from 10 to 2,200 CFU/liter. The counts correlated positively (P < 0.001) with the presence of peatlands, precipitation data, chemical oxygen demand, water color, and concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, Co, and Cr. The mycobacterial counts correlated negatively (P < 0.001) with water pH, whereas other heterotrophic bacterial counts lacked any correlation with pH. A linear regression model with four independent variables (i.e., peatlands in the drainage area, chemical oxygen demand, concentration of potassium, and pH) explained 83% of the variation in mycobacterial counts in brook waters. Our results suggest that acidification may enhance the growth of environmental mycobacteria.

Iivanainen, E. K.; Martikainen, P. J.; Vaananen, P. K.; Katila, M.-L.

1993-01-01

407

Factors affecting the perception of Korean-accented American English  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experiment examines the relative contribution of two factors, intonation and articulation errors, on the perception of foreign accent in Korean-accented American English. Ten native speakers of Korean and ten native speakers of American English were asked to read ten English sentences. These sentences were then modified using high-quality speech resynthesis techniques [STRAIGHT Kawahara et al., Speech Commun. 27, 187-207 (1999)] to generate four sets of stimuli. In the first two sets of stimuli, the intonation patterns of the Korean speakers and American speakers were switched with one another. The articulatory errors for each speaker were not modified. In the final two sets, the sentences from the Korean and American speakers were resynthesized without any modifications. Fifteen listeners were asked to rate all the stimuli for the degree of foreign accent. Preliminary results show that, for native speakers of American English, articulation errors may play a greater role in the perception of foreign accent than errors in intonation patterns. [Work supported by KAIM.

Cho, Kwansun; Harris, John G.; Shrivastav, Rahul

2005-09-01

408

Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds.  

PubMed

Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (tau) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location. PMID:22486082

Daily, Jonathan P; Hitt, Nathaniel P; Smith, David R; Snyder, Craig D

2012-01-01

409

Factors Affecting Blood Glucose Monitoring: Sources of Errors in Measurement  

PubMed Central

Glucose monitoring has become an integral part of diabetes care but has some limitations in accuracy. Accuracy may be limited due to strip manufacturing variances, strip storage, and aging. They may also be due to limitations on the environment such as temperature or altitude or to patient factors such as improper coding, incorrect hand washing, altered hematocrit, or naturally occurring interfering substances. Finally, exogenous interfering substances may contribute errors to the system evaluation of blood glucose. In this review, I discuss the measurement of error in blood glucose, the sources of error, and their mechanism and potential solutions to improve accuracy in the hands of the patient. I also discuss the clinical measurement of system accuracy and methods of judging the suitability of clinical trials and finally some methods of overcoming the inaccuracies. I have included comments about additional information or education that could be done today by manufacturers in the appropriate sections. Areas that require additional work are discussed in the final section.

Ginsberg, Barry H.

2009-01-01

410

Bordetella pertussis Virulence Factors Affect Phagocytosis by Human Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

The interaction between human neutrophils and wild-type Bordetella pertussis or mutants expressing altered lipopolysaccharide or lacking virulence factors—pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, dermonecrotic toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin, or BrkA—was examined. In the absence of antibodies, the wild-type strain and the mutants, with the exception of mutants lacking FHA, attached efficiently to neutrophils. The addition of opsonizing antibodies caused a significant reduction (approximately 50%) in attachment of the wild-type strain and most of the mutants expressing FHA, suggesting that bacterium-mediated attachment is more efficient than Fc-mediated attachment. Phagocytosis was also examined. In the absence of antibodies, about 12% of the wild-type bacteria were phagocytosed. Opsonization caused a statistically significant reduction in phagocytosis (to 3%), possibly a consequence of reduced attachment. Phagocytosis of most of the mutants was similar to that of the wild type, with the exception of the mutants lacking adenylate cyclase toxin. About 70% of the adenylate cyclase toxin mutants were phagocytosed, but only in the presence of opsonizing antibody, suggesting that Fc receptor-mediated signaling may be needed for phagocytosis. These studies indicate that FHA mediates attachment of B. pertussis to neutrophils, but adenylate cyclase toxin blocks phagocytosis.

Weingart, Christine L.; Weiss, Alison A.

2000-01-01

411

Factors affecting the survival of mouse embryos cryopreserved by vitrification.  

PubMed

Preimplantation stage mouse embryos have been used to examine the response of a simple multicellular system to cryopreservation by the complete vitrification of the suspension. Successful vitrification requires the use of a solution of cryoprotectants that is sufficiently concentrated to supercool and solidify into a glass at practicable cooling rates. Factors that influence the survival of embryos include the concentration and composition of the vitrification solution, the procedure used to equilibrate embryos in this solution, the cooling and warming conditions, and the procedure used to dilute embryos from the vitrification solution. High rates of survival are obtained when embryos are dehydrated prior to vitrification in solutions composed of saline plus multimolar concentrations of either mixtures of permeating cryoprotectants (e.g. dimethyl sulphoxide-acetamide-propylene glycol) or single permeating cryoprotectants (propylene glycol or glycerol). Full permeation of cryoprotectants into the cells is not necessary and may lead to chemical toxicity and osmotic injury. Partial permeation and osmotic shrinkage concentrates the endogenous cytoplasmic macromolecules and greatly increases the likelihood of intracellular vitrification. Vitrification is a practical approach for embryo cryopreservation and offers new opportunities to examine fundamental aspects of cryoprotection and cryoinjury in the absence of freezing. PMID:3652721

Rall, W F

1987-10-01

412

Growth and factors affecting it in thalassemia major.  

PubMed

In our thalassemic (T) cohort, 45% of them had height standard deviation score (HtSDS) less than -2 and 56% of them had growth velocity standard deviation score (GVSDS) less than -1. Their mid-arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness were decreased versus normal controls. Their circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations were significantly lower than normal children. Growth hormone (GH) response to provocation with clonidine and glucagon was defective in half of the short T children (peak GH < 7 ng/dL). Some of the short T children, with normal GH response to provocation, had defective spontaneous nocturnal GH secretion. IGF-I generation after one GH injection was reduced in T children than those with GH deficiency (GHD) and constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). GH therapy for a year significantly increased IGF-I concentrations, GV, and HtSDS in T children but to a lower level compared to those with GHD or CDGP, suggesting partial GH insensitivity. Pubertal induction with human chorionic gonadotropin in T adolescents was associated with increased IGF-I concentrations, GV, and HtSDS. PMID:20001614

Soliman, Ashraf T; Khalafallah, Hany; Ashour, Rasha

2009-01-01

413

Defense Acquisitions: Factors Affecting Outcomes of Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the ACTD (Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations) program was started in 1994, a wide range of products have been tested by technology experts and military operators in realistic settings-from unmanned aerial vehicles, to friend-or-foe detection systems, to biological agent detection systems, to advanced simulation technology designed to enhance joint training. Many of these have successfully delivered new technologies to users. Though the majority of the projects that were examined, transitioned technologies to users, there are factors that hamper the ACTD process. For example: Technology has been too immature to be tested in a realistic setting, leading to cancellation of the demonstration. Military services and defense agencies have been reluctant to fund acquisition of ACTD-proven technologies, especially those focusing on joint requirements, because of competing priorities. ACTD's military utility may not have been assessed consistently. Some of the barriers identified can be addressed through efforts DOD (Department of Defense) now has underway, including an evaluation of how the ACTD process can be improved; adoption of criteria to be used to ensure technology is sufficiently mature; and placing of more attention on the end phase of the ACTD process. Other barriers, however, will be much more difficult to address in view of cultural resistance to joint initiatives and the requirements of DOD's planning and funding process.

2002-12-01

414

Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (?) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David R.; Snyder, Craig D.

2012-01-01

415

Arthroscopic subacromial decompression: results and factors affecting outcome.  

PubMed

Arthroscopic subacromial decompression was performed on 114 patients with rotator cuff impingement who had not responded to nonoperative measures. None of the patients had a full-thickness cuff tear. Patients with associated instability, symptomatic acromioclavicular joint disease, or ruptures of the long head of biceps were not included. Results were determined by questioning patients about their satisfaction with the outcome of surgery and by functional assessment of the shoulder with the parameters of pain, ability to perform daily activities, and range of motion according to the Constant scoring system. When reviewed at a mean interval of 19 months after surgery, 85 patients (75%) were satisfied with the outcome. Pain scores improved by an average of 8.6 points; "activities of daily living" scores improved by an average of 5.8 points; range-of-motion scores improved by an average of 3.6 points. The improvements in all 3 parameters scored were significant (P < .05). The following variables were statistically analyzed to assess their influence on final outcome: age, sex, occupation, duration of symptoms before surgery, dominance of the affected shoulder, outcome of the impingement test, state of the cuff, and experience of the surgeon performing the operation. The duration of symptoms before surgery was the most significant predictor of outcome. Symptoms of prolonged duration were associated with an unsatisfactory subjective results (P < .01) and with smaller improvements in the parameters of the Constant score (P < .001). Recovery after arthroscopic subacromial decompression and eventual outcome were related to the extent of cuff damage. Patients with partial thickness tears or fraying of the cuff had a delayed return to work (P < .001) and were found to have smaller increases in the pain and range-of-motion scores (P < .05). A satisfactory subjective result was most often associated with a positive impingement test (P < .05). Unsatisfactory outcomes were associated with a questionable diagnosis and lack of clear evidence of impingement at arthroscopy, inadequate decompression of the subacromial space, or the presence of calcium deposits in the rotator cuff. PMID:10389078

Patel, V R; Singh, D; Calvert, P T; Bayley, J I

1999-01-01

416

Factors Affecting Isolation and Identification of Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale)  

PubMed Central

The rate of isolation of organisms resembling Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale) from vaginal specimens was not significantly affected by anaerobic versus carbon dioxide incubation atmospheres or whether specimens were inoculated on isolation media immediately after collection or after a delay of 6 h. Forty-one clinically isolated strains were provisionally divided into 30 H. vaginalis strains and 11 H. vaginalis-like (HVL) strains based on morphological and growth characteristics. The H. vaginalis strains were less reactive in API-20A identification test strips, (Analytab Products, Inc.) using Lombard-Dowell broth, than in a modified basal medium that contained proteose peptone no. 3 (Difco). The numbers and kinds of substrates fermented by 30 clinical and 2 reference strains of H. vaginalis varied among conventional, API, Minitek (Baltimore Biological Laboratory), and rapid buffered substrate fermentation systems. A greater number and variety of carbohydrates were fermented by the 11 HVL strains more consistently in all four test systems. Analysis of volatile and nonvolatile fermentation end products by gas-liquid chromatography did not reveal significant differences between the H. vaginalis and HVL strains. However, the latter group grew in peptone-yeast extract-glucose broth, whereas the H. vaginalis strains did not grow without the addition of starch to peptone-yeast extract-glucose. All of the reference and clinical strains were similar in their susceptibilities to a variety of antimicrobial compounds except sulfonamides, which inhibited the HVL strains and bifidobacteria but not the H. vaginalis strains. Sulfonamide susceptibility or resistance corresponded in part to the H. vaginalis and HVL-bifidobacteria strain reactions on selected conventional fermentation substrates. Susceptibility or resistance to sulfonamides and metronidazole in conjunction with fermentation tests is described to aid in the separation of H. vaginalis from other possibly unrecognized biotypes of H. vaginalis or other vaginal bacteria that presumptively resemble the organism. A human blood medium known as V agar was also of considerable value in distinguishing H. vaginalis from HVL strains, because only the H. vaginalis strains produced diffuse beta-hemolysis on V agar.

Bailey, Robert K.; Voss, Jack L.; Smith, Rodney F.

1979-01-01

417

Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites  

SciTech Connect

A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL.

Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.

1993-07-01

418

Some factors affecting successful vitrification of mouse blastocysts.  

PubMed

The effects of temperature and exposure time to vitrification solutions on In vitro survival of mouse blastocysts were investigated. Blastocysts were first exposed for 10 min to vitrification Solution 1 (VS1) containing 10% glycerol-20% 1,2 propanediol in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), then to vitrification Solution 2 (VS2) with 25 % glycerol-25% 1,2 propanediol for various periods either at room temperature or at 4 degrees C. At room temperature survival dropped quickly, while at 4 degrees C an increase in survival was observed. It is concluded that the viability of mouse blastocyts after vitrification is dependent on the temperature and duration of equilibration in vitrification solutions. PMID:17087907

Van Der Zwalmen, P; Gaurois, B; Ectors, F J; Touati, K; Massip, A; Ectors, F

1988-12-01

419

How Enzymes Work: Investigating their specificity and susceptibility to environmental factors using Jell-O.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a lab investigation in which students design and conduct experiments using pineapple juice containing the enzyme bromelain and its affect on the substrate gelatin found in Jell-O. The focus of student driven investigations are on enzyme specificity, activity and the impact of environmental factors on enzyme functioning.

Heather Netland, Jefferson High School, Alexandria, MN, based on the original activities from School Improvement in Maryland; "Pineapple/Jell-O Lab," Access Excellence Activities Exchange; "Enzyme Labs Using Jell-O" by Anne McDonald and Michael O'Hare, and AP & Regents Biology; "Lab 8: Pineapple Enzymes and Jell-O Molds" by Kim B. Foglia.

420

Factors affecting Staphylococcus epidermidis growth in peritoneal dialysis solutions.  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent cause of peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We studied factors that might influence the growth of S. epidermidis in commercially available peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS). Test strains were inoculated into PDS and incubated overnight at 37 degrees C. Samples were removed at appropriate intervals, bacterial counts were performed, and growth curves were constructed. We studied the effects of various osmolarities, the neutralization and acidification of fresh and spent PDS, and the effect of intraperitoneal dwell time on the ability PDS to support growth of S. epidermidis. In fresh PDS, numbers of bacteria remained constant after 24 h. No significant differences in growth were observed among PDS with 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 4.25% glucose. Neutralizing acidic fresh PDS had no effect on bacterial growth. However, growth did occur in spent PDS. PDS which was recovered after only 2 h in the peritoneal cavity supported growth to the same extent as did PDS recovered after 4 to 6 h. Mean log10 changes after 24 h of incubation were as follows: for fresh PDS, -1.3; after 2 h dwell time, 2.9; after 4 h dwell time, 1.9; and after 6 h dwell time, 1.3. Acidification of spent PDS to less than pH 6.35 produced less rapid growth; mean log10 increases after 24 h of incubation were 1.9 for pH 7.75, 1.6 for pH 6.35, 0.6 for pH 5.75, and 0.7 for pH 4.95. Fresh PDS of all available osmolarities neither supported the growth of S. epidermidis nor was bactericidal. Spent PDS supported bacterial growth, and this growth was partly independent of the neutralization which occurred during the dialysis.

McDonald, W A; Watts, J; Bowmer, M I

1986-01-01

421

Regional factors affecting petroleum potential of the Aleutian Accretionary Prism  

SciTech Connect

Two first-order factors influencing the petroleum potential of large accretionary prisms are (1) their structural contact (backstop) with the margin's bedrock framework, and (2) that beneath a master decollement, the volume of the sediment that has underthrust the prism and passed through the petroleum-generation window (PGW). In the Aleutian prism, the backstop contact slopes landward because the accretionary body has underrun and elevated the seaward edge of the ridge's arc massif. Within the thickened landward part of the prism, the overlying lid of the underrun bedrock slab and its mantle of thick (2-4 km) forearc deposits has served to constrain vertical fluid movements and enhance the thermal environment and circumstances that favor the generation of hydrocarbons and their channelized migration toward higher structural levels. The thickness of the underthrusting or subdecollement section commonly is greater than 1.0 km. Most of this sequence of fine-grained sediment is transported below the landward-dipping slab or forearc basement to depths in excess of 8 km. A substantial mass is transported farther landward and deeper, and is subducted beneath the base of the arc massif. Deeply underthrust and subducted sedimentary deposits thus are transported through the PGW - a circumstance that should sustain the continuous generation of petroleum from deep within and below the accreted pile. During the past 5-6 m.y., more than 50% of the 1 to 3-m-thick sedimentary section entering the subduction zone (at roughly 80 km/m.y.) has been subducted and, therefore, passed through the PGW. Evidently, since the late Miocene, larger volumes of hydrocarbons have been produced and possibly entrapped in high-level structures within either the accretionary complex or the forearc section mantling the underthrust basement slab.

Scholl, D.W.; Stevenson, A.J. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-05-01

422

Student Achievement, Behavior, Perceptions, and Other Factors Affecting ACT Scores. ACT Research Report Series, 2006-1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated factors related to students' performance on the ACT. We examined how students' background characteristics, academic achievement in high school, education-related accomplishments and activities, and perceptions of self and others affect their ACT scores. Of particular interest were the direct and indirect effects of…

Noble, Julie P.; Roberts, William L.; Sawyer, Richard L.

2006-01-01

423

Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by Affecting Inflammatory Factors  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5) directly affects tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5) on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not affected. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were affected following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell) growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation.

Koch, Lea A.; Strassburg, Christian P.; Raskopf, Esther

2014-01-01

424

Factors affecting enzymatic degradation of microgel-bound peptides.  

PubMed

Proteolytic degradation and release of microgel-bound peptides was investigated for trypsin, poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) microgels (70-90 ?m in diameter), and oppositely charged polylysine, using a method combination of confocal microscopy and micromanipulator-assisted light microscopy. Results show that trypsin-induced release of polylysine increased with increasing trypsin concentration, decreasing microgel charge density and decreasing peptide molecular weight. While the microgel offered good protection against enzymatic degradation at high microgel charge density, it was also observed that the cationic peptide enabled trypsin to bind throughout the peptide-loaded microgels, even when it did not bind to the peptide-void ones. With the exception of highly charged microgels, proteolytic degradation throughout the peptide-loaded microgel resulted in the generation of short and non-adsorbing peptide stretches, giving rise to the concentration and peptide length dependence observed. A simple random scission model was able to qualitatively capture these experimental findings. Collectively, the results demonstrate that microgel charge density, peptide molecular weight, and enzyme concentration greatly influence degradation/release of microgel-bound peptides and need to be considered in the use of microgels, e.g., as carriers for protein and peptide drugs. PMID:23731406

Månsson, Ronja; Frenning, Göran; Malmsten, Martin

2013-07-01

425

Factors affecting foal birth weight in Thoroughbred horses.  

PubMed

Foaling data from 348 Thoroughbred foals born on a commercial stud were analysed to investigate interrelationships among mare age, parity, gestation length, foal sex, placental weight, and foal birth weight. Placental weight was positively correlated with foal birth weight up to a threshold of 6.5 kg; above this, placental weight was not significantly associated with foal birth weight. Placental weight was assessed, including the amniotic membranes and umbilical cord as well as the allantochorion. Using path analysis, parity was positively associated with foal birth weight both directly and through increased placental weights, but age was not directly related to foal birth weight. Over the range of gestation lengths observed, gestation length was not significantly associated with foal birth weight. We conclude that, in populations represented by this study population, either placental weights up to 6.5 kg are rate-limiting for foal birth weight or placental weight increases with foal birth weight up to this threshold. However, further increases in placental weight are not associated with additional increases in foal birth weight. The positive association between parity and foal birth weight is mediated through increased placental weight as well as other pathways. Age is not directly related to foal birth weight and gestation length is not strongly associated with foal birth weight. PMID:18980778

Elliott, C; Morton, J; Chopin, J

2009-03-01

426

Alpha radiolysis and other factors affecting hydrolysis of tributyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal degradation products produced by Pu(IV) loading in 30% tributyl phosphate/dodecane (TBP-DD) solutions and to determine the formation rates of these species as a function of temperature. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate HNO/sub 3/ hydrolysis of TBP as a function of temperature and to compare the effects resulting from plutonium solvent loading with effects due to loading with uranium and zirconium. The results indicate that four factors are of particular significance: (1) dibutyl phosphate (DBP) is the principal plutonium-complexing species formed at temperatures of 50/sup 0/C or lower, while significant concentrations of monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are also formed at higher temperatures; (2) the TBP degradation rate due to alpha radiolysis or chemical hydrolysis is strongly dependent on temperature; (3) plutonium promotes TBP hydrolysis by two mechanisms, alpha radiolysis and metal-ion-induced hydrolysis, and, of these, metal-ion-induced hydrolysis can be the major effect; and (4) small amounts of an unidentified plutonium-complexing species are formed in experiments using plutonium of high specific activity (about 4 x 10/sup 8/ counts per minute per milligram (c/min dot mg)). This species cannot be removed from 30% TBP-DD by Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ washing or other solvent cleanup procedures. The TBP degradation rates (determined as grams of plutonium complexed by degradation products) increased from 0.125 mg Pu/L dot h at 25/sup 0/C to 47.9 mg Pu/L dot h at 80/sup 0/C in 30% TBP-DD solutions that contained only 0.68 M HNO/sub 3/. In solutions that additionally contained approx.20 g/L of plutonium (specific activity = 9 x 10/sup 7/ c/min dot mg) TBP degradation rates increased from 2.46 mg Pu/L dot h at 25/sup 0/C to 127.1 mg Pu/L dot h at 80/sup 0/C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Lloyd, M.H.; Fellows, R.L.

1985-06-01

427

Factors affecting calcium oxalate dihydrate fragmented calculi regrowth  

PubMed Central

Background The use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) to treat calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) renal calculi gives excellent fragmentation results. However, the retention of post-ESWL fragments within the kidney remains an important health problem. This study examined the effect of various urinary conditions and crystallization inhibitors on the regrowth of spontaneously-passed post-ESWL COD calculi fragments. Methods Post-ESWL COD calculi fragments were incubated in chambers containing synthetic urine varying in pH and calcium concentration: pH = 5.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM), pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM), pH = 6.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM) or pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM). Fragment growth was evaluated by measuring increases in weight. Fragment growth was standardized by calculating the relative mass increase. Results Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals formed on COD renal calculi fragments under all conditions. Under pH = 5.5 normocalciuria conditions, only COM crystals formed (growth rate = 0.22 ± 0.04 ?g/mg·h). Under pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria and under pH = 6.5 normocalciuria conditions, COM crystals and a small number of new COD crystals formed (growth rate = 0.32 ± 0.03 ?g/mg·h and 0.35 ± 0.05 ?g/mg·h, respectively). Under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions, large amounts of COD, COM, hydroxyapatite and brushite crystals formed (growth rate = 3.87 ± 0. 34 ?g/mg·h). A study of three crystallization inhibitors demonstrated that phytate completely inhibited fragment growth (2.27 ?M at pH = 5.5 and 4.55 ?M at pH = 6.5, both under hypercalciuria conditions), while 69.0 ?M pyrophosphate caused an 87% reduction in mass under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. In contrast, 5.29 mM citrate did not inhibit fragment mass increase under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. Conclusion The growth rate of COD calculi fragments under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions was approximately ten times that observed under the other three conditions. This observation suggests COD calculi residual fragments in the kidneys together with hypercalciuria and high urinary pH values may be a risk factor for stone growth. The study also showed the effectiveness of specific crystallization inhibitors in slowing calculi fragment growth.

Costa-Bauza, A; Perello, J; Isern, B; Sanchis, P; Grases, F

2006-01-01

428

Wintertime factors affecting contaminant distribution in a swine farrowing room.  

PubMed

An estimated 200,000 to 500,000 U.S. workers in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are at risk of adverse respiratory outcomes from exposures to indoor contaminants. In the wintertime, general ventilation is minimized in the Midwest due to high heating costs required to maintain indoor temperatures optimal for animal production. Pit fans typically operate to exhaust under-floor manure pits, but little other fresh air intake exists. Many operators believe that these systems are sufficient to reduce contaminant concentrations within the building during winter. Investigating whether these pit fans provide sufficient protection against classic CAFO contaminants during minimal wintertime ventilation was warranted. Direct-reading instruments were used to measure and record concentrations of multiple contaminants using both fixed-area and mobile contaminant mapping in a farrowing room during a Midwest winter. With the exception of CO, concentrations were significantly (p<0.001) higher with the pit fan off compared with those with the pit fan on. Additional analyses identified that significant changes (p<0.001) in mean room concentrations of respirable dust (decreased, 77% with pit fan off and 87% with pit fan on) and CO2 (increased, 24%) over the 5-hr study periods and that multiple fixed-area monitors rather than the much-used, single center-of-room monitor provided a more conservative (e.g., protective) assessment of room concentrations. While concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limits from OSHA or ACGIH for individual contaminants, recommended agricultural health limits from exposure-response studies suggested in the literature were exceeded for respirable dust, CO2, and NH3, indicating a need to consider personal exposures and control options to reduce contaminant concentrations in farrowing rooms. Pit fans reduced NH3 and H2S concentrations, but these fans may not be sufficient to control dust and eliminate the need for secondary exposure prevention methods. PMID:23548103

Reeve, Kelsie A; Peters, Thomas M; Anthony, T Renée

2013-01-01

429

Factors affecting accessibility to blowflies of bodies disposed in suitcases.  

PubMed

Criminals have been known to dispose of bodies in zipped suitcases in an attempt to conceal murder. In order to investigate the forensic implications of this mode of disposal on calculating time of death, it is necessary to study the accessibility of bodies in suitcases to blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the possibility of oviposition and infestation under these circumstances. An experimental apparatus was designed that incorporated different zips (toothed and coil) of various gauges (4-6 mm) above a chicken liver bait. Gravid Calliphora vomitoria and Calliphora vicina females were attracted to and oviposited on and through these zips, both under laboratory and field conditions. Egg laying was significantly more frequent and with greater numbers of eggs when zips were in contact with the bait than when they were placed approximately 6cm above the bait. In the absence of bait, adult females could be stimulated to lay eggs on moistened zips, although the presence of blood accelerated egg laying compared to water alone. No eggs were laid on dry zips in the absence of bait. Of the first instar larvae tested, 89% were able to colonise the bait below the zips by passing through gaps between the teeth. Preliminary field studies using suitcases baited with a pig's head indicated that there was a delay of 1-3 days in oviposition when compared to laboratory conditions. This information has practical value in explaining the presence of larvae on enclosed bodies in suitcases and will help forensic entomologists estimate a more accurate minimum time since death. PMID:24747669

Bhadra, P; Hart, A J; Hall, M J R

2014-06-01

430

Biogeochemical factors affecting the presence of 210Po in groundwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The discovery of natural 210Po enrichment at levels exceeding 500 mBq/L in numerous domestic wells in northern Nevada, USA, led to a geochemical investigation of the processes responsible for its mobilization. 210Po activities in 63 domestic and public-supply wells ranged from below 1 mBq/L to 6590 ± 590 mBq/L, among the highest reported levels in the USA. There is little spatial or depth variability in 210Pb activity in study-area sediments and mobilization of a few percent of the 210Po in the sediments would account for all of the 210Po in water. Stable-isotope measurements indicate SO4 reduction has occurred in all 210Po contaminated wells. Sulfide species are not accumulating in the groundwater in much of Lahontan Valley, probably because of S cycling involving microbial SO4 reduction, abiotic oxidation of H2S to S0 by Mn(IV), followed by microbial disproportionation of S0 to H2S and SO4. The high pH, Ca depletion, MnCO3 saturation, and presence of S0 in Lahontan Valley groundwater may be consequences of the anaerobic S cycling. Consistent with data from naturally-enriched wells in Florida, 210Po activities begin to decrease when aqueous sulfide species begin to accumulate. This may be due to formation and precipitation of PoS, however, Eh–pH diagrams suggest PoS would not be stable in study-area groundwater. An alternative explanation for the study area is that H2S accumulation begins when anaerobic S cycling stops because Mn oxides are depleted and their reduction is no longer releasing 210Po. Common features of 210Po-enriched groundwater were identified by comparing the radiological and geochemical data from Nevada with data from naturally-enriched wells in Finland, and Florida and Maryland in the USA. Values of pH ranged from 9 in Nevada wells, indicating that pH is not critical in determining whether 210Po is present. Where U is present in the sediments, the data suggest 210Po levels may be elevated in aquifers with (1) SO4-reducing waters with low H2S concentrations, or (2) anoxic or oxic waters with extremely high Rn activities, particularly if the water is turbid.

Seiler, R. L.; Stillings, L. L.; Cutler, N.; Salonen, L.; Outola, I.

2011-01-01

431

Chemical and physical factors affecting the extractability of methidathion from soil samples.  

PubMed

Determination of methidathion in soil samples using Soxhlet extraction has been studied. Several factors were investigated for their effect on methidathion recovery. Some were related to the extraction procedure, for example solvent type used for the extraction (acetone or hexane/toluene), extraction time, soil humidity, and type of sterilisation system employed. Other factors tested included the addition of organic matter to the soil, for example urban sewage sludge and the cationic surfactant TDTMA. Experimental designs were used to determine the effects of the different factors. Acetone resulted in higher recoveries and was less affected by the presence of water. Autoclaving was the most appropriate sterilisation method. Thimerosal resulted in a decrease in insecticide recovery. Methidathion recovery increased as the amount of cationic surfactant was increased, but decreased as the amount of sewage sludge added to the soil was increased. In general, because the factors studied were not always independent of each other, a clear description of the methodology used is needed when analysing pollutants in environmental samples. PMID:14673563

Sánchez, L; Mingorance, M D; Peña, A

2004-02-01

432

Factors affecting exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide in adult cigarette smokers.  

PubMed

Exposure to cigarette smoke among smokers is highly variable. This variability has been attributed to differences in smoking behavior as measured by smoking topography, as well as other behavioral and subjective aspects of smoking. The objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting smoke exposure as estimated by biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide (CO). In a multi-center cross-sectional study of 3585 adult smokers and 1077 adult nonsmokers, exposure to nicotine and CO was estimated by 24h urinary excretion of nicotine and five of its metabolites and by blood carboxyhemoglobin, respectively. Number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) was determined from cigarette butts returned. Puffing parameters were determined through a CreSS® micro device and a 182-item adult smoker questionnaire (ASQ) was administered. The relationship between exposure and demographic factors, smoking machine measured tar yield and CPD was examined in a statistical model (Model A). Topography parameters were added to this model (Model B) which was further expanded (Model C) by adding selected questions from the ASQ identified by a data reduction process. In all the models, CPD was the most important and highest ranking factor determining daily exposure. Other statistically significant factors were number of years smoked, questions related to morning smoking, topography and tar yield categories. In conclusion, the models investigated in this analysis, explain about 30-40% of variability in exposure to nicotine and CO. PMID:21798300

Muhammad-Kah, Raheema; Liang, Qiwei; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Mendes, Paul E; Roethig, Hans J; Sarkar, Mohamadi

2011-10-01

433

Clinical factors affecting pathological fracture and healing of unicameral bone cysts  

PubMed Central

Background Unicameral bone cyst (UBC) is the most common benign lytic bone lesion seen in children. The aim of this study is to investigate clinical factors affecting pathological fracture and healing of UBC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 155 UBC patients who consulted Nagoya musculoskeletal oncology group hospitals in Japan. Sixty of the 155 patients had pathological fracture at presentation. Of 141 patients with follow-up periods exceeding 6 months, 77 were followed conservatively and 64 treated by surgery. Results The fracture risk was significantly higher in the humerus than other bones. In multivariate analysis, ballooning of bone, cyst in long bone, male sex, thin cortical thickness and multilocular cyst were significant adverse prognostic factors for pathological fractures at presentation. The healing rates were 30% and 83% with observation and surgery, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that fracture at presentation and history of biopsy were good prognostic factors for healing of UBC in patients under observation. Conclusion The present results suggest that mechanical disruption of UBC such as fracture and biopsy promotes healing, and thus watchful waiting is indicated in these patients, whereas patients with poor prognostic factors for fractures should be considered for surgery.

2014-01-01

434

An Analysis of Factors Affecting Community College Students' Expectations on E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many factors that affect the e-learning process. Instructor, assessment and evaluation, communication, and technical support are among the leading factors. It is obvious that these factors influence the effectiveness of e-learning and may be related to different expectations of e-learners. Therefore, this study focuses on examining the…

Kilic-Cakmak, Ebru; Karatas, Sercin; Ocak, Mehmet Akif

2009-01-01

435

Theoretical study of factors affecting ball velocity in instep soccer kicking.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the factors affecting ball velocity at the final instant of the impact phase (t1) in full instep soccer kicking. Five experienced male university soccer players performed maximal full instep kicks for various foot impact points using a one-step approach. The kicking motions were captured two dimensionally by a high-speed camera at 2,500 fps. The theoretical equation of the ball velocity at t1 given in the article was derived based on the impact dynamics theory. The validity of the theoretical equation was verified by comparing the theoretical relationship between the impact point and the ball velocity with the experimental one. Using this theoretical equation, the relationship between the impact point and the ball velocity was simulated. The simulation results indicated that the ball velocity is more strongly affected by the foot velocity at the initial instant of the impact phase than by other factors. The simulation results also indicated that decreasing the ankle joint reaction force during ball impact shifts the impact point that produces the greatest ball velocity to the toe side and decreasing the ankle joint torque during ball impact shifts the impact point that produces the greatest ball velocity to the ankle side. PMID:21908898

Ishii, Hideyuki; Yanagiya, Toshio; Naito, Hisashi; Katamoto, Shizuo; Maruyama, Takeo

2012-07-01

436

Mechanisms and factors affecting the adsorption of sodium alginate onto modified clays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Algal organic materials (AOMs) are one critical factor affecting the efficiency of modified clays used for the mitigation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). This study was conducted to develop a deeper understanding of the mechanisms and factors affecting the adsorption of AOMs onto modified clays. Sodium alginate (polysaccharide) and kaolinite modified with polyaluminium chloride (PACl) were used as AOMs and modified clay model substances, respectively, and the effects of modifier dosage, contact time, solution pH and ionic strength were investigated through batch adsorption experiments. Kinetics revealed that the alginate adsorption rate was described well by a pseudo-second order model. PACl effectively enhanced the adsorption capacity of kaolinite and increased the adsorption rate, and the optimum additive amount of PACl was 5%. The experimental data fitted both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption equations well. The adsorption thermodynamics for alginate onto modified clays suggests that alginate adsorption is a spontaneous process. The adsorption of alginate onto modified clays was highly dependent on pH, with a decrease in adsorption observed with increased pH to 9.48, but the opposite was true above pH 9.48. Finally, adsorption increased with increasing ionic strength.

Lin, Yongxin; Cao, Xihua; Song, Xiuxian; Wang, Nan; Yu, Zhiming

2013-07-01

437

Factors Affecting Open-Set Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

A monosyllabic word test was administered to 114 postlingually-deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients at numerous intervals from two weeks to two years post-initial CI activation. Biographic/audiologic information, electrode position, and cognitive ability were examined to determine factors affecting CI outcomes. Results revealed that Duration of Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss, Age at Implantation, CI Sound-field Threshold Levels, Percentage of Electrodes in Scala Vestibuli, Medio-lateral Electrode Position, Insertion Depth, and Cognition were among the factors that affected performance. Knowledge of how factors affect performance can influence counseling, device fitting, and rehabilitation for patients and may contribute to improved device design.

Holden, Laura K.; Finley, Charles C.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brenner, Christine; Potts, Lisa G.; Gotter, Brenda D.; Vanderhoof, Sallie S.; Mispagel, Karen; Heydebrand, Gitry; Skinner, Margaret W.

2012-01-01

438

Histopathologic factors affecting tumor recurrence after hepatic resection in colorectal liver metastases  

PubMed Central

Purpose Hepatic resection is a standard method of treatment for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). However, the pathologic factors of metastatic lesions that affect tumor recurrence are less well defined in CRLM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for recurrence of CRLM, focusing on histopathologic factors of metastatic lesions of the liver. Methods From January 2003 to December 2008, 117 patients underwent curative hepatic resection for CRLM were reviewed. Tumor size and number, differentiation, tumor budding, angio-invasion, dedifferentiation and tumor infiltrating inflammation of metastatic lesions were investigated. Results The mean number of hepatic tumors was 2 (range, 1-8). The mean size of the largest tumor was 2.9 cm (range, 0.3-18.5 cm) in diameter. The moderate differentiation of the hepatic tumor was the most common in 86.3% of the patients. Tumor budding, angio-invasion, and dedifferentiation were observed in 81%, 34%, and 12.8% of patients. Inflammation infiltrating tumor was detected in 6.8% of patients. Recurrence after hepatic resection appeared in 69 out of 117 cases (58.9%). Recurrence-free survival at 1, 2 and 5 years were 62.4%, 43.6%, and 34.3%. The multivariate analysis showed the number of metastases ?3 (P = 0.007), the tumor infiltrating inflammation (P = 0.047), and presence of dedifferentiation (P = 0.020) to be independent risk factors for tumor recurrence. Conclusion Histopathological factors, i.e., dedifferentiation and tumor infiltrating inflammation of the metastatic lesion, could be one of the risk factors of aggressive behavior as well as the number of metastases even after curative resection for CRLM.

Park, Min-Su; Son, Sang-Yong; You, Tae; Suh, Suk-Won; Choi, Young Rok; Kim, Hyeyoung; Hong, Geun; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Park, Jae-Gahb

2014-01-01

439

Factors affecting UV/H2O2 inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores in drinking water.  

PubMed

This study aims at estimating the performance of the Bacillus atrophaeus spores inactivation by the UV treatment with addition of H2O2. The effect of factors affecting the inactivation was investigated, including initial H2O2 dose, UV irradiance, initial cell density, initial solution pH and various inorganic anions. Under the experimental conditions, the B. atrophaeus spores inactivation followed both the modified Hom Model and the Chick's Model. The results revealed that the H2O2 played dual roles in the reactions, while the optimum reduction of 5.88lg was received at 0.5mM H2O2 for 10min. The inactivation effect was affected by the UV irradiance, while better inactivation effect was achieved at higher irradiance. An increase in the initial cell density slowed down the inactivation process. A slight acid condition at pH 5 was considered as the optimal pH value. The inactivation effect within 10min followed the order of pH 5>pH 7>pH 9>pH 3>pH 11. The effects of three added inorganic anions were investigated and compared, including sulfate (SO4(2)(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)) and carbonate (CO3(2)(-)). The sequence of inactivation effect within 10min followed the order of control group>SO4(2)(-)>NO3(-)>CO3(2)(-). PMID:24792469

Zhang, Yongji; Zhang, Yiqing; Zhou, Lingling; Tan, Chaoqun

2014-05-01

440

Factors affecting temporal H2S emission at construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills.  

PubMed

Odor problems associated with H2S emissions often result in odor complaints from nearby residents of C&D debris landfills, especially in the early morning. As part of a field study conducted on H2S removal ability using different cover materials, daily and seasonal H2S emissions through a soil cover layer were monitored at a C&D debris landfill to investigate factors affecting H2S emissions. H2S emission rates were not a constant, but varied seasonally, with an average emission rate of 4.67×10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1). During a the 10-month field study, as the H2S concentration increased from 140ppm to about 3500ppm underneath the cover soil in the testing cell, H2S emissions ranged from zero to a maximum emission rate of 1.24×10(-5)mgm(-2)s(-1). Continuous emission monitoring indicated that H2S emissions even changed over time throughout the day, generally increasing from morning to afternoon, and were affected by soil moisture and temperature. Laboratory experiments were also conducted to investigate the effects of H2S concentration and cover soil moisture content on H2S emissions. The results showed that increased soil moisture reduced H2S emissions by retarding H2S migration through cover soil and dissolving H2S into soil water. The field study also indicated that due to atmospheric dispersion, high H2S emissions may not cause odor problems. PMID:23968554

Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy

2014-02-01

441

Personal Factors that Affect the Satisfaction of Female Patients Undergoing Esthetic Suture after Typical Thyroidectomy  

PubMed Central

Background In esthetic surgery, understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction is important for successful practice. We hypothesize that the factors that influence patient satisfaction include not only aesthetic and functional outcomes, but also personal factors such as the level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations regarding aesthetic outcome. Methods One hundred patients who underwent esthetic closure after thyroidectomy were included in this study. In order to evaluate the individual characteristics of the patients, a preoperative survey was administered to the patients. We estimated the patient satisfaction six months postoperatively and assessed the aesthetic and functional outcomes using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Results According to the results of correlation analysis, level of familiarity with wound healing factors had a positive correlation with satisfaction. High expectations, pain, itching, and high observer scale score had negative correlations with satisfaction. The factors that were correlated with satisfaction were included in the multiple regression analysis. Level of familiarity with wound healing factors was found to have a positive relationship with satisfaction, while itching and observer scale were found to have a negative relationship with satisfaction. After excluding 10 patients who had hypertrophic scars, only level of familiarity with wound healing factors and expectations affected satisfaction. Conclusions The level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations were found to independently affect satisfaction. Improving patients' level of familiarity with wound healing factors and reducing their expectations by providing suitable preoperative education has the potential to improve patient satisfaction.

Kim, Hyo Young; Kim, Jung Won; Park, Jin Hyung; Kim, Jung Hun

2013-01-01

442

Some Factors Affecting Design of a Furniture Calorimeter Hood and Exhaust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work considers factors affecting the design of an effective and versatile furniture calorimeter hood and exhaust system. The purpose of the furniture calorimeter, design functions, and inherent limitations of a particular design are discussed. The in...

L. Y. Cooper

1993-01-01

443

Assessment of Factors Affecting Industrial Electricity Demand. Final Report (Revision Version).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Chapter 2, we identify those factors affecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity deman...

1983-01-01

444

Factors Affecting the Viability of Rural Hospitals: A Survey of 61 California Hospitals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research identifies major factors that affect the viability of rural hospitals by correlating net gain or loss on operations with a number of organizational, operating, and financial variables. Characteristics such as hospital size (number of license...

D. Stumbo M. J. D. Good B. J. Good D. Johnson F. Harland

1984-01-01

445

Factors Affecting the Strength and Toughness of Low Carbon Alloy Steel Weld Metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details a metallurgical analysis which identifies the factors affecting the strength and toughness behavior of newly developed low carbon welding consumables. It was found that the 50% transformation temperature (T50) was a good indicator of t...

J. M. Blackburn

1998-01-01

446

14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215âFactors Affecting Standard Charges Charges for...

2014-01-01

447

Factors affecting the performance of microbial fuel cells for sulfide and vanadium (V) treatment.  

PubMed

Sulfide and vanadium (V) are pollutants commonly found in wastewaters. A novel approach has been investigated using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technologies by employing sulfide and V(V) as electron donor and acceptor, respectively. This results in oxidizing sulfide and deoxidizing V(V) simultaneously. A series of operating parameters as initial concentration, conductivity, pH, external resistance were carefully examined. The results showed that these factors greatly affected the performance of the MFCs. The average removal rates of about 82.2 and 26.1% were achieved within 72 h operation for sulfide and V(V), respectively, which were accompanied by the maximum power density of about 614.1 mW m(-2) under all tested conditions. The products generated during MFC operation could be deposited, resulting in removing sulfide and V(V) from wastewaters thoroughly. PMID:19330358

Zhang, Bao-Gang; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Shi, Chun-Hong; Kong, Ling-Cai; Sun, Juan-Juan; Yang, Yang; Ni, Jin-Ren

2010-02-01

448

Evaluation of factors affecting the analysis of metals using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Some of the main factors affecting the analysis of solid steel using laser-induced break-down spectroscopy (LIBS) have been investigated and are reported here. Pulses from an electro-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser were focused on steel samples to generate a high temperature plasma. The spectrally resolved plasma light was time resolved and de