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Investigation of biomechanical factors affecting rowing performance.  


It was hypothesized that a crew's rowing performance was predictable based on their total propulsive power, synchrony (a real-time comparison of rower propulsive force magnitudes) and total drag contribution (a measure of the rowers' effect on shell drag forces during the recovery), quantities calculated from individual rower's force-time profiles and recovery kinematics. A rowing pair was equipped with transducers to gather shell velocity, propulsive blade force, oar angular position and seat displacement. Eight subjects (four port, four starboard) participated in two rounds of data collection. The first round pairings were random, while the second round pairings were assigned based on Round 1 results. Regression analysis and ANCOVA were used to test the validity of assumptions inherent in the predictive model and, if applicable, explore a linear model predicting rowing performance based on total propulsive power, synchrony and total drag contribution. Total propulsive power, synchrony and total drag contribution were correlated and further were affected by pairing, violating assumptions inherent in the linear model. The original hypothesis was not supported based on these violations. Important findings include (1) performance cannot be predicted using the simple linear model proposed, (2) rowers' force-time profiles are repeatable between trials, with some but not all rowers adapting their force-time profile dependent on their pair partner, presumably in an effort to increase the level of synchrony between the two, and (3) subtle biomechanical factors may play a critical role in performance. PMID:15165867

Baudouin, Alexandre; Hawkins, David



An Exploratory Investigation into Factors Affecting Visual Balance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study using ocular photography to examine factors which affect the visual weights of significant elements in a picture. Results indicating that the upper half of the visual fields has greatest weight are discussed, as are results showing insufficient support for side preferences. Included are 27 references. (Author/BK)

Niekamp, Walter



Investigating Factors Affecting Group Processes in Virtual Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the widespread popularity of distance learning, there is a need to investigate elements of online courses that continue to pose significant challenges for educators. One of the challenges relates to creating and managing group projects. This study investigated business students' perceptions of group work in online classes. The constructs…

Hazari, Sunil; Thompson, Sandra



Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

Jantzen, Paul G.



An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Use of Educational Technology in Turkish Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the related factors that affect the usage of educational technology in primary schools. This study depends on literature analysis and the questionnaire to collect data. Specifically, the items employed in this study were derived from the teachers' and school administrators' perceptions of using…

Kazu, Ibrahim Yasar



Investigation of locally resonant absorption and factors affecting the absorption band of a phononic glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally and theoretically investigated the mechanisms of acoustic absorption in phononic glass to optimize its properties. First, we experimentally studied its locally resonant absorption mechanism. From these results, we attributed its strong sound attenuation to its locally resonant units and its broadband absorption to its networked structure. These experiments also indicated that the porosity and thickness of the phononic glass must be tuned to achieve the best sound absorption at given frequencies. Then, using lumped-mass methods, we studied how the absorption bandgaps of the phononic glass were affected by various factors, including the porosity and the properties of the coating materials. These calculations gave optimal ranges for selecting the porosity, modulus of the coating material, and ratio of the compliant coating to the stiff matrix to achieve absorption bandgaps in the range of 6-30 kHz. This paper provides guidelines for designing phononic glasses with proper structures and component materials to work in specific frequency ranges.

Chen, Meng; Jiang, Heng; Feng, Yafei; Wang, Yuren



An investigation of factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values based on the system dynamics modeling.  


This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student's personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students' peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students' amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students' high-calorie diets. PMID:24701250

Lan, Tian-Syung; Chen, Kai-Ling; Chen, Pin-Chang; Ku, Chao-Tai; Chiu, Pei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Hsiang



Investigation of factors affecting terrestrial passive sampling device performance and uptake rates in laboratory chambers  

SciTech Connect

A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDS) for soil contaminant characterization shows extreme promise. The use of PSDs increases ease and speed of analysis, decreases solvent usage and cost, and minimizes the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a high sampling frequency, providing a more thorough site characterization than traditional methods. The authors have conducted both laboratory and field studies with terrestrial PSDS. Laboratory studies demonstrated the concentration and moisture dependence of sampler uptake and provided an estimate of the optimal field sampling time for soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These PSDs were also used to accurately estimate PCB concentrations at hazardous waste site where concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 200 ug PCB/g soil. However, PSDs in the field had sampling rates approximately three times greater than in the laboratory. As a result several factors affecting PSD sampling rates and/or performance in laboratory chambers were evaluated. The parameters investigated were soil bulk density or compactness, chamber size and air flow. The chemicals used in these studies included two PCB congeners (52 and 153), three organochlorine pesticides (DDT, dieldrin and methoxychlor), three organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon and terbufos) and three herbicides (alachlor, atrazine and metolachlor).

Johnson, K.A.; Weisskopf, C.P. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology



An Investigation into the Factors Affecting the Use of Language Learning Strategies by Persian EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a larger study (Rahimi, 2004), this study investigates the use of language learning strategies by post-secondary level Persian EFL learners. Particular attention is paid to the variables affecting learners' choice of strategies, and the relationship, if any, between these variables and learners' patterns of strategy use. Data were…

Rahimi, Mohammad; Riazi, Abdolmehdi; Saif, Shahrzad



Online Course Delivery: An Empirical Investigation of Factors Affecting Student Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated potential factors impacting students' satisfaction with online course delivery using business students as participants. The findings suggest that the student who would be more satisfied with the delivery of online courses fits the following profile: graduate, married, resides more than 1 mile away from campus, and male.…

Beqiri, Mirjeta S.; Chase, Nancy M.; Bishka, Atena



Factors Affecting Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce Success: An Empirical Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is generally believed that Business to Business (B2B) e-commerce has a great impact on business performance improvement. Considerable research also shows that another dependent variable, B2B e-commerce success, can be a good overall measure of B2B systems. This paper investigated and examined the impact of several factors, which are either…

Chen, Chun-I Philip



A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in People with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively small numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are engaging in paid employment and those who are tend to be working only part-time. This preliminary study addressed the question of what factors motivate people with ID to work. The issue was investigated in a sample of 10 young work-age adults attending supported learning…

Andrews, Abbye; Rose, John L.



An investigation of the strains in an integral type oil-well tubing joint, and the factors affecting leakage  

E-print Network

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE STRAINS IN AN INTEGRAL TYPE OIL-WELL TUBING JOINT~ AND THE FA. CTORS AFFECTING LEAKAGE A Thesis JOHN HENRY ATTERBURY JR Approved as to style and content by AN INVESTIGATION OF THE STRAINS IN AN INTEGRAL TYPE OIL...-iVELL TUBING JOINT~ AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING ~GE JOHN HENRY ATTERBURY JR ~ A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Vechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of llASTER OF SCIENCE Ma...

Atterbury, John Henry



An investigation into the factors affecting the natural reproduction of Opsaridium peringueyi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An endangered freshwater fish, Opsaridium peringueyi, was studied from January, 2009 to December, 2009. The analysis of the environmental conditions indicated that the fish is found in streams with moderate to fast flow, high oxygen levels, a depth greater than 0.6 m and temperatures between 10 and 24 °C. O. peringueyi is sexually dimorphic with males growing at a faster rate and attaining a larger size than females. The breeding biology of this species was investigated in glass aquarium tanks. The spawning behaviour is described for the first time. The breeding colour of the male is deep red on the operculum, ventral part, caudal and ventral fins. The breeding colour in the female is the same as the male except the red colour is lighter. The breeding of O. peringueyi is a four stage process which begins with the appearance of breeding colour culminating in the laying of eggs after courtship. Temperature, flow-rate, conductivity and substrate were identified as the environmental cues important in the reproduction of this species. All these factors had a significant effect on the breeding activity of O. peringueyi. The possible effect of climate change on O. peringueyi is discussed.

Moyo, N. A. G.


Structural equation model for investigating factors affecting delay in Indian construction projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth of the Indian construction sector over the last few decades and recurring failure in on-time delivery highlight the need for a systematic analysis of the factors influencing delay. A theoretical structural equation model representing the influence of four key latent variables on project delays in the Indian construction industry has been developed. Data collected from a questionnaire

Hemanta Doloi; Anil Sawhney; K. C. Iyer



Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup's Critical Depth-493, but the general concept is still valid! ! #12;PB opt & Temperature! #12;Photosynthesis & Temperature! Remember: in the laboratory, we can measure photosynthesis versus irradiance (PvsE) and calculate Ek, Pmax, and alpha

Kudela, Raphael M.


Factors Affecting Photosynthesis!  

E-print Network

4/21/13 1 Factors Affecting Photosynthesis! Temperature Eppley (1972) Light Sverdrup Michaelis-Menten versus PE curves! Photosynthesis and nutrient kinetics curves look similar because they are governed by the same process: Initial slope is dependent on amount of pigments (light) or cell

Kudela, Raphael M.


An investigation of factors affecting the design location of freeway ramps  

E-print Network

be maintained. Past studies aimed at improving the efficiency of operations have primarily dealt with the design and operation of an on-ramp, the design and operation of an off-ramp, or the weaving of the freeway 1-10 resulting from an on-rainp closely... designed to evaluate their relative costs, the right-of-way required, weaving, and the potential for stage construction. For the design of the stacked ramps the following factors were assumed: 55 56 1. The facility was a six-lane freeway which had...

Tipton, William Earl



Investigation of factors affecting the heater wire method of calibrating fine wire thermocouples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical investigation was made of a transient method of calibrating fine wire thermocouples. The system consisted of a 10 mil diameter standard thermocouple (Pt, Pt-13% Rh) and an 0.8 mil diameter chromel-alumel thermocouple attached to a 20 mil diameter electrically heated platinum wire. The calibration procedure consisted of electrically heating the wire to approximately 2500 F within about a seven-second period in an environment approximating atmospheric conditions at 120,000 feet. Rapid periodic readout of the standard and fine wire thermocouple signals permitted a comparison of the two temperature indications. An analysis was performed which indicated that the temperature distortion at the heater wire produced by the thermocouple junctions appears to be of negligible magnitude. Consequently, the calibration technique appears to be basically sound, although several practical changes which appear desirable are presented and discussed. Additional investigation is warranted to evaluate radiation effects and transient response characteristics.

Keshock, E. G.



An Investigation of Factors Affecting How Engineers and Scientists Seek Information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study investigated how 872 US aerospace scientists and engineers select information carriers. When considering oral and written information carriers, the principle of least effort was supported with a strong preference for oral communication over written communication. In examining how the respondents select written carriers, the decision to use or not to use a written carrier was found to be primarily a function of the perceived importance of the carrier's information to a person's work. Task uncertainty and task complexity were found to be significant, but not the primary nor a totally consistent criteria. The perceived quality and accessibility of written carriers were not found significant. The findings reinforce the need for firms to hire knowledgeable employees, to provide them with comprehensive training programs, and to develop formal and informal communication networks.

Anderson, Claire J; Glassman, Myron; McAfee, R. Bruce; Pinelli, Thomas



Investigation of various factors affecting encapsulation on the in-cap automatic capsule-filling machine.  


The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence fill weight and weight variability of capsules produced on the In-Cap and to assess any differences in terms of capsule defects between gelatin and HPMC (Quali-V) shells. The In-Cap is an automatic tamping type capsule-filling machine and the low output of approximately 3000 capsules/hour makes it ideal for early formulation development and phase I/IIa clinical supplies manufacture. Four commonly used excipients (Avicel PH101, Avicel PH302, A-Tab, and Prosolv HD90) and a poorly flowing drug blend were encapsulated at various pin settings and powder bed heights. The average fill weight and coefficient of weight variation were determined. The percentage of defective capsules formed during encapsulation was calculated. Results of the study showed that pin setting was critical for controlling the fill weight and the weight variation. The order of pin setting with pin 1 (closer to the powder chute) set to a relatively higher position and pin 4 (before ejection) set to a lower position was found to give higher fill weights with relatively lower weight variability. The powder bed height influenced the fill weight for poorly flowing powders. The capsule machine speed did not appear to significantly influence the fill weight. The fill weight and weight variation were found to depend on the flow property of the material. A large percentage of defective capsules was obtained using HPMC shell size #00. Some of the commonly observed defects included split caps and improperly closed filled capsules. In general, appropriate selection of pin settings and bed height can reduce the weight variability seen, especially with poorly flowing high-dose formulations. PMID:15760054

Nair, Renuka; Vemuri, Murti; Agrawala, Praful; Kim, Soo-il



Preliminary investigation of factors affecting the seismic potential of the Bartlett Springs fault zone, northern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bartlett Springs fault (BFS) extends 170 km from its south end, a large releasing bend in the Hunting Creek fault, to its north end, another large releasing bend in the Lake Mountain fault. The seismic potential of BFS is poorly known because of incomplete mapping, poorly constrained geologic slip rate and creep rates. Before our study only part of BFS was mapped as Holocene-active for a variety of reasons including the heavy rainfall and steep slopes causing extreme erosional conditions (many landslides), heavy vegetation and lack of detailed aerial photography. We acquired new 1:12,000-scale aerial photography of the entire BFS, from which we interpreted geomorphic features that indicate Holocene faulting extends along the entire BFS. The new mapping, formatted for use in geographic information systems, clarifies possible geometric constraints on fault segmentation. To better constrain the spatial variation of creep rate along BFS, we increased creep monitoring sites from two to four, presenting the latest results in our poster. The 4-yr average creep rate for our Lake Pillsbury site is 2.8 ± 0.4 mm/yr (1-SD), comparable to a creep rate estimated from a step in the velocity field (3.4 ± 0.8 mm/yr) using all USGS GPS array points across the central BSF. Lacking a geologic slip rate for BSF, we estimate an average velocity across the fault using a rigid block model of the GPS site velocities. This yields ~6.5 mm/yr, which is comparable to the 6 mm/yr long-term rate observed on the Northern Calaveras fault (NCF). Much NCF slip and probably additional slip from the Greenville fault transfers indirectly to the BSF via the Concord-Green Valley fault (CGVF). The NCF and CGVF have long-term creep rates ranging from 1.8-4.4 mm/yr, comparable to our estimates for BSF. For seismic hazard estimation, the segmentation of the BSF may depend on many factors, including the spatial variation in aseismic moment release, the size and 3D structure of the largest geometric discontinuities, the state of stress relative to the failure stress of each section and the timing and extent of previous ruptures. Microseismicity distribution is also relevant to seismic potential, because it tends to correlate with fault creep. The central third of the BSF has high microseismicity and with respect to with the plate boundary its strike ranges from transtensional to parallel, thus favoring stable sliding and unclamping. Our mapping indicates the largest BSF discontinuities are a 2.5-km left stepover at the Middle Fork of the Eel River and a 2.5-km right stepover at Wilson Valley. Some previous hazard models have assumed the BFS is likely to have a complete 170-km rupture of Mw~7.2, however, shorter rupture scenarios may be much more likely. For example, one more plausible rupture, for the ~70-km central section having high microseismicity, yields Mw~6.8, because its rupture would tend to terminate in the adjacent sections oriented favorably to locking. Many other plausible scenarios for segments of varying length can be posed, each needing to be weighted inversely to the likely difficulty of each rupture to occur.

Lienkaemper, J. J.; Brown, J.



Factors Affecting Gummy Butter.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY A. & M. COLLEGE OF TEXAS Factors Affecting Gummy Butter DIGEST Among the Southcentral States, Texas ranks next to Oklahoma and Kentucky in creamery butter production; in farm butter production Texas is third in the nation... products produce I butter having what is known as a gummy or melt-resistant body. The availability and nutritive qualities of cottonseed products make them highly desirable as dairy feeds, especially in the South. This study shows that the gummy...

Leighton, R. E. (Rudolph Elmo); Moore, A. V.



Investigation of planarization characteristics and novel defects in metal CMP affected by physical, chemical and mechanical factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) has emerged as a widely used technology in the present day fabrication of Integrated Circuit (IC) chips in microelectronics. With the device size shrinking every year, the need for smaller and faster chips is also increasing. The use of novel materials and methods of fabrication are becoming inevitable. The replacement of aluminum with copper, low-k dielectrics in place of SiO2 in the Back End Of the Line processing (BEOL), multi-level metallization are some of the recent developments which the industry has witnessed. The patterning of features with smaller critical dimensions requires the Depth Of Focus (DOF) to be as low as possible. The requirement on the DOF hence increases with the reduction in the critical dimensions hence increasing the planarity requirements. Three different factors that impact the planarity in metal CMP have been investigated in detail in the thesis. The first topic of the thesis deals with a novel defect in Cu patterned wafer polishing where the feature experiences extra erosion at the edge of the feature in comparison to the center. Various first-step Cu slurries with different passivation chemistries were employed in the study supported by CFD modeling of slurry flow over patterned features. The relative roles of slurry passivation and fluid flow on the inception of the defect were investigated. The second topic deals with the impact of process temperature in CMP. Different factors such as process variables, slurry components and its effect on process temperature were investigated. The effect of process temperature on slurry physical properties in turn affecting the slurry performance was investigated in detail with different first-step Cu slurries. The final topic of the thesis deals with some important factors that determine the planarization efficiency in metal CMP. The impact of slurry physical properties, pad and wafer specifications and slurry abrasive content were studied in detail.

Cheemalapati, Krishnayya


Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries  

SciTech Connect

Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

Klinestiver, L.R.



Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances in Early Adolescence: A Structural Modeling Investigation Examining Negative Affect and Peer Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested five proposed models of the relationship of negative affect and peer factors in early adolescent body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic behaviors. A large community sample of girls in early adolescence was assessed via questionnaire (X[overbar] age = 12.3 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that negative…

Hutchinson, Delyse M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Taylor, Alan



Factors affecting soil cohesion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...


Factors affecting neonatal jaundice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma bilirubin was estimated on 690 term infants on about the 6th day of life. Perinatal factors were recorded and the results analysed. Hyperbilirubinaemia was defined as a level greater than 205 micromol\\/1 (12 mg\\/100 ml) and this was present in 20% of cases. Three factors--epidural analgesia, breast feeding, and poor weight recovery--showed highly significant associations with jaundice. The relative

B Wood; P Culley; C Roginski; J Powell; J Waterhouse



Factors That Affect Eutrophication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this investigation, the effects of excess nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) on algae will be examined. An excess of these nutrients can lead to eutrophication in ponds and lakes. Eutrophic lakes typically are shallow, have mucky bottoms, and have warme

Carl Van Faasen



Investigation of alanine mutations affecting insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I binding to IGF binding proteins.  


Abstract Binding properties of wild type (WT) and six single amino acid substituted variants (E3A, E9A, D12A, D20A, F23A, and E58A) of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were analyzed with respect to their binding details to IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The binding sites and binding interactions on IGF-I and IGFBPs are screened and compared with the static X-ray structure. Electrostatic interaction is the primary driving force of the interaction between IGF-I and IGFBPs. Mutation may cause the rearrangement of binding sites, however, the unfolding of protein induced by mutation is not obvious in this work. We also provide the detailed picture of binding factors. And the results show that, whether the unfolding of helix occurs or not, the Ala mutation will change the molecular atmosphere of the binding interface by the rearrangement of conformation, and further affects the binding residues and binding interactions. PMID:25257139

Chen, Xin; Duan, Danhui; Zhu, Shuyan; Zhang, Jinglai



Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero



Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,

K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker



Investigation of physicochemical factors affecting the stability of a pH-modulated solid dispersion and a tablet during storage.  


The stability of solid dispersions (SD) during storage is of concern. We prepared the pH-modulated SD (pSD) and compressed tablets consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 as a carrier, drug and MgO (alkalizer). Telmisartan (TEL), an ionizable poorly water-soluble drug, was chosen as a model drug. The changes in physicochemical factors such as the dissolution rate, drug crystallinity, microenvironmental pH (pH(M)) and intermolecular interactions of the pSD and the tablets were investigated over 3 months under different temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions: refrigerator (5-8 °C), 25 °C/32% RH, 25 °C/55% RH, 25 °C/75% RH, 40°C/32% RH, 40 °C/55% RH, and 40 °C/75% RH. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of all samples revealed no distinct changes in the drug melting point. In contrast, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) diffractograms revealed that samples stored at 40 °C/75% RH for 1 month, 25 °C/75% RH for 3 months and 40 °C at all humidity conditions for 3 months showed gradual recrystallization of the drug. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated a reduced intensity of intermolecular interactions between TEL and MgO in the pSD and tablet. The pH(M) also gradually decreased. These altered physicochemical factors under the stressed conditions resulted in decreased dissolution profiles in intestinal fluid (pH 6.8). In contrast, the dissolution rate in gastric fluid (pH 1.2) was almost unchanged because of the high intrinsic solubility of TEL at this pH. PMID:21565260

Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh; Park, Jun-Bom; Min, Dong Hun; Choi, Han-Gon; Han, Hyo-Kyung; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Lee, Beom-Jin



Factors Affecting Illegal Hacking Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The damage caused by illegal hacking has become one of the serious problems facing society. Based on general deterrence theory, social bond theory and social learning theory, the paper proposes a model which examines the factors affecting the likelihood an individual will engage in illegal hacking behavior. Data was gathered from a survey of 127 individuals who attended a hacker’s

Randall Young; Lingling Zhang



Investigating the book-tax income gap : factors which affect the gap and details regarding its most significant component  

E-print Network

(cont.) In total, my thesis suggests that recent changes in the book-tax income gap may be exogenous and transitory, due to changes to the calculation of book income, general business conditions or other factors which ...

Seidman, Jeri



Investigation of factors affecting loosening of Ilizarov ring-wire external fixator systems at the bone-wire interface.  


The potential for peri-implant bone yielding and subsequent loosening of Ilizarov ring-wire external fixation systems was investigated using non-linear finite element (FE) analyses. A strain-based plasticity model was employed to simulate bone yielding. FE models also incorporated contact behavior at the wire-bone interface, orthotropic elasticity, and periosteal-endosteal variation of bone properties. These simulations were used to determine the extent and location of yielding with change in age-related bone structure and properties for the bone-Ilizarov construct at the tibial midshaft. At critical wire-bone interfaces, the predicted volume of yielded bone with four wires (on either side of the fracture) was ?40% of that with two wires. Old-aged cases showed considerably greater bone yielding at the wire-bone interface than young cases (1.7-2.2 times greater volumes of yielded bone). The volume of yielded bone at all wire-bone interfaces decreased with an increase in wire pre-tension. The absence of continuous through-thickness yielding offers an explanation for the clinical observation that Ilizarov ring-wire fixation can provide stable fracture fixation even in bone with high porosity. PMID:22042453

Donaldson, Finn E; Pankaj, Pankaj; Simpson, A Hamish R W



Factors Affecting the Speed of Free Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…

Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris



Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.



Affecting Factors in Second Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affecting factors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were…

Andreou, G.; Vlachos, F.; Andreou, E.



Factors Affecting Advertising Approach in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of a regional advertising strategy in the Asian market is becoming popular due to rising living standards and the growing similarity of consumer tastes in the region. The main objectives of this paper are to: (1) investigate the advertising approach adopted by the multinationals, and (2) identify the factors affecting the extent of advertising standardization in The People's

Susan H. C. Tai



Factors Affecting the Stability of Cellulose Peroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting the stability of three kinds of cellulose peroxides prepared by reactions of aldehyde cellulose, carboxy-methyl cellulose, and unmodified cellulose with hydrogen peroxide, Peroxides A, B, and C, respectively, were investigated. The relative stability of the peroxides was in the order Peroxide A > B > C, which was greatly improved by applying ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as the chelating reagent

Yoshitaka Ogiwara; Kaoru Torikoshi; Kazuo Takahashi; Hitoshi Kubota



Dietary factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability.  


While many epidemiological studies have associated the consumption of polyphenols within fruits and vegetables with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases, intervention studies have generally not confirmed these beneficial effects. The reasons for this discrepancy are not fully understood but include potential differences in dosing, interaction with the food matrix, and differences in polyphenol bioavailability. In addition to endogenous factors such as microbiota and digestive enzymes, the food matrix can also considerably affect bioaccessibility, uptake, and further metabolism of polyphenols. While dietary fiber (such as hemicellulose), divalent minerals, and viscous and protein-rich meals are likely to cause detrimental effects on polyphenol bioaccessibility, digestible carbohydrates, dietary lipids (especially for hydrophobic polyphenols, e.g., curcumin), and additional antioxidants may enhance polyphenol availability. Following epithelial uptake, polyphenols such as flavonoids may reduce phase II metabolism and excretion, enhancing polyphenol bioavailability. Furthermore, polyphenols may act synergistically due to their influence on efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. In order to understand polyphenol bioactivity, increased knowledge of the factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability, including dietary factors, is paramount. PMID:24828476

Bohn, Torsten



Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

PubMed Central

For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective. PMID:23016987



Factors Affecting the Earth's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses factors affecting the weather on Earth. Students learn about solar radiation, wind circulation, precipitation, and biomes that result from weather patterns. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.


Factors affecting reciprocating compressor performance  

SciTech Connect

A reciprocating compressor is a positive displacement machine and, in principal, its capacity and horsepower can be calculated very easily. In practice, however, several loss mechanisms act to decrease capacity and increase horsepower from the ideal predicted values. Many of these effects are quite difficult to predict accurately and the only effective way of developing reciprocating compressor performance prediction methods is to run a large number of tests on different compressors under different operating conditions. Combined with an understanding of the physics controlling the losses, experimental results allow good empirical models of losses to be developed. However, without the benefit of a good understanding of the physics of the loss mechanisms, it is impossible to interpret test results. Some factors affecting the magnitude of losses are compressor design, compressor speed, suction and discharge pressure and temperature, gas composition, suction and discharge piping design, and valve design. Losses that are important in some applications may be negligible in others so it is essential that a wide range of compressor designs, valve designs, gas molecular weight and operating conditions be tested when developing a performance prediction model. The paper discusses the effects of clearance and pressure ratio; the primary losses affecting capacity and power, including valve and port pressure loss, valve springing, valve inertia, piston ring leakage, packing leakage, discharge valve leakage, suction valve leakage, pulsations, heat transfer in the suction passage, and heat transfer in the cylinder; heat transfer in compressor cylinders; performance prediction methods; and compressor diagnosis.

Woollatt, D. (Dresser-Rand Co., Painted Post, NY (United States))



Cognitive Factors Affecting Subjective Probability Assessment  

E-print Network

Cognitive Factors Affecting Subjective Probability Assessment Alyson G. Wilson Institute of Statistics & Decision Sciences, Duke University ISDS Discussion Paper #94--02 February 1, 1994 #12; Cognitive Factors Affecting Subjective Probability Assessment Alyson G. Wilson Institute of Statistics and Decision

West, Mike


Use of a generalized additive model to investigate key abiotic factors affecting microcystin cellular quotas in heavy bloom areas of Lake Taihu.  


Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is suffering from serious cyanobacterial blooms with the associated drinking water contamination by microcystin (MC) for millions of citizens. So far, most studies on MCs have been limited to two small bays, while systematic research on the whole lake is lacking. To explain the variations in MC concentrations during cyanobacterial bloom, a large-scale survey at 30 sites across the lake was conducted monthly in 2008. The health risks of MC exposure were high, especially in the northern area. Both Microcystis abundance and MC cellular quotas presented positive correlations with MC concentration in the bloom seasons, suggesting that the toxic risks during Microcystis proliferations were affected by variations in both Microcystis density and MC production per Microcystis cell. Use of a powerful predictive modeling tool named generalized additive model (GAM) helped visualize significant effects of abiotic factors related to carbon fixation and proliferation of Microcystis (conductivity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), water temperature and pH) on MC cellular quotas from recruitment period of Microcystis to the bloom seasons, suggesting the possible use of these factors, in addition to Microcystis abundance, as warning signs to predict toxic events in the future. The interesting relationship between macrophytes and MC cellular quotas of Microcystis (i.e., high MC cellular quotas in the presence of macrophytes) needs further investigation. PMID:22384128

Tao, Min; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Qin, Boqiang; Zhang, Dawen; Niu, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qing; Wu, Laiyan



Use of a Generalized Additive Model to Investigate Key Abiotic Factors Affecting Microcystin Cellular Quotas in Heavy Bloom Areas of Lake Taihu  

PubMed Central

Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake in China and is suffering from serious cyanobacterial blooms with the associated drinking water contamination by microcystin (MC) for millions of citizens. So far, most studies on MCs have been limited to two small bays, while systematic research on the whole lake is lacking. To explain the variations in MC concentrations during cyanobacterial bloom, a large-scale survey at 30 sites across the lake was conducted monthly in 2008. The health risks of MC exposure were high, especially in the northern area. Both Microcystis abundance and MC cellular quotas presented positive correlations with MC concentration in the bloom seasons, suggesting that the toxic risks during Microcystis proliferations were affected by variations in both Microcystis density and MC production per Microcystis cell. Use of a powerful predictive modeling tool named generalized additive model (GAM) helped visualize significant effects of abiotic factors related to carbon fixation and proliferation of Microcystis (conductivity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), water temperature and pH) on MC cellular quotas from recruitment period of Microcystis to the bloom seasons, suggesting the possible use of these factors, in addition to Microcystis abundance, as warning signs to predict toxic events in the future. The interesting relationship between macrophytes and MC cellular quotas of Microcystis (i.e., high MC cellular quotas in the presence of macrophytes) needs further investigation. PMID:22384128

Tao, Min; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Qin, Boqiang; Zhang, Dawen; Niu, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qing; Wu, Laiyan



Flight Investigation on a Fighter-type Airplane of Factors which Affect the Loads and Load Distributions on the Vertical Tail Surfaces During Rudder Kicks and Fishtails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of a flight investigation conducted on a fighter-type airplane to determine the factors which affect the loads and load distributions on the vertical tail surfaces in maneuvers. An analysis is made of the data obtained in steady flight, rudder kicks, and fishtail maneuvers. For the rudder kicks, the significant loads were the "deflection load" resulting from an abrupt control deflection and the "dynamic load" consisting of a load corresponding to the new static equilibrium condition for the rudder deflected plus a load due to a transient overshoot. The minimum time to reach the maximum control deflection attainable by the pilot in any flight condition was found to be a constant. In the fishtail maneuvers, it was found that the pilot tends to deflect the rudder in phase with the natural frequency of the airplane. The maximum loads measured in fishtails were of the same order of magnitude as those from a rudder kick in which the rudder is returned to zero at the time of maximum sideslip.

Boshar, John



Factors affecting the lipase activity of milk  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE LIPASE ACTIVITY OF MILK A Thesis By PAUL THOMAS TALLAMY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1969 Major... Subject: Food Technology FACTORS AFFECTING THE LIPASE ACTIVITY OF MILK A Thesis By PAUL THOMAS TALLAMY Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commi tee fg M ber Head f Depar tmen Mem er Member January 1969 ABSTRACT Factors Affecting...

Tallamy, Paul Thomas



Factors affecting customer relationship management practices in Thai academic libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates and analyzes the factors affecting customer relationship management (CRM) practices in Thai academic libraries. The research conceptual framework focuses on factors affecting CRM practices was developed using Combe (2004)’s study on assessing CRM strategies. Mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative approaches were used as a research methodology. Data was collected by using the interview and survey techniques with

Piyawan Siriprasoetsin; Kulthida Tuamsuk; Cholabhat Vongprasert


Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

AlKandari, Nabila



Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors

Torbert, Brison


Factors affecting sporoplasm release in Kudoa septempunctata.  


The myxosporean parasite Kudoa septempunctata has been isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and was recently identified as a cause of food poisoning in humans. Since the sporoplasm plays an important role in causing diarrhea by invading intestinal cells, the specific factors affecting the release of sporoplasm from spores should be determined. Thus, we investigated the effect of digestive and serum enzymes, fetal bovine serum (FBS), temperature, and the role of glucose in cell culture media on the release of sporoplasm. Sporoplasm release was observed in the groups treated with FBS and media containing glucose. In addition, 1,10-phenanthroline inhibited the release of sporoplasm in the FBS medium. These results indicate that K. septempunctata uses glucose for releasing its sporoplasm and that zinc or metalloprotease is related to the release mechanism. The present study provides important information for the development of agents to prevent sporoplasm release and the consequent food poisoning caused by K. septempunctata. PMID:25563617

Shin, Sang Phil; Zenke, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi




EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility Suzanne. E. Fenton US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...


Factors affecting Internet development: An Asian survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between the Internet development and various social, economic and political factors that are hypothesized to affect the Internet growth. Using secondary data for 28 sampled Asian countries, this study tested seven hypotheses about the impact of various factors on Internet growth. The findings show that the Internet penetration is related to a country's wealth, telecommunication

Hao Xiaoming; Chow Seet Kay




Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors affect the number of birds detected on point count surveys of breeding songbirds. The magnitude and importance of these factors are not well understood. We used a bird song simulation system to quantify the effects of detection distance, singing rate, species differences, and observer differences on detection probabilities of birds detected by ear. We simulated 40 point counts

Mathew W. Alldredge; Theodore R. Simons; Kenneth H. Pollock



Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis



Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

Jabnoun, Naceur



Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.



Factors affecting excretory behavior of pigs.  


A 2(4) factorial experiment with six pens per treatment was conducted to examine the factors affecting the excretory behavior of growing-finishing pigs. The factors investigated were partition type (open or closed), pig density (9 or 14 pigs/pen, size: 2 m x 4.5 m), position of nipple drinker in the pen (back wall of the pen or side in front of slatted area), and prior experience of pigs (training or no training). A total of 1,104 pigs at a weight interval of 28.4 +/- .2 to 91.4 +/- .4 kg were used in this study. Pen cleanliness was assessed by a dung scoring system, and growth rate was determined over the growing-finishing period. Partition type, nipple drinker position, or prior training of pigs had no effect on growth rate. Stocking pigs at 14 pigs/pen reduced growth rate (P < .05) compared with 9 pigs/pen (.80 vs .83 kg/d). Significant differences for pen dirtiness were found for partition type. Pens with closed partitions were cleaner than those with open partitions (P = .0001) and pens became significantly dirtier as pigs grew older or heavier (P < .01). There was a significant interaction effect between pen partition and pig density as well as an interaction among pen partition, pig density, and water position (P < .05). PMID:8071169

Hacker, R R; Ogilvie, J R; Morrison, W D; Kains, F



Factors affecting librarians' attitudes toward IT application in libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting librarians' attitudes toward IT application in libraries. It also aims to identify common underlying factors, which could be used to predict the probable behavior of librarians toward IT innovation in their libraries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Primary data were collected through a questionnaire survey of 288 (sample of 682)

Muhammad Ramzan; Diljit Singh



Determining the Factors Affecting the Memorable Nature of Travel Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effects of travel experiences on the autobiographical memory. A structural equation modeling analysis reveals that the experiential factors of involvement, hedonic activity, and local culture positively affected the autobiographical memory of recollection and vividness of past experiences. Specifically, the experiential factors of involvement and refreshing experiences are found to increase an individual's ability to recollect past

Jong-Hyeong Kim



Fluorescein. Physiochemical factors affecting its fluorescence.  


Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118

Romanchuk, K G



Factors Affecting Customers’ Choice of Retail Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to analyze the factors that affect the choice of customers in choosing the retail banks by the customers. The study involves a survey of 1000 bank customers using questionnaire as the research instrument, augmented with informal interviews of the customers and also makes thorough use of the information available on the internet. In the study, the authors

S Venkata Seshaiah; Vunyale Narender



Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that affect recruitment of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus are not well understood; for example, the majority (85%) of sea lamprey eggs are washed out of the nest, and the survival rate of these eggs is unknown. We examined the role of predation and substrate on egg survival in the laboratory and egg predation and dispersion of eggs outside the

Stephen J. Smith; J. Ellen Marsden



Micropropagation Factors affecting adventitious root formation  

E-print Network

Micropropagation Factors affecting adventitious root formation in microcuttings of Malus GJ De, la vitrification, la durée du cycle final de micropropagation et la concentration en acide indolebuty or by micropropagation. In the vegetative propagation of many crops, rooting of (micro)cuttings is the most crucial step

Boyer, Edmond


Factors affecting potato petiole sap nitrate tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors can affect the nitrate?nitrogen concentration of potato petioles. They include but are not limited to the following: N?fertilizer applications, mineralizable soil N, time of sampling, position of the petiole on the plant, age of the plant, potato cultivar, time of the day when plants are sampled, and the environmental conditions prior to sampling. A better understanding of these

Maurice L. Vitosh; George H. Silva




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Factors affecting carcass composition and beef quality have been outlined in this chapter by looking at ways in which the true value of two finished cattle- beasts can differ at the same final live weight, and at the same time and place. True value is taken to be determined by the quantity of lean saleable beef produced, the quality

Roger Purchas


Factors affecting spermatozoa morphology in beef bulls  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting sperm morphology of bulls (n=908) collected at 320 days of age. Bulls were a composite breed (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, and 25% Tarentaise) born from 2002 to 2008 to dams fed levels of feed during mid and late gestation that were expe...


Factors affecting the Human Sex Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE present here evidence suggesting the existence of at least two kinds of factors affecting the human sex ratio. As the sex ratio we use the number of male births per 100 female births. The evidence is based on family data collected by Geissler1 in 1889 and by ourselves2,3.

K. O. Renkonen; O. Mäkelä; Raimo Lehtovaara



Relevant factors that affect service recovery performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the factors that affect employees' service recovery performance from the perspectives of internal management. In addition, this paper combines the techniques of linear multi-variable statistical analysis and nonlinear fuzzy neural network methodology to analyse data and validate hypotheses. This paper selects travel agents who have frequent interactions with customers and provide intangible services. The empirical finding indicates

Wen-Bao Lin



Factors Affecting Vocational-Technical Program Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project was developed to identify the factors which affect the vocational-technical program choices of Millcreek Township School District secondary pupils having the options of an academic program with vocational electives or a dual program of academic subjects in the home school and more intensive training in a vocational-technical school on…

Evans, Virginia


Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.



Factors Affecting Intensive Care Units Nursing Workload  

PubMed Central

Background: The nursing workload has a close and strong association with the quality of services provided for the patients. Therefore, paying careful attention to the factors affecting nursing workload, especially those working in the intensive care units (ICUs), is very important. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the factors affecting nursing workload in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study that has done in Iran. All nurses (n = 400) who was working in the ICUs of the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014 were selected and studied using census method. The required data were collected using a researcher–made questionnaire which its validity and reliability were confirmed through getting the opinions of experts and using composite reliability and internal consistency (? = 0.89). The collected data were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. Results: Twenty-five factors were divided into three major categories through EFA, including structure, process, and activity. The following factors among the structure, process and activity components had the greatest importance: lack of clear responsibilities and authorities and performing unnecessary tasks (by a coefficient of 0.709), mismatch between the capacity of wards and the number of patients (by a coefficient of 0.639), and helping the students and newly employed staff (by a coefficient of 0.589). Conclusions: The nursing workload is influenced by many factors. The clear responsibilities and authorities of nurses, patients' admission according to the capacity of wards, use of the new technologies and equipment, and providing basic training for new nurses can decrease the workload of nurses. PMID:25389493

Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Mosavi, Seyed Masod; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Mehrabian, Fardin



A novel pH-dependent gradient-release delivery system for nitrendipineII. Investigations of the factors affecting the release behaviors of the system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrendipine, a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, was used as a poorly water-soluble model drug. To improve its dissolution rate and extend the therapeutic period in vivo as well, a novel pH-dependent gradient-release drug delivery system for nitrendipine having a solid dispersed matrix structure was developed. Four factors, i.e. the amount of excipients, the pH of the dissolution medium, the rotating speed

Mingshi Yang; Fude Cui; Bengang You; Liang Wang; Peng Yue; Yoshiaki Kawashima



The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.



Factors affecting the determination of cerebrovascular reactivity  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), measures the ability of the cerebrovasculature to respond to vasoactive stimuli such as CO2. CVR is often expressed as the ratio of cerebral blood flow change to CO2 change. We examine several factors affecting this measurement: blood pressure, stimulus pattern, response analysis and subject position. Methods Step and ramp increases in CO2 were implemented in nine subjects, seated and supine. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined breath-by-breath. Cerebrovascular conductance (MCAc) was estimated as MCAv/MAP. CVR was calculated from both the relative and absolute measures of MCAc and MCAv responses. Results MAP increased with CO2 in some subjects so that relative CVR calculated from conductance responses were less than those calculated from CVR calculated from velocity responses. CVR measured from step responses were affected by the response dynamics, and were less than those calculated from CVR measured from ramp responses. Subject position did not affect CVR. Conclusions (1) MAP increases with CO2 and acts as a confounding factor for CVR measurement; (2) CVR depends on the stimulus pattern used; (3) CVR did not differ from the sitting versus supine in these experiments; (4) CVR calculated from absolute changes of MCAv was less than that calculated from relative changes. PMID:25328852

Regan, Rosemary E; Fisher, Joseph A; Duffin, James



Factors Affecting Thermally Induced Furan Formation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Furan, a potential carcinogen, can be induced by heat from sugars and fatty acids. However, factors that contribute to its formation in foods are unclear. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of pH, presence of phosphate, heating time and heating temperature on furan forma...


Factors Affecting Ice Nucleation in Plant Tissues  

PubMed Central

Factors affecting the ice nucleation temperature of plants and plant tissues were examined. The mass of a sample had a marked effect on ice nucleation temperature. Small tissue samples supercooled to ?10°C and were not accurate predictors of the nucleation temperature of intact plants in either laboratory or field experiments. This effect was not unique to plant tissues and was observed in autoclaved and control soil samples. Ice nucleation temperatures of bean, corn, cotton, and soybean seedlings were influenced by the length of subzero exposure, presence of ice nucleation active bacteria, and leaf surface wetness. The number of factors influencing ice nucleation temperature suggested that predicting the freezing behavior of plants in the field will be complex. PMID:16664524

Ashworth, Edward N.; Davis, Glen A.; Anderson, Jeffrey A.



Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.



Factors affecting academic leadership in dermatology.  


Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders. PMID:25750963

Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J



The Western Ghat as the water tower of the South Indian Rivers : a stable isotope investigation on the origin of water and factors affecting the water cycle.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long stretch (1600 km) of Ghats on the western side (Western Ghats) of Peninsular India separates relatively wetter west coast from drier eastern coast. The western and eastern sides of the Ghats are having distinct isotopic signatures indicating unequal distribution of the moisture sources. South India is characterized by having moisture source for southwest monsoon from Arabian Sea and northeast monsoon from Bay of Bengal. The wetter side of Peninsular region is covered by combination of evergreen tropical forest and grass lands, termed as Shola Forests which support higher vapor recycling process. Very few isotopic studies have been undertaken in these areas, except few places, mainly along the coast lines. This study presents the stable isotope results on rivers and groundwater of the Western Ghats covering Agumbe (Karnataka) to Ooty (Tamil Nadu) and its west coast river basins as observed for the three year period. The stable isotope results on the surface, subsurface and deep water pools show that the mean d18O value range from -4 o to -2 o on the west slope, and from -5 o to -4 o on the east slope, with quite no altitude or amount effect up to 2000 m asl. The more depleted values are found only in higher elevation, like the Doddabeta in the Nilgiri (2637m), with d18O close to -9 o which is exceptional for a tropical area. The hills on the west slope of the Western Ghats as well as in the mountainous Shola forest exhibit strong water vapor recycling as evidenced by high d-excess values. On the contrary on the eastern slope, the drier condition and the numerous impoundments and river damming support strong evaporation process. Thus, the study identifies the profound effect of tropical vegetation and anthropogenic factors on the recharge functioning of river and groundwater pools in Southern India.

Lambs, Luc; Tripti, Muguli; Balakrishna, Keshava



Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds.  


Many factors affect the number of birds detected on point count surveys of breeding songbirds. The magnitude and importance of these factors are not well understood. We used a bird song simulation system to quantify the effects of detection distance, singing rate, species differences, and observer differences on detection probabilities of birds detected by ear. We simulated 40 point counts consisting of 10 birds per count for five primary species (Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia, Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens, Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina, and Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus) over a range of 15 distances (34-143 m). Songs were played at low (two songs per count) and high (13-21 songs per count) singing rates. Detection probabilities averaged across observers ranged from 0.60 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.83 (Hooded Warbler) at the high singing rate and 0.41 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.67 (Hooded Warbler) at the low singing rate. Logistic regression analyses indicated that species, singing rate, distance, and observer were all significant factors affecting detection probabilities. Singing rate x species and singing rate X distance interactions were also significant. Simulations of expected counts, based on the best logistic model, indicated that observers detected between 19% (for the worst observer, lowest singing rate, and least detectable species) and 65% (for the best observer, highest singing rate, and most detectable species) of the true population. Detection probabilities on actual point count surveys are likely to vary even more because many sources of variability were controlled in our experiments. These findings strongly support the importance of adjusting measures of avian diversity or abundance from auditory point counts with direct estimates of detection probability. PMID:17494409

Alldredge, Mathew W; Simons, Theodore R; Pollock, Kenneth H



Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.  


This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease. PMID:25721273

Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I



Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.  


The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples. PMID:23093103

Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, ?aneta; Namie?nik, Jacek



Various factors affect coiled tubing limits  

SciTech Connect

Safety and reliability remain the primary concerns in coiled tubing operations. Factors affecting safety and reliability include corrosion, flexural bending, internal (or external) pressure and tension (or compression), and mechanical damage due to improper use. Such limits as coiled tubing fatigue, collapse, and buckling need to be understood to avoid disaster. With increased use of coiled tubing, operators will gain more experience. But at the same time, with further research and development of coiled tubing, the manufacturing quality will be improved and fatigue, collapse, and buckling models will become more mature, and eventually standard specifications will be available. This paper reviews the uses of coiled tubing and current research on mechanical behavior of said tubing. It also discusses several models used to help predict fatigue and failure levels.

Yang, Y.S. [Precision Tube Technology Inc., Houston, TX (United States)



An Examination of Factors Affecting Perception of Workplace Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates perceptions of workplace discrimination among racial minorities in Canada. Specifically, the study\\u000a examines how objective experiences of disadvantage and expectations for equity influence racial minorities’ perceptions of\\u000a discrimination. The results indicate that while both of these factors affect perceptions of discrimination, expectations for\\u000a equity may be especially important. Although new immigrants are among the most disadvantaged groups

Rupa Banerjee



76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales...Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting...



77 FR 18862 - Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian...the Committee in investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors In Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural...



Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.



Factors affecting newborn care practices in Bangladesh.  


Newborn care is of immense importance for the proper development and healthy life of a baby. Although child and infant mortality in South Asia has reduced substantially, the rate of neonatal mortality is still high, although these deaths can be prevented by adopting simple interventions at the community level. The aim of the study was to identify the associated factors which affect newborn care practices. Data for the study were drawn from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007, in which 6150 mothers were considered. The mean age of the mothers was 18 (±3.2) years. A little over 62% of the pregnant women received at least one antenatal check-up during the entire period of their pregnancy. About 70% of deliveries were conducted at home either by unskilled family members or by relatives. A clean instrument was used for cutting the cord of 87% of the newborn babies, while about 34% of them were reported to have had their first bath immediately after delivery. Initiation of breast feeding immediately after birth was practised in only about 19% of the cases. Compared with mothers with no education, those with secondary or higher levels were associated with clean cord care [odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.9] and early breast feeding [OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2, 2.2]. The study revealed an urgent need to educate mothers, and train traditional birth attendants and health workers on clean delivery practices and early neonatal care. Increasing the number of skilled birth attendants can be an effective strategy to increase safe delivery practices, and to reduce delivery complications. PMID:22150703

Shahjahan, Md; Ahmed, M Ranzu; Rahman, M Mokhlesur; Afroz, Afsana



Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes  

PubMed Central

Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.



Factors Affecting Arctic Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The factors discussed in this section are building blocks to understanding arctic weather and climate. Each factor plays an important role alone and in interaction with other factors. The "Arctic Energy Budget" ties all the factors together in a description of the Arctic as a climate system. The different factors are given detailed explanations and examples, and include topics like latitude, land/see distributions, solar radiation, air temperature, Air pressure, winds, humidity, clouds, precipitations, and Arctic energy budgets.



Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…

Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.



An Activity on Factors Affecting Blood Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to explore the relationship between pressure and vessel diameter and to create a model that represents how high blood pressure may affect weakened vessels. A collaborative work of Melvin Flores, Larie Laudato and Glenn Soltes

Glenn Soltes



Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa.  


The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on incidence of sperm nuclear chromatin instability (NCI), and (2) effects of the interaction between variation of NCI within a frozen ejaculate and variation of oocytes quality due to maturation time and/or season on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Semen samples were collected once a week from six bulls using an AV and only ejaculates (n=220) of >0.30x10(9) sperm/ml and >or=60% motility were used. NCI was measured by: (1) detection of lysine-rich histones in sperm chromatin using aniline blue staining, (2) sperm susceptibility to acid-induced nuclear DNA denaturation in situ using acridine orange test, and (3) sperm susceptibility to nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD). Bovine oocytes (n=695) were matured in vitro for 18 or 24 h, fertilized after sperm selection through a swim-up procedure and cultured for 72 h. The results showed that the 2nd ejaculates were superior to the 1st ones with respect to chromatin stability. Dilution of semen to 49.67+/-8.56x10(6) sperm/ml (1:19) decreased resistance of sperm to NCD. Cooling of semen had no significant effect on chromatin stability. Cryopreservation of semen augmented sperm vulnerability to DNA denaturation. Improvement of SQC (semen volume, sperm motility, velocity, viability and morphological normalcy) was generally concomitant with increase of sperm resistance to NCI. While Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls had a resistance to NCD higher than Limousine bulls in fresh semen, the former showed a greater susceptibility to DNA denaturation than the latter in cooled semen. Individuality significantly influenced NCI. The variability of NCI within a frozen ejaculate affected efficiency of IVEP. Significant negative correlations were observed between incidence of NCI and both fertilization rate and developmental capacity of embryos after maturation of oocytes for 18 h. The significant variation in IVEP traits due to season was independent of the effect of sperm chromatin instability. PMID:17398042

Khalifa, T A A; Rekkas, C A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Sioga, A; Dimitriadis, I; Papanikolaou, Th



Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer



How Student Satisfaction Factors Affect Perceived Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from students in two sections of a general education course offered at a research university in spring 2009 were used to explore whether student satisfaction factors are associated with perceived learning as rated by students. A list of 22 elements in the learning environment was explored. The 22 were used in creating 3 satisfaction factors

Lo, Celia C.



Study of Factors Affecting the Surface Quality in Ultra-Precision Diamond Turning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with an investigation of the process factors and the material factors affecting the surface roughness in ultra-precision diamond turning. The process factors involve cutting conditions, tool geometry, and relative tool-work vibration which are related to the cutting geometry and the dynamic characteristics of the cutting process. The material factors considered are material anisotropy, swelling, and crystallographic orientation

C. F. Cheung; W. B. Lee



Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection.Subjects:Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12–19 years), 19 089 young

M Ree; N Riediger; M H Moghadasian



Factors Affecting Obedience in Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of threat, surveillance, time, and sex of the child on obedience by four-year-old children to an adult's request to carry marbles one at a time from one box to another. (Author/MP)

Higbee, Kenneth L.



A Study of the Technological, Instructional, and Motivational Factors Affecting PHR Certification Exam Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous studies have considered the factors affecting other certification exam outcomes, they have not examined those that are related to performance on the Professional in Human Resources (PHR) exam. In response to that need, this study specifically investigates technology and training factors that affect self-efficacy and self-set…

Bonner, David M.



Factors Affecting the Production of Vietnamese Tones: A Study of American Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates factors that affect the accuracy of tone production by American students of Vietnamese as a second language (L2). Nine hypotheses are examined, each of which isolates a factor expected to affect production accuracy: (a) task type, (b) the position of a tone in a clause, (c) discourse distance between a model provided by a…

Nguyen, Hanh thi; Macken, Marlys A.



Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

Yardley, John F.



Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if applied on the day of phage application but not if applied 4 or 7 days in advance. Sunlight UV was evaluated for detrimental effects on phage survival on tomato foliage in the field. Phage was applied in the early morning, midmorning, early afternoon, and late evening, while UVA plus UVB irradiation and phage populations were monitored. The intensity of UV irradiation positively correlated with phage population decline. The protective formulation reduced the UV effect. In order to demonstrate direct effects of UV, phage suspensions were exposed to UV irradiation and assayed for effectiveness against bacterial spot of tomato. UV significantly reduced phage ability to control bacterial spot. Ambient temperature had a pronounced effect on nonformulated phage but not on formulated phages. The effects of desiccation and fluorescent light illumination on phage were investigated. Desiccation caused a significant but only slight reduction in phage populations after 60 days, whereas fluorescent light eliminated phages within 2 weeks. The protective formulation eliminated the reduction caused by both of these factors. Phage persistence was dramatically affected by UV, while the other factors had less pronounced effects. Formulated phage reduced deleterious effects of the studied environmental factors. PMID:17259361

Iriarte, F. B.; Balogh, B.; Momol, M. T.; Smith, L. M.; Wilson, M.; Jones, J. B.




E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING EXVESSEL PRICES OF SKIPJACK TUNA IN HAWAII Yung C . Shang The skipj ack -tuna to overfishing. On the other hand, the cost-revenue analysis indicates that, given the past input and tuna prices objective of this paper is to exam- ine the factors affecting the prices of skipj ack tuna. Skipjack


Fatherhood across Two Generations: Factors Affecting Early Family Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come…

Goldscheider, Frances; Hofferth, Sandra; Spearin, Carrie; Curtin, Sally



Factors affecting transfection in Bacillus stearothermophilus.  


The conditions for the infection of Bacillus stearothermophilus 4S with TP-1C phage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Cells from log-phase cultures are the most susceptible to phage DNA infection (transfection). A cellular component (competence factor) which enhances transfection is released into the culture medium during the transition period between the log and stationary phase of growth. Transfection is stimulated in the order of decreasing effectiveness, by Fe(3+), Mn(2+), and Mg(2+). The efficiency of transfection is the highest in cells growing at 60.5 C and does not occur in cells growing at 67 C although the cells are growing normally. A cellular component (competence factor) of this organism, which is released into the culture medium, advances by 40 min some step in the uptake of phage DNA. PMID:4934070

Streips, U N; Welker, N E



Factors affecting quality of informed consent  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine the factors influencing quality of informed consent. DESIGN--Prospective study comprising interviews with patients and patients' completing standard questionnaires. SETTING--Academic surgical unit of large teaching hospital. PATIENTS--265 patients undergoing intrathoracic, intraperitoneal, and vascular surgical procedures. Of these patients, 192 have been followed up for six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patients' recall of information at various points in the study; this

C Lavelle-Jones; D J Byrne; P Rice; A Cuschieri




EPA Science Inventory

Factors that influence the collection and measurement of atmospheric sulfate were investigated. Special emphasis was given to those factors that cause the formation of extraneous sulfate during the sampling process. The factors considered were filter type and composition, ambient...


Factors Affecting Resveratrol Content in Strawberries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study investigated the occurrence of resveratrol in Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and the effect of preharvest conditions on resveratrol content. Both cis- and trans- resveratrol were detected in strawberry achenes (seeds) and pulp (receptacle tissue). Resveratrol was identified by LC-MS. Resver...


Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on

T. A. A. Khalifa; C. A. Rekkas; A. G. Lymberopoulos; A. Sioga; I. Dimitriadis; Th. Papanikolaou



An investigation of positive affect, prosocial behaviors and service quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the relationships among service provider and customer positive affect, employee- and customer-directed prosocial behaviors, and sales-oriented behavior; three types of behavior commonly exhibited in the context of service delivery. In addition, employee and customer perceptions of service quality are considered. Three studies are presented. The principle findings indicate that employee positive affect is positively related to employee

K. Douglas Hoffman



Factors Affecting Crowded Acuity: Eccentricity and Contrast  

PubMed Central

Purpose Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with non-foveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. Methods Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from ?2.5% to ?99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3, 5 and 10 degrees in the inferior visual field. Results When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea, and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. Conclusions The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery due to the effects of crowding. PMID:23770657

Coates, Daniel R.; Chin, Jeremy M.; Chung, Susana T. L.



Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Tutorials: Factors Affecting Students' Preferences and Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to determine the factors that affect students' preferences regarding tutorial modes. A learning-habit inclinations questionnaire (LHIQ) was constructed and administered to 288 students. Factor analysis revealed four factors: "time management," "ease of access" to learning materials, "positive aspects of interaction," and "negative…

Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Saporta, Kelly; Caspi, Avner



Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Faculty-Doctoral Student Coauthorship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using faculty narratives, this study identifies factors affecting the occurrence of faculty-doctoral student coauthorship. Norms of the discipline, resources, faculty goals for students, faculty goals for themselves, and institutional expectations emerged as dominant factors. Each factor is explored separately and as part of an interlocking…

Maher, Michelle A.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Feldon, David F.; Strickland, Denise



Factors affecting seal life in downhole motors  

SciTech Connect

The life expectancy of rotary seals in downhole motors depends on temperature generated by sliding friction as well as ambient temperature. Heat transfer calculations show that sliding friction can produce a significant rise in temperature across seal assemblies, great enough to deteriorate the seal material and cause premature failure. Thermal conductivities of seal materials and thicknesses of shaft, sleeve, and housing are major design factors influencing steady state temperature profiles across seal assemblies. In general, smaller dimensions and higher thermal conductivities allow the friction generated heat to dissipate at a lower temperature. A parameter study led to an improved rotary seal configuration which will significantly lower peak seal temperatures in downhole motors. The design will channel drilling mud near the sliding friction surface for better dissipation of the friction generated heat. Plans are being made to incorporate this improvement into the bearing seal test assembly. It is doubtful that seals made of Buna-N will perform successfully on downhole motors, even when used in the improved design. On the other hand, calculated maximum temperatures are within material limitations of Grafoil.

Dareing, D.W.



Factors affecting the survival of Neisseria sicca.  


Cultures of Neisseria sicca incubated at 37 degrees C died rapidly (within 36 h) after growth ceased. Re-suspending cells in a brain heart infusion broth and storing at 4 degrees C greatly reduced the rate of decline in viability (decimal reduction time 6 days). An important factor in maintaining viability was apparently the presence of external energy source(s). Survival comparable to that in broth was obtained by incubation in Ringer's solution with pyruvate plus glucose (but not with pyruvate or glucose alone). Medium pH had little effect on survival in the range pH 7.0 to 8.5. Energy sources also promoted survival of cells in Ringer's solution or a buffered salts solution at 37 degrees C. Highest levels of survival (up to 30% at 24 h) were obtained with pyruvate, lactate, proline and glutamate. A number of other amino acids and the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, isocitrate, oxoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, malate and oxaloacetate, enhanced survival to a lesser extent. PMID:3374398

Fung, C; Glenister, D; Miles, R J; Nafi, B M



Factors Affecting Penetrating Captive Bolt Gun Performance.  


Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session. PMID:25415241

Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G



Factors affecting stress among Indian dental students.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived sources of stress and the role of parents in its etiology among dental students in a private dental school in India. A modified Dental Environment Stress (DES) Questionnaire was administered to 256 dental students. The main sources of stress were found to be fear of facing parents after failure, full loaded day, and fear of failing course or year. Students whose first choice of admission was dentistry experienced less stress than students whose first choice was another field. Also the students who joined dentistry due to parental pressure showed greater stress than those who joined of their own accord. Male students experienced greater stress than females. The results of this study indicate that a congenial environment needs to be created for dental education and parents also need to be counseled against forcing their children to join an educational program that is not of their choice. PMID:14587679

Acharya, Shashidhar



Investigating Factors Influencing Rates of Chemical Reactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a lab investigation in which students observe the rate of generation of hydrogen gas from a reaction, and then modify the procedure to compare another variable affecting the rate of this reaction.

Paula Derickson


Factors Affecting the Reactvity of Granular Iron in contact with Chlorinated Solvents  

E-print Network

This study investigates, at various scales, the factors that affect the reactivity of granular iron (GI) toward chlorinated solvents and link these scale-specific processes with each other. The Kinetic Iron Model (KIM), ...

Firdous, Rubina



Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

Hazlewood, Patrick Evan


The Factor Game (i-Math Investigations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online, interactive, multimedia math investigation. The Factor Game engages students in a friendly contest in which winning strategies involve distinguishing between numbers with many factors and numbers with few factors. Students are then guided through an analysis of game strategies and introduced to the definitions of prime and composite numbers.

Math Forum



Factors affecting knowledge management adoption of Taiwan small and medium-sized enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge Management (KM) has become a critical component for maintaining competitive advantages. Most existing research looks at individual industries or general concepts; few studies have investigated KM use in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). This research empirically investigates factors affecting the adoption of KM. Results indicate that important factors maturing of Information Technology (IT) applications, the complexity of management and

Ru-Ching Hsu; Diana Lawson; Ting-Peng Liang



Newly Diagnosed with High Blood Pressure? 3 Factors Affect Prognosis  


... please enable JavaScript. Newly Diagnosed With High Blood Pressure? 3 Factors Affect Prognosis Systolic reading of 150 ... 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Stroke THURSDAY, Feb. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Prompt ...


Digestibility as a factor affecting bioavailability of food proteins  

E-print Network

DIGESTIBILITY AS A FACTOR AFFECTING BIOAVAILABILITY OF FOOD PROTEINS A Thesis by DHANAKOTI PADMANABHAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1982 Majo~ Subject: Food Science and Technology DIGESTIBILITY AS A FACTOR AFFECTING BIOAVAILABILITY OF FOOD PROTEINS A Thesis by DHANAKOTI PADMANABHAN Approved as to the style and content by: (Chairman of ommittee) ( ad of Dep rtment...

Padmanabhan, Dhanakoti



Factors affecting hydrolysis of condensed phosphates in soils  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING HYDROLYSIS OF CONDENSED PHOSPHATES IV SOILS A Thesis by WILLIAM MICHEAL STEWART Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1983 Major Subject: Soil Science FACTORS AFFECTING HYDROLYSIS OF CONDENSED PHOSPHATES IN SOILS A Thesis by WILLIAM MICHEAL STEWART Approved as to style and content by: Frank M. Hone (Chairman of Committee) Lloyd R. Hossner (Member...

Stewart, William M.



Identification of factors affecting the palatability of goat meat  

E-print Network

Copyright by MERRITT IVAN PIKE 1975 IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Animal Science (Meat Science) IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PALATABILITY OF GOAT MEAT A Thesis by MERRITT IVAN PIKE Approved as to style and content by: Co- an of Committee Co...

Pike, Merritt Ivan



Factors affecting embryo donor performance in Brahman cows  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING EMBRYO DONOR PERFORMANCE IN BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by PEDRO SEGUNDO BASTIDAS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986... Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction FACTORS AFFECTING EMBRYO DONOR PERFORMANCE IN BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by PEDRO SEGUNDO BASTIDAS Approved as to style and content by: R. D. Randel (Chairman of Committee) P. G. Harms (Committee Member) D...

Bastidas, Pedro Segundo



An economic analysis of factors affecting the Texas potato market  

E-print Network

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE TEXAS POTATO MARKET A Thesis OLADIMAGI WINSOME ASGILL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OP FACTORS AFFECTING THE TEXAS POTATO MARKET A Thesis OLADIMAGI WINSOME ASGILL Approved as to style and content by: H. L. Goodwin (Chair of Committee) S. W. Fuller (Member...

Asgill, Oladimagi Winsome



Factors affecting attitudinal patterns toward education in the Dominican Republic  

E-print Network

FACTORS AF'FECTING ATTITUDINAL PATTERNS TOWARD EDUCATION IN THE DOHINICAN REPUBLIC A Thesi. s by EDWIN HUGH CARPENTER Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of NASTER OF SCIENCE August 1968 Major Sub)sot: Sociology FACTORS AFFECTING ATTITUDINAL PATTERNS TOWARD EDUCATION IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC A Thesis by EDWIN HUGH CARPENTER Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman gf Commit tee) (Head...

Carpenter, Edwin Hugh



Factors affecting food decisions made by individual consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food decisions made by individuals affect the healthfulness of their food intakes and influence the success or failure of food products in the consumer-oriented food marketplace of today. Because consumers develop their own systems of deciding what to eat and how to follow the Food Guide Pyramid, it is difficult to know which factors or combinations of factors that influence

Elaine H. Asp



Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better and the older = the better. However, more

Krishna K. Bista


Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

Bista, Krishna K.




EPA Science Inventory

Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...


Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.



Methods of Combinatorial Optimization to Reveal Factors Affecting Gene Length  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present a novel method for genome ranking according to gene lengths. The main outcomes described in this paper are the following: the formulation of the genome ranking problem, presentation of relevant approaches to solve it, and the demonstration of preliminary results from prokaryotic genomes ordering. Using a subset of prokaryotic genomes, we attempted to uncover factors affecting gene length. We have demonstrated that hyperthermophilic species have shorter genes as compared with mesophilic organisms, which probably means that environmental factors affect gene length. Moreover, these preliminary results show that environmental factors group together in ranking evolutionary distant species. PMID:23300345

Bolshoy, Alexander; Tatarinova, Tatiana



Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad



Factors Affecting Mortality in Elderly Patients Hospitalized for Nonmalignant Reasons  

PubMed Central

Elderly population is hospitalized more frequently than young people, and they suffer from more severe diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting mortality in elderly patients hospitalized for nonmalignant reasons. Demographic data, reason for hospitalization, comorbidities, duration of hospital stay, and results of routine blood testing at the time of first hospitalization were obtained from the hospital records of the patients, who were over 65 years of age and hospitalized primarily for nonmalignant reasons. The mean age of 1012 patients included in the study was 77.8 ± 7.6. The most common reason for hospitalization was diabetes mellitus (18.3%). Of the patients, 90.3% had at least a single comorbidity. Whilst 927 (91.6%) of the hospitalized patients were discharged, 85 (8.4%) died. Comparison of the characteristics of the discharged and dead groups revealed that the dead group was older and had higher rates of poor general status and comorbidity. Differences were observed between the discharged and dead groups in most of the laboratory parameters. Hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypopotassemia, hypernatremia, hyperuricemia, and high TSH level were the predictors of mortality. In order to meet the health necessities of the elderly population, it is necessary to well define the patient profiles and to identify the risk factors. PMID:25147737

Ayaz, Teslime; Rak?c?, Halil



Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.  


Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3 (-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3 (-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3 (-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M



Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils  

PubMed Central

Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3?) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3? addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3? and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M



The Factors Affecting Pain Pattern after Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated the factors that affect pain pattern after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Methods From June 2009 to October 2010, 210 patients underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair operations. Of them, 84 patients were enrolled as subjects of the present study. The evaluation of postoperative pain was conducted by visual analog scale (VAS) scores during postoperative outpatient interviews at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. The factors that were thought to affect postoperative pain were evaluated by dividing into three categories: preoperative, operative, and postoperative. Results Pain after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery showed a strictly decreasing pain pattern. In single analysis and multiple regression tests for factors influencing the strictly decreasing pain pattern, initial VAS and pain onset were shown to be statistically significant factors (p = 0.012, 0.012, 0.044 and 0.028, respectively). With regard to the factors influencing lower than average intensity pain pattern for each period, the stiffness of internal rotation at 3 months postoperatively was shown to be a statistically significant factor in single and multiple regression tests (p = 0.017 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions High initial VAS scores and the acute onset of pain affected the strictly decreasing postoperative pain pattern. Additionally, stiffness of internal rotation at postoperative 3 months affected the higher than average intensity pain pattern for each period after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:25436062

Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Dong-Gyun



Clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies in order to minimize perinatal complications. Methods A retrospective study involved 163 twin pregnancies delivered from January 2006 to September 2011 at Gachon University Gil Medical Center. These cases were divided into three groups based on the delivery timing: less than 32 weeks' gestation (group A), between 32 and 35+6 weeks' gestation (group B), and over 36 weeks' gestation (group C). Clinical factors including maternal age, parity, presence of premature uterine contraction, presence of premature rupture of membrane, white blood cell, high sensitive C-reactive protein level, cervical dilatation, maternal complication, chorionicity, twin specific complication, and perinatal complication were analyzed for each group. Results In group B, the timing of delivery was postponed for 14 days or more from the time of admission, and there were fewer numbers of babies with low Apgar score at birth compared with other groups. The frequency of uterine contraction (P<0.001), presence of premature rupture of membranes (P=0.017), dilatation of cervix (P<0.001), increased white blood cell and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels (P=0.002, P<0.001) were important clinical factors during decision making process of delivery timing in twin pregnancies. Twin specific fetal conditions, such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome and discordant growth (over 25% or more) were shown more frequently in group A. However, there were no significant statistical differences among three groups (P=0.06, P=0.14). Conclusion Proper management for preventing premature contraction and inflammation can be essential in twin pregnancies until 32 weeks' gestation, and may decrease maternal and perinatal complications. PMID:25469330

Lee, Chae Min; Yang, Sun Hye; Lee, Sun Pyo; Hwang, Byung Chul



Factors Affecting the Supply of Recent College Graduates in New England. Policy Brief 09-1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief investigates factors affecting New England's supply of recent college graduates and how those factors have changed over time, and suggests steps that states might take to expand this source of skilled labor. (Contains 3 figures.) [This brief summarizes analysis in NEPPC research report 08-1: "The Future of the Skilled Labor Force…

Sasser, Alicia



Affective factors and student achievement: a quantitative and qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The affective domain can be used to support the internalization of cognitive content and foster the development of curriculum and industry-related interests, attitudes, values, and practices. During a two-year period, using validated instruments, the authors measured student interest, value, effort, perceived competence, lack of pressure, student-peer belonging, and student-faculty belonging. Initial findings included a positive correlation between each affective factor

Leo F. Denton; Dawn McKinney



Factors affecting egg predation in Black-tailed Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In colonial seabirds, nesting density, egg-laying date and nest microhabitat affect the probability of eggs being taken by\\u000a avian predators. Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) are dominant predators of eggs of Black-tailed Gulls (Larus crassirostris). Factors affecting the probability of gulls allowing the crows to attack their nests or depredate their eggs and the probability\\u000a of eggs being taken were studied

Kentaro Kazama



Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within {+-} 3 cm{sup 3}, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

Yang, Cheng-Hsiu [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Divisions of Experimental Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Alex Tong-Long [Divisions of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chao-An, E-mail: [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)



Factors affecting quality and performance – a case study of Korean aircraft maintenance unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the Korean aviation system's reputation for aviation safety, in the case of military aircraft, there have been accidents involving jet fighters. As the results of investigations into the causes of the accidents revealed that maintenance errors made by mechanics contributed to some degree to the accidents, it is crucial to investigate factors affecting individual mechanic's maintenance errors and to

Heejun Park; Min Jung Kang; Seokhee Son



Factors affecting selection of information sources: a study of Ramkhamhaeng University Regional Campuses graduate students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional students succeed in their studies when they can easily access information through convenient sources. Therefore, the researcher will investigate factors affecting regional students' selection of information sources to meet their information needs, as well as investigate these regional students' satisfaction with Ramkhamhaeng University (RU) Regional Library Services and their satisfaction with the perceived quality of information retrieved from other

Peemasak Angchun; Philip Turner; Lin Lin; Daniel Alemneh



[Additional administration of dutasteride in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who did not respond sufficiently to ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist : investigation of clinical factors affecting the therapeutic effect of dutasteride].  


We performed additional administration of dutasteride in patients who did not respond sufficiently to ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (LUTS/BPH). Among 76 registered patients, efficacy was analyzed in 58 patients. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), subscores for voiding and storage symptoms and quality of life (QOL) on the IPSS, and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) were all significantly improved from the third month of administration compared to the time of initiating additional administration of dutasteride. Additional administration of dutasteride also significantly reduced prostate volume, and residual urine with the exception of the sixth month after administration. Age at initiation of administration and voiding symptom subscore on the IPSS were clinical factors affecting the therapeutic effects of dutasteride. The rate of improvement with treatment decreased with increasing age at initiation of dutasteride administration, and increased as voiding symptom subscore on the IPSS increased. Therefore, additional administration of dutasteride appears useful for cases of LUTS/BPH in which a sufficient response is not achieved with ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment. Because patients who have severe voiding symptoms or begin dutasteride at an early age may be expected to respond particularly well to dutasteride in terms of clinical efficacy, they were considered to be suitable targets for additional administration. PMID:24755815

Masuda, Mitsunobu; Murai, Tetsuo; Osada, Yutaka; Kawai, Masaki; Kasuga, Jun; Yokomizo, Yumiko; Kuroda, Shinnosuke; Nakamura, Mami; Noguchi, Go



Factors Affecting Thermodynamic Stabilities of RNA 3 3 Internal Loops  

E-print Network

(Molecular Simulations Inc.). #12;3 Table S1. Thermodynamic Parameters for Single Strand Duplex Formation -H line are the thermodynamics from average of melt curve fits. #12;5 Table S2. Phylogenetic analysis1 Factors Affecting Thermodynamic Stabilities of RNA 3 Ã? 3 Internal Loops Gang Chen, Brent M

Chen, Gang


Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda


A study of the factors affecting the range of airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of the most important factors affecting the range of airplanes. Numerical examples are given showing the effects of different variables on the range of a two-engine airplane. The takeoff problems of long-range airplanes are analyzed.

Biermann, David



Factors Affecting Use of Environmental Services by the Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to function independently in the later years has been defined as a combination of capability and support. To examine factors affecting older adults' use of services provided in an accommodating environment, 52 physically independent residents of an Arizona apartment complex for the elderly were surveyed. Time spent living in the…

Hartwigsen, Gail


Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth



Multivariate Analysis of Factors Affecting Pulmonary Function in Bronchiectasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired pulmonary function is of prognostic importance in bronchiectasis. To assess the factors affecting pulmonary function in bronchiectasis, we studied the clinical features, atopic status, bronchial responsiveness, systemic inflammatory indices, and sputum characteristics including volume, purulence, leucocyte count, neutrophil chemotactic activity, elastolytic activity (EA) and bacteriology in 82 Chinese patients. The majority of patients had impaired spirometry with airflow obstruction

Mary Ip; I. J. Lauder; W. Y. Wong; W. K. Lam; S. Y. So



Factors Affecting Soil Microbial Community Structure in Tomato Cropping Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. We identified some of the most important factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure in an agroecosystem utilizing tomato plants with the following nine tre...


ILLINOIS -RAILROAD ENGINEERING A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Affecting  

E-print Network

Slide 1 ILLINOIS - RAILROAD ENGINEERING A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Affecting Broken Rails Darwin H. Schafer II & Christopher P.L. Barkan May 9th, 2008 The William W. Hay Railroad Engineering Seminar Series University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign #12;Slide 2 ILLINOIS - RAILROAD ENGINEERING

Barkan, Christopher P.L.


The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David



Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…

Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul



Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell



Factors affecting butterfly use of filter strips in Midwestern USA  

E-print Network

Factors affecting butterfly use of filter strips in Midwestern USA Kathleen F. Reeder, Diane M between agricultural fields and streams. In 2002 and 2003, the butterfly community in filter strips butterfly abundance and diversity and measured vegetative variables in conjunction with each butterfly

Debinski, Diane M.


Industry Training: The Factors that Affect Demand. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in Australia, to determine the factors that affect demand for job training. The study consisted of 30 detailed industry case studies, an industry analysis, and a literature review. Each case study examined current training practices, training decision making in the business, and the determinants of training for the…

Smith, A.; Roberts, P.; Noble, C.; Hayton, G.; Thorne, E.


Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors  


... the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This type of intervention—maintaining a substantial percent reduction in caloric intake—has been shown to ... such an intervention on human aging are not yet known. The study, part ...


Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem



Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini



Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.



Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

Myers, Stephanie E.




Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting survival of young from birth to weaning (7 too) in alpacas (Lama pacos) were evaluated in data collected at the Estacion Experimental de Camelidos Sudamericanos La Raya in the Altiplano region of Peru. Age of dam effects on survival rate were curvilinear; survival rate increased from approximately 78% for offspring of 3-yr-old dams to about 91% for those

A. V. Bustinza; P. J. Burfening; R. L. Blackwell


Factors Affecting Children's Math Achievement Scores in Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation contains three independently conducted studies on factors that affect the math achievement scores of preschool-aged children. The first study examined the associations between children's executive-functioning (EF) and math achievement scores at 54 months of age. Results suggest that EF is strongly associated with children's…

Kilday, Carolyn R.



Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics…

Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas



Factors affecting the protein quality of pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeonpea occupies an important place in human nutrition as a source of dietary proteins in several countries. Some of the important factors that affect the protein quality of pigeonpea have been reviewed and summarised in this paper. Among important food legumes, pigeonpea contained the lowest amount of limiting sulphur amino acids, methionine and cystine implicating the importance of these amino

U. SINGtt; B. O. Eggum



Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors that affect

Yong Zhao; Kenneth A. Frank



Some factors affecting the formation of furan in heated foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of furan in various foods were measured before and after heating under heating and laboratory conditions. The effect of contact with can coatings, sealing gaskets and the epoxidized oils used in gasket manufacture on furan formation was studied. The objective was to identify factors affecting furan formation. Furan present in heat-processed food samples persisted during cooking. Furan was shown

S. Hasnip; C. Crews; L. Castle



Factors affecting infection of citrus with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) causes citrus canker and is now considered endemic in Florida. Factors affecting dispersal and infection of the bacteria need to be understood to help optimize disease management strategies. Wind (0-18 m/sec) was simulated outdoors using a fan to study infection...



E-print Network

153 FACTORS AFFECTING SECONDARY KILL OF THE GERMAN COCKROACH (DICTYOPTERA: BLATTELLIDAE) BY GEL of Forestry, Nanning, Guangxi 530022, China Abstract Secondary kill of the German cockroach, Blattella of four cockroach gel baits against various developmental stages of a laboratory (Jwax) and a field (Dorie

Wang, Changlu


Mothers, Fathers, Families, and Circumstances: Factors Affecting Children's Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burgeoning empirical literature exploring the factors accounting for individual differences in psychological adjustment is reviewed. Many studies have shown that adjustment is largely affected by differences in the quality of parenting and parent–child relationships, the quality of the relationships between the parents, and the richness of the economic and social resources available to the family; more recent research signals

Michael E. Lamb



Organizational and Cultural Factors Affecting International Transfer of Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the results of a study of a global company that examined the effect of training design and work environment on the transfer of human resources development training. Presents a model of international transfer of training and discusses organizational factors and cultural differences that affected the transfer of training. (LRW)

Lim, Doo H.




Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for ATM services, by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The results indicate that graduated and employed male customers who belong from higher income groups and having a bank account preferably in public sector

Shariq Mohammed



Adolescent readers' self-perceptions of affective factors related to performance on standardized tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate which affective factors of adolescent high school readers were related to high-level readers, middle-level readers and low-level readers. The research problem was to determine the relationship between adolescent high school students' self-perceived reading self-efficacy factors and the students' reading performance on a standardized reading assessment considering demographic factors of age, gender and

Lynn Yribarren



Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian



Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health  

PubMed Central

The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.



Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue  

PubMed Central

Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves



Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

SciTech Connect

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy



Factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations in yellow-bellied marmots.  


1. Bound and total corticosteroid concentrations of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were lowest in May after emergence from hibernation and peaked in August prior to immergence. 2. Total corticosteroids were affected by age but not by sex or reproductive status. 3. There was no consistent relationship between measures of population density and concentrations of corticosteroids; when a significant relationship occurred, only 22-34% of the variation was explained. 4. Social status and social behavior were the major factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations. PMID:1673377

Armitage, K B



Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article)  

PubMed Central

Objectives To discuss the effect of certain factors on the occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs). Data Sources A systematic review of the literature in the period between 1991 and 2012 was made based on PubMed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE and IDIS. Key words used were: medication error, adverse drug reaction, iatrogenic disease factors, ambulatory care, primary health care, side effects and treatment hazards. Summary Many factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of ADRs, some of these are patient related, drug related or socially related factors. Age for instance has a very critical impact on the occurrence of ADRs, both very young and very old patients are more vulnerable to these reactions than other age groups. Alcohol intake also has a crucial impact on ADRs. Other factors are gender, race, pregnancy, breast feeding, kidney problems, liver function, drug dose and frequency and many other factors. The effect of these factors on ADRs is well documented in the medical literature. Taking these factors into consideration during medical evaluation enables medical practitioners to choose the best drug regimen. Conclusion Many factors affect the occurrence of ADRs. Some of these factors can be changed like smoking or alcohol intake others cannot be changed like age, presence of other diseases or genetic factors. Understanding the different effects of these factors on ADRs enables healthcare professionals to choose the most appropriate medication for that particular patient. It also helps the healthcare professionals to give the best advice to patients. Pharmacogenomics is the most recent science which emphasizes the genetic predisposition of ADRs. This innovative science provides a new perspective in dealing with the decision making process of drug selection. PMID:24648818

Alomar, Muaed Jamal



Factors Affecting Physician Performance: Implications for Performance Improvement and Governance  

PubMed Central

Background: A physician's personal and professional characteristics constitute only one, and not necessarily the most important, determining factor of clinical performance. Our study assessed how physician, organizational and systemic factors affect family physicians' performance. Method: Our study examined 532 family practitioners who were randomly selected for peer assessment by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. A series of multivariate regression analyses examined the impact of physician factors (e.g., demographics, certification) on performance scores in five clinical areas: acute care, chronic conditions, continuity of care and referrals, well care and records. A second series of regressions examined the simultaneous effects of physician, organizational (e.g., practice volume, hours worked, solo practice) and systemic factors (e.g., northern practice location, community size, physician-to-population ratio). Results: Our study had three key findings: (a) physician factors significantly influence performance but do not appear to be nearly as important as previously thought; (b) organizational and systemic factors have significant effects on performance after the effects of physician factors are controlled; and (c) physician, organizational and systemic factors have varying effects across different dimensions of clinical performance. Conclusions: We discuss the implications of our results for performance improvement and physician governance insofar as both need to consider the broader environmental context of medical practice. PMID:21037818

Wenghofer, Elizabeth F.; Williams, A. Paul; Klass, Daniel J.



Factors Affecting Perceptual Threshold in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Subjects  

PubMed Central

Purpose The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis has been developed to provide partial restoration of vision to subjects blinded from outer retinal degenerative disease. Participants were surgically implanted with the system in the United States and Europe in a single arm, prospective, multicenter clinical trial. The purpose of this investigation was to determine which factors affect electrical thresholds in order to inform surgical placement of the device. Methods Electrode–retina and electrode–fovea distances were determined using SD-OCT and fundus photography, respectively. Perceptual threshold to electrical stimulation of electrodes was measured using custom developed software, in which current amplitude was varied until the threshold was found. Full field stimulus light threshold was measured using the Espion D-FST test. Relationships between electrical threshold and these three explanatory variables (electrode–retina distance, electrode–fovea distance, and monocular light threshold) were quantified using regression. Results Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between electrical threshold and electrode–retina distance (R2 = 0.50, P = 0.0002; n = 703 electrodes). 90.3% of electrodes in contact with the macula (n = 207) elicited percepts at charge densities less than 1 mC/cm2/phase. These threshold data also correlated well with ganglion cell density profile (P = 0.03). A weaker, but still significant, inverse correlation was found between light threshold and electrical threshold (R2 < 0.52, P = 0.01). Multivariate modeling indicated that electrode–retina distance and light threshold are highly predictive of electrode threshold (R2 = 0.87; P < 0.0005). Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that while light threshold should be used to inform patient selection, macular contact of the array is paramount. Translational Relevance Reported Argus II clinical study results are in good agreement with prior in vitro and in vivo studies, and support the development of higher-density systems that employ smaller diameter electrodes. ( identifier: NCT00407602) PMID:24049718

Ahuja, A. K.; Yeoh, J.; Dorn, J. D.; Caspi, A.; Wuyyuru, V.; McMahon, M. J.; Humayun, M. S.; Greenberg, R. J.; daCruz, L.



Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.  


This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F



Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))



The Fibroblast Growth Factor Family: Neuromodulation of Affective Behavior  

PubMed Central

In this review we propose a broader view of the role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in modulating brain function. We suggest that some of the FGF ligands together with the FGF receptors are altered in individuals with affective disorder and modulate emotionality in animal models. Thus, we propose that members of the FGF family may be genetic predisposing factors for anxiety, depression or substance abuse; that they play a key organizing role during early development but continue to play a central role in neuroplasticity in adulthood; and that they work not only over extended time frames, but also via rapid signaling mechanisms, allowing them to exert an “on-line” influence on behavior. Therefore, the FGF family appears to be a prototype of “switch genes” that are endowed with organizational and modulatory properties across the lifespan, and that may represent molecular candidates as biomarkers and treatment targets for affective and addictive disorders. PMID:23040813

Turner, Cortney A.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda



Factors affecting the noise from small propeller driven aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors affecting noise from small propeller driven airplanes are reviewed to quantify their affects where possible, and to indicate the potential for noise reduction. The main sources of external noise are noted to be the propellers and engines; the airframe being of less importance for both aural detection and community annoyance. Propeller noise is a strong function of tip speed and is affected adversely by nonuniform inflows. Reciprocating engine exhausts are noisier than those of comparably rated turboshaft engines, but their noise can be reduced by the use of flight certified exhaust mufflers. Presently, there are no generally accepted engineering methods for development of optimized propellers and exhaust muffler designs from weight and performance penalty standpoints. Flight demonstration results, however, suggest that required noise reductions for future certification should be possible with potentially small penalties.

Maglieri, D. J.; Hubbard, H. H.



Analysis of factors affecting the choice of route of pedestrians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedestrians as compared to vehicular traffic enjoy a high degree freedom of movement even in heavily congested areas. Consequently, there are more alternative links available to pedestrians between a given origin?destination (O?D) pair. This paper describes a study done by the University of Calgary to evaluate the factors affecting the choice of route on intra?CBD trips or trips within the

P. N. Seneviratne; J. F. Morrall



Utility & Regulatory Factors Affecting Cogeneration & Independent Power Plant Design & Operation  

E-print Network

UTILITY & REGULATORY FACTORS AFFECTiNG COGENERATION & INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT DESIGN & OPERATION Richard P. Felak General Electric Company Schenectady, New York ABSTRACT In specifying a cogeneration or independent power plant, the owner... should be especially aware of the influences which electric utilities and regulatory bodies will have on key parameters such as size, efficiency, design. reliability/ availabilitY, operating capabilities and modes, etc. This paper will note examples...

Felak, R. P.


Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects  

SciTech Connect

An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.



Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.


Factors affecting the strength of alkali-activated slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of several factors on the strength of alkali activated slags has been investigated. The most important factors were found to be: the type of alkaline activator, the means of adding activator, the dosage of alkali, the type and fineness of slag, SiO[sub 2]\\/Na[sub 2]O ratio (modulus, Ms) when using waterglass solution, curing temperature, liquid\\/slag or water\\/slag ratio and

S. D. Wang; K. L. Scrivener; P. L. Pratt



Factors Affecting Perceived Stigma in Leprosy Affected Persons in Western Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background There are various factors which construct the perception of stigma in both leprosy affected persons and unaffected persons. The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of perceived stigma and the risk factors contributing to it among leprosy affected person attending the Green Pastures Hospital, Pokhara municipality of western Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 people affected by leprosy at Green Pastures Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre. Persons above the age of 18 were interviewed using a set of questionnaire form and Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). In addition, two sets of focused group discussions each containing 10 participants from the ward were conducted with the objectives of answering the frequently affected EMIC items. Results Among 135 leprosy affected persons, the median score of perceived stigma was 10 while it ranged from 0–34. Higher perceived stigma score was found in illiterate persons (p?=?0.008), participants whose incomes were self-described as inadequate (p?=?0.014) and who had changed their occupation due to leprosy (p?=?0.018). Patients who lacked information on leprosy (p?=?0.025), knowledge about the causes (p?=?0.02) and transmission of leprosy (p?=?0.046) and those who had perception that leprosy is a severe disease (p<0.001) and is difficult to treat (p<0.001) had higher perceived stigma score. Participants with disfigurement or deformities (p?=?0.014), ulcers (p?=?0.022) and odorous ulcers (p?=?0.043) had higher perceived stigma score. Conclusion The factors associated with higher stigma were illiteracy, perceived economical inadequacy, change of occupation due to leprosy, lack of knowledge about leprosy, perception of leprosy as a severe disease and difficult to treat. Similarly, visible deformities and ulcers were associated with higher stigma. There is an urgent need of stigma reduction strategies focused on health education and health awareness programs in addition to the necessary rehabilitation support. PMID:24901307

Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Chapman, Robert S.; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul



Factors affecting Thai workers' use of hearing protection.  


This study used an ecological model to examine Thai workers' beliefs and attitudes toward using occupational hearing protection. Data collection involved focus group sessions with 28 noise-exposed workers at four factories in Chiang Mai Province and an interview with a safety officer at each organization. Detailed content analysis resulted in the identification of three types of factors influencing the use of hearing protection: intrapersonal, including preventing impaired hearing, noise annoyance, personal discomfort, and interference with communication; interpersonal, including coworker modeling, supervisor support, and supervisor modeling; and organizational, including organizational rules and regulations, provision of hearing protection devices, dissemination of knowledge and information, noise monitoring, and hearing testing. Effective hearing protection programs depend on knowledge of all of these factors. Strategies to promote workers' use of hearing protection should include the complete range of factors having the potential to affect workers' hearing. PMID:19873942

Tantranont, Kunlayanee; Srisuphan, Wichit; Kaewthummanukul, Thanee; Suthakorn, Weeraporn; Jormsri, Pantip; Salazar, Mary K



Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Methods: Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. Results: A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients. PMID:23168702

Mahesh, P.A.; Archana, S.; Jayaraj, B.S.; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S.K.; Shashidhar, H.P.; Sunitha, B.S.; Prabhakar, A.K.



Factors Affecting Applications to Oxford and Cambridge--Repeat Survey. Executive Summary with Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research follows up a study conducted in 1998 by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to investigate teachers' and students' views on the factors affecting students' choices of whether or not to apply to Oxford and Cambridge universities. It identifies what has changed since 1998 and areas in which the universities could…

Ridley, Kate; White, Kerensa; Styles, Ben; Morrison, Jo



Personal and Situational Factors Affecting Exercise Involvement: The Importance of Enjoyment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews were conducted with participants and dropouts of a male employee fitness program in order to investigate factors affecting involvement. A combination of items pertaining to reactions to the program, initial goals for joining, and social support for the program could effectively discriminate between participants and dropouts. (Author/MT)

Wankel, Leonard M.



Who Should Mark What? A Study of Factors Affecting Marking Accuracy in a Biology Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accurate marking is crucial to the reliability and validity of public examinations, in England and internationally. Factors contributing to accuracy have been conceptualised as affecting either marking task demands or markers' personal expertise. The aim of this empirical study was to develop this conceptualisation through investigating the…

Suto, Irenka; Nadas, Rita; Bell, John



Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret ( Mustela putorius furo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous

Ziyi Li; Xingshen Sun; Juan Chen; Gregory H. Leno; John F. Engelhardt



Frontline employees' views on organizational factors that affect the delivery of service quality in call centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to report on a study that investigated employees' views on the organizational factors that affect their ability to deliver service quality to customers. The study is important because call centers represent unique work environments and they have not been used in the development of service quality theory. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Ten focus groups of frontline employees

Alison M. Dean; Al Rainnie



Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…

Alawneh, Muhammad K.



Factors Affecting Accent Acquisition: The Case of Russian Immigrants in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A debate centers on whether the native accent is acquired early in life or whether it can be acquired at any time. This study investigated factors that may affect native accent acquisition in a second language. Participants in this study were 50 Russians who immigrated to Israel, 17 males and 33 females. Their age on arrival was 5 to 25 years.…

Abu-Rabia, Salim; Iliyan, Salman




Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates communication factors affecting the adoption of innovation at the grassroots level in Ogun State. Two hundred farmers and twenty-five extension agents were selected using a multi - stage sampling technique, and were interviewed for the purpose of the study. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The study revealed that the majority of

A. S. Onasanya; S. F. Adedoyin; O. A. Onasanya


Factors Affecting the Happiness of Urban Elementary School Students: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this transformative mixed methods study was to examine the school happiness of upper elementary students in three Connecticut urban demonstration schools. The study examined the differences in students' happiness based on ethnicity, gender, and their interaction. It also investigated the factors that affect students' happiness in…

Tenney, Jodiann K.



Student and School Factors Affecting Mathematics Achievement: International Comparisons between Korea, Japan and the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to comparatively investigate student- and school-level factors affecting mathematics achievement of Korean, Japanese and American students. For international comparisons, the PISA 2003 data were analysed by using the Hierarchical Linear Modeling method. The variables of competitive-learning preference, instrumental…

Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Yongnam



Factors Affecting Student Participation in the Online Learning Environment at the Open University of Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate the factors that affect students' participation in the online learning environment (OLE) for distance learning students of mathematics at the Open Learning University of Hong Kong (OUHK) and to find out the suggestions that can improve students' use of the OLE. A questionnaire was designed to survey to…

Chan, May Sok Ching; Waugh, Russell



Sociocultural and Motivational Factors Affecting Asian American Females Studying Physics and Engineering in High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study investigated whether and to what extent the motivational and sociocultural factors affect female Asian American high school physics students' achievement, their intended major in college, and their planned career goals at work fields. A survey of 62 questions, extracted from subscales of AAMAS,STPQ and PSE, were…

Sha, Saliha L.



Multi-scale factors affecting bird use of isolated remnant oak trees in agro-ecosystems  

E-print Network

Multi-scale factors affecting bird use of isolated remnant oak trees in agro-ecosystems Craig A. De to increase biological diversity in agro-eco- systems. We investigated how remnant Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana) trees contribute to conserv- ing bird diversity in the agro-ecosystem of the Willamette Valley

Rosenberg, Daniel K.


A study of the main factors affecting Ni–MH battery activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in capacity, plateau voltage and internal resistance during the activation process of Ni–MH batteries were investigated. The result shows that the amount of electrolyte, the temperature, aging time and the charge–discharge regime are the main factors affecting the activation of Ni–MH batteries. A method for activating Ni–MH batteries is suggested.

C. Z Yu; G. J Yan; W. H Lai; Q. H Dong



Factors Affecting the Motivation of Turkish Primary Students for Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, Turkish primary students' (sixth to eighth grade) motivation toward science learning was investigated and factors affecting this determined. The sample for the study consisted of 376 students from 5 different primary schools in Izmir. The data were collected through a Students' Motivation toward Science Learning (SMTSL)…

Cavas, Pinar



Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in humans and factors affecting endogenous production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endogenous nature of the drug of abuse gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has caused various interpretative problems for toxicologists. In order to obtain data for the presence of endogenous GHB in humans and to investigate any factors that may affect this, a volunteer study was undertaken. The GHB concentrations in 119 urine specimens from GHB-free subjects and 25 urine specimens

Simon P Elliott



Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John



Multifactorial analysis of factors affecting recurrence of stroke in Japan.  


Data on factors affecting stroke recurrence are relatively limited. The authors examined potential factors affecting stroke recurrence, retrospectively. The study participants were 1087 patients who were admitted to stroke centers suffering from first-ever ischemic stroke and returned questionnaires with usable information after discharge. The authors analyzed the association between clinical parameters of the patients and their prognosis. Recurrence rate of during an average of 2 years after discharge was 21.3%, and there were differences among stroke subtypes. It was found that the disability level of the patients after discharge correlated well with the level at discharge (r s = 0.66). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the data shows that modified Rankin Scale score, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, gender, age, and family history had statistically significant impacts on stroke recurrence, and the impact was different depending on subtypes. These findings suggest that aggressive and persistent health education for poststroke patients and management of risk factors are essential to reduce stroke recurrence. PMID:22500031

Omori, Toyonori; Kawagoe, Masahiro; Moriyama, Michiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Hyakuta, Takeshi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Masayasu



Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)



Cognitive-behavioral factors in seasonal affective disorder.  


To longitudinally examine cognitive-behavioral correlates of seasonal affective disorder (SAD), the authors assessed women with a history of SAD and nondepressed, matched controls across fall, winter, and summer. SAD history participants reported more automatic negative thoughts throughout the year than controls and demonstrated a progression from decreased activity enjoyment during fall to reduced activity frequency during winter. Ruminative response style, measured in fall, predicted symptom severity during the winter. Across assessments, SAD history women endorsed greater depressive affect in response to low light intensity stimuli than to bright or ambiguous intensity stimuli, but less depressed mood to bright light stimuli than controls. These results suggest that the cognitive-behavioral factors related to nonseasonal depression may play a role in SAD. PMID:12602422

Rohan, Kelly J; Sigmon, Sandra T; Dorhofer, Diana M



Factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics by microfocus radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) were investigated. Reliability of void detection in silicon nitride and silicon carbide by microfocus X-rays was affected by photon energy level, material chemistry in the immediate vicinity of the void, and the presence of loose powder aggregates inside the void cavity. The sensitivity of SLAM to voids was affected by material microstructure, the level of porosity, and the condition of the specimen surfaces. Statistical results are presented in the form of probability of detection as a function of void diameter for green compacts and sintered materials.

Klima, S. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.; Roth, D. J.



Calcite and Picocyanobacteria in Lakes: Factors Affecting Their Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcites build large deposits which have been observed in the rock record throughout geological time at various localities around the globe. Carbonate deposits have affected atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. As it has been generally accepted, inorganic precipitation represents a source of carbon dioxide on short geological time scales and a sink of inorganic carbon at long time scales from millions to thousands of millions years. However, recent research indicates that calcite deposits may result from microbial calcification instead of inorganic precipitation. In this case the process may reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide on geologically short time scales. Thus the effect of carbonate sediment deposition on global carbon cycling depends on the origin of carbonate. Thus it is essential to understand the cause and the key parameters affecting calcite precipitation. The role of algae and bacteria in calcite formation in lakes has not been evaluated in detail. Some evidence, however, exists supporting precipitation of calcium carbonate by microbes as the origin of whiting. Several field studies on lakes have also produced puzzling results: The peaks of algal blooms were often not found at the same time as precipitation events of calcite. We suspect that parts of the discrepancies in the interpretation of field observations are due to the activity of autotrophic picoplankton. The unicellular autotrophic picoplankton (APP) is a ubiquitous component of pelagic ecosystems. But it has often been overlooked due to its small cell size of 0.2 - 2 ? m in diameter. Coccoid picocyanobacteria of the Synechococcus-type dominate the picoplankton community in most oligotrophic systems. Recently, laboratory experiments and field observations suggested that APP may play an important role in calcite precipitation. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of environmental factors such as saturation state, concentration of different dissolved ions and characteristics of the surface of cells on interaction between calcite and picocyanobacteria under both laboratory and field conditions. Laboratory experiments were performed with a picocyanobacteria strain Synechococcus-type. Using ion selective electrodes we monitored calcite precipitation induced by bacteria in the solutions of a different composition (calcium 0.7 - 48 mM, inorganic carbonate 6 - 35 ? M). Electron and atomic force microscopy measurements provided insight into the cell-mineral interface. Furthermore, quantitative investigations of the types and densities of proton binding sites on a bacterial surface will be reported from the acid-base titrations on bacteria. Results of these initial experiments are encouraging and demonstrate by direct measurements the potential of picocyanobacteria to precipitate calcite. The amount of the precipitated calcite varied in experiments with a different ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon and calcium. The microscopic observations provide some evidence that the cell walls of cyanobacteria act as a substrate of nucleation of calcite. Temporal and spatial correlations of cyanobacteria and calcite, as well as images of bacterial shape particles indicated that picoplankton plays an important role in calcite precipitation in Lake Lucerne. This class of phytoplankton has to be considered in studying the biogeochemical cycling of oligotrophic hardwater lakes.

Dittrich, M.; Obst, M.; Mavrocordatos, D.



The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities within local school districts, the use of formal and informal professional development, and the needs of rural science teachers compared to urban and suburban teachers.

Roux, Judi Ann


Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn



Factors Affecting the Extrusion Rate of Ventilation Tubes  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the various factors that affect the extrusion rate of ventilation tubes (VTs), including the nature of the middle ear effusion. Methods A retrospective chart review of 82 pediatric patients (177 ears) who received VT insertion surgery under general anesthesia was carried out to evaluate the relationship between various factors and the VT extrusion rate. The factors we analyzed included age, gender, the adenoid size, the amount and content of the middle ear effusion after myringotomy, bleeding events, associated adenoidectomy and the findings of the tympanic membrane status, the tympanometry and the audiometry of the air bone gap. Results The mean extrusion time was 254 days (range, 11 to 809 days). The patients with no history of previous VT insertion had a longer extrusion time (mean, 279 days) than did the patients who had undergone previous VT insertion (mean, 203 days). The patients with serous effusion had the shortest extrusion time (mean, 190 days) as compared to those patients with glue (273 days) and pus (295 days) effusions. Other factors had no statistical significant relationship with the extrusion time. Conclusion The mean VT extrusion time was 254 days. The VT extrusion time was significantly related to the characteristics of the middle ear effusion and a history of previous VT insertion. Thus, the nature of middle ear effusion can provide a clinical clue to predict the VT extrusion time. PMID:20607075

Song, Chang Myeon; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Jun Ho



A Review of Factors Affecting Vaccine Preventable Disease in Japan  

PubMed Central

Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded “routine” (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay “voluntary” groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

Ching, Michael SL



Factors affecting sequestration and bioavailability of phenanthrene in soils  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to determine factors affecting the sequestration and changes in bioavailability as phenanthrene persists in soils. Phenanthrene became sequestered in seven soils differing appreciably in organic matter and clay content as measured by earthworm uptake, bacterial mineralization, or extractability. Phenanthrene also became sequestered as it aged in soil aggregates of various sizes as measured by decline in availability to a bacterium, a mild extractant, or both. Wetting and drying a soil during aging reduced the amount of phenanthrene recovered by a mild extractant and the rate and extent of bacterial mineralization of the hydrocarbon. After biodegradation of phenanthrene added to the soil, more of the compound remained if it had been aged than if it had not been aged. Wetting and drying the soil during aging further increased the amount of phenanthrene remaining after biodegradation. The rate and extent of bacterial mineralization of phenanthrene were less in leached than in unleached soil. Aging/sequestration is thus markedly affected by soil properties and environmental factors.

White, J.C.; Kelsey, J.W.; Hatzinger, P.B.; Alexander, M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)



Factors affecting airborne monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon uptake by plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three factors influencing foliar uptake of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) in situ were investigated. The first factor, the plant species, was found to determine absorption pattern and concentrations. Secondly, time variation studies showed that response of leaf concentrations to small changes in air concentrations only occurs after several days or weeks, whereas adaptation to a much higher level of air pollution takes several months. Thirdly, MAH leaf concentrations were observed to be dependent on mean air pollution at the sampling site. Bioconcentration factors BCF vs (g m -3 of wet leaf/g m -3 of air) for MAHs in Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco leaves were determined to range from 2.7 × 10 4 to 4.7 × 10 5.

Keymeulen, Regine; Schamp, Niceas; Van Langenhove, Herman


Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.  


Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations. PMID:23593131

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang



Overview of the Factors Affecting the Power Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We investigate differences in power between application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and custom integrated circuits,\\u000a with examples from 0.6um to 0.13um CMOS. A variety of factors cause synthesizable designs to consume 3 to 7× more power. We\\u000a discuss the shortcomings of typical synthesis flows, and changes to tools and standard cell libraries needed to reduce power.\\u000a Using these methods, we believe

David Chinnery; Kurt Keutzer


What Are Some Factors That Affect Seasonal Patterns?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to have students use GLOBE data and graphing tools to compare the influence of latitude, elevation, and geography on seasonal patterns. Students analyze the graph of the past year's maximum and minimum temperatures at their site. They compare this graph to similar graphs for two other sites and list which factors that might cause the patterns to be different and investigate one in depth.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)



Factors affecting media agenda-setting: An exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors which might serve as obstacles to the agenda-setting process of the news media are examined. Data were examined from an investigation in which seven of 60 tests involving two media (the New York Times and CBS Evening News) did not produce agenda-setting effects. Post hoc examinations of die conditions under which these non-significant tests occurred suggest five categories for

Wayne Wanta; Mahmoud Mahmoud



Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America  

SciTech Connect

The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

Hill, L.J.



Study of factors affecting the appearance of colors under microscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.

Zakizadeh, Roshanak; Martinez-Garcia, Juan; Raja, Kiran B.; Siakidis, Christos



Environmental Factors Affecting Indole Production in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole as an intracellular signal in microbial communities. Biosynthesis of indole is well-studied, and while carbon sources and amino acids are important environmental cues for indole production in Escherichia coli, other environmental factors affecting indole production for this strain are less clear. This study demonstrates that the environmental cue pH is an important factor for indole production that further controls biofilm formation of E. coli. Moreover, E. coli produced a higher level of extracellular indole in the presence of the antibiotics ampicillin and kanamycin, and the increased indole enhanced cell survival during antibiotic stress. Additionally, we found here that temperature is another important factor for indole production; E. coli produces and accumulates a large amount of indole at 50°C, even at low cell densities. Overall, our results suggest that indole is a stable biological compound, and E. coli may utilize indole to protect itself against other microorganisms. PMID:21145393

Han, Thi Hiep; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Wood, Thomas K.; Lee, Jintae



Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.



Socioemotional factors in child sexual abuse investigations.  


Two socioemotional factors were explored in association with children's production of forensic information during sexual abuse investigations: rapport building and interviewer's support. The study tested to what extent (a) the length and questioning style in the rapport-building session and (b) the level of support interviewers provided to the children, were associated with the amount of forensic details children provided in their investigation. These associations were explored for more talkative and less talkative children as well as for children of two age groups (4-6 and 7-9 years). A total of 71 forensic interviews of alleged victims of child sexual abuse were subject to a detailed psycholinguistic analysis. Results suggest that richer information in the child's responses is associated with a short and open style rapport-building session as well as with a higher level of interviewer's support. This association is especially marked for less talkative children who might be in special need of support and for whom the rapport with the interviewer might be more meaningful. PMID:19047478

Hershkowitz, Irit



Factors affecting the measurement of fatigue crack stress intensity factors using photoelastic coatings  

SciTech Connect

Photoelastic procedures to determine the stress intensity factors at the tip of a fatigue crack during dynamic and cyclic loading are described. To illustrate the techniques, tests were performed on a centered-cracked tensile panel under cyclic load. The measured SIFs were found to agree to within about 5% of an elastic solution. Finally, factors affecting the application of the procedures to more complex structures are considered.

Nurse, A.D. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Patterson, E.A. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Process Engineering



Multilevel Factors Affecting Quality: Examples From the Cancer Care Continuum  

PubMed Central

The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

Taplin, Stephen H.; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine



Factors affecting the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in China.  


New policies in China have recently led to the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in hospitals. We explored the views of hospital administrators, pharmacy directors, clinical pharmacists, and dispensing pharmacists about the factors affecting clinical pharmacy services in China, using the framework approach and organizational theory. We conducted 30 interviews with 130 participants at 29 hospitals (both secondary and tertiary) in Beijing, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, and Shanghai. We found that the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of clinical pharmacy services slotted into the environment and participant dimensions of Scott's adapted version of Leavitt's organizational model. External support from government was perceived as crucial to promoting pharmacy services. It is proposed that the internationally recognized Basel Statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation also provide a strong foundation for guiding China in implementing clinical pharmacy services. PMID:24562375

Penm, Jonathan; Moles, Rebekah; Wang, Holly; Li, Yan; Chaar, Betty



Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.  


The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3 kcal mol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0 kcal mol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72 h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. PMID:25027809

Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric



Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.



Factors Affecting on Serum Lactate After Cardiac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: The relation between elevated blood lactate level and mortality and morbidity rates after coronary bypass surgery is a proven subject. One of the factors that seems to affect directly the blood lactate level is the storage duration of packed red blood cells. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of storage duration of transfused blood on serum lactate during cardiac surgery and up to 24 hours after that in the ICU. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 228 patients referred to three hospitals of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences for open cardiac surgery, was enrolled using systematic random sampling method. Immediately after accessing arterial line, the first sample of arterial blood gas (ABG) was obtained. For evaluation of lactate levels, the next samples were obtained at the end of surgery and after 24 hours of staying ICU. Results: Among 5 factors which affected lactate level during surgery, diabetes and higher ejection fraction (EF) reduced changes of the lactate level. On the other hand, the number of infused blood units, duration of on-pump time, and the mean storage duration of blood units were associated with elevated serum lactate during surgery. A significant relationship was found between blood storage duration and serum lactate levels 24 hours after surgery. Conclusions: Comparing the serum lactate level before operation and 24 hours after the operation showed that the number of received blood units had a significant effect on serum lactate. We found no significant effect for blood storage duration; however, the number of given blood units was more significant. PMID:25632379

Joudi, Marjan; Fathi, Mehdi; Soltani, Ghasem; Izanloo, Azra



Factors affecting ventriculoperitoneal shunt survival in adult patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion remains the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus despite a high rate of complications. The predictors of shunt malfunction have been studied mostly in pediatric patients. In this study, we report our 11-year experience with VP shunts in adult patients with hydrocephalus. We also assess the various factors affecting shunt survival in a developing country setting. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was conducted for all adult patients who had undergone shunt placement between the years 2001 and 2011. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to determine the duration from shunt placement to first malfunction and log-rank (Cox–Mantel) tests were used to determine the factors affecting shunt survival. Results: A total of 227 patients aged 18–85 years (mean: 45.8 years) were included in the study. The top four etiologies of hydrocephalus included post-cranial surgery (23.3%), brain tumor or cyst (22.9%), normal pressure hydrocephalus (15%), and intracranial hemorrhage (13.7%). The overall incidence of shunt malfunction was 15.4% with the median time to first shunt failure being 120 days. Etiology of hydrocephalus (P = 0.030) had a significant association with the development of shunt malfunction. Early shunt failure was associated with age (P < 0.001), duration of hospital stay (P < 0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score less than 13 (P = 0.010), excision of brain tumors (P = 0.008), and placement of extra-ventricular drains (P = 0.033). Conclusions: Patients with increased age, prolonged hospital stay, GCS score of less than 13, extra-ventricular drains in situ, or excision of brain tumors were more likely to experience early shunt malfunction. PMID:25722930

Khan, Farid; Rehman, Abdul; Shamim, Muhammad S.; Bari, Muhammad E.



Factors affecting the valve movements in freshwater unionids  

SciTech Connect

In order to avoid harmful conditions, freshwater unionids are able to close their valves and to resist extended long periods of complete anoxia. Xenobiotics and diverse abiotic and biotic factors can change the rhythm of valve movements and thus affect the accumulation of heavy metals in these bivalves. When bivalves are used a bioindicators in the field and when the accumulation of toxicants are studied under the laboratory conditions, the effects of valve movements and shell closure have to be involved. In this study, the authors have recorded valve movements of two different unionid species (Anodonta anatina, Unio tumidus) in the field and in the laboratory using a digital monitoring system. Several experimental arrangements were compared (caged mussels vs. sediment dwelling mussels, flow-through vials vs. static aquaria with and without sediment). Some parameters of the mussel hemolymph, such as electrolytes, gases and acid base status, were compared with the results on the valve activity (time with valves open, number of adductions). The natural valve activity of the two unionid species differed clearly. In the field, effects of transfer and caging were found, and in the laboratory, sediment and water flow changed their behavior. The level of the blood oxygen was most affected, whereas, the acid-base status and the concentrations of electrolytes were effectively regulated by the unionids. The correlation between valve movements and the hemolymph parameters was weaker than expected.

Pynnoenen, K.S.; Englund, V.P.M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)



The Peru Urban versus Rural Asthma (PURA) Study: methods and baseline quality control data from a cross-sectional investigation into the prevalence, severity, genetics, immunology and environmental factors affecting asthma in adolescence in Peru  

PubMed Central

Objectives According to a large-scale international survey, Peru has one of the highest prevalences of asthma worldwide; however, data from this survey were limited to participants from urban Lima. The authors sought to characterise the epidemiology of asthma in Peru in two regions with disparate degrees of urbanisation. In this manuscript, the authors summarise the study design and implementation. Design A cross-sectional study. Participants Using census data of 13–15-year-old adolescents from two communities in Peru, the authors invited a random sample of participants in Lima (n=725) and all adolescents in Tumbes (n=716) to participate in our study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The authors asked participants to complete a questionnaire on asthma symptoms, environmental exposures and socio-demographics and to undergo spirometry before and after bronchodilator, skin allergy testing and exhaled nitric oxide testing. The authors obtained blood samples for haematocrit, total IgE levels, vitamin D levels and DNA in all participants and measured indoor particulate matter concentrations for 48?h in a random subset of 70–100 households at each site. Results Of 1851 eligible participants, 1441 (78%) were enrolled and 1159 (80% of enrolled) completed all physical tests. 1283 (89%) performed spirometry according to standard guidelines, of which 86% of prebronchodilator tests and 92% of postbronchodilator tests were acceptable and reproducible. 92% of allergy skin tests had an adequate negative control. The authors collected blood from 1146 participants (79%) and saliva samples from 148 participants (9%). Overall amounts of DNA obtained from blood or saliva were 25.8??g, with a 260/280 ratio of 1.86. Conclusions This study will contribute to the characterisation of a variety of risk factors for asthma, including urbanisation, total IgE levels, vitamin D levels and candidate genes, in a resource-poor setting. The authors present data to support high quality of survey, allergic, spirometric and genetic data collected in our study. PMID:22357570

Robinson, Colin L; Baumann, Lauren M; Gilman, Robert H; Romero, Karina; Combe, Juan Manuel; Cabrera, Lilia; Hansel, Nadia N; Barnes, Kathleen; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Wise, Robert A; Breysse, Patrick N



Threat processing in generalized social phobia: an investigation of interpretation biases in ambiguous facial affect.  


Facial affect is one of the most important information sources during the course of social interactions, but it is susceptible to distortion due to the complex and dynamic nature. Socially anxious individuals have been shown to exhibit alterations in the processing of social information, such as an attentional and interpretative bias toward threatening information. This may be one of the key factors contributing to the development and maintenance of anxious psychopathology. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a threat-related interpretation bias is evident for ambiguous facial stimuli in a population of individuals with a generalized Social Anxiety Disorder (gSAD) as compared to healthy controls. Participants judged ambiguous happy/fearful, angry/fearful and angry/happy blends varying in intensity and rated the predominant affective expression. The results obtained in this study do not indicate that gSAD is associated with a biased interpretation of ambiguous facial affect. PMID:24656896

Jusyte, Aiste; Schönenberg, Michael



Investigation of Various Essential Factors for Optimum Infrared Thermography  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We investigated various essential factors for optimum infrared thermography for cattle clinics. The effect of various factors on the detection of surface temperature was investigated in an experimental room with a fixed ambient temperature using a square positioned on a wall. Various factors of animal objects were examined using cattle to determine the relationships among presence of hair, body surface temperature, surface temperature of the eyeball, the highest temperature of the eye circle, rectum temperature and ambient temperature. Also, the surface temperature of the flank at different time points after eating was examined. The best conditions of thermography for cattle clinics were determined and were as follows: (1) The distance between a thermal camera and an object should be fixed, and the camera should be set within a 45-degree angle with respect to the objects using the optimum focal length. (2) Factors that affect the camera temperature, such as extreme cold or heat, direct sunshine, high humidity and wind, should be avoided. (3) For the comparison of thermographs, imaging should be performed under identical conditions. If this is not achievable, hairless parts should be used. PMID:23759714

OKADA, Keiji; TAKEMURA, Kei; SATO, Shigeru



Factors affecting the electrical characteristics of cadmium mercury telluride crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical properties of cadmium mercury telluride crystals grown by both a cast-recrystallise and a normal freeze melt growth process have been investigated. Material equilibrated at high temperatures is found to be p-type and the carrier concentration is believed to be determined by native defects. Two models have been considered to explain the carrier concentrations found after low temperature heat treatment of slices in the presence of mercury vapour. These are based on native defects and on residual impurities respectively. It is concluded that for material grown by both growth processes the level of residual impurities is the dominant factor controlling carrier concentration.

Bartlett, B. E.; Capper, P.; Harris, J. E.; Quelch, M. J. T.



Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

Yager, T. J.



Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factors affecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.

Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos


Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.



Geographical factors affecting variability of precipitation regime in Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compares the precipitation regimes by using harmonic analysis during the last four decades (1965-2004). We used the measured precipitation data from 428 rain-gauge sites and weather stations distributed across Iran by applying 15 × 15 km spatial grids to generate the interpolated data. Data validations were carried out by statistical tests. In this study, first three harmonics of precipitation variances were evaluated. Variability of precipitation regime was explored by using three harmonic analysis methods. In addition, the effect of geographical factors (GF) (site elevation, latitude, and longitude) affecting the precipitation regime (P) was verified by multivariate regression method. The resulted regression equation between P and GF for spring showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.79). For other seasons, r was lower than for spring and varied between 0.26 (summer) to 0.58 (autumn). Analysis of the first harmonic proved that the main precipitation regime in Iran tends to concentrate in one specific season (winter) as a result of large-scale Mediterranean systems passing over the country. In other words, the first harmonic is able to explain most of the precipitation variations which are caused by large-scale atmospheric circulation. For all the three harmonics, variances of precipitation were mainly a function of the geographical factors. This effect was more evident in the third harmonic; in such a way that increasing the latitudes caused higher precipitation variance. This means that the precipitation regime in northern sites is more sensitive to the local factors than those of southern sites. The results of this research can be used for reliable estimation of precipitation in ungauged sites.

Sabziparvar, A. A.; Movahedi, S.; Asakereh, H.; Maryanaji, Z.; Masoodian, S. A.



An experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from low-level radioactive waste forms  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the results of an experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from several types of solidified low-level radioactive waste forms. The goal of these investigations was to determine those factors that accelerate leaching without changing its mechanism(s). Typically, although not in every case,the accelerating factors include: increased temperature, increased waste loading (i.e., increased waste to binder ratio), and decreased size (i.e., decreased waste form volume to surface area ratio). Additional factors that were studied were: increased leachant volume to waste form surface area ratio, pH, leachant composition (groundwaters, natural and synthetic chelating agents), leachant flow rate or replacement frequency and waste form porosity and surface condition. Other potential factors, including the radiation environment and pressure, were omitted based on a survey of the literature. 82 refs., 236 figs., 13 tabs.

Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.



Traffic environment and demographic factors affecting impaired driving and crashes  

PubMed Central

Introduction Data availability has forced researchers to examine separately the role of alcohol among drivers who crashed and drivers who did not crash. Such a separation fails to account fully for the transition from impaired driving to an alcohol-related crash. Method In this study, we analyzed recent data to investigate how traffic-related environments, conditions, and drivers’ demographics shape the likelihood of a driver being either involved in a crash (alcohol impaired or not) or not involved in a crash (alcohol impaired or not). Our data, from a recent case–control study, included a comprehensive sampling of the drivers in nonfatal crashes and a matched set of comparison drivers in two U.S. locations. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to investigate the likelihood that a driver would crash or would not crash, either with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC)=.00 or with a BAC?.05. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine how different driver characteristics and environmental factors simultaneously contribute to alcohol use by crash-involved and non-crash-involved drivers. This effort calls attention to the need for research on the simultaneous roles played by all the factors that may contribute to motor vehicle crashes. PMID:22385743

Romano, Eduardo O.; Peck, Raymond C.; Voas, Robert B.



Detection of key factors affecting lycopene in vitro accessibility.  


On the basis of a Plackett-Burman experimental design for a resolution IV level obtained via a foldover strategy, the effect of 11 factors on lycopene in vitro accessibility was investigated. The selected factors were thermal treatment (X1), olive oil addition (X2), gastric pH (X3), gastric digestion time (X4), pepsin concentration (X5), intestinal pH (X6), pancreatin concentration (X7), bile salts concentration (X8), colipase addition (X9), intestinal digestion time (X10), and intestinal digestion speed (X11). Tomato passata was used as a natural source of lycopene. Samples were collected after gastric and intestinal digestion, and from the micellar phase, to quantify the (all-E)-lycopene and its (Z)-isomers by HPLC. Except for X3, X6, X7, and X11, the other factors studied explained lycopene in vitro accessibility, mainly regarding intestinal digestion, with R(2) values ? 0.60. Our results showed that the accessibility of lycopene is influenced by the conditions applied during in vitro intestinal digestion. PMID:23547942

Periago, M J; Bravo, S; García-Alonso, F J; Rincón, F



Factors affecting the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of cereals, fats and other food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in oils and fats, cereals and related foodstuffs have been investigated. Levels of PAHs were low in retail fish and animal?derived oils and fats, such as butter, where the mean benzo(a)pyrene concentration was 0.06 ?g\\/kg. Higher and more variable amounts were present in retail vegetable oils for which the mean level of benzo(a)pyrene

M. J. Dennis; R. C. Massey; G. Cripps; I. Venn; N. Howarth; G. Lee



Learning style as a factor which affects the quality of e-learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aid of the Internet, many organizations and schools have adopted the idea of applying the e-learning system, which\\u000a is considered as one of the most important services provided by the Internet. The purpose of this paper is to investigate\\u000a the factors affecting the acceptance and use of e-learning system. There are a number of implicit and explicit frameworks

Suzana Markovi?; Nenad Jovanovi?


Investigating Learner Affective Performance in Web-Based Learning by Using Entrepreneurship as a Metaphor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the era of the Internet, factors which influence effective learning in a Web-based learning environment are well worth exploring. In addition to knowledge acquisition and skills training, affect is also an important factor, since successful learning requires excellent affective performance. Thus this study focuses on learners' affective

Liu, Ming-Chou; Chi, Ming-Hsiao



Biologics formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel.  


An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. PMID:21360314

Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K



Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

Pyo, Katrina A.



Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.



Factors affecting anatomical changes after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.  


Background?The primary goal of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is to prevent death from aneurysm rupture. Regression of aortic sac size is believed to be a marker for success after EVAR. This study analyzes the changes in aneurysm sac size and the factors affecting sac regression after EVAR. Patients and Methods?We retrospectively reviewed 121 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) who underwent elective treatment with EVAR at our institution from January 2005 to December 2011. In this study, 17 of the 121 patients were excluded due to loss during follow-up or for not having undergone a postoperative computed tomographic (CT) scan, and 3 patients were excluded due to an isolated iliac artery aneurysm. CT scans were scheduled at months 1, 6, and 12, and annually thereafter. Aneurysm size was defined by the minor axis on the largest axial cut of the aneurysm on a two-dimensional CT scan. Sac regression was defined as a reduction in the diameter of more than 5 mm. Results?Sac regression was observed during follow-up in 39 of the 101 patients. There was 1 regression in 87 patients (1%) at 1?month, 18 in 62 patients at 6 months (29%), 26 regressions in 44 patients (59%) at 12 months, and 18 regressions in 34 patients (53%) at 24 months. After multivariate analysis, the absence of endoleaks was the only factor associated with sac regression (hazard ratio, 3.620; confidence interval, 1.692-7.747; p?=?0.001). Conclusion?Sac regression over 5 mm is associated with current or previous endoleaks after EVAR. Continued surveillance is necessary in all patients after EVAR to prevent late complications. PMID:25191763

Park, Keun-Myoung; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Young-Wook; Do, Young-Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo



Investigating Factors Affecting the Uptake of Automated Assessment Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automated assessment is an emerging innovation in educational praxis, however its pedagogical potential is not fully utilised in Australia, particularly regarding automated essay grading. The rationale for this research is that the usage of automated assessment currently lags behind the capacity that the technology provides, thus restricting the…

Dreher, Carl; Reiners, Torsten; Dreher, Heinz



Analysis of factors affecting satisfaction level on problem based learning approach using structural equation modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant factors. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the factors of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload affected the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.

Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina



Hydrologic and geologic factors affecting land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At an extensometer site near Eloy, Arizona, 1.09 m of land subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal were measured by leveling in 1965-83. The extensometer, which partially penetrates the compressible sediments, recorded 0.82 m of compaction during the same period. By use of a one-dimensional model, cumulative daily compaction values were simulated to within an average of 0.0038 m of the actual values. Land subsidence was simulated to within an average of 0.011 m using the same model in conjunction with geohydrologic data of the sediments below the extensometer. A highly compressible clay layer that is 24.38 m thick was partially penetrated by the extensometer. The simulation indicated that the layer was driving compaction and land subsidence linearly with respect to time, despite the presence of other compacting layers. Because of its thickness and compressibility, this layer can be expected to continue to compact after applied vertical stresses have stopped increasing and other layers have stopped compacting. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the compressibility of fine-grained sediments (expressed as specific storage) is one of the factors to which compact is most sensitive. Preconsolidation stress and hydraulic conductivity also affect land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona. (Author 's abstract)

Epstein, V.J.



Factors affecting dental anxiety and beliefs in an Indian population.  


The purpose of this study was to describe the possible factors that may affect dental anxiety and beliefs and to validate and test the psychometric properties of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and a Modified Dental Beliefs Scale (MDBS) among the patients attending a university dental clinic in India. A cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 482 general dental patients attending a university dental clinic returned completed forms of the Indian translations of the MDAS and MDBS. General information about the age, sex, occupation and educational qualifications of the respondents as well as information about past dental experiences was also collected. All the statistical analysis was carried out by the spss (version 10) statistical software package. The Indian translations of the MDAS and the MDBS were found to be internally reliable with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.78 and 0.85, respectively. Validity was demonstrated by a statistically significant correlation between the MDAS and the MDBS scores with the correlation coefficient of 0.47. Age was also inversely related to dental anxiety. Anxiety scores were higher among the less educated patients. Those who had a prior unpleasant dental experience showed higher dental anxiety and more negative dental beliefs. The data obtained in this study provided strong evidence for the psychometric properties of the Indian version of the MDAS and the MDBS. PMID:18321261

Acharya, S



Antimutagenesis by factors affecting DNA repair in bacteria.  


The term 'antimutagen' was originally used to describe an agent that reduces the apparent yield of spontaneous and/or induced mutations, regardless of the mechanisms involved. The 'antimutagens' include 'desmutagens' and 'bio-antimutagens'. In this article, our attention was focused on the bio-antimutagens affecting DNA repair in bacteria. Cobaltous chloride reduced the frequency of mutations in Escherichia coli induced by MNNG. The possibility that metal compound inhibits the growth of mutagen-treated cells was examined. The results clearly showed that the antimutagen surely reduces the mutation rate. The target of cobaltous chloride was found to be cellular factors including Rec A. Vanillin and cinnamaldehyde had strong antimutagenic activities against UV, 4NQO and AF-2. They stimulated Rec A-dependent recombination repair functions in the mutagen-treated cells. Among plant materials, tannins possess antimutagenic activity against UV-induced mutations in E. coli. It has been found that tannic acid stimulates the excision repair encoded by the uvrA gene thereby reducing the yield of mutants. Substances which are antimutagenic in bacterial systems also had antimutagenic activity in cultured mammalian cell systems. Vanillin reduced the frequency of mutagen-induced chromosomal aberrations. PMID:3057369

Kuroda, Y; Inoue, T



Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika



Factors affecting the success of influenza laboratory diagnosis.  


Influenza is one of the most common human infectious diseases, and has profound health and economic consequences. The laboratory diag- nosis of influenza virus infections plays an important role in the global surveillance of influenza. Therefore, there is a growing demand for highly sensitive and rapid methods for detecting influenza. The performance of particular diagnostic methods is affected by various factors. In this study, we assess the effects of patients' age and time to diagnosis on the probability of detecting influenza using four diagnostic methods (virus isolation, rapid test, RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR). We examined 3,546 samples from central and eastern Slovakia during the influenza seasons from 2005-2006 to 2010-2011. In general, the probability of influenza detection significantly decreased with the time from onset of illness to sample collection (T1) as well as with patients' age (AGE). On the contrary, time from sample collection to delivery (T2) did not play a role in the prob- ability of influenza detection. As judged by odds ratios, the virus isolation method was most sensitive to T1, followed by the rapid test and RT-PCR methods. For the effect of AGE, the rapid test and virus isolation methods were more sensitive than PCR-based methods. The effects of T1 and AGE were independent of each other. Laboratories which participate in inifluenza surveillance should use several methods to enable rapid and accurate influenza A and B virus detection. PMID:25438393

Kissová, Renáta; Svitok, Marek; Klement, Cyril; Mad'arová, Lucia



Factors affecting the erosion resistance of weld overlays  

SciTech Connect

Research was conducted to study factors affecting the solid particle erosion resistance of weld overlay coatings. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400 C. Erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at 30 and 90{degree} impact angles. Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine the size of the plastically deformed zone and it was found that one group of coatings deformed plastically as a result of the particle impact while the others did not. No correlations were found between average microhardness at 400 C and volumetric erosion rates for plastically deformed weld overlays. For this group of overlays erosion resistance was correlated to the area under the curve of microhardness versus distance from the eroded surface. The physical significance of this parameter is discussed. For coatings that did not deform plastically, an increase in average microhardness at 400 C led to an increase in their volumetric erosion rates. The possible erosion mechanisms for these coating groups are discussed.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)



Factors affecting the survival of frozen-thawed mouse spermatozoa.  


Mouse epididymal spermatozoa were frozen in solutions containing various compounds with different molecular weights, and the factors affecting the postthawing survival were examined. Monosaccharides (glucose, galactose) had almost no protective effect regardless of the concentration and the temperature of exposure. On the other hand, disaccharides (sucrose, trehalose) and trisaccharides (raffinose, melezitose) resulted in higher survival rates, especially at a concentration of around 0.35 mol/kg H(2)O (0.381-0.412 Osm/kg). Macromolecules, such as PVP10, Ficoll 70, bovine serum albumin, and skim milk had almost no effect, but compounds with a molecular weight of about 800, such as metrizamide and Nycodenz, had some protective effect. When a raffinose solution was supplemented with 10% metrizamide, resulting in an osmolality of approximately 0.400 Osm/kg, a high survival rate was obtained. Solutions at about 0.400 Osm/kg containing trehalose alone, trehalose + metrizamide, raffinose alone, and raffinose + metrizamide, were all effective for sperm freezing; frozen-thawed sperm could fertilize oocytes, and the resultant embryos could develop to live young after transfer. For freezing mouse spermatozoa, aqueous solutions at approximately 0.400 Osm/kg containing a disaccharide or a trisaccharide seem to be effective. PMID:10860623

An, T Z; Iwakiri, M; Edashige, K; Sakurai, T; Kasai, M



Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital parameters and the gravitational influence of other planets in the system. A thorough assessment of a planet's environment and its potential habitability is a necessary first step in the search for biosignatures. Targeted environmental characteristics include surface temperature and pressure (e.g. Misra et al., 2013), a census of bulk and trace atmospheric gases, and whether there are signs of liquid water on the planetary surface (e.g. Robinson et al., 2010). The robustness of a planetary biosignature is dependent on being able to characterize the environment sufficiently well, and to understand likely star-planet interactions, to preclude formation of a biosignature gas via abiotic processes such as photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2007; Domagal-Goldman et al., 2011; Grenfell et al., 2012). Here we also discuss potential false positives for O2 and O3, which, in large quantities, are often considered robust biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. There is clearly significant future work required to better identify and understand the key environmental processes and interactions that allow a planet to support life, and to distinguish life's global impact on an environment from the environment itself.

Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team



Chronotype and personality factors of predisposition to seasonal affective disorder.  


The study aimed to recognize the personality factors of a predisposition to seasonal mood fluctuations in a non-clinical sample. A group of 101 subjects (57 women, 44 men; mean age 26.4?±?6.5 years) completed a battery of tests comprising a Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), Chronotype Questionnaire (ChQ), a NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). A smaller sample (n?=?44) completed a Winter Blues Scale (WBS). Women scored significantly higher than men in seasonality (p?=?0.014), neuroticism (p?=?0.049), agreeableness (p?=?0.010), and avoidance-oriented coping style (p?=?0.041). Subjects with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (n?=?41) or sub-SAD (n?=?33), as diagnosed with SPAQ, exhibited higher levels of neuroticism (p?=?0.017) and openness (p?=?0.016) in comparison to non-SAD individuals. The latter declared a less frequent avoidance coping style. Both measures of seasonality, i.e. the SPAQ Global Seasonality Score and WBS, correlated significantly (r?=?0.28 and 0.44, respectively) with the subjective amplitude of the circadian rhythm, as described with the "distinctness" scale of ChQ. Female gender, neuroticism and openness were confirmed as factors linked to seasonal mood variability. Additionally, the study revealed an association between susceptibility to mild winter depression and an avoidance-oriented coping style. The avoidance coping style was correlated positively with all the aspects of seasonality described by SPAQ (correlation coefficients from 0.21 to 0.34). Both sub-types of avoidance-oriented style, i.e. distraction and social diversion, were associated with marked subjective seasonal changes in sleep length, mood and the energy level. While the subjective amplitude of circadian rhythm proved to be connected with seasonality, the subjective acrophase of the rhythm (morningness-eveningness preference) did not. It may be hypothesized that sensitivity to natural environmental conditions/synchronizers is a separate individual trait shaping the subject's proneness to energy and mood changes both in diurnal and year scale, i.e. circadian and seasonal mood variations. PMID:24397301

Oginska, Halszka; Oginska-Bruchal, Katarzyna



Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.



Factors Affecting Crack Initiation in Low Porosity Crystalline Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crack initiation in uniaxial compressive loading of rocks occurs well before the peak strength is reached. The factors that may influence the onset of cracking and possible initiating mechanisms were explored using a discrete element numerical approach. The numerical approach was based on grain-based model that utilized the Voronoi tessellation scheme to represent low porosity crystalline rocks such as granite. The effect of grain size distribution (sorting coefficient ranging from 1.5 to 1.03), grain size (average grain size ranging from 0.75 to 2.25 mm), and the heterogeneities of different mineral grains (quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase) on the onset of cracking were examined. The modelling revealed that crack initiation appears to be a tensile mechanism in low porosity rocks, and that shear cracking along grain boundaries is only a prominent mechanism near the peak strength. It was also shown that the heterogeneity introduced by the grain size distribution had the most significant effect on peak strength and crack initiation stress. The peak strength ranges from 140 to 208 MPa as the grain size distribution varies from heterogeneous to uniform, respectively. However, the ratio of crack initiation to peak stress showed only minor variation, as the heterogeneity decreases. The other factors investigated had only minor effects on crack initiation and peak strength, and crack initiation ratio.

Nicksiar, Mohsen; Martin, C. D.



Factors affecting the in vitro dissolution of cobalt oxide  

SciTech Connect

In a recent interspecies comparison of the lung clearance of cobalt oxide ([sup 57]Co[sub 3]O[sub 4]), differences of up to 4-fold were found in the translocation rates of [sup 57]Co to blood between seven different animal species, including man. This study investigated some factors that could influence the dissolution of this material in vitro. The effect of bicarbonate and citrate concentrations (over physiological ranges) and medium pH on in vitro dissolution of [sup 57]Co from [sup 57]Co[sub 3]O[sub 4] particles was measured in a simple noncellular system. pH levels of 4.5, 6.1, and 7.2 were used to correspond to those in the alveolar macrophage lysosome, its cytoplasm, and the extracellular lung fluid. Measurements of the fractional dissolution rate were made weekly for 3 months. pH had the greatest effect on dissolution rates, with particles suspended in the lowest pH medium (4.5) dissolving at a significantly faster rate than at higher pH values. Increasing citrate concentrations resulted in slightly higher dissolution rates, but there was no effect of bicarbonate concentration. There was no evidence of synergism between the factors studied. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Collier, C.G. (AEA Environment and Energy, Oxon (United Kingdom)); Pearce, M.J.; Hodgson, A.; Ball, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom))



A Preliminary Investigation of Affective Interaction in Chronic Pain Couples  

PubMed Central

The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the extent to which affective marital interaction related to depressive symptoms in persons with chronic pain and their spouses and to pain severity in persons with pain. Couples from the community completed self-report surveys and engaged in a videotaped conversation on a topic of mutual disagreement that was coded for three affect types (i.e., anger/contempt, sadness, humor). Humor was positively related to marital satisfaction in both partners. Spouse anger/contempt and sadness were positively related to depressive symptoms in spouses. Several significant interaction effects between couple pain status (i.e., whether one or both partners reported pain) and affect also emerged. Specifically, sadness in the participant designated as the person with pain was associated with greater depressive symptoms and pain severity when only he or she reported pain whereas sadness was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less pain severity when both partners reported pain. The relationships between spouse anger and spouse depressive symptoms and between spouse humor and pain severity in the person with pain were also moderated by couple pain status. These exploratory findings can be interpreted in light of emotion regulation and pain empathy theories. For example, partners who have not experienced pain themselves may fail to empathize with persons in pain, thus preventing effective emotion regulation. When both spouses report chronic pain, expressions of negative affect may instead promote emotion regulation because the affect is experienced with a spouse who may be more empathetic. PMID:17521810

Johansen, Ayna Beate; Cano, Annmarie



Investigating facial affect processing in psychosis: a study using the Comprehensive Affective Testing System.  


Facial affect processing (FAP) deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) have been widely reported; although effect sizes vary across studies, and there are limited direct comparisons of the two groups. Further, there is debate as to the influence of both psychotic and mood symptoms on FAP. This study aimed to address these limitations by recruiting groups of psychosis patients with either a diagnosis of SZ or BD and comparing them to healthy controls (HC) on a well validated battery of four FAP subtests: affect discrimination, name affect, select affect and match affect. Overall, both groups performed more poorly than controls in terms of accuracy. In SZ, this was largely driven by impairments on three of the four subtests. The BD patients showed impaired performance specifically on the match affect subtest, a task that had a high cognitive load. FAP performance in the psychosis patients was correlated with severity of positive symptoms and mania. This study confirmed that FAP deficits are a consistent finding in SZ that occur independent of task specific methodology; whilst FAP deficits in BD are more subtle. Further work in this group is needed to replicate these results. PMID:24924406

Rossell, Susan L; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Joshua, Nicole R; O'Regan, Alison; Gogos, Andrea




EPA Science Inventory

An investigation was made of factors affecting the use of commercially-produced CaF2:Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters for low level environmental radiation monitoring. Calibration factors and self-dosing rates were quantified for 150 thermoluminescent dosimeters. Laboratory studie...


Factors Affecting Option Choices Relative to the Uptake of Design and Technology at a Selected Hong Kong International School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study described in this paper was to identify those factors which affect Year 9 students at Sha Tin College, Hong Kong, as they make option choices at the end of Key Stage 3 (Year 9: age 14). The main focus of the investigation was how these factors influence the selection or rejection of the four subjects offered under the…

Hughes, Marshall



Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.  


An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P < 0.05). USDA grade did not affect any consumer evaluation traits or Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P > 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the clod steak. Flavor Like was the sensory trait most highly correlated to Overall Like, followed by Tenderness, Flavor Amount, and Juiciness. Flavor Like was the first variable to enter into the stepwise regression equation for predicting Overall Like, followed by Tenderness and Flavor Amount. For the clod steak, it is likely that preparation techniques that improve flavor without reducing tenderness positively affect customer satisfaction. PMID:11881929

Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W



Demanding Affecting Factors Analysis for Personal Financial Management Business: An Empirical Approach Based on Factor Analysis Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the demanding affecting factors for financial management business by using factor analysis model and logistic regression through the data obtained from the survey questionnaires. It is found that the main factors that affecting financial management business are the special life cycle stages the residents are in and the external information environment for residents to purchase financial products.

Jianqiong Peng; Dehong Lu



Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.  


In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim



Evaluation of Factors Affecting Powdered Drug Reconstitution in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Owing to the high cost of transporting mass into space, and the small volume available for equipment in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the International Space Station, refrigeration space is extremely limited. For this reason, there exists strong motivation for transporting certain drugs in powdered form so that they do not require refrigeration. When needed, the powdered drug will be mixed with saline to obtain a liquid form that may be injected intravenously. While this is a relatively simple task in a 1-G environment, there are some difficulties that may be encountered in 0-G. In non-accelerated spaceflight, gravitational and inertial forces are eliminated allowing other smaller forces, such as capillary forces and surface tension, to dominate the behavior of fluids. For instance, water slowly ejected from a straw will tend to form a sphere, while fluid in a container will tend to wet the inside surface forming a highly rounded meniscus. Initial attempts at mixing powdered drugs with saline in microgravity have shown a tendency toward forming foamy emulsions instead of the desired homogeneous solution. The predominance of adhesive forces between the drug particles and the interface tensions at the gas/liquid and solid/liquid interfaces drastically reduce the rate of deaggregation of the drug powder and also reduce the rate of absorption of saline by the powder mass. In addition, the capillary forces cause the saline to wet the inside of the container, thus trapping air bubbles within the liquid. The rate of dissolution of a powder drug is directly proportional to the amount of surface area of the solid that is exposed to liquid solvent. The surface area of drug that is in contact with the liquid is greatly reduced in microgravity and, as a result, the dissolution rate is reduced as well. The KC-135 research described here was aimed at evaluating the extent to which it is possible to perform drug reconstitution in the weightlessness of parabolic flight using standard pharmacological supplies. The experiment included a parametric assessment of possible factors affecting the reconstitution process. The specific questions that we wished to answer were: (1) Is it possible to reconstitute powdered drugs in weightlessness using standard pharmacological equipment? (2) What are the differences between drug reconstitution in a 1-G and a 0-G environment? (3) What techniques of mixing the drug powder and diluent are more successful? (4) What physical and chemical factors play a role in determining the success of mixing and dissolution? (5) Is it necessary to employ crewmember and equipment restraints during the reconstitution process?

Schaffner, Grant; Johnston, Smith; Marshburn, Tom



Factors affecting trace-metal mobility in subsoils  

SciTech Connect

The transport of metals to groundwater below hazardous waste sites is of great environmental concern. The movement of a particular metal is determined by (1) the soil's chemical and physical properties, (2) the amount and form of the metal, and (3) the composition of the soil or waste solution with which the metal is associated. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to examine these factors affecting metal mobility in subsoils. The objectives of the field studies were to determine the distribution and chemical forms of metal contaminants in subsoil at sites with known or suspected potential for groundwater contamination. The objectives of the laboratory studies were to determine the effect of soil properties, solute concentration, solution composition, and redox status on the retention and transport of Cd and Pb in subsoil materials. In the field and laboratory studies, the soil properties controlling Pb retention and mobility were pH, CEC, metal oxides (Mn oxides, amorphous Fe oxides, and free Fe oxides), and soil particle-size distribution. Retention of Cd was controlled by pH, CEC, amorphous Fe oxides, and particle-size distribution. Copper mobility was controlled by the three metal oxides. The Fe oxides (amorphous and crystalline) controlled Ni and Zn retention. Arsenic retention was controlled by pH, CEC, and the metal oxides. Redox potential was also important in Cd and Pb retention, with greater metal retention under oxidizing conditions. In the laboratory studies, higher concentrations of Cd and Pb resulted in lower proportions of metals being retained by the soil. Therefore, the greater the concentration of the metal, the faster it will move through the soil. The retention of Pb was greater than Cd. The retention of Cd and Pb was greater in a dilute salt solution (0.005M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and in a simulated oil field waste.

Kotuby-Amacher, J.



Factors affecting performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloes in Pakistan.  


Effects of herd, year, age, season, and lactation length on milk yield and reproductive efficiency for the Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo were determined by analysis of variance of 5,716 lactation records from two herds in Pakistan. Herds differed in all traits. Herd average milk yields were 1,702 and 2,064 kg. Year, season, herd, parity number, days in milk, days open, age, and sire all influenced milk yield. Herd, year, season, and parity number also had significant effects on days open and calving interval. Month of calving was important for time until return to estrus. Percentages of variance in milk yield attributed to herd, year, sire, cow, and residual were 20.3, 11.4, 4.3, 17.0, and 47.0. Classification of lactation length (greater than 60, greater than 250, or at least 305 days) markedly influenced the sire component of variance suggesting some interdependence of milk yield and lactation length. Total variance for milk yield was 466,911 kg2. Within herd heritability for milk yield was .25, and repeatability was low (.31). Predicted breeding values for sires for 250 to 305-day milk ranged from -172 kg to +260. Cows in Herd 1 completed 5.58 lactations with an average herd life of 12.3 yr; Herd 2 cows completed 4.52 lactations with culling at 10.6 yr. Frequency of termination of lactations because of mastitis, reproductive problems, or health was similar to frequencies for cattle. Factors affecting milk yield in buffaloes are similar to those of cattle. PMID:6841754

Cady, R A; Shah, S K; Schermerhorn, E C; McDowell, R E



Factors affecting in vitro maturation of alpaca (Lama paco) oocytes.  


The present study utilized a 2×2×2 factorial design examining age (old vs. young), follicle size (?2mm vs. <2mm) and media supplementation (with or without fetal bovine serum [FBS]) to determine factors that might affect in vitro maturation of alpaca oocytes. We hypothesized that oocytes collected from follicles ?2mm from young alpacas and incubated in maturation media supplemented with FBS would have greater maturation rates than those incubated in any other factorial combination. Oocytes were collected from the ovaries of 11 young alpacas (<10 years old) and 14 old alpacas (>11 years old). Oocytes were classified as morphologically normal oocytes (MNO) and deemed suitable for incubation if ?3 compact layers of cumulus cells and a homogeneous, evenly granulated cytoplasm were observed. Oocytes from each group of follicle sizes were incubated separately and halves of each group were randomly divided and incubated 24h in chemically defined maturation media with or without 10% FBS. Maturation was defined as the visualization of a polar body at the end of the incubation period. Overall, a greater proportion of MNO were collected from follicles ?2mm than that obtained from smaller follicles, 55% (136/247) vs. 29.6% (162/547), respectively (P<0.05). A greater proportion of oocytes reached maturation when collected from ?2mm follicles 36% (49/136) than from <2mm follicles 8% (13/162) (P<0.05). For oocytes obtained from ?2mm follicles of old alpacas, a greater proportion reached maturation when incubated in media supplemented with FBS than when incubated without FBS; 57.6% (19/33) vs. 18.2% (6/33), respectively (P<0.05). PMID:25261077

Leisinger, Ca; Coffman, Ea; Coutinho da Silva, Ma; Forshey, Bs; Pinto, Crf



Factors affecting visibility of a target tissue in histologic sections.  


The objective of histologic techniques is to stain the subject with high specificity and high visibility. Visibility depends on the microscope's resolution and contrast and on the microscopist's skill at optimizing the microscope's image. It also depends on histotechnological factors, which include specificity and differentiation of the stain, density of background staining (particularly in silver stains), innate color, and grayscale contrasts of the dyes in the stains and color and density of the counterstain. If contrast is not optimal, the image should be evaluated on the basis of 2 types of contrast-color and grayscale. Complementary colors have maximum color contrast, and the color triangle is useful in the selection of a suitable counterstain. Grayscale contrast is a function of the density of a stain. If dyes capable of staining the target and backgrounds tissue do not have optimal color contrast, the only method of increasing contrast is to change the grayscale value of one of the stains, usually the counterstain. Colors can have a subconscious effect on a viewer. Depending on whether they are aesthetically pleasing, they may influence the rigor of and time spent on the histopathologic examination. Maximizing the specificity of stains such as hematoxylin, eosin, trichrome, and Luxol fast blue (LFB) depends on optimal differentiation. In differentiation of counterstains such as methylene blue in the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, its recommended density is conveniently expressed as a grayscale value. Independent evaluation of color and grayscale contrasts is very helpful in determining the cause of low contrast in an image. This review discusses aspects of the histotechnique affecting the visibility of tissue components. PMID:24395975

McGavin, M D



Factors affecting sperm fertilizing capacity in men infected with HIV.  


Studies on the sperm-fertilizing capacity of HIV-seropositive men show conflicting results for reasons that are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and relationships of some factors such as patient age, CD4(+) cells count, fathering offspring, concomitant sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and receipt of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on sperm fertilizing capacity. Semen samples were collected from 33 HIV-seropositive men. Data on the above factors were acquired from a self-designed questionnaire. Computer-assisted sperm analysis, a hypo-osmotic swelling, and zona-free hamster oocyte penetration tests were performed according to criteria of the World Health Organization. CD4(+) cells in peripheral blood were examined using a flow cytometric (FCM) analyzer. Sperm vitality, sperm motility (grades a?+?b), total sperm motility, and sperm penetration rates were significantly higher in patients whose CD4(+) counts were ?350/µl than in those whose CD4(+) counts were <350/µl (P?

Wang, Dian; Li, Lianbing; Xie, Qingdong; Hou, Zhiwei; Yu, Xiaojun; Ma, Mingfu; Huang, Tianhua



Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.  


Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John



Suicide schemas in non-affective psychosis: An empirical investigation.  


Suicide is the leading cause of premature death among individuals experiencing psychosis. The risk of suicide is proposed to increase with a greater potential for activation of suicide related schemas. Empirical representations of suicide schemas were compared between individuals experiencing non-affective psychosis, with and without a history of suicidal behaviour. Employing a cross-sectional between-groups comparison design, 84 participants, previously diagnosed with a non-affective psychotic disorder, were recruited from community mental health services. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and clinical measures of psychopathology. To assess participants' suicide schemas, a series of direct and indirect cognitive tasks were designed and administered. Pathfinder analysis enabled the construction of empirically derived representations of the groups' suicide schemas based on responses to the cognitive tasks. The suicide group achieved significantly greater scores on measures of anxiety, depression, hopelessness and suicidality than the non-suicide group, but not on measures indicative of the severity of psychosis. The suicide schema for the suicide group was more elaborate and extensive than for the non-suicide group, even when clinical measures were taken into account. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:20869042

Pratt, Daniel; Gooding, Patricia; Johnson, Judith; Taylor, Peter; Tarrier, Nicholas



You Want Me to Use THAT Robot? Identifying Underlying Factors Affecting Robot Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building on traditional technology acceptance and human-robot interaction (HRI) research, this research sought to investigate operational HRI factors affecting robot use within the context of a high-risk environment. Technology acceptance models have previously focused on perceived usefulness and ease of use, but have tended to ignore barriers or external factors associated with technology adoption. The present studies investigate the role of barriers such as operational risk and lack of HRI trust in determining acceptance of robots. Experiment 1 empirically refined the experimental methodology used in Experiment 2 to investigate factors affecting robot use. Overall, the results highlighted the influence of HRI trust and operational risk on the likelihood of robot use; in addition, they shed light on the importance of the configuration of the robot capabilities needed for task completion. With the proposition that these relationships were moderated by the robot configuration, HRI trust was shown to increase the overall likelihood of robot use and only slight variations were attributed to increased operational risk. HRI trust was shown to have both a positive and negative influence in terms of the operational risks associated with on robot use. In fact, instances when HRI trust is high may lead to using a robot that is not even properly configured for the high-risk task. Therefore, it is beneficial to understand the underlying mechanisms that influence the perception (right or wrong) surrounding unmanned systems. The findings from this research can be used to enhance the utility and acceptance of new or existing unmanned systems.

Yagoda, Rosemarie Elaine


Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7%) from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ? 7). Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), while state psychological characteristics were measured with the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R). Blood samples were taken for measuring oxytocin in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study. One year later, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments. Results. During the first evaluation of the uncontrolled diabetic patients, a statistically significant positive relationship between the levels of OXT and psychoticism in EPQ rating scale (P < 0.013) was observed. For controlled diabetic patients, a statistically significant negative relationship between oxytocin and somatization (P < 0.030), as well as obsessive-compulsive scores (P < 0.047) in SCL-90 rating scale, was observed. During the second assessment, the values of OXT decreased when the patients managed to control their metabolic profile. Conclusions. The OXT is in association with psychoticism, somatization, and obsessionality may be implicated in T2DM. PMID:22997507

Kontoangelos, K.; Raptis, A. E.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Tsiotra, P. C.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.



Factors affecting optical dispersion in borate glass systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Series of ternary glass systems namely, Na2O, B2O3, and RO (R=Ba or Mg) doped with TiO2 are synthesized. The present glasses are dictated by requirement for a small refractive index and a small nonlinear coefficient needed for waveguide and laser fabrication requirements. The effect of MgO and BaO as alkaline earth metals on the optical properties of the glass systems is investigated. The dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient dispersion curves on composition is carried out over a wavelength range of 0.3 2.5?m. Applying a genetic algorithm technique, the parameters of Sellmeier dispersion formula that fit index data to accuracy consistent well with the measurements are given. The zero material dispersion-wavelength (ZMDW) and group velocity are also determined using the refractive index data. The Fermi level is calculated exploiting the extinction coefficient dispersion curves. The absorption coefficient, both direct and indirect optical energy gaps, and Urbach energy are evaluated using the absorption edge calculations. The different factors that play a role for controlling the refractive indices such as coordination number, electronic polarizability, field strength of cations, bridging and nonbridging oxygen, and optical basicity are discussed in accordance with the obtained index data. IR spectroscopy is used as a structural probe of the nearest-neighbor environment in the glass network.

Abdel-Baki, Manal; Abdel-Wahab, F. A.; Radi, Amr; El-Diasty, Fouad



Factors Affecting the Musculoskeletal Symptoms of Korean Police Officers  

PubMed Central

] This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of police officers (353 subjects) who visited the National Police Hospital from March 2013 to May 2013 was conducted using a structured questionnaire. [Results] The incidence of pain was 44.2% in the shoulder, 41.4% in the waist, 31.2% in the neck, 26.1% in the legs/foot, 16.7% in the hand/wrist/finger, and 14.7% in the arm/elbow. The comparative risk of the relevant part factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The shoulder had a 4.87 times higher risk in police lieutenants compared with those under the rank of corporal and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with chronic diseases than those without chronic diseases. The arm/elbow had a 2.37 times higher risk in people who exercised than those who did not exercise and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with a chronic disease than those without chronic diseases. Generally, people with a chronic disease showed a higher risk than those without chronic diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this study could be useful as basic data for improvement of police welfare, specialized treatment for the health safety of the police, and efficient management of police resources. PMID:25013298

Cho, Taek-Sang; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Lee, Jin-Gu; Seok, Jong-Min; Cho, Jae-Hwan




EPA Science Inventory

The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account various factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...



EPA Science Inventory

The photochemical treatment of hazardous waste can be optimized by taking into account several factors that influence the rates of photochemical reactions. Physical factors that facilitate photochemical treatment include: (1) maximizing the irradiated surface to volume ratio of t...


Environmental Factors Affecting Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Have We Made Progress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against

Peter Laszlo Lakatos



Investigation of Solder Fatigue Acceleration Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solder fatigue was investigated experimentally for effects of the strain loading waveform in isothermal mechanical fatigue, and frequency and strain range in true thermal cycling. Rapid strain loading followed by a long hold period at constant strain was found to be very damaging compared to constant rate cycling at the same peak amplitude and period. Thermal cycle fatigue data showed




How Enzymes Work: Investigating their specificity and susceptibility to environmental factors using Jell-O.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a lab investigation in which students design and conduct experiments using pineapple juice containing the enzyme bromelain and its affect on the substrate gelatin found in Jell-O. The focus of student driven investigations are on enzyme specificity, activity and the impact of environmental factors on enzyme functioning.

Heather Netland, Jefferson High School, Alexandria, MN, based on the original activities from School Improvement in Maryland; "Pineapple/Jell-O Lab," Access Excellence Activities Exchange; "Enzyme Labs Using Jell-O" by Anne McDonald and Michael O'Hare, and AP & Regents Biology; "Lab 8: Pineapple Enzymes and Jell-O Molds" by Kim B. Foglia.


Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major  

PubMed Central

Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I) axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake), correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM). Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term ‘IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc’ was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report. PMID:25729686

Soliman, Ashraf T.; Sanctis, Vincenzo De; Elalaily, Rania; Yassin, Mohamed



Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major.  


Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I) axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake), correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM). Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term 'IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc' was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report. PMID:25729686

Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Yassin, Mohamed



Risk Factors for Alcoholism Among Women Religious: Affect Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for addiction have received extensive empirical attention. Specific risk factors for women Religious (nuns),\\u000a however, are not well known. This report examines risk factors for alcoholism in a retrospective study of 148 chemically dependent\\u000a women Religious in treatment. Negative emotionality, a personality measure, was the only significant predictor of alcoholism\\u000a severity in a joint multiple regression with childhood

Elizabeth M. Hill


14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01...Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to...1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ...Affecting Standard Charges Charges for...



14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01...Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to...1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ...Affecting Standard Charges Charges for...



14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01...Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to...1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ...Affecting Standard Charges Charges for...



14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01...Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to...1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ...Affecting Standard Charges Charges for...



14 CFR Appendix B to Part 1215 - Factors Affecting Standard Charges  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01...Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to...1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ...Affecting Standard Charges Charges for...




EPA Science Inventory

A gravimetric experiment was undertaken to identify the factors affecting solvent evaporation from analytical reference standard solutions and to establish the magnitude of the resultant solvent evaporation. The evaporation of organic solvent from standard solutions is affected b...


Affective factors and learning behaviour in secondary school mathematics and English lessons for average and low attainers.  


This study had two broad aims; firstly, to investigate the predictive relationships between i) overall subject affective factors (attitude and subjective norm), ii) specific lesson factors (behaviour intention, perceived preventive factors and self efficacy) and iii) learning behaviour during lessons; and secondly, to investigate the consistency of these affective factors across English and maths, and whether there were differences between average and low attaining pupils in these affective factors. Twenty-eight boys and girls, aged 11-14 years, in an inner city comprehensive school were assessed for these factors in two subjects over two occasions. It was found that neither attitude nor subjective norm were consistently predictive of intentions. The lesson specific factors (behaviour intention, preventive factors and self efficacy), which were inter-related, were moderately predicted by past learning behaviour, and were each predictive of subsequent learning behaviour. Pupils were also consistent in their affective perspectives to learning maths and English, though few differences were found between average and low attaining pupils. The significance of the findings is discussed in terms of the theoretical links between self efficacy and reasoned action approaches, the context of assessment and the nature of behaviour intention. PMID:8353063

Norwich, B; Rovoli, I



Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

Washburn, David A.



Factors Affecting EWS-FLI1 Activity in Ewing's Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease. PMID:22135504

Herrero-Martin, David; Fourtouna, Argyro; Niedan, Stephan; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N. T.



Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated p...


Factors Affecting Teacher Satisfaction in an Urban School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to distinguish factors that influence the satisfaction levels of teachers in urban school districts. This work also distinguished factors that directly impacted teachers' level of satisfaction towards their work and their attitude towards the administration of their schools. Forty-one teachers from two kindergarten…

Halpert, Michael A.



Factors affecting the transfer of organochlorine pesticide residues to breastmilk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing studies monitoring organochlorine pesticide residues in breastmilk were examined to identify whether common factors determine the extent of transfer of these residues. A structured review of the English language literature was conducted. Papers were reviewed and assessed using a structured protocol. A total of 77 papers were initially identified, 46 of which contained conclusions relating to the factors which

Caroline A. Harris; Michael W. Woolridge; Alastair W. M. Hay



Affect Assessment in Educational System Using OutSite Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research presents an approach to the improvement to the hedonic qualities of user performance in web interfaces based on the principles of emotional design. It addresses the issue of how emotional factors can be integrated into the communication between users and the web systems. The paper describes factors that can be used in emotion recognition for adaptation upon the



Factors Affecting Electronic Medical Record System Adoption in Small Korean Hospitals  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting adoption of an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system in small Korean hospitals. Methods This study used survey data on adoption of EMR systems; data included that from various hospital organizational structures. The survey was conducted from April 10 to August 3, 2009. The response rate was 33.5% and the total number of small general hospitals was 144. Data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation method to adjust for environmental clustering effects. Results The adoption rate of EMR systems was 40.2% for all responding small hospitals. The study results indicate that IT infrastructure (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.80) and organic hospital structure (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.07 to 3.23) rather than mechanistic hospital structure or the number of hospitals within a county (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.17) were critical factors for EMR adoption after controlling for various hospital covariates. Conclusions This study found that several managerial features of hospitals and one environmental factor were related to the adoption of EMR systems in small Korean hospitals. Considering that health information technology produces many positive health outcomes and that an 'adoption gap' regarding information technology exists in small clinical settings, healthcare policy makers should understand which organizational and environmental factors affect adoption of EMR systems and take action to financially support small hospitals during this transition. PMID:25152831

Park, Young-Taek



Factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide(AS-ODNs) transfection by insonated\\u000a gas-filled lipid microbubbles. Methods: Lipid microbubbles filled with two types of gases–air and C3F8, were prepared respectively. An AS-ODNs sequence HA824 and a breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 were used to define the various\\u000a operating variables determining the transfection efficiency of insonated microbubbles. Two mixing

Ying-Zheng Zhao; Cui-Tao Lu



Preliminary assessment of factors affecting DOD facility energy management capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Defense has a facility energy conservation goal of reducing energy consumption per square foot of facility floor area by 20 percent by the year 2000, measured from a 1985 baseline. However, shrinking defense budgets, downsizing and restructuring, and various management reforms are affecting the emphasis placed on energy management at DoD installations. At the same time, DoD

J. Drezner; B. Lachman; M. Bradley



Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival STEPHEN J. SMITH  

E-print Network

is a nuisance parasitic fish in Lake Champlain that negatively affects important sport fish populations lamprey abundance (Marsden et al. 2003). Lake Champlain is 193 km long, has a maximum width of 19 km nontarget mortality in regularly treated tributaries. A population model of sea lampreys in Lake Champlain

Marsden, Ellen



EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a pilot study of six U.S. landfills that have methane (CH4) gas recovery systems. NOTE: The study was a first step in developing a field testing program to gather data to identify key variables that affect CH4 generation and to develop an empirical mod...


Light and Temperature: Key Factors Affecting Walleye Abundance and Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used published information to determine optimum light and temperature conditions for walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) and then applied this simple niche definition to predict how water clarity, temperature, and bathymetry affect walleye habitat availability. Our model calculated thermal–optical habitat area (TOHA), the benthic area of a lake that supplies optimum light, and temperature conditions for walleye during

Nigel P. Lester; Alan J. Dextrase; Robert S. Kushneriuk; Michael R. Rawson; Phil A. Ryan



Factors Affecting Willingness to Communicate in a Spanish University Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines the relationships among the variables believed to affect Spanish undergraduates' willingness to communicate in English. The participants were 195 students majoring in several degrees at the University of Oviedo. A questionnaire and a standardized English Test were administered to the students in February-March 2013.…

Lahuerta, Ana Cristina



Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy  


... it causes the Rh-negative mother to make antibodies against the Rh factor. These antibodies attack the ... that causes Rh sensitization? • Can I still develop antibodies if my pregnancy is not carried to term? • ...


Early career development in the sport industry: factors affecting employment  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to identify the processes and factors contributing to employment in the sport industry. In order to completely address the sport industry as a whole, sport management has been pragmatically divided into five sub...

Hutchinson, Michael Daniel



Psychological factors affecting alcohol use after spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Cross-sectional.Objective:The purpose of this study is to assess risk factors, including personality and socioeconomic indicators, with alcohol use among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:A large rehabilitation hospital in the Southeastern United States.Methods:A total of 1549 participants responded to a survey on outcomes after SCI. We used polychotomous logistic regression to assess the relationships of personality and socioeconomic factors

L L Saunders; J S Krause



Identifying factors affecting software development cost and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software systems of today are often complex, making development costs difficult to estimate. This paper uses data from 50\\u000a projects performed at one of the largest banks in Sweden to identify factors that have an impact on software development cost.\\u000a Correlation analysis of the relationship between factor states and project costs was assessed using ANOVA and regression analysis.\\u000a Ten out

Robert LagerstromLiv; Liv Marcks von Würtemberg; Hannes Holm; Oscar Luczak


Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

Loewenthal, S. H.



Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011  

PubMed Central

Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women. PMID:24520556

Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza



Time dependent factors affecting the duration of work disability after compensated low-back pain in South Korea.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the time dependent effects among factors affecting duration of work disability after compensated low-back pain. A postal survey involving 238 compensated workers at 39 companies was performed between January 5, 2004, and March 23, 2004. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to model the effect of demographic, work-related, and injury factors affecting the duration of work disability. The variables that significantly affected the duration of work disability were age, company size, compensation benefit, pain radiation, and diagnosis. In addition, company size and pain radiation showed statistically significant time dependent effect. Consequently, this study found that there were time dependent factors affecting the duration of work disability. A phase-specific analysis would be useful to make policy for the prevention of long-term disability after back injury. PMID:16922196

Kim, Ji-Yun; June, Kyung Ja; Yang, Bong-Min; Park, Eunok; Park, Kyung Min



Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function  


... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...


Factors affecting engorgement behavior in the salt marsh horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Female Tabanus nigrovittatus were field collected and used in laboratory experimentation to further elucidate the physiological and behavioral factors that affect engorgement. Previous studies have shown that sulfakinins are feeding satiety factors in invertebrates. This study demonstrates that sulf...


Factors affecting the surface shape and removal rate of workpiece in CMP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The factors affecting the removal rate and surface shape in CMP is introduced. The edge effect is a critical problem in CMP process, which behaves on the global planarization of workpiece-pad interface and change on local planarization and results in collapse or rise in workpiece edges. One of the main factors of edge effect is Von Mises stress, which is a composition stress. The main affecting factor of Von Mises is the axial stress component. The factors affecting the material removal rate (MRR) of workpiece surface and surface nonuniformity include shape, material properties and thickness of pad and polishing media. Factors of load and relative velocity in CMP are also discussed.

Fan, Quantang; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Baoan; Shen, Weixing



Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs.  


We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 microl/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose-response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation. In addition, some species of bird eggs require incubation on their sides with the eggs being rolled 180 degrees for them to develop normally. Therefore, we adopted a procedure of incubating the eggs of all species on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees every hour. Little has been published about the conditions of temperature, humidity, and the movements to which eggs of wild birds need to be subjected for them to hatch optimally under artificial incubation. Not unexpectedly, hatching success in an artificial incubator is generally less than what natural incubation by the parents can achieve. However, the survival of control embryos of most wild bird species was good (generally > or = 80%) up to within 1 or 2 days of hatching when we incubated the eggs at 37.5 degrees C (or 37.6 degrees C for gallinaceous species) at a relative humidity that resulted in an approximate 15% to 16% loss in egg weight by the end of incubation and by incubating the eggs on their sides and rolling them 180 degrees /h. To improve statistical comparisons, we used survival through 90% of incubation as our measurement to compare survival of controls with survival of eggs injected with graded concentrations of mercury. PMID:16307214

Heinz, G H; Hoffman, D J; Kondrad, S L; Erwin, C A



Factors affecting the repeatability of gamma camera calibration for quantitative imaging applications using a sealed source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several applications in nuclear medicine require absolute activity quantification of single photon emission computed tomography images. Obtaining a repeatable calibration factor that converts voxel values to activity units is essential for these applications. Because source preparation and measurement of the source activity using a radionuclide activity meter are potential sources of variability, this work investigated instrumentation and acquisition factors affecting repeatability using planar acquisition of sealed sources. The calibration factor was calculated for different acquisition and geometry conditions to evaluate the effect of the source size, lateral position of the source in the camera field-of-view (FOV), source-to-camera distance (SCD), and variability over time using sealed Ba-133 sources. A small region of interest (ROI) based on the source dimensions and collimator resolution was investigated to decrease the background effect. A statistical analysis with a mixed-effects model was used to evaluate quantitatively the effect of each variable on the global calibration factor variability. A variation of 1?cm in the measurement of the SCD from the assumed distance of 17?cm led to a variation of 1–2% in the calibration factor measurement using a small disc source (0.4?cm diameter) and less than 1% with a larger rod source (2.9?cm diameter). The lateral position of the source in the FOV and the variability over time had small impacts on calibration factor variability. The residual error component was well estimated by Poisson noise. Repeatability of better than 1% in a calibration factor measurement using a planar acquisition of a sealed source can be reasonably achieved. The best reproducibility was obtained with the largest source with a count rate much higher than the average background in the ROI, and when the SCD was positioned within 5?mm of the desired position. In this case, calibration source variability was limited by the quantum noise.

Anizan, N.; Wang, H.; Zhou, X. C.; Wahl, R. L.; Frey, E. C.



Metallurgical factors affecting fracture toughness of aluminum alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crack extension in commercial aluminum alloys proceeds by the “ductile” or fibrous mode. The process involves the large, ~1\\u000a ?m to ~10?m, Fe-, Si-, and Cu-bearing inclusions which break easily, and the growth of voids at the cracked particles. The\\u000a linking-up of the voids is accomplished by the rupture of the intervening ligaments, and this is affected by the fine,

G. T. Hahn; A. R. Rosenfield



Discrimination, Affect, and Cancer Risk Factors among African Americans  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine whether stress or depressive symptoms mediated associations between perceived discrimination and multiple modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer among 1363 African American adults. Methods Nonparametric bootstrapping procedures, adjusted for sociodemographics, were used to assess mediation. Results Stress and depressive symptoms each mediated associations between discrimination and current smoking, and discrimination and the total number of behavioral risk factors for cancer. Depressive symptoms also mediated the association between discrimination and overweight/obesity (p values < .05). Conclusions Discrimination may influence certain behavioral risk factors for cancer through heightened levels of stress and depressive symptoms. Interventions to reduce cancer risk may need to address experiences of discrimination, as well as the stress and depression they engender. PMID:24034678

Cuevas, Adolfo G.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Adams, Claire E.; Cao, Yumei; Nguyen, Nga; Wetter, David W.; Watkins, Kellie L.; Regan, Seann D.; McNeill, Lorna H.



Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.  


The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged. PMID:25039397

Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt



The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications. PMID:24600439

Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong



Factors affecting weaning weights of Santa Gertrudis calves  

E-print Network

, Texas were analyzed by least-squares techniques to examine the effect of year of birth, month of birth and age of dam on weaning weight. The main effects in the model were year, sire, month of birth and age of dam. Age of calf at weaning was included... that of the uncorrected data. These results from an inde- pendent set of data indicate that the correction factors were not effective in reducing environmental variation due to age of dam. These results confirm the concept that age of dam correction factors are most...

Farris, James Willis



Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa



Factors Affecting Bromus Tectorum Seed Bank Carryover in Western Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is a winter annual weed that presents a serious obstacle to rangeland restoration in the Intermountain West. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors regulating the size and persistence of cheatgrass carryover seed banks on semiarid sites in western Utah. We prevented current-year seed production in each of four habitats, then tallied emerging seedlings

Duane C. Smith; Susan E. Meyer; V. J. Anderson



Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors

Zhao, Yong; Frank, Kenneth A.



Factors That Affect Initial Enrollment of Working Adult, Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on…

Adrignola, Matt Nolan



Factors Affecting Employment Following Spinal Cord Injury: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective: To examine factors that differentiated persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) who returned to work from those who did not. Participants: Six employed persons with SCI matched with 6 unemployed persons with SCI on the basis of education, race, age, gender, time since injury, and level of function. Study Design: Semi-structured interviews 1 to 2 hr in length

Martha H. Chapin; Donald G. Kewman



Factors affecting success in an embryo cryopreservation programme.  


Embryo cryopreservation is a vital part of any assisted conception programme. We analysed our experience with respect to various clinical factors which may influence success and help modify our own practice. Factors studied were endometrial preparation, number of embryos transferred, woman's age at embryo freezing and endometrial thickness. The 212 cycles analysed represented all our frozen embryo-transfers from 1994 to 1996. Four cycles were excluded because of incomplete data. Statistical analysis was done with Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test and chi-square test for trend. The clinical pregnancy rate rose yearly and it was 12.3% per transfer in 1996. The most important clinical factor appeared to be the type of endometrial preparation. Natural cycles resulted in a pregnancy rate of 17.7%, almost twice hormone-replacement cycles. When transfer was on days 14 to 16 of the natural cycle, the pregnancy rate reached 33%. Other factors that were suggestive of success were younger age at embryo freezing, transferring at least 2 embryos and endometrium thickness > or = 11 mm. The natural cycle gave the best pregnancy rate in our hands and is our method of choice for ovulatory women with normal cycle lengths. For all other women, hormonal preparation is needed but our protocols need refinement. Our initial performance is encouraging and embryo cryopreservation has certainly enhanced our overall success rate. PMID:10497679

Loh, S K; Leong, N K



Anxiety prevalence and affecting factors among university students.  


This study provides insight into the prevalence and correlates of anxiety among university students in Bursa, Turkey. A total of 4850 students participated in the study. Students completed Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, as well as a questionnaire designed to determine risk factors of anxiety. About 29.6% and 36.7% of the students in the study reported state and trait anxiety scores of more than 45 points, respectively. Controlling for gender and family socioeconomic status, the following characteristics predict both state and trait anxiety: the status of family relationships, difficulty understanding lectures, difficulty adapting to university life, having to solve problems independently, a vision of self-sufficiency in problem solving, negative life experience, and satisfaction with their department of study. The following factors are predictive of only state anxiety: boarding conditions, having a chronic disease, and exam periods. The risk factors for trait anxiety scores include the following: anxiety about the future, preparation for work life, class of study, private relationships, and attitude of the family toward their child. Families, secondary education institutions, and universities should cooperate to eliminate risk factors for anxiety among university students. PMID:20032042

Ozen, Nurdan Sakin; Ercan, Ilker; Irgil, Emel; Sigirli, Deniz



Factors affecting the level of success of community information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors that influence the ultimate level of success or failure of systems development projects have received considerable attention in the academic literature. However, previous research has rarely targeted different instances of a common type of system within a homogeneous organisational sector. This paper presents the results of a survey of IM&T managers within Community Trusts to gain insights into

Crispin Coombs; Neil Doherty; John Loan-clarke



REVIEW PAPER Factors and processes affecting plant biodiversity  

E-print Network

that influence plant diversity of permanent grasslands, and we describe underlying processes. These factors must indeed be identified to focus policies meant to preserve and restore plant diversity and to advise, and persistence--that are con- sidered to act as filters on plant diversity, and a graphical representation

Boyer, Edmond


Factors Affecting Habitat Use by Appalachian Ruffed Grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A goal of many resource selection studies is to identify those habitats selected by a species. However, favorability of a particular habitat feature is likely contingent on such factors as landscape composition, predation risk, and an individual's resource needs. Thus, habitat selection may vary depending on context, and identifying causes of variability in habitat use could increase our understanding of




Factors affecting the sexual arousal value of pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines factors that contribute to the sexual arousal value of pictures of a nude model. One male and one female model were photographed separately in an indoor setting. The following dimensions were factorially manipulated across pictures: male or female model, front or back view, standing or reclining position, semi?nude or nude. Male and female subjects viewed slides of

Vera Dunwoody; Kathy Pezdek



Students' Perceptions of Factors that Affect College Funding Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examines the factors that college students perceive are important in helping them make good financial decisions about paying for a college education. The study categorizes and summarizes students' self-reported responses to an open-ended survey question about recommendations for changes in financial aid counseling practices.…

Porter, Julia Y.; Fossey, W. Richard; Davis, William E.; Burnett, Michael F.; Stuhlmann, Janice; Suchy, Patricia A.



Factors Affecting Recreation Preferences and Expectations of Disabled Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generalizing recreation services, one of the essential well-being sources of disabled persons who experience deprivation in many dimensions of life and which fulfill their learning needs, is a social responsibility. The present study aims to determine factors effective on recreation preferences and expectations of the disabled individuals who…

Arslan, Sibel




Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which individual factors influence the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is estimated using a logit model and data from a 1990 survey of West Virginia producers. The results are, as expected, different than those for conventional agricultural technologies. For example, the effects of human capital characteristics are significant, while those for structural and institutional characteristics are not.

Gerard E. DSouza; Douglas Cyphers; Tim T. Phipps



School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.



Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu



Factors Affecting Women's Perceptions of Folate-Containing Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many women of childbearing age are not consuming the recommended intake of folate to prevent neural tube defects. To promote healthy dietary change, it is important to understand factors that influence food choices Seven focus group discussions were conducted with 57 women of childbearing age to determine their attitudes about foods containing folate and their perceptions of influences on their

M. C. Russell; S. P. Parker; G. E. Gates



Factors that Affect Nontraditional Vocational Enrollment among Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocational training program females (N=470) completed a questionnaire assessing the role of personality and social support factors in nontraditional training enrollment. Results revealed differences in the amount of support and encouragement received from others, with nontraditional students receiving more support from female friends, family…

Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris



Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition,

Paolo Nolli



Factors Affecting the Success of Hmong College Students in America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own…

Xiong, Soua; Lam, Sarah K. Y.



Factors Affecting Income Smoothing Among Listed Companies in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to identify the factors associated with the incidence of income smoothing. The sample comprises 153 companies listed in the Singapore stock exchange during the period 1980 to 1990. Descriptive statistics indicate that income smoothing is practised and that operational income is the most common income smoothing objective. Four hypotheses relating income smoothing to company

Nasuhiyah Ashari; Hian Chye Koh; Soh Leng Tan; Wei Har Wong




EPA Science Inventory

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...


A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting College Sports' Team Unity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The competitiveness of National Collegiate Association (NCAA) schools increases in intensity each year. With the increased pressure on college sport staffs to be undefeated season after season, coaches have to find ways to keep players happy; to do this, they have to find factors that contribute to unify the players. It is nearly impossible to…

Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud; Kyei, Kwasi




Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the effects of microhabitat, year, weather, time of season, stage of the nesting cycle, and brood parasitism on nest predation from a 7-year dataset on field sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) in-central Missouri, USA. Year, site, and the interaction of species and 2-week interval of the sea- son were important factors explaining nest predation. The




EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Recent findings indicate that the inhalation of large manufactured porous particles may be particularly effective for drug delivery. In this study, a mathematical model was employed to systematically investigate the effects of particle size, particle density, aerosol ...


Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).  


Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity. PMID:24706518

Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J



Some factors in liquid supplements affecting urea toxicity  

E-print Network

-U solution died. Two out of four (50/) cattle receiving their origi- nal dose of a M-U solution (24 and 25 g level) exhibited toxicity com- pared to four out of five (80X) that received the same dose of urea in W-U solutions. Mean rumen pH, rumen and blood... phosphoric acid was added to a sub-toxic dose of urea, rumen pH and ammonia concentrations were lowered. Blood ammonia concentra- tions were not affected by phosphoric acid. Urea was found in consid- erable quantities in the rumen fluid as much as three...

McClain, William Ray




E-print Network


McMaster University


Factors affecting the sensitivity of the lingual trigeminal nerve to acids  

E-print Network

Factors affecting the sensitivity of the lingual trigeminal nerve to acids BRUCE P. BRYANT AND PAUL A. Moore. Factors affecting the sensitivity of the lingual trigeminal nerve to acids. Am. J. Physiol. 268 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 37): R58- R65, 1995.-Oral sensitivity to acids mediates

Moore, Paul A.


An Analysis of Factors That Affect the Educational Performance of Agricultural Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understanding of the direction and magnitude with which each of these factors impacts student success. Improved…

Greenway, Gina



Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus) IANL. JONES'  

E-print Network

Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus) IANL. JONES., and FALLS,J. B. 1990. Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboram- phus antiquus- phus antiquus). Can. J. Zool. 68 : 433-441. Nous avons CtudiC les facteurs de variation de I

Jones, Ian L.


Factors Affecting Diurnal Activity of Fishers in North-Central British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mustelids, with their long, thin bodies and poor fat storage capabilities, perform an energetic balancing act when making decisions about energy expenditure. Activity rates provide vital insights into the factors that may affect these energy balances. Using radiotelemetry, we examined factors that affected the likelihood of diurnal activity of fishers (Martes pennanti) in north-central British Columbia, Canada. We assessed the

Richard D. Weir; Fraser B. Corbould



Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in far eastern Russia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in southern Khabarovskiy Kray (Khabarovsk area) and Primorskiy Kray (Vladivostok area) to investigate the occurrence of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. Survey findings ind...


Factors Negatively Affecting University Adjustment from the Views of First-Year University Students: The Case of Mersin University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative case study aims to investigate the most common factors that negatively affect adjustment to university and coping strategies used by first-year university students in the adaptation process from the viewpoint of first-year university students. The participants were 25 first-year university students from various faculties at Mersin…

Sevinç, Seda; Gizir, Cem Ali



Factors affecting physician visits in Chinese and Chinese immigrant samples.  


This study examines predictors of Western physician utilization using the Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use for Chinese elders who reside in Shanghai and immigrant Chinese elders who reside in the US Chinese elders are under-studied relative to their population size and in the US are known to underutilize the healthcare system. Underutilization is highly correlated with poor health and well-being. A unique dataset allowed us to examine predictors of physician utilization for Chinese elders who resided in different countries, in an effort to determine how being an immigrant affects utilization. One hundred and seventy-seven Chinese elders in Boston and 420 Chinese elders in Shanghai participated in the survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted separately for each sample. Predictors of physician visits for the Boston sample are insurance status, health, and social network, and for the Shanghai sample, use of Chinese medicine, health, and marital status predicted physician visits. We found that access to care variables significantly affects physician utilization for immigrant elders, and that Chinese elders in Shanghai utilize a bicultural system of care. The results indicate that in order to create effective healthcare practices for elder Chinese, alternative healthcare beliefs should be understood by Western physicians. PMID:17996348

Miltiades, Helen B; Wu, Bei



Host Factors That Affect Ty3 Retrotransposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The retrovirus-like element Ty3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrates at the transcription initiation region of RNA polymerase III. To identify host genes that affect transposition, a collection of insertion mutants was screened using a genetic assay in which insertion of Ty3 activates expression of a tRNA suppressor. Fifty-three loci were identified in this screen. Corresponding knockout mutants were tested for the ability to mobilize a galactose-inducible Ty3, marked with the HIS3 gene. Of 42 mutants tested, 22 had phenotypes similar to those displayed in the original assay. The proteins encoded by the defective genes are involved in chromatin dynamics, transcription, RNA processing, protein modification, cell cycle regulation, nuclear import, and unknown functions. These mutants were induced for Ty3 expression and assayed for Gag3p protein, integrase, cDNA, and Ty3 integration upstream of chromosomal tDNAVal(AAC) genes. Most mutants displayed differences from the wild type in one or more intermediates, although these were typically not as severe as the genetic defect. Because a relatively large number of genes affecting retrotransposition can be identified in yeast and because the majority of these genes have mammalian homologs, this approach provides an avenue for the identification of potential antiviral targets. PMID:15579677

Aye, Michael; Irwin, Becky; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Chen, Eric; Garrus, Jennifer; Sandmeyer, Suzanne



Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

SciTech Connect

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.



Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

SciTech Connect

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.



Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.  


This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds. PMID:24268675

Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W



Factors that affect adolescents' adherence to diabetes treatment.  


There is strong evidence suggesting young people with type 1 diabetes experience difficulties adhering to their treatment regimens. The purpose of this literature review is to identify reasons for a lack of compliance in adolescents to allow nurses to develop knowledge to help improve treatment adherence. A literature search was undertaken by searching databases using key terms and inclusion criteria identified. The three themes are: parental influence, peer influence and depression. Findings indicate parental influence may be the main contributing factor towards non-compliance; however, associations between themes imply non-compliance is a result of a combination of factors. Limitations have been highlighted from the articles reviewed and provide opportunity for future research. PMID:25671752

Cox, Laura; Hunt, Jane



Faculty self-actualization: Factors affecting career success  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the degree of relationship between four personal factors related to faculty growth and development, two environmental indices, and career success and satisfaction. Maslow's notion of self-actualization guided the construction of the personal indices of self-democraticness, support, tolerance, and trust; McGregor and Likert provided the theoretical bases for the environmental indices. The data came from the American Council

Robert C. Cares; Robert T. Blackburn



Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines individual factors influencing performance of 200 Israeli women-owned businesses. Whereas research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, especially in the United States and Europe, there are comparatively few studies of performance of women-owned businesses in non-OECD countries. There is evidence that social structures (work, family, and organized social life) vary among developed and developing countries

Robert Hisrich; Candida Brush



Socioeconomic, Cultural and Religious Factors Affecting Suicide Prevention in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of socio-economic, cultural, and religious factors influence patterns of and responses to suicide in the Asian countries involved in the Strategies to Prevent Suicide (STOPS) project. As a general rule, suicide rates are highest among relatively more prosperous countries, particularly those which have developed rapidly. Within these countries, suicide rates are highest for sub-groups that have remained socio-economically

Lakshmi Vijayakumar; Jane Pirkis; Tran Thanh Huong; Paul Yip; A. Seneviratne; Herbert Hendin


Factors affecting Irish potato pollen germination in an artificial environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of these studies has been to stress that certain factors of an artificial environment (such as, the ingredients\\u000a and pH of the culture medium, temperature, humidity,etc.) definitely influence the behavior of pollens; and, furthermore, that in an understanding of the reactions of pollens to handling\\u000a (in terms of viability), it must not be overlooked that proper handling methods

J. R. King; Titus M. Johnston



Factors affecting hexavalent chromium reduction in pure cultures of bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on the rate of Cr(VI) reduction by two organisms, Bacillus sp. (a new isolate), and Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300. Both organisms utilized glucose for Cr(VI) reduction under aerobic conditions. Higher Cr(VI) reduction rates were obtained with higher initial cell concentrations, but the specific rate (normalized against initial cell concentration),

Yi-Tin Wang; Changsong Xiao



Important Factors Affecting Biosolid Nitrogen Mineralization in Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosolid nitrogen (N) ammonification, followed by nitrification in soil, produces nitrate (), which is not only a plant nutrient, but also a contaminant for ground water. Determining the most relevant factors influencing mineralization will help to manage N in biosolid-treated soils. Biosolid application rate, biosolid carbon (C):N ratio, biosolid organic N content, biosolid type, soil organic N content, soil pH,

F. Er; M. Ogut; F. D. Mikayilov; A. R. Mermut



Factors Affecting Dynamic Populations (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan teaches students that populations are dynamic with identifiable characteristics and measurable growth patterns. Factors of population survival that are taught include immigration and emigration, environmental resistance, carrying capacity, and homeostasis. The lesson plan provides objectives, skills, time needed, a content outline, materials, and significant terms. The overarching goal is for students to develop an understanding of the interdependence of all organisms and the need for conserving natural resources.


Use of Human Factors Analysis for Wildland Fire Accident Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident investigators at any level are challenged with identifying causal factors and making preventative recommendations. This task can be particularly complicated considering that 70-80% of accidents are associated with human error. Due to complexities of the wildland fire environment, this is especially challenging when investigating a wildland fire-related accident. Upon reviewing past accident investigations within the United States Federal wildland

Michelle Ryerson; Chuck Whitlock



Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.



Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways.  


Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyamines and agmatine and, with secreted phosphoprotein 1, it affects cytoskeletal organization of trophectoderm. Arginine is critical for development of the conceptus, pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation and placentation. Conceptuses of ungulates and cetaceans convert glucose to fructose which is metabolized via multiple pathways to support growth and development. However, high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and foods may increase risks for metabolic disorders and increase insulin resistance in adults. Understanding endocrine disrupters and dietary substances, and novel pathways for nutrient metabolism during pregnancy can improve survival and growth, and prevent chronic metabolic diseases in offspring. PMID:25224489

Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory A; Wang, Xiaoqiu



Factors affecting accuracy and precision in PET volume imaging  

SciTech Connect

Volume imaging positron emission tomographic (PET) scanners with no septa and a large axial acceptance angle offer several advantages over multiring PET scanners. A volume imaging scanner combines high sensitivity with fine axial sampling and spatial resolution. The fine axial sampling minimizes the partial volume effect, which affects the measured concentration of an object. Even if the size of an object is large compared to the slice spacing in a multiring scanner, significant variation in the concentration is measured as a function of the axial position of the object. With a volume imaging scanner, it is necessary to use a three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm in order to avoid variations in the axial resolution as a function of the distance from the center of the scanner. In addition, good energy resolution is needed in order to use a high energy threshold to reduce the coincident scattered radiation.

Karp, J.S.; Daube-Witherspoon, M.E.; Muehllehner, G. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))



Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is presented to see whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet area. Significant differences between the two periods were demonstated. Current technological and operational economic perspectives were investigated in detail. Some conclusions are drawn to aircraft retirement policies.

Spencer, F. A.; Swanson, J. A.




Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate the purchase decision of Malaysian Generation Y and its association with brand concern, convenience concern, dependency concern, price concern, product feature concern and social influence concern. The data set is collected through self-administered questionnaire, and convenient non-probability random sampling method. A total of 125 samples was collected from Klang Valley, Malaysia. The

Karen Lim Lay-Yee; Bukit Jalil; Han Kok-Siew; Benjamin Chan Yin-Fah



Factors Affecting School District Performance Scores in Louisiana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between District Performance Scores (DPS) in Louisiana and (a) socio-economic status of students, (b) academic achievement using average ACT scores, (c) percentage of certified teachers, (d) district class size, (e) per pupil expenditure, and (f) percentage of minority students in…

Harrison, Ronnie



Factors affecting purchase intention on mobile shopping web sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore a conceptual model for analyzing customers' perceptions of using mobile commerce services for online shopping. This paper provides insights into consumer behavior, and the results have important implications for designers, managers, marketers, and system providers of mobile shopping (m-shopping) web sites. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An empirical investigation was carried out to

Hsi-peng Lu; Philip Yu-jen Su



Factors which Affect the Gelling Characteristics of Aluminium Soaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three methods of making aluminium soaps are described, and one, the metathetic reaction between a sodium soap solution and an aluminium salt solution, is discussed in detail. The effect of variations in manufacturing technique upon the gelling characteristics of the product is considered. Recent work by various investigators on the structure of aluminium soaps is reviewed, particularly in relation to

G. A. Parry; J. E. Roberts; A. J. Taylor



Factors Affecting Middle School Students' Reading Motivation in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed a triangulated mixed method to investigate reading motivation of Chinese middle school students in Taiwan. A total of 247 seventh grade students (122 boys and 125 girls) participated voluntarily by completing the Chinese Motivation for Research Questionnaire (CMRQ). Sixteen of the 247 students were purposely selected to…

Huang, SuHua



Factors Affecting Price Differences of Cattle in the Southwest.  

E-print Network

-1300 pounds) Figure 1. Trends in price : 4 - ferences between grada Equation 4-4 3 - . slaughter steers at Omaha. 8 0- b (1100-1300 ~ounds) . . . . . - . ing approximately 800 to 1,100 pounds averaged $1.18 during the 14-year period. This price..., lot size and season of the yea Estimates of price differences for these factors T~ n developed from two data sources: (a) the 1968 in~c*, c from purchases at auctions of a large order buying h and 1966-68 quotations from the firm and (b) average...

James, J. B.; Farris, D. E.



Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is reviewed in order to determine whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet era. Significant differences between the two periods are noted. New factors are identified and examined. Topics discussed include concern over current policies regarding deregulation, regulatory reform, and retroactive noise regulations; financing and compliance legislation; aging; economic environment and inflation; technological progress; fuel efficiency and cost; and a financial perspective of replacement decisions.

Spencer, F. A.



Factors Affecting Long-term Abstinence from Substances Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term\\u000a abstinence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence.\\u000a A random survey was conducted on 62 subjects from extended care units. All participants were male

Salah Elgaily Elsheikh



Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: factors affecting mortality rates.  


Outcome of 113 operations for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms were reviewed to determine the contribution of perioperative events to mortality rates. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors were examined with regard to their influence on early and late deaths. A mortality rate of 64% (72/113) was unrelated to age, gender, and preexistent medical conditions. Death within 48 hours occurred in 42 of 72 patients (58%). Preoperative status, including cardiac arrest, loss of consciousness, and acidosis influenced early deaths (less than 48 hours) but not late deaths. Early deaths were also influenced by severe operative hypotension and excessive transfusion requirements. Late deaths (greater than 48 hours) occurred in 30/72 cases (42%) at a mean of 24.6 +/- 22.9 days. Late death was related to postoperative organ system failure, specifically renal and respiratory failure, and the need for reoperation. The overall mortality rate was influenced by preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors. Postoperative renal failure was the strongest predictor of overall deaths. Survival after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm depends on intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as preoperative conditions. Late death, the greatest strain on resources, is independent of preoperative status. The thesis that some patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be denied operation to conserve resources is not supported by these data. Efforts to improve survival should focus on reducing intraoperative complications and improving management of postoperative organ failure. PMID:1960812

Harris, L M; Faggioli, G L; Fiedler, R; Curl, G R; Ricotta, J J



Factors affecting the relative age effect in NHL athletes  

PubMed Central

Background The relative age effect (RAE) has been reported for a number of different activities. The RAE is the phenomena whereby players born in the first few months of a competition year are advantaged for selection to elite sports. Much of the literature has identified elite male athletics, such as the National Hockey League (NHL), as having consistently large RAEs. We propose that RAE may be lessened in the NHL since the last examination. Methods We examined demographic and selection factors to understand current NHL selection biases. Results We found that RAE was weak and was only evident when birth dates were broken into year halves. Players born in the first half of the year were relatively advantaged for entry into the NHL. We found that the RAE is smaller than reported in previous studies. Intraplayer comparisons for multiple factors, including place of birth, country of play, type of hockey played, height and weight, revealed no differences. Players who were not drafted (e.g., free agents) or who played university hockey in North America had no apparent RAE. Conclusion We found little evidence of an RAE in the current NHL player rosters. A larger study of all Canadian minor hockey intercity teams could help determine the existence of an RAE. PMID:24869606

Parent-Harvey, Caroline I.; Desjardins, Christophe; Harvey, Edward J.



Factors affecting formation and rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms.  


Unruptured intracranial aneurysms represent a decisional challenge. Treatment risks have to be balanced against an unknown probability of rupture. A better understanding of the physiopathology is the basis for a better prediction of the natural history of an individual patient. Knowledge about the possible determining factors arises from a careful comparison between ruptured versus unruptured aneurysms and from the prospective observation and analysis of unbiased series with untreated, unruptured aneurysms. The key point is the correct identification of the determining variables for the fate of a specific aneurysm in a given individual. Thus, the increased knowledge of mechanisms of formation and eventual rupture of aneurysms should provide significant clues to the identification of rupture-prone aneurysms. Factors like structural vessel wall defects, local hemodynamic stress determined also by peculiar geometric configurations, and inflammation as trigger of a wall remodeling are crucial. In this sense the study of genetic modifiers of inflammatory responses together with the computational study of the vessel tree might contribute to identify aneurysms prone to rupture. The aim of this article is to underline the value of a unifying hypothesis that merges the role of geometry, with that of hemodynamics and of genetics as concerns vessel wall structure and inflammatory pathways. PMID:24306170

Bacigaluppi, S; Piccinelli, M; Antiga, L; Veneziani, A; Passerini, T; Rampini, P; Zavanone, M; Severi, P; Tredici, G; Zona, G; Krings, T; Boccardi, E; Penco, S; Fontanella, M



Factors affecting healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair  

PubMed Central

Rotator cuff repair has been shown to have good long-term results. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of repairs still fail to heal. Many factors, both patient and surgeon related, can influence healing after repair. Older age, larger tear size, worse muscle quality, greater muscle-tendon unit retraction, smoking, osteoporosis, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have all shown to negatively influence tendon healing. Surgeon related factors that can influence healing include repair construct-single vs double row, rehabilitation, and biologics including platelet rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cells. Double-row repairs are biomechanically stronger and have better healing rates compared with single-row repairs although clinical outcomes are equivalent between both constructs. Slower, less aggressive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated improved healing with no negative effect on final range of motion and are therefore recommended after repair of most full thickness tears. Additionally no definitive evidence supports the use of platelet rich plasma or mesenchymal stem cells regarding improvement of healing rates and clinical outcomes. Further research is needed to identify effective biologically directed augmentations that will improve healing rates and clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair.

Abtahi, Amir M; Granger, Erin K; Tashjian, Robert Z



Factors affecting healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.  


Rotator cuff repair has been shown to have good long-term results. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of repairs still fail to heal. Many factors, both patient and surgeon related, can influence healing after repair. Older age, larger tear size, worse muscle quality, greater muscle-tendon unit retraction, smoking, osteoporosis, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have all shown to negatively influence tendon healing. Surgeon related factors that can influence healing include repair construct-single vs double row, rehabilitation, and biologics including platelet rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cells. Double-row repairs are biomechanically stronger and have better healing rates compared with single-row repairs although clinical outcomes are equivalent between both constructs. Slower, less aggressive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated improved healing with no negative effect on final range of motion and are therefore recommended after repair of most full thickness tears. Additionally no definitive evidence supports the use of platelet rich plasma or mesenchymal stem cells regarding improvement of healing rates and clinical outcomes. Further research is needed to identify effective biologically directed augmentations that will improve healing rates and clinical outcomes after rotator cuff repair. PMID:25793161

Abtahi, Amir M; Granger, Erin K; Tashjian, Robert Z



Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Krypton Hall Thrusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of krypton as a propellant for Hall thrusters is attractive for NASA missions that require both high-specific impulse and high-propellant throughput. Due to its low molecular weight, the theoretical specific impulse for krypton is 20due to the lower sputtering yield and reduced fraction of multiply-charged ions. While investigators at other laboratories have observed reductions in krypton thruster efficiency

Richard Hofer; Peter Peterson; David Manzella; David Jacobson



Some factors affecting mass candling performance of eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The effects of five variables—time of work period, egg shell colour, backspin, belt speed and light source—on the shell egg candling performance of 12 professional candlers have been investigated under experimental conditions.2. A sample of 720 eggs was taken for detailed examination after each hour of candling, the samples being checked and scored for shell defects and inclusions as

A. Oosterwoud; J. E. R. Frijters; C. Davids



Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by Affecting Inflammatory Factors  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5) directly affects tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5) on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not affected. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were affected following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell) growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation. PMID:24895598

Koch, Lea A.; Strassburg, Christian P.; Raskopf, Esther



Short communication: Factors affecting coagulation properties of Mediterranean buffalo milk.  


The aim of this study was to investigate sources of variation of milk coagulation properties (MCP) of buffalo cows. Individual milk samples were collected from 200 animals in 5 herds located in northern Italy from January to March 2010. Rennet coagulation time (RCT, min) and curd firmness after 30 min from rennet addition (a(30), mm) were measured using the Formagraph instrument (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark). In addition to MCP, information on milk yield, fat, protein, and casein contents, pH, and somatic cell count (SCC) was available. Sources of variation of RCT and a(30) were investigated using a linear model that included fixed effects of herd, days in milk (DIM), parity, fat content, casein content (only for a(30)), and pH. The coefficient of determination was 51% for RCT and 48% for a(30). The most important sources of variation of MCP were the herd and pH effects, followed by DIM and fat content for RCT, and casein content for a(30). The relevance of acidity in explaining the variation of both RCT and a(30), and of casein content in explaining that of a(30), confirmed previous studies on dairy cows. Although future research is needed to investigate the effect of these sources of variation on cheese yield, findings from the present study suggest that casein content and acidity may be used as indicator traits to improve technological properties of buffalo milk. PMID:22459819

Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Gotet, C Cipolat; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G



Investigation of Demographic Properties and Motivation Factors of Physics Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific and technological developments resulted in an increase in the requirement of education in the society. In addition to this, the expectations from teachers differed and the need for more qualified teachers also increased. One of the factors affecting the quality of teachers is their motivation. In this research, it was aimed to reveal…

Guzel, Hatice



Factors affecting mechanical properties of biomass pellet from compost.  


Effectiveness of a densification process to create strong and durable bonding in pellets can be determined by testing the mechanical properties such as compressive strength (CS) and durability. Mechanical properties of pellet from composted municipal solid waste were determined at different raw material and densification conditions. Ground compost samples were compressed with three levels of moisture content (35%, 40% and 45% (wb)), piston compaction speed (2, 6 and 10 mm/s), die length (8, 10 and 12mm) and raw material particle size (0.3, 0.9 and 1.5mm) into cylindrical pellets utilizing opened-end dies under axial stress from a vertical piston applied by a hydraulic press. The effects of independent variables on mechanical properties were determined using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (BBD). All independent variables affected the durability significantly. However, different piston speed and die length not produce any significant difference on CS of pellets. Also in this research the electron photography method was used to identify the binding mechanism of compost particles. PMID:24600888

Zafari, A; Kianmehr, M H



Factors affecting areas contributing recharge to wells in shallow aquifers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The source of water to wells is ultimately the location where the water flowing to a well enters the boundary surface of the ground-water system. In ground-water systems that receive most of their water from areal recharge, the location of the water entering the ground-water system is at the water table. The area contributing recharge to a discharging well is the surface area that defines the location of the water entering the ground-water system at the water table that flows to the well and is eventually discharged from the well. The calculation of areas contributing recharge to wells is complex because flow paths in ground-water systems change in response to development, and the aquifer material in ground-water systems is heterogeneous and is hidden from direct observation . Hypothetical experiments were undertaken to show the complexities in the delineation of areas contributing recharge to wells. Four different 'cases' are examined to demonstrate the effect of different conceptualized aquifer frameworks on deterministically calculated areas contributing recharge. The main conclusion drawn from the experiments is that, in order to understand the cause and effect relations that affect the quality of water derived from wells, the importance and nature of the variability in the ground-waterflow system must be considered and accounted for in any efforts to 'protect' the water supply.

Reilly, Thomas E.; Pollock, David W.



Factors affecting successful endoscopic sclerotherapy for oesophageal varices.  

PubMed Central

Forty patients with bleeding oesophageal varices were studied during treatment by endoscopic sclerotherapy to discover what factors determine successful outcome. Large varices required more injections than small varices for obliteration, and rebleeding during treatment occurred only in patients with large varices. Radiological studies with sclerosant contrast mixture showed that in two groups of varices of comparable size, intravenous sclerosant was significantly more effective, leading to thrombosis in 8/10 as opposed to only 3/10 after paravasal injection (p less than 0.05). Intravenous contrast was rapidly cleared upwards, whereas paravasal contrast formed a rounded opacity alongside the vein that persisted for approximately 90 minutes, responsible for the complications of oesophageal ulceration and stenosis. PMID:6352422

Rose, J D; Crane, M D; Smith, P M



Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.  


Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to <3 years of age. The voluntary vaccination mainly correlated positively with annual household income and mothers' positive opinions about voluntary vaccinations, but negatively with number of children. Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination. PMID:25529291

Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide



Hyperplastic forming: Process potential and factors affecting formability  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum has an outstanding potential for reducing the mass of automobiles. One of the key problems is that it is very difficult to form without tearing. This paper has two distinct goals. First, the authors argue in an extended introduction that high velocity forming, as can be implemented through electromagnetic forming, is a technology that should be developed. As a process used in conjunction with traditional stamping, it may offer dramatically improved formability, reduced wrinkling and active control of springback among other advantages. In the body of the paper they describe the important factors that lead to improved formability at high velocity. In particular, high sample velocity can inhibit neck growth. There is a sample size dependence where larger samples have better ductility than those of smaller dimensions. These aspects are at least partially described by the recent model of Freund and Shenoy. In addition to this, boundary conditions imposed by sample launch and die impact can have important effects on formability.

Daehn, G.S.; Vohnout, V.J.; Datta, S.



Factors affecting isotherm shape during Bridgman crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotherm shape is an important factor controlling the quality of Bridgman grown crystals. A convex (relative to the solid) isotherm will often lead to the best crystallinity but if segregation is important a flat isotherm is desirable. A thermal model is used to establish the effects of temperature dependent conductivity, ampoule transparency and furnace temperature profile on heat flows and temperature distributions in the growing crystal. The shape of the first-to-freeze isotherm is found to depend on the furnace profile and the way heat is lost from the base of the melt. A convex isotherm requires a shallow profile and high end losses. As growth progresses end losses are less important and the growth isotherm shape is determined by the crystal-melt conductivity and the furnace profile.

Jones, C. L.; Capper, P.; Gosney, J. J.; Kenworthy, I.



Factors affecting the healing of the perineum following surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study was to establish patient and procedural factors associated with the development of an unhealed perineum in patients undergoing a proctectomy or excision of an ileoanal pouch. Methods A review of 194 case notes for procedures performed between 1997 and 2009 was carried out. All patients had at least 12 months’ follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in 16 parameters. For those patients who developed an unhealed perineum, Cox regression analysis was performed to establish healing over a 12-month period. Results Two hundred patients were included in the study, of which six had unknown wound status and were subsequently excluded. This left 194 study patients. Of these, 86 (44%) achieved primary wound healing with a fully healed perineum and 108 (56%) experienced primary wound failure. With reference to the latter, 63 (58%) healed by 12 months. Comparing patients with an initially intact perineum with those with initial wound failure showed pre-existing sepsis was highly relevant (odds ratio: 4.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.16–8.62, p<0.001). In patients who had an unhealed perineum initially, perineal sepsis and surgical treatment were both significantly associated with time to healing (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31–0.93, p=0.03; and HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21–0.84, p=0.01). Conclusions The presence of pre-existing perineal sepsis is associated with an unhealed perineum following proctectomy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD surgery. Further studies are indicated to establish perineal sepsis as a causative factor. PMID:23676808

Jones, M; Bassett, P; Phillips, R



Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.  


Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja



Socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors affecting children's exposure to VOCs in urban areas in Korea.  


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to cause adverse health effects. We investigated the relationships between children's VOC exposure and socioeconomic and human activity factors with passive personal samplers, questionnaires, and time-activity diaries (TAD). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.1, and the results were organized using SigmaPlot 8.0 software. Chemicals such as benzene, toluene, 2-butanone, ethylbenzene, xylene, chloroform, n-hexane, heptane, and some kinds of decanes, which are known to adversely affect public health, were identified in measured samples. These were mainly emitted from outdoor sources (e.g., vehicular traffic) or indoor sources (e.g., household activities such as cooking and cleaning) or both. We concluded that region was the most important socioeconomic factor affecting children's VOC exposure, and the significant compounds were n-hexane (p = 0.006), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (p = 0.001), benzene (p = 0.003), toluene (p = 0.002), ethylbenzene (p = 0.020), m-, p-xylene (p = 0.014), dodecane (p = 0.003), and hexadecane (p = 0.001). Parental education, year of home construction and type of housing were also slightly correlated with personal VOC exposure. Only the concentration of o-xylene (p = 0.027) was significantly affected by the parental education, and the concentrations of benzene (p = 0.030) and 2-butanone (p = 0.049) by the type of housing. Also, tridecane (p = 0.049) and n-hexane (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with the year of home construction. When household activities such as cooking were performed indoors, children's VOC concentrations tended to be higher, especially for n-hexane, chloroform, heptane, toluene (p < 0.05), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, benzene, dodecane, and hexadecane (p < 0.01). However, smoking had a significant effect for only dodecane, and cleaning had no impact on any VOC concentrations. Considering both socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors simultaneously, socioeconomic factors such as region had a greater effect on children's VOC exposures than indoor activities. From this study, we can suggest that socioeconomic factors as well as environmental factors should be considered when formulating environmental policy to protect children's health. PMID:20145896

Byun, Hyaejeong; Ryu, Kyongnam; Jang, Kyungjo; Bae, Hyunjoo; Kim, Dongjin; Shin, Hosung; Chu, Jangmin; Yoon, Chungsik



Assessment of Cultivation Factors that Affect Biomass and Geraniol Production in Transgenic Tobacco Cell Suspension Cultures  

PubMed Central

A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ?5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources. PMID:25117009

Vasilev, Nikolay; Schmitz, Christian; Grömping, Ulrike; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan



Factors affecting exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide in adult cigarette smokers.  


Exposure to cigarette smoke among smokers is highly variable. This variability has been attributed to differences in smoking behavior as measured by smoking topography, as well as other behavioral and subjective aspects of smoking. The objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting smoke exposure as estimated by biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide (CO). In a multi-center cross-sectional study of 3585 adult smokers and 1077 adult nonsmokers, exposure to nicotine and CO was estimated by 24h urinary excretion of nicotine and five of its metabolites and by blood carboxyhemoglobin, respectively. Number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) was determined from cigarette butts returned. Puffing parameters were determined through a CreSS® micro device and a 182-item adult smoker questionnaire (ASQ) was administered. The relationship between exposure and demographic factors, smoking machine measured tar yield and CPD was examined in a statistical model (Model A). Topography parameters were added to this model (Model B) which was further expanded (Model C) by adding selected questions from the ASQ identified by a data reduction process. In all the models, CPD was the most important and highest ranking factor determining daily exposure. Other statistically significant factors were number of years smoked, questions related to morning smoking, topography and tar yield categories. In conclusion, the models investigated in this analysis, explain about 30-40% of variability in exposure to nicotine and CO. PMID:21798300

Muhammad-Kah, Raheema; Liang, Qiwei; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Mendes, Paul E; Roethig, Hans J; Sarkar, Mohamadi



Regional analysis of factors affecting visual air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Park Service, Visibility Research Center, and University of California at Davis are currently operating a monitoring program in national parks and monuments throughout much of the western United States. Project VIEW, the Visibility Investigative Experiment in the West, includes measurement of visibility parameters using manual telephotometers, and measurement of particle concentrations averaged over 72 h. Variation of these parameters occurs in both space and time. To better understand these variations, several techniques including principal component analysis and data comparisons among sites are applied to Fall, 1979 data for much of the network. Then the Grand Canyon is chosen for additional analysis. Best and worst case visibility days are determined and compared with particle concentrations. Finally, hypothetical causes for visibility reduction are further verified by computing wind trajectories back in time for these special case days. Highlights of this preliminary investigation include evidence that fine sulfur and fine particles are responsible for visibility variation at the VIEW sites; that fine particle copper may be suitable as a tracer for copper smelter impact and that at the Grand Canyon, the majority of trajectories for days of visibility greater than 310km come from the north and west, over Utah and Nevada.

Pitchford, Ann; Pitchford, Marc; Malm, William; Flocchini, Robert; Cahill, Thomas; Walther, Eric


Factors that affect Pickering emulsions stabilized by graphene oxide.  


Stable Pickering emulsions were prepared using only graphene oxide (GO) as a stabilizer, and the effects of the type of oil, the sonication time, the GO concentration, the oil/water ratio, and the pH value on the stability, type, and morphology of these emulsions were investigated. In addition, the effects of salt and the extent of GO reduction on emulsion formation and stability were studied and discussed. The average droplet size decreased with sonication time and with GO concentration, and the emulsions tended to achieve good stability at intermediate oil/water ratios and at low pH values. In all solvents, the emulsions were of the oil-in-water type, but interestingly, some water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) multiple emulsion droplets were also observed with low GO concentrations, low pH values, high oil/water ratios, high salt concentrations, or moderately reduced GO in the benzyl chloride-water system. A Pickering emulsion stabilized by Ag/GO was also prepared, and its catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol was investigated. This research paves the way for the fabrication of graphene-based functional materials with novel nanostructures and microstructures. PMID:23647467

He, Yongqiang; Wu, Fei; Sun, Xiying; Li, Ruqiang; Guo, Yongqin; Li, Chuanbao; Zhang, Lu; Xing, Fubao; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping



Factors affecting the Nd3+ (REE3+) luminescence of minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, possibilities and limits of the application of REE3+ luminescence (especially the Nd3+ 4F3/2 ? 4I9/2 emission) as structural probe are evaluated. Important factors controlling the Nd3+ luminescence signal are discussed, including effects of the crystal-field, crystal orientation, structural state, and temperature. Particular attention was paid to the study of the accessory minerals zircon (ZrSiO4), xenotime-(Y) (YPO4), monazite-(Ce) (CePO4) and their synthetic analogues. Based on these examples we review in short that (1) REE3+ luminescence can be used as non-destructive phase identification method, (2) the intensities of certain luminescence bands are strongly influenced by crystal orientation effects, and (3) increased widths of REE3+-related emission bands are a strong indicator for structural disorder. We discuss the potential of luminescence spectroscopy, complementary to Raman spectroscopy, for the quantitative estimation of chemical (and potentially also radiation-induced) disorder. For the latter, emissions of Nd3+-related centres are found to be promising candidates.

Lenz, Christoph; Talla, Dominik; Ruschel, Katja; Škoda, Radek; Götze, Jens; Nasdala, Lutz



Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo



Experimental replacement of the inferior vena cava: factors affecting patency.  


To evaluate factors influencing graft patency in the venous system, we replaced the inferior vena cava (IVC) in 50 dogs. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene ( ePTFE ) grafts with external support were implanted into 32 animals while autogenous, spiral jugular vein grafts were used to replace the IVC in 18 dogs. 111In-labeled autologous platelets and 125I-labeled canine fibrinogen were utilized to evaluate early thrombus formation. A distal arteriovenous (AV) fistula significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased both platelet and fibrin deposition on ePTFE grafts 3 hours following implantation. Patency rate of 12 ePTFE grafts with a temporary AV fistula was higher (75%) than that of grafts without fistula (25%) at 3 months (P less than 0.05). Spiral vein grafts with fistula showed 91% patency at 3 months; without fistula patency was only 67%. Venograms confirmed patency in five grafts followed up to 6 months. Antiplatelet therapy resulted in 100% patency in ePTFE and vein grafts during its administration, and vein grafts maintained patency after discontinuation of antiplatelet treatment. Spiral vein grafts showed no decrease in cross-sectional area at 3 months, while the cross-sectional area of ePTFE grafts decreased significantly (59%). Distal AV fistula decreases platelet and fibrin deposition leading to early occlusion in ePTFE grafts and produces excellent patency in spiral vein grafts. Antiplatelet therapy appears to further improve patency. PMID:6729703

Gloviczki, P; Hollier, L H; Dewanjee, M K; Trastek, V F; Hoffman, E A; Kaye, M P



Defense Acquisitions: Factors Affecting Outcomes of Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the ACTD (Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations) program was started in 1994, a wide range of products have been tested by technology experts and military operators in realistic settings-from unmanned aerial vehicles, to friend-or-foe detection systems, to biological agent detection systems, to advanced simulation technology designed to enhance joint training. Many of these have successfully delivered new technologies to users. Though the majority of the projects that were examined, transitioned technologies to users, there are factors that hamper the ACTD process. For example: Technology has been too immature to be tested in a realistic setting, leading to cancellation of the demonstration. Military services and defense agencies have been reluctant to fund acquisition of ACTD-proven technologies, especially those focusing on joint requirements, because of competing priorities. ACTD's military utility may not have been assessed consistently. Some of the barriers identified can be addressed through efforts DOD (Department of Defense) now has underway, including an evaluation of how the ACTD process can be improved; adoption of criteria to be used to ensure technology is sufficiently mature; and placing of more attention on the end phase of the ACTD process. Other barriers, however, will be much more difficult to address in view of cultural resistance to joint initiatives and the requirements of DOD's planning and funding process.



Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred



Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites  

SciTech Connect

A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL.

Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.



Factors affecting the acquisition of plural morphology in Jordanian Arabic.  


This study investigates the development of plural morphology in Jordanian Arab children, and explores the role of the predictability, transparency, productivity, and frequency of different plural forms in determining the trajectory that children follow in acquiring this complex inflectional system. The study also re-examines the development of the notion of default over several years. Sixty Jordanian children, equally divided among six age groups (three to eight years), completed an oral real-word pluralization task and a nonsense-word pluralization task. The findings indicate that feminine sound plurals are acquired before and extended to the other plural forms. Productivity and frequency seem to shape the acquisition patterns among younger children, but predictability becomes more critical at a later age. Younger children use the most productive plural as the default form, but older children tend to use two default forms based on frequency distributions in the adult language. The theoretical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25158792

Albirini, Abdulkafi



Theoretical study of factors affecting ball velocity in instep soccer kicking.  


The objective of this study was to investigate the factors affecting ball velocity at the final instant of the impact phase (t1) in full instep soccer kicking. Five experienced male university soccer players performed maximal full instep kicks for various foot impact points using a one-step approach. The kicking motions were captured two dimensionally by a high-speed camera at 2,500 fps. The theoretical equation of the ball velocity at t1 given in the article was derived based on the impact dynamics theory. The validity of the theoretical equation was verified by comparing the theoretical relationship between the impact point and the ball velocity with the experimental one. Using this theoretical equation, the relationship between the impact point and the ball velocity was simulated. The simulation results indicated that the ball velocity is more strongly affected by the foot velocity at the initial instant of the impact phase than by other factors. The simulation results also indicated that decreasing the ankle joint reaction force during ball impact shifts the impact point that produces the greatest ball velocity to the toe side and decreasing the ankle joint torque during ball impact shifts the impact point that produces the greatest ball velocity to the ankle side. PMID:21908898

Ishii, Hideyuki; Yanagiya, Toshio; Naito, Hisashi; Katamoto, Shizuo; Maruyama, Takeo



Mechanisms and factors affecting the adsorption of sodium alginate onto modified clays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Algal organic materials (AOMs) are one critical factor affecting the efficiency of modified clays used for the mitigation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). This study was conducted to develop a deeper understanding of the mechanisms and factors affecting the adsorption of AOMs onto modified clays. Sodium alginate (polysaccharide) and kaolinite modified with polyaluminium chloride (PACl) were used as AOMs and modified clay model substances, respectively, and the effects of modifier dosage, contact time, solution pH and ionic strength were investigated through batch adsorption experiments. Kinetics revealed that the alginate adsorption rate was described well by a pseudo-second order model. PACl effectively enhanced the adsorption capacity of kaolinite and increased the adsorption rate, and the optimum additive amount of PACl was 5%. The experimental data fitted both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption equations well. The adsorption thermodynamics for alginate onto modified clays suggests that alginate adsorption is a spontaneous process. The adsorption of alginate onto modified clays was highly dependent on pH, with a decrease in adsorption observed with increased pH to 9.48, but the opposite was true above pH 9.48. Finally, adsorption increased with increasing ionic strength.

Lin, Yongxin; Cao, Xihua; Song, Xiuxian; Wang, Nan; Yu, Zhiming



Factors Affecting Public-Supply Well Vulnerability in Two Karst Aquifers  

PubMed Central

Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management. PMID:24841501

Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J



Factors affecting public-supply well vulnerability in two karst aquifers.  


Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (<10 years) groundwater. Vulnerability was demonstrated by the frequent detection of similar constituents of concern in both aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management. PMID:24841501

Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J



The KEEPS-Cognitive and Affective Study: Baseline Associations between Vascular Risk Factors and Cognition  

PubMed Central

Background Midlife vascular risk factors influence later cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The decrease in serum estradiol levels during menopause has been associated with cognitive impairment and increased vascular risk, such as high blood pressure (BP), which independently contribute to cognitive dysfunction and AD. Methods We describe the extent to which vascular risk factors relate to cognition in healthy, middle–aged, recently postmenopausal women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Cognitive and Affective Study (KEEPS-Cog) at baseline. KEEPS-Cog is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group design, clinical trial, investigating the efficacy of low-dose, transdermal 17?-estradiol and oral conjugated equine estrogen on cognition. Results The KEEPS-Cog cohort (N=662) is healthy and free of cognitive dysfunction. Higher systolic BP was related to poorer performance in auditory working memory and attention (unadjusted p=0.004; adjusted p=0.10). This relationship was not associated with endogenous hormone levels. Conclusions Lower BP early in menopause may positively affect cognitive domains known to be associated with AD. PMID:24430001

Wharton, Whitney; Gleason, Carey E.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Santoro, M. Nanette; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Taylor, Hugh; Naftolin, Frederick; Lobo, Rogerio; Merriam, George; Manson, JoAnn E.; Cedars, Marcelle; Miller, Virginia M.; Black, Dennis M.; Budoff, Matthew; Hodis, Howard N.; Harman, Mitchell; Asthana, Sanjay



Factors affecting intradiscal pressure measurement during in vitro biomechanical tests  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the reliability of intradiscal pressure measurement during in vitro biomechanical testing. In particular, the variability of measurements will be assessed for repeated measures by considering the effect of specimens and of freezing/thawing cycles. Methods Thirty-six functional units from 8 porcine spines (S1: T7-T8, S2: T9-T10, S3: T12-T11, S4: T14-T13, S5: L1-L2 and S6: L3-L4) have been used. The intervertebral discs were measured to obtain the frontal and sagittal dimensions. These measurements helped locate the center of the disc where a modified catheter was positioned. A fiber optic pressure sensor (measuring range: -0.1 to 17 bar) (360HP, SAMBA Sensors, Sweden) was then inserted into the catheter. The specimens were divided into 3 groups: 1) fresh (F), 2) after one freeze/thaw cycle (C1) and 3) after 2 freeze/thaw cycles (C2). These groups were divided in two, depending on whether specimens were subjected to 400 N axial loading or not. Ten measurements (insertion of the sensor for a period of one minute, then removal) were taken for each case. Statistical analyses evaluated the influence of porcine specimen and the vertebral level using a MANOVA. The effect of repeated measurements was evaluated with ANOVA. The difference between freeze/thaw cycles were analysed with U Mann-Whitney test (P?0.05). Results Without axial loading, the F group showed 365 mbar intradiscal pressure, 473 mbar for the C1 group, and 391 mbar for the C2 group. With 400N axial load, the F group showed intradiscal pressure of 10610 mbar, the C1 group 10132 mbar, the C2 group 12074 mbar. The statistical analysis shows a significant influence of the porcine specimen (p<0.001), with or without axial loading and of the vertebral level with (p=0.048) and without load (p<0.001). The results were also significantly different between the freeze/thaw cycles, with (p<0.001) and without load (p=0.033). Repeated measurement (without load p = 0.82 and with p = 0.56) did not show significant influence. Conclusions The results tend to support that freezing/thawing cycles can affect intradiscal pressure measurement with significant inter-specimen variability. The use of the same specimen as its own control during in vitro biomechanical testing could be recommended. PMID:25810751



Assessment of factors affecting industrial electricity demand. Final report (revision version)  

SciTech Connect

In Chapter 2, we identify those factors affecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity demand forecasts. We discuss how the lower energy prices of foreign producers affect domestic producers and how the growth in the number of substitutes for intermediate products such as steel and aluminum with plastics and composites affects the composition of production and, hence, the demand for electricity. We also investigate how the changing age structure of the population brought on by the baby boom could change the mix of outputs produced by the industrial sector. In Chapter 3, we review the history of the 1970s with regard to changes in output mix and the manufacturing demand for electricity, and with regard to changes in the use of electricity vis-a-vis the other inputs in the production process. In Chapter 4, we generate forecasts using two models which control for efficiency changes, but in different ways. In this chapter we present the sensitivity of these projections using three sets of assumptions about product mix. The last chapter summarizes our results and draw from those results implications regarding public policy and industrial electricity demand. Two appendices present ISTUM2 results from selected electricity intensive industries, describes the ISTUM and ORIM models.




The Caribbean Amblyomma Program: some ecologic factors affecting its success.  


The Caribbean Amblyomma Program has been operational for 8 years. However, owing to funding availability, some islands did not commence eradication activities until late 1997. During the past 2 years, 6 of the 9 islands (St. Kitts, St. Lucia, Anguilla, Montserrat, Barbados, and Dominica) under the program have attained the status of provisional freedom from the tropical bont tick (TBT). There are several administrative and technical reasons why the attainment of the program goals took longer than originally anticipated. This paper examines some of the ecologic factors that necessitated the prolongation of the treatment period and the recrudescence of TBT infestation in some islands. The introduction and subsequent spread of the cattle egret, Bulbucus ibis, in the 1960s and 1970s was most likely closely associated with the dissemination of the TBT in the region. At the national or island level, variations in land use are believed to have had a major impact on the eradication efforts in the different islands. Two islands, Antigua and Nevis, both opted out of sugar production several decades ago for economic reasons. Unfortunately, however, land from former sugar estates was not developed for other agricultural purposes and it became "unimproved free-grazing" areas for livestock. Thus, in both Antigua and Nevis, large numbers of livestock tend to become feral or free-ranging, making compliance with the mandatory treatment schedules impossible. In contrast, St. Lucia has large tracts of land allocated to banana plantations and St. Kitts to sugar plantations. Thus, feral or free-ranging livestock were rarely a problem in these islands. These differences in land use management are compared and discussed in relation to their perceived profound impact on TBT eradication efforts in the region. PMID:15604510

Pegram, Rupert; Indar, Lisa; Eddi, Carlos; George, John



Factors affecting levels of genetic diversity in natural populations.  


Genetic variability is the clay of evolution, providing the base material on which adaptation and speciation depend. It is often assumed that most interspecific differences in variability are due primarily to population size effects, with bottlenecked populations carrying less variability than those of stable size. However, we show that population bottlenecks are unlikely to be the only factor, even in classic case studies such as the northern elephant seal and the cheetah, where genetic polymorphism is virtually absent. Instead, we suggest that the low levels of variability observed in endangered populations are more likely to result from a combination of publication biases, which tend to inflate the level of variability which is considered 'normal', and inbreeding effects, which may hasten loss of variability due to drift. To account for species with large population sizes but low variability we advance three hypotheses. First, it is known that certain metapopulation structures can result in effective population sizes far below the census size. Second, there is increasing evidence that heterozygous sites mutate more frequently than equivalent homozygous sites, plausibly because mismatch repair between homologous chromosomes during meiosis provides extra opportunities to mutate. Such a mechanism would undermine the simple relationship between heterozygosity and effective population size. Third, the fact that related species that differ greatly in variability implies that large amounts of variability can be gained or lost rapidly. We argue that such cases are best explained by rapid loss through a genome-wide selective sweep, and suggest a mechanism by which this could come about, based on forced changes to a control gene inducing coevolution in the genes it controls. Our model, based on meiotic drive in mammals, but easily extended to other systems, would tend to facilitate population isolation by generating molecular incompatabilities. Circumstances can even be envisioned in which the process could provide intrinsic impetus to speciation. PMID:9533122

Amos, W; Harwood, J



Variation in barometric pressure in Melbourne does not significantly affect the BTPS correction factor.  


The conventional BTPS (body temperature and pressure, saturated with water vapour) correction factor varies with ambient barometric pressure (P(B)) and many lung function laboratories measure P(B) daily. The aim was to investigate whether a fixed value for P(B) could replace daily measurements. P(B) was measured daily over a 12-month period. The highest and lowest values in Melbourne in the last century were also recorded from data published by the Bureau of Meteorology. Using these P(B) values, the BTPS factor was determined for a range of spirometer temperatures and compared to the BTPS factors obtained using a fixed ambient pressure of 101.3 kPa. The mean (SD) P(B) measured over the 12-month period was 102.2 kPa (0.64) with a range of 99.9-103.6 kPa. The level of disagreement between the BTPS factor calculated using a P(B) of 101.3 kPa instead of the measured value was greater at lower temperatures. Over the extremes of P(B) during the last century (98.0-104.3 kPa) the use of a standard pressure (101.3 kPa) produced an error in the BTPS factor of affect the magnitude of the conventional BTPS correction factor and a fixed value, such as 101.3 kPa at sea level, can be used with little error. PMID:15363017

Johns, David P; Hartley, M Faizel; Burns, Graham; Thompson, Bruce R



Histopathologic factors affecting tumor recurrence after hepatic resection in colorectal liver metastases  

PubMed Central

Purpose Hepatic resection is a standard method of treatment for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). However, the pathologic factors of metastatic lesions that affect tumor recurrence are less well defined in CRLM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for recurrence of CRLM, focusing on histopathologic factors of metastatic lesions of the liver. Methods From January 2003 to December 2008, 117 patients underwent curative hepatic resection for CRLM were reviewed. Tumor size and number, differentiation, tumor budding, angio-invasion, dedifferentiation and tumor infiltrating inflammation of metastatic lesions were investigated. Results The mean number of hepatic tumors was 2 (range, 1-8). The mean size of the largest tumor was 2.9 cm (range, 0.3-18.5 cm) in diameter. The moderate differentiation of the hepatic tumor was the most common in 86.3% of the patients. Tumor budding, angio-invasion, and dedifferentiation were observed in 81%, 34%, and 12.8% of patients. Inflammation infiltrating tumor was detected in 6.8% of patients. Recurrence after hepatic resection appeared in 69 out of 117 cases (58.9%). Recurrence-free survival at 1, 2 and 5 years were 62.4%, 43.6%, and 34.3%. The multivariate analysis showed the number of metastases ?3 (P = 0.007), the tumor infiltrating inflammation (P = 0.047), and presence of dedifferentiation (P = 0.020) to be independent risk factors for tumor recurrence. Conclusion Histopathological factors, i.e., dedifferentiation and tumor infiltrating inflammation of the metastatic lesion, could be one of the risk factors of aggressive behavior as well as the number of metastases even after curative resection for CRLM. PMID:25025022

Park, Min-Su; Son, Sang-Yong; You, Tae; Suh, Suk-Won; Choi, Young Rok; Kim, Hyeyoung; Hong, Geun; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Park, Jae-Gahb



Investigating changes of electrical characteristics of the saturated zone affected by hazardous organic waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Picillo Farm, EPA Superfund Site, in western Rhode Island was an unauthorized disposal site of hazardous organic chemicals. Predominantly organic contaminants have entered an aquifer comprised of layered glacial deposits and fractured bedrock and spread past the site boundaries with groundwater flow. Hydraulic conductivities in the glacial deposits range over two orders of magnitude and fractures and faults in the granitic bedrock further complicate the spreading of contaminants. Monitoring wells delineate two plumes that extend towards a fault-controlled valley with lakes and wetlands; one to the northwest and the other to the southwest. In this investigation we studied the electrical characteristics of both plumes. One dimensional Schlumberger depth soundings were conducted along several profile lines over the plumes and compared to those over non-contaminated sections of the site. With regard to the southwestern plume, high formation factors (ratio of bulk layer to pore water resistivity) between 12 and 45 were observed compared to values between 2.5 and 7.7 measured over the non-contaminated sections. Also, high values (> 5) of vertical electrical anisotropy (ratio of geoelectrically determined depth to high resistivity bedrock to drilled depth to bedrock) were measured over the contaminated part of the site. These values are extremely high compared to other non-contaminated sites (range: 2 to 3) in glacial stream channels of southern Rhode Island. Geoelectric measurements were affected by lateral effects. However, the consistency of high formation factors (11 to 35) and high vertical anisotropies (3 to 5) over the southwestern plume in comparison to low formation factors (3 to 8) and vertical anisotropies (1 to 1.5) over non-contaminated sites represents a marked difference between both sites. Overall, the Schlumberger depth soundings are less susceptible to near-surface lateral inhomogeneities than expected from other geoelectrical methods. Also, the disadvantage of a 1D interpretation was compensated by estimating resistivity and thickness ranges within the concept of non-uniqueness using the Dar Zarrouk parameters (Maillet, R., 1947. The fundamental equations of electrical prospecting. Geophysics, 12(4): 529-556.). The results over the northwestern plume, i.e. an area with higher contaminant concentration than the southwestern plume, were mixed and showed no consistent trends. Predominantly reducing conditions, as indicated by the presence of soluble ferric (FeII) iron hydroxides in ground water samples, increased the electrical conductivity. This is believed to have compensated the effect of high formation factors on the bulk saturated layer resistivity within the affected area.

Frohlich, Reinhard K.; Barosh, Patrick J.; Boving, Thomas



Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke: Factors Affecting Exposure and Remediation  

PubMed Central

Thirdhand smoke (THS) refers to components of secondhand smoke that stick to indoor surfaces and persist in the environment. Little is known about exposure levels and possible remediation measures to reduce potential exposure in contaminated areas. This study deals with the effect of aging on THS components and evaluates possible exposure levels and remediation measures. We investigated the concentration of nicotine, five nicotine related alkaloids, and three tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in smoke exposed fabrics. Two different extraction methods were used. Cotton terry cloth and polyester fleece were exposed to smoke in controlled laboratory conditions and aged before extraction. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for chemical analysis. Fabrics aged for 19 months after smoke exposure retained significant amounts of THS chemicals. During aqueous extraction, cotton cloth released about 41 times as much nicotine and about 78 times the amount of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) as polyester after one hour of aqueous extraction. Concentrations of nicotine and TSNAs in extracts of terry cloth exposed to smoke were used to estimate infant/toddler oral exposure and adult dermal exposure to THS. Nicotine exposure from THS residue can be 6.8 times higher in toddlers and 24 times higher in adults and TSNA exposure can be 16 times higher in toddlers and 56 times higher in adults than what would be inhaled by a passive smoker. In addition to providing exposure estimates, our data could be useful in developing remediation strategies and in framing public health policies for indoor environments with THS. PMID:25286392

Bahl, Vasundhra; Jacob, Peyton; Havel, Christopher; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Talbot, Prue




E-print Network

PERCEIVED VISUAL AESTHETICS OF EMOTIONALLY EVOCATIVE HOMEPAGES: AN INVESTIGATION OF AFFECTIVE Results for Predicting Aesthetics with Demographics, Homepages, and Color Mappings 50 #12;vii LIST. .......................................... 31 Figure 3: MDS visualization for South Korean groupings of aesthetic adjectives........... 33

Zhou, Yaoqi


Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition, either formed during casting or deposited before casting on the surface of the rolls, melt superheat and gas atmosphere composition can have a significantly positive or negative effect on the achieved heat transfer rate. From an industrial point view, methods to improve interfacial heat transfer rates must be found, in order to increase productivity. The objective of this research project is to assess if it is feasible to improve heat transfer rates during solidification of steel in direct contact with a copper mold: (1) by the application of thin coatings on the mold surface; (2) by adding a reactive gas species containing sulfur in the gas shrouding where casting is performed. To address the former, solidification experiments were performed with the mold surface either kept uncoated or coated with coatings of different compositions. To address the latter, the experiments were performed in gas shrouding atmospheres with or without sulphydric acid. It was observed that the resulting heat extraction rates were improved by the application of certain coatings and by the addition of H2S to the gas atmosphere. These findings prove that the application of coatings and the use of small amounts of reactive gaseous species containing sulfur may be methods to increase productivity in strip casting. The effect of superheat and the effect of naturally deposited oxides (Mn-oxide) were also evaluated experimentally. A numerical study of the effect of the critical undercooling on the productivity of a twin-roll strip caster showed that the maximum allowable casting speed can be increased by increasing the critical undercooling, which in turns can be changed by changing the composition of the coating applied on the roll surface; this increase is significant when casting thicknesses are small (less than 1 mm). Finally, a procedure, based on Scheill's method, vaporization and liquation, to predict the composition of films depositing naturally during solidification, starting from the steel composition, is proposed.

Nolli, Paolo


Factors affecting temporal H2S emission at construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills.  


Odor problems associated with H2S emissions often result in odor complaints from nearby residents of C&D debris landfills, especially in the early morning. As part of a field study conducted on H2S removal ability using different cover materials, daily and seasonal H2S emissions through a soil cover layer were monitored at a C&D debris landfill to investigate factors affecting H2S emissions. H2S emission rates were not a constant, but varied seasonally, with an average emission rate of 4.67×10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1). During a the 10-month field study, as the H2S concentration increased from 140ppm to about 3500ppm underneath the cover soil in the testing cell, H2S emissions ranged from zero to a maximum emission rate of 1.24×10(-5)mgm(-2)s(-1). Continuous emission monitoring indicated that H2S emissions even changed over time throughout the day, generally increasing from morning to afternoon, and were affected by soil moisture and temperature. Laboratory experiments were also conducted to investigate the effects of H2S concentration and cover soil moisture content on H2S emissions. The results showed that increased soil moisture reduced H2S emissions by retarding H2S migration through cover soil and dissolving H2S into soil water. The field study also indicated that due to atmospheric dispersion, high H2S emissions may not cause odor problems. PMID:23968554

Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy



Factors affecting prepubertal growth in homozygous sickle cell disease.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of haematological indices, socioeconomic status, and morbidity in prepubertal growth in homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease. METHOD: Height, weight, and haematology were serially recorded in a cohort study of 315 children with SS disease from birth to 9 years at the sickle cell clinic of the University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. RESULTS: Height increment between 3 and 9 years correlated positively with total haemoglobin at age 7 years in boys but not girls. Attained height and weight at age 7 years correlated positively with haemoglobin and fetal haemoglobin in boys but not girls. Only the correlation between haemoglobin and weight showed a significant gender difference. Partial correlation analysis suggested that the effect of haemoglobin was accounted for by the effect of fetal haemolglobin and further analysis indicated that height correlated with F reticulocyte count (a measure of fetal haemoglobin production) in both sexes but not with the ratio of F cells to F reticulocytes (a measure of F cell enrichment). Growth was not significantly related to mean red cell volume, proportional reticulocyte count, alpha thalassaemia, socioeconomic status, or morbidity. CONCLUSION: A high concentration of fetal haemoglobin in boys with SS disease is associated with greater linear growth. It is postulated that in boys, low concentrations of fetal haemoglobin increase haemolysis and hence metabolic requirements for erythropoiesis, putting them at greater risk of poor growth. Differences in the relationship of haematology and growth between boys and girls with SS disease dictate that future analyses of growth take gender into account. PMID:8758125

Singhal, A; Morris, J; Thomas, P; Dover, G; Higgs, D; Serjeant, G



Wintertime factors affecting contaminant distribution in a swine farrowing room.  


An estimated 200,000 to 500,000 U.S. workers in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are at risk of adverse respiratory outcomes from exposures to indoor contaminants. In the wintertime, general ventilation is minimized in the Midwest due to high heating costs required to maintain indoor temperatures optimal for animal production. Pit fans typically operate to exhaust under-floor manure pits, but little other fresh air intake exists. Many operators believe that these systems are sufficient to reduce contaminant concentrations within the building during winter. Investigating whether these pit fans provide sufficient protection against classic CAFO contaminants during minimal wintertime ventilation was warranted. Direct-reading instruments were used to measure and record concentrations of multiple contaminants using both fixed-area and mobile contaminant mapping in a farrowing room during a Midwest winter. With the exception of CO, concentrations were significantly (p<0.001) higher with the pit fan off compared with those with the pit fan on. Additional analyses identified that significant changes (p<0.001) in mean room concentrations of respirable dust (decreased, 77% with pit fan off and 87% with pit fan on) and CO2 (increased, 24%) over the 5-hr study periods and that multiple fixed-area monitors rather than the much-used, single center-of-room monitor provided a more conservative (e.g., protective) assessment of room concentrations. While concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limits from OSHA or ACGIH for individual contaminants, recommended agricultural health limits from exposure-response studies suggested in the literature were exceeded for respirable dust, CO2, and NH3, indicating a need to consider personal exposures and control options to reduce contaminant concentrations in farrowing rooms. Pit fans reduced NH3 and H2S concentrations, but these fans may not be sufficient to control dust and eliminate the need for secondary exposure prevention methods. PMID:23548103

Reeve, Kelsie A; Peters, Thomas M; Anthony, T Renée



Biogeochemical factors affecting the presence of 210Po in groundwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The discovery of natural 210Po enrichment at levels exceeding 500 mBq/L in numerous domestic wells in northern Nevada, USA, led to a geochemical investigation of the processes responsible for its mobilization. 210Po activities in 63 domestic and public-supply wells ranged from below 1 mBq/L to 6590 ± 590 mBq/L, among the highest reported levels in the USA. There is little spatial or depth variability in 210Pb activity in study-area sediments and mobilization of a few percent of the 210Po in the sediments would account for all of the 210Po in water. Stable-isotope measurements indicate SO4 reduction has occurred in all 210Po contaminated wells. Sulfide species are not accumulating in the groundwater in much of Lahontan Valley, probably because of S cycling involving microbial SO4 reduction, abiotic oxidation of H2S to S0 by Mn(IV), followed by microbial disproportionation of S0 to H2S and SO4. The high pH, Ca depletion, MnCO3 saturation, and presence of S0 in Lahontan Valley groundwater may be consequences of the anaerobic S cycling. Consistent with data from naturally-enriched wells in Florida, 210Po activities begin to decrease when aqueous sulfide species begin to accumulate. This may be due to formation and precipitation of PoS, however, Eh–pH diagrams suggest PoS would not be stable in study-area groundwater. An alternative explanation for the study area is that H2S accumulation begins when anaerobic S cycling stops because Mn oxides are depleted and their reduction is no longer releasing 210Po. Common features of 210Po-enriched groundwater were identified by comparing the radiological and geochemical data from Nevada with data from naturally-enriched wells in Finland, and Florida and Maryland in the USA. Values of pH ranged from 9 in Nevada wells, indicating that pH is not critical in determining whether 210Po is present. Where U is present in the sediments, the data suggest 210Po levels may be elevated in aquifers with (1) SO4-reducing waters with low H2S concentrations, or (2) anoxic or oxic waters with extremely high Rn activities, particularly if the water is turbid.

Seiler, R.L.; Stillings, L.L.; Cutler, N.; Salonen, L.; Outola, I.



The possible factors affecting suicide attempts in the different phases of the menstrual cycle.  


This study was designed to investigate whether there is a relationship between the menstrual cycle and suicide attempts, and to determine the factors affecting suicide attempts in different phases of the menstrual cycle. The study sample included 52 women who were admitted to the emergency room because of a suicide attempt. The incidence of suicide attempts in menstrual follicular phase (MFP) was significantly higher than in other phases. No significant difference of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics was observed between MFP and the other phases. Also, hormone levels of patients who attempted suicide were not different from those of healthy control subjects. In spite of the fact that suicide attempts were often made in MFP, there was substantial difficulty in explaining why this frequency was different than other phases. Furthermore, the event may be linked to low estrogen and progesterone levels in this phase. It has, however, been thought that hormonal effects cannot be responsible alone for suicide attempts. PMID:15482575

Cayköylü, Ali; Capoglu, Ilyas; Oztürk, Isik



Factors Affecting on Mechanical Properties of Soft Martensitic Stainless Steel Castings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the factors affecting mechanical properties of soft martensitic stainless steel castings that have lower carbon contents and increased nickel contents of up to 6% compared with normal martensitic stainless steel castings. The effect of alloying elements and impurities on the microstructural features and tempering characteristics was considered in detail, with special reference to reverted austenite and temper embrittlement. The mechanical properties were also investigated, and it was shown that the best combination of strength and toughness is obtained when tempered at around 900K. Addition of Mo was shown to improve toughness degradation due to slow cooling from the tempering temperature. Lowering P and S contents leads to superior toughness and fatigue properties. The threshold stress intensity range was shown to decrease with increasing stress ratio, depending on P content.

Iwabuchi, Yoshitaka


Factors affecting the outcome of artificial insemination using cryopreserved spermatozoa in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).  


Artificial insemination (AI) is an important component of captive breeding programs for endangered species, such as the giant panda. The panda has been the subject of increasingly successful captive breeding programs involving a compilation of assisted breeding techniques, including AI using cryopreserved spermatozoa. AI implementation is currently hampered by a lack of understanding of the factors that may cause failure. We investigated factors influencing the probability of success of AI for 14 giant panda females housed at the China Center for Research and Conservation of the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) inseminated in a total of 20 instances using cryopreserved spermatozoa from 11 males currently residing in 6 different captive breeding institutions. One of the pandas was the oldest giant panda female to ever successfully conceive from AI (20.5 years old). The success of AI was significantly affected by the timing of AI in relationship to both timing of peak urinary estrogen of the female and percent decline in urinary estrogen between the peak level and the first AI attempt. Our results suggest that the window for successful AI in giant pandas may be narrower than previously suspected, although individual differences in rates of decline in urinary estrogen may reflect some degree of variation in this crucial window across females. Our results are consistent with recent research on pandas and other species that demonstrates the efficacy of cryopreserved spermatozoa for AI and highlights the need for more in-depth analysis of factors related to female physiology that may influence its success. PMID:21932329

Huang, Yan; Li, Desheng; Zhou, Yingmin; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Rengui; Wang, Chengdong; Huang, Zhi; Hull, Vanessa; Zhang, Hemin



Factors affecting the energy cost of level running at submaximal speed.  


Metabolic measurement is still the criterion for investigation of the efficiency of mechanical work and for analysis of endurance performance in running. Metabolic demand may be expressed either as the energy spent per unit distance (energy cost of running, C r) or as energy demand at a given running speed (running economy). Systematic studies showed a range of costs of about 20 % between runners. Factors affecting C r include body dimensions: body mass and leg architecture, mostly calcaneal tuberosity length, responsible for 60-80 % of the variability. Children show a higher C r than adults. Higher resting metabolism and lower leg length/stature ratio are the main putative factors responsible for the difference. Elastic energy storage and reuse also contribute to the variability of C r. The increase in C r with increasing running speed due to increase in mechanical work is blunted till 6-7 m s(-1) by the increase in vertical stiffness and the decrease in ground contact time. Fatigue induced by prolonged or intense running is associated with up to 10 % increased C r; the contribution of metabolic and biomechanical factors remains unclear. Women show a C r similar to men of similar body mass, despite differences in gait pattern. The superiority of black African runners is presumably related to their leg architecture and better elastic energy storage and reuse. PMID:25681108

Lacour, Jean-René; Bourdin, Muriel



Factors affecting vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust.  


We have quantified vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosol components including (1?3)-?-d-glucan (?-glucan), total fungal spores, and culturable fungal units. Furthermore, we have evaluated factors that might affect vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust. Investigated environments included greenhouses producing cucumbers and tomatoes, open fields producing cabbage, broccoli, and celery, and packing facilities. Measurements were performed at different times during the growth season and during execution of different work tasks. Bioaerosols were collected with personal and stationary filter samplers. Selected fungal species (Beauveria spp., Trichoderma spp., Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium brevicompactum) were identified using different polymerase chain reaction-based methods and sequencing. We found that the factors (i) work task, (ii) crop, including growth stage of handled plant material, and (iii) open field versus greenhouse significantly affected the workers' exposure to bioaerosols. Packing of vegetables and working in open fields caused significantly lower exposure to bioaerosols, e.g. mesophilic fungi and dust, than harvesting in greenhouses and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants. Also removing strings in cucumber greenhouses caused a lower exposure to bioaerosols than harvest of cucumbers while removal of old plants caused the highest exposure. In general, the exposure was higher in greenhouses than in open fields. The exposures to ?-glucan during harvest and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants were very high (median values ranging between 50 and 1500 ng m(-3)) compared to exposures reported from other occupational environments. In conclusion, vegetable growers' exposure to bioaerosols was related to the environment, in which they worked, the investigated work tasks, and the vegetable crop. PMID:22003240

Hansen, Vinni M; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Winding, Anne; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Madsen, Anne Mette



Factors Affecting the Fragmentation of Peptide Ions: Metal Cationization and Fragmentation Timescale  

E-print Network

The factors affecting peptide fragmentation have been extensively studied in the literature in order to better predict the fragment ion spectra of peptides and proteins. While there are countless influences to consider, metal cation binding...

Kmiec, Kevin



Factors Affecting Carbohydrate Production and the Formation of Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) by Diatoms  

E-print Network

, the efficiency of the biological carbon pump. The objective of this research was to determine how different factors affect carbohydrate production and the formation of TEP by diatoms, and their role in aggregation. Diatoms were grown in laboratory cultures...

Chen, Jie



Factors affecting total alkaloid and nitrate levels in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke)  

E-print Network


Krejsa, Beverly Blohowiak



Which Factors Affect the Success or Failure of Eradication Campaigns against Alien Species?  

PubMed Central

Although issues related to the management of invasive alien species are receiving increasing attention, little is known about which factors affect the likelihood of success of management measures. We applied two data mining techniques, classification trees and boosted trees, to identify factors that relate to the success of management campaigns aimed at eradicating invasive alien invertebrates, plants and plant pathogens. We assembled a dataset of 173 different eradication campaigns against 94 species worldwide, about a half of which (50.9%) were successful. Eradications in man-made habitats, greenhouses in particular, were more likely to succeed than those in (semi-)natural habitats. In man-made habitats the probability of success was generally high in Australasia, while in Europe and the Americas it was higher for local infestations that are easier to deal with, and for international campaigns that are likely to profit from cross-border cooperation. In (semi-) natural habitats, eradication campaigns were more likely to succeed for plants introduced as an ornamental and escaped from cultivation prior to invasion. Averaging out all other factors in boosted trees, pathogens, bacteria and viruses were most, and fungi the least likely to be eradicated; for plants and invertebrates the probability was intermediate. Our analysis indicates that initiating the campaign before the extent of infestation reaches the critical threshold, starting to eradicate within the first four years since the problem has been noticed, paying special attention to species introduced by the cultivation pathway, and applying sanitary measures can substantially increase the probability of eradication success. Our investigations also revealed that information on socioeconomic factors, which are often considered to be crucial for eradication success, is rarely available, and thus their relative importance cannot be evaluated. Future campaigns should carefully document socioeconomic factors to enable tests of their importance. PMID:23110197

Pluess, Therese; Jarošík, Vojt?ch; Pyšek, Petr; Cannon, Ray; Pergl, Jan; Breukers, Annemarie; Bacher, Sven



Which factors affect the success or failure of eradication campaigns against alien species?  


Although issues related to the management of invasive alien species are receiving increasing attention, little is known about which factors affect the lik