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Sample records for investigate radiation damage

  1. Soft X-Ray Microscopy Radiation Damage On Fixed Cells Investigated With Synchrotron Radiation FTIR Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianoncelli, A.; Vaccari, L.; Kourousias, G.; Cassese, D.; Bedolla, D. E.; Kenig, S.; Storici, P.; Lazzarino, M.; Kiskinova, M.

    2015-05-01

    Radiation damage of biological samples remains a limiting factor in high resolution X-ray microscopy (XRM). Several studies have attempted to evaluate the extent and the effects of radiation damage, proposing strategies to minimise or prevent it. The present work aims to assess the impact of soft X-rays on formalin fixed cells on a systematic manner. The novelty of this approach resides on investigating the radiation damage not only with XRM, as often reported in relevant literature on the topic, but by coupling it with two additional independent non-destructive microscopy methods: Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and FTIR Microscopy (FTIRM). Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells were exposed to different radiation doses at 1 keV. In order to reveal possible morphological and biochemical changes, the irradiated cells were systematically analysed with AFM and FTIRM before and after. Results reveal that while cell morphology is not substantially affected, cellular biochemical profile changes significantly and progressively when increasing dose, resulting in a severe breakdown of the covalent bonding network. This information impacts most soft XRM studies on fixed cells and adds an in-depth understanding of the radiation damage for developing better prevention strategies.

  2. Soft X-Ray Microscopy Radiation Damage On Fixed Cells Investigated With Synchrotron Radiation FTIR Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gianoncelli, A.; Vaccari, L.; Kourousias, G.; Cassese, D.; Bedolla, D. E.; Kenig, S.; Storici, P.; Lazzarino, M.; Kiskinova, M.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation damage of biological samples remains a limiting factor in high resolution X-ray microscopy (XRM). Several studies have attempted to evaluate the extent and the effects of radiation damage, proposing strategies to minimise or prevent it. The present work aims to assess the impact of soft X-rays on formalin fixed cells on a systematic manner. The novelty of this approach resides on investigating the radiation damage not only with XRM, as often reported in relevant literature on the topic, but by coupling it with two additional independent non-destructive microscopy methods: Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and FTIR Microscopy (FTIRM). Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells were exposed to different radiation doses at 1 keV. In order to reveal possible morphological and biochemical changes, the irradiated cells were systematically analysed with AFM and FTIRM before and after. Results reveal that while cell morphology is not substantially affected, cellular biochemical profile changes significantly and progressively when increasing dose, resulting in a severe breakdown of the covalent bonding network. This information impacts most soft XRM studies on fixed cells and adds an in-depth understanding of the radiation damage for developing better prevention strategies. PMID:25974639

  3. INVESTIGATION OF MICROSCOPIC RADIATION DAMAGE IN WASTE FORMS USING ODNMR AND AEM TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed project addresses DOE nuclear waste problems that are currently intractable without achieving a fundamental understanding of radiation effects on high level waste (HLW) forms. This project will investigate the microscopic effects of radiation damage in crystalline an...

  4. Atomistic investigation of Cr influence on primary radiation damage in Fe-12 at.% Cr grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandiarpour, A.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Arjhangmehr, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of Cr on the primary radiation damage in Fe-12 at.% Cr with different atomic grain boundaries (GBs). Four different GB structures, two twists and two symmetric tilt boundaries are selected as the model structures. The primary radiation damage near each GB in α-Fe and Fe-12 at.% Cr is simulated using Molecular Dynamics for 9 keV primary knock-on atoms with velocity vectors perpendicular to the GB plane. In agreement with previous works, the results indicate that the atomic GBs are biased toward interstitials and due to the reduction of ‘in-cascade’ interstitial-vacancy annihilation rates, vacancies accumulate in the bulk grains. The minimum defect production occurs when the overlap between cascade center and GB plane is maximum; in contrast, the number of residual defects in the bulk (vacancies and interstitials) increases when the overlap decreases. Moreover, we find that the presence of Cr hardly affects the number of residual defects in the grain interiors, and causes a Cr-enrichment in the surviving self-interstitial atoms in bulk during relaxation of the primary cascades—also in agreement with previous studies. Further, in order to study the effect of 12 at.% Cr on the energetic and kinetic properties of vacancies near the atomic GBs, we calculate formation energies and diffusion barriers of defects using Molecular Static and climbing-Nudged Elastic Band methods. The results reveal that the vacancies energetically and kinetically tend to form and cluster around the GB plane due to the substantial reduction of their formation energies and migration barriers in layers close to the GB center and are immobile on the simulated time frame (~ps).

  5. Multi-Timescale Investigation of Radiation Damage near TiO2 Rutile Grain Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Xian-Ming Bai; Blas P. Uberuaga

    2012-04-01

    Although grain boundaries (GBs) have been experimentally demonstrated to serve as sinks for absorbing radiation induced defects and improving the radiation tolerance of materials, the detailed atomistic interactions between defects and GBs leading to this enhanced tolerance are not well understood. In oxide ceramics the interactions are further complicated as defects can be charged and grain boundaries may exhibit space charge and charge dipole effects. Here, we use two atomistic modeling methods to examine the role of GBs in a model oxide system, rutile TiO2, in modifying defect production during irradiation events. The GB studied is a symmetric tilt GB with a rotation axis of [100] and a rotation angle of 15.25{sup o}. We use molecular dynamics to investigate defect production near the GB at both 300K and 1000 K and find that the damage production is sensitive to the initial distance of the primary knock-on atom (PKA) from the GB. We find three distinct regimes in which GBs have different effects on modifying defect production. Similar to GBs in metals, the GB absorbs more interstitials than vacancies at certain distances while this behavior of biased loading of interstitials diminishes at other distances. Further, we obtain the statistics of both interstitial and vacancy clusters 2 produced in collision cascades in terms of their compositions at two temperatures. We find that perfectly stoichiometric defect clusters (Schottky and anti-Schottky clusters) represent a small fraction of the total defect clusters produced. Moreover, a significant reduction in the number of interstitial clusters at 1000 K compared to 300 K is thought to be a consequence of enhanced migration of interstitials towards the GB. Finally the kinetic properties of certain defect clusters are investigated with temperature accelerated dynamics, without any priori assumptions of migration mechanisms. We find that small interstitial clusters become mobile at high temperatures while small vacancy

  6. Modifying Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanghee; McBride, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation leaves a fairly characteristic footprint in biological materials, but this is rapidly all but obliterated by the canonical biological responses to the radiation damage. The innate immune recognition systems that sense “danger” through direct radiation damage and through associated collateral damage set in motion a chain of events that, in a tissue compromised by radiation, often unwittingly result in oscillating waves of molecular and cellular responses as tissues attempt to heal. Understanding “nature’s whispers” that inform on these processes will lead to novel forms of intervention targeted more precisely towards modifying them in an appropriate and timely fashion so as to improve the healing process and prevent or mitigate the development of acute and late effects of normal tissue radiation damage, whether it be accidental, as a result of a terrorist incident, or of therapeutic treatment of cancer. Here we attempt to discuss some of the non-free radical scavenging mechanisms that modify radiation responses and comment on where we see them within a conceptual framework of an evolving radiation-induced lesion. PMID:20583981

  7. Theoretical versus Ex Vivo Assessment of Radiation Damage Repair: An Investigation in Normal Breast Tissue.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Martin A; Dhal, Bipina; Prunster, Janelle; McLaren, Sally; Zeps, Nikolajs; House, Michael; Reniers, Brigitte; Verhaegen, Frank; Corica, Tammy; Saunders, Christobel; Joseph, David J

    2016-04-01

    In vivo validation of models of DNA damage repair will enable their use for optimizing clinical radiotherapy. In this study, a theoretical assessment was made of DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction in normal breast tissue after intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT), which is now an accepted form of adjuvant radiotherapy for selected patients with early breast cancer. DSB rates and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) were calculated as a function of dose, radiation quality and dose rate, each varying based on the applicator size used during IORT. The spectra of primary electrons in breast tissue adjacent to each applicator were calculated using measured X-ray spectra and Monte Carlo methods, and were used to inform a Monte Carlo damage simulation code. In the absence of repair, asymptotic RBE values (relative to (60)Co) were approximately 1.5. Beam-quality changes led to only minor variations in RBE among applicators, though differences in dose rate and overall dose delivery time led to larger variations and a rapid decrease in RBE. An experimental assessment of DSB induction was performed ex vivo using pre- and postirradiation tissue samples from patients receiving breast intraoperative radiation therapy. Relative DSB rates were assessed via γ-H2AX immunohistochemistry using proportional staining. Maximum-likelihood parameter estimation yielded a DSB repair halftime of 25.9 min (95% CI, 21.5-30.4 min), although the resulting model was not statistically distinguishable from one where there was no change in DSB yield among patients. Although the model yielded an in vivo repair halftime of the order of previous estimates for in vitro repair halftimes, we cannot conclude that it is valid in this context. This study highlights some of the uncertainties inherent in population analysis of ex vivo samples, and of the quantitative limitations of immunohistochemistry for assessment of DSB repair. PMID:27023258

  8. A computational investigation on radiation damage and activation of structural material for C-ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tairan; Shen, Fei; Yin, Wen; Yu, Quanzhi; Liang, Tianjiao

    2015-11-01

    The C-ADS (China Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System) project, which aims at transmuting high-level radiotoxic waste (HLW) and power generation, is now in the research and development stage. In this paper, a simplified ADS model is set up based on the IAEA Th-ADS benchmark calculation model, then the radiation damage as well as the residual radioactivity of the structural material are estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. The peak displacement production rate, gas productions, activity and residual dose rate of the structural components like beam window and outer casing of subcritical reactor core are calculated. The calculation methods and the corresponding results provide the basic reference for making reasonable predictions for the lifetime and maintenance operations of the structural material of C-ADS.

  9. Radiation Damage Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The availability of data regarding the radiation behavior of GaAs and silicon solar cells is discussed as well as efforts to provide sufficient information. Other materials are considered too immature for reasonable radiation evaluation. The lack of concern over the possible catastrophic radiation degradation in cascade cells is a potentially serious problem. Lithium counterdoping shows potential for removing damage in irradiated P-type material, although initial efficiencies are not comparable to current state of the art. The possibility of refining the lithium doping method to maintain high initial efficiencies and combining it with radiation tolerant structures such as thin BSF cells or vertical junction cells could provide a substantial improvement in EOL efficiencies. Laser annealing of junctions, either those formed ion implantation or diffusion, may not only improve initial cell performance but might also reduce the radiation degradation rate.

  10. Impurity Radiation From The LHCD Launcher During Operation In JET And Investigation Of Launcher Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kirov, K.K.; Mailloux, J.

    2005-09-26

    In this study, the most likely causes of the enhanced radiation in front of the LHCD launcher are investigated: fast ions from the warm plasma, fast electrons parasitically accelerated in front of the grill and arcs. Evidence for the presence of each of these mechanisms is discussed. The experimental conditions favouring the appearance of these phenomena and their impact on the launcher have also been highlighted.

  11. Thermal damage in Westerly granite investigated by means of Synchrotron radiation based microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusseis, F.; Schrank, C. E.; Liu, J.

    2012-04-01

    During heating of rocks, material- and orientation induced differences in the thermal expansivity and elastic behavior cause mismatch and heterogeneous stresses between expanding grains. Given sufficient heating, these thermal-elastic stresses cause inelastic deformation, mostly extensive cracking. A special case of thermally induced deformation in natural rocks is the decrepitation of fluid inclusions. Westerly granite, from Maine (USA) is often used as 'model granite' in rock deformation experiments. A number of these experiments investigate the effects of heating on the granite's bulk properties, in particular its strength, elastic properties, and permeability (e.g., Fredrich & Wong, 1986, Wang et al., 1989, Nasseri et al., 2007). Most thermally induced deformation is ascribed to the formation of grain boundary- and intragranular cracks. The contribution of decrepitating fluid inclusions is rarely considered (Hall & Bodnar, 1989). The relative importance of both deformation processes remains to be quantified. This contribution reports on a heating experiment conducted inside a microtomograph at sector 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (USA). We heated an unconfined 1 mm diameter, 8 mm long cylinder of Westerly granite in 15 K intervals from room temperature to 668 K. During heating, we acquired 26 three-dimensional microtomographic datasets documenting the evolution of the sample over the entire temperature span with sub-micron resolution. These data permit the most detailed temperature-resolved documentation of thermal cracking and fluid inclusion decrepitation to date. We examine (a) how absolute temperature affects the mechanisms by which thermal damage is accommodated in Westerly granite; (b) the evolution of geometrical characteristics of thermal damage; and (c) the effects of a retrograde overprint on deformation localisation. Fredrich & Wong (1986), JGR 91/B12, 12743-12764. Hall & Bodnar (1989), Tectonophysics 168, 283-296. Nasseri et al. (2007), Int J

  12. Investigation of microscopic radiation damage in waste forms using ODNMR and AEM techniques. (EMSP Project Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G.; Luo, J.; Beitz, J.; Li, S.; Williams, C.; Zhorin, V.

    2000-04-21

    This project seeks to understand the microscopic effects of radiation damage in nuclear waste forms. The authors' approach to this challenge encompasses studies of ceramics and glasses containing short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting actinides with electron microscopy, laser and X-ray spectroscopic techniques, and computational modeling and simulations. In order to obtain information on long-term radiation effects on waste forms, much of the effort is to investigate {alpha}-decay induced microscopic damage in 18-year old samples of crystalline yttrium and lutetium orthophosphates that initially contained {approximately} 1(wt)% of the alpha-emitting isotope {sup 244}Cm (18.1 y half life). Studies also are conducted on borosilicate glasses that contain {sup 244}Cm, {sup 241}Am, or {sup 249}Bk, respectively. The authors attempt to gain clear insights into the properties of radiation-induced structure defects and the consequences of collective defect-environment interactions, which are critical factors in assessing the long-term performance of high-level nuclear waste forms.

  13. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Impurity ion implantation into silicon single crystals: efficiency and radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilov, V. S.; Chelyadinskii, Aleksei R.

    1995-03-01

    The ion implantation method is analysed from the point of view of its efficiency as a technique for doping silicon with donor and acceptor impurities, for synthesising silicon-based compounds and for producing gettering layers and optoelectronic structures. The introduction, agglomeration, and annealing of radiation-produced defects in ion-implanted silicon are considered. The role of interstitial defects in radiation-related defect formation is estimated. Mechanisms of athermal migration of silicon atoms in the silicon lattice are analysed.

  14. Spectroscopic properties and radiation damage investigation of a diamond based Schottky diode for ion-beam therapy microdosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Verona, C.; Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, G.; Magrin, G.; Solevi, P.; Mayer, R.; Grilj, V.; Jakšić, M.

    2015-11-14

    In this work, a detailed analysis of the properties of a novel microdosimeter based on a synthetic single crystal diamond is reported. Focused ion microbeams were used to investigate the device spectropscopic properties as well as the induced radiation damage effects. A diamond based Schottky diode was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition with a very thin detecting region, about 400 nm thick (approximately 1.4 μm water equivalent thickness), corresponding to the typical size in microdosimetric measurements. A 200 × 200 μm{sup 2} square metallic contact was patterned on the diamond surface by standard photolithography to define the sensitive area. Experimental measurements were carried out at the Ruder Boškovic′ Institute microbeam facility using 4 MeV carbon and 5 MeV silicon ions. Ion beam induced charge maps were employed to characterize the microdosimeter response in terms of its charge collection properties. A stable response with no evidence of polarization or memory effects was observed up to the maximum investigated ion beam flux of about 1.7 × 10{sup 9} ions·cm{sup −2}·s{sup −1}. A homogeneity of the response about 6% was found over the sensitive region with a well-defined confinement of the response within the active area. Tests of the radiation damage effect were performed by selectively irradiating small areas of the device with different ion fluences, up to about 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. An exponential decrease of the charge collection efficiency was observed with a characteristic decay constant of about 4.8 MGy and 1 MGy for C and Si ions, respectively. The experimental data were analyzed by means of GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. A direct correlation between the diamond damaging effect and the Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) fraction was found. In particular, an exponential decay of the charge collection efficiency with an exponential decay as a function of NIEL is observed, with a characteristic constant of about

  15. Chemical Protection Against Radiation Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaigne, Ernest

    1969-01-01

    Discusses potential war time and medical uses for chemical compounds giving protection against radiation damage. Describes compounds known to protect, research aimed at discovering such compounds, and problems of toxicity. (EB)

  16. Investigation of microscopic radiation damage in waste forms using ODNMR and AEM techniques. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G.

    1997-09-01

    'This project seeks to understand the microscopic effects of radiation damage in nuclear waste forms. The authors approach to this challenge encompasses studies in electron microscopy, laser spectroscopy, and computational modeling and simulation. During this first year of the project, efforts have focused on a-decay induced microscopic damage in crystalline orthophosphates (YPO{sub 4} and LuPO{sub 4}) that contain the short-lived a-emitting isotope {sup 244}Cm (t{sub 1/2} = 18.1 y). The samples that they studied were synthesized in 1980 and the initial {sup 244}Cm concentration was {approximately}1%. Studying these materials is of importance to nuclear waste management because of the opportunity to gain insight into accumulated radiation damage and the influence of aging on such damage. These factors are critical to the long-term performance of actual waste forms [1]. Lanthanide orthophosphates, including LuPO{sub 4} and YPO{sub 4}, have been suggested as waste forms for high level nuclear waste [2] and potential hosts for excess weapons plutonium [3,4]. The work is providing insight into the characteristics of these previously known radiation-resistant materials. They have observed loss of crystallinity (partial amorphization) as a direct consequence of prolonged exposure to intense alpha radiolysis in these materials. More importantly, the observation of microscopic cavities in these aged materials provides evidence of significant chemical decomposition that may be difficult to detect in the earlier stages of radiation damage. The preliminary results show that, in characterizing crystalline compounds as high level nuclear waste forms, chemical decomposition effects may be more important than lattice amorphization which has been the focus of many previous studies. More extensive studies, including in-situ analysis of the dynamics of thermal annealing of self-radiation induced amorphization and cavity formation, will be conducted on these aged {sup 244}Cm

  17. Nuclear Radiation Damages Minds!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Professors Ernest Sternglass (University of Pittsburgh) and Steven Bell (Berry College) have assembled cogent, conclusive evidence indicating that nuclear radiation is associated with impaired cognition. They suggest that Scholastic Aptitude Scores (SATs), which have declined steadily for 19 years, will begin to rise. Their prediction is based on…

  18. Radiation damage evolution in ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ramaswami

    2009-09-15

    A review is presented of recent results on radiation damage production, defect accumulation and dynamic annealing in a number of ceramics, such as silicon carbide, zircon and zirconia. Under energetic particle irradiation, ceramics can undergo amorphization by the accumulation of point defects and defect clusters (silicon carbide) or direct impact amorphization (zircon). Ceramics that resist radiation-induced amorphization have mechanisms to dissipate the primary knock-on atom energy, such as replacement collision sequences that leave the lattice undisturbed and low-energy cation site exchange. The presence of engineered mobile defects, such as structural vacancies in stabilized zirconia, can dynamically anneal radiation damage. Thus, defect engineering is a promising strategy to design radiation tolerance for applications such as nuclear waste disposal.

  19. STS-118 Radiator Impact Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, Dana M.; Hyde, J.; Christiansen, E.; Herrin, J.; Lyons, F.

    2008-01-01

    During the August 2007 STS-118 mission to the International Space Station, a micro-meteoroid or orbital debris (MMOD) particle impacted and completely penetrated one of shuttle Endeavour s radiator panels and the underlying thermal control system (TCS) blanket, leaving deposits on (but no damage to) the payload bay door. While it is not unusual for shuttle orbiters to be impacted by small MMOD particles, the damage from this impact is larger than any previously seen on the shuttle radiator panels. A close-up photograph of the radiator impact entry hole is shown in Figure 1, and the location of the impact on Endeavour s left-side aft-most radiator panel is shown in Figure 2. The aft radiator panel is 0.5-inches thick and consists of 0.011 inch thick aluminum facesheets on the front and back of an aluminum honeycomb core. The front facesheet is additionally covered by a 0.005 inch thick layer of silver-Teflon thermal tape. The entry hole in the silver-Teflon tape measured 8.1 mm by 6.4 mm (0.32 inches by 0.25 inches). The entry hole in the outer facesheet measured 7.4 mm by 5.3 mm (0.29 inches by 0.21 inches) (0.23 inches). The impactor also perforated an existing 0.012 inch doubler that had been bonded over the facesheet to repair previous impact damage (an example that lightning can strike the same place twice, even for MMOD impact). The peeled-back edge around the entry hole, or lip , is a characteristic of many hypervelocity impacts. High velocity impact with the front facesheet fragmented the impacting particle and caused it to spread out into a debris cloud. The debris cloud caused considerable damage to the internal honeycomb core with 23 honeycomb cells over a region of 28 mm by 26 mm (1.1 inches by 1.0 inches) having either been completely destroyed or partially damaged. Figure 3 is a view of the exit hole in the rear facesheet, and partially shows the extent of the honeycomb core damage and clearly shows the jagged petaled exit hole through the backside

  20. Radiation damage of germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pehl, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Energetic particles can produce interstitial-vacancy pairs in a crystal by knocking the atoms from their normal positions. Detectors are unique among semiconductor devices in depending on very low concentrations of electrically active impurities, and also on efficient transport of holes and electrons over relatively large distances. Because the dense regions of damage produced by energetic particles may result in donors and/or acceptors, and also provide trapping sites for holes and electrons, detectors are very sensitive to radiation damage. In addition to these effects occurring within the detector, radiation may also change the characteristics of the exposed surfaces causing unpredictable effects on the detector leakage current. Radiation-induced surface degradation has rarely, if ever, been observed for germanium detectors. The possibility of minimizing hole trapping in charge collection by the use of a high-purity germanium coaxial detector configured with the p (+) contact on the coaxial periphery is discussed.

  1. Investigation into the role of the cholinergic system in radiation-induced damage in the rat liver and ileum

    PubMed Central

    Özyurt, Hazan; Özden, A. Sevgi; Çevİk, Özge; Özgen, Zerrin; ÇadIrcI, Selin; Elmas, Merve Açıkel; Ercan, Feriha; Şener, Göksel; Gören, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    It has been previously shown that acetylcholine (ACh) may affect pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The role of the cholinergic system in radiation-induced inflammatory responses and tissue damage remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the radio-protective properties of the cholinergic system in the ileum and the liver of rats. Rats were exposed to 8-Gy single-fraction whole-abdominal irradiation and were then decapitated at either 36 h or 10 d post-irradiation. The rats were treated either with intraperitoneal physiological saline (1 ml/kg), physostigmine (80 µg/kg) or atropine (50 μg/kg) twice daily for 36 h or 10 d. Cardiac blood samples and liver and ileal tissues were obtained in which TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 levels were assayed using ELISA. In the liver and ileal homogenates, caspase-3 immunoblots were performed and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was analyzed. Plasma levels of IL-1β and TNF-α increased significantly following radiation (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) as compared with non-irradiated controls, and physostigmine treatment prevented the increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Plasma IL-10 levels were not found to be significantly changed following radiation, whereas physostigmine augmented IL-10 levels during the late phase (P < 0.01). In the liver and ileum homogenates, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were also elevated following radiation, and this effect was inhibited by physostigmine treatment but not by atropine. Similarly, physostigmine also reversed the changes in MPO activity and in the caspase-3 levels in the liver and ileum. Histological examination revealed related changes. Physostigmine experiments suggested that ACh has a radio-protective effect not involving the muscarinic receptors. PMID:24914105

  2. Damage thresholds for terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalzell, Danielle R.; McQuade, Jill; Vincelette, Rebecca; Ibey, Bennet; Payne, Jason; Thomas, Robert; Roach, W. P.; Roth, Caleb L.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

    2010-02-01

    Several international organizations establish minimum safety standards to ensure that workers and the general population are protected against adverse health effects associated with electromagnetic radiation. Suitable standards are typically defined using published experimental data. To date, few experimental studies have been conducted at Terahertz (THz) frequencies, and as a result, current THz standards have been defined using extrapolated estimates from neighboring spectral regions. In this study, we used computational modeling and experimental approaches to determine tissue-damage thresholds at THz frequencies. For the computational modeling efforts, we used the Arrhenius damage integral to predict damage-thresholds. We determined thresholds experimentally for both long (minutes) and short (seconds) THz exposures. For the long exposure studies, we used an in-house molecular gas THz laser (υ= 1.89 THz, 189.92 mW/cm2, 10 minutes) and excised porcine skin. For the short exposure studies, we used the Free Electron Laser (FEL) at Jefferson Laboratory (υ= 0.1-1.0 THz, 2.0-14.0 mW/cm2, 2 seconds) and wet chamois cloths. Thresholds were determined using conventional damage score determination and probit analysis techniques, and tissue temperatures were measured using infrared thermographic techniques. We found that the FEL was ideal for tissue damage studies, while our in-house THz source was not suitable to determine tissue damage thresholds. Using experimental data, the tissue damage threshold (ED50) was determined to be 7.16 W/cm2. This value was in well agreement with that predicted using our computational models. We hope that knowledge of tissue-damage thresholds at THz frequencies helps to ensure the safe use of THz radiation.

  3. Differential Processing of Low and High LET Radiation Induced DNA Damage: Investigation of Switch from ATM to ATR Signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The members of the phosphatidylinositol kinase-like kinase family of proteins namely ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) are directly responsible for the maintenance of genomic integrity by mounting DDR through signaling and facilitating the recruitment of repair factors at the sites of DNA damage along with coordinating the deployment of cell cycle checkpoints to permit repair by phosphorylating Checkpoint kinase Chk1, Chk2 and p53. High LET radiation from GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) consisting mainly of protons and high energy and charged (HZE) particles from SPE (Solar Particle Event) pose a major health risk for astronauts on their space flight missions. The determination of these risks and the design of potential safeguards require sound knowledge of the biological consequences of lesion induction and the capability of the cells to counter them. We here strive to determine the coordination of ATM and ATR kinases at the break sites directly affecting checkpoint signaling and DNA repair and whether differential processing of breaks induced by low and high LET radiation leads to possible augmentation of swap of these damage sensors at the sites of DNA damage. Exposure of cells to IR triggers rapid autophosphorylation of serine-1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates monomer formation of ATM. ATM kinase activity depends on the disruption of the dimer, which allows access and phosphorylation of downstream ATM substrates like Chk2. Evidence suggests that ATM is activated by the alterations in higher-order chromatin structure although direct binding of ATM to DSB ends may be a crucial step in its activation. On the other hand, in case of ATR, RPA (replication protein A)-coated ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) generated as a result of stalled DNA replication or during processing of chromosomal lesions is crucial for the localization of ATR to sites of DNA damage in association with ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP). Although the

  4. Undulator Radiation Damage Experience at LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhn, H. D.; Field, C.; Mao, S.; Levashov, Y.; Santana, M.; Welch, J. N.; Wolf, Z.

    2015-01-06

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has been running the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first x-ray Free Electron Laser since 2009. Undulator magnet damage from radiation, produced by the electron beam traveling through the 133-m long straight vacuum tube, has been and is a concern. A damage measurement experiment has been performed in 2007 in order to obtain dose versus damage calibrations. Radiation reduction and detection devices have been integrated into the LCLS undulator system. The accumulated radiation dose rate was continuously monitored and recorded. In addition, undulator segments have been routinely removed from the beamline to be checked for magnetic (50 ppm, rms) and mechanic (about 0.25 µm, rms) changes. A reduction in strength of the undulator segments is being observed, at a level, which is now clearly above the noise. Recently, potential sources for the observed integrated radiation levels have been investigated. The paper discusses the results of these investigation as well as comparison between observed damage and measured dose accumulations and discusses, briefly, strategies for the new LCLS-II upgrade, which will be operating at more than 300 times larger beam rate.

  5. Correlation between thermoluminescence and radiation damage in bismuth germanate

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, C.L.

    1985-02-01

    Thermoluminescence properties of bismuth germanate and their relationship to radiation damage characteristics have been investigated. Thermoluminescence and radiation damage in bismuth germanate display several similar properties including similar responses as a function of radiation dose, similar saturation levels, and similar decay times. Also a correlation was found between the thermoluminescence sensitivities and radiation damage sensitivities of four different crystals. The traps responsible for the radiation damage and those which store the thermoluminescence signal appear to be either closely related or actually the same traps. Four trapping centers can be seen in the thermoluminescence glow curves. The depth of the dominant trap is 1.1 eV. 10 references.

  6. Density Functional Theory Models for Radiation Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudarev, S. L.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory models developed over the past decade provide unique information about the structure of nanoscale defects produced by irradiation and about the nature of short-range interaction between radiation defects, clustering of defects, and their migration pathways. These ab initio models, involving no experimental input parameters, appear to be as quantitatively accurate and informative as the most advanced experimental techniques developed for the observation of radiation damage phenomena. Density functional theory models have effectively created a new paradigm for the scientific investigation and assessment of radiation damage effects, offering new insight into the origin of temperature- and dose-dependent response of materials to irradiation, a problem of pivotal significance for applications.

  7. Radiation damage in nanostructured metallic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kaiyuan

    High energy neutron and charged particle radiation cause microstructural and mechanical degradation in structural metals and alloys, such as phase segregation, void swelling, embrittlement and creep. Radiation induced damages typically limit nuclear materials to a lifetime of about 40 years. Next generation nuclear reactors require materials that can sustain over 60 - 80 years. Therefore it is of great significance to explore new materials with better radiation resistance, to design metals with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe. Such systems obtain high volume fraction of boundaries, which are considered sinks to radiation induced defects. From the viewpoint of nanomechanics, it is of interest to investigate the plastic deformation mechanisms of nanostructured films, which typically show strong size dependence. By controlling the feature size (layer thickness, twin spacing and grain size), it is applicable to picture a deformation mechanism map which also provides prerequisite information for subsequent radiation hardening study. And from the viewpoint of radiation effects, it is of interest to explore the fundamentals of radiation response, to examine the microstructural and mechanical variations of irradiated nanometals and to enrich the design database. More importantly, with the assistance of in situ techniques, it is appealing to examine the defect generation, evolution, annihilation, absorption and interaction with internal interfaces (layer interfaces, twin boundaries and grain boundaries). Moreover, well-designed nanostructures can also verify the speculation that radiation induced defect density and hardening show clear size dependence. The focus of this thesis lies in the radiation response of Ag/Ni multilayers and nanotwinned Ag

  8. Protein damage, radiation sensitivity and aging.

    PubMed

    Radman, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    This paper promotes a concept that protein damage determines radiation resistance and underlies aging and age-related diseases. The first bottleneck in cell recovery from radiation damage is functional (proteome) rather than informational (DNA), since prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell death correlates with incurred protein, but not DNA, damage. Proteome protection against oxidative damage determines survival after ionizing or UV irradiation, since sufficient residual proteome activity is required to turn on the DNA damage response activating DNA repair and protein renewal processes. Extreme radiation and desiccation resistance of rare bacterial and animal species is accounted for by exceptional constitutive proteome protection against oxidative damage. After excessive radiation their well-protected proteome faithfully reconstitutes a transcription-competent genome from hundreds of DNA fragments. The observation that oxidative damage targeted selectively to cellular proteins results in aging-like phenotypes suggests that aging and age-related diseases could be phenotypic consequences of proteome damage patterns progressing with age. PMID:27264559

  9. Investigation of switch from ATM to ATR signaling at the sites of DNA damage induced by low and high LET radiation.

    PubMed

    Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2013-12-01

    Upon induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR), members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like kinase family of proteins namely ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-PKcs, and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) maintain genomic integrity by mounting DNA damage response (DDR). Recent reports suggest that activation of ATM and ATR are oppositely regulated by the length of single stranded overhangs generated during end processing by nucleases at the break sites. These stretches of single stranded overhangs hold the clue for the transition from ATM to ATR signaling at broken DNA ends. We investigated whether differential processing of breaks induced by low and high LET radiation augments the phenomenon of switching from ATM to ATR kinase and hence a concomitant NHEJ to HR transition at the sites of DNA damage. 82-6 human fibroblasts were irradiated with 1 or 2Gy of γ-rays and particle radiation of increasing LET in order to increase the complexity and variability of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) structures. The activation kinetics of ATM and ATR kinases along with their downstream substrates were determined utilizing Western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. Our data provide evidence of a potential switch from ATM to ATR kinase signaling in cells treated with γ-rays at approximately 2h post irradiation, with induction and completion of resection denoted by Rad51 foci resolution kinetics and observed with a significant decline of phosphorylated ATR kinase 8h after IR. On the other hand, irradiation with high LET 600MeV/u (56)Fe (180keV/μm) and 170MeV/u (28)Si (99keV/μm) particles show a similar Rad51 foci decay kinetics, however, exhibiting prolonged resection, evident by the persistent phosphorylated ATM and ATR kinase until 24h post irradiation. This residual effect, however, was significantly reduced for 250MeV/u (16)O particles of moderate LET (25keV/μm) and absent for γ-rays. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that the transition

  10. Radiation damage effects in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachenko, Kostya; Dove, Martin; Salje, Ekhard

    2002-03-01

    Zircon, ZrSiO_4, is important for geology and geochronology, and has been proposed as a host material to immobilize highly radioactive materials from dismantled weapons and nuclear waste from power stations [1]. In these applications zircon is exposed to alpha-irradiation. Computer simulations have started to be employed to simulate radiation damage in zircon [2], but the origin and microscopic mechanisms of the most important structural changes in zircon - unit cell expansion and large macroscopic swelling at higher doses, strong shear deformation of the crystalline lattice, and polymerization of SiOn units [3], remain unknown. Here, we perform the molecular dynamics simulation of highly energetic recoils in zircon. Basing on the simulation results, we propose the simple picture of the density change in the damaged region that consists of the depleted and densified matter. We find that the experimentally observed structural changes originate from the interaction of the damaged region with the surrounding crystalline lattice: the shear of the lattice around the damaged region causes shear deformation and expansion of the unit cells. The polymers of connected SiOn polyhedra are most commonly present in the densified shell at the periphery of the damaged region. [1] R C Ewing et al, J. Mater. Res. 10, 243 (1995); W J Weber et al, B E Burakov et al, in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XIX, 25-32 and 33-40 (Plenum, New York, 1996); R C Ewing, et al in Crystalline Ceramics: Waste Forms for the Disposal of Weapons Plutonium, NATO Workshop Proceedings 65 (Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996). [2] B Park et al, Phys. Rev. B, 64, 174108 (1-16) (2001); J P Crocombette and D Ghaleb, J. Nucl. Mater., 295, 167 (2001); K Trachenko et al, J. Appl. Phys., 87, 7702 (2000); K Trachenko et al, J. Phys.: Cond. Matt., 13, 1947 (2001). [3] T Murakami et al, Am. Min., 76, 1510 (1991); H D Holland and D Gottfried, Acta Cryst. 8, 291 (1955).; W J Weber, J. Am

  11. Repair of radiation damage in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    The responses, such as survival, mutation, and carcinogenesis, of mammalian cells and tissues to radiation are dependent not only on the magnitude of the damage to macromolecular structures - DNA, RNA, protein, and membranes - but on the rates of macromolecular syntheses of cells relative to the half-lives of the damages. Cells possess a number of mechanisms for repairing damage to DNA. If the repair systems are rapid and error free, cells can tolerate much larger doses than if repair is slow or error prone. It is important to understand the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage because there exist reasonable amounts of epidemiological data that permits the construction of dose-response curves for humans. The shapes of such curves or the magnitude of the response will depend on repair. Radiation damage is emphasized because: (a) radiation dosimetry, with all its uncertainties for populations, is excellent compared to chemical dosimetry; (b) a number of cancer-prone diseases are known in which there are defects in DNA repair and radiation results in more chromosomal damage in cells from such individuals than in cells from normal individuals; (c) in some cases, specific radiation products in DNA have been correlated with biological effects, and (d) many chemical effects seem to mimic radiation effects. A further reason for emphasizing damage to DNA is the wealth of experimental evidence indicating that damages to DNA can be initiating events in carcinogenesis.

  12. Radiation damage of transition metal carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, G.

    1991-01-01

    In this grant period we have investigated electrical properties of transition metal carbides and radiation-induced defects produced by low-temperature electron irradiation in them. Special attention has been given to the composition VC[sub 0.88] in which the vacancies on the carbon sublattice of this fcc crystal order to produce a V[sub 8]C[sub 7] superlattice. The existence of this superlattice structure was found to make the crystal somewhat resistant to radiation damage at low doses and/or at ambient temperature. At larger doses significant changes in the resistivity are produced. Annealing effects were observed which we believe to be connected with the reconstitution of the superlattice structure.

  13. Radiation damage in barium fluoride detector materials

    SciTech Connect

    Levey, P.W.; Kierstead, J.A.; Woody, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To develop radiation hard detectors, particularly for high energy physics studies, radiation damage is being studied in BaF/sub 2/, both undoped and doped with La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd and Tm. Some dopants reduce radiation damage. In La doped BaF/sub 2/ they reduce the unwanted long lifetime luminescence which interferes with the short-lived fluorescence used to detect particles. Radiation induced coloring is being studied with facilities for making optical measurements before, during and after irradiation with /sup 60/C0 gamma rays. Doses of 10/sup 6/ rad, or less, create only ionization induced charge transfer effects since lattice atom displacement damage is negligible at these doses. All crystals studied exhibit color center formation, between approximately 200 and 800 nm, during irradiation and color center decay after irradiation. Thus only measurements made during irradiation show the total absorption present in a radiation field. Both undoped and La doped BaF/sub 2/ develop damage at minimum detectable levels in the UV---which is important for particle detectors. For particle detector applications these studies must be extended to high dose irradiations with particles energetic enough to cause lattice atom displacement damage. In principle, the reduction in damage provided by dopants could apply to other applications requiring radiation damage resistant materials.

  14. Gamma Radiation Damage in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chensen

    A theory for interpreting carrier removal in terms of trap production has been derived from the carrier distribution function, which provides a relationship between the carrier removal rate and trap production rates due to the radiation damage. The carrier removal rate is a function of trap production as well as Fermi level position. Also, the carrier removal rate depends on many parameters, which are the density of states of the valance band as well as the conduction band, density of doping impurities, temperature, location of donor and acceptor energy levels and location of trap energy levels. P-type and n-type silicon Schottky diodes are irradiated by cobalt 60 gamma rays. The experimental results show that the carrier removal rate is dependent on the initial carrier concentration. Carrier concentrations are determined by room temperature C-V measurements while the trap production rates are determined by DLTS from measurements from 50 K to room temperature. A model presented by Williams, et al. for the carrier concentration vs. fluence, has been rederived from simple semiconductor carrier statistical mechanics. This model has then been extended to yield an expression for the initial carrier removal rate which depends on the production rate of each defect trap level in the band gap. We have tested these models thoroughly for the first time by measuring the trap production rates by DLTS, and then, using this information to calculate carrier removal rate and carrier concentration vs. fluence, we have verified that the results of the model can explain these same relationships obtained experimentally by C-V measurements. We believe that this is the first time that DLTS results have been linked directly to such simple and useful measurements as carrier removal rate and carrier concentration vs. fluence in a convincing manner. The success of this procedure also suggests that there are no "hidden" levels or traps which contribute to carrier removal rate but which do not

  15. Investigating α-particle radiation damage in phyllosilicates using synchrotron microfocus-XRD/XAS: implications for geological disposal of nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, W. R.; Pearce, C. I.; Pimblott, S. M.; Haigh, S. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Pattrick, R. A. D.

    2014-12-01

    The response of mineral phases to the radiation fields that will be experienced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for nuclear waste is poorly understood. Phyllosilicates are critical phases in a GDF with bentonite clay as the backfill of choice surrounding high level wastes in the engineered barrier, and clays and micas forming the most important reactive component of potential host rocks. It is essential that we understand changes in mineral properties and behaviour as a result of damage from both α and γ radiation over long timescales. Radiation damage has been demonstrated to affect the physical integrity and oxidation state1 of minerals which will also influence their ability to react with radionuclides. Using the University of Manchester's newly commissioned particle accelerator at the Dalton Cumbrian Facility, UK, model phyllosilicate minerals (e.g. biotite, chlorite) were irradiated with high energy (5MeV) alpha particles at controlled dose rates. This has been compared alongside radiation damage found in naturally formed 'radiohalos' - spherical areas of discolouration in minerals surrounding radioactive inclusions, resulting from alpha particle penetration, providing a natural analogue to study lattice damage under long term bombardment1,2. Both natural and artificially irradiated samples have been analysed using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction mapping on Beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source; samples were probed for redox changes and long/short range disorder. This was combined with lattice scale imaging of damage using HR-TEM (TitanTM Transmission Electron Microscope). The results show aberrations in lattice parameters as a result of irradiation, with multiple damage-induced 'domains' surrounded by amorphous regions. In the naturally damaged samples, neo-formed phyllosilicate phases are shown to be breakdown products of highly damaged regions. A clear reduction of the Fe(III) component has been

  16. Seismic Radiation from Material Damage During Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Recent theoretical results on seismic representation from regions undergoing rapid material damage indicate that changes of elastic moduli can produce radiation that may be, in some cases, a significant portion of (or even larger than) the radiation from the standard moment source (Ben-Zion and Ampuero, 2009). The additional radiation is associated with a “damage-related source term” involving the product of the changes in the elasticity tensor and the total elastic strain tensor. The damage source term is non-zero in a certain volume where brittle damage occurs. The generated seismic motion can be computed, as for the classical moment source, by a convolution of the damage density in the affected volume with the spatial derivative of a Green’s functions for an earth model. Here we attempt to provide estimates of the amount and types (isotropic and deviatoric) of the damage related radiation for explosion scenarios. Using both analytic solutions and three-dimensional elastic finite difference calculations, we compute and compare the waves generated by the classical moment and damage related source terms in a full space. We assume a purely isotropic explosion of size corresponding to low-yield nuclear explosions, a granite (hard-rock) whole-space, and that the damage occurs instantaneously. Using a simple iterative approach, we adjust the strain ɛij where it exceeds the yield strength of the rock ɛij_c and reduce the local elastic moduli in proportion to the difference (ɛij - ɛij_c). The calculated adjustments to the strain and reduction of elastic moduli are used to estimate the additional moment contribution due to excess strain (ɛij - ɛij_c) and the associated damage source term in the yielding region. Finally, the seismic radiation from the brittle damage process is computed and compared to the radiation generated by the moment of the explosion source and the additional inelastic relaxation in the yielding region.

  17. DNA Damage Signals and Space Radiation Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Space radiation is comprised of high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei and protons. The initial DNA damage from HZE nuclei is qualitatively different from X-rays or gamma rays due to the clustering of damage sites which increases their complexity. Clustering of DNA damage occurs on several scales. First there is clustering of single strand breaks (SSB), double strand breaks (DSB), and base damage within a few to several hundred base pairs (bp). A second form of damage clustering occurs on the scale of a few kbp where several DSB?s may be induced by single HZE nuclei. These forms of damage clusters do not occur at low to moderate doses of X-rays or gamma rays thus presenting new challenges to DNA repair systems. We review current knowledge of differences that occur in DNA repair pathways for different types of radiation and possible relationships to mutations, chromosomal aberrations and cancer risks.

  18. Investigation of Combined Action of Food Supplement's and Ionizing Radiation on the Cytogenetic Damage Induction and Ehrlich Ascite Carcinoma Growth on Mice in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, Svetlana; Zaichkina, Svetlana; Dyukina, Alsu; Rozanova, Olga; Balakin, Vladimir; Peleshko, Vladimir; Romanchenko, Sergey; Smirnova, Helena; Aptikaeva, Gella; Shemyakov, Alexander

    In recent ten years one of the major problems of modern radiobiology is the study of radiation protective mechanisms with the help of different substances as well as activation of internal resources of the organism. Internal resources mean such phenomena as hormesis and adaptive response which represent cell or body reaction on low doses of inducing factors and predetermine their further high dose effect resistance. At present special interest is attracted by studies of biological effects of low-dose-rate high-LET radiation because of searching for new types of radiation for more effective cancer therapy and searching for new methods of radiation protection. Since natural biologically active substances have low toxicity and are capable of affecting physiological processes taking place in human’s organism and increasing organism’s natural defense system, the interest to protective means of vegetal origin and search of special food supplements intensifies every year. The purpose of this study is to investigate the combined influence of food supplement, low dose rate high-LET radiation simulating high-altitude flight conditions and X-ray radiations on radiosensitivity, induction of radiation adaptive response (RAR) and growth of Ehrlich ascite carcinoma as well. Experiments were performed with males of SHK mice at the age of two months. The animals were being irradiated with low-dose-rate high-LET radiation with the dose of 11,6 cGy (0,5 cGy/day) behind the concrete shield of the 70 GeV protons accelerator (Protvino). The X-ray irradiation was carried out on the RTH device with a voltage of 200 kV (1 Gy/min; Pushchino). The diet composition included products containing big amount of biologically active substances, such as: soybeam meat, buckwheat, lettuce leaves and drug of cod-liver oil. Four groups of mice were fed with selected products mentioned above during the whole irradiation period of 22 days. The control groups received the same food without irradiation

  19. Enhanced annealing of GaAs solar cell radiation damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R.; Knechtli, R. C.; Kamath, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    Solar cells are degraded by radiation damage in space. Investigations have been conducted concerning possibilities for annealing this radiation damage in GaAs solar cells, taking into account the conditions favoring such annealing. It has been found that continuous annealing as well as the combination of injection annealing with thermal annealing can lead to recovery from radiation damage under particularly favorable conditions in GaAs solar cells. The damage caused by both electrons and protons in GaAs solar cells can be substantially reduced by annealing at temperatures as low as 150 C, under appropriate conditions. This possibility makes the GaAs solar cells especially attractive for long space missions, or for missions in severe radiation environments. Attention is given to results concerning periodic thermal annealing, continuous annealing, and injection annealing combined with thermal annealing.

  20. Influence of Detector Radiation Damage on CR Mammography Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Atsumi; Ishii, Mie; Terazono, Shiho; Arao, Keiko; Ishii, Rie; Sanada, Taizo; Yoshida, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Recently, radiation damage to the detector apparatus employed in computed radiography (CR) mammography has become problematic. The CR system and the imaging plate (IP) applied to quality control (QC) program were also used in clinical mammography in our hospital, and the IP to which radiation damage has occurred was used for approximately 5 years (approximately 13,000 exposures). We considered using previously acquired QC image data, which is stored in a server, to investigate the influence of radiation damage to an IP. The mammography unit employed in this study was a phase contrast mammography (PCM) Mermaid (KONICA MINOLTA) system. The QC image was made newly, and it was output in the film, and thereafter the optical density of the step-phantom image was measured. An input (digital value)-output (optical density) conversion curve was plotted using the obtained data. The digital values were then converted to optical density values using a reference optical density vs. digital value curve. When a high radiation dose was applied directly, radiation damage occurred at a position on the IP where no object was present. Daily QC for mammography is conducted using an American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation phantom and acrylic disc, and an environmental background density measurement is performed as one of the management indexes. In this study, the radiation damage sustained by the acrylic disc was shown to differ from that of the background. Thus, it was revealed that QC results are influenced by radiation damage. PMID:27211088

  1. The expected radiation damage of CSNS target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, W.; Yu, Q. Z.; Lu, Y. L.; Wang, S. L.; Tong, J. F.; Liang, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    The radiation damage to the tungsten target and its SS316 vessel for Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been estimated with a Monte-Carlo simulation code MCNPX2.5.0. We compare the effects on the radiation damage due to two different proton beam profiles: a uniform distribution and a Gaussian distribution. We also discuss the dependence of the radiation damage estimation on different physics models. The results show the peak displacement productions in vessel and the fourth target plate are 2.5 and 5.5 dpa/y, respectively, under a Gaussian proton beam. The peak helium productions in the vessel and the fourth target are 305 and 353 appm/y, respectively, under the same proton beam. Based on these results and the allowable dpa values we have estimated the lifetime of the tungsten target and its vessel.

  2. Nanofoams Response to Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Engang; Serrano De Caro, Magdalena; Wang, Yongqiang; Nastasi, Michael; Zepeda-Ruiz, Luis; Bringa, Eduardo M.; Baldwin, Jon K.; Caro, Jose A.

    2012-07-30

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) np-Au foams were successfully synthesized by de-alloying process; (2) np-Au foams remain porous structure after Ne ion irradiation to 1 dpa; (3) SFTs were observed in irradiated np-Au foams with highest and intermediate flux, while no SFTs were observed with lowest flux; (4) SFTs were observed in irradiated np-Au foams at RT, whereas no SFTs were observed at LNT irradiation; (5) The diffusivity of vacancies in Au at RT is high enough so that the vacancies have enough time to agglomerate and thus collapse. As a result, SFTs were formed; (6) The high flux created much more damage/time, vacancies don't have enough time to diffuse or recombine. As a result, SFTs were formed.

  3. Radiation damage in MINP cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minahan, J. A.; Green, M. J.

    Experiments have been carried out to examine the effects of exposure to various fluence levels of 1 MeV electrons on 0.2 ohm-cm MINP silicon solar cell characteristics. Fluence levels ranged from 10 to the 14th e/sq cm to 3 x 10 to the 15th e/sq cm. Minority carrier diffusion lengths, Lbase, were derived from short circuit current calculations that included corrections for surface shadowing, reflection and emitter contribution to the short circuit current. From Lbase and fluences, a damage coefficient for diffusion length was calculated (1.4 x 10 to the -9th/electron) and compared with results obtained for other cell designs and base resistivities.

  4. Elastic softening of zircon by radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Salje, Ekhard K. H.

    2006-09-25

    The bulk modulus and the shear modulus of zircon soften by ca. 50% when zircon is amorphized by radiation damage. A theoretical description of the experimental findings is presented which shows that the elastic response on a zircon ceramics with radiation damage follows Hashin-Shtrikman [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 11, 127 (1963)] behavior with very narrow bounds. The elastic response depends, in good approximation, on the square of the volume fraction f{sub a} of the amorphized regions. In a slightly coarser approximation one finds an almost linear interpolation of the bulk and the shear modulus between those of the crystalline state and those of the fully amorphous state.

  5. Radiation damage effects in polarized deuterated ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    P.M. McKee

    2003-07-01

    Solid polarized targets utilizing deuterated ammonia, {sup 15}ND{sub 3}, offer an attractive combination of high polarization, high dilution factor and high resistance to polarization losses from radiation damage. Jefferson Laboratory Experiment E93-026 used {sup 15}ND{sub 3} as a target material in a five-month form factor measurement, allowing a detailed study of it's performance. The dependence of the deuteron polarization on received dose by the ammonia and the effectiveness of annealing the material to recover performance lost to radiation damage will be discussed.

  6. Probing Radiation Damage at the Molecular Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, N. J.; Smialek, M. A.; Moore, S. A.; Folkard, M.; Hoffmann, S. V.

    2006-12-01

    Radiation damage of DNA and other cellular components has traditionally been attributed to ionisation via direct impact of high-energy quanta or by complex radical chemistry. However recent research has shown that strand breaks in DNA may be initiated by secondary electrons and is strongly dependent upon the target DNA base identity. Such research provides the fascinating perspective that it is possible that radiation damage may be described and understood at an individual molecular level introducing new possibilites for therapy and perhaps providing an insight into the origins of life.

  7. Radiation damage to nucleoprotein complexes in macromolecular crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Bury, Charles; Garman, Elspeth F.; Ginn, Helen Mary; Ravelli, Raimond B. G.; Carmichael, Ian; Kneale, Geoff; McGeehan, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in macromolecular crystallography over recent years in both the understanding and mitigation of X-ray induced radiation damage when collecting diffraction data from crystalline proteins. In contrast, despite the large field that is productively engaged in the study of radiation chemistry of nucleic acids, particularly of DNA, there are currently very few X-ray crystallographic studies on radiation damage mechanisms in nucleic acids. Quantitative comparison of damage to protein and DNA crystals separately is challenging, but many of the issues are circumvented by studying pre-formed biological nucleoprotein complexes where direct comparison of each component can be made under the same controlled conditions. Here a model protein–DNA complex C.Esp1396I is employed to investigate specific damage mechanisms for protein and DNA in a biologically relevant complex over a large dose range (2.07–44.63 MGy). In order to allow a quantitative analysis of radiation damage sites from a complex series of macromolecular diffraction data, a computational method has been developed that is generally applicable to the field. Typical specific damage was observed for both the protein on particular amino acids and for the DNA on, for example, the cleavage of base-sugar N1—C and sugar-phosphate C—O bonds. Strikingly the DNA component was determined to be far more resistant to specific damage than the protein for the investigated dose range. At low doses the protein was observed to be susceptible to radiation damage while the DNA was far more resistant, damage only being observed at significantly higher doses. PMID:25723923

  8. Probing Radiation Damage in Plutonium Alloys with Multiple Measurement Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, S K; Fluss, M J; Chung, B W

    2010-04-21

    A material subjected to radiation damage will usually experience changes in its physical properties. Measuring these changes in the physical properties provides a basis to study radiation damage in a material which is important for a variety of real world applications from reactor materials to semiconducting devices. When investigating radiation damage, the relative sensitivity of any given property can vary considerably based on the concentration and type of damage present as well as external parameters such as the temperature and starting material composition. By measuring multiple physical properties, these differing sensitivities can be leveraged to provide greater insight into the different aspects of radiation damage accumulation, thereby providing a broader understanding of the mechanisms involved. In this report, self-damage from {alpha}-particle decay in Pu is investigated by measuring two different properties: magnetic susceptibility and resistivity. The results suggest that while the first annealing stage obeys second order chemical kinetics, the primary mechanism is not the recombination of vacancy-interstitial close pairs.

  9. The Status of Radiation Damage Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Richard L.; Legore, Virginia L.; Schaef, Herbert T.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Buchmiller, William C.

    2001-11-20

    Experiments have been on-going for about two years to determine the effects that radiation damage have on the physical and chemical properties of candidate titanate ceramics for the immobilization of plutonium. We summarize the results of these experiments in this document.

  10. Acoustic emission sensor radiation damage threshold experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Beeson, K.M.; Pepper, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    Determination of the threshold for damage to acoustic emission sensors exposed to radiation is important in their application to leak detection in radioactive waste transport and storage. Proper response to system leaks is necessary to ensure the safe operation of these systems. A radiation impaired sensor could provide ``false negative or false positive`` indication of acoustic signals from leaks within the system. Research was carried out in the Radiochemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the beta/gamma radiation damage threshold for acoustic emission sensor systems. The individual system consisted of an acoustic sensor mounted with a two part epoxy onto a stainless steel waveguide. The systems were placed in an irradiation fixture and exposed to a Cobalt-60 source. After each irradiation, the sensors were recalibrated by Physical Acoustics Corporation. The results were compared to the initial calibrations performed prior to irradiation and a control group, not exposed to radiation, was used to validate the results. This experiment determines the radiation damage threshold of each acoustic sensor system and verifies its life expectancy, usefulness and reliability for many applications in radioactive environments.

  11. Gallium arsenide solar cell radiation damage study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. H.; Herbert, G. A.; Kinnison, J. D.; Meulenberg, A.

    1989-01-01

    A thorough analysis has been made of electron- and proton- damaged GaAs solar cells suitable for use in space. It is found that, although some electrical parametric data and spectral response data are quite similar, the type of damage due to the two types of radiation is different. An I-V analysis model shows that electrons damage the bulk of the cell and its currents relatively more, while protons damage the junction of the cell and its voltages more. It is suggested that multiple defects due to protons in a strong field region such as a p/n junction cause the greater degradation in cell voltage, whereas the individual point defects in the quasi-neutral minority-carrier-diffusion regions due to electrons cause the greater degradation in cell current and spectral response.

  12. Investigating chromosome damage and gammaH2AX response in human lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets as potential biomarkers of radiation sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaton, Lindsay A.

    This thesis examines in vitro irradiated blood samples from prostate cancer patients exhibiting late normal tissue damage after receiving radiotherapy, for lymphocyte response. Chromosomal aberrations, translocations and proliferation rate are measured, as well as gammaH2AX response in lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets. The goal of this thesis is to determine whether the lymphocyte response to in vitro radiation could be used as a marker for radiosensitivity. Patients were selected from a randomized clinical trial evaluating the optimal timing of Dose Escalated Radiation and short course Androgen Deprivation Therapy. Of 438 patients, 3% developed Grade 3 late radiation proctitis and were considered to be radiosensitive. Blood was drawn from 10 of these patients along with 20 matched samples from patients with grade 0 proctitis. The samples were irradiated and were analyzed for dicentric chromosomes, excess fragments and proliferation rates (at 6 Gy), translocations, stable and unstable damage (at 4 Gy), and dose response (up to 10 Gy), along with time response after 2 Gy (0 -- 24 h). Chromosome aberrations, excess fragments per cell, translocations per cell and proliferation rates were analyzed by brightfield and fluorescent microscopy, while the gammaH2AX response in lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets was analyzed by flow cytometry. Both groups were statistically similar for all endpoints at 0 Gy. At 6 Gy, there were statistically significant differences between the radiosensitive and control cohorts for three endpoints; the mean number of dicentric chromosomes per cell, the mean number of excess fragments per cell and the proportion of cells in second metaphase. At 4 Gy, there were statistically significant differences between the two cohorts for three endpoints; the mean number of translocations per cell, the mean number of dicentric chromosomes per cell and the mean number of deletions per cell. There were no significant differences between the gammaH2AX

  13. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  14. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.

    PubMed

    Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G

    2014-08-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components. PMID:25173260

  15. Radiation damage in Luna 20 soil.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phakey, P. P.; Price, P. B.

    1973-01-01

    As an extension of previous studies of radiation damage produced by heavy solar flare ions in lunar soils, high-voltage electron microscopy and electron diffraction procedures were used to rank a Luna 20 sample among the other soils returned by Soviet and American lunar missions. Micron-sized soil grains from the Luna 20 mission are the most lightly irradiated, in contrast to micron-sized grains from Luna 16 soil, which are the most heavily irradiated.

  16. Radiation damage effects on solid state detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainor, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Totally depleted silicon diodes are discussed which are used as nuclear particle detectors in investigations of galactic and solar cosmic radiation and trapped radiation. A study of radiation and chemical effects on the diodes was conducted. Work on electron and proton irradiation of surface barrier detectors with thicknesses up to 1 mm was completed, and work on lithium-drifted silicon devices with thicknesses of several millimeters was begun.

  17. RNA protects a nucleoprotein complex against radiation damage.

    PubMed

    Bury, Charles S; McGeehan, John E; Antson, Alfred A; Carmichael, Ian; Gerstel, Markus; Shevtsov, Mikhail B; Garman, Elspeth F

    2016-05-01

    Radiation damage during macromolecular X-ray crystallographic data collection is still the main impediment for many macromolecular structure determinations. Even when an eventual model results from the crystallographic pipeline, the manifestations of radiation-induced structural and conformation changes, the so-called specific damage, within crystalline macromolecules can lead to false interpretations of biological mechanisms. Although this has been well characterized within protein crystals, far less is known about specific damage effects within the larger class of nucleoprotein complexes. Here, a methodology has been developed whereby per-atom density changes could be quantified with increasing dose over a wide (1.3-25.0 MGy) range and at higher resolution (1.98 Å) than the previous systematic specific damage study on a protein-DNA complex. Specific damage manifestations were determined within the large trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) bound to a single-stranded RNA that forms a belt around the protein. Over a large dose range, the RNA was found to be far less susceptible to radiation-induced chemical changes than the protein. The availability of two TRAP molecules in the asymmetric unit, of which only one contained bound RNA, allowed a controlled investigation into the exact role of RNA binding in protein specific damage susceptibility. The 11-fold symmetry within each TRAP ring permitted statistically significant analysis of the Glu and Asp damage patterns, with RNA binding unexpectedly being observed to protect these otherwise highly sensitive residues within the 11 RNA-binding pockets distributed around the outside of the protein molecule. Additionally, the method enabled a quantification of the reduction in radiation-induced Lys and Phe disordering upon RNA binding directly from the electron density. PMID:27139628

  18. RNA protects a nucleoprotein complex against radiation damage

    PubMed Central

    Bury, Charles S.; McGeehan, John E.; Antson, Alfred A.; Carmichael, Ian; Gerstel, Markus; Shevtsov, Mikhail B.; Garman, Elspeth F.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation damage during macromolecular X-ray crystallographic data collection is still the main impediment for many macromolecular structure determinations. Even when an eventual model results from the crystallographic pipeline, the manifestations of radiation-induced structural and conformation changes, the so-called specific damage, within crystalline macromolecules can lead to false interpretations of biological mechanisms. Although this has been well characterized within protein crystals, far less is known about specific damage effects within the larger class of nucleoprotein complexes. Here, a methodology has been developed whereby per-atom density changes could be quantified with increasing dose over a wide (1.3–25.0 MGy) range and at higher resolution (1.98 Å) than the previous systematic specific damage study on a protein–DNA complex. Specific damage manifestations were determined within the large trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) bound to a single-stranded RNA that forms a belt around the protein. Over a large dose range, the RNA was found to be far less susceptible to radiation-induced chemical changes than the protein. The availability of two TRAP molecules in the asymmetric unit, of which only one contained bound RNA, allowed a controlled investigation into the exact role of RNA binding in protein specific damage susceptibility. The 11-fold symmetry within each TRAP ring permitted statistically significant analysis of the Glu and Asp damage patterns, with RNA binding unexpectedly being observed to protect these otherwise highly sensitive residues within the 11 RNA-binding pockets distributed around the outside of the protein molecule. Additionally, the method enabled a quantification of the reduction in radiation-induced Lys and Phe disordering upon RNA binding directly from the electron density. PMID:27139628

  19. Radiation damage calculations for the LANSCE degrader

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, P.D.; Sommer, W.F.; Dudziak, D.J.; Wechsler, M.S.; Barnett, M.H.; Corzine, R.K.

    1998-09-01

    The A-6 water degrader at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) linear proton accelerator has an outer shell of Inconel 718. The degrader was irradiated by 800-MeV protons during 1988--1993 to an exposure of 5.3 ampere-hours (A h). As described in Ref. 1, material from the Inconel is currently being cut into specimens for microhardness, three-point bending, ball punch, microscopy, and corrosion tests. This paper is devoted to calculations of radiation damage, particularly displacement and He production, sustained by the degrader Inconel.

  20. Radiation damage in cubic-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Francois; Weber, William J

    2013-01-01

    Cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) can be used for nuclear applications as an inert matrix for actinide immobilization or transmutation. Indeed, the large amount of native oxygen vacancies leads to a high radiation tolerance of this material owing to defect recombination occurring in the atomic displacements cascades induced by fast neutron irradiation or ion implantations, as showed by Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Amorphization cannot be obtained in YSZ either by nuclear-collision or electronic-excitation damage, just like in urania. A kind of polygonization structure with slightly disoriented crystalline domains is obtained in both cases. In the first steps of damage, specific isolated point defects (like F+-type color centers) and point-defect clusters are produced by nuclear collisions with charged particles or neutrons. Further increase of damage leads to dislocation-loop formation, then to collapse of the dislocation network into a polygonization structure. For swift heavy ion irradiations, a similar polygonization structure is obtained above a threshold stopping power value of about 20-30 keV nm-1.

  1. Radiation damage in zircon and monazite

    SciTech Connect

    Meldrum, A.; Boatner, L.A.; Weber, W.J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1998-07-01

    Monazite and zircon respond differently to ion irradiation and to thermal and irradiation-enhanced annealing. The damage process (i.e., elastic interactions leading to amorphization) in radioactive minerals (metamictization) is basically the same as for the ion-beam-irradiated samples with the exception of the dose rate which is much lower in the case of natural samples. The crystalline-to-metamict transition in natural samples with different degrees of damage, from almost fully crystalline to completely metamict, is compared to the sequence of microstructures observed for ion-beam-irradiated monazite and zircon. The damage accumulation process, representing the competing effects of radiation-induced structural disorder and subsequent annealing mechanisms (irradiation-enhanced and thermal) occurs at much higher temperatures for zircon than for monazite. The amorphization dose, expressed as displacements per atom, is considerably higher in the natural samples, and the atomic-scale process leading to metamictization appears to develop differently. Ion-beam-induced amorphization data were used to calculate the {alpha}-decay-event dose required for amorphization in terms of a critical radionuclide concentration, i.e., the concentration above which a sample of a given age will become metamict at a specific temperature. This equation was applied to estimate the reliability of U-Pb ages, to provide a qualitative estimate of the thermal history of high-U natural zircons, and to predict whether actinide-bearing zircon or monazite nuclear waste forms will become amorphous (metamict) over long timescales.

  2. Radiation damage in charge-coupled devices.

    PubMed

    Bassler, Niels

    2010-08-01

    Due to their high sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio, charge-coupled devices (CCDs) have been the preferred optical photon detectors of astronomers for several decades. CCDs are flown in space as the main detection instrument on several well-known missions, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, XMM-Newton or the Cassini Probe. Also, CCDs are frequently used in satellite star trackers which provide attitude information to the satellite orientation system. However, one major drawback is their extreme vulnerability to radiation, which is readily abundant in space. Here, we shall give a brief overview of the radiation effects on CCDs, and mention ways how to mitigate the effects in other ways than merely increase shielding, such as cooling and annealing. As an example, we have investigated the radiation hardness of a particular CCD, the so-called CCD47-20 from Marconi Applied Technologies (now E2V), by exposing it to radiation fields representing the radiation environment found in a highly elliptic orbit crossing the Van-Allen radiation belts. Two engineering-grade CCDs were irradiated with proton beams and photons, and effects of increased bulk dark current, surface dark current and inversion threshold voltage shifts were observed and are quantified. PMID:20238121

  3. Radiation Damage In Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Naus, Dan J; Remec, Igor; Busby, Jeremy T; Rosseel, Thomas M; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and recently, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete. Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure. To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working to disposition radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines the research program within this pathway including: (i) defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield concrete for extended operation (80 years of operation and beyond), (ii) determining the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation as well as extended time at temperature on concrete, (iii) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish a conservative bound and share data obtained from different flux, temperature, and fluence levels, (iv) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, (v) developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in the results from the various concretes and research reactors, (vi) furthering the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete (see companion paper) and (vii) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge.

  4. Synergistic damage by UVA radiation and pollutants.

    PubMed

    Burke, K E; Wei, H

    2009-01-01

    Not only is skin cancer by far the most common human cancer but also the incidence of skin cancer has been increasing at an alarming rate in recent decades. Fortunately, most people now realize that sun exposure causes unattractive photoaging and skin cancer, so they do apply sunscreens conscientiously. However, until recently, most sunscreens did not adequately protect against ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. Although UVA is indeed less erythrogenic and less carcinogenic than UVB, UVA directly causes photoaging and enhances UVB-induced skin cancer. Furthermore, recent research demonstrates that UVA combined with environmental pollutants (including cigarette smoke) significantly increases the risk of skin cancer. Similarly, previous research demonstrated another synergy between environmental pollutants and UV: When ozone exposure precedes UV exposure, there is enhancement of UV-induced depletion of protective vitamin E from the skin's stratum corneum. This article reviews experimental evidence that environmental pollutants (such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a commonly used index of environmental pollution) are photosensitizers that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) when exposed to UVA radiation. This in turn causes oxidative and genetic damage, leading to unattractive photodamage and carcinogenesis. PMID:19651790

  5. Synergistic Effect of Triple Ion Beams on Radiation Damage in CLAM Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Da-Qing; Zheng, Yong-Nan; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Ping; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Qiao-Li; Ma, Xiao-Qiang; Cui, Bao-Qun; Chen, Li-Hua; Jiang, Wei-Sheng; Wu, Yi-Can; Huang, Qun-Ying; Peng, Lei; Cao, Xing-Zhong; Wang, Bao-Yi; Wei, Long; Zhu, Sheng-Yun

    2014-04-01

    The synergistic effect of triple ion beams is investigated by simultaneous and sequential irradiations of gold, hydrogen and helium ions on the low activation martensitic steel (CLAM) developed in China. The depth profile measurements of the positron annihilation Doppler broadening S parameter are carried out as a function of slow-positron beam energy to examine the produced radiation damage. The synergistic effect of displacement damage and hydrogen and helium on the formation of radiation damage is clearly observed. In the preset case, this effect suppresses the radiation damage in the CLAM steel due to the helium and/or hydrogen filling of vacancy clusters.

  6. Radiation damage effects in CZT drift strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Joergensen, Carl; Korsbech, Uffe; Jensen, H. J.

    2003-03-01

    At DSRI, in collaboration with the cyclotron facility at Copenhagen University Hospital, we have performed a study of radiation effects exposing a 2.7 mm thick CZT drift strip detector to 30 MeV protons. The detector characteristics were evaluated after exposure to a number of dose loads in the range from 2*108 to 60*108 p+/cm2. Even for the highest dose loads, which had a dramatic effect on the spectroscopic performance, we were able to recover the detectors after an appropriate annealing procedure. The radiation damage was studied as function of depth inside the detector material. A numerical model that emulates the physical processes of the charge transport in the CZT detector was used to derive the charge trapping parameter , μτe (the product of charge mobility and trapping time) as function of dose. The analysis showed that the electron trapping increased proportional with the proton dose. The radiation contribution to the electron trapping was found to obey the following relation: (μτe)-1rad =(2.5±0.2)*10-7*Φ (V/cm2) with the proton fluence, Φ in p+/cm2. The trapping depth dependence, however, did not agree well the damage profile calculated using the standard Monte Carlo simulations, TRIM for the proton induced radiation effects. The present results suggest that proton induced nuclear reactions contribute significantly to the radiation damage. Further work will elaborate on these effects. The detector energy resolution was investigated as function of proton dose. It was found that the observed degradation is well explained by the decrease of μτe when the fluctuations of the electron path length are taken into account. The proton irradiation produced In meta stable isotopes in the CZT material. Their decay and production yield as function of depth were analyzed.

  7. Radiation damage in PVT (Polyvinyltoluene) induced by energetic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.

    Polyvinyltoluene (PVT) is an organic polymer employed as base material for many plastic scintillators useful to detect charged particles. Radiation damage in PVT is investigated irradiating the polymer in vacuum with different ion beams (H+, He+, N+ and Ar+) as a function of their ion stopping power. The structural modifications indced in the polymer are deduced by monitoring in situ, during the ion irradiation, the molecular desorption from the polymer by a highly sensitive mass-quadrupole spectrometer. The desorbed molecules are detected in the mass range 1-100 amu and the chemical yields are measured with respect to the calibrated gas leaks. Main emitted species are H2, C2H2 and C3H5, the yields of which strongly depend on the ion stopping power. As will be discussed, the investigation of radiation damage in PVT permits to extend the results to the damage undergone by plastic scintillators during the detection of charged particles at high energy, such as protons of 10-100 MeV, an energy range useful in nuclear physics and in proton-therapy.

  8. Chemistry of radiation damage to wire chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.

    1992-08-01

    Proportional counters are used to study aspects of radiation damage to wire chambers (wire aging). Principles of low-pressure, rf plasma chemistry are used to predict the plasma chemistry in electron avalanches (1 atm, dc). (1) Aging is studied in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gas mixtures. Wire deposits are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. An apparent cathode aging process resulting in loss of gain rather than in a self-sustained current is observed in CF{sub 4}-rich gases. A four-part model considering plasma polymerization of the hydrocarbon, etching of wire deposits by CF{sub 4}, acceleration of deposition processes in strongly etching environments, and reactivity of the wire surface is developed to understand anode wire aging in CF{sub 4}/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} gases. Practical guidelines suggested by the model are discussed. (2) Data are presented to suggest that trace amounts of Freons do not affect aging rates in either dimethyl ether or Ar/C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Apparent loss of gain is explained by attachment of primary electrons to a continuously increasing concentration of Freon 11 (CCl{sub 3}F) in the counter gas. An increase in the concentration of Freon 11 in dimethyl ether is caused by a distillation process in the gas supply bottle and is a natural consequence of the unequal volatilities of the two compounds.

  9. Effects of radiation damage on the silicon lattice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, Katherine A.; Lowry, Lynn; Russo, O. Louis

    1987-01-01

    Silicon was irradiated with both proton and electron particle beams in order to investigate changes in the structural and optical properties of the lattice as a result of the radiation damage. Lattice expansions occurred when large strain fields (+0.34 percent) developed after 1- and 3-MeV proton bombardment. The strain was a factor of three less after 1-MeV electron irradiation. Average increases of approximately 22 meV in the 3.46-eV interband energy gap and 14 meV in the Lorentz broadening parameter were measured after the electron irradiation.

  10. Genetic damage in subjects exposed to radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Verschaeve, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Despite many research efforts and public debate there is still great concern about the possible adverse effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on human health. This is especially due to the enormous increase of wireless mobile telephones and other telecommunication devices throughout the world. The possible genetic effects of mobile phone radiation and other sources of radiofrequencies constitute one of the major points of concern. In the past several review papers were published on laboratory investigations that were devoted to in vitro and in vivo animal (cyto)genetic studies. However, it may be assumed that some of the most important observations are those obtained from studies with individuals that were exposed to relatively high levels of radiofrequency radiation, either as a result of their occupational activity or as frequent users of radiofrequency emitting tools. In this paper the cytogenetic biomonitoring studies of RF-exposed humans are reviewed. A majority of these studies do show that RF-exposed individuals have increased frequencies of genetic damage (e.g., chromosomal aberrations) in their lymphocytes or exfoliated buccal cells. However, most of the studies, if not all, have a number of shortcomings that actually prevents any firm conclusion. Radiation dosimetry was lacking in all papers, but some of the investigations were flawed by much more severe imperfections. Large well-coordinated multidisciplinary investigations are needed in order to reach any robust conclusion. PMID:19073278

  11. Analytical modeling for gamma radiation damage on silicon photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, H.; Feghhi, S. A. H.

    2016-04-01

    Radiation-induced damage in PIN silicon photodiode induces degradation of the photodiode parameters. In this work, by presenting an analytical model, the effect of gamma dose on the dark current in a PIN photodiode array was investigated. Geant4 was used to obtain the damage constant as a result of primary incident particle fluence and NIEL distribution calculations. Experimental measurements as well as numerical simulation of the semiconductor with ATLAS were carried out to verify and parameterize the analytical model calculations. A reasonable agreement has been found between analytical results and experimental data for BPX65 silicon photodiodes irradiated by a Co-60 gamma source at total doses up to 500 krad under different reverse voltages. Moreover, the results showed that the dark current of each photodiode array pixel has considerably increased by gamma dose irradiation.

  12. Influence of radiation damage on xenon diffusion in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, E.; Gärtner, K.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; van der Berg, N. G.; Thabethe, T. T.

    2014-08-01

    Diffusion of xenon in poly and single crystalline silicon carbide and the possible influence of radiation damage on it are investigated. For this purpose 360 keV xenon ions were implanted in commercial 6H-SiC and CVD-SiC wafers at room temperature, 350 °C and 600 °C. Width broadening of the implantation profiles and xenon retention during isochronal and isothermal annealing up to temperatures of 1500 °C was determined by RBS-analysis, whilst in the case of 6H-SiC damage profiles were simultaneously obtained by α-particle channelling. No diffusion or xenon loss was detected in the initially amorphized and eventually recrystallized surface layer of cold implanted 6H-SiC during annealing up to 1200 °C. Above that temperature serious erosion of the implanted surface occurred, which made any analysis impossible. No diffusion or xenon loss is detected in the hot implanted 6H-SiC samples during annealing up to 1400 °C. Radiation damage dependent grain boundary diffusion is observed at 1300 °C in CVD-SiC.

  13. The evaluation of radiation damage parameter for CVD diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.

    2016-04-01

    There are a few different phenomenological approaches that aim to track the dependence of signal height in irradiated solid state detectors on the fluence of damaging particles. However, none of them are capable to provide a unique radiation hardness parameter that would reflect solely the material capability to withstand high radiation environment. To extract such a parameter for chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, two different diamond detectors were irradiated with proton beams in MeV energy range and subjected afterwards to ion beam induced charge (IBIC) analysis. The change in charge collection efficiency (CCE) due to defects produced was investigated in context of a theoretical model that was developed on the basis of the adjoint method for linearization of the continuity equations of electrons and holes. Detailed modeling of measured data resulted with the first known value of the kσ product for diamond, where k represents the number of charge carriers' traps created per one simulated primary lattice vacancy and σ represents the charge carriers' capture cross section. As discussed in the text, this product could be considered as a true radiation damage parameter.

  14. Radiation Damages in Aluminum Alloy SAV-1 under Neutron Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salikhbaev, Umar; Akhmedzhanov, Farkhad; Alikulov, Sherali; Baytelesov, Sapar; Boltabaev, Azizbek

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of neutron irradiation on the kinetics of radiation damages in the SAV-1 alloy, which belongs to the group of aluminum alloys of the ternary system Al-Mg-Si. For fast-neutron irradiation by different doses up to fluence 1019 cm-2 the SAV-1 samples were placed in one of the vertical channels of the research WWR type reactor (Tashkent). The temperature dependence of the electrical resistance of the alloy samples was investigated in the range 290 - 490 K by the four-compensation method with an error about 0.1%. The experimental results were shown that at all the temperatures the dependence of the SAV-1 alloy resistivity on neutron fluence was nonlinear. With increasing neutron fluence the deviation from linearity and the growth rate of resistivity with temperature becomes more appreciable. The observed dependences are explained by means of martensitic transformations and the radiation damages in the studied alloy under neutron irradiation. The mechanisms of radiation modification of the SAV-1 alloy structure are discussed.

  15. UV Radiation Damage and Bacterial DNA Repair Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal; Guy, Daniel; Yarom, Ruth; Slesak, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple hands-on laboratory procedure for high school students in studying both radiation damage and DNA repair systems in bacteria. The sensitivity to ultra-violet (UV) radiation of both "Escherichia coli" and "Serratia marcescens" is tested by radiating them for varying time periods. Two growth temperatures are used in…

  16. DNA damage and repair after high LET radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis; Anderson, Jennifer

    Predictions from biophysical models of interactions of radiation tracks with cellular DNA indicate that clustered DNA damage sites, defined as two or more lesions formed within one or two helical turns of the DNA by passage of a single radiation track, are formed in mammalian cells. These complex DNA damage sites are regarded as a signature of ionizing radiation exposure particularly as the likelihood of clustered damage sites arising endogenously is low. For instance, it was predicted from biophysical modelling that 30-40% of low LET-induced double strand breaks (DSB), a form of clustered damage, are complex with the yield increasing to >90% for high LET radiation, consistent with the reduced reparability of DSB with increasing ionization density of the radiation. The question arises whether the increased biological effects such as mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and lethality is in part related to DNA damage complexity and/or spatial distribution of the damage sites, which may lead to small DNA fragments. With particle radiation it is also important to consider not only delta-rays which may cause clustered damaged sites and may be highly mutagenic but the non-random spatial distribution of DSB which may lead to deletions. In this overview I will concentrate on the molecular aspects of the variation of the complexity of DNA damage on radiation quality and the challenges this complexity presents the DNA damage repair pathways. I will draw on data from micro-irradiations which indicate that the repair of DSBs by non-homologous end joining is highly regulated with pathway choice and kinetics of repair dependent on the chemical complexity of the DSB. In summary the aim is to emphasis the link between the spatial distribution of energy deposition events related to the track, the molecular products formed and the consequence of damage complexity contributing to biological effects and to present some of the outstanding molecular challenges with particle radiation.

  17. The energy dependence of refractory metals and alloys radiation damageability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukashev, K. M.; Umarov, F. F.

    2015-04-01

    In this work the systematical investigation of the radiation defects distribution profile energy dependence in three different materials - tantalum, molybdenum and 10X18H10T-VD stainless steel irradiated by high energy protons has been performed. It has been shown that in stainless steel and tantalum, independently of proton energy, the vacancy complexes related by configuration appear which are described by the slightly expressed elastic channel. The defects are recovered in one annealing stage with different migration activation energy. At the same time the molybdenum radiation damageability is composed of two components in each of which its specified defects formation mechanism takes action. For high energy protons the inelastic channel of interaction is the basic and subcascades appearance is created by primary knocked-on atoms of considerable energies. For low energy protons the processes of elastic interaction with lattice atoms and atomic hydrogen in the end of run creation are major.

  18. Radiation Damage to Artemia Cysts:Effects of Water Vapor.

    PubMed

    Snipes, W C; Gordy, W

    1963-10-25

    Water vapor altered the form and greatly increased the rate of decay of the electron-spin resonance pattern of long-lived free radicals obtained upon gamma irradiation of Artemia salina cysts ( brine shrimp eggs). These results, combined with data on radiation survival, indicate that the water vapor protects the cysts from radiation damage, or heals the damage. They also indicate that water protects the cysts from the effect of oxygen by neutralizing the radiation-induced free radicals before they can interact with oxygen to produce irreversible damage. PMID:17748168

  19. Annealing radiation damaged silicon solar cells with a copper halide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of a multiply pulsed copper halide laser to significantly anneal out the damage to silicon solar cells caused by a simulated space radiation environment is investigated. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that the amount of damage can be decreased by 41% as measured by the maximum power generated.

  20. An Experimental Investigation of Damage Resistances and Damage Tolerance of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakaran, R.

    2003-01-01

    The project included three lines of investigation, aimed at a better understanding of the damage resistance and damage tolerance of pultruded composites. The three lines of investigation were: (i) measurement of permanent dent depth after transverse indentation at different load levels, and correlation with other damage parameters such as damage area (from x-radiography) and back surface crack length, (ii) estimation of point stress and average stress characteristic dimensions corresponding to measured damage parameters, and (iii) an attempt to measure the damage area by a reflection photoelastic technique. All the three lines of investigation were pursued.

  1. Computer simulation of radiation damage in gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stith, John J.; Davenport, James C.; Copeland, Randolph L.

    1989-01-01

    A version of the binary-collision simulation code MARLOWE was used to study the spatial characteristics of radiation damage in proton and electron irradiated gallium arsenide. Comparisons made with the experimental results proved to be encouraging.

  2. Radiation damage of gallium arsenide production cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Garlick, G. F. J.

    1987-01-01

    High-efficiency gallium arsenide cells, made by the liquid epitaxy method (LPE), have been irradiated with 1-MeV electrons up to fluences of 10 to the 16th e/sq cm. Measurements have been made of cell spectral response and dark and light-excited current-voltage characteristics and analyzed using computer-based models to determine underlying parameters such as damage coefficients. It is possible to use spectral response to sort out damage effects in the different cell component layers. Damage coefficients are similar to other reported in the literature for the emitter and buffer (base). However, there is also a damage effect in the window layer and possibly at the window emitter interface similar to that found for proton-irradiated liquid-phase epitaxy-grown cells. Depletion layer recombination is found to be less than theoretically expected at high fluence.

  3. Effects Of Dose Rates On Radiation Damage In CMOS Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goben, Charles A.; Coss, James R.; Price, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes measurements of effects of ionizing-radiation dose rate on consequent damage to complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) electronic devices. Depending on irradiation time and degree of annealing, survivability of devices in outer space, or after explosion of nuclear weapons, enhanced. Annealing involving recovery beyond pre-irradiation conditions (rebound) detrimental. Damage more severe at lower dose rates.

  4. Dynamic Optical Investigations of Hypervelocity Impact Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Leslie Elise

    One of the prominent threats in the endeavor to develop next-generation space assets is the risk of space debris impact in earth's orbit and micrometeoroid impact damage in near-earth orbit and deep space. To date, there is no study available which concentrates on the analysis of dynamic crack growth from hypervelocity impacts on such structures, resulting in their eventual catastrophic degradation. Experiments conducted using a unique two-stage light-gas gun facility have examined the in situ dynamic fracture of brittle polymers subjected to this high-energy-density event. Optical techniques of caustics and photoelasticity, combined with high-speed photography up to 100 million frames per second, analyze crack growth behavior of Mylar and Homalite 100 thin plates after impact by a 1.8 mm diameter nylon 6-6 right cylindrical slug at velocities ranging from 3 to 7 km/s (7000--15500 mph). Crack speeds in both polymers averaged between 0.2 and 0.47 cR, the Rayleigh wave speed (450--1000 mph). Shadow spots and surrounding caustics reveal time histories of the dynamic stress intensity factor, as well as the energy release rate ahead of the mode-I, or opening, crack tips. Results indicate that even under extreme impact conditions of out of-plane loading, highly localized heating, and energetic impact phenomena involving plasma formation and ejecta, the dynamic fracture process occurs during a deformation regime dominated by in-plane loading. These findings imply that the reliability of impacted, thin-walled, plate and shell space structures, idealized by the experimental configuration investigated, can be predicted by the well defined principles of classical dynamic fracture mechanics.

  5. Radiation damage of gallium arsenide production cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Joslin, D.; Garlick, J.; Lillington, D.; Gillanders, M.; Cavicchi, B.; Scott-Monck, J.; Kachare, R.; Anspaugh, B.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) gallium arsenide cells were irradiated with 1 Mev electrons up to fluences of 1 times 10 to the 16th power cm-2. Measurements of spectral response and dark and illuminated I-V data were made at each fluence and then, using computer codes, the experimental data was fitted to gallium arsenide cell models. In this way it was possible to determine the extent of the damage, and hence damage coefficients in both the emitter and base of the cell.

  6. Space Shuttle STS-1 SRB damage investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevins, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    The physical damage incurred by the solid rocket boosters during reentry on the initial space shuttle flight raised the question of whether the hardware, as designed, would yield the low cost per flight desired. The damage was quantified, the cause determined and specific design changes recommended which would preclude recurrence. Flight data, postflight analyses, and laboratory hardware examinations were used. The resultant findings pointed to two principal causes: failure of the aft skirt thermal curtain at the onset of reentry aerodynamic heating, and overloading of the aft shirt stiffening rings during water impact. Design changes were recommended on both the thermal curtain and the aft skirt structural members to prevent similar damage on future missions.

  7. Electronic effects in high-energy radiation damage in tungsten

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Duffy, Dorothy M.; Nordlund, Kai; Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T.; Weber, William J.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2015-01-01

    Even though the effects of the electronic excitations during high-energy radiation damage processes are not currently understood, it is shown that their role in the interaction of radiation with matter is important. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of high-energy collision cascades in bcc-tungsten using the coupled two-temperature molecular dynamics (2T-MD) model that incorporates both the effects of electronic stopping and electron–phonon interaction. We compare the combination of these effects on the induced damage with only the effect of electronic stopping, and conclude in several novel insights. In the 2T-MD model, the electron–phonon coupling results in less damage production in themore » molten region and in faster relaxation of the damage at short times. We show these two effects lead to a significantly smaller amount of the final damage at longer times.« less

  8. Electronic effects in high-energy radiation damage in tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Duffy, Dorothy M.; Nordlund, Kai; Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T.; Weber, William J.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2015-01-01

    Even though the effects of the electronic excitations during high-energy radiation damage processes are not currently understood, it is shown that their role in the interaction of radiation with matter is important. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of high-energy collision cascades in bcc-tungsten using the coupled two-temperature molecular dynamics (2T-MD) model that incorporates both the effects of electronic stopping and electron–phonon interaction. We compare the combination of these effects on the induced damage with only the effect of electronic stopping, and conclude in several novel insights. In the 2T-MD model, the electron–phonon coupling results in less damage production in the molten region and in faster relaxation of the damage at short times. We show these two effects lead to a significantly smaller amount of the final damage at longer times.

  9. Radiation damage to scintillator in the D0 luminosity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Brendan; DeVaughan, Kayle; Enari, Yuji; Partridge, Richard; Yacoob, Sahal; /Northwestern U.

    2006-12-01

    We report the result of evaluating radiation damage to Bicron BC408 plastic scintillator used in the D0 Luminosity Monitor during Run IIa. The Luminosity Monitor provides pseudo-rapidity coverage over the range 2.7 < |{eta}| < 4.4, with the radiation dose in Run IIa estimated to be 0.5 MRad for the region closest to the beams. We find the light yield is degraded by 10-15% due to radiation damage by comparing new and old scintillator in four observables: (1) visual inspection, (2) optical transmittance, (3) response to the radioactive source of {sup 90}Sr and (4) light yield for cosmic rays.

  10. Space solar cells - High efficiency and radiation damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    The proceedings of the Third Solar Cell High Efficiency and Radiation Damage Meeting are outlined. The topics covered included high efficiency silicon solar cells, silicon solar cell radiation damage, GaAs solar cell performance, and 30 percent conversion devices. The study of radiation damage from a fundamental defect-centered basis is discussed and evaluated as a focus of future work. 18% AM0 efficiency and 0.7 V open-circuit voltages are designated as achievable goals for silicon solar cells, and the potential for 30% AM0 efficiencies from monolithic tandem cell designs without sunlight concentration is noted. In addition to its potential for 20% AM0 efficiencies, the GaAs cell offers the possibility of a radiation-insensitive power supply when operated at temperatures near 200 C.

  11. Radiation-induced DNA damage and chromatin structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation in cells are clustered and not randomly distributed. For low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation this clustering occurs mainly on the small scales of DNA molecules and nucleosomes. For example, experimental evidence suggests that both strands of DNA on the nucleosomal surface can be damaged in single events and that this damage occurs with a 10-bp modulation because of protection by histones. For high LET radiation, clustering also occurs on a larger scale and depends on chromatin organization. A particularly significant clustering occurs when an ionizing particle traverses the 30 nm chromatin fiber with generation of heavily damaged DNA regions with an average size of about 2 kbp. On an even larger scale, high LET radiation can produce several DNA double-strand breaks in closer proximity than expected from randomness. It is suggested that this increases the probability of misrejoining of DNA ends and generation of lethal chromosome aberrations.

  12. Effect of radiation-induced damage on deuterium retention in tungsten, tungsten coatings and Eurofer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Sugiyama, K.

    2013-11-01

    An influence of radiation-induced damage on hydrogen isotope retention and transport in a bulk tungsten (W), dense nano-structured W coatings and Eurofer was investigated under well-defined laboratory conditions. Radiation-induced defects in W materials and Eurofer were created by irradiation with 20 MeV W ions. Following the damage production, samples were exposed to low-energy deuterium plasma. The deuterium (D) retention in each sample was subsequently measured by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for the depth profiling up to 6 μm. It was shown that the D retention at radiation-induced damage is almost equivalent for different W grades after irradiation at high enough fluence. The kinetic of D migration and trapping in damaged area as well as recovery of radiation-induced damage were investigated by loading at different temperatures. It was shown that deuterium retention in tungsten in fusion environment will be dominated by radiation-induced effect in a wide range of investigated temperatures, namely, from room temperature to 1100 K. Whereas displacement damage produced in Eurofer has less pronounced effect on the deuterium accumulation.

  13. Radiation-damaged tyrosinase molecules are inactive

    SciTech Connect

    Kempner, E.S.; Miller, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Target analysis of radiation inactivation of mushroom tyrosinase yields different target sizes for diphenoloxidase and monophenoloxidase activities, which correspond to the subunits H and HL2 (or HL), respectively. After gel electrophoresis of irradiated samples, all diphenoloxidase activity is observed at the same position as seen in the original material. Radiolytic fragments contain no detectable activity, consistent with a fundamental assumption of target theory.

  14. Spectrum of complex DNA damages depends on the incident radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, M.; Sutherland, B.

    Ionizing radiation induces clustered DNA damages in DNA-two or more abasic sites oxidized bases and strand breaks on opposite DNA strands within a few helical turns Clustered damages are considered to be difficult to repair and therefore potentially lethal and mutagenic damages Although induction of single strand breaks and isolated lesions has been studied extensively little is known of factors affecting induction of clusters other than double strand breaks DSB The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of incident radiation could affect yield or spectra of specific clusters Genomic T7 DNA a simple 40 kbp linear blunt-ended molecule was irradiated in non-scavenging buffer conditions with Fe 970 MeV n Ti 980 MeV n C 293 MeV n Si 586 MeV n ions or protons 1 GeV n at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory or with 100 kVp X-rays Irradiated DNA was treated with homogeneous Fpg or Nfo proteins or without enzyme treatment for DSB quantitation then electrophoresed in neutral agarose gels DSB Fpg-OxyPurine clusters and Nfo-Abasic clusters were quantified by number average length analysis The results show that the yields of all these complex damages depend on the incident radiation Although LETs are similar protons induced twice as many DSBs than did X-rays Further the spectrum of damage also depends on the radiation The yield damage Mbp Gy of all damages decreased with increasing linear energy transfer LET of the radiation The relative frequencies of DSBs to Abasic- and OxyBase clusters were higher

  15. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Yu, K Y; Liu, Y; Shao, S; Wang, H; Kirk, M A; Wang, J; Zhang, X

    2015-01-01

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from high density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials. PMID:25906997

  16. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from high density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials. PMID:25906997

  17. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from highmore » density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.« less

  18. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-01

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from high density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.

  19. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  20. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cockroft, Nigel J.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  1. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesismore » that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.« less

  2. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    SciTech Connect

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.

  3. The radiation damage of crystalline silicon PN diode in tritium beta-voltaic battery.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yisong; Yang, Yuqing; Liu, Yebing; Li, Hao; Wang, Guanquan; Hu, Rui; Xiong, Xiaoling; Luo, Shunzhong

    2014-08-01

    A tritium beta-voltaic battery using a crystalline silicon convertor composed of (100)Si/SiO2/Si3N4 film degrades remarkably with radiation from a high intensity titanium tritide film. Simulation and experiments were carried out to investigate the main factor causing the degradation. The radiation damages mainly comes from the x-ray emitted from the titanium tritide film and beta particle can relieve the damages. The x-ray radiation induced positive charges in the SiO2 film destroying the output property of the PN diode with the induction of an electric field. PMID:24751350

  4. Opportunities for nutritional amelioration of radiation-induced cellular damage.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nancy D; Braby, Leslie A; Ford, John; Lupton, Joanne R

    2002-10-01

    The closed environment and limited evasive capabilities inherent in space flight cause astronauts to be exposed to many potential harmful agents (chemical contaminants in the environment and cosmic radiation exposure). Current power systems used to achieve space flight are prohibitively expensive for supporting the weight requirements to fully shield astronauts from cosmic radiation. Therefore, radiation poses a major, currently unresolvable risk for astronauts, especially for long-duration space flights. The major detrimental radiation effects that are of primary concern for long-duration space flights are damage to the lens of the eye, damage to the immune system, damage to the central nervous system, and cancer. In addition to the direct damage to biological molecules in cells, radiation exposure induces oxidative damage. Many natural antioxidants, whether consumed before or after radiation exposure, are able to confer some level of radioprotection. In addition to achieving beneficial effects from long-known antioxidants such as vitamins E and C and folic acid, some protection is conferred by several recently discovered antioxidant molecules, such as flavonoids, epigallocatechin, and other polyphenols. Somewhat counterintuitive is the protection provided by diets containing elevated levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, considering they are thought to be prone to peroxidation. Even with the information we have at our disposal, it will be difficult to predict the types of dietary modifications that can best reduce the risk of radiation exposure to astronauts, those living on Earth, or those enduring diagnostic or therapeutic radiation exposure. Much more work must be done in humans, whether on Earth or, preferably, in space, before we are able to make concrete recommendations. PMID:12361786

  5. Opportunities for nutritional amelioration of radiation-induced cellular damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Nancy D.; Braby, Leslie A.; Ford, John; Lupton, Joanne R.

    2002-01-01

    The closed environment and limited evasive capabilities inherent in space flight cause astronauts to be exposed to many potential harmful agents (chemical contaminants in the environment and cosmic radiation exposure). Current power systems used to achieve space flight are prohibitively expensive for supporting the weight requirements to fully shield astronauts from cosmic radiation. Therefore, radiation poses a major, currently unresolvable risk for astronauts, especially for long-duration space flights. The major detrimental radiation effects that are of primary concern for long-duration space flights are damage to the lens of the eye, damage to the immune system, damage to the central nervous system, and cancer. In addition to the direct damage to biological molecules in cells, radiation exposure induces oxidative damage. Many natural antioxidants, whether consumed before or after radiation exposure, are able to confer some level of radioprotection. In addition to achieving beneficial effects from long-known antioxidants such as vitamins E and C and folic acid, some protection is conferred by several recently discovered antioxidant molecules, such as flavonoids, epigallocatechin, and other polyphenols. Somewhat counterintuitive is the protection provided by diets containing elevated levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, considering they are thought to be prone to peroxidation. Even with the information we have at our disposal, it will be difficult to predict the types of dietary modifications that can best reduce the risk of radiation exposure to astronauts, those living on Earth, or those enduring diagnostic or therapeutic radiation exposure. Much more work must be done in humans, whether on Earth or, preferably, in space, before we are able to make concrete recommendations.

  6. Influence of radiation damage on krypton diffusion in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, E.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; van der Berg, N. G.; Mabena, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    Diffusion of krypton in poly and single crystalline silicon carbide is investigated and compared with the previously obtained results for xenon, which pointed to a different diffusion mechanism than observed for chemically active elements. For this purpose 360 keV krypton ions were implanted in commercial 6H-SiC and CVD-SiC wafers at room temperature, 350 °C and 600 °C. Width broadening of the implantation profiles and krypton retention during isochronal and isothermal annealing up to temperatures of 1400 °C was determined by RBS-analysis, whilst in the case of 6H-SiC damage profiles were simultaneously obtained by α-particle channeling. Little diffusion and no krypton loss was detected in the initially amorphized and eventually recrystallized surface layer of cold implanted 6H-SiC during annealing up to 1200 °C. Above that temperature thermal etching of the implanted surface became increasingly important. No diffusion or krypton loss is detected in the hot implanted 6H-SiC samples during annealing up to 1400 °C. Radiation damage dependent grain boundary diffusion is observed at 1300 °C in CVD-SiC. The results seem to indicate, that the chemically inert noble gas atoms do not form defect-impurity complexes, which strongly influence the diffusion behavior of other diffusors in silicon carbide.

  7. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: Modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkadoula, E.; Devanathan, R.; Weber, W. J.; Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T.; Nordlund, K.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-02-01

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution, and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  8. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Evangelia; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J; Seaton, M; Todorov, I T; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-01-01

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We nd that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  9. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Seaton, Michael; Todorov, Ilian; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia has been viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and was consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as a nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with the account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely disjoint from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  10. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: Modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, E.; Devanathan, R.; Weber, W. J.; Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T.; Nordlund, K.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1–0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution, and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  11. Studying Radiation Damage in Structural Materials by Using Ion Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosemann, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Radiation damage in structural materials is of major concern and a limiting factor for a wide range of engineering and scientific applications, including nuclear power production, medical applications, or components for scientific radiation sources. The usefulness of these applications is largely limited by the damage a material can sustain in the extreme environments of radiation, temperature, stress, and fatigue, over long periods of time. Although a wide range of materials has been extensively studied in nuclear reactors and neutron spallation sources since the beginning of the nuclear age, ion beam irradiations using particle accelerators are a more cost-effective alternative to study radiation damage in materials in a rather short period of time, allowing researchers to gain fundamental insights into the damage processes and to estimate the property changes due to irradiation. However, the comparison of results gained from ion beam irradiation, large-scale neutron irradiation, and a variety of experimental setups is not straightforward, and several effects have to be taken into account. It is the intention of this article to introduce the reader to the basic phenomena taking place and to point out the differences between classic reactor irradiations and ion irradiations. It will also provide an assessment of how accelerator-based ion beam irradiation is used today to gain insight into the damage in structural materials for large-scale engineering applications.

  12. Raman study of radiation-damaged zircon under hydrostatic compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasdala, Lutz; Miletich, Ronald; Ruschel, Katja; Váczi, Tamás

    2008-12-01

    Pressure-induced changes of Raman band parameters of four natural, gem-quality zircon samples with different degrees of self-irradiation damage, and synthetic ZrSiO4 without radiation damage, have been studied under hydrostatic compression in a diamond anvil cell up to ~10 GPa. Radiation-damaged zircon shows similar up-shifts of internal SiO4 stretching modes at elevated pressures as non-damaged ZrSiO4. Only minor changes of band-widths were observed in all cases. This makes it possible to estimate the degree of radiation damage from the width of the ν3(SiO4) band of zircon inclusions in situ, almost independent from potential “fossilized pressures” or compressive strain acting on the inclusions. An application is the non-destructive analysis of gemstones such as corundum or spinel: broadened Raman bands are a reliable indicator of self-irradiation damage in zircon inclusions, whose presence allows one to exclude artificial color enhancement by high-temperature treatment of the specimen.

  13. ANL/WSU radiation damage studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, D.; Lopiano, D.; Proudfoot, J.; Underwood, D.; Miles, L.; Neidiger, J.; Tripard, G.

    1993-12-31

    We report preliminary results for the radiation hardness of (polystryrene) plastic scintillator stacks using a spectrum of energy hardened neutrons from a MARK-III TRIGA reactor. The total dose ranged from 100 KRad to 3MRad. The corresponding fluence was 3.8 {times} 10{sup 13} to 3.8 {times} 10{sup 14} (n/cm/cm) with the gamma contribution on the order 2--3% (of fluence). The measurements used Li-6, Li-7 Thermo-luminescence dosimeters. Radiochromic/GaF- Chromic film, and activated foils simultaneously allowing an inter-comparison of these various methods of dosimetry.

  14. Proton radiation damage in optical filter glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grillot, Patrick N.; Rosenberg, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Samples of Schott BG-39 and Hoya CM-500 blue-green filter glass were subjected to proton radiation to determine their acceptability for spaceflight. Initial testing done with 2.7 MeV protons showed negligible change in optical transmittance with doses as high as 5.2 x 10 to the 14th protons per sq cm. Irradiation with protons of energy up to 63 MeV caused a significant reduction in transmittance in the Schott samples at doses of 5.3 x 10 to the 12th protons per sq cm, while negligible change occurred in the Hoya samples.

  15. Multiscale approach to the physics of radiation damage with ions

    SciTech Connect

    Surdutovich, Eugene; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2013-04-19

    We review a multiscale approach to the physics of ion-beam cancer therapy, an approach suggested in order to understand the interplay of a large number of phenomena involved in radiation damage scenario occurring on a range of temporal, spatial, and energy scales. We briefly overview its history and present the current stage of its development. The differences of the multiscale approach from other methods of understanding and assessment of radiation damage are discussed as well as its relationship to other branches of physics, chemistry and biology.

  16. Computer simulation radiation damages in condensed matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupchishin, A. I.; Kupchishin, A. A.; Voronova, N. A.; Kirdyashkin, V. I.; Gyngazov, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    As part of the cascade-probability method were calculated the energy spectra of primary knocked-out atoms and the concentration of radiation-induced defects in a number of metals irradiated by electrons. As follows from the formulas, the number of Frenkel pairs at a given depth depends on three variables having certain physical meaning: firstly, Cd (Ea h) is proportional to the average energy of the considered depth of the PKA (if it is higher, than the greater number of atoms it will displace); secondly is inversely proportional to the path length λ2 for the formation of the PKA (if λ1 is higher than is the smaller the probability of interaction) and thirdly is inversely proportional to Ed. In this case calculations are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data (for example, copper and aluminum).

  17. Gallium Arsenide solar cell radiation damage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.; Herbert, G. A.; Meulenberg, A.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells for space applications from three different manufactures were irradiated with 10 MeV protons or 1 MeV electrons. The electrical performance of the cells was measured at several fluence levels and compared. Silicon cells were included for reference and comparison. All the GaAs cell types performed similarly throughout the testing and showed a 36 to 56 percent power areal density advantage over the silicon cells. Thinner (8-mil versus 12-mil) GaAs cells provide a significant weight reduction. The use of germanium (Ge) substrates to improve mechanical integrity can be implemented with little impact on end of life performance in a radiation environment.

  18. Research progress in radiation detectors, pattern recognition programs, and radiation damage determination in DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baily, N. A.

    1973-01-01

    The radiological implications of statistical variations in energy deposition by ionizing radiation were investigated in the conduct of the following experiments: (1) study of the production of secondary particles generated by the passage of the primary radiation through bone and muscle; (2) the study of the ratio of nonreparable to reparable damage in DNA as a function of different energy deposition patterns generated by X rays versus heavy fast charged particles; (3) the use of electronic radiography systems for direct fluoroscopic tomography and for the synthesis of multiple planes and; (4) the determination of the characteristics of systems response to split fields having different contrast levels, and of minimum detectable contrast levels between the halves under realistic clinical situations.

  19. Radiation damage studies of silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, P.; Clough, A.; Hazen, E.; Heering, A.; Rohlf, J.; Freeman, J.; Los, S.; Cascio, E.; Kuleshov, S.; Musienko, Y.; Piemonte, C.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the radiation hardness of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) manufactured by Fondazione Bruno Kessler in Italy (1 and 6.2 mm2), Center of Perspective Technology and Apparatus in Russia (1 and 4.4 mm2), and Hamamatsu Corporation in Japan (1 mm2). The SiPMs were irradiated using a beam of 212 MeV protons at Massachusetts General Hospital, receiving fluences of up to 3×1010 protons per cm2 with the SiPMs at operating voltage. Leakage currents were read continuously during the irradiation. The delivery of the protons was paused periodically to record scope traces in response to calibrated light pulses to monitor the gains, photon detection efficiencies, and dark counts of the SiPMs. The leakage current and dark noise are found to increase with fluence. The leakage current is found to be proportional to the mean square deviation of the noise distribution, indicating the dark counts are due to increased random individual pixel activation, while SiPMs remain fully functional as photon detectors. The SiPMs are found to anneal at room temperature with a reduction in the leakage current by a factor of 2 in about 100 days.

  20. Radiation damage aspects of the chernobyl accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J. C.

    During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power station, about 150km north of Kiev, in the Ukraine. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 × 10 4 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

  1. Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkő, Klára; Pintye, Éva; Szabó, Boglárka; Géresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benkő, Ilona

    2008-12-01

    To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of γ—irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD50 values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

  2. Neutron dosimetry and radiation damage calculations for HFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T.

    1998-03-01

    Neutron dosimetry measurements have been conducted for various positions of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in order to measure the neutron flux and energy spectra. Neutron dosimetry results and radiation damage calculations are presented for positions V10, V14, and V15.

  3. On the Use of SRIM for Computing Radiation Damage Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, Roger E.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Was, Gary S.; Certain, Alicia G.; Dwaraknath, S.; Garner, Frank A.

    2013-09-01

    The SRIM (formerly TRIM) Monte Carlo simulation code is widely used to compute a number of parameters relevant to ion beam implantation and ion beam processing of materials. It also has the capability to compute a common radiation damage exposure unit known as atomic displacements per atom (dpa). Since dpa is a standard measure of primary radiation damage production, most researchers who employ ion beams as a tool for inducing radiation damage in materials use SRIM to determine the dpa associated with their irradiations. The use of SRIM for this purpose has been evaluated and comparisons have been made with an internationally-recognized standard definition of dpa, as well as more detailed atomistic simulations of atomic displacement cascades. Differences between the standard and SRIM-based dpa are discussed and recommendations for future usage of SRIM in radiation damage studies are made. In particular, it is recommended that when direct comparisons between ion and neutron data are intended, the Kinchin-Pease option of SRIM should be selected.

  4. Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Benko', Klara; Pintye, Eva; Szabo, Boglarka; Geresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benko, Ilona

    2008-12-08

    To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of {gamma}--irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD{sub 50} values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

  5. On the use of SRIM for computing radiation damage exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoller, R. E.; Toloczko, M. B.; Was, G. S.; Certain, A. G.; Dwaraknath, S.; Garner, F. A.

    2013-09-01

    The SRIM (formerly TRIM) Monte Carlo simulation code is widely used to compute a number of parameters relevant to ion beam implantation and ion beam processing of materials. It also has the capability to compute a common radiation damage exposure unit known as atomic displacements per atom (dpa). Since dpa is a standard measure of primary radiation damage production, most researchers who employ ion beams as a tool for inducing radiation damage in materials use SRIM to determine the dpa associated with their irradiations. The use of SRIM for this purpose has been evaluated and comparisons have been made with an internationally-recognized standard definition of dpa, as well as more detailed atomistic simulations of atomic displacement cascades. Differences between the standard and SRIM-based dpa are discussed and recommendations for future usage of SRIM in radiation damage studies are made. In particular, it is recommended that when direct comparisons between ion and neutron data are intended, the Kinchin-Pease option of SRIM should be selected.

  6. Radiation damage effects in candidate titanates for Pu disposition: Pyrochlore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.; Buck, E. C.; Icenhower, J. P.; Kozelisky, A. E.; Sell, R. L.; Elovich, R. J.; Buchmiller, W. C.

    2005-10-01

    Laboratory experiments on titanate ceramics were performed to verify whether certain assumptions are valid regarding the swelling, chemical durability, and microcracking that might occur as 239Pu decays. Titanate ceramics are the material of choice for the immobilization of surplus weapons-grade Pu. The short-lived isotope 238Pu, was incorporated into the ceramic formulation to accelerate the effects of radiation-induced damage. We report on the effects of this damage on the density (volumetric swelling <6%), crystal structure of pyrochlore-bearing specimens (amorphous after about 2 × 1018 α/g), and dissolution (no change from the fully crystalline specimen). Even though the specimens became amorphous during the tests, there was no evidence for microcracking in the photomicrographs from the scanning electron microscope. Thus, although pyrochlore is susceptible to radiation-induced damage, the material remains chemically and physically viable as a material for immobilizing surplus weapons-grade Pu.

  7. Proton-induced radiation damage in germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueckner, J.; Koerfer, M.; Waenke, H.; Schroeder, A. N. F.; Filges, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Englert, P. A. J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J. I.

    1991-01-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors will be used in future space missions for gamma-ray measurements and will be subject to interactions with energetic particles. To simulate this process, several large-volume n-type HPGe detectors were incrementally exposed to a particle fluence of up to 10 to the 8th protons/sq cm (proton energy: 1.5 GeV) at different operating temperatures (90 to 120 K) to induce radiation damage. Basic scientific and engineering data on detector performance were collected. During the incremental irradiation, the peak shape produced by the detectors showed a significant change from a Gaussian shape to a broad complex structure. After the irradiation, all detectors were thoroughly characterized by measuring many parameters. To remove the accumulated radiation damage, the detectors were stepwise-annealed at temperatures below 110 C, while kept in their specially designed cryostats. This study shows that n-type HPGe detectors can be used in charged-particle environments as high-energy resolution devices until a certain level of radiation damage is accumulated and that the damage can be removed at moderate annealing temperatures and the detector returned to operating condition.

  8. Proton-induced radiation damage in germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckner, J.; Korfer, M.; Wanke, H. , Mainz ); Schroeder, A.N.F. ); Figes, D.; Dragovitsch, P. ); Englert, P.A.J. ); Starr, R.; Trombka, J.I. . Goddard Space Flight Center); Taylor, I. ); Drake, D.M.; Shunk, E.R. )

    1991-04-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors will be used in future space missions for gamma-ray measurements and will be subject to interactions with energetic particles. To simulate this process several large-volume n-type HPGe detectors were incrementally exposed to a particle fluence of up to 10{sub 8} protons cm{sup {minus}2} (proton energy: 1.5 GeV) at different operating temperatures (90 to 120 K) to induce radiation damage. Basic scientific as well as engineering data on detector performance were collected. During the incremental irradiation, the peak shape produced by the detectors showed a significant change from a Gaussian shape to a broad complex structure. After the irradiation all detectors were thoroughly characterized by measuring many parameters. To remove the accumulated radiation damage the detectors were stepwise annealed at temperatures T {le} 110{degrees}C while staying specially designed cryostats. This paper shows that n-type HPGe detectors can be used in charged particles environments as high-energy resolution devices until a certain level of radiation damage is accumulated and that the damage can be removed at moderate annealing temperatures and the detector returned to operating condition.

  9. Analyses of the Secondary Particle Radiation and the DNA Damage it Causes to Human Keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lebel E. A.; Tafrov S.; Rusek, A.; Sivertz, M. B.; Yip, K.; Thompson, K. H.

    2011-11-01

    High-energy protons, and high mass and energy ions, along with the secondary particles they produce, are the main contributors to the radiation hazard during space explorations. Skin, particularly the epidermis, consisting mainly of keratinocytes with potential for proliferation and malignant transformation, absorbs the majority of the radiation dose. Therefore, we used normal human keratinocytes to investigate and quantify the DNA damage caused by secondary radiation. Its manifestation depends on the presence of retinol in the serum-free media, and is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases. We simulated the generation of secondary radiation after the impact of protons and iron ions on an aluminum shield. We also measured the intensity and the type of the resulting secondary particles at two sample locations; our findings agreed well with our predictions. We showed that secondary particles inflict DNA damage to different extents, depending on the type of primary radiation. Low-energy protons produce fewer secondary particles and cause less DNA damage than do high-energy protons. However, both generate fewer secondary particles and inflict less DNA damage than do high mass and energy ions. The majority of cells repaired the initial damage, as denoted by the presence of 53BPI foci, within the first 24 hours after exposure, but some cells maintained the 53BP1 foci longer.

  10. Analyses of the secondary particle radiation and the DNA damage it causes to human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lebel E.; Rusek A.; Sivertz, M.; Yip, K.; Thompson, K.; Tafrov, S.

    2011-11-22

    High-energy protons, and high mass and energy ions, along with the secondary particles they produce, are the main contributors to the radiation hazard during space explorations. Skin, particularly the epidermis, consisting mainly of keratinocytes with potential for proliferation and malignant transformation, absorbs the majority of the radiation dose. Therefore, we used normal human keratinocytes to investigate and quantify the DNA damage caused by secondary radiation. Its manifestation depends on the presence of retinol in the serum-free media, and is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases. We simulated the generation of secondary radiation after the impact of protons and iron ions on an aluminum shield. We also measured the intensity and the type of the resulting secondary particles at two sample locations; our findings agreed well with our predictions. We showed that secondary particles inflict DNA damage to different extents, depending on the type of primary radiation. Low-energy protons produce fewer secondary particles and cause less DNA damage than do high-energy protons. However, both generate fewer secondary particles and inflict less DNA damage than do high mass and energy ions. The majority of cells repaired the initial damage, as denoted by the presence of 53BPI foci, within the first 24 hours after exposure, but some cells maintained the 53BP1 foci longer.

  11. GUI to Facilitate Research on Biological Damage from Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Frances A.; Ponomarev, Artem Lvovich

    2010-01-01

    A graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer program has been developed to facilitate research on the damage caused by highly energetic particles and photons impinging on living organisms. The program brings together, into one computational workspace, computer codes that have been developed over the years, plus codes that will be developed during the foreseeable future, to address diverse aspects of radiation damage. These include codes that implement radiation-track models, codes for biophysical models of breakage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by radiation, pattern-recognition programs for extracting quantitative information from biological assays, and image-processing programs that aid visualization of DNA breaks. The radiation-track models are based on transport models of interactions of radiation with matter and solution of the Boltzmann transport equation by use of both theoretical and numerical models. The biophysical models of breakage of DNA by radiation include biopolymer coarse-grained and atomistic models of DNA, stochastic- process models of deposition of energy, and Markov-based probabilistic models of placement of double-strand breaks in DNA. The program is designed for use in the NT, 95, 98, 2000, ME, and XP variants of the Windows operating system.

  12. Research on quick seismic damage investigation using smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Han, Ruicong; Yu, Yan; Li, Mingchu

    2016-04-01

    Quick seismic damage investigation in earthquake zone is significant to provide guidance for emergency response and rescue after disaster. In this paper, the damage investigation software is developed, which integrates the functions of questionnaire and picture collection for phenomenon register and image acquisition. The software has been updated to online version, all the information collected can be uploaded to the website with their GPS information, and demonstrated on a map. The expert can evaluate the seismic damage by analyzing the photos and recordings collected, which reduce the waste of human and time.

  13. Modification of radiation-induced oxidative damage in liposomal and microsomal membrane by eugenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, B. N.; Lathika, K. M.; Mishra, K. P.

    2006-03-01

    Radiation-induced membrane oxidative damage, and their modification by eugenol, a natural antioxidant, was investigated in liposomes and microsomes. Liposomes prepared with DPH showed decrease in fluorescence after γ-irradiation, which was prevented significantly by eugenol and correlated with magnitude of oxidation of phospholipids. Presence of eugenol resulted in substantial inhibition in MDA formation in irradiated liposomes/microsomes, which was less effective when added after irradiation. Similarly, the increase in phospholipase C activity observed after irradiation in microsomes was inhibited in samples pre-treated with eugenol. Results suggest association of radio- oxidative membrane damage with alterations in signaling molecules, and eugenol significantly prevented these membrane damaging events.

  14. Feasibility of OCT to detect radiation-induced esophageal damage in small animal models (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelvehgaran, Pouya; Alderliesten, Tanja; Salguero, Javier; Borst, Gerben; Song, Ji-Ying; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; de Boer, Johannes F.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; van Herk, Marcel B.

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer survival is poor and radiotherapy patients often suffer serious treatment side effects. The esophagus is particularly sensitive leading to reduced food intake or even fistula formation. Only few direct techniques exist to measure radiation-induced esophageal damage, for which knowledge is needed to improve the balance between risk of tumor recurrence and complications. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a minimally-invasive imaging technique that obtains cross-sectional, high-resolution (1-10µm) images and is capable of scanning the esophageal wall up to 2-3mm depth. In this study we investigated the feasibility of OCT to detect esophageal radiation damage in mice. In total 30 mice were included in 4 study groups (1 main and 3 control groups). Mice underwent cone-beam CT imaging for initial setup assessment and dose planning followed by single-fraction dose delivery of 4, 10, 16, and 20Gy on 5mm spots, spaced 10mm apart. Mice were repeatedly imaged using OCT: pre-irradiation and up to 3 months post-irradiation. The control groups received either OCT only, irradiation only, or were sham-operated. We used histopathology as gold standard for radiation-induced damage diagnosis. The study showed edema in both the main and OCT-only groups. Furthermore, radiation-induced damage was primarily found in the highest dose region (distal esophagus). Based on the histopathology reports we were able to identify the radiation-induced damage in the OCT images as a change in tissue scattering related to the type of induced damage. This finding indicates the feasibility and thereby the potentially promising role of OCT in radiation-induced esophageal damage assessment.

  15. DNA damage induced by the direct effect of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoya, A.; Shikazono, N.; Fujii, K.; Urushibara, A.; Akamatsu, K.; Watanabe, R.

    2008-10-01

    We have studied the nature of DNA damage induced by the direct effect of radiation. The yields of single- (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB), base lesions and clustered damage were measured using the agarose gel electrophoresis method after exposing to various kinds of radiations to a simple model DNA molecule, fully hydrated closed-circular plasmid DNA (pUC18). The yield of SSB does not show significant dependence on linear energy transfer (LET) values. On the other hand, the yields of base lesions revealed by enzymatic probes, endonuclease III (Nth) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which excise base lesions and leave a nick at the damage site, strongly depend on LET values. Soft X-ray photon (150 kVp) irradiation gives a maximum yield of the base lesions detected by the enzymatic probes as SSB and clustered damage, which is composed of one base lesion and proximate other base lesions or SSBs. The clustered damage is visualized as an enzymatically induced DSB. The yields of the enzymatically additional damages strikingly decrease with increasing levels of LET. These results suggest that in higher LET regions, the repair enzymes used as probes are compromised because of the dense damage clustering. The studies using simple plasmid DNA as a irradiation sample, however, have a technical difficulty to detect multiple SSBs in a plasmid DNA. To detect the additional SSBs induced in opposite strand of the first SSB, we have also developed a novel technique of DNA-denaturation assay. This allows us to detect multiply induced SSBs in both strand of DNA, but not induced DSB.

  16. Mitochondria regulate DNA damage and genomic instability induced by high LET radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Davidson, Mercy M.; Hei, Tom K.

    2014-04-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation including α particles and heavy ions is the major type of radiation found in space and is considered a potential health risk for astronauts. Even though the chance that these high LET particles traversing through the cytoplasm of cells is higher than that through the nuclei, the contribution of targeted cytoplasmic irradiation to the induction of genomic instability and other chromosomal damages induced by high LET radiation is not known. In the present study, we investigated whether mitochondria are the potential cytoplasmic target of high LET radiation in mediating cellular damage using a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depleted (ρ0) human small airway epithelial (SAE) cell model and a precision charged particle microbeam with a beam width of merely one micron. Targeted cytoplasmic irradiation by high LET α particles induced DNA oxidative damage and double strand breaks in wild type ρ+ SAE cells. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in autophagy and micronuclei, which is an indication of genomic instability, together with the activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitochondrial inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling pathways in ρ+ SAE cells. In contrast, ρ0 SAE cells exhibited a significantly lower response to these same endpoints examined after cytoplasmic irradiation with high LET α particles. The results indicate that mitochondria are essential in mediating cytoplasmic radiation induced genotoxic damage in mammalian cells. Furthermore, the findings may shed some light in the design of countermeasures for space radiation.

  17. Mitochondria regulate DNA damage and genomic instability induced by high LET radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Davidson, Mercy M.; Hei, Tom K.

    2014-01-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation including α particles and heavy ions is the major type of radiation find in space and is considered a potential health risk for astronauts. Even though the chance that these high LET particles traversing through the cytoplasm of cells is higher than that through the nuclei, the contribution of targeted cytoplasmic irradiation, to the induction of genomic instability and other chromosomal damages induced by high LET radiation is not known. In the present study, we investigated whether mitochondria are the potential cytoplasmic target of high LET radiation in mediating cellular damage using a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depleted (ρ0) human small airway epithelial (SAE) cell model and a precision charged particle microbeam with a beam width of merely one micron. Targeted cytoplasmic irradiation by high LET α particles induced DNA oxidative damage and double strand breaks in wild type ρ+ SAE cells. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in autophagy, micronuclei, which is an indication of genomic instability, together with the activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitochondrial inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling pathways in ρ+ SAE cells. In contrast, ρ0 SAE cells exhibited a significantly lower response to these same endpoints examined after cytoplasmic irradiation with high LET α particles. The results indicate that mitochondria are essential in mediating cytoplasmic radiation induced genotoxic damage in mammalian cells. Furthermore, the findings may shed some light in the design of countermeasures for space radiation. PMID:25072018

  18. Induced swelling in radiation damaged ZrSiO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exarhos, G. J.

    1984-02-01

    A hydrothermal gelation method was used to prepare phase pure polycrystalline ZrSiO 4 which was sintered to 95% theoretical density. Actinide doped samples containing 10 wt% 238Pu were prepared by an analogous procedure and incurred bulk radiation damage through internal alpha-decay processes. Undoped samples were subjected to external irradiation from 5.5 MeV alpha sources, and from a 60Co gamma source. Actinide doped ZrSiO 4 exhibits dose dependent swelling caused by displacement processes leading to ingrowth of amorphous regions. Bulk density and XRD measurements, as a function of dose, showed first order exponential ingrowth behavior similar to that observed in other actinide doped materials. Results are compared with reported data for naturally damaged crystals subjected to significantly lower alpha decay rates. No significant dose rate dependence on damage ingrowth has been observed. Kinetic models for the observed dose dependent swelling are proposed and rate constants for damage ingrowth in synthetic and natural crystals are compared. To study localized damage induced by both external alpha and gamma irradiation, vibrational Raman measurements were obtained for several accumulated doses. Results indicate that the initial stage of damage ingrowth is confined to the silicate sublattice. Vibrational results will be discussed in terms of microstructural changes which result from irradiation.

  19. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from high density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.

  20. Extreme radiation damage in soil from Mare Fecunditatis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phakey, P. P.; Price, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    High-voltage electron microscopy has been used to compare radiation effects in micron-size soil grains from the Luna 16 site (Mare Fecunditatis) and the four Apollo landing sites. Radiation damage by heavy solar particles is strikingly greater in the Luna 16 sample than in the other four samples. It is suggested that less movement of the soil at Mare Fecunditatis has taken place, perhaps because of its proximity to the limb and consequent lower exposure to energetic electrons in the earth's magnetospheric tail, which would cause electrostatic agitation of fine particles.

  1. Proton induced radiation damage in fast crystal scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Kapustinsky, Jon; Nelson, Ron; Wang, Zhehui

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports proton induced radiation damage in fast crystal scintillators. A 20 cm long LYSO crystal, a 15 cm long CeF3 crystal and four liquid scintillator based sealed quartz capillaries were irradiated by 800 MeV protons at Los Alamos up to 3.3 ×1014 p /cm2. Four 1.5 mm thick LYSO plates were irradiated by 24 GeV protons at CERN up to 6.9 ×1015 p /cm2. The results show an excellent radiation hardness of LYSO crystals against charged hadrons.

  2. Radiation damage studies of detector-compatible Si JFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Candelori, Andrea; Pancheri, Lucio; Piemonte, Claudio; Ratti, Lodovico; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-03-01

    We have largely improved the performance of our detector-compatible Si JFETs by optimizing the fabrication technology. New devices feature thermal noise values close to the theoretical ones, and remarkably low 1/ f noise figures. In view of adopting these JFETs for X-ray imaging and HEP applications, bulk and surface radiation damage tests have been carried out by irradiating single transistors and test structures with neutrons and X-rays. Selected results from static and noise characterization of irradiated devices are discussed in this paper, and the impact of radiation effects on the performance of JFET-based circuits is addressed.

  3. A stochastic model of radiation-induced bone marrow damage

    SciTech Connect

    Cotlet, G.; Blue, T.E.

    2000-03-01

    A stochastic model, based on consensus principles from radiation biology, is used to estimate bone-marrow stem cell pool survival (CFU-S and stroma cells) after irradiation. The dose response model consists of three coupled first order linear differential equations which quantitatively describe time dependent cellular damage, repair, and killing of red bone marrow cells. This system of differential equations is solved analytically through the use of a matrix approach for continuous and fractionated irradiations. The analytic solutions are confirmed through the dynamical solution of the model equations using SIMULINK. Rate coefficients describing the cellular processes of radiation damage and repair, extrapolated to humans from animal data sets and adjusted for neutron-gamma mixed fields, are employed in a SIMULINK analysis of criticality accidents. The results show that, for the time structures which may occur in criticality accidents, cell survival is established mainly by the average dose and dose rate.

  4. Radiation damage in zircon by high-energy electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Nan; Spence, John C. H.

    2009-06-15

    Radiation damage induced by high-energy (200 keV) electron irradiation in zircon has been studied thoroughly using imaging, diffraction, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy techniques in transmission electron microscopy. Both structural and compositional changes during the damage were measured using the above techniques in real time. It was found that the damage was mainly caused by the preferential sputtering of O. The loss of O occurred initially within small sporadic regions with dimension of several nanometers, resulting in the direct transformation of zircon into Zr{sub x}Si{sub y}. These isolated patches gradually connect each other and eventually cover the whole area of the electron beam. These differ from the previous observations either in the self-irradiated natural and synthetic zircon or in ion-beam irradiated thin zircon specimen.

  5. Pluripotent stem cells and DNA damage response to ionizing radiations

    PubMed Central

    Mujoo, Kalpana; Butler, E. Brian; Pandita, Raj K.; Hunt, Clayton R.; Pandita, Tej K.

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) hold great promise in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, functional genomics, toxicological studies and cell-based therapeutics due to their unique characteristics of self-renewal and pluripotency. Novel methods for generation of pluripotent stem cells and their differentiation to the specialized cell types such as neuronal cells, myocardial cells, hepatocytes, and beta cells of the pancreas and many other cells of the body are constantly being refined. Pluripotent stem cell derived differentiated cells, including neuronal cells or cardiac cells are ideal for stem cell transplantation as autologous or allogeneic cells from healthy donors due to their minimum risks of rejection. DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet (UV) light, genotoxic stress, and other intrinsic and extrinsic factors trigger a series of biochemical reactions termed as DNA damage response (DDR). In order to maintain genomic stability, and avoid transmission of mutations into progenitors cells, stem cells have robust DNA damage response signaling – a contrast to somatic cells. Stem cell transplantation may over come the late effects related to radiation. This review will particularly focus on differential DNA damage response between stem cells and derived differentiated cells and the possible pathways that determine such differences. PMID:27332952

  6. Multiscale approach to the physics of radiation damage with ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdutovich, Eugene; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2014-11-01

    The multiscale approach to the assessment of biodamage resulting upon irradiation of biological media with ions is reviewed, explained and compared to other approaches. The processes of ion propagation in the medium concurrent with ionization and excitation of molecules, transport of secondary products, dynamics of the medium, and biological damage take place on a number of different temporal, spatial and energy scales. The multiscale approach, a physical phenomenon-based analysis of the scenario that leads to radiation damage, has been designed to consider all relevant effects on a variety of scales and develop an approach to the quantitative assessment of biological damage as a result of irradiation with ions. Presently, physical and chemical effects are included in the scenario while the biological effects such as DNA repair are only mentioned. This paper explains the scenario of radiation damage with ions, overviews its major parts, and applies the multiscale approach to different experimental conditions. On the basis of this experience, the recipe for application of the multiscale approach is formulated. The recipe leads to the calculation of relative biological effectiveness.

  7. Pluripotent Stem Cells and DNA Damage Response to Ionizing Radiations.

    PubMed

    Mujoo, Kalpana; Butler, E Brian; Pandita, Raj K; Hunt, Clayton R; Pandita, Tej K

    2016-07-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) hold great promise in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, functional genomics, toxicological studies and cell-based therapeutics due to their unique characteristics of self-renewal and pluripotency. Novel methods for generation of pluripotent stem cells and their differentiation to the specialized cell types such as neuronal cells, myocardial cells, hepatocytes and beta cells of the pancreas and many other cells of the body are constantly being refined. Pluripotent stem cell derived differentiated cells, including neuronal cells or cardiac cells, are ideal for stem cell transplantation as autologous or allogeneic cells from healthy donors due to their minimal risk of rejection. Radiation-induced DNA damage, ultraviolet light, genotoxic stress and other intrinsic and extrinsic factors triggers a series of biochemical reactions known as DNA damage response. To maintain genomic stability and avoid transmission of mutations into progenitors cells, stem cells have robust DNA damage response signaling, a contrast to somatic cells. Stem cell transplantation may protect against radiation-induced late effects. In particular, this review focuses on differential DNA damage response between stem cells and derived differentiated cells and the possible pathways that determine such differences. PMID:27332952

  8. Radiation damage effects in candidate titanates for Pu disposition: Zirconolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.; Buck, E. C.; Kozelisky, A. E.; Sell, R. L.; Elovich, R. J.; Buchmiller, W. C.

    2008-01-01

    Results from studies of radiation-induced damage from the alpha decay of 238Pu on the density and crystal structure of a nominally phase-pure zirconolite and two other zirconolite-bearing ceramics are discussed. Macro and micro swelling were found to be temperature independent, whereas the density determined with He gas pycnometry was temperature dependent. Approximately 2.6 × 10 18 α/g were needed to render the specimens X-ray amorphous- more to saturate the swelling. Unlike pyrochlore-based ceramics, we did not observe any phase changes associated with storage temperature and damage ingrowth. The forward dissolution rate at a pH value of 2 for material containing essentially all zirconolite is 1.7(4) × 10 -3 g/(m 2 d) with very little pH dependence and no dependence on the amount of radiation-induced damage. Even after the radiation-induced swelling saturated, the specimens remained physically intact with no evidence for microcracking. Thus, the material remains physically a viable material for the disposition of surplus weapons-grade Pu.

  9. Ascorbic acid (AA) metabolism in protection against radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, R.C.; Koch, M.J.

    1986-03-05

    The possibility is considered that AA protects tissues against radiation damage by scavenging free radicals that result from radiolysis of water. A physiologic buffer (pH 6.7) was incubated with /sup 14/C-AA and 1 mM thiourea (to slow spontaneous oxidation of AA). Aliquots were assayed by HPLC and scintillation spectrometry to identify the /sup 14/C-label. Samples exposed to Cobalt-60 radiation had a half time of AA decay of < 3 minutes compared with nonirradiated samples (t/sub 1/2/ > 30 minutes) indicating that AA scavenges radiation-induced free radicals and forms the ascorbate free radical (AFR). Pairs of /sup 14/C-AFR disproportionate, with the net effect of /sup 14/C-dehydroascorbic acid formation from /sup 14/C-AA. Having established that AFR result from ionizing radiation in an aqueous solution, the possibility was evaluated that a tissue factor reduces AFR. Cortical tissue from the kidneys of male rats was minced, homogenized in buffer and centrifuged at 8000 xg. The supernatant was found to slow the rate of radiation-induced AA degradation by > 90% when incubated at 23/sup 0/C in the presence of 15 ..mu..M /sup 14/C-AA. Samples of supernatant maintained at 100/sup 0/C for 10 minutes or precipitated with 5% PCA did not prevent radiation-induced AA degradation. AA may have a specific role in scavenging free radicals generated by ionizing radiation and thereby protect body tissues.

  10. Modification of high LET radiation-induced damage and its repair in yeast by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, P; Rao, B S; Reddy, N M; Murthy, M S; Madhvanath, U

    1979-11-01

    The lethal response of a diploid yeast strain BZ34 to densely ionizing radiations from the reaction 10B(n, alpha)7 Li was studied. The values for relative biological effectiveness (r.b.e.) and oxygen enhancement ratio (o.e.r.) for this radiation compare favourably with the data obtained with charged particles on the same strain of yeast. Recovery from potentially lethal damage was also studied by post-irradiation holding under non-nutrient conditions. In order to understand the role of oxygen in the recovery process, the investigation covered the following treatment regimens: (a) aerobic irradiation and aerobic holding (A-A), (b) aerobic irradiation and hypoxic holding (A-H), (c) hypoxic irradiation and hypoxic holding (H-H) and (d) hypoxic irradiation and aerobic holding (H-A). It has been found that the presence of oxygen is essential for recovery from the damage induced by both gamma rays and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. The extent of recovery was larger for gamma-induced damage than for damage induced by high LET radiation (alpha + 7Li) for the A-A condition. In the H-H condition, while only a slight recovery was seen for gamma-induced damage, it was totally absent for high LET damage. For the modality A-H, it was found that there is not recovery from the sparsely ionising gamma radiation-induced damage. The implications of these results for the treatment of malignant tumours by radiotherapy are briefly discussed. PMID:397200

  11. Molecular responses of radiation-induced liver damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, WEI; XIAO, LEI; AINIWAER, AIMUDULA; WANG, YUNLIAN; WU, GE; MAO, RUI; YANG, YING; BAO, YONGXING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular responses involved in radiation-induced liver damage (RILD). Sprague-Dawley rats (6-weeks-old) were irradiated once at a dose of 20 Gy to the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. The rats were then sacrificed 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after irradiation and rats, which were not exposed to irradiation were used as controls. Weight measurements and blood was obtained from the rats and liver tissues were collected for histological and apoptotic analysis. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis were performed to measure the expression levels of mRNAs and proteins, respectively. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were increased significantly in the RILD rats. Histological investigation revealed the proliferation of collagen and the formation of fibrotic tissue 12 weeks after irradiation. Apoptotic cells were observed predominantly 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation. The immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR and western blot analysis all revealed the same pattern of changes in the expression levels of the molecules assessed. The expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), nuclear factor (NF)-κB65, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) and Smad7 and connective tissue growth factor were increased during the recovery period following irradiation up to 12 weeks. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, Smad7 and Smad4 were only increased during the early phase (first 4 weeks) of recovery following irradiation. In the RILD rat model, the molecular responses indicated that the TGF-β1/Smads and NF-κB65 signaling pathways are involved in the mechanism of RILD recovery. PMID:25483171

  12. Investigating Undergraduate Students’ Conceptions of Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, James M.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris; Nieberding, Megan; Antonellis, Jessie C.

    2014-11-01

    Radiation is an essential topic to the physical sciences yet is often misunderstood by the general public. The last time most people have formal instruction about radiation is as students in high school and this knowledge will be carried into adulthood. Peoples’ conceptions of radiation influence their attitude towards research regarding radiation, radioactivity, and other work where radiation is prevalent. In order to understand students’ ideas about radiation after having left high school, we collected science surveys from nearly 12,000 undergraduates enrolled in introductory science courses over a span of 25 years. This research investigates the relationship between students’ conceptions of radiation and students’ personal beliefs and academic field of study.Our results show that many students in the sample were unable to adequately describe radiation. Responses were typically vague, brief, and emotionally driven. Students’ field of study was found to significantly correlate with their conceptions. Students pursuing STEM majors were 60% more likely to describe radiation as an emission and/or form of energy and cited atomic or radioactive sources of radiation twice as often as non-STEM students. Additionally, students’ personal beliefs also appear to relate to their conceptions of radiation. The most prominent misconception shown was that radiation is a generically harmful substance, which was found to be consistent throughout the duration of the study. In particular, non-science majors in our sample had higher rates of misconceptions, often generalized the idea of radiation into a broad singular topic, and had difficulty properly identifying sources.Generalized ideas of radiation and the inability to properly recognize sources of radiation may contribute to the prevalent misconception that radiation is an inexplicably dangerous substance. A basic understanding of both electromagnetic and particulate radiation and the existence of radiation at various

  13. Contribution of endogenous and exogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in the bacterial spore

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, G.P.; Samuni, A.; Czapski, G.

    1980-01-01

    Radical scavengers such as polyethylene glycol 4000 and bovine albumin have been used to define the contribution of exogenous and endogenous damage to the total radiation-induced damage in aqueous buffered suspensions of Bacillus pumilus spores. The results indicate that this damage in the bacterial spore is predominantly endogenous.

  14. PREFACE: Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems (RADAM07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuigan, Kevin G.

    2008-03-01

    The annual meeting of the COST P9 Action `Radiation damage in biomolecular systems' took place from 19-22 June 2007 in the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, in Dublin. The conference was structured into 5 Working Group sessions: Electrons and biomolecular interactions Ions and biomolecular interactions Radiation in physiological environments Theoretical developments for radiation damage Track structure in cells Each of the five working groups presented two sessions of invited talks. Professor Ron Chesser of Texas Tech University, USA gave a riveting plenary talk on `Mechanisms of Adaptive Radiation Responses in Mammals at Chernobyl' and the implications his work has on the Linear-No Threshold model of radiation damage. In addition, this was the first RADAM meeting to take place after the Alexander Litvenenko affair and we were fortunate to have one of the leading scientists involved in the European response Professor Herwig Paretzke of GSF-Institut für Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg, Germany, available to speak. The remaining contributions were presented in the poster session. A total of 72 scientific contributions (32 oral, 40 poster), presented by 97 participants from 22 different countries, gave an overview on the current progress in the 5 different subfields. A 1-day pre-conference `Early Researcher Tutorial Workshop' on the same topic kicked off on 19 June attended by more than 40 postgrads, postdocs and senior researchers. Twenty papers, based on these reports, are included in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. All the contributions in this volume were fully refereed, and they represent a sample of the courses, invited talks and contributed talks presented during RADAM07. The interdisciplinary RADAM07 conference brought together researchers from a variety of different fields with a common interest in biomolecular radiation damage. This is reflected by the disparate backgrounds of the authors of the papers presented in these proceedings

  15. Molecular dynamics modelling of radiation damage in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechanovsky, A. E.

    2009-04-01

    Zircon (ZrSiO4) is among actinide-bearing phases which has been proposed as a crystalline confinement matrix for nuclear waste management, especially for weapon-grade plutonium and UO2 spent fuel in the USA. Zircon is also widely used in geochronology. But, with accumulating α-decay damage, zircon undergoes a radiation induced transition to an amorphous (or metamict) state. So, in the present work molecular dynamics simulations (MD simulations) of zircon structure have been performed to study radiation damage in zircon. In this technique, one simulates the propagation of an energetic particle in a system of atoms interacting via model potentials, by integrating the Newton equations of motion. Author has used version 3.09 of the DL_POLY molecular simulation package. Zircon structure containing 181944 atoms (19x19x21 unit cells) was equilibrated at 300 K for 10 ps, and one Zr atom (usually called the primary knock-on atom, PKA) was given a velocity corresponding to an implantation energy of about 20 keV. MD simulations were performed in the microcanonical ensemble that is under conditions of constant particle number, volume and energy. Results of the MD simulations show that the number of interstitials is equal to 840 atoms. This is very close (4000-5000 atoms for 70 keV recoil atom 234Th) to what is measured in the diffuse x-ray scattering and NMR experiments on amorphous metamict samples (damaged by natural irradiation) of geological age. It has been shown that the damaged structure contains several depleted regions with characteristic sized up to 2,5 nm after single event and up to 4,5 nm after three overlapping events. Furthermore, these events produce channels of depleted matter between the overlapping damaged regions. These channels provide a high-diffusivity path for radiogenic Pb (percolation effect). Loss of radiogenic Pb may result in to incorrect dating of rocks.

  16. Investigation of subsidence damages above abandoned mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Po-Ming.

    1988-01-01

    Abandoned mine lands (AML) subsidence is one of the most hazardous problems for personal property and community development. In order to improve the technique for subsidence diagnosis and the effectiveness of remedial measures, several methods and techniques have been developed in this research. A subsidence site investigation checklist is developed to guide the investigators with or without hands-on experience to collect a complete and necessary information for subsidence analysis during site investigation. A subsidence cause identification system is developed to streamline the process of analysis and for subsidence cause differentiation and identification over AML. A damage severity system is developed to evaluate the intensity of the damage to structures. A subsidence deduction model is developed based on the probability function integration method to reconstruct subsidence profile and subsurface failure zone for AML subsidence. The study is based on the case studies which include site investigation, surface subsidence survey, subsurface instrumentation, damage severity evaluation, subsidence deduction and statistical analysis. The results show that geologic conditions such as seam depth, seam height, ratios of strong and weak rocks do affect the subsidence damage area, subsidence factor, and damage severity. The relationship between above parameters can be expressed by a second order polynomial with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.7 to 0.9.

  17. Investigation of graphene-based nanoscale radiation sensitive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Joshua A.; Wetherington, Maxwell; Hughes, Zachary; LaBella, Michael, III; Bresnehan, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Current state-of-the-art nanotechnology offers multiple benefits for radiation sensing applications. These include the ability to incorporate nano-sized radiation indicators into widely used materials such as paint, corrosion-resistant coatings, and ceramics to create nano-composite materials that can be widely used in everyday life. Additionally, nanotechnology may lead to the development of ultra-low power, flexible detection systems that can be embedded in clothing or other systems. Graphene, a single layer of graphite, exhibits exceptional electronic and structural properties, and is being investigated for high-frequency devices and sensors. Previous work indicates that graphene-oxide (GO) - a derivative of graphene - exhibits luminescent properties that can be tailored based on chemistry; however, exploration of graphene-oxide's ability to provide a sufficient change in luminescent properties when exposed to gamma or neutron radiation has not been carried out. We investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced chemical modifications and radiation damage induced shifts in luminescence in graphene-oxide materials to provide a fundamental foundation for further development of radiation sensitive detection architectures. Additionally, we investigate the integration of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) with graphene-based devices to evaluate radiation induced conductivity in nanoscale devices. Importantly, we demonstrate the sensitivity of graphene transport properties to the presence of alpha particles, and discuss the successful integration of hBN with large area graphene electrodes as a means to provide the foundation for large-area nanoscale radiation sensors.

  18. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells alleviate nasal mucosa radiation damage in a guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hong-Gang; Ji, Fang; Zheng, Chun-Quan; Wang, Chun-Hua; Li, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Nasal complications after radiotherapy severely affect the quality of life of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, and there is a compelling need to find novel therapies for nasal epithelial cell radiation damage. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in guinea pig model of nasal mucosa radiation damage and explored its therapeutic mechanism. Cultured hUC-MSCs were injected intravenously immediately after radiation in the nasal mucosa-radiation-damage guinea pig model. Migration of hUC-MSCs into the nasal mucosa and the potential for differentiation into nasal epithelial cells were evaluated by immunofluorescence. The therapeutic effects of hUC-MSCs were evaluated by mucus clearance time (MCT), degree of nasal mucosa edema, and the nasal mucosa cilia form and coverage ratio. Results indicate that the hUC-MSCs migrated to the nasal mucosa lamina propria and did not differentiate into nasal epithelial cells in this model. The MCT and degree of mucosal edema were improved at 1 week and 1 month after radiation, respectively, but no difference was found at 3 months and 6 months after radiation. The nasal mucosa cilia form and coverage ratio was not improved 6 months after radiation. Thus, hUC-MSCs can migrate to the nasal mucosa lamina propria and improve MCT and mucosa edema within a short time period, but these cells are unable to differentiate into nasal epithelial cells and improve nasal epithelial regeneration in the nasal mucosa radiation damage guinea pig model. PMID:25209829

  19. Spectromicroscopy of Polymers: Comparison of Radiation Damage with Electron and Photon Core Excitation Spectroscopy Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ade, H.; Smith, A. P.; Rightor, E. G.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Urquhart, S.; Leapman, R.

    1997-03-01

    Core excitation microspectroscopy has become a powerful tool for the characterization of polymeric materials due to its sensitivity to chemical functionality. However, the excitations utilized in electron energy loss spectroscopy performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope (TEM-EELS) and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy can introduce radiation damage and chemically modify the sample. In order to understand the radiation damage associated with TEM-EELS and NEXAFS spectroscopy we have studied the radiation damage of the common polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) as exhibited by changes in the acquired C K-edge excitation spectra. By fitting gaussian functions to the spectral intensity changes as a function of dose, we have determined the critical radiation dose of PET for both NEXAFS spectroscopy and TEM-EELS under typical operating conditions. This critical radiation dose for TEM-EELS is found to be 1.7 ± 0.2 x 10^8 grey (1.7 ± 0.2 x 10^4 Mrad) compared to a critical radiation dose for NEXAFS spectroscopy of 1.4 ± 0.7 x 10^9 grey (1.4 ± 0.7 x 10^5 Mrad). By considering the G factors of the two techniques and the critical radiation dose, a rule of thumb was derived that indicates that with typical present operating conditions, NEXAFS spectroscopy can analyze areas 500 times smaller than TEM-EELS given the same amount of radiation damage. Work supported by: NSF Young Investigator Award (DMR-9458060) and Dow Chemical

  20. Radiation damage of the HEAO C-1 germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Jacobson, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage from proton bombardment of the four HEAO C-1 high purity germanium detectors have been measured and compared to predictions. Because of the presence of numerous gamma-ray lines in the detector background spectra and because of the relatively long exposure time of the HEAO 3 satellite to cosmic-ray and trapped protons, it has been possible to measure both the energy and time dependence of radiation damage. After 100 d in orbit, each of the four detectors has been exposed to approximately 3 x 10 to the 7th protons/sq cm, and the average energy resolution at 1460 keV had degraded from 3.2 keV fwhm to 8.6 keV fwhm. The lines were all broadened to the low energy side although the line profile was different for each of the four detectors. The damage-related contribution to the degradation in energy resolution was found to be linear in energy and proton influence.

  1. In Situ Measurement of Radiation Damage in Scintillating Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Ar.; Holm, U.; Latuske, N.; Wick, K.; Zoufal, T.

    2002-11-01

    The radiation induced degradation of the optical transmission of the fibers SCSF-38M, SCSF-81M (Kuraray), BCF-60 and BCF-98 (Bicron) with polystyrene core (PS) was studied. During and after irradiation with a 100 kV X-ray source, a 137Cs source and a 60Co source the effects depend on the fiber type: (1) The permanent damage for BCF-98 (clear PS) is smaller than for the scintillators. (2) The BCF-60 is radiation harder than the other two scintillators but very light sensitive. Temperature treatments (up to 68°C) of SCSF-38M, without irradiation showed a transmission loss which clearly rises with the increasing temperature. This accelerated ageing phenomenon does not recover and the fiber is permanently damaged. In an additional experiment it was studied whether the transmission damage can be influenced by short illuminations with visible light during and after irradiation. For SCSF-38M a strong reduction of the permanent induced absorption remaining after the end of the recovery process was observed.

  2. Radiation damage and derivatization in macromolecular crystallography: a structure factor’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Robin L.; Sherrell, Darren A.

    2016-01-01

    During, or even after, data collection the presence and effects of radiation damage in macromolecular crystallography may not always be immediately obvious. Despite this, radiation damage is almost always present, with site-specific damage occurring on very short time (dose) scales well before global damage becomes apparent. A result of both site-specific radiation damage and derivatization is a change in the relative intensity of reflections. The size and approximate rate of onset of X-ray-induced transformations is compared with the changes expected from derivatization, and strategies for minimizing radiation damage are discussed. PMID:26960125

  3. Recent Advances in Understanding Radiation Damage in Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Rosseel, Thomas M; Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Remec, Igor; Giorla, Alain B; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has resulted in a renewed focus on long-term aging of materials at nuclear power plants (NPPs) including concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Nuclear Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete (Graves et al., (2014)). Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete (Hilsdorf et al., (1978)) does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure (Kontani et al., (2011)). To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, the Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are working to better understand radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines recent progress toward: 1) assessing the radiation environment in concrete biological shields and defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield for extended operation, and estimating adsorbed dose, 2) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, 3) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete and its components under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish conservative bounds and inform damage models, 4) developing improved models to enhance the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete and 5) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge including developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in data obtained from various concretes and from accelerated irradiation experiments.

  4. Torin2 Suppresses Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage Repair.

    PubMed

    Udayakumar, Durga; Pandita, Raj K; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Liu, Yan; Liu, Qingsong; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Hunt, Clayton R; Gray, Nathanael S; Minna, John D; Pandita, Tej K; Westover, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    Several classes of inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have been developed based on its central role in sensing growth factor and nutrient levels to regulate cellular metabolism. However, its ATP-binding site closely resembles other phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family members, resulting in reactivity with these targets that may also be therapeutically useful. The ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor, Torin2, shows biochemical activity against the DNA repair-associated proteins ATM, ATR and DNA-PK, which raises the possibility that Torin2 and related compounds might radiosensitize cancerous tumors. In this study Torin2 was also found to enhance ionizing radiation-induced cell killing in conditions where ATM was dispensable, confirming the requirement for multiple PIKK targets. Moreover, Torin2 did not influence the initial appearance of γ-H2AX foci after irradiation but significantly delayed the disappearance of radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci, indicating a DNA repair defect. Torin2 increased the number of radiation-induced S-phase specific chromosome aberrations and reduced the frequency of radiation-induced CtIP and Rad51 foci formation, suggesting that Torin2 works by blocking homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair resulting in an S-phase specific DNA repair defect. Accordingly, Torin2 reduced HR-mediated repair of I-Sce1-induced DNA damage and contributed to replication fork stalling. We conclude that radiosensitization of tumor cells by Torin2 is associated with disrupting ATR- and ATM-dependent DNA damage responses. Our findings support the concept of developing combination cancer therapies that incorporate ionizing radiation therapy and Torin2 or compounds with similar properties. PMID:27135971

  5. Absolute Measurements of Radiation Damage in Nanometer Thick Films

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Elahe; Sanche, Léon

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of absolute measurements of radiation damage in films of nanometer thicknesses. Thin films of DNA (~ 2–160nm) are deposited onto glass substrates and irradiated with varying doses of 1.5 keV X-rays under dry N2 at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. For each different thickness, the damage is assessed by measuring the loss of the supercoiled configuration as a function of incident photon fluence. From the exposure curves, the G-values are deduced, assuming that X-ray photons interacting with DNA, deposit all of their energy in the film. The results show that the G-value (i.e., damage per unit of deposited energy) increases with film thickness and reaches a plateau at 30±5 nm. This thickness dependence provides a correction factor to estimate the actual G-value for films with thicknesses below 30nm thickness. Thus, the absolute values of damage can be compared with that of films of any thickness under different experimental conditions. PMID:22562941

  6. The role of nickel in radiation damage of ferritic alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Anento, Napoleon; Serra, Anna; Terentyev, Dmitry

    2014-11-26

    According to the modern theory damage evolution under neutron irradiation depends on the fraction of self interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced in the form of one-dimensionally (1-D) glissile clusters. These clusters, having a low interaction cross-section with other defects, sink mainly on grain boundaries and dislocations creating the so-called production bias. It is known empirically that addition of certain alloying elements affect many radiation effects, including swelling, however the mechanisms are unknown in many cases. In this paper we report the results of an extensive multi-technique atomistic level modeling of SIA clusters mobility in bcc Fe-Ni alloys with Ni content frommore » 0.8 to 10 at.%. We have found that Ni interacts strongly with periphery of clusters affecting their mobility. The total effect is defined by all Ni atoms interacting with the cluster at the same time and can be significant even in low-Ni alloys. Thus 1nm (37SIAs) cluster is practically immobile at T < 500K in the Fe-0.8at.% Ni alloy. Increasing cluster size and Ni content enhance cluster immobilization. Furthermore, this effect should have quite broad consequences in swelling rate, matrix damage accumulation, radiation induced hardening, etc. and the results obtained help in better understanding and prediction of radiation effects in Fe-Ni ferritic alloys.« less

  7. A radiation damage repair model for normal tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, Mike

    2008-07-01

    A cellular Monte Carlo model describing radiation damage and repair in normal epithelial tissues is presented. The deliberately simplified model includes cell cycling, cell motility and radiation damage response (cell cycle arrest and cell death) only. Results demonstrate that the model produces a stable equilibrium system for mean cell cycle times in the range 24-96 h. Simulated irradiation of these stable equilibrium systems produced a range of responses that are shown to be consistent with experimental and clinical observation, including (i) re-epithelialization of radiation-induced lesions by a mixture of cell migration into the wound and repopulation at the periphery; (ii) observed radiosensitivity that is quantitatively consistent with both rate of induction of irreparable DNA lesions and, independently, with the observed acute oral and pharyngeal mucosal reactions to radiotherapy; (iii) an observed time between irradiation and maximum toxicity that is consistent with experimental data for skin; (iv) quantitatively accurate predictions of low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity; (v) Gomperzian repopulation for very small lesions (~2000 cells) and (vi) a linear rate of re-epithelialization of 5-10 µm h-1 for large lesions (>15 000 cells).

  8. The role of nickel in radiation damage of ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Anento, Napoleon; Serra, Anna; Terentyev, Dmitry

    2014-11-26

    According to the modern theory damage evolution under neutron irradiation depends on the fraction of self interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced in the form of one-dimensionally (1-D) glissile clusters. These clusters, having a low interaction cross-section with other defects, sink mainly on grain boundaries and dislocations creating the so-called production bias. It is known empirically that addition of certain alloying elements affect many radiation effects, including swelling, however the mechanisms are unknown in many cases. In this paper we report the results of an extensive multi-technique atomistic level modeling of SIA clusters mobility in bcc Fe-Ni alloys with Ni content from 0.8 to 10 at.%. We have found that Ni interacts strongly with periphery of clusters affecting their mobility. The total effect is defined by all Ni atoms interacting with the cluster at the same time and can be significant even in low-Ni alloys. Thus 1nm (37SIAs) cluster is practically immobile at T < 500K in the Fe-0.8at.% Ni alloy. Increasing cluster size and Ni content enhance cluster immobilization. Furthermore, this effect should have quite broad consequences in swelling rate, matrix damage accumulation, radiation induced hardening, etc. and the results obtained help in better understanding and prediction of radiation effects in Fe-Ni ferritic alloys.

  9. Protective Effects of Polysaccharides from Soybean Meal Against X-ray Radiation Induced Damage in Mouse Spleen Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lei; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Haitian; Cheng, Cuilin; Fu, Xiaoyi; Liu, Jiaren; Yang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate radioprotective effect of the polysaccharides from soybean meal (SMP) against X-ray radiation-induced damage in mouse spleen lymphocytes. MTT and comet assay were performed to evaluate SMP’s ability to prevent cell death and DNA damage induced by radiation. The results show that, X-ray radiation (30 KV, 10 mA, 8 min (4 Gy)) can significantly increase cell death and DNA fragmentation of mouse spleen lymphocytes. Pretreatment with SMP for 2 h before radiation could increase cell viability, moreover, the SMP can reduce X-ray radiation-induced DNA damage. The percentage of tail DNA and the tail moment of the SMP groups were significantly lower than those of the radiation alone group (p < 0.05). These results suggest SMP may be a good candidate as a radioprotective agent. PMID:22174652

  10. Retinal damage from long-term exposure to laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, W D; Allen, R G

    1977-06-01

    The maculae of rhesus monkeys were exposed to an argon-ion lazer operated in the TEM00 continuous wave mode at a wavelength of 514.5 nm. Both ophthalmoscopic and histopathologic evaluations of exposure sites were obtained. Threshold (ED50) values were obtained for 0.5, 5, 30, 120, and 1,000 sec. exposure times. Presence of minimum visible lesions was assessed ophthalmoscopically at both 1 hour and 24 hours after exposure. With increasing exposure times, a 24 hr. lesion-appearance criterion resulted in ED50 values too low to be consistent with a thermal damage mechanism. In contrast, exposure to neodymium laser radiation at a 1,060 nm. wavelength for 120 sec. produced only ED50 values consistent with those associated with thermal injury. These results suggest that the damage mechanisms for long-duration exposures to visible light may involve photochemical processes initiated by the interaction of visible light with the retinal photopigments. PMID:405344

  11. A Mathematical Model for Estimating Biological Damage Caused by Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Ichikawa, Kento; Bando, Masako

    2012-10-01

    We propose a mathematical model for estimating biological damage caused by low-dose irradiation. We understand that the linear non threshold (LNT) hypothesis is realized only in the case of no recovery effects. In order to treat the realistic living objects, our model takes into account various types of recovery as well as proliferation mechanism, which may change the resultant damage, especially for the case of lower dose rate irradiation. It turns out that the lower the radiation dose rate, the safer the irradiated system of living object (which is called symbolically ``tissue'' hereafter) can have chances to survive, which can reproduce the so-called dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF).

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A review of genetic damage investigations.

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi; Fatahi, Mahsa; Speck, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful, non-invasive diagnostic medical imaging technique widely used to acquire detailed information about anatomy and function of different organs in the body, in both health and disease. It utilizes electromagnetic fields of three different frequency bands: static magnetic field (SMF), time-varying gradient magnetic fields (GMF) in the kHz range and pulsed radiofrequency fields (RF) in the MHz range. There have been some investigations examining the extent of genetic damage following exposure of bacterial and human cells to all three frequency bands of electromagnetic fields, as used during MRI: the rationale for these studies is the well documented evidence of positive correlation between significantly increased genetic damage and carcinogenesis. Overall, the published data were not sufficiently informative and useful because of the small sample size, inappropriate comparison of experimental groups, etc. Besides, when an increased damage was observed in MRI-exposed cells, the fate of such lesions was not further explored from multiple 'down-stream' events. This review provides: (i) information on the basic principles used in MRI technology, (ii) detailed experimental protocols, results and critical comments on the genetic damage investigations thus far conducted using MRI equipment and, (iii) a discussion on several gaps in knowledge in the current scientific literature on MRI. Comprehensive, international, multi-centered collaborative studies, using a common and widely used MRI exposure protocol (cardiac or brain scan) incorporating several genetic/epigenetic damage end-points as well as epidemiological investigations, in large number of individuals/patients are warranted to reduce and perhaps, eliminate uncertainties raised in genetic damage investigations in cells exposed in vitro and in vivo to MRI. PMID:26041266

  13. Atomic simulations of Fe/Ni multilayer nanocomposites on the radiation damage resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feida; Tang, Xiaobin; Yang, Yahui; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian; Li, Huan; Chen, Da

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the radiation damage resistance of the Fe/Ni multilayer nanocomposites by molecular dynamics. In the paper, two types of interface configuration with different orientation relationship were constructed. Their morphology evolution and number of final surviving defects induced by cascade collisions were discussed respectively. The interfaces of the two types of Fe/Ni multilayers kept distinct during the long-time relaxation before cascade. The comparison of surviving defects number produced by PKA with 5 keV at 100 K showed that the Fe/Ni multilayers have greater radiation tolerance than that of the bulk materials. However, the orientation relationship of the interface influences the defects self-healing capability greatly when the multilayers are irradiated by higher energy PKA or at high temperature. The radiation damage resistance of the Nishiyama - Wassermann type Fe/Ni multilayers which have larger lattice misfit is more stable than that of the Kurdjumov - Sachs type.

  14. Radiation damage and annealing of amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Slemp, W. S.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    Amorphous silicon solar cells were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons at the Space Environmental Effects Laboratory of the NASA Langley Research Center. The cells accumulated a total fluence of 10 to the 14th, 10 to the 15th, and 10 to the 16th electrons per square centimeter and exhibited increasing degradation with each irradiation. This degradation was tracked by evaluating the I-V curves for AM0 illumination and the relative spectral response. The observed radiation damage was reversed following an anneal of the cells under vacuum at 200 C for 2 hours.

  15. A new mechanism for radiation damage processes in alkali halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinko, V. I.; Turkin, A. A.; Vainshtein, D. I.; den Hartog, H. W.

    1999-12-01

    We present a theory of radiation damage formation in alkali halides based on a new mechanism of dislocation climb, which involves the production of VF centers (self-trapped hole neighboring a cation vacancy) as a result of the absorption of H centers of dislocation lines. We consider the evolution of all experimentally observed extended defects: metal colloids, gas bubbles, and vacancy voids. Voids are shown to arise and grow large due to the reaction between F and VF centers at the surface of halogen bubbles. Voids can ignite a back reaction between the radiolytic products resulting in decomposition of the irradiated material.

  16. Protection of radiation detectors from fast neutron damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.

    1984-01-30

    A circuit for biasing a solid state crystal used as a radiation detector in which the passage of the initial gamma ray pulse from the explosion of a nearby tactical nuclear weapon is utilized to temporarily remove the bias from said crystal for a time sufficient to permit the fast neutron pulse from the same explosion to pass by without permanently damaging the counter crystal. The circuit comprises an RC circuit between the bias supply and the crystal with a reverse biased diode across the capacitor.

  17. Simulation of neutron radiation damage in silicon semiconductor devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Hoekstra, Robert John; Hennigan, Gary Lee; Castro, Joseph Pete Jr.; Fixel, Deborah A.

    2007-10-01

    A code, Charon, is described which simulates the effects that neutron damage has on silicon semiconductor devices. The code uses a stabilized, finite-element discretization of the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. The mathematical model used to simulate semiconductor devices in both normal and radiation environments will be described. Modeling of defect complexes is accomplished by adding an additional drift-diffusion equation for each of the defect species. Additionally, details are given describing how Charon can efficiently solve very large problems using modern parallel computers. Comparison between Charon and experiment will be given, as well as comparison with results from commercially-available TCAD codes.

  18. Multiscale physics of ion-induced radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdutovich, Eugene; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2013-06-01

    A multiscale approach to the physics of ion-beam cancer therapy, an approach suggested in order to understand the interplay of a large number of phenomena involved in radiation damage scenario occurring on a range of temporal, spatial, and energy scales, is being reviewed. The scenario is described along with a variety of effects that take place on different temporal, spatial, and energy scales and play major roles in the scenario of interaction of ions with tissue. The understanding of these effects leads to a quantitative assessment of relative biological effectiveness that relates the physical quantities, such as dose, to the biological values, such as the probability of cell survival.

  19. Mechanism for radiation damage resistance in yttrium oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodrick, J.; Hepburn, D. J.; Ackland, G. J.

    2014-02-01

    ODS steels based on yttrium oxide have been suggested as potential fusion reactor wall materials due to their observed radiation resistance properties. Presumably this radiation resistance can be related to the interaction of the particle with vacancies, self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and other radiation damage debris. Density functional theory has been used to investigate this at the atomic scale. Four distinct interfaces, some based on HRTEM observations, between iron and yttrium oxide were investigated. It is been shown that the Y2O3-Fe interface acts as a strong trap with long-range attraction for both interstitial and vacancy defects, allowing recombination without altering the interface structure. The catalytic elimination of defects without change to the microstructure explains the improved behaviour of ODS steels with respect to radiation creep and swelling.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of radiation damage cascades in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Buchan, J. T.; Robinson, M.; Christie, H. J.; Roach, D. L.; Ross, D. K.; Marks, N. A.

    2015-06-28

    Radiation damage cascades in diamond are studied by molecular dynamics simulations employing the Environment Dependent Interaction Potential for carbon. Primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies up to 2.5 keV are considered and a uniformly distributed set of 25 initial PKA directions provide robust statistics. The simulations reveal the atomistic origins of radiation-resistance in diamond and provide a comprehensive computational analysis of cascade evolution and dynamics. As for the case of graphite, the atomic trajectories are found to have a fractal-like character, thermal spikes are absent and only isolated point defects are generated. Quantitative analysis shows that the instantaneous maximum kinetic energy decays exponentially with time, and that the timescale of the ballistic phase has a power-law dependence on PKA energy. Defect recombination is efficient and independent of PKA energy, with only 50% of displacements resulting in defects, superior to graphite where the same quantity is nearly 75%.

  1. Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. )

    1990-08-01

    Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

  2. Radiation-induced lung damage: dose-time-fractionation considerations.

    PubMed

    Van Dyk, J; Mah, K; Keane, T J

    1989-01-01

    The comparison of different dose-time-fractionation schedules requires the use of an isoeffect formula. In recent years, the NSD isoeffect formula has been heavily criticized. In this report, we consider an isoeffect formula which is specifically developed for radiation-induced lung damage. The formula is based on the linear-quadratic model and includes a factor for overall treatment time. The proposed procedures allow for the simultaneous derivation of an alpha/beta ratio and a gamma/beta time factor. From animal data in the literature, the derived alpha/beta and gamma/beta ratios for acute lung damage are 5.0 +/- 1.0 Gy and 2.7 +/- 1.4 Gy2/day respectively, while for late damage the suggested values are 2.0 Gy and 0.0 Gy2/day. Data from two clinical studies, one prospective and the other retrospective, were also analysed and corresponding alpha/beta and gamma/beta ratios were determined. For the prospective clinical study, with a limited range of doses per fraction, the resultant alpha/beta and gamma/beta ratios were 0.9 +/- 2.6 Gy and 2.6 +/- 2.5 Gy2/day. The combination of the retrospective and prospective data yielded alpha/beta and gamma/beta ratios of 3.3 +/- 1.5 Gy and 2.4 +/- 1.5 Gy2/day, respectively. One potential advantage of this isoeffect formalism is that it might possibly be applied to both acute and late lung damage. The results of this formulation for acute lung damage indicate that time-dependent effects such as slow repair or proliferation might be more important in determining isoeffect doses than previously predicted by the estimated single dose (ED) formula. Although we present this as an alternative approach, we would caution against its clinical use until its applicability has been confirmed by additional clinical data. PMID:2928557

  3. Proton irradiation of stem cells: Radiation damage and chemical radioprotection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, R. C.; Montour, J. L.; Gurney, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Effects of high energy protons on erythropoietic stem cells and radioprotection by chemicals were investigated in NASA Space Radiation Effects Laboratory. The effects of a parallel beam of 600 MeV protons. The fluence, when converted to dose, were referenced to the synchrocyclotron beam monitors which were then used to administer radiation exposures. Mice were given graded doses to 300 rads to determine dose-response curve. Other mice received saline, AET, or 5-hydroxytryptamine 10 to 15 minutes before exposure.

  4. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to both microgravity and space radiation, and are at risk for increased skeletal fragility due to bone loss. Evidence from rodent experiments demonstrates that both microgravity and ionizing radiation can cause bone loss due to increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts and decreased bone-forming osteoblasts, although the underlying molecular mechanisms for these changes are not fully understood. We hypothesized that excess reactive oxidative species (ROS), produced by conditions that simulate spaceflight, alter the tight balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities, leading to accelerated skeletal remodeling and culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used the MCAT mouse model; these transgenic mice over-express the human catalase gene targeted to mitochondria, the major organelle contributing free radicals. Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts reactive species, hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. This animal model was selected as it displays extended lifespan, reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced central nervous system radio-sensitivity, consistent with elevated anti-oxidant activity conferred by the transgene. We reasoned that mice overexpressing catalase in mitochondria of osteoblast and osteoclast lineage cells would be protected from the bone loss caused by simulated spaceflight. Over-expression of human catalase localized to mitochondria caused various skeletal phenotypic changes compared to WT mice; this includes greater bone length, decreased cortical bone area and moment of inertia, and indications of altered microarchitecture. These findings indicate mitochondrial ROS are important for normal bone-remodeling and skeletal integrity. Catalase over-expression did not fully protect skeletal tissue from structural decrements caused by simulated spaceflight; however there was significant protection in terms of cellular oxidative damage (MDA levels) to the skeletal tissue. Furthermore, we

  5. Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review

    SciTech Connect

    Herst, Patries M

    2014-06-15

    Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin.

  6. Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review

    PubMed Central

    Herst, Patries M

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin. PMID:26229646

  7. Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Herst, Patries M

    2014-06-01

    Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin. PMID:26229646

  8. Identifying and quantifying radiation damage at the atomic level

    PubMed Central

    Gerstel, Markus; Deane, Charlotte M.; Garman, Elspeth F.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation damage impedes macromolecular diffraction experiments. Alongside the well known effects of global radiation damage, site-specific radiation damage affects data quality and the veracity of biological conclusions on protein mechanism and function. Site-specific radiation damage follows a relatively predetermined pattern, in that different structural motifs are affected at different dose regimes: in metal-free proteins, disulfide bonds tend to break first followed by the decarboxylation of aspartic and glutamic acids. Even within these damage motifs the decay does not progress uniformly at equal rates. Within the same protein, radiation-induced electron density decay of a particular chemical group is faster than for the same group elsewhere in the protein: an effect known as preferential specific damage. Here, B Damage, a new atomic metric, is defined and validated to recognize protein regions susceptible to specific damage and to quantify the damage at these sites. By applying B Damage to a large set of known protein structures in a statistical survey, correlations between the rates of damage and various physicochemical parameters were identified. Results indicate that specific radiation damage is independent of secondary protein structure. Different disulfide bond groups (spiral, hook, and staple) show dissimilar radiation damage susceptibility. There is a consistent positive correlation between specific damage and solvent accessibility. PMID:25723922

  9. Radiation Damage Effects in Far Ultraviolet Filters and Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keffer, Charles E.; Torr, Marsha R.; Zukic, Muamer; Spann, James F.; Torr, Douglas G.; Kim, Jongmin

    1993-01-01

    New advances in VUV thin film filter technology have been made using filter designs with multilayers of materials such as Al2O3, BaF2, CaF2, HfO2, LaF3, MgF2, and SiO2. Our immediate application for these filters will be in an imaging system to be flown on a satellite where a 2 X 9 R(sub E) orbit will expose the instrument to approximately 275 krads of radiation. In view of the fact that no previous studies have been made on potential radiation damage of these materials in the thin film format, we report on such an assessment here. Transmittances and reflectances of BaF2, CaF2, HfO2, LaF3, MgF2, and SiO2 thin films on MgF2 substrates, Al2O3 thin films on fused silica substrates, uncoated fused silica and MgF2, and four multilayer filters made from these materials were measured from 120 nm to 180 nm before and after irradiation by 250 krads from a Co-60 gamma radiation source. No radiation-induced losses in transmittance or reflectance occurred in this wavelength range. Additional postradiation measurements from 160 nm to 300 nm indicated a 3 - 5% radiation-induced absorption near 260 nm in some of the samples with MgF2 substrates. From these measurements it is concluded that far ultraviolet filters made from the materials tested should experience less that 5% change from exposure to up to 250 krads of high energy radiation in space applications.

  10. A Simplified Algorithm for Statistical Investigation of Damage Spreading

    SciTech Connect

    Gecow, Andrzej

    2009-04-16

    On the way to simulating adaptive evolution of complex system describing a living object or human developed project, a fitness should be defined on node states or network external outputs. Feedbacks lead to circular attractors of these states or outputs which make it difficult to define a fitness. The main statistical effects of adaptive condition are the result of small change tendency and to appear, they only need a statistically correct size of damage initiated by evolutionary change of system. This observation allows to cut loops of feedbacks and in effect to obtain a particular statistically correct state instead of a long circular attractor which in the quenched model is expected for chaotic network with feedback. Defining fitness on such states is simple. We calculate only damaged nodes and only once. Such an algorithm is optimal for investigation of damage spreading i.e. statistical connections of structural parameters of initial change with the size of effected damage. It is a reversed-annealed method--function and states (signals) may be randomly substituted but connections are important and are preserved. The small damages important for adaptive evolution are correctly depicted in comparison to Derrida annealed approximation which expects equilibrium levels for large networks. The algorithm indicates these levels correctly. The relevant program in Pascal, which executes the algorithm for a wide range of parameters, can be obtained from the author.

  11. Spectroscopic investigation on protein damage by ciprofloxacin under ultrasonic irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Dong-Jing; Wang, Xin; Liu, Bing-Mi; Kong, Yu-Mei; He, Ling-Ling; Wang, Jun; Xu, Shu-Kun

    2011-02-01

    In recent years, sonodynamic activities of many drugs have attracted more and more attention of researchers. The correlative study will promote the development of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) in anti-tumor treatment. In this work, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a protein model to investigate the intensifying effects of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) ultrasonically induced protein damage by UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. Meanwhile, the conformation of BSA is changed upon the addition of CPFX and metal ions under ultrasound (US) so that the damaging site of BSA is considered. Various influencing factors, such as US irradiation time, metal ions, solution temperature and ionic strength, on the ultrasonically induced BSA damage are discussed. It was showed that CPFX could enhance ultrasonically induced BSA damage. The damage degree of BSA was aggravated with the increasing of US irradiation time, solution temperature, ionic strength as well as the addition of metal ions. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in reaction system were detected by oxidation-extraction photometry (OEP). Experimental results also showed that US could activate CPFX to produce ROS, which were mainly determined as superoxide radical anion ( rad O 2-) and hydroxyl radical ( rad OH).

  12. Grad-Level Radiation Damage of SIO2 Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Atoian, G.; Ludewig, H; White, S; O'Conor, J; Mokhov, N.V.

    2009-05-04

    Radiation effects and levels to detectors. SiO{sub 2} quartz fibers of the LHC ATLAS Zero-degree Calorimeter (ZDC) anticipated to experience integrated doses of a few Grad at their closest position were exposed to 200 MeV protons and neutrons at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Linac. Specifically, 1 mm- and 2mm-diameter quartz (GE 124) rods were exposed to direct 200 MeV protons during the first phase of exposure leading to peak integrated dose of {approx}28 Grad. Exposure to a primarily neutron flux of 1mm-diameter SiO{sub 2} fibers was also achieved with a special neutron source arrangement. In a post-irradiation analysis the quartz fiber transmittance was evaluated as a function of the absorbed dose. Dramatic degradation of the transmittance property was observed with increased radiation damage. In addition, detailed evaluation of the fibers under the microscope revealed interesting micro-structural damage features and irradiation-induced defects.

  13. Imperfection and radiation damage in protein crystals studied with coherent radiation

    PubMed Central

    Nave, Colin; Sutton, Geoff; Evans, Gwyndaf; Owen, Robin; Rau, Christoph; Robinson, Ian; Stuart, David Ian

    2016-01-01

    Fringes and speckles occur within diffraction spots when a crystal is illuminated with coherent radiation during X-ray diffraction. The additional information in these features provides insight into the imperfections in the crystal at the sub-micrometre scale. In addition, these features can provide more accurate intensity measurements (e.g. by model-based profile fitting), detwinning (by distinguishing the various components), phasing (by exploiting sampling of the molecular transform) and refinement (by distinguishing regions with different unit-cell parameters). In order to exploit these potential benefits, the features due to coherent diffraction have to be recorded and any change due to radiation damage properly modelled. Initial results from recording coherent diffraction at cryotemperatures from polyhedrin crystals of approximately 2 µm in size are described. These measurements allowed information about the type of crystal imperfections to be obtained at the sub-micrometre level, together with the changes due to radiation damage. PMID:26698068

  14. Positron annihilation lifetime study of radiation-damaged natural zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J.; Gaugliardo, P.; Farnan, I.; Zhang, M.; Vance, E. R.; Davis, J.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Knott, R. B.; Mudie, S.; Buckman, S. J.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    Zircons are a well-known candidate waste form for actinides and their radiation damage behaviour has been widely studied by a range of techniques. In this study, well-characterised natural single crystal zircons have been studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). In some, but not all, of the crystals that had incurred at least half of the alpha-event damage of ∼1019 α/g required to render them structurally amorphous, PALS spectra displayed long lifetimes corresponding to voids of ∼0.5 nm in diameter. The long lifetimes corresponded to expectations from published Small-Angle X-ray Scattering data on similar samples. However, the non-observation by PALS of such voids in some of the heavily damaged samples may reflect large size variations among the voids such that no singular size can be distinguished or. Characterisation of a range of samples was also performed using scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, Raman scattering and X-ray scattering/diffraction, with the degree of alpha damage being inferred mainly from the Raman technique and X-ray diffraction. The observed void diameters and intensities of the long lifetime components were changed somewhat by annealing at 700 °C; annealing at 1200 °C removed the voids entirely. The voids themselves may derive from He gas bubbles or voids created by the inclusion of small quantities of organic and hydrous matter, notwithstanding the observation that no voidage was evidenced by PALS in two samples containing hydrous and organic matter.

  15. Study of the effect of dose-rate on radiation-induced damage to human erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokosz, Anita; Koziczak, Renata; Gonciarz, Marta; Szweda-Lewandowska, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    Human erythrocytes suspended in an isotonic Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 (hematocrit of 2%) were irradiated with γ-rays at three dose-rates of 66.7, 36.7, 25 Gy min -1 in order to investigate the influence of the dose-rate on radiation-induced membrane damage, hemoglobin oxidation and loss of reduced glutathione. The obtained results showed that such processes as erythrocyte hemolysis, lipid and protein destruction depend on the radiation dose-rate. The parameter values describing these processes showed an inverse dose-rate effect.

  16. Nanocrystal Ghosting: Extensive radiation damage in MgO induced by low-energy electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, William; Frankenfield, Zachery; Kane, Kenneth

    Radiation damage in magnesium oxide has been an ongoing source of investigation. Early work was motivated by its simple cubic structure and its excellent electrical insulating properties over a wide range of temperatures and mechanical conditions. The goal was to determine its suitability as an electrical insulator in radiation intense environments including nuclear reactors and proposed nuclear fusion devices. During this period experimental results for irradiation of MgO using electrons with energies less than 500 keV produced very limited damage. These results, supported by theoretical arguments, lead to the conclusion that MgO was relatively impervious to damage from electrons with energies below this threshold. More recently its excellent insulating properties and relative mechanical stability combined with an increased interest in nanomaterials applications have created renewed interest in MgO. In this paper direct evidence is presented for extensive radiation damage in MgO nanocrystals from intense irradiation by electrons (2 x 10 4electrons/nm2 sec) with beam energies between 120 keV and 60 keV.

  17. The interaction of melanin with ionizing and UVC radiations: Characterization of thymine damage

    SciTech Connect

    Huselton, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to determine whether melanin could protect DNA against the harmful effects of ionizing or UVC radiations. A simple, in vitro, model system was developed to evaluate eumelanin (Sigma melanin) as a radioprotector of solutions of 0.1 mM thymine or thymidine exposed to 570Gy of ionizing radiation. Sigma melanin was compared to several amino acids, other biomolecules or to other forms of melanin. To investigate the role of melanin as a passive screen of UVC radiation, melanotic (I{sub 3}), amelanotic (AMEL) cells (both derived from a Cloudman S91 melanoma) and non-melanotic (EMT6) cells were labelled with radioactive dTHd and exposed to 0, 1, 5 or 10KJ/m{sup 2} of UVC. The DNA was extracted; the bases hydrolyzed with concentrated HCl. Thymine bases were separated by reverse phase HPLC. No difference in dimer content was observed between I{sub 3} and AMEL cells, but EMT6 cells had nearly twice the amount of dimer. Overall thymine degradation was more pronounced in I{sub 3} cells than in the other two cell lines, due to the production of non-dimer thymine damage. This damage was identified as thymine glycol by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Melanin, upon exposure to UVC, appears to enhance thymine damage by producing oxidative damage.

  18. Use of Displacement Damage Dose in an Engineering Model of GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, T. L.; Chock, R.; Long, K. J.; Bailey, S.; Messenger, S. R.; Walters, R. J.; Summers, G. P.

    2005-01-01

    Current methods for calculating damage to solar cells are well documented in the GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook (JPL 96-9). An alternative, the displacement damage dose (D(sub d)) method, has been developed by Summers, et al. This method is currently being implemented in the SAVANT computer program.

  19. Early and Late Damages in Chromosome 3 of Human Lymphocytes After Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunagawa, Mayumi; Mangala, Lingegowda; Zhang, Ye; Kahdim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    Tumor formation in humans or animals is a multi-step process. An early stage of cancer development is believed to be genomic instability (GI) which accelerates the mutation rate in the descendants of the cells surviving radiation exposure. GI is defined as elevated or persistent genetic damages occurring many generations after the cells are exposed. While early studies have demonstrated radiation-induced GI in several cell types as detected in endpoints such as mutation, apoptosis and damages in chromosomes, the dependence of GI on the quality of radiation remains uncertain. To investigate GI in human lymphocytes induced by both low- and high-LET radiation, we initially exposed white blood cells collected from healthy subjects to gamma rays in vitro, and cultured the cells for multiple generations. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed in cells collected at first mitosis post irradiation and at several intervals during the culture period. Among a number of biological endpoints planned for the project, the multi-color banding fluorescent in situ hybridization (mBAND) allows identification of inversions that were expected to be stable. We present here early and late chromosome aberrations detected with mBAND in chromosome 3 after gamma exposure. Comparison of chromosome damages in between human lymphocytes and human epithelial cells is also discussed

  20. High and Low LET Radiation Differentially Induce Normal Tissue Damage Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Goethem, Marc-Jan van; Bron, Reinier; Hogewerf, Wytse; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Coppes, Robert P.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is aimed at efficiently killing tumor cells while minimizing dose (biological effective) to normal tissues to prevent toxicity. It is well established that high LET radiation results in lower cell survival per absorbed dose than low LET radiation. However, whether various mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be regulated differentially is not known. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether two actions related to normal tissue toxicity, p53-induced apoptosis and expression of the profibrotic gene PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), are differentially induced by high and low LET radiation. Methods and Materials: Cells were irradiated with high LET carbon ions or low LET photons. Cell survival assays were performed, profibrotic PAI-1 expression was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was assayed by annexin V staining. Activation of p53 by phosphorylation at serine 315 and serine 37 was monitored by Western blotting. Transfections of plasmids expressing p53 mutated at serines 315 and 37 were used to test the requirement of these residues for apoptosis and expression of PAI-1. Results: As expected, cell survival was lower and induction of apoptosis was higher in high -LET irradiated cells. Interestingly, induction of the profibrotic PAI-1 gene was similar with high and low LET radiation. In agreement with this finding, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 315 involved in PAI-1 expression was similar with high and low LET radiation, whereas phosphorylation of p53 at serine 37, involved in apoptosis induction, was much higher after high LET irradiation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that diverse mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be differentially affected by high and low LET radiation. This may have consequences for the development and manifestation of normal tissue damage.

  1. Rapamycin‐induced autophagy sensitizes A549 cells to radiation associated with DNA damage repair inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Liu, Fen; Wang, Yong; Li, Donghai; Guo, Fei; Xu, Liyao; Zeng, Zhengguo; Zhong, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Autophagy has been reported to increase in cancer cells after radiation. However, it remains unknown whether increased autophagy as a result of radiation affects DNA damage repair and sensitizes cancer cells. In this study, the radiosensitization effect of rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor that induces autophagy, on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells was investigated. Methods A549 cells were treated with different concentrations of rapamycin. Cell viability was evaluated by methyl‐thiazolyl‐tetrazolium assay. Survival fraction values of A549 cells after radiotherapy were detected by colony formation assay. Autophagosome was observed by a transmission electron microscope. Furthermore, Western blot was employed to examine alterations in autophagy protein LC3 and p62, DNA damage protein γ–H2AX, and DNA damage repair proteins Rad51, Ku70, and Ku80. Rad51, Ku70, and Ku80 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels were examined by real‐time polymerase chain reaction. Results Rapamycin suppressed A549 cell proliferation in dose and time‐dependent manners. An inhibitory concentration (IC) 10 dose of rapamycin could induce autophagy in A549 cells. Rapamycin combined with radiation significantly decreased the colony forming ability of cells, compared with rapamycin or radiation alone. Rapamycin and radiation combined increased γ–H2AX expression levels and decreased Rad51 and Ku80 expression levels, compared with single regimens. However, rapamycin treatment did not induce any change in Rad51, Ku70, and Ku80 mRNA levels, regardless of radiation. Conclusions These findings indicate that increasing autophagy sensitizes lung cancer cells to radiation. PMID:27385978

  2. Weak-localization effect in superconductors from radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mi-Ae; Kim, Yong-Jihn

    2000-06-01

    Large reductions of the superconducting transition temperature Tc and the accompanying loss of the thermal electrical resistivity (electron-phonon interaction) due to radiation damage have been observed for several A15 compounds, Chevrel phase and ternary superconductors, and NbSe2 in the high-fluence regime. We examine these behaviors based on a recent theory of the weak localization effect in superconductors. We find a good fitting to the experimental data. In particular, the weak localization correction to the phonon-mediated interaction is derived from the density correlation function. It is shown that weak localization has a strong influence on both the phonon-mediated interaction and the electron-phonon interaction, which leads to the universal correlation of Tc and the resistance ratio.

  3. Chromatin Compaction Protects Genomic DNA from Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Hideaki; Hanafusa, Tomo; Mori, Toshiaki; Shimura, Mari; Iida, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Maeshima, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Genomic DNA is organized three-dimensionally in the nucleus, and is thought to form compact chromatin domains. Although chromatin compaction is known to be essential for mitosis, whether it confers other advantages, particularly in interphase cells, remains unknown. Here, we report that chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage. Using a newly developed solid-phase system, we found that the frequency of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in compact chromatin after ionizing irradiation was 5–50-fold lower than in decondensed chromatin. Since radical scavengers inhibited DSB induction in decondensed chromatin, condensed chromatin had a lower level of reactive radical generation after ionizing irradiation. We also found that chromatin compaction protects DNA from attack by chemical agents. Our findings suggest that genomic DNA compaction plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. PMID:24130727

  4. Radiation Damage on Multiple Length Scales in Uranium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Mahima

    Radiation damage in UO2 has been well studied but there exists little correlation between point defect accumulation, lattice structure changes and microstructure. This is partly because irradiated nuclear fuel is highly radioactive and its defect chemistry is extremely complicated resulting from fission of the material and consequent fission products being embedded in the fuel matrix [Olander1976]. To adequately study the evolution of defects from point defects through to microstructure features, the resulting defects have to be intentionally simplified for characterization. Ion accelerators have the unique capability of creating simple microstructure features using specific ions, without the added complication of fission and neutron activation from nuclear reactors. As an example, H+ ions have been used to create (only) a distribution of dislocations that were studied using various techniques. The ability to tune the energy or type of the ion to achieve desirable implantation depth and ideally simple microstructure renders it a lucrative instrument for this type of analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been utilized to study extended structure changes and microstructure evolution. Ion beam irradiations create displacements and displacement networks, voids, surface fracturing, gas bubbles and several other microstructure changes to model nuclear reactor damage [Noris1972]. Using an ion accelerator, it has been possible to isolate these radiation induced defects and study their subsequent evolution with increasing dose. Insofar, since all of the phenomena caused by radiation damage originate from point defects, the elucidation of radiation effects on the atomic scale is crucial. This is rendered complicated due to aperiodic irradiation defects. This lack of periodicity renders standard approaches, such as TEM and XRD ineffective, as these methods probe average structure over tens of Angstroms. Therefore, techniques

  5. Development of resistant materials to beam impact and radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Masayoshi; Kokawa, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Akira; Yamamura, Tsutomu; Hara, Nobuyoshi; Akao, Noboru; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Kenji

    2006-09-01

    Materials that have strong resistance to both beam impact (or shock-wave) and radiation damage are required for the beam target of an intense accelerator and space applications. Recently, Futakawa et al. found in their experiments that Kolsterising specimens have a stronger resistance to pitting than SS316 CW. A similar effect can be expected for other hardening treatments, and new material development is hopeful. Accordingly, we have started the development of high-performance materials by organizing the project team from KEK, JAEA and universities. In this paper, the scope of the project is introduced. Recent topics involve the development of intergranular crack (IGC)-resistant austenitic stainless-steel, AlN-TiN ceramics and cladding techniques of thin tantalum or CrN film on a tungsten target by means of a molten-salt method and ion-beam-enhanced deposition. New observations on corrosion resistance are presented.

  6. Proton radiation damage in bulk n-GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, D. C.; Blue, J. W.; Flood, D. J.; Stanchina, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Bulk samples of Te-doped n-type GaAs were irradiated using 10 MeV to 24 MeV protons to fluences between 2 x 10 to the 11th power protons/sq cm and 2 x 10 to the 14th power protons/sq cm. Majority carrier electrical effects were measured using the vanderPauw techniques and it was observed that radiation damage was minimal at the 10 to the 11th power proton/sq cm fluence. For the higher fluences, carrier removal was proportional to Delta E/Delta x for the protons indicating ionization interactions between the protons and atoms. Thermal annealing was observed at 155 C.

  7. Dislocation dynamics modelling of radiation damage in thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferroni, Francesco; Tarleton, Edmund; Fitzgerald, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy is a key tool for the extraction of information on radiation damage, the understanding of which is critical for materials development for nuclear fusion and fission reactors. Dislocations in TEM samples are subject to strong image forces, owing to the nanometric sample thicknesses, which may introduce artifacts in the damage analysis. Using dislocation dynamics, we elucidate the roles played by dislocation-surface interactions, dislocation-dislocation interactions and self-interactions due to climb for loop types observed in TEM. Comparisons with analytic solutions for a dislocation loop and an edge dislocation in a half-space are included, and the relationship between glide force and loop tilt examined. The parameters for convergence of the zero-traction boundary conditions are obtained, after which the evolution of dislocation structures in a thin film is studied. It is found that three main length scales govern the physical processes: the image force is governed by the distance of the loop from the surface and scales with the film thickness; the glide force is governed by the image stress as well as the loop-loop interaction stress which is in turn governed by the loop spacing L\\sim 1/\\sqrt{\\rho} , where ρ is the loop density; finally, the climb force depends on the loop size. The three forces compete and their relative magnitudes define the evolution pathway of the dislocation structure.

  8. Effect of electron excitation on radiation damage in fce metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, A.; Iwata, T.

    1994-05-01

    Defect production, radiation annealing and defect recovery are studied in several fcc metals (Al, Cu, Ni, Ag and Pt) irradiated with low-energy (˜ 1 MeV) and high-energy (˜ 100 MeV) ions. Irradiation of the metals with strong electron-lattice interaction (Al, Ni and Pt) by ˜ 100 MeV ions causes an anomalous reduction, or even a complete disappearance of stage-I recovery. This experimental result shows that the energy transferred from excited electrons to lattice atoms through the electron-lattice interaction contributes to the annihilation of single interstitials. This effect is also observed in Ni as a large cross section for radiation annealing, and a decrease of the damage efficiency. On the other hand, in Cu and Ag thin foils, we find that lattice defects are produced not only through elastic interactions, but also through a process strongly associated with electron excitation. In the latter process, the defect production cross section is proportional to Se1.7 in Cu and Se1.5 in Ag. The nearly quadratic dependence of the cross section on Se suggests that the mutual Coulomb repulsion of ions positively charged by electron excitation causes the defect production.

  9. Investigating Science Literacy: Students' Conceptions of Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, James; Buxner, S.; Impey, C. D.; Nieberding, M. N.; Antonellis, J. C.; Collaborations of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS)

    2014-01-01

    This study is part of a larger investigation of students' science literacy in which we have been collecting survey data from undergraduate students enrolled in introductory science courses from 1980-2013. The overall survey asks students questions about basic topics in science and technology. We present results from the analysis of students' open-ended responses to the question "What is radiation?" Our findings show that a substantial number of students' perceptions of radiation are focused on the dangers of radiation and less on the applications. A large fraction of students correctly identified radiation as energy or light, although they expressed the misconception that only part of the electromagnetic spectrum counted as radiation. Overall, students expressed a number of misconceptions about the sources and uses of radiation although over 80% know that radiation can occur naturally or be man made. We present how these findings relate to other large trends from the survey. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  10. Acute radiation-induced pulmonary damage: a clinical study on the response to fractionated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Mah, K; Van Dyk, J; Keane, T; Poon, P Y

    1987-02-01

    Acute radiation-induced pulmonary damage can be a significant cause of morbidity in radiation therapy of the thorax. A prospective, clinical study was conducted to obtain dose-response data on acute pulmonary damage caused by fractionated radiation therapy. The endpoint was a visible increase in lung density within the irradiated volume on a computed tomographic (CT) examination as observed independently by three diagnostic radiologists. Fifty-four patients with various malignancies of the thorax completed the study. CT chest scans were taken before and at preselected times following radiotherapy. To represent different fractionation schedules of equivalent biological effect, the estimated single dose (ED) model, ED = D X N-0.377 X T-0.058 was used in which D was the average lung dose within the high dose region in cGy, N was the number of fractions, and T was the overall treatment time in days. Patients were grouped according to ED and the percent incidence of pulmonary damage for each group was determined. Total average lung doses ranged from 29.8 Gy to 53.6 Gy given in 10 to 30 fractions over a range of 12 to 60 days. Five patient groups with incidence ranging from 30% (ED of 930) to 90% (ED of 1150) were obtained. The resulting dose-response curve predicted a 50% incidence level at an ED value (ED50) of 1000 +/- 40 ED units. This value represents fractionation schedules equivalent to a total average lung dose of 32.9 Gy given in 15 fractions over 19 days. Over the linear portion of the dose-response curve, a 5% increase in ED (or total dose if N and T remain constant), predicts a 12% increase in the incidence of acute radiation-induced pulmonary damage. PMID:3818385

  11. Investigation of Moving Belt Radiator Technology Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. Peter; Aguilar, Jerry L.

    1994-01-01

    The development of an advanced spacecraft radiator technology is reported. The moving belt radiator is a thermal radiator concept with the promise of lower specific mass (per kW rejected) than that afforded by existing technologies. The results of a parametric study to estimate radiator mass for future space power systems is presented. It is shown that this technology can be scaled up to 200 MW for higher rejection temperatures. Several aspects of the design concept are discussed, including the dynamics of a large rotating belt in microgravity. The results of a computer code developed to model the belt dynamics are presented. A series of one-g experiments to investigate the dynamics of small belts is described. A comprehensive test program to investigate belt dynamics in microgravity aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft is discussed. It was found that the desired circular shape can readily be achieved in microgravity. It is also shown that a rotating belt is stable when subjected to simulated attitude control maneuvers. Heat exchanger design is also investigated. Several sealing concepts were examined experimentally, and are discussed. Overall heat transfer coefficients to the rotating belt are presented. Material properties for various belt materials, including screen meshes, are also presented. The results presented in this report indicate that the moving belt radiator concept is technically feasible.

  12. Experimental studies of radiation damage of silicon detectors. Internal report

    SciTech Connect

    Angelescu, T.; Ghete, V.M.; Ghiordanescu, N.; Lazanu, I.; Mihul, A.; Golutvin, I.; Lazanu, S.; Savin, I.; Vasilescu, A.; Biggeri, U.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M. |; Li, Z.; Kraner, H.W.

    1994-02-01

    New particle physics experiments are correlated with high luminosity and/or high energy. The new generation of colliding beam machines which will be constructed will make an extrapolation of a factor of 100 in the center of mass energy and of 1000 in luminosity beyond present accelerators. The scientific community hopes that very exciting physics results could be achieved this way, from the solution to the problem of electroweak symmetry breaking to the possible discovery of new, unpredicted phenomena. The particles which compose the radiation field are: electrons, pions, neutrons, protons and photons. It has become evident that the problem of the radiation resistance of detectors in this severe environment is a crucial one. This situation is complicated more by the fact that detectors must work all the run time of the machine, and better all the time of the experiment, without replacement (part or whole). So, studies related to the investigation of the radiation hardness of all detector parts, are developing. The studies are in part material and device characterization after irradiation, and in part technological developments, made in order to find harder, cheaper technologies, for larger surfaces. Semiconductor detectors have proven to be a good choice for vertex and calorimeter. Both fixed target machines and colliders had utilized in the past silicon junction detectors as the whole or part of the detection system. Precision beam hodoscopes and sophisticated trigger devices with silicon are equally used. The associated electronics in located near the detectors, and is subjected to the same radiation fields. Studies of material and device radiation hardness are developing in parallel. Here the authors present results on the radiation hardness of silicon, both as a bulk material and as detectors, to neutron irradiation at high fluences.

  13. Radiation damage in MOS integrated circuits, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchenko, V.

    1971-01-01

    Complementary and p-channel MOS integrated circuits made by four commercial manufacturers were investigated for sensitivity to radiation environment. The circuits were irradiated with 1.5 MeV electrons. The results are given for electrons and for the Co-60 gamma radiation equivalent. The data are presented in terms of shifts in the threshold potentials and changes in transconductances and leakages. Gate biases of -10V, +10V and zero volts were applied to individual MOS units during irradiation. It was found that, in most of circuits of complementary MOS technologies, noticable changes due to radiation appear first as increased leakage in n-channel MOSFETs somewhat before a total integrated dose 10 to the 12th power electrons/sg cm is reached. The inability of p-channel MOSFETs to turn on sets in at about 10 to the 13th power electrons/sq cm. Of the circuits tested, an RCA A-series circuit was the most radiation resistant sample.

  14. A Role for Lsm1p in Response to Ultraviolet-Radiation Damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Spicakova, Tatiana; McCann, Kelly; Brown, J. Martin

    2008-01-01

    A genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified LSM1 as a new gene affecting sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Lsm1p is a member of a cytoplasmic complex composed of Lsm1p–7p that interacts with the yeast mRNA degradation machinery. To investigate the potential role of Lsm1p in response to UV radiation, we constructed double mutant strains in which LSM1 was deleted in combination with a representative gene from each of three known yeast DNA repair pathways. Our results show that lsm1Δ increases the UV-radiation sensitivity of the rad1Δ and rad51Δ mutants, but not the rad18Δ mutant, placing LSM1 within the post-replication repair/damage tolerance pathway (PRR). When combined with other deletions affecting PRR, lsm1Δ increases the UV-radiation sensitivity of the rev3Δ, rad30Δ and pol30-K164R mutants but not rad5Δ. Furthermore, the UV-radiation sensitivity phenotype of lsm1Δ is partially rescued by mutations in genes involved in 3′ to 5′ mRNA degradation, and mutations predicted to function in RNA interactions confer the most UV-radiation sensitivity. Together, these results suggest that Lsm1p may confer protection against UV-radiation damage by protecting the 3′ ends of mRNAs from exosome-dependent 3′ to 5′ degradation as part of a novel RAD5-mediated, PCNA-K164 ubiquitylation-independent subpathway of PRR. PMID:19024647

  15. Dissecting the molecular mechanism of ionizing radiation-induced tissue damage in the feather follicle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Liao, Chunyan; Chu, Qiqi; Zhou, Guixuan; Lin, Xiang; Li, Xiaobo; Lu, Haijie; Xu, Benhua; Yue, Zhicao

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a common therapeutic agent in cancer therapy. It damages normal tissue and causes side effects including dermatitis and mucositis. Here we use the feather follicle as a model to investigate the mechanism of IR-induced tissue damage, because any perturbation of feather growth will be clearly recorded in its regular yet complex morphology. We find that IR induces defects in feather formation in a dose-dependent manner. No abnormality was observed at 5 Gy. A transient, reversible perturbation of feather growth was induced at 10 Gy, leading to defects in the feather structure. This perturbation became irreversible at 20 Gy. Molecular and cellular analysis revealed P53 activation, DNA damage and repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the pathobiology. IR also induces patterning defects in feather formation, with disrupted branching morphogenesis. This perturbation is mediated by cytokine production and Stat1 activation, as manipulation of cytokine levels or ectopic Stat1 over-expression also led to irregular feather branching. Furthermore, AG-490, a chemical inhibitor of Stat1 signaling, can partially rescue IR-induced tissue damage. Our results suggest that the feather follicle could serve as a useful model to address the in vivo impact of the many mechanisms of IR-induced tissue damage. PMID:24586618

  16. Structural investigation of self-irradiation damaged AmO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieur, Damien; Vigier, Jean-François; Wiss, Thierry; Janssen, Arne; Rothe, Jörg; Cambriani, Andrea; Somers, Joseph

    2014-04-01

    Studying self-irradiated materials is an ideal means to investigate the effect of the damage on material structure and to better understand the behavior of irradiated nuclear fuels. In this context, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy have been used to investigate self-irradiation damaged AmO2. Combining these techniques allows studying the microstructure and the variation of the fluorite structure at both short-range and long-range order. Thus, the increase of both interatomic distances and lattice parameter was shown, as well as the presence of nanometer sized He bubbles and dislocation loops. As confirmed by the observed high-level of crystallinity, the fluorite structure exhibits a high radiation tolerance, which is confirmed by the low increase of the lattice parameter. This could be explained by a self-annealing mechanism of the created defects at room temperature.

  17. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE: INDUCED BY RADIATION, CHEMICALS AND ENZYMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid assay to detect DNA damage is reported. This assay is based on the ability of certain dyes to fluoresce upon intercalation with dsDNA. Damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, chemicals or restriction enzymes is detected using this assay. UV radiation at...

  18. Potential vascular damage from radiation in the space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griem, M. L.; Robotewskyj, A.; Nagel, R. H.

    1994-10-01

    Cultured endothelial cells of blood vessels have a Do of 2 Gy for X-rays. A dose of 0.5 Gy of X-rays has an acute effect on vessel diameter. The vessels may show other acute effects such as change in permeability including a change in the blood brain barrier. Changes occurring from late effects of chronic exposure in vascular architecture include telangiectasia and decrease in vascular density. Changes in the perivascular connective tissue particularly collagen may play a role in these changes. After charged particle exposure of 15 and 30 Gy, radiation changes in the blood brain barrier and vascular changes are noted in the nervous system. These long term changes are recorded by PET, MRI, and CT imaging. Chronic exposure to alpha particles causes vascular damage in compact bone resulting in bone infarcts. Using tandem scanning confocal microscopy in-situ imaging of the capillaries and collagen of the papillary dermis provides a non-invasive method of serial recording of changes in irradiated microvasculature.

  19. UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes. PMID:21516254

  20. Radiation damage of BGO and CsI(Tl) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieler, Ch.; Burkart, D.; Marks, J.; Riebesell, M.; Spitzer, H.; Wittenburg, K.; Winter, G.-G.

    1985-02-01

    We have measured the response of five 10-20 cm long BGO crystals from different manufacturers to irradiation with 137Cs γ-rays at doses of 40 and 85 rad. Immediately after irradiation the pulse height drops by 26-38% and recovers only partially with time. 110 d after irradiation the remaining damage is between 1 and 13%. A 10 cm long CsI (Tl) crystal shows pulse height reductions after irradiation which do not recover with time. The cumulative effect of a continuous irradiation on a BGO crystal (1 × 1× 15 cm 3) in a partially shielded position on the beam pipe of PETRA was measured over a period of 53 d. At an average daily dose of 1.9 rad the pulse height dropped continuously resulting in an overall pulse height loss of 9% in 7 weeks. This indicates that BGO when applied in long and narrow shapes is more sensitive to small radiation doses than previously assumed.

  1. Primary radiation damage of protein crystals by an intense synchrotron X-ray beam.

    PubMed

    Teng, T Y; Moffat, K

    2000-09-01

    X-ray radiation damage of a lysozyme single crystal by an intense monochromatic beam from a third-generation radiation source at the Advanced Photon Source has been studied. The results show that primary radiation damage is linearly dependent on the X-ray dose even when the crystal is at cryogenic temperatures. The existence of an upper limit for the primary radiation damage was observed. Above the threshold of approximately 1 x 10(7) Gy, excessive damage of the crystal develops which is interpreted as the onset of secondary and/or tertiary radiation damage. This upper limit of X-ray dose is compared with Henderson's limit [Henderson (1990). Proc. R. Soc. London, B241, 6-8], and its implication for the amount of useful X-ray diffraction data that can be obtained for crystals of a given scattering power is also discussed. PMID:16609214

  2. Clustered DNA damages induced in human hematopoietic cells by low doses of ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, Betsy M.; Bennett, Paula V.; Cintron-Torres, Nela; Hada, Megumi; Trunk, John; Monteleone, Denise; Sutherland, John C.; Laval, Jacques; Stanislaus, Marisha; Gewirtz, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces clusters of DNA damages--oxidized bases, abasic sites and strand breaks--on opposing strands within a few helical turns. Such damages have been postulated to be difficult to repair, as are double strand breaks (one type of cluster). We have shown that low doses of low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation induce such damage clusters in human cells. In human cells, DSB are about 30% of the total of complex damages, and the levels of DSBs and oxidized pyrimidine clusters are similar. The dose responses for cluster induction in cells can be described by a linear relationship, implying that even low doses of ionizing radiation can produce clustered damages. Studies are in progress to determine whether clusters can be produced by mechanisms other than ionizing radiation, as well as the levels of various cluster types formed by low and high LET radiation.

  3. Ultraviolet radiation effects on the infrared damage rate of a thermal control coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the infrared reflectance of ZnO silicone white thermal coatings were investigated. Narrow band ultraviolet radiation for wavelengths in the 2200A to 3500A range by a monochromator and a high pressure, 150-W Eimac xenon lamp. The sample was irradiated while in a vacuum of at least 0.000001 torr, and infrared reflectance was measured in situ with a spectroreflectometer at 19,500A. Reflectance degradation was studied as a function of wavelength, time, intensity, and dose. Damage was wavelength dependent at constant exposure, but no maximum was evident above the shortest wavelength investigated here. The degradation rate at constant intensity was an exponential function of time and varies with intensity.

  4. Radiation damage studies for the SDC electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazely, A. R.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R. L.; Khosravi, E. S.; Lim, Jit-Ning; Lyndon, C.; McMills, G.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W. J.; Courtney, J. C.; Tashakkori, R.; Vegara, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    We report the results from a year long study aimed at radiation resistance and optical performance of scintillator tile with green wave shifter fiber readout. A careful investigation of several rad-hard plastic scintillators from Bicron and Kuraray, studies indicate that for a specific rad-hard Bicron scintillator, it is possible to build a tile/fiber EM calorimeter that can operate in the design luminosity of SSC. This calorimeter with excellent optical response would only have a light loss of about 5% after being exposed to 1 Mrad.

  5. Molecular dynamics study of radiation damage and microstructure evolution of zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes under carbon ion incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Feida; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian; Chen, Da

    2016-07-01

    The radiation damage and microstructure evolution of different zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated under incident carbon ion by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The radiation damage of SWCNTs under incident carbon ion with energy ranging from 25 eV to 1 keV at 300 K showed many differences at different incident sites, and the defect production increased to the maximum value with the increase in incident ion energy, and slightly decreased but stayed fairly stable within the majority of the energy range. The maximum damage of SWCNTs appeared when the incident ion energy reached 200 eV and the level of damage was directly proportional to incident ion fluence. The radiation damage was also studied at 100 K and 700 K and the defect production decreased distinctly with rising temperature because radiation-induced defects would anneal and recombine by saturating dangling bonds and reconstructing carbon network at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the stability of a large-diameter tube surpassed that of a thin one under the same radiation environments.

  6. An Assessment of Radiation Damage Models and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, Roger E; Mansur, Louis K

    2005-05-01

    The current state of development of the primary models used for investigating and simulating irradiation effects in structural alloys of interest to the U.S. DOE's Generation-IV reactor program are discussed. The underlying theory that supports model development is also described where appropriate. First, the key processes that underlie radiation-induced changes in material properties are summarized, and the types of radiation effects that subsequently arise are described. Future development work needed in order for theory, modeling, and computational materials science to support and add value to the Gen IV reactor materials program are then outlined. The expected specific outcomes and overall benefits of the required effort are: the knowledge to extrapolate material behavior to conditions for which there are no experimental data; systematic understanding of mechanisms and processes to enable confident interpolation between point-by-point experimental observations; acceleration of the development, selection, and qualification of materials for reactor service; and prediction of material response to real-world operating load histories which often involve a complicated superposition of time, temperature, radiation dose rate, and mechanical loading conditions. Opportunities for international collaboration to accelerate progress in all of the required research areas are briefly discussed, particularly in the context of two well coordinated, broad-based research projects on modeling and simulation of radiation effects on materials that are currently funded in Europe. In addition to providing the opportunity for substantial leveraging of the DOE-funded activities in this area, these projects may serve as models for future development within the Gen-IV program. The larger of these two projects, which involves 12 European research laboratories and 16 universities, is called PERFECT and is funded by the European Union. A smaller effort focusing on developing predictive

  7. Stability of Radiation Induced Chromosome Damage in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; George, K.; Willingham, V.

    2006-01-01

    Chromosome damage in an individual's peripheral blood lymphocytes can be an indicator of radiation exposure and this data can be used to evaluate dose after accidental or occupational exposure. Evidence suggests that the yield of chromosome damage in lymphocytes is also a relevant biomarker of cancer risk in humans that reflects individual cancer susceptibility. It follows that biomonitoring studies can be used to uncover subjects who are particularly susceptible to radiation damage and therefore at higher risk of cancer. Translocations and other stable aberrations are commonly believed to persist in peripheral blood cells for many years after exposure, and it has been suggested that translocations can be used for assessing retrospective radiation doses or chronic exposures. However, recent investigations suggest that translocations might not always persist indefinitely. We measured chromosome aberrations in the blood lymphocytes of six astronauts before their respective missions of approximately 3 to 6 months onboard the international space station, and again at various intervals up to 5 years after flight. In samples collected a few days after return to earth, the yield of chromosome translocations had significantly increased compared with preflight values, and results indicate that biodosimetry estimates lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry. However, for five of the astronauts, follow up analysis revealed a temporal decline in translocations with half-lives ranging from 10 to 58 months. The yield of exchanges remained unchanged for the sixth astronaut during an observation period of 5 months post-flight. These results may indicate complications with the use of stable aberrations for retrospective dose reconstruction and could affect cancer risk predictions that are estimated from yields of chromosome damage obtained shortly after exposure.

  8. HSPB1 polymorphisms might be associated with radiation-induced damage risk in lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofeng; Xu, Sheng; Cheng, Yu; Shu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Several studies investigating the association between heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1) polymorphisms and radiation-induced damage in lung cancer patients administrated with radiotherapy have derived conflicting results. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the association between the HSPB1 genes' (rs2868370 and rs2868371) polymorphisms and the risk of radiation-induced damage in lung cancer patients. After an electronic literature search, four articles including six studies were found to be eligible for this meta-analysis. No association was observed between rs2868370 genotypes and radiation-induced damage risk. However, rs2868371 showed a statistically increased risk of radiation-induced damage under CC vs. CG/GG model (OR = 1.59, 95 % CI = 1.10-2.29). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that the genotypes of rs2868371 were also associated with a significantly increased risk of radiation-induced damage in CC vs. CG/GG model (OR = 1.86, 95 % CI = 1.21-2.83) among mixed ethnicities which are mainly comprised of white people. When the data was stratified by organ-damaged, a significant association was only observed in the esophagus group (OR = 2.94, 95 % CI = 1.35-6.37, for CC vs. CG/GG model). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the rs2868371 genotypes of HSPB1 might be associated with radiation-induced esophagus damage risk, especially in Caucasians but not in the Asian population. PMID:26874728

  9. Micro-inhomogeneity effects and radiation damage in semi-insulating GaAs radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.; O`Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Smith, K.M.; Didziulis, R.; Kazukauskas, V.; Rinkevicius, V.; Storasta, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    1998-06-01

    Thermally-stimulated current (TSC) measurements and a detailed analysis of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics have been made on semi-insulating GaAs (SI-GaAs) Schottky diode particle detectors, fabricated on substrates from several supplies, before and after irradiation with 24 GeV protons and 300 MeV pions. The analysis of I-V characteristics allows the determination of the barrier height and bulk resistance in detectors. Changes observed in I-V characteristics and TSC spectra after irradiation are described and a dislocation-net model of radiation-damaged devices is proposed.

  10. Investigation of retinal damage during refractive eye surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, S.; Sander, M.; Dopke, C.; Grone, A.; Ertmer, W.; Lubatschowski, H.

    2005-04-01

    Ultrashort laser pulses are increasingly used in refractive eye surgery to cut inside transparent corneal tissue. This is exploited by the fs-LASIK procedure which affords the opportunity to correct ametropia without any mechanical effects. The cutting process is caused by the optical breakdown occurring in the laser focus. During this process only a certain amount of the pulse energy is deposited into the tissue. The remaining pulse energy propagates further through the eye and interacts with the retina and the strong absorbing tissue layers behind. Therefore this investigation shall clarify if the intensity of the remaining laser pulse and the resulting temperature field can damage the retina and the surrounding tissue. Threshold values of the retinal tissue and theoretical calculations of the temperature field will be presented.

  11. Molecular dynamics study of the bulk temperature effect on primary radiation damage in uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.; Sabathier, C.; Wiktor, J.; Maillard, S.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of bulk temperature on the primary damage induced by a displacement cascade was investigated in uranium dioxide using classical molecular dynamics simulations. In this study, the Morelon potentials were used to model the middle-range interactions between the atoms that constitute the host matrix during the radiation events. Cascades were initiated by accelerating a uranium primary knock-on atom at 10keV inside a perfect UO2 lattice at a temperature between 700K and 1800K , a range which comprises in-pile temperatures of oxide fuels in light water reactors in standard operating conditions. Cascade overlap sequences were also simulated at 700K and 1400K in order to study the radiation damage accumulation in the oxide fuel. This study reveals the maximum damage level which the material can accommodate for decreases with the temperature. Furthermore the direct formation of vacancy clusters under irradiation is considerably slowed down above 1000K , notably during cascade overlap sequences.

  12. Radiation damage studies related to nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.J.; Wald, J.W.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1981-12-01

    Much of the previously reported work on alpha radiation effects on crystalline phases of importance to nuclear waste forms has been derived from radiation effects studies of composite waste forms. In the present work, two single-phase crystalline materials, Gd/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 7/ (pyrochlore) and CaZrTi/sub 2/O/sub 7/ (zirconolite), of relative importance to current waste forms were studied independently by doping with /sup 244/Cm at the 3 wt % level. Changes in the crystalline structure measured by x-ray diffraction as a function of dose show that damage ingrowth follows an expected exponential relationship of the form ..delta..V/V/sub 0/ = A(1-exp(-BD)). In both cases, the materials became x-ray amorphous before the estimated saturation value was reached. The predicted magnitudes of the unit cell volume changes at saturation are 5.4% and 3.5%, respectively, for Gd/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and CaZrTi/sub 2/O/sub 7/. The later material exhibited anisotropic behavior in which the expansion of the monoclinic cell in the c/sub 0/ direction was over five times that of the a/sub 0/ direction. The effects of transmutations on the properties of high-level waste solids have not been studied until now because of the long half-lives of the important fission products. This problem was circumvented in the present study by preparing materials containing natural cesium and then irradiating them with neutrons to produce /sup 134/Cs, which has only a 2y half-life. The properties monitored at about one year intervals following irradiation have been density, leach rate and microstructure. A small amount of x-ray diffraction work has also been done. Small changes in density and leach rate have been observed for some of the materials, but they were not large enough to be of any consequence for the final disposal of high level wastes.

  13. Recent radiation damage studies and developments of the Marlowe code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, C. J.; Souidi, A.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.; Hou, M.

    2014-07-01

    Radiation damage in materials relevant to applications evolves over time scales spanning from the femtosecond - the characteristic time for an atomic collision - to decades - the aging time expected for nuclear materials. The relevant kinetic energies of atoms span from thermal motion to the MeV range.The question motivating this contribution is to identify the relationship between elementary atomic displacements triggered by irradiation and the subsequent microstructural evolution of metals in the long term. The Marlowe code, based on the binary collision approximation (BCA) is used to simulate the sequences of atomic displacements generated by energetic primary recoils and the Object Kinetic Monte Carlo code LAKIMOCA, parameterized on a range of ab initio calculations, is used to predict the subsequent long-term evolution of point defect and clusters thereof. In agreement with full Molecular Dynamics, BCA displacement cascades in body-centered cubic (BCC) Fe and a face-centered cubic (FCC) Febond Nibond Cr alloy display recursive properties that are found useful for predictions in the long term.The case of defects evolution in W due to external irradiation with energetic H and He is also discussed. To this purpose, it was useful to extend the inelastic energy loss model available in Marlowe up to the Bethe regime. The last version of the Marlowe code (version 15) was delivered before message passing instructions softwares (such as MPI) were available but the structure of the code was designed in such a way to permit parallel executions within a distributed memory environment. This makes possible to obtain N different cascades simultaneously using N independent nodes without any communication between processors. The parallelization of the code using MPI was recently achieved by one author of this report (C.J.O.). Typically, the parallelized version of Marlowe allows simulating millions of displacement cascades using a limited number of processors (<64) within only

  14. Radiation damage calculations for the APT materials test program

    SciTech Connect

    Corzine, R.K.; Wechsler, M.S.; Dudziak, D.J.; Ferguson, P.D.; James, M.R.

    1999-09-01

    A materials irradiation was performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in the fall of 1996 and spring of 1997 in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program. Testing of the irradiated materials is underway. In the proposed APT design, materials in the target and blanket are to be exposed to protons and neutrons over a wide range of energies. The irradiation and testing program was undertaken to enlarge the very limited direct knowledge presently available of the effects of medium-energy protons ({approximately}1 GeV) on the properties of engineering materials. APT candidate materials were placed in or near the LANSCE accelerator 800-MeV, 1-mA proton beam and received roughly the same proton current density in the center of the beam as would be the case for the APT facility. As a result, the proton fluences achieved in the irradiation were expected to approach the APT prototypic full-power-year values. To predict accurately the performance of materials in APT, radiation damage parameters for the materials experiment must be determined. By modeling the experiment, calculations for atomic displacement, helium and hydrogen cross sections and for proton and neutron fluences were done for representative samples in the 17A, 18A, and 18C areas. The LAHET code system (LCS) was used to model the irradiation program, LAHET 2.82 within LCS transports protons > 1 MeV, and neutrons >20 MeV. A modified version of MCNP for use in LCS, HMCNP 4A, was employed to tally neutrons of energies <20 MeV.

  15. Protection of radiation detectors from fast neutron damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.

    1986-09-02

    A device is described for measuring radiation emitted from a nuclear explosion, the radiation having a comparatively fast moving gamma ray component and a comparatively slower neutron component. The device consists of: a solid state crystal radiation detector; a voltage source applied to bias the detector; and means responsive to the gamma ray component for removing the bias voltage for a predetermined time period whereby the crystal radiation detector is rendered less sensitive to the passage of the neutron radiation component.

  16. Thermal annealing of radiation damage in CMOS ICs in the temperature range -140 C to +375 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchenko, V.; Fang, P. H.; Brashears, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    Annealing of radiation damage was investigated in the commercial, Z- and J-processes of the RCA CD4007A ICs in the temperature range from -140 C to +375 C. Tempering curves were analyzed for activation energies of thermal annealing, following irradiation at -140 C. It was found that at -140 C, the radiation-induced shifts in the threshold potentials were similar for all three processes. The radiation hardness of the Z- and J-process is primarily due to rapid annealing of radiation damage at room temperature. In the region -140 to 20 C, no dopant-dependent charge trapping is seen, similar to that observed at higher temperatures. In the unbiased Z-process n-channels, after 1 MeV electron irradiation, considerable negative charge remains in the gate oxide.

  17. Modification of radiation damage in rat spinal cord by mitotane

    SciTech Connect

    Glicksman, A.S.; Bliven, S.F.; Leith, J.T.

    1982-07-01

    Modification of the paralytic response in rats after 6-MV photon irradiation of the spinal cord with either single or split exposures (two equal fractions given in a 24-hour period) by mitotane was investigated. Mitotane was administered as a suspension in physiologic saline (300 mg/kg/day) for either 5 days prior to or 5 days after irradiation. For rats receiving split doses of 6-MV photons, either the last two doses of mitotane were given 2 hours prior to each radiation fraction or mitotane was begun 2 hours after the second fraction and continued for 5 days. The data to 6 months after irradiation indicate that, in rats given mitotane for 5 days prior to single-dose photon irradiation, the paralytic response (as defined by the dose needed to produce paralysis in 50% of the irradiated groups of rats) was enhanced by a dose-enhancement factor (DEF) of 1.40. The DEF in the group of rats given mitotane after single doses of 6-MV photons was 1.15. In the split-dose irradiation experiments, the DEF for the groups of rats given mitotane prior to each radiation fraction was 1.36; while the DEF for the group of rats receiving mitotane beginning after the second fraction was 1.18. These data indicate that mitotane can potentiate the effects of 6-MV photon irradiation to the central nervous system, with mitotane administered prior to irradiation being the most effective sequence.

  18. Infrared A radiation promotes survival of human melanocytes carrying ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Kimeswenger, Susanne; Schwarz, Agatha; Födinger, Dagmar; Müller, Susanne; Pehamberger, Hubert; Schwarz, Thomas; Jantschitsch, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The link between solar radiation and melanoma is still elusive. Although infrared radiation (IR) accounts for over 50% of terrestrial solar energy, its influence on human skin is not well explored. There is increasing evidence that IR influences the expression patterns of several molecules independently of heat. A previous in vivo study revealed that pretreatment with IR might promote the development of UVR-induced non-epithelial skin cancer and possibly of melanoma in mice. To expand on this, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of IR on UVR-induced apoptosis and DNA repair in normal human epidermal melanocytes. The balance between these two effects is a key factor of malignant transformation. Human melanocytes were exposed to physiologic doses of IR and UVR. Compared to cells irradiated with UVR only, simultaneous exposure to IR significantly reduced the apoptotic rate. However, IR did not influence the repair of UVR-induced DNA damage. IR partly reversed the pro-apoptotic effects of UVR via modification of the expression and activity of proteins mainly of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, IR enhances the survival of melanocytes carrying UVR-induced DNA damage and thereby might contribute to melanomagenesis. PMID:26844814

  19. Postbuckling Investigations of Piezoelectric Microdevices Considering Damage Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhigang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric material has been emerging as a popular building block in MEMS devices owing to its unique mechanical and electrical material properties. However, the reliability of MEMS devices under buckling deformation environments remains elusive and needs to be further explored. Based on the Talreja's tensor valued internal state damage variables as well as the Helmhotlz free energy of piezoelectric material, a constitutive model of piezoelectric materials with damage is presented. The Kachanvo damage evolution law under in-plane compressive loads is employed. The model is applied to the specific case of the postbuckling analysis of the piezoelectric plate with damage. Then, adopting von Karman's plate theory, the nonlinear governing equations of the piezoelectric plates with initial geometric deflection including damage effects under in-plane compressive loads are established. By using the finite difference method and the Newmark scheme, the damage evolution for damage accumulation is developed and the finite difference procedure for postbuckling equilibrium path is simultaneously employed. Numerical results show the postbuckling behaviors of initial flat and deflected piezoelectric plates with damage or no damage under different sets of electrical loading conditions. The effects of applied voltage, aspect ratio of plate, thick-span ratio of plate, damage as well as initial geometric deflections on the postbuckling behaviors of the piezoelectric plate are discussed. PMID:24618774

  20. Investigation and application of neutron damage to bipolar transistors in light water reactor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Roknizadeh, M.

    1987-01-01

    A method of fast neutron metrology and a basis for prediction of changes in performance parameters of semiconductor devices in power plant radiation environments has been established using Cf-252 sources. Three general purpose NPN bipolar transistors (PN2222A, ECG-196, and ECG-184) were chosen as the neutron damage monitors and the change in inverse d.c. current gain before and after irradiation was chosen as the damage parameter for the measurement. The main findings of the investigation were as follows: the change in inverse d.c. current gain for PN2222A transistors was approximately a linear function of the neutron fluence up to 2.0E15 n(1MeV)/cm/sup 2/. The concept of 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence which characterizes an incident energy-fluence spectrum in terms of the fluence of monoenergetic neutrons at 1 MeV, is in error for application to common transistors in a typical power plant environment. Finally, the normalized damage coefficient which is the ratio of damage to 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence divided by the measured base transit time of individual transistors, for all three types of transistors is nearly the same with an average value of 1.27E - 7 +/- 15.0% cm/sup 2//m(1 MeV).Sec.

  1. Radiation damage study using small-angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rétfalvi, E.; Török, Gy; Rosta, L.

    2000-03-01

    Nuclear radiation provides important changes in the microstructure of metallic components of nuclear power plant and research reactors, influencing their mechanical properties. The investigation of this problem has primary interest for the safety and life-time of such nuclear installations. For the characterization of this kind of nanostructures small angle neutron scattering technique is a very useful tool. We have carried out experiments on samples of irradiated reactor vessel material and welded components of VVER-440-type reactors on the SANS instrument at the Budapest Research Reactor. In our measurements irradiated as well as non-irradiated samples were compared and magnetic field was applied for viewing the magnetic structure effects of the materials. A clear modification of the structure due to irradiation was obtained. Our data were analyzed by the ITP92 code, the inverse Fourier transform program of O. Glatter [1].

  2. Radiation-Induced Liver Damage: Correlation of Histopathology with Hepatobiliary Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, Max; Burak, Miroslaw; Kalinski, Thomas; Garlipp, Benjamin; Koelble, Konrad; Wust, Peter; Antweiler, Kai; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Mohnike, Konrad; Pech, Maciej; Ricke, Jens

    2015-02-15

    PurposeRadiotherapy of liver malignancies shows promising results (radioembolization, stereotactic irradiation, interstitial brachytherapy). Regardless of the route of application, a certain amount of nontumorous liver parenchyma will be collaterally damaged by radiation. The functional reserve may be significantly reduced with an impact on further treatment planning. Monitoring of radiation-induced liver damage by imaging is neither established nor validated. We performed an analysis to correlate the histopathological presence of radiation-induced liver damage with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing hepatobiliary contrast media (Gd-BOPTA).MethodsPatients undergoing local high-dose-rate brachytherapy for whom a follow-up hepatobiliary MRI within 120 days after radiotherapy as well as an evaluable liver biopsy from radiation-exposed liver tissue within 7 days before MRI were retrospectively identified. Planning computed tomography (CT)/dosimetry was merged to the CT-documentation of the liver biopsy and to the MRI. Presence/absence of radiation-induced liver damage (histopathology) and Gd-BOPTA uptake (MRI) as well as the dose applied during brachytherapy at the site of tissue sampling was determined.ResultsFourteen biopsies from eight patients were evaluated. In all cases with histopathological evidence of radiation-induced liver damage (n = 11), no uptake of Gd-BOPTA was seen. In the remaining three, cases no radiation-induced liver damage but Gd-BOPTA uptake was seen. Presence of radiation-induced liver damage and absence of Gd-BOPTA uptake was correlated with a former high-dose exposition.ConclusionsAbsence of hepatobiliary MRI contrast media uptake in radiation-exposed liver parenchyma may indicate radiation-induced liver damage. Confirmatory studies are warranted.

  3. Investigation of Sideband Index Response to Prototype Gear Tooth Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the ability of gear condition indicators (CI) to detect contact fatigue damage on spiral bevel gear teeth. Tests were performed in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig on eight prototype gear sets (pinion/gear). Damage was initiated and progressed on the gear and pinion teeth. Vibration data was measured during damage progression at varying torque values while varying damage modes to the gear teeth were observed and documented with inspection photos. Sideband indexes (SI) and root mean square (RMS) CIs were calculated from the time synchronous averaged vibration data. Results found that both CIs respond differently to varying torque levels, damage levels and damage modes

  4. Radiation damage in protein serial femtosecond crystallography using an x-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Lomb, Lukas; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Aquila, Andrew; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Rudek, Benedikt; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Shoeman, Robert L.; Andreasson, Jakob; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Barty, Anton; Bogan, Michael J.; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D.; Caleman, Carl; Coffee, Ryan; Coppola, Nicola; DePonte, Daniel P.; Doak, R. Bruce; Ekeberg, Tomas; Fleckenstein, Holger; Fromme, Petra; Gebhardt, Maike; Graafsma, Heinz; Gumprecht, Lars; Hampton, Christina Y.; Hartmann, Andreas; Hauser, Günter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Holl, Peter; Holton, James M.; Hunter, Mark S.; Kabsch, Wolfgang; Kimmel, Nils; Kirian, Richard A.; Liang, Mengning; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Meinhart, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Martin, Andrew V.; Nass, Karol; Reich, Christian; Schulz, Joachim; Seibert, M. Marvin; Sierra, Raymond; Soltau, Heike; Spence, John C. H.; Steinbrener, Jan; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Xiaoyu; Weidenspointner, Georg; Weierstall, Uwe; White, Thomas A.; Wunderer, Cornelia; Chapman, Henry N.; Ullrich, Joachim; Strüder, Lothar; Schlichting, Ilme

    2013-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers deliver intense femtosecond pulses that promise to yield high resolution diffraction data of nanocrystals before the destruction of the sample by radiation damage. Diffraction intensities of lysozyme nanocrystals collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source using 2 keV photons were used for structure determination by molecular replacement and analyzed for radiation damage as a function of pulse length and fluence. Signatures of radiation damage are observed for pulses as short as 70 fs. Parametric scaling used in conventional crystallography does not account for the observed effects. PMID:24089594

  5. Exploiting radiation damage control on apatite (U Th)/He dates in cratonic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Rebecca M.

    2009-01-01

    Apatites from four pairs of samples of Precambrian basement from the western Canadian shield were analyzed by (U-Th)/He thermochronometry to test for the influence of radiation damage on apatite (U-Th)/He dates in this cratonic region. Recent studies have demonstrated that the accumulation of radiation damage increases the apatite He retentivity, so that apatites with a span of effective U concentrations, eU, that experienced the same thermal history may be characterized by a range of closure temperatures. In this investigation, each sample pair consisted of a mafic dike cross-cutting felsic gneisses from a single outcrop or nearby outcrops that contained apatites with a span of eU. The apatites yielded (U-Th)/He dates from 846 to 123 Ma, and were positively correlated with eU within each sample pair. These results can be explained using a model that tracks the evolution of He mobility in response to the accumulation of radiation damage. When coupled with regional geological constraints, the data appear to require partial to complete He loss due to burial and reheating in Phanerozoic time. New apatite fission- track dates and length data were obtained for five of these samples. The apatite fission- track dates are Proterozoic regardless of apatite eU. Thermal history simulations indicate that the apatite fission-track data are compatible with the (U-Th)/He results, although the thermal histories are not identical in detail and the fission-track results alone do not require Phanerozoic heating. Together the data are consistent with burial of this region by ≥ 1 km of Phanerozoic strata that were subsequently denuded, thus pointing toward significant Phanerozoic deposition in the North American cratonic interior hundreds of kilometers east of where previously documented. The results suggest that exploiting radiation damage control on apatite (U-Th)/He dates through investigation of surface sample apatites with a span of closure temperatures can impose tighter

  6. Radiation-induced renal damage: the effects of hyperfractionation. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, F.A.; Soranson, J.A.; Alpen, E.L.; Williams, M.V.; Denekamp, J.

    1984-05-01

    The response of mouse kidneys to multifraction irradiation was assessed using three nondestructive functional end points. A series of schedules was investigated giving 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, or 64 equal X-ray doses, using doses per fraction in the range of 0.9 to 16 Gy. The overall treatment time was kept constant at 3 weeks. Kidney function was assessed from 19 to 48 weeks after irradiation by measuring changes in isotope clearance, urine output, and hematocrit. All three assays yielded steep dose-effect curves from which the repair capacity of kidney could be estimated by comparing the isoeffective doses in different schedules. There was a marked influence of fractionation, with increasing dose being required to achieve the same level of damage for increasing fraction number, even between 32 and 64 fractions. The data are well fitted by a linear quadratic dose-response equation, and analysis of the data would suggest that hyperfractionation, using extremely small X-ray doses per fraction, would spare kidneys relative to tumors and acutely responding tissues.

  7. Radiation damage in protein crystals is reduced with a micron-sized X-ray beam

    PubMed Central

    Sanishvili, Ruslan; Yoder, Derek W.; Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Rosenbaum, Gerd; Xu, Shenglan; Vogt, Stefan; Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg A.; Corcoran, Stephen; Benn, Richard; Nagarajan, Venugopalan; Smith, Janet L.; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation damage is a major limitation in crystallography of biological macromolecules, even for cryocooled samples, and is particularly acute in microdiffraction. For the X-ray energies most commonly used for protein crystallography at synchrotron sources, photoelectrons are the predominant source of radiation damage. If the beam size is small relative to the photoelectron path length, then the photoelectron may escape the beam footprint, resulting in less damage in the illuminated volume. Thus, it may be possible to exploit this phenomenon to reduce radiation-induced damage during data measurement for techniques such as diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging that use X-rays to probe both crystalline and noncrystalline biological samples. In a systematic and direct experimental demonstration of reduced radiation damage in protein crystals with small beams, damage was measured as a function of micron-sized X-ray beams of decreasing dimensions. The damage rate normalized for dose was reduced by a factor of three from the largest (15.6 μm) to the smallest (0.84 μm) X-ray beam used. Radiation-induced damage to protein crystals was also mapped parallel and perpendicular to the polarization direction of an incident 1-μm X-ray beam. Damage was greatest at the beam center and decreased monotonically to zero at a distance of about 4 μm, establishing the range of photoelectrons. The observed damage is less anisotropic than photoelectron emission probability, consistent with photoelectron trajectory simulations. These experimental results provide the basis for data collection protocols to mitigate with micron-sized X-ray beams the effects of radiation damage. PMID:21444772

  8. Study on the bias-dependent effects of proton-induced damage in CdZnTe radiation detectors using ion beam induced charge microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yaxu; Jie, Wanqi; Rong, Caicai; Xu, Lingyan; Xu, Yadong; Lv, Haoyan; Shen, Hao; Du, Guanghua; Guo, Na; Guo, Rongrong; Zha, Gangqiang; Wang, Tao; Xi, Shouzhi

    2016-09-01

    The influence of damage induced by 2MeV protons on CdZnTe radiation detectors is investigated using ion beam induced charge (IBIC) microscopy. Charge collection efficiency (CCE) in irradiated region is found to be degraded above a fluence of 3.3×10(11)p/cm(2) and the energy spectrum is severely deteriorated with increasing fluence. Moreover, CCE maps obtained under the applied biases from 50V to 400V suggests that local radiation damage results in significant degradation of CCE uniformity, especially under low bias, i. e., 50V and 100V. The CCE nonuniformity induced by local radiation damage, however, can be greatly improved by increasing the detector applied bias. This bias-dependent effect of 2MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe detectors is attributed to the interaction of electron cloud and radiation-induced displacement defects. PMID:27399802

  9. In vitro investigation of skin damage due to microscale shearing.

    PubMed

    Jee, Taekwon; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2014-11-01

    Despite several studies dealing with the mechanical and tribological properties of skin, the majority of these investigations have been performed at macroscopic levels. However, because of the multilayer structure of skin, it is necessary to perform studies at microscopic scales to reveal the effect of individual layer constituents on the overall skin response to mechanical stimuli. To bridge the gap in knowledge of the micromechanical behavior of skin, a custom-made mechanical tester, optical microscopy, and cross-sectional histology were used to examine the deformation and tribological behavior of porcine skin subjected to various normal and shear loadings. Representative friction and wear results of skin tested under unidirectional and reciprocating (cyclic) shearing (scratching) conditions are interpreted in terms of the scratching speed, normal load, and number of scratch cycles to illustrate the effects of stratum corneum, cellular epidermis, and dermis on the friction and wear characteristics of skin. Depending on the normal load and scratch time (cycles), different friction mechanisms (i.e., adhesion, plowing, and squeeze-film lubrication) and wear mechanisms (i.e., surface plasticity/plowing, bulk shearing, cohesive failure, tearing, and delamination) were found to control shear-induced skin damage. The results of this study provide insight into microscale friction and wear processes influencing the mechanical response of skin subjected to normal and shear surface tractions. PMID:24323557

  10. The effect of interferon gamma on conventional fractionated radiation-induced damage and fibrosis in the pelvic tissue of rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunyi; Liu, Zi; Wang, Juan; Chai, Yanlan; Su, Jin; Shi, Fan; Wang, Jiquan; Che, Shao Min

    2016-01-01

    We aim to investigate the effect of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) on conventional fractionated radiation–induced damage and fibrosis in ureter and colorectal mucosa. Fifty-two rabbits were randomly divided into three groups comprising a conventional radiation group, an IFN-γ group, and a control group. X-rays were used to irradiate the pelvic tissues of the rabbits in the IFN-γ and conventional radiation groups. Five days after radiation exposure, the rabbits in the IFN-γ group were administered 250,000 U/kg IFN-γ intramuscularly once a week for 5 weeks. The rabbits in the conventional radiation group received 5.0 mL/kg saline. The rabbits were sacrificed at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks postradiation, and the rectal and ureteral tissues within the radiation areas were collected. The results showed that the morphology of rectal and ureteral tissues was changed by X-ray radiation. The degree of damage at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, but not at 16 weeks, postradiation was significantly different between the IFN-γ and conventional radiation groups. The expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 mRNA in the ureter and colorectal mucosa of the IFN-γ group was significantly lower than that in the conventional radiation group at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks postradiation, but it was still higher than that in the control group. There were significant differences in the expression of collagen III among the three groups. IFN-γ can inhibit the radiation-induced upregulation of transforming growth factor beta 1 mRNA and collagen III protein in the ureter and colorectal mucosa and attenuate radiation-induced damage and fibrosis. PMID:27274263

  11. Pudendal Nerve and Internal Pudendal Artery Damage May Contribute to Radiation-Induced Erectile Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, Michael W.; Marolf, Angela J.; Ehrhart, E.J.; Rao, Sangeeta; Kraft, Susan L.; Engel, Stephanie; Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Golden, Anne E.; Wasserman, Todd H.; LaRue, Susan M.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose/Objectives: Erectile dysfunction is common after radiation therapy for prostate cancer; yet, the etiopathology of radiation-induced erectile dysfunction (RI-ED) remains poorly understood. A novel animal model was developed to study RI-ED, wherein stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was used to irradiate the prostate, neurovascular bundles (NVB), and penile bulb (PB) of dogs. The purpose was to describe vascular and neurogenic injuries after the irradiation of only the NVB or the PB, and after irradiation of all 3 sites (prostate, NVB, and PB) with varying doses of radiation. Methods and Materials: Dogs were treated with 50, 40, or 30 Gy to the prostate, NVB, and PB, or 50 Gy to either the NVB or the PB, by 5-fraction SBRT. Electrophysiologic studies of the pudendal nerve and bulbospongiosus muscles and ultrasound studies of pelvic perfusion were performed before and after SBRT. The results of these bioassays were correlated with histopathologic changes. Results: SBRT caused slowing of the systolic rise time, which corresponded to decreased arterial patency. Alterations in the response of the internal pudendal artery to vasoactive drugs were observed, wherein SBRT caused a paradoxical response to papaverine, slowing the systolic rise time after 40 and 50 Gy; these changes appeared to have some dose dependency. The neurofilament content of penile nerves was also decreased at high doses and was more profound when the PB was irradiated than when the NVB was irradiated. These findings are coincident with slowing of motor nerve conduction velocities in the pudendal nerve after SBRT. Conclusions: This is the first report in which prostatic irradiation was shown to cause morphologic arterial damage that was coincident with altered internal pudendal arterial tone, and in which decreased motor function in the pudendal nerve was attributed to axonal degeneration and loss. Further investigation of the role played by damage to these structures in RI-ED is

  12. Involvement of inducible nitric oxide synthase in radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Won; Kim, Young-Mee; Pyo, Hongryull; Lee, Joon-Ho; Kim, Suwan; Lee, Sunyoung; Noh, Jae Myoung

    2013-11-01

    The use of radiation therapy has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To understand the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced vascular dysfunction, we employed two models. First, we examined the effect of X-ray irradiation on vasodilation in rabbit carotid arteries. Carotid arterial rings were irradiated with 8 or 16 Gy using in vivo and ex vivo methods. We measured the effect of acetylcholine-induced relaxation after phenylephrine-induced contraction on the rings. In irradiated carotid arteries, vasodilation was significantly attenuated by both irradiation methods. The relaxation response was completely blocked by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a potent inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase. Residual relaxation persisted after treatment with L-N(ω)-nitroarginine (L-NA), a non-specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), but disappeared following the addition of aminoguanidine (AG), a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS (iNOS). The relaxation response was also affected by tetraethylammonium, an inhibitor of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor activity. In the second model, we investigated the biochemical events of nitrosative stress in human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We measured iNOS and nitrotyrosine expression in HUVECs exposed to a dose of 4 Gy. The expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine was greater in irradiated HUVECs than in untreated controls. Pretreatment with AG, L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (a selective inhibitor of iNOS), and L-NA attenuated nitrosative stress. While a selective target of radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage was not definitely determined, these results suggest that NO generated from iNOS could contribute to vasorelaxation. These studies highlight a potential role of iNOS inhibitors in ameliorating radiation-induced vascular endothelial damage. PMID:23704776

  13. Anisotropic mechanical properties of zircon and the effect of radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirau, Tobias; Nix, William D.; Bismayer, Ulrich; Boatner, Lynn A.; Isaacson, Scott G.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2016-06-01

    This study provides new insights into the relationship between radiation-dose-dependent structural damage due to natural U and Th impurities and the anisotropic mechanical properties (Poisson's ratio, elastic modulus and hardness) of zircon. Natural zircon samples from Sri Lanka (see Muarakami et al. in Am Mineral 76:1510-1532, 1991) and synthetic samples, covering a dose range of zero up to 6.8 × 1018 α-decays/g, have been studied by nanoindentation. Measurements along the [100] crystallographic direction and calculations, based on elastic stiffness constants determined by Özkan (J Appl Phys 47:4772-4779, 1976), revealed a general radiation-induced decrease in stiffness (~54 %) and hardness (~48 %) and an increase in the Poisson's ratio (~54 %) with increasing dose. Additional indentations on selected samples along the [001] allowed one to follow the amorphization process to the point that the mechanical properties are isotropic. This work shows that the radiation-dose-dependent changes of the mechanical properties of zircon can be directly correlated with the amorphous fraction as determined by previous investigations with local and global probes (Ríos et al. in J Phys Condens Matter 12:2401-2412, 2000a; Farnan and Salje in J Appl Phys 89:2084-2090, 2001; Zhang and Salje in J Phys Condens Matter 13:3057-3071, 2001). The excellent agreement, revealed by the different methods, indicates a large influence of structural and even local phenomena on the macroscopic mechanical properties. Therefore, this study indicates the importance of acquiring better knowledge about the mechanical long-term stability of radiation-damaged materials.

  14. The Radiation environment and damage in the CDF tracking volume

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Tesarek et al.

    2003-12-16

    The authors present direct measurements of the spatial distribution of ionizing radiation and low energy neutrons (E{sub n} < 200 keV) inside the tracking volume of the collider detector at Fermilab (CDF). Using data from multiple exposures, the radiation field can be separated into components from beam losses and collisions and can be checked for consistency between the measurements. They compare the radiation measurements with an increase in the leakage currents of the CDF silicon detectors and find reasonable agreement.

  15. Radiation damage to tetramethlysilane and tetramethlygermanium ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Y.; Higuchi, M.; Oyama, K.; Akaishi, H.; Yuta, H.; Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Suekane, F.; Nagamine, T.; Kawamura, N.

    1994-08-01

    Two detector media suitable for a warm liquid, ionization chamber filled with tetramethylsilane(TMS) and tetramethylgermanium(TMG) were exposed to y radiation from a (sup 60)Co source up to dose 579Gray and 902Gray, respectively. The electron lifetimes and the free ion yields were measured as a function of accumulated radiation dose. A similar behavior of the electron lifetimes and the free ion yields with increasing radiation dose was observed between the TMS and TMG ionization chambers.

  16. The Effects of Interfaces on Radiation Damage Production in Layered Metal Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Heinisch, Howard L.; Gao, Fei; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2003-12-07

    The objective of this research is to use molecular dynamics modeling to explore the effects of interfaces on cascade-producing radiation damage in nanolayered metal composites and to assess the resistance of these composites to damage by neutrons in fusion devices.

  17. Does iodinated contrast medium amplify DNA damage during exposure to radiation.

    PubMed

    Riley, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There is a recognized increased risk of cancer following exposure of humans to ionizing radiation; this is felt to be most likely due to damage to DNA strands during exposure. Damage to DNA strands can be demonstrated microscopically following exposure to X-rays, and new evidence is emerging that this effect may be compounded by administration of iodinated contrast agents. PMID:26234959

  18. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION AND DEFORMATION OF ZIRCONIUM UNDER CASCADE DAMAGE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Barashev, Alexander V; Golubov, Stanislav I; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-06-01

    This work is based on our reaction-diffusion model of radiation growth of Zr-based materials proposed recently in [1]. In [1], the equations for the strain rates in unloaded pure crystal under cascade damage conditions of, e.g., neutron or heavy-ion irradiation were derived as functions of dislocation densities, which include contributions from dislocation loops, and spatial distribution of their Burgers vectors. The model takes into account the intra-cascade clustering of self-interstitial atoms and their one-dimensional diffusion; explains the growth stages, including the break-away growth of pre-annealed samples; and accounts for some striking observations, such as of negative strain in prismatic direction, and co-existence of vacancy- and interstitial-type prismatic loops. In this report, the change of dislocation densities due to accumulation of sessile dislocation loops is taken into account explicitly to investigate the dose dependence of radiation growth. The dose dependence of climb rates of dislocations is calculated, which is important for the climb-induced glide model of radiation creep. The results of fitting the model to available experimental data and some numerical calculations of the strain behavior of Zr for different initial dislocation structures are presented and discussed. The computer code RIMD-ZR.V1 (Radiation Induced Microstructure and Deformation of Zr) developed is described and attached to this report.

  19. Structural investigation of self-irradiation damaged AmO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Prieur, Damien; Vigier, Jean-François; Wiss, Thierry; Janssen, Arne; Rothe, Jörg; Cambriani, Andrea; Somers, Joseph

    2014-04-01

    Studying self-irradiated materials is an ideal means to investigate the effect of the damage on material structure and to better understand the behavior of irradiated nuclear fuels. In this context, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy have been used to investigate self-irradiation damaged AmO{sub 2}. Combining these techniques allows studying the microstructure and the variation of the fluorite structure at both short-range and long-range order. Thus, the increase of both interatomic distances and lattice parameter was shown, as well as the presence of nanometer sized He bubbles and dislocation loops. As confirmed by the observed high-level of crystallinity, the fluorite structure exhibits a high radiation tolerance, which is confirmed by the low increase of the lattice parameter. This could be explained by a self-annealing mechanism of the created defects at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: The structure of damaged AmO2 (36 dpa) has been studied by XRD, XAS and TEM. Thus, the effects of the self-irradiation on the oxidation state, the lattice distances, the structural disorder, the radiation stability and the microstructure have been discussed. - Highlights: • The structure of highly self-irradiated AmO{sub 2} (36 dpa) was studied by XAS and TEM. • XRD, EXAFS and TEM confirm the high stability of the fluorite structure. • XRD and EXAFS show an increase of 0.3% of the structural distances. • XANES shows that Am is tetravalent as well as the Np recoil nucleus. • The presence of He bubbles was evidenced by TEM.

  20. Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning'Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

    2011-12-29

    The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

  1. Radiation Damage to the Nervous System: a delayed therapeutic hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.A.; Kagan, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    This volume represents a good overview of an important issue - late effects of radiation on the nervous system, a topic of interest to everybody who deals with neurooncologic problems. The book is well edited and includes almost all relevant subjects ranging from diagnostic and dosimetric considerations to treatment of radiation brain necrosis.

  2. Cranial Radiation Therapy and Damage to Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monje, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy is associated with a progressive decline in cognitive function, prominently memory function. Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to be an important mechanism underlying this cognitive decline. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of radiation-induced failure of neurogenesis. Potential therapeutic…

  3. Both Complexity and Location of DNA Damage Contribute to Cellular Senescence Induced by Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xurui; Ye, Caiyong; Sun, Fang; Wei, Wenjun; Hu, Burong; Wang, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Persistent DNA damage is considered as a main cause of cellular senescence induced by ionizing radiation. However, the molecular bases of the DNA damage and their contribution to cellular senescence are not completely clear. In this study, we found that both heavy ions and X-rays induced senescence in human uveal melanoma 92–1 cells. By measuring senescence associated-β-galactosidase and cell proliferation, we identified that heavy ions were more effective at inducing senescence than X-rays. We observed less efficient repair when DNA damage was induced by heavy ions compared with X-rays and most of the irreparable damage was complex of single strand breaks and double strand breaks, while DNA damage induced by X-rays was mostly repaired in 24 hours and the remained damage was preferentially associated with telomeric DNA. Our results suggest that DNA damage induced by heavy ion is often complex and difficult to repair, thus presents as persistent DNA damage and pushes the cell into senescence. In contrast, persistent DNA damage induced by X-rays is preferentially associated with telomeric DNA and the telomere-favored persistent DNA damage contributes to X-rays induced cellular senescence. These findings provide new insight into the understanding of high relative biological effectiveness of heavy ions relevant to cancer therapy and space radiation research. PMID:27187621

  4. Both Complexity and Location of DNA Damage Contribute to Cellular Senescence Induced by Ionizing Radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xurui; Ye, Caiyong; Sun, Fang; Wei, Wenjun; Hu, Burong; Wang, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Persistent DNA damage is considered as a main cause of cellular senescence induced by ionizing radiation. However, the molecular bases of the DNA damage and their contribution to cellular senescence are not completely clear. In this study, we found that both heavy ions and X-rays induced senescence in human uveal melanoma 92-1 cells. By measuring senescence associated-β-galactosidase and cell proliferation, we identified that heavy ions were more effective at inducing senescence than X-rays. We observed less efficient repair when DNA damage was induced by heavy ions compared with X-rays and most of the irreparable damage was complex of single strand breaks and double strand breaks, while DNA damage induced by X-rays was mostly repaired in 24 hours and the remained damage was preferentially associated with telomeric DNA. Our results suggest that DNA damage induced by heavy ion is often complex and difficult to repair, thus presents as persistent DNA damage and pushes the cell into senescence. In contrast, persistent DNA damage induced by X-rays is preferentially associated with telomeric DNA and the telomere-favored persistent DNA damage contributes to X-rays induced cellular senescence. These findings provide new insight into the understanding of high relative biological effectiveness of heavy ions relevant to cancer therapy and space radiation research. PMID:27187621

  5. Iatrogenic Damage to the Periodontium Caused by Radiation and Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kassim, Najeeb; Sirajuddin, Syed; Biswas, Shriparna; Rafiuddin, Syed; Apine, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    The radio-sensitivity of a tissue or organ is measured by its response to irradiation. Loss of moderate numbers of cells does not affect the function of most organs. However, with loss of large numbers of cells, all affected organisms display a clinical result. The severity of this change depends on the dosage and thus the extent of cell loss. Moderate doses to a localized area may lead to repairable damage. Comparable doses to a whole organism may result in death from damage to the most sensitive systems in the body. PMID:26312083

  6. Pharmaceutical drugs supporting regeneration of small-intestinal mucosa severely damaged by ionizing radiation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Izumi; Yakumaru, Haruko; Tanaka, Mika; Yokochi, Kazuko; Akashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Accidental exposure of the abdomen to high-dose radiation leads to severe consequences initiated by disruption of the mucosa in the small intestine. Therapeutic options are limited, even though various treatments have been investigated, particularly in the field of regenerative therapy. In order to identify readily available treatment methods, we included several current pharmaceutical drugs, for which the clinical trials have already been completed, in tests on mice that had undergone severe mucosal damage by radiation. The drugs were injected into mice 24 h after exposure to 15.7 Gy X-rays. The effects of the drugs on the damaged mucosa of the small intestine were evaluated using early regeneration indices [the expression of c-myb mRNA, and proliferation of epithelial cells in the form of microcolonies (MCs) by Days 4 and 5 post-irradiation] and the survival rate of the mice. Enhancement of mucosal regeneration at Day 4 (c-myb: P < 0.01, MC: P < 0.05) and improvement of the survival rate (P < 0.05) were observed when a clinical dose of gonadotropin, a stimulator of androgen, was injected. Similarly, a clinical dose of thiamazole (which prevents secretion of thyroid hormone) stimulated mucosal growth by Day 5 (c-myb: P < 0.01, MC: P < 0.05) and also improved the survival rate (P < 0.05). The nonclinical drugs histamine and high-dose octreotide (a growth hormone antagonist) also gave significant survival-enhancing benefits (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). These results can be used to construct therapeutic programs and applied in various experimental studies to control the regeneration of damaged mucosa. PMID:23728323

  7. Evidence of Dopant Type-Inversion and Other Radiation Damage Effects of the CDF Silicon Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Ballarin, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this document is to study the effect of radiation damage on the silicon sensors. The reflection of the effect of radiation can be observed in two fundamental parameters of the detector: the bias current and the bias voltage. The leakage current directly affects the noise, while the bias voltage is required to collect the maximum signal deposited by the charged particle.

  8. DETECTION OF LOW DOSE RADIATION INDUCED DNA DAMAGE USING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENNTIAL FLUORESENCE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for radiation-induced DNA damage is reported. Changes in temperature-induced strand separation in both calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA (puc 19 plasmid from Escherichia coli) were measured after exposure to low doses of radiation. Exposures...

  9. DETECTION OF LOW DOSE RADIATION INDUCED DNA DAMAGE USING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL FLUORESCENCE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for radiation-induced DNA damage is reported. Changes in temperature-induced strand separation in both calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA (puc 19 plasmid from Escherichia coli) were measured after exposure to low doses of radiation. Exposur...

  10. Periodic annealing of radiation damage in GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R. Y.; Knechtli, R. C.; Kamath, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Continuous annealing of GaAs solar cells is compared with periodic annealing to determine their relative effectiveness in minimizing proton radiation damage. It is concluded that continuous annealing of the cells in space at 150 C can effectively reduce the proton radiation damage to the GaAs solar cells. Periodic annealing is most effective if it can be initiated at relatively low fluences (approximating continuous annealing), especially if low temperatures of less than 200 C are to be used. If annealing is started only after the fluence of the damaging protons has accumulated to a high value 10 to the 11th power sq/pcm), effective annealing is still possible at relatively high temperatures. Finally, since electron radiation damage anneals even more easily than proton radiation damage, substantial improvements in GaAs solar cell life can be achieved by incorporating the proper annealing capabilities in solar panels for practical space missions where both electron and proton radiation damage have to be minimized.

  11. Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to UV radiation from daily activities, including reflections off of snow, pavement, and other surfaces, can ... by a day at the beach without sunglasses; reflections off of snow, water, or concrete; or exposure ...

  12. Dark progression reveals slow timescales for radiation damage between T = 180 and 240 K

    PubMed Central

    Warkentin, Matthew; Badeau, Ryan; Hopkins, Jesse; Thorne, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Can radiation damage to protein crystals be ‘outrun’ by collecting a structural data set before damage is manifested? Recent experiments using ultra-intense pulses from a free-electron laser show that the answer is yes. Here, evidence is presented that significant reductions in global damage at temperatures above 200 K may be possible using conventional X-ray sources and current or soon-to-be available detectors. Specifically, ‘dark progression’ (an increase in damage with time after the X-rays have been turned off) was observed at temperatures between 180 and 240 K and on timescales from 200 to 1200 s. This allowed estimation of the temperature-dependent timescale for damage. The rate of dark progression is consistent with an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of 14 kJ mol−1. This is comparable to the activation energy for the solvent-coupled diffusive damage processes responsible for the rapid increase in radiation sensitivity as crystals are warmed above the glass transition near 200 K. Analysis suggests that at T = 300 K data-collection times of the order of 1 s (and longer at lower temperatures) may allow significant reductions in global radiation damage, facilitating structure solution on crystals with liquid solvent. No dark progression was observed below T = 180 K, indicating that no important damage process is slowed through this timescale window in this temperature range. PMID:21904032

  13. Ionizing radiation, antioxidant response and oxidative damage: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Einor, D; Bonisoli-Alquati, A; Costantini, D; Mousseau, T A; Møller, A P

    2016-04-01

    One mechanism proposed as a link between exposure to ionizing radiation and detrimental effects on organisms is oxidative damage. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed the scientific literature on the effects of chronic low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) on antioxidant responses and oxidative damage. We found 40 publications and 212 effect sizes for antioxidant responses and 288 effect sizes for effects of oxidative damage. We performed a meta-analysis of signed and unsigned effect sizes. We found large unsigned effects for both categories (0.918 for oxidative damage; 0.973 for antioxidant response). Mean signed effect size weighted by sample size was 0.276 for oxidative damage and -0.350 for antioxidant defenses, with significant heterogeneity among effects for both categories, implying that ionizing radiation caused small to intermediate increases in oxidative damage and small to intermediate decreases in antioxidant defenses. Our estimates are robust, as shown by very high fail-safe numbers. Species, biological matrix (tissue, blood, sperm) and age predicted the magnitude of effects for oxidative damage as well as antioxidant response. Meta-regression models showed that effect sizes for oxidative damage varied among species and age classes, while effect sizes for antioxidant responses varied among species and biological matrices. Our results are consistent with the description of mechanisms underlying pathological effects of chronic exposure to LDIR. Our results also highlight the importance of resistance to oxidative stress as one possible mechanism associated with variation in species responses to LDIR-contaminated areas. PMID:26851726

  14. Phytochemicals for prevention of solar ultraviolet radiation-induced damages.

    PubMed

    Adhami, Vaqar M; Syed, Deeba N; Khan, Naghma; Afaq, Farrukh

    2008-01-01

    While solar light is indispensable for sustenance of life, excessive exposure can cause several skin-related disorders. The UV part of solar radiation, in particular, is linked to disorders ranging from mild inflammatory effects of the skin to as serious as causing several different types of cancers. Changes in lifestyle together with depletion in the atmospheric ozone layer during the last few decades have led to an increase in the incidence of skin cancer. Skin cancers consisting of basal and squamous cell carcinomas are especially linked to the UVB part of solar radiation. Reducing excessive exposure to solar radiation is desirable; however, as this approach is unavoidable, it is suggested that other novel strategies be developed to reduce the effects of solar radiation to skin. One approach to reduce the harmful effects of solar radiation is through the use of phytochemicals, an approach that is popularly known as "Photochemoprotection." In recent years many phytochemicals with potential antioxidant properties have been identified and found to be photoprotective in nature. We describe here some of the most popular phytochemicals being studied that have the potential to reduce the harmful effects associated with solar UV radiation. PMID:18266816

  15. Comparative study of radiation damage accumulation in Cu and Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caturla, M. J.; Soneda, N.; Alonso, E.; Wirth, B. D.; Díaz de la Rubia, T.; Perlado, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Bcc and fcc metals exhibit significant differences in behavior when exposed to neutron or heavy ion irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations reveal that damage in the form of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) is visible in copper irradiated to very low doses, but that no damage is visible in iron irradiated to the same total dose. In order to understand and quantify this difference in behavior, we have simulated damage production and accumulation in fcc Cu and bcc Fe. We use 20 keV primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) at a homologous temperature of 0.25 of the melting point. The primary damage state was calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) with empirical, embedded-atom interatomic potentials. Damage accumulation was modeled using a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) algorithm to follow the evolution of all defects produced in the cascades. The diffusivities and binding energies of defects are input data for this simulation and were either extracted from experiments, the literature, or calculated using MD. MD simulations reveal that vacancy clusters are produced within the cascade core in the case of copper. In iron, most of the vacancies do not cluster during cooling of the cascade core and are available for diffusion. In addition, self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters are produced in copper cascades but those observed in iron are smaller in number and size. The combined MD/kMC simulations reveal that the visible cluster densities obtained as a function of dose are at least one order of magnitude lower in Fe than in Cu. We compare the results with experimental measurements of cluster density and find excellent agreement between the simulations and experiments when small interstitial clusters are considered to be mobile as suggested by recent MD simulations.

  16. Investigating Material Approximations in Spacecraft Radiation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Steven A.; Slaba, Tony C.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2011-01-01

    During the design process, the configuration of space vehicles and habitats changes frequently and the merits of design changes must be evaluated. Methods for rapidly assessing astronaut exposure are therefore required. Typically, approximations are made to simplify the geometry and speed up the evaluation of each design. In this work, the error associated with two common approximations used to simplify space radiation vehicle analyses, scaling into equivalent materials and material reordering, are investigated. Over thirty materials commonly found in spacesuits, vehicles, and human bodies are considered. Each material is placed in a material group (aluminum, polyethylene, or tissue), and the error associated with scaling and reordering was quantified for each material. Of the scaling methods investigated, range scaling is shown to be the superior method, especially for shields less than 30 g/cm2 exposed to a solar particle event. More complicated, realistic slabs are examined to quantify the separate and combined effects of using equivalent materials and reordering. The error associated with material reordering is shown to be at least comparable to, if not greater than, the error associated with range scaling. In general, scaling and reordering errors were found to grow with the difference between the average nuclear charge of the actual material and average nuclear charge of the equivalent material. Based on this result, a different set of equivalent materials (titanium, aluminum, and tissue) are substituted for the commonly used aluminum, polyethylene, and tissue. The realistic cases are scaled and reordered using the new equivalent materials, and the reduced error is shown.

  17. Radiation damage microstructures in nuclear ceramics with applications in fusion energy technology and nuclear waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, L.W.

    1989-09-01

    This final technical report documents the accomplishments of the program of research entitled Radiation Damage Microstructures in Nuclear Ceramics'' funded between July 1984 and July 1988 under DOE Grant FG02-84ER45090. The initial program, begun at MIT in 1983, had as its objective investigation of the radiation responses of ceramics, heavily-irradiated with electrons, neutrons and ions, with potential applications to fusion energy technology and high-level nuclear waste storage. Materials investigated included SiO{sub 2}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 23}O{sub 27}N{sub 5}, SiC, BeO, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, CaTiO{sub 3}, KTaO{sub 3} and Ca(Zr,Pu)Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The issues involved have been the subject of a series of DOE-sponsored workshops in which the principal investigator has prominently participated, as well as of two informal collaborative meetings among DOE-supported groups at MIT, Los Alamos, University of New Mexico, Boeing, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  18. A thermochemical model of radiation damage and annealing applied to GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, E. J.; Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Calculations of the equilibrium conditions for continuous radiation damage and thermal annealing are reported. The calculations are based on a thermochemical model developed to analyze the incorporation of point imperfections in GaAs, and modified by introducing the radiation to produce native lattice defects rather than high-temperature and arsenic atmospheric pressure. The concentration of a set of defects, including vacancies, divacancies, and impurity vacancy complexes, are calculated as a function of temperature. Minority carrier lifetimes, short circuit current, and efficiency are deduced for a range of equilibrium temperatures. The results indicate that GaAs solar cells could have a mission life which is not greatly limited by radiation damage.

  19. Proton radiation damage in high-resistivity n-type silicon CCDs

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.J.; Groom, D.E.; Holland, S.E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.F.; Lee, J.; Levi, M.E.; Palaio, N.P.; Turko, B.T.; Uslenghi, M.C.; Wagner, M.T.; Wang, G.

    2001-12-20

    A new type of p-channel CCD constructed on high-resistivity n-type silicon was exposed to 12 MeV protons at doses up to 1x1011 protons/cm2. The charge transfer efficiency was measured as a function of radiation dose and temperature. We previously reported that these CCDs are significantly more tolerant to radiation damage than conventional n-channel devices. In the work reported here, we used pocket pumping techniques and charge transfer efficiency measurements to determine the identity and concentrations of radiation induced traps present in the damaged devices.

  20. DNA Damage by Ionizing Radiation: Tandem Double Lesions by Charged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Chaban, Galina M.; Wang, Dunyou; Dateo, Christopher E.

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative damages by ionizing radiation are the source of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, damage to the central nervous system, lowering of the immune response, as well as other radiation-induced damages to human health. Monte Carlo track simulations and kinetic modeling of radiation damages to the DNA employ available molecular and cellular data to simulate the biological effect of high and low LET radiation io the DNA. While the simulations predict single and double strand breaks and base damages, so far all complex lesions are the result of stochastic coincidence from independent processes. Tandem double lesions have not yet been taken into account. Unlike the standard double lesions that are produced by two separate attacks by charged particles or radicals, tandem double lesions are produced by one single attack. The standard double lesions dominate at the high dosage regime. On the other hand, tandem double lesions do not depend on stochastic coincidences and become important at the low dosage regime of particular interest to NASA. Tandem double lesions by hydroxyl radical attack of guanine in isolated DNA have been reported at a dosage of radiation as low as 10 Gy. The formation of two tandem base lesions was found to be linear with the applied doses, a characteristic of tandem lesions. However, tandem double lesions from attack by a charged particle have not been reported.

  1. An Experimental Investigation of Damaged Arresting Gear Tapes for the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Angela J.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed on damaged arresting gear tapes at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility. The arrestment system uses five pairs of tapes to bring the test carriage to a halt. The procedure used to determine when to replace the tapes consists of a close evaluation of each of the 10 tapes after each run. During this evaluation, each tape is examined thoroughly and any damage observed on the tape is recorded. If the damaged tape does not pass the inspection, the tape is replaced with a new one. For the past 13 years, the most commonly seen damage types are edge fray damage and transverse damage. Tests were conducted to determine the maximum tensile strength of a damaged arresting gear tape specimen. The data indicate that tapes exhibiting transverse damage can withstand higher loads than tapes with edge fray damage.

  2. Anisotropic mechanical properties of zircon and the effect of radiation damage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Beirau, Tobias; Nix, William D.; Bismayer, Ulrich; Boatner, Lynn A.; Isaacson, Scott G.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2016-06-02

    Our study provides new insights into the relationship between radiation-dose-dependent structural damage, due to natural U and Th impurities, and the anisotropic mechanical properties (Poisson s ratio, elastic modulus and hardness) of zircon. Natural zircon samples from Sri Lanka (see Muarakami et al. 1991) and synthetic samples, covering a dose range of zero up to 6.8 x 1018 -decays/g, have been studied by nanoindentation. Measurements along the [100] crystallographic direction and calculations, based on elastic stiffness constants determined by zkan (1976), revealed a general radiation-induced decrease in stiffness (~ 54 %) and hardness (~ 48 %) and an increase ofmore » the Poisson s ratio (~ 54 %) with increasing dose. Additional indentations on selected samples along the [001] allowed one to follow the amorphization process to the point that the mechanical properties are isotropic. This work shows that the radiation-dose-dependent changes of the mechanical properties of zircon can be directly correlated with the amorphous fraction as determined by previous investigations with local and global probes (Rios et al. 2000a; Farnan and Salje 2001; Zhang and Salje 2001). This agreement, revealed by the different methods, indicates a huge influence of structural and even local phenomena on the macroscopic mechanical properties.« less

  3. On radiation damage in FIB-prepared softwood samples measured by scanning X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Storm, Selina; Ogurreck, Malte; Laipple, Daniel; Krywka, Christina; Burghammer, Manfred; Di Cola, Emanuela; Müller, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The high flux density encountered in scanning X-ray nanodiffraction experiments can lead to severe radiation damage to biological samples. However, this technique is a suitable tool for investigating samples to high spatial resolution. The layered cell wall structure of softwood tracheids is an interesting system which has been extensively studied using this method. The tracheid cell has a complex geometry, which requires the sample to be prepared by cutting it perpendicularly to the cell wall axis. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling in combination with scanning electron microscopy allows precise alignment and cutting without splintering. Here, results of a scanning X-ray diffraction experiment performed on a biological sample prepared with a focused ion beam of gallium atoms are reported for the first time. It is shown that samples prepared and measured in this way suffer from the incorporation of gallium atoms up to a surprisingly large depth of 1 µm. PMID:25723928

  4. [Pulse-modulated Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High Frequencies Protects Cellular DNA against Damaging Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors in vitro].

    PubMed

    Gapeyev, A B; Lukyanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    Using a comet assay technique, we investigated protective effects of. extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in combination with the damaging effect of X-ray irradiation, the effect of damaging agents hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate on DNA in mouse whole blood leukocytes. It was shown that the preliminary exposure of the cells to low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20-min exposure, modulation frequencies of 1 and 16 Hz) caused protective effects decreasing the DNA damage by 20-45%. The efficacy of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation depended on the type of genotoxic agent and increased in a row methyl methanesulfonate--X-rays--hydrogen peroxide. Continuous electromagnetic radiation was ineffective. The mechanisms of protective effects may be connected with an induction of the adaptive response by nanomolar concentrations of reactive oxygen species formed by pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation. PMID:26591599

  5. Radiation damage in proton irradiated indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    1986-01-01

    Indium phosphide solar cells exposed to 10 MeV proton irradiations were found to have significantly greater radiation resistance than either GaAs or Si. Performance predictions were obtained for two proton dominated orbits and one in which both protons and electrons were significant cell degradation factors. Array specific power was calculated using lightweight blanket technology, a SEP array structure, and projected cell efficiencies. Results indicate that arrays using fully developed InP cells should out-perform those using GaAs or Si in orbits where radiation is a significant cell degradation factor.

  6. The radiation burden of radiological investigations

    PubMed Central

    Mazrani, W; McHugh, K; Marsden, P J

    2007-01-01

    The harmful effects of ionising radiation are widely acknowledged. It has been reported that young children, particularly girls, have a higher sensitivity to radiation than adults. However, the exact detrimental effects of radiation, particularly at the low doses used in routine diagnostic radiography, are unknown and the subject of much controversy. Computed tomography (CT) accounts for about 9% of all radiological examinations but is responsible for 47% of medical radiation dose. Approximately 11% of CT examinations performed are in the paediatric population, but the long‐term hazards of CT are unknown. PMID:18032642

  7. Clustered DNA damages induced by high and low LET radiation, including heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, B. M.; Bennett, P. V.; Schenk, H.; Sidorkina, O.; Laval, J.; Trunk, J.; Monteleone, D.; Sutherland, J.; Lowenstein, D. I. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Clustered DNA damages--here defined as two or more lesions (strand breaks, oxidized purines, oxidized pyrimidines or abasic sites) within a few helical turns--have been postulated as difficult to repair accurately, and thus highly significant biological lesions. Further, attempted repair of clusters may produce double strand breaks (DSBs). However, until recently, there was no way to measure ionizing radiation-induced clustered damages, except DSB. We recently described an approach for measuring classes of clustered damages (oxidized purine clusters, oxidized pyrimidine clusters, abasic clusters, along with DSB). We showed that ionizing radiation (gamma rays and Fe ions, 1 GeV/amu) does induce such clusters in genomic DNA in solution and in human cells. These studies also showed that each damage cluster results from one radiation hit (and its track), thus indicating that they can be induced by very low doses of radiation, i.e. two independent hits are not required for cluster induction. Further, among all complex damages, double strand breaks comprise--at most-- 20%, with the other clustered damages being at least 80%.

  8. Speckle interferometric damage investigation of fibre-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertwig, Manfred; Flemming, Torsten; Floureux, Thierry; Aebischer, Hubert A.

    1996-06-01

    With the aid of the recently reported technique of adding up phase images modulo 2π that correspond to stepwise applied load increments, the fringe density that can be achieved in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) has been substantially improved. This technique also allows the measurement of much larger deformations than were hitherto possible with ESPI. The analytical power of the method is demonstrated in the measurement of high local displacement gradients in carbon fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRPs). In-plane and out-of-plane displacement field measurements, performed with one single optical instrument, are compared with finite-element models. This paper reports how the technique is used to detect and quantify damage in fatigued CFRP laminates via its effect on the surface displacement field. Moreover, the measured displacement fields are used to validate a finite-element damage model. The correctness of the delamination measurement is verified with the aid of ultrasonic C-scan reference results.

  9. Microscopic investigation of cavitation erosion damage in metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackworh, J. V.; Adler, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    The results of research to identify the cavitation erosion damage mechanisms at the microscopic level for three metals (aluminum, stainless steel, and titanium) representing a range of properties and microstructure are presented. The metals were exposed to cavitation generated in distilled water by a 20-kHz ultrasonic facility operating at a vibration amplitude of 2 mils. Representative properties of the metals and experimental details are summarized. Replicas of the eroded surfaces of the specimens obtained periodically during exposure were examined with a transmission electron microscope to follow progression of the erosion damage and identify dominant erosion mechanisms as a function of exposure time. Eroded surfaces of selected specimens were also examined with a scanning electron microscope to assist in the interpretation.

  10. Thermal and radiation damage to SL/1 EREP films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, L.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the present sensitometric characteristics of the SL/1 EREP films stored in Skylab. These films underwent the high temperature environment at the beginning of the mission and have since been stored outside the film vault. As a result, the films will have received a radiation dose estimated at approximately 12 rads by the end of SL/3.

  11. Amifostine, a radioprotectant agent, protects rat brain tissue lipids against ionizing radiation induced damage: An FTIR microspectroscopic imaging study

    SciTech Connect

    Cakmak G.; Miller L.; Zorlu, F.; Severcan, F.

    2012-03-03

    Amifostine is the only approved radioprotective agent by FDA for reducing the damaging effects of radiation on healthy tissues. In this study, the protective effect of amifostine against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) regions of the rat brain were investigated at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, which were administered amifostine or not, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 800 cGy, decapitated after 24 h and the brain tissues of these rats were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The results revealed that the total lipid content and CH{sub 2} groups of lipids decreased significantly and the carbonyl esters, olefinic=CH and CH{sub 3} groups of lipids increased significantly in the WM and GM after exposure to ionizing radiation, which could be interpreted as a result of lipid peroxidation. These changes were more prominent in the WM of the brain. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited the radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. In addition, this study indicated that FTIRM provides a novel approach for monitoring ionizing radiation induced-lipid peroxidation and obtaining different molecular ratio images can be used as biomarkers to detect lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

  12. Plasma damage mechanisms for low-k porous SiOCH films due to radiation, radicals, and ions in the plasma etching process

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Saburo; Takashima, Seigo; Hori, Masaru; Fukasawa, Masanaga; Ohshima, Keiji; Nagahata, Kazunori; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2008-04-01

    Low dielectric constant (low-k) films have been widely used as insulating materials in ultra-large-scale integrated circuits. Low-k films receive heavy damage during the plasma processes of etching or ashing, resulting in an increase in their dielectric constant. In order to realize damage-free plasma processes for low-k films, it is essential to determine the influence of radiation, radicals, and ions emitted in the plasma process on the characteristics of low-k films. We have developed a technique to evaluate the influence of radiation, radicals, ions, and their synergies on films in real plasma processes and have named it pallet for plasma evaluation (PAPE). Using the PAPE, plasma-induced damage on porous SiOCH films were investigated in dual-frequency capacitively coupled H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} plasmas. The damage was characterized by ellipsometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy. On the basis of the results, the damage mechanisms associated with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and UV radiation, radicals, and ions were clarified. The damage was caused not only by ions and radicals but also by VUV and UV radiation emitted by the plasmas. Moreover, it was found that the synergy between the radiation and the radicals enhanced the damage.

  13. Scale-Dependent Friction and Damage Interface law: implications for effective earthquake rupture dynamics and radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festa, Gaetano; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Raous, Michel; Henninger, Carole

    2010-05-01

    Propagation and radiation of an earthquake rupture is commonly considered as a friction dominated process on fault surfaces. Friction laws, such as the slip weakening and the rate-and-state laws are widely used in the modeling of the earthquake rupture process. These laws prescribe the traction evolution versus slip, slip rate and potentially other internal variables. They introduce a finite cohesive length scale over which the fracture energy is released. However faults are finite-width interfaces with complex internal structures, characterized by highly damaged zones embedding a very thin principal slip interface where most of the dynamic slip localizes. Even though the rupture process is generally investigated at wavelengths larger than the fault zone thickness, which should justify a formulation based upon surface energy, a consistent homogeneization, a very challenging problem, is still missing. Such homogeneization is however be required to derive the consistent form of an effective interface law, as well as the appropriate physical variables and length scales, to correctly describe the coarse-grained dissipation resulting from surface and volumetric contributions at the scale of the fault zone. In this study, we investigate a scale-dependent law, introduced by Raous et al. (1999) in the context of adhesive material interfaces, that takes into account the transition between a damage dominated and a friction dominated state. Such a phase-field formalism describes this transition through an order parameter. We first compare this law to standard slip weakening friction law in terms of the rupture nucleation. The problem is analyzed through the representation of the solution of the quasi-static elastic problem onto the Chebyshev polynomial basis, generalizing the Uenishi-Rice solution. The nucleation solutions, at the onset of instability, are then introduced as initial conditions for the study of the dynamic rupture propagation, in the case of in-plane rupture

  14. Radiation damage in diagnostic window materials for the TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Primak, W.

    1981-07-01

    The general problem of evaluating diagnostic window materials for the TFTR at the tank wall location is described. Specific evaluations are presented for several materials: vitreous silica, crystal quartz, sapphire, zinc selenide, and several fluorides: lithium fluoride, magnesium fluoride, and calcium fluoride; and seal glasses are discussed. The effects of the neutrons will be minimal. The major problems arise from the high flux of ionizing radiation, mainly the soft x rays which are absorbed near the surface of the materials. Additionally, this large energy deposition causes a significant thermal pulse with attendant thermal stresses. It is thus desirable to protect the windows with cover slips where this is feasible or to reduce the incident radiation by mounting the windows on long pipes. A more detailed summary is given at the end of this report.

  15. Potential for radiation damage to carbon steel storage tanks for high level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Sindelar, R.L.; Thomas, J.K.

    1993-07-30

    A low intensity radiation field is generated by the high level waste that is stored within carbon steel lined tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The highest level of radiation damage to the tank walls from gamma and spontaneous neutron emissions is estimated to be less than 1.0E-6 displacements per atom (DPA) for a 100 year exposure to fresh, ``high heat`` SRS waste assuming continuous replenishment of the radionuclides. This damage level is below the limit for measurable radiation damage to the mechanical properties of carbon steel. Structural assessment of tanks for storage of high level waste may be based on nominal or code values of the mechanical properties of the steels from which the tanks were constructed.

  16. Review of radiation damage in GaN-based materials and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Pearton, Stephen J.; Deist, Richard; Ren, Fan; Liu, Lu; Polyakov, Alexander Y.; Kim, Jihyun

    2013-09-15

    A review of the effects of proton, neutron, γ-ray, and electron irradiation on GaN materials and devices is presented. Neutron irradiation tends to create disordered regions in the GaN, while the damage from the other forms of radiation is more typically point defects. In all cases, the damaged region contains carrier traps that reduce the mobility and conductivity of the GaN and at high enough doses, a significant degradation of device performance. GaN is several orders of magnitude more resistant to radiation damage than GaAs of similar doping concentrations. In terms of heterostructures, preliminary data suggests that the radiation hardness decreases in the order AlN/GaN > AlGaN/GaN > InAlN/GaN, consistent with the average bond strengths in the Al-based materials.

  17. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Laurence; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jisnmin; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Wall, Joe

    2015-11-02

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor – a sensor that can continuously monitor a material’s damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks: (1

  18. Investigation of possible fs-LASIK induced retinal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, S.; Sander, M.; Stolte, A.; Doepke, C.; Baumgaertner, W.; Lubatschowski, H.

    2006-02-01

    Rapid development of new laser technologies enabled the application of ultra short lasers in refractive surgery. Focused ultra short laser pulses in near-infrared spectral range can generate a laser induced breakdown (LIB) in the cornea, which will disrupt the tissue. Cutting depth and position can be established by varying the laser focus. The fs-LASIK technique allows both flap and lenticule to be formed by using fs-pulses without the presence of any mechanical impact. During the cutting process not all of the pulse energy is deposited into the cornea; approximately half of the remaining energy propagates through the eye and reaches the retina. Though defocused, the transmitted energy can still induce damage to the retina due to absorption by the retinal pigment epithelium and the transfer of thermal energy to surrounding tissue. The fs-LASIK process was simulated with two laser systems; one continous-wave and one in the fs-regime. For the simulation the exposure time and focusing numerical aperature which defines the retinal spot size were varied. The Damage thresholds of the laser beam exposed eyes were determined in terms of ophthalmoscopic and histopathologic observations.

  19. Radiation Damage Study in Natural Zircon Using Neutrons Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Karim, Julia Abdul

    2011-03-30

    Changes of atomic displacements in crystalline structure of natural zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) can be studied by using neutron irradiation on the surface of zircon and compared the data from XRD measurements before and after irradiation. The results of neutron irradiation on natural zircon using Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) at PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency are discussed in this work. The reactor produces maximum thermal power output of 1 MWatt and the neutron flux of up to 1x10{sup 13} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. From serial decay processes of uranium and thorium radionuclides in zircon crystalline structure, the emission of alpha particles can produce damage in terms of atomic displacements in zircon. Hence, zircon has been extensively studied as a possible candidate for immobilization of fission products and actinides.

  20. Radiation Damage Study in Natural Zircon Using Neutrons Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Karim, Julia Abdul

    2011-03-01

    Changes of atomic displacements in crystalline structure of natural zircon (ZrSiO4) can be studied by using neutron irradiation on the surface of zircon and compared the data from XRD measurements before and after irradiation. The results of neutron irradiation on natural zircon using Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) at PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency are discussed in this work. The reactor produces maximum thermal power output of 1 MWatt and the neutron flux of up to 1×1013 ncm-2s-1. From serial decay processes of uranium and thorium radionuclides in zircon crystalline structure, the emission of alpha particles can produce damage in terms of atomic displacements in zircon. Hence, zircon has been extensively studied as a possible candidate for immobilization of fission products and actinides.

  1. Repair of ionizing radiation DNA base damage in ataxia-telangiectasia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Kinsella, T.J.; Dobson, P.P.; Mitchell, J.B.

    1986-04-01

    Micrococcus luteus endonuclease sensitive sites were measured by alkaline elution in normal human and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) fibroblasts after ionizing radiation. Due to the sensitivity of this assay, repair of base damage after 3 to 6 kilorads has been measured after oxic or hypoxic radiation. With 5.5 kilorads of oxic radiation, more than 50% of the base damage was removed after 1.5 h of repair incubation in all cells, including exr+ and exr- AT cells, and approximately 75% was removed by 4 h. After 3 or 4.5 kilorads of hypoxic X-irradiation, repair was equivalent in normal and exr- AT cells. This study included three exr- AT strains which have been reported to be deficient in the removal of gamma-ray base damage at higher doses. Since these strains repaired ionizing radiation base damage normally at lower doses, which are more relevant to survival, it is concluded that the X-ray hypersensitivity of AT cells is probably not related to the repair of base damage.

  2. Autophagy confers DNA damage repair pathways to protect the hematopoietic system from nuclear radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Weiwei; Yuan, Na; Wang, Zhen; Cao, Yan; Fang, Yixuan; Li, Xin; Xu, Fei; Song, Lin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Han; Yan, Lili; Xu, Li; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Suping; Wang, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is essentially a metabolic process, but its in vivo role in nuclear radioprotection remains unexplored. We observed that ex vivo autophagy activation reversed the proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, and DNA damage in irradiated hematopoietic cells. In vivo autophagy activation improved bone marrow cellularity following nuclear radiation exposure. In contrast, defective autophagy in the hematopoietic conditional mouse model worsened the hematopoietic injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and DNA damage caused by nuclear radiation exposure. Strikingly, in vivo defective autophagy caused an absence or reduction in regulatory proteins critical to both homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA damage repair pathways, as well as a failure to induce these proteins in response to nuclear radiation. In contrast, in vivo autophagy activation increased most of these proteins in hematopoietic cells. DNA damage assays confirmed the role of in vivo autophagy in the resolution of double-stranded DNA breaks in total bone marrow cells as well as bone marrow stem and progenitor cells upon whole body irradiation. Hence, autophagy protects the hematopoietic system against nuclear radiation injury by conferring and intensifying the HR and NHEJ DNA damage repair pathways and by removing ROS and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:26197097

  3. Radiation damage of heavy crystalline detector materials by 24 GeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barysevich, A.; Dormenev, V.; Fedorov, A.; Glaser, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Korjik, M.; Maas, F.; Mechinski, V.; Rusack, R.; Singovski, A.; Zoueyski, R.

    2013-02-01

    Samples of three heavy crystalline materials: PbWO4, Bi4Si3O12, and PbF2 were irradiated in a high-intensity 24 GeV proton beam at the CERN PS to fluencies of 3.8×1013 protons/cm2. The optical transmission radiation damage was measured and all crystals show a shift of the cutoff in the transmission spectrum that is not observed when the crystals are irradiated with γ radiation. This shift of the cutoff under proton irradiation seems to be a general property of the heavy crystalline materials. A mechanism for this proton-induced transmission damage is discussed.

  4. Prediction and measurement of radiation damage to CMOS devices on board spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R. A.; Danchenko, V.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Sing, M.; Brucker, G. J.; Ohanian, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The initial results obtained from the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors Radiation Effects Measurement experiment are presented. Predictions of radiation damage to C-MOS devices are based on standard environment models and computational techniques. A comparison of the shifts in CMOS threshold potentials, that is, those measured in space to those obtained from the on the ground simulation experiment with Co 60, indicated that the measured space damage is greater than predicted by a factor of two for shields thicker than 100 mils (2.54 mm), but agrees well with predictions for the thinner shields.

  5. Amelioration of radiation-induced liver damage in partially hepatectomized rats by hepatocyte transplantation.

    PubMed

    Guha, C; Sharma, A; Gupta, S; Alfieri, A; Gorla, G R; Gagandeep, S; Sokhi, R; Roy-Chowdhury, N; Tanaka, K E; Vikram, B; Roy-Chowdhury, J

    1999-12-01

    Hepatic tumors often recur in the liver after surgical resection. Postoperative radiotherapy (RT) could improve survival, but curative RT may induce delayed life-threatening radiation-induced liver damage. Because RT inhibits liver regeneration, we hypothesized that unirradiated, transplanted hepatocytes would proliferate preferentially in a partially resected and irradiated liver, providing metabolic support. We subjected F344 rats to hepatic RT and partial hepatectomy with/without a single intrasplenic, syngeneic hepatocyte transplantation. Hepatocyte transplantation ameliorated radiation-induced liver damage and improved survival of rats receiving RT after partial hepatectomy. We further demonstrated that transplanted hepatocytes extensively repopulate and function in a heavily irradiated rat liver. PMID:10606225

  6. Reference data file for neutron spectrum adjustment and related radiation damage calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zsolnay, E.M. ); Nolthenius, H.J.; Greenwood, L.R.; Szondi, E.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The REAL-88 interlaboratory exercise organized by IAEA resulted in a neutron metrology file. (NMF-90) comprising problem dependent data for benchmark neutron fields, furthermore, nuclear data and computer programs for neutron spectrum adjustment and radiation damage parameter calculations for the service life assessment of nuclear facilities. Calculation results of some experienced laboratories are also present. This paper describes and analyses the content of the neutron metrology file and outlines the most important problems and tasks to be solved in the field of radiation damage parameter calculations. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats?

    PubMed

    Akdag, Mehmet Zulkuf; Dasdag, Suleyman; Canturk, Fazile; Karabulut, Derya; Caner, Yusuf; Adalier, Nur

    2016-09-01

    Wireless internet (Wi-Fi) providers have become essential in our daily lives, as wireless technology is evolving at a dizzying pace. Although there are different frequency generators, one of the most commonly used Wi-Fi devices are 2.4GHz frequency generators. These devices are heavily used in all areas of life but the effect of radiofrequency (RF) radiation emission on users is generally ignored. Yet, an increasing share of the public expresses concern on this issue. Therefore, this study intends to respond to the growing public concern. The purpose of this study is to reveal whether long term exposure of 2.4GHz frequency RF radiation will cause DNA damage of different tissues such as brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissue and testicular tissues of rats. The study was conducted on 16 adult male Wistar-Albino rats. The rats in the experimental group (n=8) were exposed to 2.4GHz frequency radiation for over a year. The rats in the sham control group (n=8) were subjected to the same experimental conditions except the Wi-Fi generator was turned off. After the exposure period was complete the possible DNA damage on the rat's brain, liver, kidney, skin, and testicular tissues was detected through the single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet) method. The amount of DNA damage was measured as percentage tail DNA value. Based on the DNA damage results determined by the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) method, it was found that the% tail DNA values of the brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissues of the rats in the experimental group increased more than those in the control group. The increase of the DNA damage in all tissues was not significant (p>0.05). However the increase of the DNA damage in rat testes tissue was significant (p<0.01). In conclusion, long-term exposure to 2.4GHz RF radiation (Wi-Fi) does not cause DNA damage of the organs investigated in this study except testes. The results of this study indicated that testes are more sensitive organ to RF

  8. Base excision repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage in G1 and G2 cell cycle phases

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, M Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Background Major genomic surveillance mechanisms regulated in response to DNA damage exist at the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints. It is presumed that these delays provide time for the repair of damaged DNA. Cells have developed multiple DNA repair pathways to protect themselves from different types of DNA damage. Oxidative DNA damage is processed by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Little is known about the BER of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and putative heterogeneity of BER in the cell cycle context. We measured the activities of three BER enzymes throughout the cell cycle to investigate the cell cycle-specific repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. We further examined BER activities in G2 arrested human cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. Results Using an in vitro incision assay involving radiolabeled oligonucleotides with specific DNA lesions, we examined the activities of several BER enzymes in the whole cell extracts prepared from synchronized human HeLa cells irradiated in G1 and G2 phase of the cell cycle. The activities of human endonuclease III (hNTH1), a glycosylase/lyase that removes several damaged bases from DNA including dihydrouracil (DHU), 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) that recognizes 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG) lesion and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (hAPE1) that acts on abasic sites including synthetic analog furan were examined. Conclusion Overall the repair activities of hNTH1 and hAPE1 were higher in the G1 compared to G2 phase of the cell cycle. The percent cleavages of oligonucleotide substrate with furan were greater than substrate with DHU in both G1 and G2 phases. The irradiation of cells enhanced the cleavage of substrates with furan and DHU only in G1 phase. The activity of hOGG1 was much lower and did not vary within the cell cycle. These results demonstrate the cell cycle phase dependence on the BER of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. Interestingly no evidence of

  9. Radiation damage in silicon due to albedo neutrons emitted from hadronic beam dumps (Fe and U)

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations have been carried out to determine the level of radiation damage that can be expected from albedo neutrons when 1- and 5-GeV negative pions are incident on iron and uranium beam dumps. The calculated damage data are presented in several ways including neutron fluence above 0.111 MeV, 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence, damage energy deposition, and DPA or displacements per atom. Details are presented as to the method of calculation. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Radiation damage in high voltage silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Brandhorst, H., Jr.; Swartz, C. K.; Weizer, V. G.

    1980-01-01

    Three high open-circuit voltage cell designs based on 0.1 ohm-cm p-type silicon were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and their performance determined to fluences as high as 10 to the 15th power/sq cm. Of the three cell designs, radiation induced degradation was greatest in the high-low emitter (HLE cell). The diffused and ion implanted cells degraded approximately equally but less than the HLE cell. Degradation was greatest in an HLE cell exposed to X-rays before electron irradiation. The cell regions controlling both short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage degradation were defined in all three cell types. An increase in front surface recombination velocity accompanied time dependent degradation of an HLE cell after X-irradiation. It was speculated that this was indirectly due to a decrease in positive charge at the silicon-oxide interface. Modifications aimed at reducing radiation induced degradation are proposed for all three cell types.

  11. Depletion layer recombination effects on the radiation damage hardness of gallium arsenide cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garlick, G. F. J.

    1985-01-01

    The significant effect of junction depletion layer recombination on the efficiency of windowed GaAs cells was demonstrated. The effect becomes more pronounced as radiation damage occurs. The depletion is considered for 1 MeV electron fluences up to 10 to the 16th power e/sq m. The cell modeling separates damage in emitter and base or buffer layers using different damage coefficients is reported. The lower coefficient for the emitter predicts less loss of performance at fluences greater than 10 to the 15th power e/sq cm. A method for obtaining information on junction recombination effects as damage proceeds is described; this enables a more complete diagnosis of damage to be made.

  12. Protection from radiation-induced damage to spermatogenesis by hormone treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kurdoglu, B.; Wilson, G.; Parchuri, N.; Ye, W.; Meistrich, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    Infertility caused by killing of the spermatogonial stem cells occurs frequently in men treated for cancer with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We investigated whether pretreatment of rats with testosterone plus estradiol, which reversibly inhibits the completion of spermatogenesis and protects spermatogonial stem cells from procarbazine-induced damage, would also protect these cells from radiation. Adult male LBNF rats were implanted for 6 weeks with capsules containing testosterone and estradiol and then irradiated with doses from 2.5-7.0 Gy. Controls were irradiated with 1.8-3.5 Gy. Implants were removed 1 day after irradiation, and all animals were killed 10 weeks later for assessment of stem cell survival by counting repopulating tubules in histological sections and by sperm head counts. At doses of 2.5 and 3.5 Gy the repopulation indices and sperm head counts were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the rats treated with testosterone and estradiol than in the controls. Protection factors calculated from the dose-response curves were in the range of 1.5-2.2. Elucidation of the mechanism of protection is essential to apply it to clinical situations. The fact that the spermatogonia are protected against radiation as well as procarbazine indicates that the mechanism does not involve drug delivery or metabolism. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Advances in Computational Radiation Biophysics for Cancer Therapy: Simulating Nano-Scale Damage by Low-Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncic, Zdenka

    Computational radiation biophysics is a rapidly growing area that is contributing, alongside new hardware technologies, to ongoing developments in cancer imaging and therapy. Recent advances in theoretical and computational modeling have enabled the simulation of discrete, event-by-event interactions of very low energy (≪ 100 eV) electrons with water in its liquid thermodynamic phase. This represents a significant advance in our ability to investigate the initial stages of radiation induced biological damage at the molecular level. Such studies are important for the development of novel cancer treatment strategies, an example of which is given by microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). Here, new results are shown demonstrating that when excitations and ionizations are resolved down to nano-scales, their distribution extends well outside the primary microbeam path, into regions that are not directly irradiated. This suggests that radiation dose alone is insufficient to fully quantify biological damage. These results also suggest that the radiation cross-fire may be an important clue to understanding the different observed responses of healthy cells and tumor cells to MRT.

  14. Advances in Computational Radiation Biophysics for Cancer Therapy: Simulating Nano-Scale Damage by Low-Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncic, Zdenka

    2015-10-01

    Computational radiation biophysics is a rapidly growing area that is contributing, alongside new hardware technologies, to ongoing developments in cancer imaging and therapy. Recent advances in theoretical and computational modeling have enabled the simulation of discrete, event-by-event interactions of very low energy (≪ 100 eV) electrons with water in its liquid thermodynamic phase. This represents a significant advance in our ability to investigate the initial stages of radiation induced biological damage at the molecular level. Such studies are important for the development of novel cancer treatment strategies, an example of which is given by microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). Here, new results are shown demonstrating that when excitations and ionizations are resolved down to nano-scales, their distribution extends well outside the primary microbeam path, into regions that are not directly irradiated. This suggests that radiation dose alone is insufficient to fully quantify biological damage. These results also suggest that the radiation cross-fire may be an important clue to understanding the different observed responses of healthy cells and tumor cells to MRT.

  15. Radiation-induced DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness of 18F-FDG in wild-type mice

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Taylor, Kristina; Lemon, Jennifer A.; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-05-28

    Clinically, the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer is the glucose analog 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG), however little research has been conducted on the biological effects of 18F-FDG injections. The induction and repair of DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of radiation from 18F-FDG relative to 662 keV γ-rays were investigated. The study also assessed whether low-dose radiation exposure from 18F-FDG was capable of inducing an adaptive response. DNA damage to the bone marrow erythroblast population was measured using micronucleus formation and lymphocyte γH2A.X levels. To test the RBE of 18F-FDG, mice were injected with a rangemore » of activities of 18F-FDG (0–14.80 MBq) or irradiated with Cs-137 γ-rays (0–100 mGy). The adaptive response was investigated 24 h after the 18F-FDG injection by 1 Gy in vivo challenge doses for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) formation or 1, 2 and 4 Gy in vitro challenges doses for γH2A.X formation. A significant increase in MN-RET formation above controls occurred following injection activities of 3.70, 7.40 or 14.80 MBq (P < 0.001) which correspond to bone marrow doses of ~35, 75 and 150 mGy, respectively. Per unit dose, the Cs-137 radiation exposure induced significantly more damage than the 18F-FDG injections (RBE = 0.79 ± 0.04). A 20% reduction in γH2A.X fluorescence was observed in mice injected with a prior adapting low dose of 14.80 MBq 18F-FDG relative to controls (P < 0.019). A 0.74 MBq 18F-FDG injection, which gives mice a dose approximately equal to a typical human PET scan, did not cause a significant increase in DNA damage nor did it generate an adaptive response. Typical 18F-FDG injection activities used in small animal imaging (14.80 MBq) resulted in a decrease in DNA damage, as measured by γH2A.X formation, below spontaneous levels observed in control mice. Lastly, the 18F-FDG RBE was <1.0, indicating that the mixed radiation quality

  16. Modeling and Laboratory Investigations of Radiative Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, Jacob; Laming, J. Martin; Manka, Charles; Moore, Christopher; Jones, Ted; Tam, Daniel

    2001-10-01

    Supernova remnants are often inhomogeneous, with knots or clumps of material expanding in ambient plasma. This structure may be initiated by hydrodynamic instabilities occurring during the explosion, but it may plausibly be amplified by instabilities of the expanding shocks such as, for example, corrugation instabilities described by D’yakov in 1954, Vishniac in 1983, and observed in the laboratory by Grun et al. in 1991. Shock instability can occur when radiation lowers the effective adiabatic index of the gas. In view of the difficulty of modeling radiation in non-equilibrium plasmas, and the dependence of shock instabilities on such radiation, we are performing a laboratory experiment to study radiative shocks. The shocks are generated in a miniature, laser-driven shock tube. The gas density inside the tube at any instant in time is measured using time and space-resolved interferometry, and the emission spectrum of the gas is measured with time-resolved spectroscopy. We simulate the experiment with a 1D code that models time dependent post-shock ionization and non-equilibrium radiative cooling. S. P. D’yakov, Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoi Teoreticheskoi Fiziki 27, 288 (1954); see also section 90 in L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Butterworth-Heinemann 1987); E.T. Vishniac, Astrophys. J. 236, 880 (1983); J. Grun, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 66, 2738 (1991)

  17. Effects of ion beams pretreatment on damage of UV-B radiation on seedlings of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuaipeng; Huang, Qunce; Yang, Pengming; Zhang, Jiajia; Jia, Hongru; Jiao, Zhen

    2012-12-01

    The seeds of winter wheat were pretreated with three different doses of low-energy N(+) beams, and its seedlings were subjected to UV-B irradiation (10.08 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) at three-leaves stage. The growth characteristic of seeds, the oxidative damage to membrane system induced by UV-B radiation, and the alleviating effects of N(+) beams pretreatment to radiation damage were investigated. The results showed that the germination rate and seedling rate, respectively, increased 14.09 ± 1.03 and 13.91 ± 1.21 % compared with control (CK) at the dose of 4.0 × 10(16) ions/cm(2). When seedlings were exposed to UV-B radiation, the pretreatment method under the dose of 4.0 × 10(16) ions/cm(2) made the activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increasing, the content of chlorophyll enhancing, but the content of malondialdehyde reducing significantly compared with that of the single UV-B radiation. Whereas, the activity of catalase irradiated by UV-B improved notably under the pretreatment dose of 8.0 × 10(16) ions/cm(2). In addition, after being irradiated with UV-B, the content of soluble protein and glutathione whose seeds were pretreated by the dose of 6.0 × 10(16) ions/cm(2) were higher than that of the single UV-B radiation. It was suggested that the suitable dose of low-energy ion beams pretreatment to wheat seeds could change its physiological characteristics at seedlings stage to alleviate the damage effects from UV-B radiation. PMID:23054823

  18. Ion-counting nanodosimetry: a new method for assessing radiation damage to DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchemelinin, S.; Garty, G.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Schulte, R. W. M.

    2002-01-01

    A novel nanodosimeter is described, based on ion counting. It provides precise model-evaluation of radiation-induced ionization patterns in small condensed-matter volumes of nanometric size. The nanodosimeter consists of a millimetric, low-pressure, wall-less gas cell, serving as an expanded model of a nanometric condensed-matter volume. The method can also be employed for the assessment of radiation damage to advanced nanoelectronics.

  19. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu; Boyer, Arthur; Liu, Fei

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  20. Optimization of radiation damage to proteins using X-ray nanofocusing optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boularaoui, Selwa; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Lee, S.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2013-03-01

    The need to understand protein structure and perform treatment lead to the use of X-ray and particle-based radiation. Since the use of such radiation has undesirable side effects, mostly through the damage to proteins, it is important to continuously work on decreasing radiation damage. We outline the proposal to use the kinoform refractive optics to focus X-rays on the nanoscale to minimize the radiation damage to protein crystals under study. These optics devices are nanofabricated from low-Z elements (silicon, diamond) and can be used at synchrotron X-ray radiation facilities. We discuss the automated setup that performs nanopositioning of the nanofocusing element, and collects the chemical and structural protein solution under study. We offer simple mathematical models in irradiation and in treatment that help optimize the radiation parameters. This work is supported in part by Khalifa University IRF-Level 1 Fund. The work at BNL-NSLS is supported through US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  1. The Flaxseed-Derived Lignan Phenolic Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (SDG) Protects Non-Malignant Lung Cells from Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Velalopoulou, Anastasia; Tyagi, Sonia; Pietrofesa, Ralph A.; Arguiri, Evguenia; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2015-01-01

    Plant phenolic compounds are common dietary antioxidants that possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Flaxseed (FS) has been reported to be radioprotective in murine models of oxidative lung damage. Flaxseed’s protective properties are attributed to its main biphenolic lignan, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). SDG is a free radical scavenger, shown in cell free systems to protect DNA from radiation-induced damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro radioprotective efficacy of SDG in murine lung cells. Protection against irradiation (IR)-induced DNA double and single strand breaks was assessed by γ-H2AX labeling and alkaline comet assay, respectively. The role of SDG in modulating the levels of cytoprotective enzymes was evaluated by qPCR and confirmed by Western blotting. Additionally, effects of SDG on clonogenic survival of irradiated cells were evaluated. SDG protected cells from IR-induced death and ameliorated DNA damage by reducing mean comet tail length and percentage of γ-H2AX positive cells. Importantly, SDG significantly increased gene and protein levels of antioxidant HO-1, GSTM1 and NQO1. Our results identify the potent radioprotective properties of the synthetic biphenolic SDG, preventing DNA damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity of normal lung cells; thus, rendering SDG a potential radioprotector against radiation exposure. PMID:26703588

  2. Radiation Damage and Tritium Breeding Study in a Fusion Reactor Using a Liquid Wall of Various Thorium Molten Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Übeyli, Mustafa

    2007-12-01

    A new magnetic fusion reactor design, called APEX uses a liquid wall between fusion plasma and solid first wall to reach high neutron wall loads and eliminate the replacement of the first wall structure during the reactor's operation due to the radiation damage. In this paper, radiation damage behavior of the inboard and outboard first walls made of a ferritic steel, 9Cr-2WVTa, in the APEX blanket using various thorium molten salts, 75% LiF-25% ThF4, 75% LiF-24% ThF4-1% 233UF4 and 75% LiF-23% ThF4-2% 233UF4 was investigated. Furthermore, tritium breeding potential of these salts in such a blanket was also examined. Computations were carried out using the code Scale 4.3 by solving Boltzmann neutron transport equation. Numerical results brought out that only the liquid wall containing the molten salt, 75% LiF-23% ThF4-2% 233UF4 and having a thickness of ≥38 cm would be suitable to be used in the APEX reactor with respect to radiation damage criteria for the first wall structures and tritium self-sufficiency for the (DT) fusion driver.

  3. Multi-scale simulation of radiation damage accumulation and subsequent hardening in neutron-irradiated α-Fe

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dunn, Aaron; Dingreville, Remi; Capolungo, Laurent

    2015-11-27

    A hierarchical methodology is introduced to predict the effects of radiation damage and irradiation conditions on the yield stress and internal stress heterogeneity developments in polycrystalline α-Fe. Simulations of defect accumulation under displacement cascade damage conditions are performed using spatially resolved stochastic cluster dynamics. The resulting void and dislocation loop concentrations and average sizes are then input into a crystal plasticity formulation that accounts for the change in critical resolved shear stress due to the presence of radiation induced defects. The simulated polycrystalline tensile tests show a good match to experimental hardening data over a wide range of irradiation doses.more » With this capability, stress heterogeneity development and the effect of dose rate on hardening is investigated. The model predicts increased hardening at higher dose rates for low total doses. By contrast, at doses above 10–2 dpa when cascade overlap becomes significant, the model does not predict significantly different hardening for different dose rates. In conclusion, the development of such a model enables simulation of radiation damage accumulation and associated hardening without relying on experimental data as an input under a wide range of irradiation conditions such as dose, dose rate, and temperature.« less

  4. Multi-scale simulation of radiation damage accumulation and subsequent hardening in neutron-irradiated α-Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Aaron; Dingreville, Remi; Capolungo, Laurent

    2015-11-27

    A hierarchical methodology is introduced to predict the effects of radiation damage and irradiation conditions on the yield stress and internal stress heterogeneity developments in polycrystalline α-Fe. Simulations of defect accumulation under displacement cascade damage conditions are performed using spatially resolved stochastic cluster dynamics. The resulting void and dislocation loop concentrations and average sizes are then input into a crystal plasticity formulation that accounts for the change in critical resolved shear stress due to the presence of radiation induced defects. The simulated polycrystalline tensile tests show a good match to experimental hardening data over a wide range of irradiation doses. With this capability, stress heterogeneity development and the effect of dose rate on hardening is investigated. The model predicts increased hardening at higher dose rates for low total doses. By contrast, at doses above 10–2 dpa when cascade overlap becomes significant, the model does not predict significantly different hardening for different dose rates. In conclusion, the development of such a model enables simulation of radiation damage accumulation and associated hardening without relying on experimental data as an input under a wide range of irradiation conditions such as dose, dose rate, and temperature.

  5. Recovery From Radiation-induced Bone Marrow Damage by HSP25 Through Tie2 Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hae-June; Kwon, Hee-Chung; Chung, Hee-Yong; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Whole-body radiation therapy can cause severe injury to the hematopoietic system, and therefore it is necessary to identify a novel strategy for overcoming this injury. Methods and Materials: Mice were irradiated with 4.5 Gy after heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) gene transfer using an adenoviral vector. Then, peripheral blood cell counts, histopathological analysis, and Western blotting on bone marrow (BM) cells were performed. The interaction of HSP25 with Tie2 was investigated with mouse OP9 and human BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells to determine the mechanism of HSP25 in the hematopoietic system. Results: HSP25 transfer increased BM regeneration and reduced apoptosis following whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The decrease in Tie2 protein expression that followed irradiation of the BM was blocked by HSP25 transfer, and Tie2-positive cells were more abundant among the BM cells of HSP25-transferred mice, even after IR exposure. Following systemic RNA interference of Tie2 before IR, HSP25-mediated radioprotective effects were partially blocked in both mice and cell line systems. Stability of Tie2 was increased by HSP25, a response mediated by the interaction of HSP25 with Tie2. IR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 was augmented by HSP25 overexpression; downstream events in the Tie2 signaling pathway, including phosphorylation of AKT and EKR1/2, were also activated. Conclusions: HSP25 protects against radiation-induced BM damage by interacting with and stabilizing Tie2. This may be a novel strategy for HSP25-mediated radioprotection in BM.

  6. Near infrared radiation damage mechanism in the lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderberg, Per G.; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Galichanin, Konstantin; Kronschläger, Martin; Schulmeister, Karl; Yu, Zhaohua

    2015-03-01

    The current data strongly indicates that there is no photochemical effect of in vivo exposure to 1090 nm near IRR radiation within the pupil. Four groups of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally exposed in vivo to 96 W·cm-2 centered inside the pupil for 10, 18, 33 and 60 min, respectively depending on group belonging. This resulted in radiant exposure doses of 57, 103, 198 and 344 kJ·cm-2. Temperature evolution at the limbus during the exposure and difference of intensity of forward light scattering between the exposed and the contralateral not exposed eye was measured at 1 week after exposure. The temperature at the limbus was found to increase exponentially towards an asymptote with an asymptote temperature of around 7 °C and a time constant (1/k) of around 15 s. No increase of light scattering was found despite that the cumulated radiant exposure dose was [80;250] times the threshold for photochemically induced cataract suggested by previous empirical data. It is concluded that at 1090 nm near IRR there is no photochemical effect.

  7. An investigation of the chemical and physical properties of pristine, electrochromically damaged, and photochromically damaged KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) using surface analytical and optical spectroscopic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Quagliano, J.R.; Petrin, R.R.; Trujillo, T.C.; Cockroft, N.J.; Paffett, M.T.; Maggiore, C.J.; Jacco, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    A variety of experimental techniques were employed to study the properties of electrochromically (EC) damaged, photochromically (PC) damaged, and pristine KTiOP0{sub 4} (KTP). Additionally, nonlinear optical calculations were performed to complement the experimental work in an effort to elucidate the respective mechanisms operative in producing EC and PC damage to KTP. Several independent experiments indicate that there is Ti deficiency in the EC damaged material, which is due to migration of these ions to the electrode surface. The laser experiments indicate that UV radiation can produce reversible PC damage. UV-producing SFG processes accidentally occurring in SHG cut KTP may lead to macroscopic damage. It must be emphasized that a fundamentally different mechanism is responsible for EC damaged versus PC damaged KTP.

  8. TEM study of radiation damage and annealing of neutron irradiated zirconolite

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, G.R.; Smith, K.L.; Blake, R.G.

    1996-08-01

    Neutron irradiation was used to simulate alpha-decay damage in zirconolite, resulting in a transformation from the crystalline to the amorphous state at doses of 4--25 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (E {ge} 1 MeV). With increasing dose, the radiation damage microstructures resemble damage caused by: (1) alpha-decay of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in natural zirconolites, (2) alpha-decay of {sup 238}Pu or {sup 244}Cm in synthetic samples, and (3) collision cascades in samples irradiated with heavy ions. Heavily damaged zirconolite recovers to a defect fluorite phase on annealing at temperatures up to 1,000 C. The main stage of structural recovery was found to occur at temperatures of 600--800 C. The microstructures after heating depend on the initial level of damage: zirconolite grains with low to moderate levels of damage anneal to imperfect single crystals, whereas heavily damaged grains recrystallize to a polycrystalline microstructure. Complications encountered in this work include the production of fission tracks (due to trace amounts of U) and a non-uniform distribution of damage at higher dose levels (possibly due to electron beam heating).

  9. Investigation of radiative interactions in chemically reacting supersonic internal flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Chandrasekhar, R.; Thomas, A. M.; Drummond, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses and numerical procedures are presented to investigate the radiative interactions of absorbing-emitting species in chemically reacting supersonic flow in various ducts. Specific attention is directed in investigating the radiative contributions of H2O, OH, and NO under realistic physical and flow conditions. The radiative interactions in reacting flows are investigated by considering the supersonic flow of premixed hydrogen and air in a channel with a compression corner at the lower boundary. The results indicate that radiation can have significant influence on the flowfield and species production depending on the chemistry model employed.

  10. Can radiation damage to protein crystals be reduced using small-molecule compounds?

    PubMed Central

    Kmetko, Jan; Warkentin, Matthew; Englich, Ulrich; Thorne, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have defined a data-collection protocol and a metric that provide a robust measure of global radiation damage to protein crystals. Using this protocol and metric, 19 small-molecule compounds (introduced either by cocrystalliz­ation or soaking) were evaluated for their ability to protect lysozyme crystals from radiation damage. The compounds were selected based upon their ability to interact with radiolytic products (e.g. hydrated electrons, hydrogen, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals) and/or their efficacy in protecting biological molecules from radiation damage in dilute aqueous solutions. At room temperature, 12 compounds had no effect and six had a sensitizing effect on global damage. Only one compound, sodium nitrate, appeared to extend crystal lifetimes, but not in all proteins and only by a factor of two or less. No compound provided protection at T = 100 K. Scavengers are ineffective in protecting protein crystals from global damage because a large fraction of primary X-ray-induced excitations are generated in and/or directly attack the protein and because the ratio of scavenger molecules to protein molecules is too small to provide appreciable competitive protection. The same reactivity that makes some scavengers effective radioprotectors in protein solutions may explain their sensitizing effect in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. A more productive focus for future efforts may be to identify and eliminate sensitizing compounds from crystallization solutions. PMID:21931220

  11. Preparation and characterization of {sup 238}Pu-ceramics for radiation damage experiments

    SciTech Connect

    DM Strachan; RD Scheele; WC Buchmiller; JD Vienna; RL Sell; RJ Elovich

    2000-06-15

    As a result of treaty agreements between Russia and the US, portions of their respective plutonium and nuclear weapons stockpiles have been declared excess. In support of the US Department of Energy's 1998 decision to pursue immobilization of a portion of the remaining Pu in a titanate-based ceramic, the authors prepared nearly 200 radiation-damage test specimens of five Pu- and {sup 238}Pu-ceramics containing 10 mass% Pu to determine the effects of irradiation from the contained Pu and U on the ceramic. The five Pu-ceramics were (1) phase-pure pyrochlore [ideally, Ca(U, Pu)Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}], (2) pyrochlore-rich baseline, (3) pyrochlore-rich baseline with impurities, (4) phase-pure zirconolite [ideally Ca(U, Pu)Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}], and (5) a zirconolite-rich baseline. These ceramics were prepared with either normal weapons-grade Pu, which is predominantly {sup 239}Pu, or {sup 238}Pu. The {sup 238}Pu accelerates the radiation damage relative to the {sup 239}Pu because of its much higher specific activity. The authors were unsuccessful in preparing phase-pure (Pu, U) brannerite, which is the third crystalline phase present in the baseline immobilization form. Since these materials will contain {approximately}10 mass% Pu and about 20 mass% U, radiation damage to the crystalline structure of these materials will occur overtime. As the material becomes damaged from the decay of the Pu and U, it is possible for the material to swell as both the alpha particles and recoiling atoms rupture chemical bonds within the solid. As the material changes density, cracking, perhaps in the form of microcracks, may occur. If cracking occurs in ceramic that has been placed in a repository, the calculated rate of radionuclide release if the can has corroded would increase proportionately to the increase in surface area. To investigate the effects of radiation damage on the five ceramics prepared, the authors are storing the specimens at 20, 125, and 250 C until the {sup 238}Pu specimens

  12. 3D imaging of radiation damage in silicon sensor and spatial mapping of charge collection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubek, M.; Jakubek, J.; Zemlicka, J.; Platkevic, M.; Havranek, V.; Semian, V.

    2013-03-01

    Radiation damage in semiconductor sensors alters the response and degrades the performance of many devices ultimately limiting their stability and lifetime. In semiconductor radiation detectors the homogeneity of charge collection becomes distorted while decreasing the overall detection efficiency. Moreover the damage can significantly increase the detector noise and degrade other electrical properties such as leakage current. In this work we present a novel method for 3D mapping of the semiconductor radiation sensor volume allowing displaying the three dimensional distribution of detector properties such as charge collection efficiency and charge diffusion rate. This technique can visualize the spatially localized changes of local detector performance after radiation damage. Sensors used were 300 μm and 1000 μm thick silicon bump-bonded to a Timepix readout chip which serves as an imaging multichannel microprobe (256 × 256 square pixels with pitch of 55 μm, i.e. all together 65 thousand channels). Per pixel energy sensitivity of the Timepix chip allows to evaluate the local charge collection efficiency and also the charge diffusion rate. In this work we implement an X-ray line scanning technique for systematic evaluation of changes in the performance of a silicon sensor intentionally damaged by energetic protons.

  13. Variable-Temperature Cryostat For Radiation-Damage Testing Of Germanium Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Samuel R.; Puc, Bernard P.

    1992-01-01

    Variable-temperature cryostats developed to study radiation damage to, and annealing of, germanium gamma-ray detectors. Two styles: one accommodates large single detector and one accommodates two medium-sized detectors. New cryostats allow complete testing of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detectors without breaking cryostat vacuum and removing detectors for annealing.

  14. TGF-.beta. antagonists as mitigators of radiation-induced tissue damage

    DOEpatents

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary H.

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating tissue damage caused by radiation is described by use of a TGF-.beta. antagonist, such as an anti-TGF-.beta. antibody or a TGF-.beta. latency associated protein. It is administered not more than a week after exposure, and is particularly useful in mitigating the side effects of breast cancer therapy.

  15. Geraniin down regulates gamma radiation-induced apoptosis by suppressing DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Bing, So Jin; Ha, Danbee; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Eunjin; Ahn, Ginnae; Kim, Dae Seung; Ko, Ryeo Kyeong; Park, Jae Woo; Lee, Nam Ho; Jee, Youngheun

    2013-07-01

    Gamma ray irradiation triggers DNA damage and apoptosis of proliferating stem cells and peripheral immune cells, resulting in the destruction of intestinal crypts and lymphoid system. Geraniin is a natural compound extracts from an aquatic plant Nymphaea tetragona and possesses good antioxidant property. In this study, we demonstrate that geraniin rescues radiosensitive splenocytes and jejunal crypt cells from radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. Isolated splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice treated with geraniin were protected against radiation injury of 2 Gy irradiation through the enhancement of the proliferation and attenuation of DNA damage. Also, geraniin inhibited apoptosis in radiosensitive splenocytes by reducing the expression level and immunoreactivity of proapoptotic p53 and Bax and increasing those of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. In mice exposed to radiation, geraniin treatment protected splenocytes and intestinal crypt cells from radiation-induced cell death. Our results suggest that geraniin presents radioprotective effects by regulating DNA damage on splenocytes, exerting immunostimulatory capacities and inhibiting apoptosis of radiosensitive immune cells and jejunal crypt cells. Therefore, geraniin can be a radioprotective agent against γ-irradiation exposure. PMID:23541438

  16. TGF-{beta} antagonists as mitigators of radiation-induced tissue damage

    DOEpatents

    Barcellos-Hoff, M.H.

    1997-04-01

    A method for treating tissue damage caused by radiation is described by use of a TGF-{beta} antagonist, such as an anti-TGF-{beta} antibody or a TGF-{beta} latency associated protein. It is administered not more than a week after exposure, and is particularly useful in mitigating the side effects of breast cancer therapy.

  17. Measurement of high-voltage and radiation-damage limitations to advanced solar array performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidice, D. A.; Severance, P. S.; Keinhardt, K. C.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the reconfigured Photovoltaic Array Space Power (PASP) Plus experiment: its objectives, solar-array complement, and diagnostic sensors. Results from a successful spaceflight will lead to a better understanding of high-voltage and radiation-damage limitations in the operation of new-technology solar arrays.

  18. A molecular dynamics simulation of DNA damage induction by ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolfath, Ramin M.; Carlson, David J.; Chen, Zhe J.; Nath, Ravinder

    2013-10-01

    We present a multi-scale simulation of the early stage of DNA damages by the indirect action of hydroxyl (•OH) free radicals generated by electrons and protons. The computational method comprises of interfacing the Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo with ReaxFF molecular dynamics software. A clustering method was employed to map the coordinates of •OH-radicals extracted from the ionization-track-structures onto nano-meter simulation voxels filled with DNA and water molecules. The molecular dynamics simulation provides the time-evolution and chemical reactions in individual simulation voxels as well as the energy-landscape accounted for the DNA-•OH chemical reaction that is essential for the first-principle enumeration of hydrogen abstractions, chemical bond breaks, and DNA-lesions induced by collection of ions in clusters less than the critical dimension which is approximately 2-3 Å. We show that the formation of broken bonds leads to DNA-base and backbone damages that collectively propagate to DNA single and double-strand breaks. For illustration of the methodology, we focused on particles with an initial energy of 1 MeV. Our studies reveal a qualitative difference in DNA damage induced by low energy electrons and protons. Electrons mainly generate small pockets of •OH-radicals, randomly dispersed in the cell volume. In contrast, protons generate larger clusters along a straight-line parallel to the direction of the particle. The ratio of the total DNA double-strand breaks induced by a single proton and electron track is determined to be ≈4 in the linear scaling limit. In summary, we have developed a multi-scale computational model based on first-principles to study the interaction of ionizing radiation with DNA molecules. The main advantage of our hybrid Monte Carlo approach using Geant4-DNA and ReaxFF is the multi-scale simulation of the cascade of both physical and chemical events which result in the formation of biological damage. The tool developed in this

  19. Ultraviolet radiation-specific DNA damage and embryonic viability in sea urchins from Kasitsna Bay, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Theodorakis, C.; Anderson, S.; Shugart, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    Ripe ova and sperm were obtained from Green Sea Urchins (Strongvlocentrotus drochbachiensis) collected from Kasitsna Bay, Alaska, and ova were fertilized in vitro. Embryos were immediately placed in plastic bags secured to floating racks deployed in the bay. The bags were suspended just below the surface of the water and at 1 and 2 meter depths for up to 120 hours. Bags were either left uncovered, covered with Mylar plastic (which blocks out UV-B but not UV-A radiations), or covered with dark plastic. The number of damaged DNA sites was determined by digesting the DNA with enzymes isolated from the bacterium Micrococcus luteus which cleave the DNA at damaged sites. It was found that DNA damage was present in a dose-dependent fashion with the amount of damage in embryos from the uncovered bags > Mylar covered bags > dark covered bags. No dimers were detected from embryos at 1 or 2 m. depths. Also, the number of damaged sites varied from day to day. Finally, the number of damaged sites was positively correlated with percent abnormal embryos in each bag. The results are discussed with relation to monitoring UV-B effects and ecological consequences of enhanced UV-B radiation.

  20. Determining the Radiation Damage Effect on Glovebox Glove Material.

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Balkey, J. J.; Andrade, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Material Technology (NMT) Division has the largest inventory of glove box gloves at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The minimization of unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures, is a primary concern in the daily operations in NMT Division facilities, including the Plutonium Facility (PF-4) at TA-55 and Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility. Glovebox gloves in these facilities are exposed to elevated temperatures and exceptionally aggressive radiation environments (particulate {sup 239}Pu and {sup 238}Pu). Predictive models are needed to estimate glovebox glove service lifetimes, i.e. change-out intervals. Towards this aim aging studies have been initiated that correlate changes in mechanical (physical) properties with degradation chemistry. This present work derives glovebox glove change intervals based on previously reported mechanical data of thermally aged hypalon glove samples. Specifications for 30 mil tri-layered hypalon/lead glovebox gloves (TLH) and 15 mil hypalon gloves (HYP) have already been established. The relevant mechanical properties are shown on Table 1. Tensile strength is defined as the maximum load applied in breaking a tensile test piece divided by the original cross-sectional area of the test piece (Also termed maximum stress and ultimate tensile stress). Ultimate elongation is the elongation at time of rupture (Also termed maximum strain). The specification for the tensile test and ultimate elongation are the minimum acceptable values. In addition, the ultimate elongation must not vary 20% from the original value. In order to establish a service lifetimes for glovebox gloves in a thermal environment, the mechanical properties of glovebox glove materials were studied.

  1. Theory of the high base resistivity n(+)pp(+) silicon solar cell and its application to radiation damage effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, C.; Weinberg, I.

    1985-01-01

    Particulate radiation in space is a principal source of silicon solar cell degradation, and an investigation of cell radiation damage at higher base resistivities appears to have implication toward increasing solar cell and, therefore, useful satellite lifetimes in the space environment. However, contrary to expectations, it has been found that for cells with resistivities of 84 and 1250 ohm cm, the radiation resistance decreases as cell base resistivity increases. An analytical solar-cell computer model was developed with the objective to determine the reasons for this unexpected behavior. The present paper has the aim to describe the analytical model and its use in interpreting the behavior, under irradiation, of high-resistivity solar cells. Attention is given to boundary conditions at the space-charge region edges, cell currents, cell voltages, the generation of the theoretical I-V characteristic, experimental results, and computer calculations.

  2. Radiation-damage-induced phasing: a case study using UV irradiation with light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, Daniele; Zubieta, Chloe; Felisaz, Franck; Caserotto, Hugo; Nanao, Max H

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to X-rays, high-intensity visible light or ultraviolet radiation results in alterations to protein structure such as the breakage of disulfide bonds, the loss of electron density at electron-rich centres and the movement of side chains. These specific changes can be exploited in order to obtain phase information. Here, a case study using insulin to illustrate each step of the radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) method is presented. Unlike a traditional X-ray-induced damage step, specific damage is introduced via ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). In contrast to UV lasers, UV-LEDs have the advantages of small size, low cost and relative ease of use. PMID:26960126

  3. Spontaneous perseverative turning in rats with radiation-induced hippocampal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.; Ferguson, J.L.; Nemeth, T.J.; Mulvihill, M.A.; Alderks, C.E. )

    1989-08-01

    This study found a new behavioral correlate of lesions specific to the dentate granule cell layer of the hippocampus: spontaneous perseverative turning. Irradiation of a portion of the neonatal rat cerebral hemispheres produced hypoplasia of the granule cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus while sparing the rest of the brain. Radiation-induced damage to the hippocampal formation caused rats placed in bowls to spontaneously turn in long, slow bouts without reversals. Irradiated subjects also exhibited other behaviors characteristic of hippocampal damage (e.g., perseveration in spontaneous exploration of the arms of a T-maze, retarded acquisition of a passive avoidance task, and increased horizontal locomotion). These data extend previously reported behavioral correlates of fascia dentata lesions and suggest the usefulness of a bout analysis of spontaneous bowl turning as a measure of nondiscrete-trial spontaneous alternation and a sensitive additional indicator of radiation-induced hippocampal damage.

  4. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Angeluts, A A; Esaulkov, M N; Kosareva, O G; Solyankin, P M; Shkurinov, A P; Gapeyev, A B; Pashovkin, T N; Matyunin, S N; Nazarov, M M; Cherkasova, O P

    2014-03-28

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 – 200 μW cm{sup -2} within the frequency range of 0.1 – 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes. (biophotonics)

  5. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluts, A. A.; Gapeyev, A. B.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kosareva, O. G.; Matyunin, S. N.; Nazarov, M. M.; Pashovkin, T. N.; Solyankin, P. M.; Cherkasova, O. P.; Shkurinov, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 - 200 μW cm-2 within the frequency range of 0.1 - 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes.

  6. Can radiation damage to protein crystals be reduced using small-molecule compounds?

    SciTech Connect

    Kmetko, Jan; Warkentin, Matthew; Englich, Ulrich; Thorne, Robert E.

    2011-10-01

    Free-radical scavengers that are known to be effective protectors of proteins in solution are found to increase global radiation damage to protein crystals. Protective mechanisms may become deleterious in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. Recent studies have defined a data-collection protocol and a metric that provide a robust measure of global radiation damage to protein crystals. Using this protocol and metric, 19 small-molecule compounds (introduced either by cocrystallization or soaking) were evaluated for their ability to protect lysozyme crystals from radiation damage. The compounds were selected based upon their ability to interact with radiolytic products (e.g. hydrated electrons, hydrogen, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals) and/or their efficacy in protecting biological molecules from radiation damage in dilute aqueous solutions. At room temperature, 12 compounds had no effect and six had a sensitizing effect on global damage. Only one compound, sodium nitrate, appeared to extend crystal lifetimes, but not in all proteins and only by a factor of two or less. No compound provided protection at T = 100 K. Scavengers are ineffective in protecting protein crystals from global damage because a large fraction of primary X-ray-induced excitations are generated in and/or directly attack the protein and because the ratio of scavenger molecules to protein molecules is too small to provide appreciable competitive protection. The same reactivity that makes some scavengers effective radioprotectors in protein solutions may explain their sensitizing effect in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. A more productive focus for future efforts may be to identify and eliminate sensitizing compounds from crystallization solutions.

  7. Quantitative investigation of the bioeffects associated with terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmink, Gerald J.; Rivest, Benjamin D.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Roth, Caleb L.; Bernhard, Joshua; Roach, William P.

    2010-02-01

    The biological effects associated with Terahertz (THz) radiation are not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the cellular response of human dermal fibroblasts exposed to an optically-pumped molecular gas THz laser (υ = 2.52 THz, irradiance = 84.8 mW/cm2, exposure duration = 5 to 80 minutes). Computational dosimetry was conducted using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling techniques. Empirical dosimetry was conducted using infrared cameras and thermocouples. Cellular viability was assessed 24 h post-exposure using MTT calorimetric assays. Quantitative PCR was performed 4 h post-exposure to evaluate the transcriptional activation of genes involved in protein and DNA damage pathways. Comparable analyses were also performed for hyperthermic and genotoxic positive control samples. For all of the exposure durations tested, we found that greater than 95% of the cells were viable post-exposure. In addition, the exposed cells showed only minor increases (~3.5-fold) in heat shock protein expression. The empirical dosimetric data showed that the temperature of the cells increased by ~3 °C during exposure. This value was consistent with that predicted by the computational models. Interestingly, although the THz-exposed cells exhibited increases in heat shock protein expression, the magnitude of these increases was comparable to those observed in hyperthermic controls. In addition, none of the DNA repair genes tested were up-regulated in the THz-exposed cells, whereas 40-fold increases were observed in the genotoxic control cells. These results suggest that the biological effects imposed by THz radiation appear to be primarily photothermal in nature.

  8. Recovery of Deinococcus radiodurans from radiation damage was enhanced under microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Kikuchi, M; Nagaoka, S; Watanabe, H

    1996-09-01

    Effect of microgravity on recovery of bacterial cells from radiation damage was examined on the IML-2 mission in 1994 using extremely radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. The cells were lyophilized and exposed to 60Co gamma-rays with doses 2 to 12 kGy before the space flight. At the end of the mission, the cells were mixed on board with liquid nutrient medium to allow the cells to start recovery process from the radiation damage. Afterwards the cells were stored at 4 degrees C until landing. The influence of cosmic radiation was negligible, because total absorbed dose of space radiation measured during the mission was less than 2 mGy and this bacterium does not decrease its viability after both gamma-rays and high-LET heavy charged particles irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy. The survival of the cells incubated in space increased significantly compared with the ground controls, suggesting that the recovery of this bacterium from radiation damage was enhanced under microgravity. PMID:11785538

  9. Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Cytogenetic Damage in White, Hispanic and Black Skin Melanocytes: A Risk for Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Amrita; Katdare, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous Melanoma (CM) is a leading cause of cancer deaths, with reports indicating a rising trend in the incidence rate of melanoma among Hispanics in certain U.S. states. The level of melanin pigmentation in the skin is suggested to render photoprotection from the DNA-damaging effects of Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR). UVR-induced DNA damage leads to cytogenetic defects visualized as the formation of micronuclei, multinuclei and polymorphic nuclei in cells, and a hallmark of cancer risk. The causative relationship between Sun exposure and CM is controversial, especially in Hispanics and needs further evaluation. This study was initiated with melanocytes from White, Hispanic and Black neonatal foreskins which were exposed to UVR to assess their susceptibility to UVR-induced modulation of cellular growth, cytogenetic damage, intracellular and released melanin. Our results show that White and Hispanic skin melanocytes with similar levels of constitutive melanin are susceptible to UVR-induced cytogenetic damage, whereas Black skin melanocytes are not. Our data suggest that the risk of developing UVR-induced CM in a skin type is correlated with the level of cutaneous pigmentation and its ethnic background. This study provides a benchmark for further investigation on the damaging effects of UVR as risk for CM in Hispanics. PMID:26287245

  10. Clustered DNA damages induced in isolated DNA and in human cells by low doses of ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, B. M.; Bennett, P. V.; Sidorkina, O.; Laval, J.; Lowenstein, D. I. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Clustered DNA damages-two or more closely spaced damages (strand breaks, abasic sites, or oxidized bases) on opposing strands-are suspects as critical lesions producing lethal and mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation. However, as a result of the lack of methods for measuring damage clusters induced by ionizing radiation in genomic DNA, neither the frequencies of their production by physiological doses of radiation, nor their repairability, nor their biological effects are known. On the basis of methods that we developed for quantitating damages in large DNAs, we have devised and validated a way of measuring ionizing radiation-induced clustered lesions in genomic DNA, including DNA from human cells. DNA is treated with an endonuclease that induces a single-strand cleavage at an oxidized base or abasic site. If there are two closely spaced damages on opposing strands, such cleavage will reduce the size of the DNA on a nondenaturing gel. We show that ionizing radiation does induce clustered DNA damages containing abasic sites, oxidized purines, or oxidized pyrimidines. Further, the frequency of each of these cluster classes is comparable to that of frank double-strand breaks; among all complex damages induced by ionizing radiation, double-strand breaks are only about 20%, with other clustered damage constituting some 80%. We also show that even low doses (0.1-1 Gy) of high linear energy transfer ionizing radiation induce clustered damages in human cells.

  11. Non-randomized mtDNA damage after ionizing radiation via charge transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xinguo; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Rong; He, Yang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Although it is well known that there are mutation hot spots in mtDNA, whether there are damage hot spots remain elusive. In this study, the regional DNA damage of mitochondrial genome after ionizing radiation was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The mtDNA damage level was found to be dose-dependent and regional unequal. The control region was the most susceptible region to oxidative damage. GGG, as an typical hole trap during charge transport, was found to be disproportionally enriched in the control region. A total of 107 vertebrate mitochondrial genomes were then analyzed to testify whether the GGG enrichment in control region was evolutionary conserved. Surprisingly, the triple G enrichment can be observed in most of the homeothermal animals, while the majority of heterothermic animals showed no triple G enrichment. These results indicated that the triple G enrichment in control region was related to the mitochondrial metabolism during evolution.

  12. Image dissector photocathode solar damage test program. [solar radiation shielding using a fast optical lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Image dissector sensors of the same type which will be used in the NASA shuttle star tracker were used in a series of tests directed towards obtaining solar radiation/time damage criteria. Data were evaluated to determine the predicted level of operability of the star tracker if tube damage became a reality. During the test series a technique for reducing the solar damage effect was conceived and verified. The damage concepts are outlined and the test methods and data obtained which were used for verification of the technique's feasibility are presented. The ability to operate an image dissector sensor with the solar image focussed on the photocathode by a fast optical lens under certain conditions is feasible and the elimination of a mechanical protection device is possible.

  13. Radiation damage in front and back illuminated high resistivity silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Goradia, C. P.; Swartz, C. K.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation, in front and back illuminated 84 and 1250 ohm-cm n+pp+ silicon solar cells, was determined and cell performance interpreted using calculated optically injected charge distributions and cell voltage components. The 84 ohm-cm cell degraded less when illuminated from the front or n+ side compared to that when illuminated from the back or p+ side. On the other hand, the 1250 ohm-cm cell degraded less when back illuminated. It is concluded that, in addition to the usual mechanisms leading to decreased collection efficiencies, loss of conductivity modulation is a major cause of radiation damage in high resistivity silicon solar cells. These results suggest that radiation damage to high resistivity n+pp+ cells can be decreased by increasing cell collection efficiency and illuminating the cells from the p+ side.

  14. Prediction and measurement of radiation damage to CMOS devices on board spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R. A.; Danchenko, V.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Sing, M.; Brucker, G. J.; Ohanian, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The CMOS Radiation Effects Measurement (CREM) experiment is presently being flown on the Explorer-55. The purpose of the experiment is to evaluate device performance in the actual space radiation environment and to correlate the respective measurements to on-the-ground laboratory irradiation results. The experiment contains an assembly of C-MOS and P-MOS devices shielded in front by flat slabs of aluminum and by a practically infinite shield in the back. Predictions of radiation damage to C-MOS devices are based on standard environment models and computational techniques. A comparison of the shifts in CMOS threshold potentials, that is, those measured in space to those obtained from the on-the-ground simulation experiment with Co-60, indicates that the measured space damage is smaller than predicted by about a factor of 2-3 for thin shields, but agrees well with predictions for thicker shields.

  15. A simple model of space radiation damage in GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Stith, J. J.; Stock, L. V.

    1983-01-01

    A simple model is derived for the radiation damage of shallow junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells. Reasonable agreement is found between the model and specific experimental studies of radiation effects with electron and proton beams. In particular, the extreme sensitivity of the cell to protons stopping near the cell junction is predicted by the model. The equivalent fluence concept is of questionable validity for monoenergetic proton beams. Angular factors are quite important in establishing the cell sensitivity to incident particle types and energies. A fluence of isotropic incidence 1 MeV electrons (assuming infinite backing) is equivalent to four times the fluence of normal incidence 1 MeV electrons. Spectral factors common to the space radiations are considered, and cover glass thickness required to minimize the initial damage for a typical cell configuration is calculated. Rough equivalence between the geosynchronous environment and an equivalent 1 MeV electron fluence (normal incidence) is established.

  16. An Automated Method to Quantify Radiation Damage in Human Blood Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon K. Livingston, Mark S. Jenkins and Akio A. Awa

    2006-07-10

    Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes is a well established method to assess the absorbed dose in persons exposed to ionizing radiation. Because mature lymphocytes circulate throughout the body, the dose to these cells is believed to represent the average whole body exposure. Cytogenetic methods measure the incidence of structural aberrations in chromosomes as a means to quantify DNA damage which occurs when ionizing radiation interacts with human tissue. Methods to quantify DNA damage at the chromosomal level vary in complexity and tend to be laborious and time consuming. In a mass casualty scenario involving radiological/nuclear materials, the ability to rapidly triage individuals according to radiation dose is critically important. For high-throughput screening for dicentric chromosomes, many of the data collection steps can be optimized with motorized microscopes coupled to automated slide scanning platforms.

  17. The effect of space radiation on the induction of chromosome damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, K.; Wu, H.; Willingham, V.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    To obtain information on the cytogenetic damage caused by space radiation, chromosome exchanges in lymphocytes from crewmembers of long-term Mir missions, and a shorter duration shuttle mission, were examined using fluorescence in situ hybridization. A significant increase in chromosomal aberrations was observed after the long duration flights. The ratio of aberrations identified as complex was higher post-flight for some crewmembers, which is thought to be an indication of exposure to high-LET radiation. Ground-based studies have shown that the frequency of aberrations measured post-flight could be influenced by a mitotic delay in cells damaged by high-LET radiation and this effect could lower biological dose estimates. To counteract this effect, prematurely condensed chromosome (PCC) spreads were collected. Frequencies of aberrations in PCC were compared with those in metaphase spreads.

  18. Laser radiation in the treatment of prosthetic graft stenosis. A preliminary study of prosthesis damage by laser energy

    SciTech Connect

    Seeger, J.M.; Abela, G.S.; Klingman, N.

    1987-09-01

    Transluminal laser recanalization is potentially an important new treatment of anastomotic intimal hyperplasia. However, currently used grafts or sutures may be damaged by laser radiation at power and energy levels required for plaque removal. To investigate this problem, two commonly used grafts (Dacron and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)) and two types of vascular suture (polypropylene and PTFE) were exposed to argon laser radiation in vitro. Dacron and PTFE grafts recovered from amputations were also studied to determine whether graft healing affected graft resistance to laser damage. Power and energy levels required to perforate atherosclerotic superficial femoral arteries were determined for comparison. PTFE grafts were significantly (1.5 to 7 times) more resistant to perforation by laser energy than atherosclerotic arteries under all conditions. In contrast, Dacron grafts perforated at power and energy levels one half to one third of that required for vaporization of atherosclerotic plaque. PTFE sutures remained intact at power and energy levels above the levels that perforated atherosclerotic arteries, whereas polypropylene sutures were destroyed by very low levels of power and energy (0.5 joules at 0.5 watts). Because of the variable levels of power and energy that damage different types of prosthetic grafts and sutures, laser angioplasty should only be investigated clinically as a therapy for anastomotic intimal hyperplasia when PTFE grafts and sutures are present.

  19. Radiation induced apoptosis and initial DNA damage are inversely related in locally advanced breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background DNA-damage assays, quantifying the initial number of DNA double-strand breaks induced by radiation, have been proposed as a predictive test for radiation-induced toxicity. Determination of radiation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes by flow cytometry analysis has also been proposed as an approach for predicting normal tissue responses following radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between initial DNA damage, estimated by the number of double-strand breaks induced by a given radiation dose, and the radio-induced apoptosis rates observed. Methods Peripheral blood lymphocytes were taken from 26 consecutive patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was quantified as the initial number of DNA double-strand breaks induced per Gy and per DNA unit (200 Mbp). Radio-induced apoptosis at 1, 2 and 8 Gy was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide. Results Radiation-induced apoptosis increased in order to radiation dose and data fitted to a semi logarithmic mathematical model. A positive correlation was found among radio-induced apoptosis values at different radiation doses: 1, 2 and 8 Gy (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Mean DSB/Gy/DNA unit obtained was 1.70 ± 0.83 (range 0.63-4.08; median, 1.46). A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between initial damage to DNA and radio-induced apoptosis at 1 Gy (p = 0.034). A trend toward 2 Gy (p = 0.057) and 8 Gy (p = 0.067) was observed after 24 hours of incubation. Conclusions An inverse association was observed for the first time between these variables, both considered as predictive factors to radiation toxicity. PMID:20868468

  20. Investigation of time series representations and similarity measures for structural damage pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjia; Chen, Bo; Swartz, R Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the time series representation methods and similarity measures for sensor data feature extraction and structural damage pattern recognition. Both model-based time series representation and dimensionality reduction methods are studied to compare the effectiveness of feature extraction for damage pattern recognition. The evaluation of feature extraction methods is performed by examining the separation of feature vectors among different damage patterns and the pattern recognition success rate. In addition, the impact of similarity measures on the pattern recognition success rate and the metrics for damage localization are also investigated. The test data used in this study are from the System Identification to Monitor Civil Engineering Structures (SIMCES) Z24 Bridge damage detection tests, a rigorous instrumentation campaign that recorded the dynamic performance of a concrete box-girder bridge under progressively increasing damage scenarios. A number of progressive damage test case datasets and damage test data with different damage modalities are used. The simulation results show that both time series representation methods and similarity measures have significant impact on the pattern recognition success rate. PMID:24191136

  1. Investigation of Time Series Representations and Similarity Measures for Structural Damage Pattern Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, R. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the time series representation methods and similarity measures for sensor data feature extraction and structural damage pattern recognition. Both model-based time series representation and dimensionality reduction methods are studied to compare the effectiveness of feature extraction for damage pattern recognition. The evaluation of feature extraction methods is performed by examining the separation of feature vectors among different damage patterns and the pattern recognition success rate. In addition, the impact of similarity measures on the pattern recognition success rate and the metrics for damage localization are also investigated. The test data used in this study are from the System Identification to Monitor Civil Engineering Structures (SIMCES) Z24 Bridge damage detection tests, a rigorous instrumentation campaign that recorded the dynamic performance of a concrete box-girder bridge under progressively increasing damage scenarios. A number of progressive damage test case datasets and damage test data with different damage modalities are used. The simulation results show that both time series representation methods and similarity measures have significant impact on the pattern recognition success rate. PMID:24191136

  2. Fucodiphlorethol G Purified from Ecklonia cava Suppresses Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Cellular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Cheon; Piao, Mei Jing; Zheng, Jian; Yao, Cheng Wen; Cha, Ji Won; Kumara, Madduma Hewage Susara Ruwan; Han, Xia; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2014-01-01

    Fucodiphlorethol G (6’-[2,4-dihydroxy-6-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenoxy)phenoxy]biphenyl-2,2’,4,4’,6-pentol) is a compound purified from Ecklonia cava, a brown alga that is widely distributed offshore of Jeju Island. This study investigated the protective effects of fucodiphlorethol G against oxidative damage-mediated apoptosis induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Fucodiphlorethol G attenuated the generation of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and intracellular reactive oxygen species in response to UVB irradiation. Fucodiphlorethol G suppressed the inhibition of human keratinocyte growth by UVB irradiation. Additionally, the wavelength of light absorbed by fucodiphlorethol G was close to the UVB spectrum. Fucodiphlorethol G reduced UVB radiation-induced 8-isoprostane generation and DNA fragmentation in human keratinocytes. Moreover, fucodiphlorethol G reduced UVB radiation-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of apoptotic cells, and active caspase-9 expression. Taken together, fucodiphlorethol G protected human keratinocytes against UVB radiation-induced cell damage and apoptosis by absorbing UVB radiation and scavenging reactive oxygen species. PMID:25143808

  3. Fucodiphlorethol G Purified from Ecklonia cava Suppresses Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Cellular Damage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Cheon; Piao, Mei Jing; Zheng, Jian; Yao, Cheng Wen; Cha, Ji Won; Kumara, Madduma Hewage Susara Ruwan; Han, Xia; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2014-07-01

    Fucodiphlorethol G (6'-[2,4-dihydroxy-6-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenoxy)phenoxy]biphenyl-2,2',4,4',6-pentol) is a compound purified from Ecklonia cava, a brown alga that is widely distributed offshore of Jeju Island. This study investigated the protective effects of fucodiphlorethol G against oxidative damage-mediated apoptosis induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Fucodiphlorethol G attenuated the generation of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and intracellular reactive oxygen species in response to UVB irradiation. Fucodiphlorethol G suppressed the inhibition of human keratinocyte growth by UVB irradiation. Additionally, the wavelength of light absorbed by fucodiphlorethol G was close to the UVB spectrum. Fucodiphlorethol G reduced UVB radiation-induced 8-isoprostane generation and DNA fragmentation in human keratinocytes. Moreover, fucodiphlorethol G reduced UVB radiation-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of apoptotic cells, and active caspase-9 expression. Taken together, fucodiphlorethol G protected human keratinocytes against UVB radiation-induced cell damage and apoptosis by absorbing UVB radiation and scavenging reactive oxygen species. PMID:25143808

  4. Magnetic Properties of Radiation Damage in Pu and Pu Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, S; Fluss, M J; Chung, B; Chapline, G; McElfresh, M; Jackson, D; Baclet, N; Jolly, L; Dormeval, M

    2005-03-31

    Among the many exceptional properties of Pu is its apparent lack of either local moments or cooperative magnetism. Lashley et al., have recently noted that little experimental evidence for the existence of local moments or collective magnetism has been found in over 50 years. Nevertheless the search for local moments in Pu and Pu-alloys continues, why? Plutonium's physical properties: resistance, magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity, all support a system with an enhanced electron density of states. Pu sits on the edge of both magnetism and superconductivity and possesses one of the highest elemental Pauli susceptibilities, consistent with a highly correlated electron system. The low-density {delta}-Pu has eluded full first principles description and is both a challenge and an area of active investigation for theorists. The complex changes associated with the transition between the light and heavy actinides happen within the phase diagram of Pu, thus making Pu an intriguing and challenging solid-state system for continuing experimental and theoretical investigation. Recently, Griveau et al., observed the variations in the resistance and superconducting properties of Am metal as a function of pressure to 27GPa and T>0.4K. They postulate that the interesting features in the superconducting critical temperature, T{sub c}, vs. pressure, indicate a Mott-like, f-electron localization-delocalization transition as pressure drives Am towards a Pu and then a U-like structure. Hence, we posit that it would be reasonable to expect that dilating the Pu lattice will bring one to a similar transition. Experimental evidence supporting this point of view is given here.

  5. Reduction of arsenite-enhanced ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage by supplemental zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Karen L.; King, Brenee S.; Sandoval, Monica M.; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G.

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen and there is evidence that arsenic augments the carcinogenicity of DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) thereby acting as a co-carcinogen. Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism to account for the co-carcinogenic actions of arsenic. We and others find that arsenite interferes with the function of certain zinc finger DNA repair proteins. Furthermore, we reported that zinc reverses the effects of arsenite in cultured cells and a DNA repair target protein, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. In order to determine whether zinc ameliorates the effects of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and in an in vivo model, normal human epidermal keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to arsenite, zinc or both before solar-simulated (ss) UVR exposure. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, DNA damage and mutation frequencies at the Hprt locus were measured in each treatment group in normal human keratinocytes. DNA damage was assessed in vivo by immunohistochemical staining of skin sections isolated from SKH-1 hairless mice. Cell-based findings demonstrate that ssUVR-induced DNA damage and mutagenesis are enhanced by arsenite, and supplemental zinc partially reverses the arsenite effect. In vivo studies confirm that zinc supplementation decreases arsenite-enhanced DNA damage in response to ssUVR exposure. From these data we can conclude that zinc offsets the impact of arsenic on ssUVR-stimulated DNA damage in cells and in vivo suggesting that zinc supplementation may provide a strategy to improve DNA repair capacity in arsenic exposed human populations. - Highlights: • Low levels of arsenite enhance UV-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes. • UV-initiated HPRT mutation frequency is enhanced by arsenite. • Zinc supplementation offsets DNA damage and mutation frequency enhanced by arsenite. • Zinc-dependent reduction of arsenite enhanced DNA damage is confirmed in vivo.

  6. Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, N. R.; Macrander, A. T.; Hill, K. W.; Baronova, E. O.; George, K. M.; Kotick, J.

    2015-10-01

    The quality of x-ray spectra and images obtained from plasmas with spherically bent crystals depends in part on the crystal's x-ray diffraction across the entire crystal surface. We employ the energy selectivity and high intensity of synchrotron radiation to examine typical spherical crystals from alpha-quartz for their diffraction quality, in a perpendicular geometry that is particularly convenient to examine sagittal focusing. The crystal's local diffraction is not ideal: the most noticeable problems come from isolated regions that so far have failed to correlate with visible imperfections. Excluding diffraction from such problem spots has little effect on the focus beyond a decrease in background.

  7. Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, N R; Macrander, A T; Hill, K W; Baronova, E O; George, K M; Kotick, J

    2015-10-01

    The quality of x-ray spectra and images obtained from plasmas with spherically bent crystals depends in part on the crystal's x-ray diffraction across the entire crystal surface. We employ the energy selectivity and high intensity of synchrotron radiation to examine typical spherical crystals from alpha-quartz for their diffraction quality, in a perpendicular geometry that is particularly convenient to examine sagittal focusing. The crystal's local diffraction is not ideal: the most noticeable problems come from isolated regions that so far have failed to correlate with visible imperfections. Excluding diffraction from such problem spots has little effect on the focus beyond a decrease in background. PMID:26520963

  8. Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, N. R.; Macrander, A. T.; Hill, K. W.; Baronova, E. O.; George, K. M.; Kotick, J.

    2015-10-15

    The quality of x-ray spectra and images obtained from plasmas with spherically bent crystals depends in part on the crystal’s x-ray diffraction across the entire crystal surface. We employ the energy selectivity and high intensity of synchrotron radiation to examine typical spherical crystals from alpha-quartz for their diffraction quality, in a perpendicular geometry that is particularly convenient to examine sagittal focusing. The crystal’s local diffraction is not ideal: the most noticeable problems come from isolated regions that so far have failed to correlate with visible imperfections. Excluding diffraction from such problem spots has little effect on the focus beyond a decrease in background.

  9. New Modeling Approaches to Investigate Cell Signaling in Radiation Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ponomarev, Artem L.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation damages individual cells and tissues leading to harmful biological effects. Among many radiation-induced lesions, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are considered the key precursors of most early and late effects [1] leading to direct mutation or aberrant signal transduction processes. In response to damage, a flow of information is communicated to cells not directly hit by the radiation through signal transduction pathways [2]. Non-targeted effects (NTE), which includes bystander effects and genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells and tissues, may be particularly important for space radiation risk assessment [1], because astronauts are exposed to a low fluence of heavy ions and only a small fraction of cells are traversed by an ion. NTE may also have important consequences clinical radiotherapy [3]. In the recent years, new simulation tools and modeling approaches have become available to study the tissue response to radiation. The simulation of signal transduction pathways require many elements such as detailed track structure calculations, a tissue or cell culture model, knowledge of biochemical pathways and Brownian Dynamics (BD) propagators of the signaling molecules in their micro-environment. Recently, the Monte-Carlo simulation code of radiation track structure RITRACKS was used for micro and nano-dosimetry calculations [4]. RITRACKS will be used to calculate the fraction of cells traversed by an ion and delta-rays and the energy deposited in cells in a tissue model. RITRACKS also simulates the formation of chemical species by the radiolysis of water [5], notably the .OH radical. This molecule is implicated in DNA damage and in the activation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF), a signaling molecule involved in NTE. BD algorithms for a particle near a membrane comprising receptors were also developed and will be used to simulate trajectories of signaling molecules in the micro-environment and characterize autocrine

  10. Radiation damage and nanocrystal formation in uranium-niobium titanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, J.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, L. M.; Ewing, R. C.

    2001-07-01

    Two uranium-niobium titanates, U 2.25Nb 1.90Ti 0.32O 9.8 and Nb 2.75U 1.20Ti 0.36O 10, formed during the synthesis of brannnerite (UTi 2O 6), a minor phase in titanate-based ceramics investigated for plutonium immobilization. These uranium titanates were subjected to 800 keV Kr 2+ irradiation from 30 to 973 K. The critical amorphization dose of the U-rich and Nb-rich titanates at room temperature were 4.72×10 17 and 5×10 17 ions/ m2, respectively. At elevated temperature, the critical amorphization dose increases due to dynamic thermal annealing. The critical amorphization temperature for both Nb-rich and U-rich titanates is ˜933 K under a 800 keV Kr 2+ irradiation. Above the critical amorphization temperature, nanocrystals with an average size of ˜15 nm were observed. The formation of nanocrystals is due to epitaxial recrystallization. At higher temperatures, an ion irradiation-induced nucleation-growth mechanism also contributes to the formation of nanocrystals.

  11. Hydrogen decoration of radiation damage induced defect structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kirnstötter, S.; Faccinelli, M.; Hadley, P.; Schustereder, W.; Laven, J. G.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2014-02-21

    The defect complexes that are formed when protons with energies in the MeV-range were implanted into high-purity silicon were investigated. After implantation, the samples were annealed at 400 °C or 450 °C for times ranging between 15 minutes and 30 hours. The resistivity of the samples was then analyzed by Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP). The resistivity shows minima where there is a high carrier concentration and it is possible to extract the carrier concentration from the resistivity data. Initially, there is a large peak in the carrier concentration at the implantation depth where most of the hydrogen is concentrated. For longer anneals, this peak widens as the hydrogen diffuses away from the implantation depth. Following the changes in resistivity as a function of annealing time allows us to characterize the diffusion of hydrogen through these samples. Differences in the diffusion were observed depending on whether the silicon was grown by the magnetic Czochralski (m:Cz) method or the Float zone (Fz) method.

  12. Silencing of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase sensitizes lung cancer cells to radiation through the abrogation of DNA damage checkpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Nakadate, Yusuke; Kodera, Yasuo; Kitamura, Yuka; Tachibana, Taro; Tamura, Tomohide; Koizumi, Fumiaki

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •Radiosensitization by PARG silencing was observed in multiple lung cancer cells. •PAR accumulation was enhanced by PARG silencing after DNA damage. •Radiation-induced G2/M arrest and checkpoint activation were impaired by PARG siRNA. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is a major enzyme that plays a role in the degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARG deficiency reportedly sensitizes cells to the effects of radiation. In lung cancer, however, it has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether PARG siRNA contributes to an increased radiosensitivity using 8 lung cancer cell lines. Among them, the silencing of PARG induced a radiosensitizing effect in 5 cell lines. Radiation-induced G2/M arrest was largely suppressed by PARG siRNA in PC-14 and A427 cells, which exhibited significantly enhanced radiosensitivity in response to PARG knockdown. On the other hand, a similar effect was not observed in H520 cells, which did not exhibit a radiosensitizing effect. Consistent with a cell cycle analysis, radiation-induced checkpoint signals were not well activated in the PC-14 and A427 cells when treated with PARG siRNA. These results suggest that the increased sensitivity to radiation induced by PARG knockdown occurs through the abrogation of radiation-induced G2/M arrest and checkpoint activation in lung cancer cells. Our findings indicate that PARG could be a potential target for lung cancer treatments when used in combination with radiotherapy.

  13. Asymmetry of radiation damage properties in Al-Ti nanolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Gerboth, Matthew D.; Yao, Bo; Henager, Charles H.; Devaraj, Arun; Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Shutthanandan, V.

    2014-02-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed with empirical potentials to study the effects of multilayer interfaces and interface spacing in Al-Ti nanolayers. Several model interfaces derived from stacking of close-packed layers or face-centered cubic \\{100\\} layers were investigated. The simulations reveal significant and important asymmetries in defect production with $\\sim$60\\% of vacancies created in Al layers compared to Ti layers within the Al-Ti multilayer system. The asymmetry in the creation of interstitials is even more pronounced. The asymmetries cause an imbalance in the ratio of vacancies and interstitials in films of dissimilar materials leading to $>$90\\% of the surviving interstitials located in the Al layers. While in the close-packed nanolayers the interstitials migrate to the atomic layers adjacent to the interface of the Al layers, in the \\{100\\} nanolayers the interstitials migrate to the center of the Al layers and away from the interfaces. The degree of asymmetry and defect ratio imbalance increases as the layer spacing decreases in the multilayer films. Underlying physical processes are discussed including the interfacial strain fields and the individual elemental layer stopping power in nanolayered systems. In addition, experimental work was performed on low-dose (10$^{16}$ atoms/cm$^2$) helium (He) irradiation on Al/Ti nanolayers (5 nm per film), resulting in He bubble formation $\\sim$1 nm in diameter in the Ti film near the interface. The correlation between the preferential flux of displaced atoms from Ti films to Al films during the defect production that is revealed in the simulations and the morphology and location of He bubbles from the experiments is discussed.

  14. Rock Burst Intensity Classification Based on the Radiated Energy with Damage Intensity at Jinping II Hydropower Station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing-Rui; Feng, Xia-Ting; Li, Qing-Peng; Luo, Ru-Zhou; Li, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    Based on the radiated energy of 133 rock bursts monitored by a microseismic technique at the Jinping II hydropower station, in Sichuan province, China, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of qualitative classification methods for the rock burst intensity. Then, we investigated the characteristics, magnitude, and laws of the radiated energy, as well as the relationship between the rock burst radiated energy and intensity. Then, we selected the energy as an evaluation index for the rock burst intensity classification, and proposed a new rock burst intensity quantitative classification method, which utilized the hierarchical clustering analysis technique with the complete-linkage method. Next, we created a new set of criteria for the quantitative classification of the rock burst intensity based on radiated energy and surrounding rock damage severity. The new criteria classified the rock burst intensity into five levels: extremely intense, intense, moderate, weak, and none, and the common logarithms of the radiated energy of each level were >7 lg( E/J), >4 lg( E/J) and <7 lg( E/J), >2 lg( E/J) and <4 lg( E/J), >1 lg( E/J) and <2 lg( E/J), and <1 lg( E/J), respectively. Finally, we investigated the factors influencing the classification, and verified its feasibility and applicability via several practical rock burst examples.

  15. DNA Damage and Repair in Plants under Ultraviolet and Ionizing Radiations

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Gill, Ritu; Jha, Manoranjan; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Being sessile, plants are continuously exposed to DNA-damaging agents present in the environment such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiations (IR). Sunlight acts as an energy source for photosynthetic plants; hence, avoidance of UV radiations (namely, UV-A, 315–400 nm; UV-B, 280–315 nm; and UV-C, <280 nm) is unpreventable. DNA in particular strongly absorbs UV-B; therefore, it is the most important target for UV-B induced damage. On the other hand, IR causes water radiolysis, which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and causes radiogenic damage to important cellular components. However, to maintain genomic integrity under UV/IR exposure, plants make use of several DNA repair mechanisms. In the light of recent breakthrough, the current minireview (a) introduces UV/IR and overviews UV/IR-mediated DNA damage products and (b) critically discusses the biochemistry and genetics of major pathways responsible for the repair of UV/IR-accrued DNA damage. The outcome of the discussion may be helpful in devising future research in the current context. PMID:25729769

  16. Thermal conductivity measurements via time-domain thermoreflectance for the characterization of radiation induced damage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cheaito, Ramez; Gorham, Caroline S.; Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA; Misra, Amit; Hattar, Khalid; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-05-01

    The progressive build up of displacement damage and fission products inside different systems and components of a nuclear reactor can lead to significant defect formation, degradation, and damage of the constituent materials. This structural modification can highly influence the thermal transport mechanisms and various mechanical properties of solids. In this paper we demonstrate the use of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), a non-destructive method capable of measuring the thermal transport in material systems from nano to bulk scales, to study the effect of radiation damage and the subsequent changes in the thermal properties of materials. We use TDTR to show that displacementmore » damage from ion irradiation can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of Optimized ZIRLO, a material used as fuel cladding in several current nuclear reactors. We find that the thermal conductivity of copper-niobium nanostructured multilayers does not change with helium ion irradiation doses of up to 1015 cm-2 and ion energy of 200 keV suggesting that these structures can be used and radiation tolerant materials in nuclear reactors. We compare the effect of ion doses and ion beam energies on the measured thermal conductivity of bulk silicon. Results demonstrate that TDTR thermal measurements can be used to quantify depth dependent damage.« less

  17. Thermal conductivity measurements via time-domain thermoreflectance for the characterization of radiation induced damage

    SciTech Connect

    Cheaito, Ramez; Gorham, Caroline S.; Misra, Amit; Hattar, Khalid; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-05-01

    The progressive build up of displacement damage and fission products inside different systems and components of a nuclear reactor can lead to significant defect formation, degradation, and damage of the constituent materials. This structural modification can highly influence the thermal transport mechanisms and various mechanical properties of solids. In this paper we demonstrate the use of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), a non-destructive method capable of measuring the thermal transport in material systems from nano to bulk scales, to study the effect of radiation damage and the subsequent changes in the thermal properties of materials. We use TDTR to show that displacement damage from ion irradiation can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of Optimized ZIRLO, a material used as fuel cladding in several current nuclear reactors. We find that the thermal conductivity of copper-niobium nanostructured multilayers does not change with helium ion irradiation doses of up to 1015 cm-2 and ion energy of 200 keV suggesting that these structures can be used and radiation tolerant materials in nuclear reactors. We compare the effect of ion doses and ion beam energies on the measured thermal conductivity of bulk silicon. Results demonstrate that TDTR thermal measurements can be used to quantify depth dependent damage.

  18. Investigating Radiation Shielding Properties of Different Mineral Origin Heavyweight Concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Basyigit, Celalettin; Uysal, Volkan; Kilincarslan, Semsettin; Akkas, Ayse; Mavi, Betuel; Guenoglu, Kadir; Akkurt, Iskender

    2011-12-26

    The radiation although has hazardous effects for human health, developing technologies bring lots of usage fields to radiation like in medicine and nuclear power station buildings. In this case protecting from undesirable radiation is a necessity for human health. Heavyweight concrete is one of the most important materials used in where radiation should be shielded, like those areas. In this study, used heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin (Limonite, Siderite), in order to prepare different series in concrete mixtures and investigated radiation shielding properties. The experimental results on measuring the radiation shielding, the heavyweight concrete prepared with heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin show that, are useful radiation absorbents when they used in concrete mixtures.

  19. Amelioration of radiation-induced hematopoietic and gastrointestinal damage by Ex-RAD® in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sanchita P.; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Perkins, Michael W.; Hieber, Kevin; Pessu, Roli L.; Gambles, Kristen; Maniar, Manoj; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Seed, Thomas M.; Kumar, K. Sree

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess recovery from hematopoietic and gastrointestinal damage by Ex-RAD®, also known as ON01210.Na (4-carboxystyryl-4-chlorobenzylsulfone, sodium salt), after total body radiation. In our previous study, we reported that Ex-RAD, a small-molecule radioprotectant, enhances survival of mice exposed to gamma radiation, and prevents radiation-induced apoptosis as measured by the inhibition of radiation-induced protein 53 (p53) expression in cultured cells. We have expanded this study to determine best effective dose, dose-reduction factor (DRF), hematological and gastrointestinal protection, and in vivo inhibition of p53 signaling. A total of 500 mg/kg of Ex-RAD administered at 24 h and 15 min before radiation resulted in a DRF of 1.16. Ex-RAD ameliorated radiation-induced hematopoietic damage as monitored by the accelerated recovery of peripheral blood cells, and protection of granulocyte macrophage colony-forming units (GM-CFU) in bone marrow. Western blot analysis on spleen indicated that Ex-RAD treatment inhibited p53 phosphorylation. Ex-RAD treatment reduces terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay (TUNEL)-positive cells in jejunum compared with vehicle-treated mice after radiation injury. Finally, Ex-RAD preserved intestinal crypt cells compared with the vehicle control at 13 and 14 Gy. The results demonstrated that Ex-RAD ameliorates radiation-induced peripheral blood cell depletion, promotes bone marrow recovery, reduces p53 signaling in spleen and protects intestine from radiation injury. PMID:22843617

  20. From the Cover: Specific chemical and structural damage to proteins produced by synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weik, Martin; Ravelli, Raimond B. G.; Kryger, Gitay; McSweeney, Sean; Raves, Maria L.; Harel, Michal; Gros, Piet; Silman, Israel; Kroon, Jan; Sussman, Joel L.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation damage is an inherent problem in x-ray crystallography. It usually is presumed to be nonspecific and manifested as a gradual decay in the overall quality of data obtained for a given crystal as data collection proceeds. Based on third-generation synchrotron x-ray data, collected at cryogenic temperatures, we show for the enzymes Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase and hen egg white lysozyme that synchrotron radiation also can cause highly specific damage. Disulfide bridges break, and carboxyl groups of acidic residues lose their definition. Highly exposed carboxyls, and those in the active site of both enzymes, appear particularly susceptible. The catalytic triad residue, His-440, in acetylcholinesterase, also appears to be much more sensitive to radiation damage than other histidine residues. Our findings have direct practical implications for routine x-ray data collection at high-energy synchrotron sources. Furthermore, they provide a direct approach for studying the radiation chemistry of proteins and nucleic acids at a detailed, structural level and also may yield information concerning putative "weak links" in a given biological macromolecule, which may be of structural and functional significance.

  1. From electrons to stars : modelling and mitigation of radiation damage effects on astronomical CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prod'homme, Thibaut

    2011-11-01

    The work presented in this thesis is part of an on-going effort to understand and mitigate the effects of radiation damage in astronomical CCDs. My research was motivated by and took place in the challenging context of the European Space Agency's (ESA) astrometric mission, Gaia, for which radiation damage has been considered since its conception as one of the most important threats to its scientific performance. In this context my research focused primarily on the modelling of the effects of radiation-induced Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) supported by the analysis of the experimental test data. I developed the most detailed model to date of CTI in CCDs that enables simulating the operation of irradiated devices (Chapter 2). Using this model I have been able to verify and enhance our current understanding of CTI as well as support the characterization of CCDs and the understanding of experimental results (Chapters 3 and 6). As part of this research I conducted the comprehensive re-assessment of the performance of Gaia taking into account radiation damage (Chapters 3 and 4). Finally I took part in the effort of countering CTI by elaborating, testing, and improving a forward modelling approach at the image processing level to mitigate the CTI effects on the Gaia easurements (Chapters 3 and 5), as well as test and explore the potential of a specific hardware mitigation tool (Chapter 6).

  2. New Modeling Approaches to Study DNA Damage by the Direct and Indirect Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    DNA is damaged both by the direct and indirect effects of radiation. In the direct effect, the DNA itself is ionized, whereas the indirect effect involves the radiolysis of the water molecules surrounding the DNA and the subsequent reaction of the DNA with radical products. While this problem has been studied for many years, many unknowns still exist. To study this problem, we have developed the computer code RITRACKS [1], which simulates the radiation track structure for heavy ions and electrons, calculating all energy deposition events and the coordinates of all species produced by the water radiolysis. In this work, we plan to simulate DNA damage by using the crystal structure of a nucleosome and calculations performed by RITRACKS. The energy deposition events are used to calculate the dose deposited in nanovolumes [2] and therefore can be used to simulate the direct effect of the radiation. Using the positions of the radiolytic species with a radiation chemistry code [3] it will be possible to simulate DNA damage by indirect effect. The simulation results can be compared with results from previous calculations such as the frequencies of simple and complex strand breaks [4] and with newer experimental data using surrogate markers of DNA double ]strand breaks such as . ]H2AX foci [5].

  3. [Use of vilosen in the treatment of radiation damage of the immune system].

    PubMed

    Tron'ko, M D; Sydorenko, D S; Bykova, L M; Goidash, M M; Boiko, M G; Synel'nikova, G L

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of vilosen usage for the immune system damage liquidation was studied. Rats obtained discrete rentgen irradiation during 1 month in the total dose of 4 Gr. Mice obtained internal 131I irradiation in a dose of 9.25 kBk/g. It was established that thymus and spleen masses, quantity of their cells, blood leukocytes and antibody production decreased by as external and internal irradiation. Irradiated animals treated with vilosen restored their immune system functional state partly or completely. The preparation was assumed to be used for the correction of immune system radiation damage. PMID:11296565

  4. Optical properties and radiation damages of cerium fluoride crystals doped with alkali-earth and rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gusev, Y.I.; Melchakov, E.N.; Mironov, I.A.; Panteleev, L.A.; Reiterov, V.M.; Rodnyi, P.A.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Shchetkowsky, A.I.; Yazikov, D.M.; Zakharov, N.G.

    1994-12-31

    The most essential contribution in the investigation of CeF{sub 3} crystals having the goal to construct high precision electromagnetic calorimeters has been done by Crystal Clear Collaboration. Study of optical properties and radiation damages of Cerium Fluoride crystals doped with Ca, Ba, Sr, La, Nd, Zr and Hf in the wide range of concentrations has been performed with the goal to obtain high optical transparency of crystals at different cumulative doses under {gamma}-irradiation. Time decay curves and relative light yields of scintillators as a function of doping level were measured using X-ray excitation of samples and single photon counting method.

  5. Radiation-induced lung damage promotes breast cancer lung-metastasis through CXCR4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vral, Anne; Veldeman, Liv; Vermeulen, Stefan; De Wagter, Carlos; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer as it reduces the risks of local recurrence and mortality after both conservative surgery and mastectomy. Despite recent efforts to decrease irradiation volumes through accelerated partial irradiation techniques, late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity still occurs after breast irradiation. The importance of this pulmonary injury towards lung metastasis is unclear. Preirradiation of lung epithelial cells induces DNA damage, p53 activation and a secretome enriched in the chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and MIF. Irradiated lung epithelial cells stimulate adhesion, spreading, growth, and (transendothelial) migration of human MDA-MB-231 and murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. These metastasis-associated cellular activities were largely mimicked by recombinant CXCL12 and MIF. Moreover, an allosteric inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor prevented the metastasis-associated cellular activities stimulated by the secretome of irradiated lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, partial (10%) irradiation of the right lung significantly stimulated breast cancer lung-specific metastasis in the syngeneic, orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model. Our results warrant further investigation of the potential pro-metastatic effects of radiation and indicate the need to develop efficient drugs that will be successful in combination with radiotherapy to prevent therapy-induced spread of cancer cells. PMID:26396176

  6. Object Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Radiation Damage In Bulk Tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandipati, Giridhar; Setyawan, Wahyu; Heinisch, Howard; Roche, Kenneth; Kurtz, Richard; Wirth, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Results are presented for the evolution of radiation damage in bulk tungsten investigated using the object KMC simulation tool, KSOME, as a function of dose, dose rate and primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies in the range of 10 to 100 keV, at temperatures of 300, 1025 and 2050 K. At 300 K, the number density of vacancies changes minimally with dose rate while the number density of vacancy clusters slightly decreases with dose rate indicating that larger clusters are formed at higher dose rates. Although the average vacancy cluster size increases slightly, the vast majority exists as mono-vacancies. At 1025 K void lattice formation was observed at all dose rates for cascades below 60 keV and at lower dose rates for higher PKA energies. After the appearance of initial features of the void lattice, vacancy cluster density increased minimally while the average vacancy cluster size increases rapidly with dose. At 2050 K, no accumulation of defects was observed over a broad range of dose rates for all PKA energies studied in this work. Further comparisons of results of irradiation simulations at various dose rates and PKA spectra, representative of the High Flux Isotope Reactor and future fusion relevant irradiation facilities will be discussed. The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) and Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) has supported this study through the SciDAC-3 program.

  7. Atomic and Molecular Data Needs for Radiation Damage Modeling: Multiscale Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Surdutovich, Eugene; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2011-05-01

    We present a brief overview of the multiscale approach towards understanding of the processes responsible for the radiation damage caused by energetic ions. This knowledge is very important, because it can be utilized in the ion-beam cancer therapy, which is one of the most advanced modern techniques to cure certain type of cancer. The central element of the multiscale approach is the theoretical evaluation and quantification of the DNA damage within cell environment. To achieve this goal one needs a significant amount of data on various atomic and molecular processes involved into the cascade of events starting with the ion entering and propagation in the biological medium and resulting in the DNA damage. The discussion of the follow up biological processes are beyond the scope of this brief overview. We consider different paths of the DNA damage and focus on the the illustration of the thermo-mechanical effects caused by the propagation of ions through the biological environment and in particular on the possibility of the creation of the shock waves in the vicinity of the ion tracks. We demonstrate that at the initial stages after ion's passage the shock wave is so strong that it can contribute to the DNA damage due to large pressure gradients developed at the distances of a few nanometers from the ionic tracks. This novel mechanism of the DNA damage provides an important contribution to the cumulative biodamage caused by low-energy secondary electrons, holes and free radicals.

  8. Atomic and Molecular Data Needs for Radiation Damage Modeling: Multiscale Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Surdutovich, Eugene

    2011-05-11

    We present a brief overview of the multiscale approach towards understanding of the processes responsible for the radiation damage caused by energetic ions. This knowledge is very important, because it can be utilized in the ion-beam cancer therapy, which is one of the most advanced modern techniques to cure certain type of cancer. The central element of the multiscale approach is the theoretical evaluation and quantification of the DNA damage within cell environment. To achieve this goal one needs a significant amount of data on various atomic and molecular processes involved into the cascade of events starting with the ion entering and propagation in the biological medium and resulting in the DNA damage. The discussion of the follow up biological processes are beyond the scope of this brief overview. We consider different paths of the DNA damage and focus on the the illustration of the thermo-mechanical effects caused by the propagation of ions through the biological environment and in particular on the possibility of the creation of the shock waves in the vicinity of the ion tracks. We demonstrate that at the initial stages after ion's passage the shock wave is so strong that it can contribute to the DNA damage due to large pressure gradients developed at the distances of a few nanometers from the ionic tracks. This novel mechanism of the DNA damage provides an important contribution to the cumulative biodamage caused by low-energy secondary electrons, holes and free radicals.

  9. Ideal sinks are not always ideal. Radiation damage accumulation in nanocomposites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Choudhury, Samrat; Caro, Alfredo

    2014-11-27

    Designing radiation tolerant materials is one of the primary challenges associated with advanced nuclear energy systems. One attractive route that has received much attention world-wide is to introduce a high density of sinks, often in the form of interfaces or secondary phases. Here, we develop a simple model of such nanocomposites and examine the ramifications of various factors on the overall radiation stability of the material. In particular, we determine how the distribution of secondary phases, the relative sink strength of those phases, and the irradiation temperature influence the radiation tolerance of the matrix. We find that the best scenariomore » is one in which the sinks have intermediate strength, transiently trapping defects before releasing them back into the matrix.This provides new insight into the optimal properties of nanocomposites for radiation damage environments.« less

  10. Ideal sinks are not always ideal. Radiation damage accumulation in nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Choudhury, Samrat; Caro, Alfredo

    2014-11-27

    Designing radiation tolerant materials is one of the primary challenges associated with advanced nuclear energy systems. One attractive route that has received much attention world-wide is to introduce a high density of sinks, often in the form of interfaces or secondary phases. Here, we develop a simple model of such nanocomposites and examine the ramifications of various factors on the overall radiation stability of the material. In particular, we determine how the distribution of secondary phases, the relative sink strength of those phases, and the irradiation temperature influence the radiation tolerance of the matrix. We find that the best scenario is one in which the sinks have intermediate strength, transiently trapping defects before releasing them back into the matrix.This provides new insight into the optimal properties of nanocomposites for radiation damage environments.

  11. Radiation damage of PbWO 4 crystals due to irradiation by 60Co gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozma, Peter; Bajgar, Robert; Kozma, Petr

    2002-09-01

    Radiation resistivity of large tungstate crystals PbWO 4 from three suppliers has been studied for doses 10 4 Gy (10 6 rad) and 10 5 Gy (10 7 rad). Radiation resistivity was examined by the measurement of optical transmission through tungstate crystals before and after 60Co gamma-ray irradiations. The absolute degradation of transmission for 10 4 and 10 5 Gy doses at 480 nm wavelength of the peak emission of PbWO 4 doped with La 2+, was found to be lower than 12.3% and 14.2%, respectively. The results have been also compared with radiation hardness measurements for a large volume CeF 3 scintillation crystal. Complete recovery of radiation damage was observed between 10 and 15 days after irradiations.

  12. Investigation of Micro-Scale Architectural Effects on Damage of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stier, Bertram; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Simon, Jaan W.; Reese, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional, energy based, anisotropic, stiffness reduction, progressive damage model for composite materials and composite material constituents. The model has been implemented as a user-defined constitutive model within the Abaqus finite element software package and applied to simulate the nonlinear behavior of a damaging epoxy matrix within a unidirectional composite material. Three different composite microstructures were considered as finite element repeating unit cells, with appropriate periodicity conditions applied at the boundaries. Results representing predicted transverse tensile, longitudinal shear, and transverse shear stress-strain curves are presented, along with plots of the local fields indicating the damage progression within the microstructure. It is demonstrated that the damage model functions appropriately at the matrix scale, enabling localization of the damage to simulate failure of the composite material. The influence of the repeating unit cell geometry and the effect of the directionality of the applied loading are investigated and discussed.

  13. Investigating the Effect of Damage Progression Model Choice on Prognostics Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Narasimhan, Sriram; Saha, Sankalita; Saha, Bhaskar; Goebel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    The success of model-based approaches to systems health management depends largely on the quality of the underlying models. In model-based prognostics, it is especially the quality of the damage progression models, i.e., the models describing how damage evolves as the system operates, that determines the accuracy and precision of remaining useful life predictions. Several common forms of these models are generally assumed in the literature, but are often not supported by physical evidence or physics-based analysis. In this paper, using a centrifugal pump as a case study, we develop different damage progression models. In simulation, we investigate how model changes influence prognostics performance. Results demonstrate that, in some cases, simple damage progression models are sufficient. But, in general, the results show a clear need for damage progression models that are accurate over long time horizons under varied loading conditions.

  14. Simulation Based Investigation of Hidden Delamination Damage Detection in CFRP Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Guided wave (GW) based damage detection methods have shown promise in structural health monitoring (SHM) and hybrid SHM-nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. Much previous GW work in the aerospace field has been primarily focused on metallic materials, with a growing focus on composite materials. The work presented in this paper demonstrates how realistic three-dimensional (3D) GW simulations can aid in the development of GW based damage characterization techniques for aerospace composites. 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique is implemented to model GW interaction with realistic delamination damage. A local wavenumber technique is applied to simulation data in order to investigate the detectability of hidden delamination damage to enable accurate characterization of damage extent.

  15. TEM investigation of irradiation damage in single crystal CeO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bei; Kirk, Mark A.; Chen, Weiying; Oaks, Aaron; Rest, Jeffery; Yacout, Abdellatif; Stubbins, James F.

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the evolution of radiation damage in oxide nuclear fuel, 150-1000 keV Kr ions were implanted into single crystal CeO 2, as a simulation of fluorite ceramic UO 2, while in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were carried out. Two characteristic defect structures were investigated: dislocation/dislocation loops and nano-size gas bubbles. The growth behavior of defect clusters induced by 1 MeV Kr ions up to doses of 5 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 were followed at 600 °C and 800 °C. TEM micrographs clearly show the development of defect structures: nucleation of dislocation loops, transformation to extended dislocation lines, and the formation of tangled dislocation networks. The difference in dislocation growth rates at 600 °C and 800 °C revealed the important role which Ce-vacancies play in the loop formation process. Bubble formation, studied through 150 keV Kr implantations at room temperature and 600 °C, might be influenced by either the mobility of metal-vacancies correlated with at threshold temperature or the limitation of gas solubility as a function of temperature.

  16. Investigation of surface characteristics evolution and laser damage performance of fused silica during ion-beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingjin; Dai, Yifan; Zhou, Lin; Shi, Feng; Wan, Wen; Xie, Xuhui; Sui, Tingting

    2016-08-01

    Surface characteristics have great influence on the optical properties especially the laser radiation resistivity of optics. In this paper, the surface characteristics evolutions of fused silica during ion-beam sputtering and their effects on the laser damage performance were investigated. The results show that roughness change is strongly removal depth dependent and a super-smooth surface (0.25 nm RMS) can be obtained by the ion-induced smoothing effect. The concentration of metal impurities (especially Ce element) in subsurface can be effectively decreased after the removal of polishing re-deposition layer. During ion-beam sputtering process, the plastic scratches can be removed while the brittle cracks can be broadened and passivated without increase in the depth direction. Laser damage threshold of fused silica improved by 36% after ion-beam sputtering treatment. Research results have a guiding significance for ion-beam sputtering process technology of fused silica optics.

  17. Nuclear radiation interference and damage effects in charged particle experiments for extended space missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainor, J. H.; Teegarden, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    Demonstration that meaningful galactic and solar cosmic radiation measurements can be carried out on deep space missions. The radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) which must be used as a source of power and perhaps of heat are a problem, but with proper separation from the experiments, with orientation, and with some shielding the damage effects can be reduced to an acceptable level. The Pioneer spacecraft are crucial in that they are targeted at the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts, and should supply the details of those belts. The subsequent Grand Tour opportunities can be selected for those periods which result in larger distances of closest approach to Jupiter if necessary.

  18. How Magnetotactic Bacteria Respond to Radiation Induced Stress and Damage: Comparative Genomics Evidences for Evolutionary Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Solar radiation and galactic cosmic radiation is believed to be major restriction factors influencing survival and evolution of life. On planet earth, geomagnetic field along with atmosphere protect living beings from the harmful radiation. During a geomagnetic reversal or excursion, however, the efflux of charged particles on earth surface would increase as the shielding effect of magnetic field decrease. The stratospheric ozone can also be partially stripped away by solar wind when the strength of the field is weak, leading to an increasing ultraviolet radiation penetration to the earth surface. However, studies on the mechanism of radiation induced stress and damage are focused only on bacteria that have no response to magnetic field. This study was motivated by the need to fill the gap upon knowledge of that on magnetic field sensitive microorganism. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a group of microbes that are able to synthesis intracellular nano-sized magnetic particles (named magnetosomes). These chain-arranged magnetosomes help MTB sense and swim along the magnetic field to find their optimal living environment efficiently. In this paper, in silico prediction of stress and damage repair genes in response to different radiation were carried out on the complete genome of four nonmagnetotactic and four magnetotactic spirilla. In silico analyses of the genomes of magnetic field sensitive and non-sensitive spirilla revealed: 1) all strains contain genes for regulate responses superoxide and peroxide stress, DNA pyrimidine dimer and string breaks; 2) non-magnetotactic spirilla have more genes dealing with oxidative stress, while magnetotactic spirilla may benefit from magnetotaxis by swimming into oxic-anoxic zone away from oxidative stress and direct radiation damage; yet, the lipid hydroperoxide peroxidase gene in MTB may be responsible for possible ROS generated by the membrane enveloped magnetite magnetosome; 3) magnetotactic spirilla possess SOS rec

  19. Radiation damage in undoped CsI and CsI(Tl)

    SciTech Connect

    Woody, C.L.; Kierstead, J.A.; Levy, P.W.; Stoll, S.

    1992-12-01

    Radiation damage has been studied in undoped CsI and CsI(TI) crystals using {sup 60}Co gamma radiation for doses up to {approximately} 4.2 {times} 10{sup 6}. Samples from various manufacturers were measured ranging in size from 2.54 cm long cylinders to a 30 cm long block. Measurements were made on the change in optical transmission and scintillation light output as a function of dose. Although some samples showed a small change in transmission, a significant change in light output was observed for all samples. Recovery from damage was also studied as a function of time and exposure to UV light. A short lived phosphorescence was observed in undoped CsI, similar to the phosphorescence seen in CsI(TI).

  20. Radiation damage in undoped CsI and CsI(Tl)

    SciTech Connect

    Woody, C.L.; Kierstead, J.A.; Levy, P.W.; Stoll, S.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation damage has been studied in undoped CsI and CsI(TI) crystals using [sup 60]Co gamma radiation for doses up to [approximately] 4.2 [times] 10[sup 6]. Samples from various manufacturers were measured ranging in size from 2.54 cm long cylinders to a 30 cm long block. Measurements were made on the change in optical transmission and scintillation light output as a function of dose. Although some samples showed a small change in transmission, a significant change in light output was observed for all samples. Recovery from damage was also studied as a function of time and exposure to UV light. A short lived phosphorescence was observed in undoped CsI, similar to the phosphorescence seen in CsI(TI).

  1. Exploring long-time response to radiation damage in MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberuaga, B. P.; Smith, R.; Cleave, A. R.; Henkelman, G.; Grimes, R. W.; Voter, A. F.; Sickafus, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Using a variety of computational modeling and simulation methods, we examine the production and long-time evolution of damage created in irradiated MgO. We find that the damage produced in low energy (order 1 keV) collision cascades typically consists of point defects and small defect clusters. Over long times, interstitials annihilate with vacancies and aggregate with other interstitials, forming larger clusters that exhibit surprising behavior. For example, a six-atom interstitial cluster is found to have extremely high mobility. The implications of highly-mobile large clusters are explored via a rate theory model and comparison to other materials. We conclude that successful modeling of radiation damage evolution in MgO requires explicit treatment of large interstitial clusters.

  2. Low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells may rather control than cause DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Feinendegen, L.E.; Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Altman, K.I.

    1998-12-31

    This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced metabolic changes that induce mechanisms of DNA damage mitigation, which do not operate at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. This paper aims at demonstrating tissue effects as an expression of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive, in relation to the energy deposited in cell mass, by use of microdosimetric concepts.

  3. Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Darr, D; Combs, S; Dunston, S; Manning, T; Pinnell, S

    1992-09-01

    Ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin is due, in part, to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) functions as a biological co-factor and antioxidant due to its reducing properties. Topical application of vitamin C has been shown to elevate significantly cutaneous levels of this vitamin in pigs, and this correlates with protection of the skin from UVB damage as measured by erythema and sunburn cell formation. This protection is biological and due to the reducing properties of the molecule. Further, we provide evidence that the vitamin C levels of the skin can be severely depleted after UV irradiation, which would lower this organ's innate protective mechanism as well as leaving it at risk of impaired healing after photoinduced damage. In addition, vitamin C protects porcine skin from UVA-mediated phototoxic reactions (PUVA) and therefore shows promise as a broad-spectrum photoprotectant. PMID:1390169

  4. Jatropha curcas leaf and bark fractions protect against ultraviolet radiation-B induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sundari, J; Selvaraj, R; Rajendra Prasad, N; Elumalai, R

    2013-11-01

    The present study is conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of Jatropha curcas root bark extract (RB4 fraction) and leaf extract (L1 fraction), and to study their effects on UVB-radiation-induced DNA damage in cultured human blood lymphocytes. In this study, J. curcas showed strong antioxidant property in different free radical scavenging systems. Both the fractions effectively scavenged hydroxyl (OH), superoxide anion (O₂(·-)), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation (ABTS(·+)) in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC₅₀ (Inhibitory Concentration 50) values of J. curcas fractions were compared to standard ascorbic acid used in this study. The antioxidant potential of a compound was directly proportional to the photoprotective effect. In this study, human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) were exposed to UVB-radiation and there was an increase in comet attributes (% tail DNA, tail length, tail movement and Olive tail moment). Jatropha curcas RB4 fraction and L1 fraction treatment before UVB-irradiation significantly decreased the % tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and Olive tail moment in irradiated HPBL. These results suggested that J. curcas exhibited strong antioxidant property and RB4 and L1 fractions protected UVB-radiation-induced DNA damage in HPBL. PMID:23995553

  5. Electromagnetic noise inhibits radiofrequency radiation-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species increase in human lens epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Wang, KaiJun; Ni, Shuang; Ye, PanPan; Yu, YiBo; Ye, Juan; Sun, LiXia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate whether superposing of electromagnetic noise could block or attenuate DNA damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase of cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) induced by acute exposure to 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field (RF) of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). Methods An sXc-1800 RF exposure system was used to produce a GSM signal at 1.8 GHz (217 Hz amplitude-modulated) with the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1, 2, 3, and 4 W/kg. After 2 h of intermittent exposure, the ROS level was assessed by the fluorescent probe, 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). DNA damage to HLECs was examined by alkaline comet assay and the phosphorylated form of histone variant H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation assay. Results After exposure to 1.8 GHz RF for 2 h, HLECs exhibited significant intracellular ROS increase in the 2, 3, and 4 W/kg groups. RF radiation at the SAR of 3 W/kg and 4 W/kg could induce significant DNA damage, examined by alkaline comet assay, which was used to detect mainly single strand breaks (SSBs), while no statistical difference in double strand breaks (DSBs), evaluated by γH2AX foci, was found between RF exposure (SAR: 3 and 4 W/kg) and sham exposure groups. When RF was superposed with 2 μT electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS increase and DNA damage. Conclusions DNA damage induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field for 2 h, which was mainly SSBs, may be associated with the increased ROS production. Electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS formation and DNA damage. PMID:18509546

  6. Measurement of DNA damage after exposure to 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Malyapa, R S; Ahern, E W; Straube, W L; Moros, E G; Pickard, W F; Roti Roti, J L

    1997-12-01

    Recent reports suggest that exposure to 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation causes DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cells of rat brain irradiated in vivo (Lai and Singh, Bioelectromagnetics 16, 207-210, 1995; Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 69, 513-521, 1996). Therefore, we endeavored to determine if exposure of cultured mammalian cells in vitro to 2450 MHz radiation causes DNA damage. The alkaline comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis), which is reportedly the most sensitive method to assay DNA damage in individual cells, was used to measure DNA damage after in vitro 2450 MHz irradiation. Exponentially growing U87MG and C3H 10T1/2 cells were exposed to 2450 MHz continuous-wave (CW) radiation in specially designed radial transmission lines (RTLs) that provided relatively uniform microwave exposure. Specific absorption rates (SARs) were calculated to be 0.7 and 1.9 W/kg. Temperatures in the RTLs were measured in real time and were maintained at 37 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Every experiment included sham exposure(s) in an RTL. Cells were irradiated for 2 h, 2 h followed by a 4-h incubation at 37 degrees C in an incubator, 4 h and 24 h. After these treatments samples were subjected to the alkaline comet assay as described by Olive et al. (Exp. Cell Res. 198, 259-267, 1992). Images of comets were digitized and analyzed using a PC-based image analysis system, and the "normalized comet moment" and "comet length" were determined. No significant differences were observed between the test group and the controls after exposure to 2450 MHz CW irradiation. Thus 2450 MHz irradiation does not appear to cause DNA damage in cultured mammalian cells under these exposure conditions as measured by this assay. PMID:9399707

  7. Neutron flux spectra and radiation damage parameters for the Russian Bor-60 and SM-2 reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Karasiov, A.V.; Greenwood, L.R.

    1995-04-01

    The objective is to compare neutron irradiation conditions in Russian reactors and similar US facilities. Neutron fluence and spectral information and calculated radiation damage parameters are presented for the BOR-60 (Fast Experimental Reactor - 60 MW) and SM-2 reactors in Russia. Their neutron exposure characteristics are comparable with those of the Experimental Breeder Reactor (ERB-II), the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in the United States.

  8. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1983. High Efficiency, Radiation Damage, and Blanket Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This three day conference, sixth in a series that began in 1974, was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on October 18-20, 1983. The conference provided a forum for the discussion of space photovoltaic systems, their research status, and program goals. Papers were presented and workshops were held in a variety of technology areas, including basic cell research, advanced blanket technology, and radiation damage.

  9. Performance characteristics and radiation damage results from the Fermilab E706 silicon microstrip detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, E.; Mani, S.; Orris, D.; Shepard, P. F.; Weerasundara, P. D.; Choudhary, B. C.; Joshi, U.; Kapoor, V.; Shivpuri, R.; Baker, W.; Berg, D.; Carey, D.; Johnstone, C.; Nelson, C.; Bromberg, C.; Brown, D.; Huston, J.; Miller, R.; Nguyen, A.; Benson, R.; Lukens, P.; Ruddick, K.; Alverson, G.; Faissler, W.; Garelick, D.; Glaubman, M.; Kourbanis, I.; Lirakis, C.; Pothier, E.; Sinanidis, A.; Wu, G.-H.; Yasuda, T.; Yosef, C.; Easo, S.; Hartman, K.; Oh, B. Y.; Toothacker, W.; Whitmore, J.; Ballocchi, G.; Debarbaro, L.; Desoi, W.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferbel, T.; Ginther, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lobkowicz, F.; Mansour, J.; Pedeville, G.; Prebys, E.; Skow, D.; Slattery, P.; Varelas, N.; Zielinski, M.

    1989-07-01

    A charged particle spectrometer containing a 7120-channel silicon microstrip detector system, one component of Fermilab experiment E706 to study direct photon production in hadron-hadron collisions, was utilized in a run in which 6 million events were recorded. We describe the silicon system, provide early results of track and vertex reconstruction, and present data on the radiation damage to the silicon wafers resulting from the narrow high intensity beam.

  10. QUANTIFICATION OF ACTINIDE ALPHA-RADIATION DAMAGE IN MINERALS AND CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Farnan, Ian E.; Cho, Herman M.; Weber, William J.

    2007-01-11

    There are large amounts of heavy alpha-emitters in nuclear waste and nuclear materials inventories stored in various sites around the world. These include plutonium and minor actinides such as americium and curium. In preparation for geological disposal there is a consensus that actinides that have been separated from spent nuclear fuel should be immobilised within mineral-based ceramics rather than glass. Over the long-term, the alpha-decay taking place in these ceramics will severely disrupt their crystalline structure and reduce their durability. A fundamental property in predicting cumulative radiation damage is the number of atoms permanently displaced per alpha–decay. Currently, this number is estimated as 1000-2000 atoms/alpha decay event. Here, we report nuclear magnetic resonance, spin-counting experiments that measure close to 5000 atoms/alpha decay event in radiation damaged natural zircons. New radiological NMR measurements on highly radioactive, 239Pu zircon show damage similar to that created by 238U and 232Th in mineral zircons at the same dose, indicating no significant effect of dose rate. Based on these measurements, the initially crystalline structure of a 10 wt% 239Pu zircon would be amorphous after only 1400 years in a geological repository. These measurements establish a basis for assessing the long-term structural durability of actinide-containing ceramics based on an atomistic understanding of the fundamental damage event.

  11. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  12. Assessment of Radiation Damage to the Structural Material of EAST Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yixue; Wu, Yican

    2005-08-01

    Radiation damage to structural material of fusion facilities is of high concern for safety. The superconducting tokamak EAST will conduct D-D plasma experiments with the neutron production of 1015 neutrons per second. To evaluate the material radiation damage a programme system has been devised with the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP-4C, the inventory code FISPACT99, a specific interface, and the fusion evaluated nuclear data library FENDL-2. The key nuclear responses, i.e. fast neutron flux, displacement per atom, and the helium and hydrogen production, are calculated for the structural material SS-316L of the first wall, and the vacuum vessel, using this programme. The results demonstrate that the radiation damage to the structural material is so little that it will not lead to any significant change of material properties according to the reference design. This indicates that there is a large potential space for EAST to test advanced operation regime from the viewpoint of structural material safety.

  13. Summary of the radiation damage studies of the SDC dopants in polystyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G.W.; Zhang, G.

    1993-12-22

    Approximately 80 commercially available fluorescent organic compounds were studied as dopants in a polystyrene matrix for possible use in wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers. The goal was to find a new green- emitting WLS fiber which would outperform in light yield and decay time the currently available fiber doped with K-27. Therefore the fluorescent compounds of interest should exhibit the following spectroscopic characteristics in polystyrene: {lambda}{sub abs} = 400--450 nm,{lambda}{sub em} = 450--550 nm, {tau} = 3--7 ns and quantum efficiency of minimum 0.7. Polystyrene samples doped with different fluorescent compounds were prepared and characterized. Of all the compounds tested, only a series of coumarins exhibited the spectroscopic characteristics of interest. Radiation damage studies had to be performed on these samples in order to condusively determine if they were better candidates than K-27 for green WLS fibers. AU samples except those showing opacity or deep coloration were irradiated. They were, however, separated in two sets. Radiation damage set No. 20 was mainly formed by the coumarin derivatives. Radiation damage set No. 22 was based on the remaining samples. The irradiations were performed at the Phoenix Memorial Laboratory using a {sup 60}Co source. Both sets were exposed to a total dose of 10 Mrad in air, at a dose rate of 1.8 Mrad/h. Transmittance measurements were recorded before and after irradiation, and after annealing. After irradiation, the samples were annealed in oxygen to accelerate the recovery process.

  14. Radiation-Induced Cytogenetic Damage as a Predictor of Cancer Risk for Protons and Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jerry R.

    1999-01-01

    We have successfully completed the series of experiments planned for year 1 and the first part of year 2 measuring the induction of chromosome aberrations induced in multiple cell types by three model space radiations: Fe-ions, protons and photons. Most of these data have now been compiled and a significant part subjected to detailed data analyses, although continuing data analysis is an important part of our current and future efforts. These analyses are directed toward defining the patterns of chromosomal damage induction by the three radiations and the extent to which such patterns are dependent on the type of cell irradiated. Our studies show significant differences, both quantitatively and qualitatively, between response of different cell types to these radiations however there is an overall pattern that characterizes each type of radiation in most cell lines. Thus our data identifies general dose-response patterns for each radiation for induction of multiple types of chromosomal aberrations but also identifies significant differences in response between some cell types. Specifically, we observe significant resistance for induction of aberrations in rat mammary epithelial cells when they are irradiated in vivo and assayed in vitro. Further, we have observed some remarkable differences in susceptibility to certain radiation-induced aberrations in cells whose genome has been modulated for two cancer- relevant genes, TP53 and CDKNIA. This data, if confirmed, may represent the first evidence of gene-specific differences in cellular metabolism of damage induced by densely-ionizing radiation that confers substantial sensitivity to protons compared to photons.

  15. Radiation damage and luminescence properties of gamma aluminum oxynitride transparent ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xinhua; Yao, Shiyue; Jin, Xihai; Chen, Haohong; Li, Weifeng; Liang, Bo

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on the radiation damage of gamma aluminum oxynitride (γ-AlON) transparent ceramic, which remarkably degrades UV-vis transparency and hence limits its applications in optoelectronic devices. The radiation-induced optical absorption of the as-sintered γ-AlON consists of at least two subbands: one is in the UV region with a peak at 270 nm and the other optical absorption band centers at 550 nm, covering the whole visible light spectrum, which makes the sample colored. Interestingly, all the radiation-induced color centers can be completely ‘bleached’ by low temperature annealing. In the thermoluminescence curve, we observed a broad luminescence in the range of 25-300 °C with the peak at 120 °C. Furthermore, the x-ray excited luminescence spectra revealed that there exist multiple emission centers in the γ-AlON. Based on this experimental fact, the radiation damage and luminescent mechanisms were studied. These optical properties of the γ-AlON are considered to be related to defect states. In the as-sintered γ-AlON, charge balancing is realized by the co-existence of \\text{V}\\text{Al}\\prime\\prime \\prime and \\text{O}\\text{N}\\bullet , and the predominant defect form is ≤ft[\\text{V}\\text{Al}\\prime\\prime \\prime-\\text{3O}\\text{N}\\bullet\\right] , which is optically inactive and no optical absorption occurs. However, isolated \\text{V}\\text{Al}\\prime\\prime \\prime and \\text{O}\\text{N}\\bullet can be formed by irradiation and it is these that are responsible for the radiation damage of γ-AlON transparent ceramic. In the end, the UV absorption and visible-light absorption in the irradiated sample were ascribed to VAl-related and ON-related intrinsic defects, respectively.

  16. Active investigation of material damage under load using micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navalgund, Megha; Zunjarrao, Suraj; Mishra, Debasish; Manoharan, V.

    2015-03-01

    Due the growth of composite materials across multiple industries such as Aviation, Wind there is an increasing need to not just standardize and improve manufacturing processes but also to design these materials for the specific applications. One of the things that this translates to is understanding how failure initiates and grows in these materials and at what loads, especially around internal flaws such as voids or features such as ply drops. Traditional methods of investigating internal damage such as CT lack the resolution to resolve ply level damage in composites. Interrupted testing with layer removal can be used to investigate internal damage using microscopy; however this is a destructive method. Advanced techniques such as such as DIC are useful for in-situ damage detection, however are limited to surface information and would not enable interrogating the volume. Computed tomography has become a state of the art technique for metrology and complete volumetric investigation especially for metallic components. However, its application to the composite world is still nascent. This paper demonstrates micro-CT's capability as a gauge to quantitatively estimate the extent of damage & understand the propagation of damage in PMC composites while the component is under stress.

  17. Active investigation of material damage under load using micro-CT

    SciTech Connect

    Navalgund, Megha Mishra, Debasish; Manoharan, V.; Zunjarrao, Suraj

    2015-03-31

    Due the growth of composite materials across multiple industries such as Aviation, Wind there is an increasing need to not just standardize and improve manufacturing processes but also to design these materials for the specific applications. One of the things that this translates to is understanding how failure initiates and grows in these materials and at what loads, especially around internal flaws such as voids or features such as ply drops. Traditional methods of investigating internal damage such as CT lack the resolution to resolve ply level damage in composites. Interrupted testing with layer removal can be used to investigate internal damage using microscopy; however this is a destructive method. Advanced techniques such as such as DIC are useful for in-situ damage detection, however are limited to surface information and would not enable interrogating the volume. Computed tomography has become a state of the art technique for metrology and complete volumetric investigation especially for metallic components. However, its application to the composite world is still nascent. This paper demonstrates micro-CT’s capability as a gauge to quantitatively estimate the extent of damage and understand the propagation of damage in PMC composites while the component is under stress.

  18. An Investigation of Vascular Strategies to Augment Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kaffas, Ahmed Nagy

    Radiation therapy is administered to more than 50% of patients diagnosed with cancer. Mechanisms of interaction between radiation and tumour cells are relatively well understood on a molecular level, but much remains uncertain regarding how radiation interacts with the tumour as a whole. Recent studies have suggested that tumour response to radiation may in fact be regulated by endothelial cell response, consequently stressing the role of tumour blood vessels in radiation treatment response. As a result, various treatment regimens have been proposed to strategically combine radiation with vascular targeting agents. A great deal of effort has been aimed towards developing efficient vascular targeting agents. Nonetheless, no optimal method has yet been devised to strategically deliver such agents. Recent evidence suggesting that these drugs may "normalize" tumour blood vessels and enhance radiosensitivity, is supporting experiments where anti-angiogenic drugs are combined with cytotoxic therapies such as radiotherapy. In contrast, ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles have recently been demonstrated to enhance radiation therapy by biophysically interacting with endothelial cells. When combined with single radiation doses, these microbubbles are believed to cause localized vascular destruction followed by tumour cell death. Finally, a new form of 'pro-angiogenics' has also been demonstrated to induce a therapeutic tumour response. The overall aim of this thesis is to study the role of tumour blood vessels in treatment responses to single-dose radiation therapy and to investigate radiation-based vascular targeting strategies. Using pharmacological and biophysical agents, blood vessels were altered to determine how they influence tumour cell death, clonogenicity, and tumour growth, and to study how these may be optimally combined with radiation. Three-dimensional high-frequency power Doppler ultrasound was used throughout these studies to investigate vascular response to

  19. Inactivation of NADPH Oxidases NOX4 and NOX5 Protects Human Primary Fibroblasts from Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Weyemi, Urbain; Redon, Christophe E.; Aziz, Towqir; Choudhuri, Rohini; Maeda, Daisuke; Parekh, Palak R.; Bonner, Michael Y.; Arbiser, Jack L.; Bonner, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to ionizing radiation from medical procedures has increased sharply in the last three decades. Recent epidemiological studies suggest a direct relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and health problems, including cancer incidence. Therefore, minimizing the impact of radiation exposure in patients has become a priority in the development of future clinical practices. Crucial players in radiation-induced DNA damage include reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the sources of these have remained elusive. To the best of our knowledge, we show here for the first time that two members of the ROS-generating NADPH oxidase family (NOXs), NOX4 and NOX5, are involved in radiation-induced DNA damage. Depleting these two NOXs in human primary fibroblasts resulted in reduced levels of DNA damage as measured by levels of radiation-induced foci, a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and the comet assay coupled with increased cell survival. NOX involvement was substantiated with fulvene-5, a NOXs-specific inhibitor. Moreover, fulvene-5 mitigated radiation-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells ex vivo. Our results provide evidence that the inactivation of NOXs protects cells from radiation-induced DNA damage and cell death. These findings suggest that NOXs inhibition may be considered as a future pharmacological target to help minimize the negative effects of radiation exposure for millions of patients each year. PMID:25706776

  20. Reduction of arsenite-enhanced ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage by supplemental zinc.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Karen L; King, Brenee S; Sandoval, Monica M; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen and there is evidence that arsenic augments the carcinogenicity of DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) thereby acting as a co-carcinogen. Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism to account for the co-carcinogenic actions of arsenic. We and others find that arsenite interferes with the function of certain zinc finger DNA repair proteins. Furthermore, we reported that zinc reverses the effects of arsenite in cultured cells and a DNA repair target protein, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. In order to determine whether zinc ameliorates the effects of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and in an in vivo model, normal human epidermal keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to arsenite, zinc or both before solar-simulated (ss) UVR exposure. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, DNA damage and mutation frequencies at the Hprt locus were measured in each treatment group in normal human keratinocytes. DNA damage was assessed in vivo by immunohistochemical staining of skin sections isolated from SKH-1 hairless mice. Cell-based findings demonstrate that ssUVR-induced DNA damage and mutagenesis are enhanced by arsenite, and supplemental zinc partially reverses the arsenite effect. In vivo studies confirm that zinc supplementation decreases arsenite-enhanced DNA damage in response to ssUVR exposure. From these data we can conclude that zinc offsets the impact of arsenic on ssUVR-stimulated DNA damage in cells and in vivo suggesting that zinc supplementation may provide a strategy to improve DNA repair capacity in arsenic exposed human populations. PMID:23523584

  1. Radiation damage characterization in reactor pressure vessel steels with nonlinear ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, K. H.; Kim, J.-Y.; Wall, J. J.; Qu, J.; Jacobs, L. J.

    2014-02-18

    Nuclear generation currently accounts for roughly 20% of the US baseload power generation. Yet, many US nuclear plants are entering their first period of life extension and older plants are currently undergoing assessment of technical basis to operate beyond 60 years. This means that critical components, such as the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), will be exposed to higher levels of radiation than they were originally intended to withstand. Radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel steels causes microstructural changes such as vacancy clusters, precipitates, dislocations, and interstitial loops that leave the material in an embrittled state. The development of a nondestructive evaluation technique to characterize the effect of radiation exposure on the properties of the RPV would allow estimation of the remaining integrity of the RPV with time. Recent research has shown that nonlinear ultrasound is sensitive to radiation damage. The physical effect monitored by nonlinear ultrasonic techniques is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave, arising from the interaction of the ultrasonic wave with microstructural features such as dislocations, precipitates, and their combinations. Current findings relating the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter to increasing levels of neutron fluence for different representative RPV materials are presented.

  2. Ionizing radiation-induced DNA injury and damage detection in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Borrego-Soto, Gissela; Ortiz-López, Rocío; Rojas-Martínez, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Radiotherapy is frequently used in patients with breast cancer, but some patients may be more susceptible to ionizing radiation, and increased exposure to radiation sources may be associated to radiation adverse events. This susceptibility may be related to deficiencies in DNA repair mechanisms that are activated after cell-radiation, which causes DNA damage, particularly DNA double strand breaks. Some of these genetic susceptibilities in DNA-repair mechanisms are implicated in the etiology of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (pathologic mutations in the BRCA 1 and 2 genes), but other less penetrant variants in genes involved in sporadic breast cancer have been described. These same genetic susceptibilities may be involved in negative radiotherapeutic outcomes. For these reasons, it is necessary to implement methods for detecting patients who are susceptible to radiotherapy-related adverse events. This review discusses mechanisms of DNA damage and repair, genes related to these functions, and the diagnosis methods designed and under research for detection of breast cancer patients with increased radiosensitivity. PMID:26692152

  3. Repair of clustered DNA damage caused by high LET radiation in human fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydberg, B.; Lobrich, M.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated experimentally that DNA damage induced by high LET radiation in mammalian cells is non-randomly distributed along the DNA molecule in the form of clusters of various sizes. The sizes of such clusters range from a few base-pairs to at least 200 kilobase-pairs. The high biological efficiency of high LET radiation for induction of relevant biological endpoints is probably a consequence of this clustering, although the exact mechanisms by which the clustering affects the biological outcome is not known. We discuss here results for induction and repair of base damage, single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks for low and high LET radiations. These results are discussed in the context of clustering. Of particular interest is to determine how clustering at different scales affects overall rejoining and fidelity of rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks. However, existing methods for measuring repair of DNA strand breaks are unable to resolve breaks that are close together in a cluster. This causes problems in interpretation of current results from high LET radiation and will require new methods to be developed.

  4. Oxidative Lung Damage Resulting from Repeated Exposure to Radiation and Hyperoxia Associated with Space Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Turowski, Jason B; Arguiri, Evguenia; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Solomides, Charalambos C; Thom, Stephen R; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2013-01-01

    Background Spaceflight missions may require crewmembers to conduct Extravehicular Activities (EVA) for repair, maintenance or scientific purposes. Pre-breathe protocols in preparation for an EVA entail 100% hyperoxia exposure that may last for a few hours (5-8 hours), and may be repeated 2-3 times weekly. Each EVA is associated with additional challenges such as low levels of total body cosmic/galactic radiation exposure that may present a threat to crewmember health and therefore, pose a threat to the success of the mission. We have developed a murine model of combined, hyperoxia and radiation exposure (double-hit) in the context of evaluating countermeasures to oxidative lung damage associated with space flight. In the current study, our objective was to characterize the early and chronic effects of repeated single and double-hit challenge on lung tissue using a novel murine model of repeated exposure to low-level total body radiation and hyperoxia. This is the first study of its kind evaluating lung damage relevant to space exploration in a rodent model. Methods Mouse cohorts (n=5-15/group) were exposed to repeated: a) normoxia; b) >95% O2 (O2); c) 0.25Gy single fraction gamma radiation (IR); or d) a combination of O2 and IR (O2+IR) given 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Lungs were evaluated for oxidative damage, active TGFβ1 levels, cell apoptosis, inflammation, injury, and fibrosis at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-initiation of exposure. Results Mouse cohorts exposed to all challenge conditions displayed decreased bodyweight compared to untreated controls at 4 and 8 weeks post-challenge initiation. Chronic oxidative lung damage to lipids (malondialdehyde levels), DNA (TUNEL, cleaved Caspase 3, cleaved PARP positivity) leading to apoptotic cell death and to proteins (nitrotyrosine levels) was elevated all treatment groups. Importantly, significant systemic oxidative stress was also noted at the late phase in mouse plasma, BAL fluid, and urine. Importantly

  5. Targeting the Renin–Angiotensin System Combined With an Antioxidant Is Highly Effective in Mitigating Radiation-Induced Lung Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, Javed; Jelveh, Salomeh; Zaidi, Asif; Doctrow, Susan R.; Medhora, Meetha; Hill, Richard P.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the outcome of suppression of the renin angiotensin system using captopril combined with an antioxidant (Eukarion [EUK]-207) for mitigation of radiation-induced lung damage in rats. Methods and Materials: The thoracic cavity of female Sprague-Dawley rats was irradiated with a single dose of 11 Gy. Treatment with captopril at a dose of 40 mg/kg/d in drinking water and EUK-207 given by subcutaneous injection (8 mg/kg daily) was started 1 week after irradiation (PI) and continuing until 14 weeks PI. Breathing rate was monitored until the rats were killed at 32 weeks PI, when lung fibrosis was assessed by lung hydroxyproline content. Lung levels of the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 and macrophage activation were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed by 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels, and lipid peroxidation was measured by a T-BARS assay. Results: The increase in breathing rate in the irradiated rats was significantly reduced by the drug treatments. The drug treatment also significantly decreased the hydroxyproline content, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde levels, and levels of activated macrophages and the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 at 32 weeks. Almost complete mitigation of these radiation effects was observed by combining captopril and EUK-207. Conclusion: Captopril and EUK-207 can provide mitigation of radiation-induced lung damage out to at least 32 weeks PI after treatment given 1-14 weeks PI. Overall the combination of captopril and EUK-207 was more effective than the individual drugs used alone.

  6. Dose Rate Effects on Damage and Recovery of Radiation Hard Glass Under Gamma Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchini, Francesca; Baccaro, Stefania; Cemmi, Alessia; di Sarcina, Ilaria; Fiore, Salvatore; Piegari, Angela

    2014-06-01

    Optical systems employed in space missions are subjected to high fluxes of energetic particles. Their optical properties should be stable throughout the whole mission, to avoid a possible failure of the experiments. Radiation hard glasses are widely used as substrates or windows in high-energy applications, due to their resistance in hostile environments where energetic particles and γ rays are present. In this work we have irradiated radiation resistant glass windows by γ rays from a 60Co source at several doses, from 50 to 3×l05 Gy, and at two different dose rates. The optical properties of the samples have been monitored and the effects of radiations have been measured. Moreover, a partial recovery of the damage has been observed after the end of irradiation. The effects depend on the irradiation dose rate.

  7. An evaluation of radiation damage to solid state components flown in low earth orbit satellites.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myung-Won; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2004-01-01

    The effects of total ionising radiation dose upon commercial off-the-shelf semiconductors fitted to satellites operating in low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions was evaluated. The evaluation was performed for the Korea Institute of Technology SATellite-1, (KITSAT-1) which was equipped with commercial solid state components. Two approximate calculation models for space radiation shielding were developed. Verification was performed by comparing the results with detailed three-dimensional calculations using the Monte-Carlo method and measured data from KITSAT-1. It was confirmed that the developed approximate models were reliable for satellite shielding calculations. It was also found that commercial semiconductor devices, which were not radiation hardened, could be damaged within their lifetime due to the total ionising dose they are subject to in the LEO environment. To conclude, an intensive shielding analysis should be considered when commercial devices are used. PMID:15103058

  8. Spatiotemporal characterization of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage foci and their relation to chromatin organization

    SciTech Connect

    Costes, Sylvain V; Chiolo, Irene; Pluth, Janice M.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Jakob, Burkhard

    2009-09-15

    DNA damage sensing proteins have been shown to localize to the sites of DSB within seconds to minutes following ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, resulting in the formation of microscopically visible nuclear domains referred to as radiation-induced foci (RIF). This review characterizes the spatio-temporal properties of RIF at physiological doses, minutes to hours following exposure to ionizing radiation, and it proposes a model describing RIF formation and resolution as a function of radiation quality and nuclear densities. Discussion is limited to RIF formed by three interrelated proteins ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated), 53BP1 (p53 binding protein 1) and ?H2AX (phosphorylated variant histone H2AX). Early post-IR, we propose that RIF mark chromatin reorganization, leading to a local nuclear scaffold rigid enough to keep broken DNA from diffusing away, but open enough to allow the repair machinery. We review data indicating clear kinetic and physical differences between RIF emerging from dense and uncondensed regions of the nucleus. At later time post-IR, we propose that persistent RIF observed days following exposure to ionizing radiation are nuclear ?scars? marking permanent disruption of the chromatin architecture. When DNA damage is resolved, such chromatin modifications should not necessarily lead to growth arrest and it has been shown that persistent RIF can replicate during mitosis. Thus, heritable persistent RIF spanning over tens of Mbp may affect the transcriptome of a large progeny of cells. This opens the door for a non DNA mutation-based mechanism of radiation-induced phenotypes.

  9. Intermediate structures in radiation damaged titanite (CaTiSiO5): a Raman spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Salje, Ekhard K H; Redfern, Simon A T; Bismayer, Ulrich; Groat, Lee A

    2013-03-20

    Effects of radiation damage and thermal annealing on the crystal structure of natural titanite (CaTiSiO(5)) were studied using Raman spectroscopy. The results show that well crystallized natural titanites generally have the P2(1)/a structure at the unit cell level, in contrast to the A2/a symmetry reported previously. Radiation caused by naturally incorporated impurities (such as U and Th) leads to structural damage and amorphization in titanite, as evidenced by a significant loss of band intensity, spectral broadening and frequency shifts. Additional bands (e.g. near 574 and 650 cm(-1)) occur in weakly or partially metamict titanite due to the formation of an intermediate phase (with the A2/a symmetry). Raman spectra of titanite thermal glasses showed features different from those of metamict titanite, especially in the Ti-O and Si-O stretching regions. The effect of thermal annealing is strongly affected by the initial degrees of damage that the sample experienced. Weakly damaged titanite samples showed that annealing leads to a structural recovery, and the spectral patterns of these recovered crystals are consistent with the P2(1)/a symmetry. Highly damaged titanite starts to recrystallize into an A2/a phase near 700-800 K, and additional structural modification occurs when annealed at 1300-1400 K, which involves significant change in broad Ti-O features. However, in terms of bandwidths, the metamict samples are far from fully recovered even on being annealed at 1300-1400 K. PMID:23407062

  10. Investigation of Orbital Debris Impacts on Shuttle Radiator Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Kerr, Justin H.; Lyons, Frankel; Herrin, Jason H.; Ryan, Shannon J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents the data collected from two hypervelocity micro-meteoroid orbital debris (MMOD) impact events where the shuttle payload bay door radiator sandwich panel was completely perforated. Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy-Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis of impact residue provided evidence to identify the source of each impact. Impact site features that indicate projectile directionality are discussed, along with hypervelocity impact testing on representative samples conducted to simulate the impact event. The paper provides results of a study of impact risks for the size of particles that caused the MMOD damage and the regions of the orbiter vehicle that would be vulnerable to an equivalent projectile

  11. Global radiation damage at 300 and 260 K with dose rates approaching 1 MGy s{sup −1}

    SciTech Connect

    Warkentin, Matthew; Badeau, Ryan; Hopkins, Jesse B.; Mulichak, Anne M.; Keefe, Lisa J.; Thorne, Robert E.

    2012-02-01

    Approximately half of global radiation damage to thaumatin crystals can be outrun at 260 K if data are collected in less than 1 s. Global radiation damage to 19 thaumatin crystals has been measured using dose rates from 3 to 680 kGy s{sup −1}. At room temperature damage per unit dose appears to be roughly independent of dose rate, suggesting that the timescales for important damage processes are less than ∼1 s. However, at T = 260 K approximately half of the global damage manifested at dose rates of ∼10 kGy s{sup −1} can be outrun by collecting data at 680 kGy s{sup −1}. Appreciable sample-to-sample variability in global radiation sensitivity at fixed dose rate is observed. This variability cannot be accounted for by errors in dose calculation, crystal slippage or the size of the data sets in the assay.

  12. Community fear of nonionizing radiation: a field investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, M.L.; Morton, W.E.; Chartier, V.; Zajac, H.; Benitez, H.

    1985-03-01

    Four children from the same school class developed cancer. Because of concern in the community, a field study designed to document levels of environmental, nonionizing radiation was undertaken. Two school sites were investigated, the one with the cluster of cases and the other without known cases of cancer. The measured values of nonionizing radiation at both sites were not different and were well below existing exposure standards.

  13. a Study of Biophysical Mechanisms of Damage by Ionizing Radiation to Mammalian Cells in Vitro.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Zhang

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. An extensive survey made of published survival data of damage by ionizing radiation to mammalian cells in vitro has led to the new conclusion that the damage is determined by the specific ionization or the mean free path between ionizing events along the charged particle tracks. The optimum damage is observed when the mean free path is equivalent to the DNA double strand spacing of 1.8 nm. Therefore, the biological mechanism of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells in vitro is intra track dominant. A 100 keV electron accelerator has been constructed and commissioned to produce a broad beam irradiation field of greater than 1 cm diameter. The fluence rate may be adjusted from 10^8cm^ {-2}sec^{-1} downwards to enable further development as a chronic irradiation facility. Another new feature of the accelerator is that it incorporates a differential vacuum system which permits irradiation of the monolayer cell cultures to be carried out in normal pressure. Experiments of irradiation to Chinese hamster cells, by ^{241}Am alpha particles at low fluence rate, have supplied satisfactory data for testing a new DNA-rupture model which is under development. For V79 cells irradiated at a low fluence rate of 10^5cm^{ -2}min^{-1}, when survival data were fitted into the model, new biophysical parameters were extracted and a proposal was made that the repair phenomenon of cellular survival at very low doses is determined by three time factors: the irradiation time, the damage fixation time and the repair time. The values obtained were 3-4 hours for the mean repair time, and more than 10 hours for the damage to be considered permanent. Details of the monolayer cell culture technique developed and used in the present experiments are described. Consideration has been given to the significance of the results obtained from the study in radiation protection and in radiotherapy. In future studies it is recommended that more

  14. Study the radiation damage effects in Si microstrip detectors for future HEP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalwani, Kavita; Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2016-07-01

    Silicon (Si) detectors are playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their superior tracking capabilities. In future HEP experiments, like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, the silicon tracking detectors will be operated in a very intense radiation environment. This leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors, which in turn will affect the operating performance of Si detectors. It is important to complement the measurements of the irradiated Si strip detectors with device simulation, which helps in understanding of both the device behavior and optimizing the design parameters needed for the future Si tracking system. An important ingredient of the device simulation is to develop a radiation damage model incorporating both bulk and surface damage. In this work, a simplified two-trap model is incorporated in device simulation to describe the type-inversion. Further, an extensive simulation of effective doping density as well as electric field profile is carried out at different temperatures for various fluences.

  15. Imaging of radiation damage using complementary field ion microscopy and atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Dagan, Michal; Hanna, Luke R; Xu, Alan; Roberts, Steve G; Smith, George D W; Gault, Baptiste; Edmondson, Philip D; Bagot, Paul A J; Moody, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Radiation damage in tungsten and a tungsten-tantalum alloy, both of relevance to nuclear fusion research, has been characterized using a combination of field ion microscopy (FIM) imaging and atom probe tomography (APT). While APT provides 3D analytical imaging with sub-nanometer resolution, FIM is capable of imaging the arrangements of single atoms on a crystal lattice and has the potential to provide insights into radiation induced crystal damage, all the way down to its smallest manifestation--a single vacancy. This paper demonstrates the strength of combining these characterization techniques. In ion implanted tungsten, it was found that atomic scale lattice damage is best imaged using FIM. In certain cases, APT reveals an identifiable imprint in the data via the segregation of solute and impurities and trajectory aberrations. In a W-5at%Ta alloy, a combined APT-FIM study was able to determine the atomic distribution of tantalum inside the tungsten matrix. An indirect method was implemented to identify tantalum atoms inside the tungsten matrix in FIM images. By tracing irregularities in the evaporation sequence of atoms imaged with FIM, this method enables the benefit of FIM's atomic resolution in chemical distinction between the two species. PMID:25794822

  16. Energy Thresholds of DNA Damage Induced by UV Radiation: An XPS Study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P J; Ferraria, A M; Botelho do Rego, A M; Hoffmann, S V; Ribeiro, P A; Raposo, M

    2015-04-30

    This work stresses on damage at the molecular level caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV) in the range from 3.5 to 8 eV, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) films observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Detailed quantitative XPS analysis, in which all the amounts are relative to sodium-assumed not to be released from the samples, of the carbon, oxygen, and particularly, nitrogen components, reveals that irradiation leads to sugar degradation with CO-based compounds release for energies above 6.9 eV and decrease of nitrogen groups which are not involved in hydrogen bonding at energies above 4.2 eV. Also the phosphate groups are seen to decrease to energies above 4.2 eV. Analysis of XPS spectra allowed to conclude that the damage on bases peripheral nitrogen atoms are following the damage on phosphates. It suggests that very low kinetic energy photoelectrons are ejected from the DNA bases, as a result of UV light induced breaking of the phosphate ester groups which forms a transient anion with resonance formation and whereby most of the nitrogen DNA peripheral groups are removed. The degree of ionization of DNA was observed to increase with radiation energy, indicating that the ionized phosphate groups are kept unchanged. This result was interpreted by the shielding of phosphate groups caused by water molecules hydration near sodium atoms. PMID:25844940

  17. Vacuum Ultraviolet and Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Effect of Hydrogenated Silicon Nitride Etching: Surface Reaction Enhancement and Damage Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukasawa, Masanaga; Miyawaki, Yudai; Kondo, Yusuke; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sekine, Makoto; Matsugai, Hiroyasu; Honda, Takayoshi; Minami, Masaki; Uesawa, Fumikatsu; Hori, Masaru; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    Photon-enhanced etching of SiNx:H films caused by the interaction between vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)/ultraviolet (UV) radiation and radicals in the fluorocarbon plasma was investigated by a technique with a novel sample setup of the pallet for plasma evaluation. The simultaneous injection of UV radiation and radicals causes a dramatic etch rate enhancement of SiNx:H films. Only UV radiation causes the film shrinkage of SiNx:H films owing to hydrogen desorption from the film. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of SiNx:H/Si substrates were studied before and after UV radiation. The interface trap density increased monotonically upon irradiating the UV photons with a wavelength of 248 nm. The estimated effective interface trap generation probability is 4.74 ×10-7 eV-1·photon-1. Therefore, the monitoring of the VUV/UV spectra during plasma processing and the understanding of its impact on the surface reaction, film damage and electrical performance of underlying devices are indispensable to fabricate advanced devices.

  18. Prevention of UVB Radiation-induced Epidermal Damage by Expression of Heat Shock Protein 70*

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Minoru; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Maji, Daisuke; Sato, Keizo; Adachi, Hiroaki; Sobue, Gen; Ihn, Hironobu; Funasaka, Yoko; Mizushima, Tohru

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation with UV light, especially UVB, causes epidermal damage via the induction of apoptosis, inflammatory responses, and DNA damage. Various stressors, including UV light, induce heat shock proteins (HSPs) and the induction, particularly that of HSP70, provides cellular resistance to such stressors. The anti-inflammatory activity of HSP70, such as its inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), was recently revealed. These in vitro results suggest that HSP70 protects against UVB-induced epidermal damage. Here we tested this idea by using transgenic mice expressing HSP70 and cultured keratinocytes. Irradiation of wild-type mice with UVB caused epidermal damage such as induction of apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing HSP70. UVB-induced apoptosis in cultured keratinocytes was suppressed by overexpression of HSP70. Irradiation of wild-type mice with UVB decreased the cutaneous level of IκB-α (an inhibitor of NF-κB) and increased the infiltration of leukocytes and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the epidermis. These inflammatory responses were suppressed in transgenic mice expressing HSP70. In vitro, the overexpression of HSP70 suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and increased the level of IκB-α in keratinocytes irradiated with UVB. UVB induced an increase in cutaneous levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, both of which were suppressed in transgenic mice expressing HSP70. This study provides genetic evidence that HSP70 protects the epidermis from UVB-induced radiation damage. The findings here also suggest that the protective action of HSP70 is mediated by anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-DNA damage effects. PMID:20018843

  19. Radiation damage measurements on rock salt and other minerals for waste disposal applications. Quarterly report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Swyler, K J; Loman, J M; Teutonico, L J; Elgort, G E; Levy, P W

    1980-04-10

    Different aspects of radiation damage in both synthetic NaCl crystals and various natural rock salt samples as well as granite, basalt and other minerals which will be important for radioactive waste disposal applications are being investigated. The principal means of measuring radiation damage is the determination of F-center concentrations, and the concentration and size of sodium metal colloid particles. Formation of these and other defects during irradiation and the annealing of defects and characterization of other processes occurring after irradiation are being studied as a function of dose rate, total dose, sample temperature during irradiation, strain applied prior to and during irradiation, etc. Measurements are being made on synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt samples from different geological locations, including some potential repository sites. It will be necessary to determine if radiation damage in the minerals from different localities is similar. If non-negligible differences are observed a detailed study must be made for each locality under consideration. Almost all current studies are being made on rock salt but other minerals particularly granite and basalt are being phased into the program. It is now established that radiation damage formation in both natural and synthetic rock salt is strongly dependent on strain. The strain related effects strongly indicate that the damage formation processes and in particular the colloid nucleation processes are related to the strain induced disolcations. A temporary theoretical effort has been started to determine which dislocation related effects are important for radiation damage processes and, most importantly, what dislocation interactions are most likely to create nucleation sites for colloid particles. If these preliminary studies indicate that additional theoretical studies will be useful an effort will be made to have them extended.

  20. Persistence of Space Radiation Induced Cytogenetic Damage in the Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2008-01-01

    Cytogenetic damage in astronaut's peripheral blood lymphocytes is a useful in vivo marker of space radiation induced damage. Moreover, if radiation induced chromosome translocations persist in peripheral blood lymphocytes for many years, as has been assumed, they could potentially be used to measure retrospective doses or prolonged low dose rate exposures. However, as more data becomes available, evidence suggests that the yield of translocations may decline with time after exposure, at least in the case of space radiation exposures. We present our latest follow-up measurements of chromosome aberrations in astronauts blood lymphocytes assessed by FISH painting and collected a various times beginning directly after return from space to several years after flight. For most individuals the analysis of individual time-courses for translocations revealed a temporal decline of yields with different half-lives. Since the level of stable aberrations depends on the interplay between natural loss of circulating T-lymphocytes and replenishment from the stem or progenitor cells, the differences in the rates of decay could be explained by inter-individual variation in lymphocyte turn over. Biodosimetry estimates derived from cytogenetic analysis of samples collected a few days after return to earth lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry. However, a temporal decline in yields may indicate complications with the use of stable aberrations for retrospective dose reconstruction, and the differences in the decay time may reflect individual variability in risk from space radiation exposure. In addition, limited data on multiple flights show a lack of correlation between time in space and translocation yields. Data from one crewmember who has participated in two separate long-duration space missions and has been followed up for over 10 years provides limited information on the effect of repeat flights and show a possible adaptive response to space radiation exposure.

  1. Space Radiation Induced Cytogenetic Damage in the Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of astronauts blood lymphocytes provides a direct in vivo measurement of space radiation damage, which takes into account individual radiosensitivity and considers the influence of microgravity and other stress conditions. We present our latest analyses of chromosome damage in astronauts blood lymphocytes assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting and collected at various times beginning directly after return from space to several years after flight. Dose was derived from frequencies of chromosome exchanges using preflight calibration curves, and the Relative Biological Effect (RBE) was estimated by comparison with individually measured physically absorbed doses. Values for average RBE were compared to the average quality factor (Q), from direct measurements of the lineal energy spectra using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and radiation transport codes. Results prove that cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses on blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk after protracted exposure to space radiation of a few months or more. However, data collected several months or years after flight suggests that the yield of chromosome translocations may decline with time after the mission, indicating that retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate. In addition, limited data on multiple flights show a lack of correlation between time in space and translocation yields. Data from one crewmember, who has participated in two separate long-duration space missions and has been followed up for over 10 years, provide limited information on the effect of repeat flights and show a possible adaptive response to space radiation exposure.

  2. Influence of complex impurity centres on radiation damage in wide-gap metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lushchik, A.; Lushchik, Ch.; Popov, A. I.; Schwartz, K.; Shablonin, E.; Vasil'chenko, E.

    2016-05-01

    Different mechanisms of radiation damage of wide-gap metal oxides as well as a dual influence of impurity ions on the efficiency of radiation damage have been considered on the example of binary ionic MgO and complex ionic-covalent Lu3Al5O12 single crystals. Particular emphasis has been placed on irradiation with ∼2 GeV heavy ions (197Au, 209Bi, 238U, fluence of 1012 ions/cm2) providing extremely high density of electronic excitations within ion tracks. Besides knock-out mechanism for Frenkel pair formation, the additional mechanism through the collapse of mobile discrete breathers at certain lattice places (e.g., complex impurity centres) leads to the creation of complex defects that involve a large number of host atoms. The experimental manifestations of the radiation creation of intrinsic and impurity antisite defects (Lu|Al or Ce|Al - a heavy ion in a wrong cation site) have been detected in LuAG and LuAG:Ce3+ single crystals. Light doping of LuAG causes a small enhancement of radiation resistance, while pair impurity centres (for instance, Ce|Lu-Ce|Al or Cr3+-Cr3+ in MgO) are formed with a rise of impurity concentration. These complex impurity centres as well as radiation-induced intrinsic antisite defects (Lu|Al strongly interacting with Lu in a regular site) tentatively serve as the places for breathers collapse, thus decreasing the material resistance against dense irradiation.

  3. Direct Radiation Damage to Crystalline DNA: What is the Source of Unaltered Base Release?

    PubMed Central

    Razskazovskiy, Yuriy; Debije, Michael G.; Bernhard, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The radiation chemical yields of unaltered base release have been measured in three crystalline double-stranded DNA oligomers after X irradiation at 4 K. The yields of released bases are between 10 and 20% of the total free radical yields measured at 4 K. Using these numbers, we estimate that the yield of DNA strand breaks due to the direct effect is about 0.1 μmol J−1. The damage responsible for base release is independent of the base type (C, G, A or T) and is not scavenged by anthracycline drugs intercalated in the DNA. For these reasons, reactions initiated by the hydroxyl radical have been ruled out as the source of base release. Since the intercalated anthracycline scavenges electrons and holes completely but does not inhibit base release, the possibility for damage transfer from the bases to the sugars can also be ruled out. The results are consistent with a model in which primary radical cations formed directly on the sugar-phosphate backbone react by two competing pathways: deprotonation, which localizes the damage on the sugar, and hole tunneling, which transfers the damage to the base stack. Quantitative estimates indicate that these two processes are approximately equally efficient. PMID:10761004

  4. Radiation damage of the PCO Pixelfly VGA CCD camera of the BES system on KSTAR tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Náfrádi, Gábor; Kovácsik, Ákos; Pór, Gábor; Lampert, Máté; Un Nam, Yong; Zoletnik, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    A PCO Pixelfly VGA CCD camera which is part a of the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic system of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) used for spatial calibrations, suffered from serious radiation damage, white pixel defects have been generated in it. The main goal of this work was to identify the origin of the radiation damage and to give solutions to avoid it. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) model was built using Monte Carlo Modeling Interface Program (MCAM) and calculations were carried out to predict the neutron and gamma-ray fields in the camera position. Besides the MCNPX calculations pure gamma-ray irradiations of the CCD camera were carried out in the Training Reactor of BME. Before, during and after the irradiations numerous frames were taken with the camera with 5 s long exposure times. The evaluation of these frames showed that with the applied high gamma-ray dose (1.7 Gy) and dose rate levels (up to 2 Gy/h) the number of the white pixels did not increase. We have found that the origin of the white pixel generation was the neutron-induced thermal hopping of the electrons which means that in the future only neutron shielding is necessary around the CCD camera. Another solution could be to replace the CCD camera with a more radiation tolerant one for example with a suitable CMOS camera or apply both solutions simultaneously.

  5. Trans-Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells: A Therapeutic Mechanism Against the Radiation Induced Brain Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong Gu; Lee, Se Jeong; Kim, Kang Ho; Yang, Heekyoung; Lee, Young-Ae; Cho, Yu Jin; Im, Yong-Seok; Lee, Dong-Sup; Lim, Do-Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Um, Hong-Duck; Lee, Sang-Hun; Lee, Jung-II; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an indispensable therapeutic modality for various brain diseases. Though endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) would provide regenerative potential, many patients nevertheless suffer from radiation-induced brain damage. Accordingly, we tested beneficial effects of exogenous NSC supplementation using in vivo mouse models that received whole brain irradiation. Systemic supplementation of primarily cultured mouse fetal NSCs inhibited radiation-induced brain atrophy and thereby preserved brain functions such as short-term memory. Transplanted NSCs migrated to the irradiated brain and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, or oligodendrocytes. In addition, neurotrophic factors such as NGF were significantly increased in the brain by NSCs, indicating that both paracrine and replacement effects could be the therapeutic mechanisms of NSCs. Interestingly, NSCs also differentiated into brain endothelial cells, which was accompanied by the restoration the cerebral blood flow that was reduced from the irradiation. Inhibition of the VEGF signaling reduced the migration and trans-differentiation of NSCs. Therefore, trans-differentiation of NSCs into brain endothelial cells by the VEGF signaling and the consequential restoration of the cerebral blood flow would also be one of the therapeutic mechanisms of NSCs. In summary, our data demonstrate that exogenous NSC supplementation could prevent radiation-induced functional loss of the brain. Therefore, successful combination of brain radiation therapy and NSC supplementation would provide a highly promising therapeutic option for patients with various brain diseases. PMID:22347993

  6. Radiation damage control on apatite (U-Th)/He dates from the Grand Canyon region, Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, R. M.; Shuster, D. L.; Wernicke, B. P.; Farley, K. A.

    2007-05-01

    Individual detrital apatite grains from the Esplanade, Coconino, and Moenkopi Formations in the Grand Canyon region of the Colorado Plateau yield (U-Th)/He dates from 104 to 5 Ma. The range of dates within each unit far exceeds analytical uncertainty, but correlates with both He concentration [He] and effective U concentration [eU]. These dates are all significantly younger than the sandstone units, indicating partial to complete He loss following deposition. Recently published laboratory diffusion data suggest that He retentivity in apatite increases with radiation damage. Forward models predict that the consequences of this effect will be manifested most clearly as a correlation between (U-Th)/He dates and the [He] and [eU] in suites of apatites that (1) are characterized by a large span of [eU], and (2) had thermal histories in which sufficient time elapsed for the apatite He diffusion kinetics to diverge prior to reheating and partial resetting. Apatites in the sedimentary units investigated fit these cri teria. Using geologically reasonable deposition, burial, and unroofing histories, simulations that include the effect of radiation damage on apatite He retentivity can reproduce the observed distributions of apatite dates and correlations with parent and daughter concentrations. These results suggest that a span of (U-Th)/He dates positively correlated with [eU] may provide important information regarding a sample's thermal history.

  7. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on the reduction of ultraviolet radiation-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Masuma, Runa; Okuno, Tsutomu; Kabir Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    The safety of Tinospora cordifolia and its potential to protect against ultraviolet radiation-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in PC12 cells were investigated. To evaluate the safety of T. cordifolia, cell viability and agarose gel electrophoresis were carried out using PC12 cells treated with 0 to 100 μg mL(-1) of methanol extract of T. cordifolia. T. cordifolia extracts did not show cytotoxicity ranging 0 to 100 μg mL(-1). In addition, T. cordifolia extracts significantly increased cell viability at 1 ng, 10 ng and 1 μg mL(-1) concentrations in serum-deprived medium compared to control. To confirm the protective role against UV-induced damage, PC12 cells alone or in the presence of 10 ng, 100 ng, or 1 μg mL(-1) of T. cordifolia extract were exposed to 250, 270 and 290 nm of UV radiation, which corresponded to doses of 120, 150 and 300 mJ cm(-2), respectively. Treatment with T. cordifolia extracts significantly increased the cell survival rate irradiated at 290 nm. In addition, T. cordifolia extracts significantly reduced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation induced by UV irradiation at all wavelengths. In conclusion, T. cordifolia is not toxic and safe for cells. Our findings can support its application as phototherapy in the medical sector. PMID:24762179

  8. DNA base damage by reactive oxygen species, oxidizing agents, and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J Richard

    2013-02-01

    Emphasis has been placed in this article dedicated to DNA damage on recent aspects of the formation and measurement of oxidatively generated damage in cellular DNA in order to provide a comprehensive and updated survey. This includes single pyrimidine and purine base lesions, intrastrand cross-links, purine 5',8-cyclonucleosides, DNA-protein adducts and interstrand cross-links formed by the reactions of either the nucleobases or the 2-deoxyribose moiety with the hydroxyl radical, one-electron oxidants, singlet oxygen, and hypochlorous acid. In addition, recent information concerning the mechanisms of formation, individual measurement, and repair-rate assessment of bipyrimidine photoproducts in isolated cells and human skin upon exposure to UVB radiation, UVA photons, or solar simulated light is critically reviewed. PMID:23378590

  9. DNA Base Damage by Reactive Oxygen Species, Oxidizing Agents, and UV Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J. Richard

    2013-01-01

    Emphasis has been placed in this article dedicated to DNA damage on recent aspects of the formation and measurement of oxidatively generated damage in cellular DNA in order to provide a comprehensive and updated survey. This includes single pyrimidine and purine base lesions, intrastrand cross-links, purine 5′,8-cyclonucleosides, DNA–protein adducts and interstrand cross-links formed by the reactions of either the nucleobases or the 2-deoxyribose moiety with the hydroxyl radical, one-electron oxidants, singlet oxygen, and hypochlorous acid. In addition, recent information concerning the mechanisms of formation, individual measurement, and repair-rate assessment of bipyrimidine photoproducts in isolated cells and human skin upon exposure to UVB radiation, UVA photons, or solar simulated light is critically reviewed. PMID:23378590

  10. Retinal thermal damage threshold dependence on exposure duration for the transitional near-infrared laser radiation at 1319 nm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiarui; Jiao, Luguang; Jing, Xiaomin; Chen, Hongxia; Hu, Xiangjun; Yang, Zaifu

    2016-05-01

    The retinal damage effects induced by transitional near-infrared (NIR) lasers have been investigated for years. However, the damage threshold dependence on exposure duration has not been revealed. In this paper, the in-vivo retinal damage ED50 thresholds were determined in chinchilla grey rabbits for 1319 nm laser radiation for exposure durations from 0.1 s to 10 s. The incident corneal irradiance diameter was fixed at 5 mm. The ED50 thresholds given in terms of the total intraocular energy (TIE) for exposure durations of 0.1, 1 and 10 s were 1.36, 6.33 and 28.6 J respectively. The ED50 thresholds were correlated by a power law equation, ED50 = 6.31t (0.66) [J] where t is time [s], with correlation coefficient R = 0.9999. There exists a sufficient safety margin (factor of 28~60) between the human ED50 thresholds derived from the rabbit and the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) values in the current laser safety standards. PMID:27231639

  11. Retinal thermal damage threshold dependence on exposure duration for the transitional near-infrared laser radiation at 1319 nm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiarui; Jiao, Luguang; Jing, Xiaomin; Chen, Hongxia; Hu, Xiangjun; Yang, Zaifu

    2016-01-01

    The retinal damage effects induced by transitional near-infrared (NIR) lasers have been investigated for years. However, the damage threshold dependence on exposure duration has not been revealed. In this paper, the in-vivo retinal damage ED50 thresholds were determined in chinchilla grey rabbits for 1319 nm laser radiation for exposure durations from 0.1 s to 10 s. The incident corneal irradiance diameter was fixed at 5 mm. The ED50 thresholds given in terms of the total intraocular energy (TIE) for exposure durations of 0.1, 1 and 10 s were 1.36, 6.33 and 28.6 J respectively. The ED50 thresholds were correlated by a power law equation, ED50 = 6.31t0.66 [J] where t is time [s], with correlation coefficient R = 0.9999. There exists a sufficient safety margin (factor of 28~60) between the human ED50 thresholds derived from the rabbit and the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) values in the current laser safety standards. PMID:27231639

  12. Corneal thermal damage threshold dependence on the exposure duration for near-infrared laser radiation at 1319 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiarui; Jiao, Luguang; Chen, Hongxia; Yang, Zaifu; Hu, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    The corneal damage effects induced by 1319-nm transitional near-infrared laser have been investigated for years. However, the damage threshold dependence on exposure duration has not been revealed. The in vivo corneal damage thresholds (ED50s) were determined in New Zealand rabbits for 1319-nm laser radiation for exposure durations from 75 ms to 10 s. An additional corneal ED50 was determined at 1338 nm for a 5-ms exposure. The incident corneal irradiance diameter was fixed at 2 mm for all exposure conditions to avoid the influence of spot size on threshold. The ED50s given in terms of the corneal radiant exposure for exposure durations of 5 ms, 75 ms, 0.35 s, 2 s, and 10 s were 39.4, 51.5, 87.2, 156.3, and 311.1 J/cm2, respectively. The 39.4 J/cm2 was derived from the ED50 for 1338 nm (27.0 J/cm2). The ED50s for exposure durations of 75 ms to 10 s were correlated by a power law equation, ED50=128.9t0.36 in J/cm2, where t was the input in the unit of second, with correlation coefficient (R) of 0.997. Enough safe margins existed between the ED50s and the maximum permitted exposures from current laser safety standard.

  13. Electrode level Monte Carlo model of radiation damage effects on astronomical CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prod'homme, T.; Brown, A. G. A.; Lindegren, L.; Short, A. D. T.; Brown, S. W.

    2011-07-01

    Current optical space telescopes rely upon silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) to detect and image the incoming photons. The performance of a CCD detector depends on its ability to transfer electrons through the silicon efficiently, so that the signal from every pixel may be read out through a single amplifier. This process of electron transfer is highly susceptible to the effects of solar proton damage (or non-ionizing radiation damage). This is because charged particles passing through the CCD displace silicon atoms, introducing energy levels into the semiconductor band gap which act as localized electron traps. The reduction in charge transfer efficiency (CTE) leads to signal loss and image smearing. The European Space Agency's astrometric Gaia mission will make extensive use of CCDs to create the most complete and accurate stereoscopic map to date of the Milky Way. In the context of the Gaia mission CTE is referred to with the complementary quantity charge transfer inefficiency (CTI = 1-CTE). CTI is an extremely important issue that threatens Gaia's performances: the CCDs are very large so that the electrons need to be transferred a long way; the focal plane is also very large and difficult to shield; the mission will operate at second Lagrange point where the direct solar protons are highly energetic (penetrating) and the science requirements on image quality are very stringent. In order to tackle this issue, in depth experimental studies and modelling efforts are being conducted to explore the possible consequences and to mitigate the anticipated effects of radiation damage. We present here a detailed Monte Carlo model that has been developed to simulate the operation of a damaged CCD at the pixel electrode level. This model implements a new approach to both the charge density distribution within a pixel and the charge capture and release probabilities, which allows the reproduction of CTI effects on a variety of measurements for a large signal level range

  14. Quantification of actinide alpha-radiation damage in minerals and ceramics.

    PubMed

    Farnan, Ian; Cho, Herman; Weber, William J

    2007-01-11

    There are large amounts of heavy alpha-emitters in nuclear waste and nuclear materials inventories stored in various sites around the world. These include plutonium and minor actinides such as americium and curium. In preparation for geological disposal there is consensus that actinides that have been separated from spent nuclear fuel should be immobilized within mineral-based ceramics rather than glass because of their superior aqueous durability and lower risk of accidental criticality. However, in the long term, the alpha-decay taking place in these ceramics will severely disrupt their crystalline structure and reduce their durability. A fundamental property in predicting cumulative radiation damage is the number of atoms permanently displaced per alpha-decay. At present, this number is estimated to be 1,000-2,000 atoms/alpha in zircon. Here we report nuclear magnetic resonance, spin-counting experiments that measure close to 5,000 atoms/alpha in radiation-damaged natural zircons. New radiological nuclear magnetic resonance measurements on highly radioactive, 239Pu zircon show damage similar to that caused by 238U and 232Th in mineral zircons at the same dose, indicating no significant effect of half-life or loading levels (dose rate). On the basis of these measurements, the initially crystalline structure of a 10 weight per cent 239Pu zircon would be amorphous after only 1,400 years in a geological repository (desired immobilization timescales are of the order of 250,000 years). These measurements establish a basis for assessing the long-term structural durability of actinide-containing ceramics in terms of an atomistic understanding of the fundamental damage event. PMID:17215840

  15. Age- and time interval-specific gamma radiation-induced DNA damage in adult maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, assessed using comet assays.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Mahbub; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro

    2012-01-24

    The gamma radiation-induced DNA damage in adult maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was assessed using single-cell electrophoresis (comet assay). Analysis of DNA damage following 0.5 and 1.0 kGy of gamma radiation was performed using cells from 1- and 15-day-old adults. Gamma-irradiated adults from both age groups showed typical DNA fragmentation, whereas cells from non-irradiated adults showed more intact DNA than young S. zeamais. Investigations using the comet assay showed that tail length, % tail DNA and % DNA damage all increased in adults of both age groups when compared to the control insects. A maximum comet length of 227.33 μm was recorded for 15-day-old adults at 24h after irradiation with 1.0 kGy and a minimum of 50.12 μm for 1-day-old adults at 0 h after irradiation with 0.5 kGy. The percentage of DNA damage increased up to 57.31% and 68.15% for 1- and 15-day-old adults, respectively, at 24h after irradiation with 1.0 kGy, whereas only 8.58% and 12.22% DNA damage were observed in the control batches. The results also showed that percentage of DNA damage increased at 24h after irradiation compared to that at 0 h. However, further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:22142832

  16. Large-scale transient sensitivity analysis of a radiation damaged bipolar junction transistor.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, Robert John; Gay, David M.; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Phipps, Eric Todd

    2007-11-01

    Automatic differentiation (AD) is useful in transient sensitivity analysis of a computational simulation of a bipolar junction transistor subject to radiation damage. We used forward-mode AD, implemented in a new Trilinos package called Sacado, to compute analytic derivatives for implicit time integration and forward sensitivity analysis. Sacado addresses element-based simulation codes written in C++ and works well with forward sensitivity analysis as implemented in the Trilinos time-integration package Rythmos. The forward sensitivity calculation is significantly more efficient and robust than finite differencing.

  17. Neutron Fluences and Radiation Damage Parameters for the HFIR-MFE-RB-17J Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Glasgow, David C.; Baldwin, Charles A.

    2010-08-23

    The HFIR-MFE-RB-17J experiment was conducted in the removable beryllium (RB) position of HFIR with a Eu2O2 shield. The irradiation was conducted from April 27, 2004, to May 18, 2005. The total exposure was for 353.6 FPD (full power days). Reactor dosimetry capsules were analyzed and the activation data were used to provide the best estimates of the neutron fluences and radiation damage parameters as a function of height relative to midplane of the reactor.

  18. Radiation damage studies of cerium-doped radiation-resistant lead glass detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. R.; Engelmann, R.; Grannis, P. D.; Horstkotte, J.; Godfrey, L.; Linn, S. L.; Marx, M. D.; Timms, J.; Tuts, P. M.; Willins, J.; Ahrens, L.; Aronson, S.; Levy, P. W.; Yamin, P.; Franzini, P.; Youssef, S.; Cutts, D.; Callas, J.

    1985-08-01

    Optical absorption measurements have been made on unirradiated and irradiated samples of cerium oxide doped lead silicate particle detector glasses. The addition of CeO 2 introduces one prominent and one weak absorption band near the ultraviolet transmission limit. However the CeO 2 greatly reduces the rate of formation of the radiation induced absorption. Detector size blocks of lead glass with 0.0, 0.25, and 1.2 weight percent CeO 2 were used to determine the energy resolution for 5 GeV electrons. The resolution deteriorates from 12 to 33% as the CeO 2 changes from 0.0 to 1.2%. At these CeO 2 levels, calculations indicate the yield of doped glass becomes superior to that of undoped glass for doses greater than 500 rad.

  19. Space Radiation Effects on Human Cells: Modeling DNA Breakage, DNA Damage Foci Distribution, Chromosomal Aberrations and Tissue Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Huff, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    Future long-tem space travel will face challenges from radiation concerns as the space environment poses health risk to humans in space from radiations with high biological efficiency and adverse post-flight long-term effects. Solar particles events may dramatically affect the crew performance, while Galactic Cosmic Rays will induce a chronic exposure to high-linear-energy-transfer (LET) particles. These types of radiation, not present on the ground level, can increase the probability of a fatal cancer later in astronaut life. No feasible shielding is possible from radiation in space, especially for the heavy ion component, as suggested solutions will require a dramatic increase in the mass of the mission. Our research group focuses on fundamental research and strategic analysis leading to better shielding design and to better understanding of the biological mechanisms of radiation damage. We present our recent effort to model DNA damage and tissue damage using computational models based on the physics of heavy ion radiation, DNA structure and DNA damage and repair in human cells. Our particular area of expertise include the clustered DNA damage from high-LET radiation, the visualization of DSBs (DNA double strand breaks) via DNA damage foci, image analysis and the statistics of the foci for different experimental situations, chromosomal aberration formation through DSB misrepair, the kinetics of DSB repair leading to a model-derived spectrum of chromosomal aberrations, and, finally, the simulation of human tissue and the pattern of apoptotic cell damage. This compendium of theoretical and experimental data sheds light on the complex nature of radiation interacting with human DNA, cells and tissues, which can lead to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis later in human life after the space mission.

  20. Investigation of MMOD Impact on Shuttle Payload Bay Door Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, J. L.; Christiansen, E. L.; Kerr, J. H.; Lear, D. M.; Bernhard, R. P.; Lyons, F.

    2007-01-01

    Post flight inspections on the Space Shuttle Atlantis conducted after the STS-115 mission revealed a 0.11 inch (2.8 mm) hole in the outer facesheet of the starboard payload bay door radiator panel #4. This hole is the possible result of micrometeoroid/orbiting debris (MMOD) impact. The payload bay door radiators in this region are 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) thick aluminum honeycomb with 0.011 in (0.279 mm) thick aluminum facesheets topped with 0.005 in (0.127 mm) silver-Teflon tape. Inner facesheet damage included a 0.267 in (6.78 mm) long through crack with measurable deformation in the area of 0.2 in (5.1 mm). There was also a 0.031 in (0.787 mm) diameter hole in the rear facesheet. A large approximately 1 in (25 mm) diameter region of honeycomb was also destroyed. Since the radiators are located on the inside of the shuttle payload bay doors which are closed during ascent and reentry, the damage could only have occurred during the on-orbit portion of the mission. This paper will document the data collected from the impact site and will include results of the SEM/EDX analysis. Evidence will be presented that suggests a source of the impact as well as an analysis of the impact site features that indicate projectile directionality. Results of hypervelocity impact testing on representative samples in an attempt to simulate the impact event will be presented and discussed. Finally, the results of a study showing the regions of the orbiter vehicle that would be vulnerable to an equivalent projectile will be given.

  1. Radiation damage and annealing of lithium-doped silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence has been presented that a lithium-diffused crucible-grown silicon solar cell can be made with better efficiency than the flight-quality n p 10 ohms-cm solar cell. When this lithium cell is exposed to a continuous radiation evironment at 60 C (electron spectrum from gamma rays) it has a higher power output than the N/P cell after a fluence equivalent to 1 MeV. A comparison of annealing of proton- and electron-damage in this lithium cell reveals a decidedly faster rate of recovery and higher level of recoverable power from the proton effects. Therefore, the lithium cell shows a good potential for many space missions where the proton flux is a significant fraction of the radiation field to be encountered.

  2. Infrared response measurements on radiation-damaged Si/Li/ detectors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A. H.; Liu, Y. M.; Keery, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The improved infrared response (IRR) technique has been used to qualitatively compare radiation effects on Si(Li) detectors with energy levels reported for silicon in the literature. Measurements have been made on five commercial silicon detectors and one fabricated in-house, both before and after irradiation with fast neutrons, 1.9-MeV protons, and 1.6-MeV electrons. Effects dependent upon the extent of radiation damage have been observed. It seems likely that the photo-EMF, or photo-voltage, effect is the basic mechanism for the observation of IRR in p-i-n diodes with a wide i-region. Experimental characteristics of the IRR measurement are in agreement with those of the photovoltage effect.

  3. Protective effects of analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone against x-radiation-induced testicular damage in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Schally, A.V.; Paz-Bouza, J.I.; Schlosser, J.V.; Karashima, T.; Debeljuk, L.; Gandle, B.; Sampson, M.

    1987-02-01

    Possible protective effects of the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH and antagonist N-Ac(D-Phe(pCl)/sup 1,2/,D-Trp/sup 3/,D-Arg/sup 6/,D-Ala/sup 10/)LH-RH against testicular damage caused by x-radiation were investigated in rats. Three months after being subjected to x-irradiation of the testes with 415 or 622 rads, control rats showed marked reduction in the weights of the testes and elevated levels of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), indicating tubular damage. Histological studies demonstrated that, in testes of rats given 415 rads, most seminiferous tubules had only Sertoli cells and no germinal cells, and, in the group give 622 rads, the depression of spermatogenesis was even more marked. Rats pretreated for 50 days with LH-RH antagonist showed a complete recovery of testicular weights and spermatogenesis 3 months after 415 rads and showed partial recovery after 622 rads, and LH and FSH levels returned to normal in both of these groups. Three experiments were also carried out in which the rats were pretreated for 1-2 months with long-acting microcapsules of the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH. Some rats were then subjected to gonadal irradiation with 415 or 622 rads and allowed a recovery period of 2-4 months. On the basis of testicular weights, histology, and gonadotropin levels, it could be concluded that the agonist (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH did not protect the rat testes exposed to 622 rads and, at most, only partially protected against 415 rads. These results suggest that pretreatment with LH-RH antagonists and possibly agonists, might decrease the testicular damage caused by radiation and accelerate the recovery of reproductive functions.

  4. DETECTION OF LOW DOSE RADIATION-AND CHEMICALLY-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE USING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL FLUORESCENCE ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid, sensitive and simple assays for radiation- and chemically-induced DNA damage can be of significant benefit to a number of fields including radiation biology, clinical research, and environmental monitoring. Although temperature-induced DNA strand separation has been use...

  5. Role of interfaces i nthe design of ultra-high strength, radiation damage tolerant nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Amit; Wang, Yongqiang; Nastasi, Michael A; Baldwin, Jon K; Wei, Qiangmin; Li, Nan; Mara, Nathan; Zhang, Xinghang; Fu, Engang; Anderoglu, Osman; Li, Hongqi; Bhattacharyya, Dhriti

    2010-12-09

    The combination of high strength and high radiation damage tolerance in nanolaminate composites can be achieved when the individual layers in these composites are only a few nanometers thick and contain special interfaces that act both as obstacles to slip, as well as sinks for radiation-induced defects. The morphological and phase stabilities and strength and ductility of these nano-composites under ion irradiation are explored as a function of layer thickness, temperature and interface structure. Magnetron sputtered metallic multilayers such as Cu-Nb and V-Ag with a range of individual layer thickness from approximately 2 nm to 50 nm and the corresponding 1000 nm thick single layer films were implanted with helium ions at room temperature. Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to measure the distribution of helium bubbles and correlated with the helium concentration profile measured vis ion beam analysis techniques to obtain the helium concentration at which bubbles are detected in TEM. It was found that in multilayers the minimum helium concentration to form bubbles (approximately I nm in size) that are easily resolved in through-focus TEM imaging was several atomic %, orders of magnitude higher than that in single layer metal films. This observation is consistent with an increased solubility of helium at interfaces that is predicted by atomistic modeling of the atomic structures of fcc-bcc interfaces. At helium concentrations as high as 7 at.%, a uniform distribution of I nm diameter bubbles results in negligible irradiation hardening and loss of deformability in multi layers with layer thicknesses of a few nanometers. The control of atomic structures of interfaces to produce high helium solubility at interfaces is crucial in the design of nano-composite materials that are radiation damage tolerant. Reduced radiation damage also leads to a reduction in the irradiation hardening, particularly at layer thickness of approximately 5 run

  6. Debris and radiation-induced damage effects on EUV nanolithography source collector mirror optics performance.

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, J. P.; Nieto, M.; Hendricks, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of collector mirrors facing the hot, dense pinch plasma in plasma-based EUV light sources to debris (fast ions, neutrals, off-band radiation, droplets) remains one of the highest critical issues of source component lifetime and commercial feasibility of nanolithography at 13.5-nm. Typical radiators used at 13.5-nm include Xe and Sn. Fast particles emerging from the pinch region of the lamp are known to induce serious damage to nearby collector mirrors. Candidate collector configurations include either multi-layer mirrors (MLM) or single-layer mirrors (SLM) used at grazing incidence. Studies at Argonne have focused on understanding the underlying mechanisms that hinder collector mirror performance at 13.5-nm under fast Sn or Xe exposure. This is possible by a new state-of-the-art in-situ EUV reflectometry system that measures real time relative EUV reflectivity (15-degree incidence and 13.5-nm) variation during fast particle exposure. Intense EUV light and off-band radiation is also known to contribute to mirror damage. For example offband radiation can couple to the mirror and induce heating affecting the mirror's surface properties. In addition, intense EUV light can partially photo-ionize background gas (e.g., Ar or He) used for mitigation in the source device. This can lead to local weakly ionized plasma creating a sheath and accelerating charged gas particles to the mirror surface and inducing sputtering. In this paper we study several aspects of debris and radiation-induced damage to candidate EUVL source collector optics materials. The first study concerns the use of IMD simulations to study the effect of surface roughness on EUV reflectivity. The second studies the effect of fast particles on MLM reflectivity at 13.5-nm. And lastly the third studies the effect of multiple energetic sources with thermal Sn on 13.5-nm reflectivity. These studies focus on conditions that simulate the EUVL source environment in a controlled way.

  7. Computational Aerodynamics of Shuttle Orbiter Damage Scenarios in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibb, Karen L.; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    2004-01-01

    In support of the Columbia Accident Investigation, inviscid computations of the aerodynamic characteristics for various Shuttle Orbiter damage scenarios were performed using the FELISA unstructured CFD solver. Computed delta aerodynamics were compared with the reconstructed delta aerodynamics in order to postulate a progression of damage through the flight trajectory. By performing computations at hypervelocity flight and CF4 tunnel conditions, a bridge was provided between wind tunnel testing in Langley's 20-Inch CF4 facility and the flight environment experienced by Columbia during re-entry. The rapid modeling capability of the unstructured methodology allowed the computational effort to keep pace with the wind tunnel and, at times, guide the wind tunnel efforts. These computations provided a detailed view of the flowfield characteristics and the contribution of orbiter components (such as the vertical tail and wing) to aerodynamic forces and moments that were unavailable from wind tunnel testing. The damage scenarios are grouped into three categories. Initially, single and multiple missing full RCC panels were analyzed to determine the effect of damage location and magnitude on the aerodynamics. Next is a series of cases with progressive damage, increasing in severity, in the region of RCC panel 9. The final group is a set of wing leading edge and windward surface deformations that model possible structural deformation of the wing skin due to internal heating of the wing structure. By matching the aerodynamics from selected damage scenarios to the reconstructed flight aerodynamics, a progression of damage that is consistent with the flight data, debris forensics, and wind tunnel data is postulated.

  8. Investigation of laser induced damage threshold measurement with single-shot on thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhichao; Zheng, Yi; Pan, Feng; Lin, Qi; Ma, Ping; Wang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    A method for rapid determination of laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of optical coatings is proposed and investigated in this paper. By use of this method, the LIDT of thin film can be rapidly obtained by only one shot. The modulation of laser beam profile, which is considered as a negative factor in conventional LIDT test, is utilized in this method. Basing on image processing technique, the damage information could be extracted from the comparison between the damage pattern and beam intensity distribution in the test region. The applicability and repeatability of this testing method has been verified on three type reflectors, HfO2/SiO2, HfO2/Al2O3 and Ta2O5/SiO2. In addition, the experimental results showed that appropriate beam size, laser energy and image compression ratio are the key factors to ensure a high accuracy of LIDT.

  9. Cell damage by UVA radiation of a mercury microscopy lamp probed by autofluorescence modifications, cloning assay, and comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Bauer, Eckhard; Fiedler, Ursula; Berns, Michael W.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Greulich, Karl O.

    1996-04-01

    Cell damage by low-power 365-nm radiation of a 50-W high-pressure mercury microscopy lamp was studied. Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells to ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation > 10 kJ/m2 resulted in significant modifications of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide attributed autofluorescence and inhibition of cell division. Single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) revealed UVA-induced single-strand DNA breaks. According to these results, UVA excitation radiation in fluorescence microscopy may damage cells. This has to be considered in vital cell microscopy, e.g., in calcium measurements.

  10. Differential protection by nitroxides and hydroxylamines to radiation-induced and metal ion-catalyzed oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Sandhya; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Samuni, Ayelet M; Samuni, Amram; DeGraff, William; Krishna, Murali C; Mitchell, James B

    2002-11-14

    Modulation of radiation- and metal ion-catalyzed oxidative-induced damage using plasmid DNA, genomic DNA, and cell survival, by three nitroxides and their corresponding hydroxylamines, were examined. The antioxidant property of each compound was independently determined by reacting supercoiled DNA with copper II/1,10-phenanthroline complex fueled by the products of hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase (HX/XO) and noting the protective effect as assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The nitroxides and their corresponding hydroxylamines protected approximately to the same degree (33-47% relaxed form) when compared to 76.7% relaxed form in the absence of protectors. Likewise, protection by both the nitroxide and corresponding hydroxylamine were observed for Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide. In contrast, when plasmid DNA damage was induced by ionizing radiation (100 Gy), only nitroxides (10 mM) provide protection (32.4-38.5% relaxed form) when compared to radiation alone or in the presence of hydroxylamines (10 mM) (79.8% relaxed form). Nitroxide protection was concentration dependent. Radiation cell survival studies and DNA double-strand break (DBS) assessment (pulse field electrophoresis) showed that only the nitroxide protected or prevented damage, respectively. Collectively, the results show that nitroxides and hydroxylamines protect equally against the damage mediated by oxidants generated by the metal ion-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction, but only nitroxides protect against radiation damage, suggesting that nitroxides may more readily react with intermediate radical species produced by radiation than hydroxylamines. PMID:12399020

  11. Perturbation of pharmacologically relevant polyphenolic compounds in Moringa oleifera against photo-oxidative damages imposed by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ramabulana, T; Mavunda, R D; Steenkamp, P A; Piater, L A; Dubery, I A; Madala, N E

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is a physiological state associated with almost all biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. This phenomenon occurs due to imbalances which result from the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Plants, however, have developed sophisticated mechanisms to mitigate the effect of ROS. In this regard, plant polyphenolic metabolites such as flavonoids are known to possess high antioxidant activities. In the current study, changes in the levels of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera after gamma radiation treatment were investigated with reverse phase liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric techniques in combination with multivariate data models such as principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis. Our results revealed several polyphenolic compounds such as hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives and flavonoid molecules to be down-regulated post-radiation treatment. Interestingly, other flavonoid molecules were found to be up-regulated post-radiation treatment, thereby suggesting a possible compensatory phenomenon. The existence and involvement of structurally similar metabolites (such as regio-isomers of chlorogenic acids) in M. oleifera towards mitigating photo-oxidative damages are in support of the proposed evolutionary existence of a large pool of polyphenolics which contribute to the state of readiness, aptly described as a "better safe than sorry" phenomenon. Our study thus reaffirms the involvement of phenolic compounds as a first line of constitutive/preformed protection against oxidative stress. Furthermore, the obtained data supports M. oleifera as a source of versatile and pharmacologically relevant metabolites that may be exploited for ameliorating the oxidative damages imposed by several metabolic disorders in humans. PMID:26854613

  12. Radiation investigations for ExoMars 2016 and 2018 Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkova, Jordanka

    Deep space manned missions are already a near future of astronautics. Radiation risk on such a long-duration journey appears to be one of the basic factors in planning and designing the mission. The paper relates to scientific objectives and experiments for investigation of the radiation environment to be carried out during the ExoMars 2016 and 2018 missions. Described are: 1) The charged particle telescope and the experiment Liulin-MO for measurement the radiation environment onboard the ExoMars 2016 TGO as a part of the Russian Fine Resolution Epithermal Neutron Detector (FREND) and 2) Liulin-ML experiment for investigation the radiation environment on Mars as a part of the active detector of neutrons and gamma rays (ADRON-EM) on the Russian surface platform for ExoMars 2018 mission. Liulin detectors will be used in combination with the neutron detectors to study the radiation conditions both from charged particles and neutrons during the cruise phase, on Mars orbit and on the surface of Mars.

  13. Scintillation mechanism and radiation damage in Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}F{sub 3} crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtowicz, A.J.; Wisniewski, D. |; Lempicki, A.; Brecher, C.; Bartram, R.H.; Woody, C.; Levy, P.; Stoll, S.; Kierstead, J.; Pedrini, C.

    1994-08-01

    Recent spectroscopic and radiation damage experiments on a series of Ce{sub x}La{sub 1{minus}x}F{sub 3} crystals suggest that the scintillation light output is limited by an unusual quenching mechanism, which also plays a major role in minimizing radiation-induced damage. The intensity of the radiation-induced absorptions is a strong function of the Ce content x, reaching a maximum for x = 0.03 and a minimum for x = 1. This peculiar dependence appears to be due to the influence of deep-lying Ce levels on both scintillation mechanism and radiation damage. The authors suggest that various charge transfer processes can explain many aspects of the performance of Ce{sub x}La{sub 1{minus}x}F{sub 3} scintillators.

  14. Ultraviolet radiation, aging and the skin: prevention of damage by topical cAMP manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Yan, Betty; D’Orazio, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Being the largest and most visible organ of the body and heavily influenced by environmental factors, skin is ideal to study long-term effects of aging. Throughout our lifetime, we accumulate damage generated by UV radiation. UV causes inflammation, immune changes, physical changes, impaired wound healing and DNA damage that promotes cellular senescence and carcinogenesis. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and among the malignancies of highest increasing incidence over the last several decades. Melanoma incidence is directly related to age, with highest rates in individuals over the age of 55 years, making it a clear age-related disease. In this review, we will focus on UV-induced carcinogenesis and photo aging along with natural protective mechanisms that reduce amount of “realized” solar radiation dose and UV-induced injury. We will focus on the theoretical use of forskolin, a plant-derived pharmacologically active compound to protect the skin against UV injury and prevent aging symptoms by up-regulating melanin production. We will discuss its use as a topically-applied root-derived formulation of the Plectranthus barbatus (Coleus forskolii) plant that grows naturally in Asia and that has long been used in various Aryuvedic teas and therapeutic preparations. PMID:24838074

  15. Modelling electron distributions within ESA's Gaia satellite CCD pixels to mitigate radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabroke, G. M.; Holland, A. D.; Burt, D.; Robbins, M. S.

    2009-08-01

    The Gaia satellite is a high-precision astrometry, photometry and spectroscopic ESA cornerstone mission, currently scheduled for launch in 2012. Its primary science drivers are the composition, formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Gaia will achieve its unprecedented positional accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. At L2, protons cause displacement damage in the silicon of CCDs. The resulting traps capture and emit electrons from passing charge packets in the CCD pixel, distorting the image PSF and biasing its centroid. Microscopic models of Gaia's CCDs are being developed to simulate this effect. The key to calculating the probability of an electron being captured by a trap is the 3D electron density within each CCD pixel. However, this has not been physically modelled for the Gaia CCD pixels. In Seabroke, Holland & Cropper (2008), the first paper of this series, we motivated the need for such specialised 3D device modelling and outlined how its future results will fit into Gaia's overall radiation calibration strategy. In this paper, the second of the series, we present our first results using Silvaco's physics-based, engineering software: the ATLAS device simulation framework. Inputting a doping profile, pixel geometry and materials into ATLAS and comparing the results to other simulations reveals that ATLAS has a free parameter, fixed oxide charge, that needs to be calibrated. ATLAS is successfully benchmarked against other simulations and measurements of a test device, identifying how to use it to model Gaia pixels and highlighting the affect of different doping approximations.

  16. The contribution made by lattice vacancies to the Wigner effect in radiation-damaged graphite.

    PubMed

    Latham, C D; Heggie, M I; Alatalo, M; Oberg, S; Briddon, P R

    2013-04-01

    Models for radiation damage in graphite are reviewed and compared, leading to a re-examination of the contribution made by vacancies to annealing processes. A method based on density functional theory, using large supercells with orthorhombic and hexagonal symmetry, is employed to calculate the properties and behaviour of lattice vacancies and displacement defects. It is concluded that annihilation of intimate Frenkel defects marks the onset of recovery in electrical resistivity, which occurs when the temperature exceeds about 160 K. The migration of isolated monovacancies is estimated to have an activation energy of E(a) ≈ 1.1 eV. Coalescence into divacancy defects occurs in several stages, with different barriers at each stage, depending on the path. The formation of pairs ultimately yields up to 8.9 eV energy, which is nearly 1.0 eV more than the formation energy for an isolated monovacancy. Processes resulting in vacancy coalescence and annihilation appear to be responsible for the main Wigner energy release peak in radiation-damaged graphite, occurring at about 475 K. PMID:23470497

  17. The contribution made by lattice vacancies to the Wigner effect in radiation-damaged graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, C. D.; Heggie, M. I.; Alatalo, M.; Öberg, S.; Briddon, P. R.

    2013-04-01

    Models for radiation damage in graphite are reviewed and compared, leading to a re-examination of the contribution made by vacancies to annealing processes. A method based on density functional theory, using large supercells with orthorhombic and hexagonal symmetry, is employed to calculate the properties and behaviour of lattice vacancies and displacement defects. It is concluded that annihilation of intimate Frenkel defects marks the onset of recovery in electrical resistivity, which occurs when the temperature exceeds about 160 K. The migration of isolated monovacancies is estimated to have an activation energy of Ea ≈ 1.1 eV. Coalescence into divacancy defects occurs in several stages, with different barriers at each stage, depending on the path. The formation of pairs ultimately yields up to 8.9 eV energy, which is nearly 1.0 eV more than the formation energy for an isolated monovacancy. Processes resulting in vacancy coalescence and annihilation appear to be responsible for the main Wigner energy release peak in radiation-damaged graphite, occurring at about 475 K.

  18. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Biological Molecules—Mechanisms of Damage and Emerging Methods of Detection

    PubMed Central

    Reisz, Julie A.; Bansal, Nidhi; Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Weiling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR) involve a highly orchestrated series of events that are amplified by endogenous signaling and culminating in oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, proteins, and many metabolites. Despite the global impact of IR, the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue damage reveal that many biomolecules are chemoselectively modified by IR. Recent Advances: The development of high-throughput “omics” technologies for mapping DNA and protein modifications have revolutionized the study of IR effects on biological systems. Studies in cells, tissues, and biological fluids are used to identify molecular features or biomarkers of IR exposure and response and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their expression or synthesis. Critical Issues: In this review, chemical mechanisms are described for IR-induced modifications of biomolecules along with methods for their detection. Included with the detection methods are crucial experimental considerations and caveats for their use. Additional factors critical to the cellular response to radiation, including alterations in protein expression, metabolomics, and epigenetic factors, are also discussed. Future Directions: Throughout the review, the synergy of combined “omics” technologies such as genomics and epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics is highlighted. These are anticipated to lead to new hypotheses to understand IR effects on biological systems and improve IR-based therapies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21: 260–292. PMID:24382094

  19. Space Plasma Ion Processing of the Lunar Soil: Modeling of Radiation-Damaged Rim Widths on Lunar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, S.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L.

    2007-01-01

    Chemically and microstructurally complex altered rims around grains in the finest size fraction (<20 micron) of the lunar regolith are the result of multi-stage processes involving both solar ion radiation damage and nanoscale deposition of impact or sputter-derived vapors. The formation of the rims is an important part of the space weathering process, and is closely linked to key changes in optical reflectance and other bulk properties of the lunar surface. Recent application of field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope techniques, including energy dispersive X-ray spectral imaging, is making it easier to unravel the "nano-stratigraphy" of grain rims, and to delineate the portions of rims that represent Radiation-Amorphized (RA) host grain from overlying amorphous material that represents vapor/sputter deposits. For the portion of rims formed by host grain amorphization (henceforth called RA rims), we have been investigating the feasibility of using Monte Carlo-type ion-atom collision models, combined with experimental ion irradiation data, to derive predictive numerical models linking the width of RA rims to the grain s integrated solar ion radiation exposure time.

  20. High-energy proton radiation damage of high-purity germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pehl, R. H.; Varnell, L. S.; Metzger, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative studies of radiation damage in high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors due to high-energy charged particles have been carried out; two 1.0 cm thick planar detectors were irradiated by 6 GeV/c protons. Under proton bombardment, degradation in the energy resolution was found to begin below 7 x 10 to the 7th protons/sq cm and increased proportionately in both detectors until the experiment was terminated at a total flux of 5.7 x 10 to the 8th protons/sq cm, equivalent to about a six year exposure to cosmic-ray protons in space. At the end of the irradiation, the FWHM resolution measured at 1332 keV stood at 8.5 and 13.6 keV, with both detectors of only marginal utility as a spectrometer due to the severe tailing caused by charge trapping. Annealing these detectors after proton damage was found to be much easier than after neutron damage.

  1. Ozone depletion and UVB radiation: impact on plant DNA damage in southern South America.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, M C; Ballaré, C L; Giordano, C V; Scopel, A L; Zima, A M; Szwarcberg-Bracchitta, M; Searles, P S; Caldwell, M M; Díaz, S B

    1999-12-21

    The primary motivation behind the considerable effort in studying stratospheric ozone depletion is the potential for biological consequences of increased solar UVB (280-315 nm) radiation. Yet, direct links between ozone depletion and biological impacts have been established only for organisms of Antarctic waters under the influence of the ozone "hole;" no direct evidence exists that ozone-related variations in UVB affect ecosystems of temperate latitudes. Indeed, calculations based on laboratory studies with plants suggest that the biological impact of ozone depletion (measured by the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA) is likely to be less marked than previously thought, because UVA quanta (315-400 nm) may also cause significant damage, and UVA is unaffected by ozone depletion. Herein, we show that the temperate ecosystems of southern South America have been subjected to increasingly high levels of ozone depletion during the last decade. We found that in the spring of 1997, despite frequent cloud cover, the passages of the ozone hole over Tierra del Fuego (55 degrees S) caused concomitant increases in solar UV and that the enhanced ground-level UV led to significant increases in DNA damage in the native plant Gunnera magellanica. The fluctuations in solar UV explained a large proportion of the variation in DNA damage (up to 68%), particularly when the solar UV was weighted for biological effectiveness according to action spectra that assume a sharp decline in quantum efficiency with increasing wavelength from the UVB into the UVA regions of the spectrum. PMID:10611381

  2. Theoretical and Numerical Investigation of Radiative Extinction of Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Anjan

    1996-01-01

    The influence of soot radiation on diffusion flames was investigated using both analytical and numerical techniques. Soot generated in diffusion flames dominate the flame radiation over gaseous combustion products and can significantly lower the temperature of the flame. In low gravity situations there can be significant accumulation of soot and combustion products in the vicinity of the primary reaction zone owing to the absence of any convective buoyant flow. Such situations may result in substantial suppression of chemical activities in a flame, and the possibility of a radiative extinction may also be anticipated. The purpose of this work was to not only investigate the possibility of radiative extinction of a diffusion flame but also to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the influence of soot radiation on a diffusion flame. In this study, first a hypothetical radiative loss profile of the form of a sech(sup 2) was assumed to influence a pure diffusion flame. It was observed that the reaction zone can, under certain circumstances, move through the radiative loss zone and locate itself on the fuel side of the loss zone contrary to our initial postulate. On increasing the intensity and/or width of the loss zone it was possible to extinguish the flame, and extinction plots were generated. In the presence of a convective flow, however, the movement of the temperature and reaction rate peaks indicated that the flame behavior is more complicated compared to a pure diffusional flame. A comprehensive model of soot formation, oxidation and radiation was used in a more involved analysis. The soot model of Syed, Stewart and Moss was used for soot nucleation and growth and the model of Nagle and Strickland-Constable was used for soot oxidation. The soot radiation was considered in the optically thin limit. An analysis of the flame structure revealed that the radiative loss term is countered both by the reaction term and the diffusion term. The essential balance for

  3. The damage repair role of He-Ne laser on plants exposed to different intensities of ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhi; Yue, Ming; Han, Rong; Wang, Xun-Ling

    2002-06-01

    Light-grown broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings were subjected to different intensities of UV-B radiation (0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.45, 0.90, 1.45 and 1.98 W m(-2)) for 7 h under photosynthetically active radiation (70 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and then exposed to He-Ne laser (632.8 nm, 5.43 mW mm(-2)) radiation for 5 min or red light radiation for 4 h without ambient light radiation. When He-Ne laser radiated leaves were treated using lower intensity UV-B, the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) improved significantly. Moreover, the UV-B-injured plants treated with laser light recovered faster from UV-B treatment because the concentration of malondialdehyde and the rate of electrolyte leakage from leaf disks reached control levels (no UV-B or laser treatment) early compared with those exposed only to ambient light or in dark conditions. Laser treatment, however, had no repair effect on seedling damage induced by higher UV-B radiation (1.45 and 1.98 W m(-2)), even with higher laser flux rates and longer laser treatment. In addition, the red light treatment had no repair effect on UV-B-induced damage. Meanwhile, the long-term physiological effect of He-Ne laser treatment on UV-B damaged plants was presented and evaluated. The results showed that the laser had a long-term positive physiological effect on the growth of UV-B-damaged plants. With the exception of the severe damage caused by higher UV-B radiation, a laser with the proper flux rate and treatment time can repair UV-B-induced damage and shorten the recovery time. PMID:12081332

  4. Diffusion of fission products and radiation damage in SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malherbe, Johan B.

    2013-11-01

    A major problem with most of the present nuclear reactors is their safety in terms of the release of radioactivity into the environment during accidents. In some of the future nuclear reactor designs, i.e. Generation IV reactors, the fuel is in the form of coated spherical particles, i.e. TRISO (acronym for triple coated isotropic) particles. The main function of these coating layers is to act as diffusion barriers for radioactive fission products, thereby keeping these fission products within the fuel particles, even under accident conditions. The most important coating layer is composed of polycrystalline 3C-SiC. This paper reviews the diffusion of the important fission products (silver, caesium, iodine and strontium) in SiC. Because radiation damage can induce and enhance diffusion, the paper also briefly reviews damage created by energetic neutrons and ions at elevated temperatures, i.e. the temperatures at which the modern reactors will operate, and the annealing of the damage. The interaction between SiC and some fission products (such as Pd and I) is also briefly discussed. As shown, one of the key advantages of SiC is its radiation hardness at elevated temperatures, i.e. SiC is not amorphized by neutrons or bombardment at substrate temperatures above 350 °C. Based on the diffusion coefficients of the fission products considered, the review shows that at the normal operating temperatures of these new reactors (i.e. less than 950 °C) the SiC coating layer is a good diffusion barrier for these fission products. However, at higher temperatures the design of the coated particles needs to be adapted, possibly by adding a thin layer of ZrC.

  5. Accelerated radiation damage test facility using a 5 MV tandem ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wady, P. T.; Draude, A.; Shubeita, S. M.; Smith, A. D.; Mason, N.; Pimblott, S. M.; Jimenez-Melero, E.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new irradiation facility that allows to perform accelerated damage tests of nuclear reactor materials at temperatures up to 400 °C using the intense proton (<100 μA) and heavy ion (≈10 μA) beams produced by a 5 MV tandem ion accelerator. The dedicated beam line for radiation damage studies comprises: (1) beam diagnosis and focusing optical components, (2) a scanning and slit system that allows uniform irradiation of a sample area of 0.5-6 cm2, and (3) a sample stage designed to be able to monitor in-situ the sample temperature, current deposited on the sample, and the gamma spectrum of potential radio-active nuclides produced during the sample irradiation. The beam line capabilities have been tested by irradiating a 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stabilised stainless steel with a 3 MeV proton beam to a dose level of 3 dpa. The irradiation temperature was 356 °C, with a maximum range in temperature values of ±6 °C within the first 24 h of continuous irradiation. The sample stage is connected to ground through an electrometer to measure accurately the charge deposited on the sample. The charge can be integrated in hardware during irradiation, and this methodology removes uncertainties due to fluctuations in beam current. The measured gamma spectrum allowed the identification of the main radioactive nuclides produced during the proton bombardment from the lifetimes and gamma emissions. This dedicated radiation damage beam line is hosted by the Dalton Cumbrian Facility of the University of Manchester.

  6. Field investigation on severely damaged aseismic buildings in 2014 Ludian earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xuchuan; Zhang, Haoyu; Chen, Hongfu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Junqi

    2015-03-01

    The 2014 magnitude 6.5 Ludian earthquake caused a death toll of 617, many landslides and tens of thousands of collapsed buildings. A field investigation to evaluate the damage to buildings was carried out immediately after the occurrence of the earthquake. Severely damaged aseismic buildings, which were basically observed in the downtown of Longtoushan Town, were carefully examined one by one with the aim to improve design codes. This paper summarizes the damage observed to the investigated aseismic buildings in both the structural and local levels. A common failure mode was observed that most of the aseismic buildings, such as RC frame structures and confined masonry structures, were similarly destroyed by severe damage or complete collapse of the first story. The related strong ground motion, which was recorded at the nearby station, had a short duration of less than 20 s but a very large PGA up to 1.0 g. The RC frames based on the new design codes still failed to achieve the design target for "strong column, weak beam". Typical local failure details, which were related to the interaction between RC columns and infill walls and between constructional columns and masonry walls, are summarized with preliminary analyses.

  7. Integrated Molecular Analysis Indicates Undetectable Change in DNA Damage in Mice after Continuous Irradiation at ~ 400-fold Natural Background Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Olipitz, Werner; Wiktor-Brown, Dominika; Shuga, Joe; Pang, Bo; McFaline, Jose; Lonkar, Pallavi; Thomas, Aline; Mutamba, James T; Greenberger, Joel S; Samson, Leona D; Dedon, Peter C; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the event of a nuclear accident, people are exposed to elevated levels of continuous low dose-rate radiation. Nevertheless, most of the literature describes the biological effects of acute radiation. Objectives: DNA damage and mutations are well established for their carcinogenic effects. We assessed several key markers of DNA damage and DNA damage responses in mice exposed to low dose-rate radiation to reveal potential genotoxic effects associated with low dose-rate radiation. Methods: We studied low dose-rate radiation using a variable low dose-rate irradiator consisting of flood phantoms filled with 125Iodine-containing buffer. Mice were exposed to 0.0002 cGy/min (~ 400-fold background radiation) continuously over 5 weeks. We assessed base lesions, micronuclei, homologous recombination (HR; using fluorescent yellow direct repeat mice), and transcript levels for several radiation-sensitive genes. Results: We did not observe any changes in the levels of the DNA nucleobase damage products hypoxanthine, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, 1,N6-ethenoadenine, or 3,N4-ethenocytosine above background levels under low dose-rate conditions. The micronucleus assay revealed no evidence that low dose-rate radiation induced DNA fragmentation, and there was no evidence of double strand break–induced HR. Furthermore, low dose-rate radiation did not induce Cdkn1a, Gadd45a, Mdm2, Atm, or Dbd2. Importantly, the same total dose, when delivered acutely, induced micronuclei and transcriptional responses. Conclusions: These results demonstrate in an in vivo animal model that lowering the dose-rate suppresses the potentially deleterious impact of radiation and calls attention to the need for a deeper understanding of the biological impact of low dose-rate radiation. PMID:22538203

  8. Genetic compensation of high dose radiation-induced damage in an anhydrobiotic insect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    Anhydrobiotic larvae of African chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki are known to show an extremely high tolerance against a range of stresses. The tolerance against various extreme environments exhibited by that insect might be due to being almost completely desiccated replacing water with trehalose, a state where little or no chemical reactions occur. From 2005 dried larvae of this insect are being used in a number of space experiments, both inside and outside of ISS as a model organism for estimation the limits of higher organisms' resistance to space environment stresses and long-term storage of the alive anhydrobiotic organisms during continues spaceflight. We have shown previously that both hydrated and dried larvae of Polypedilum vanderplanki have very higher tolerance against both highand low-linear energy transfer (LET), surviving after 7000Gy irradiation. It was suggested that the larvae would have effective DNA-reparation system in addition to artificial protection provided by glass-stage without water. In the present study we conducted analysis of stress-related gene expression in the larvae after 70-2000 Gy irradiations. Both DNA damage level and activity of DNA-reparation, anti-apoptotic and protein-damage related genes were analyzed. Direct visualization of DNA damage in the larvae fat body cells using Comet Assay showed that fragmented by radiation DNA is re-arranged within 76-98 hours after exposure. We found that massive overexpression of hsp and anti-oxidant genes occur in larvae entering anhydrobiosis , and provides refolding of proteins after rehydration. In the irradiated larvae overexpression of DNA-reparation enzymes anti-apoptotic genes was confirmed, suggesting that survival after high-dose irradiation is a result of combination of highly effective blocking of entering the apoptosis after severe DNA damage and DNA reparation.

  9. Fundamental Processes of Coupled Radiation Damage and Mechanical Behavior in Nuclear Fuel Materials for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Phillpot, Simon; Tulenko, James

    2011-09-08

    The objective of this work has been to elucidate the relationship among microstructure, radiation damage and mechanical properties for nuclear fuel materials. As representative nuclear materials, we have taken an hcp metal (Mg as a generic metal, and Ti alloys for fast reactors) and UO2 (representing fuel). The degradation of the thermo-mechanical behavior of nuclear fuels under irradiation, both the fissionable material itself and its cladding, is a longstanding issue of critical importance to the nuclear industry. There are experimental indications that nanocrystalline metals and ceramics may be more resistant to radiation damage than their coarse-grained counterparts. The objective of this project look at the effect of microstructure on radiation damage and mechanical behavior in these materials. The approach to be taken was state-of-the-art, large-scale atomic-level simulation. This systematic simulation program of the effects of irradiation on the structure and mechanical properties of polycrystalline Ti and UO2 identified radiation damage mechanisms. Moreover, it will provided important insights into behavior that can be expected in nanocrystalline microstructures and, by extension, nanocomposites. The fundamental insights from this work can be expected to help in the design microstructures that are less susceptible to radiation damage and thermomechanical degradation.

  10. Protective effects of S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid against radiation damage of normal tissues and a fibrosarcoma in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Milas, L.; Hunter, N.; Reid, B.O.; Thames, H.D. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    S-2-(3-Aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) was investigated for its protective effect against radiation-produced damage of jejunum, testis, lung, hair follicles, and a fibrosarcoma of C3Hf/Kam mice. Most of these tissues were radioprotected, and the degree of radioprotection depended on the dose of WR-2721 and the time interval between administration of WR-2721 and radiation treatment. WR-2721 increased resistance of jejunal epithelial cells and spermatogenic cells to single doses of gamma-rays by factors of 1.64 and 1.54, respectively. Protection against hair loss was less pronounced; the dose-modifying factor here was 1.24. The radiation-induced acute damage of the lung expressed by the increased formation of tumor nodules in the lung was not decreased by treatment of animals with WR-2721 before radiation. In contrast, WR-2721 augmented the radiation-induced enhancement of metastasis formation in the lung. WR-2721 protected fibrosarcoma micrometastases in the lung against therapeutic effect of radiation by a factor of 1.238. In contrast, this compound had no effect on the therapy of an 8-mm fibrosarcoma growing in the legs of mice.

  11. Damage in dual phase steel DP1000 investigated using digital image correlation and microstructure simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Khaled; Ghadbeigi, Hassan; Efthymiadis, Panos; Zanganeh, Mohammad; Celotto, Steven; Dashwood, Richard; Pinna, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Microstructure failure mechanisms and void nucleation in dual-phase (DP) steels during deformation have been studied using a combination of in situ tensile testing in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), digital image correlation (DIC) and finite element (FE) modelling. SEM images acquired during in situ tests were used to follow the evolution of damage within the microstructure of a DP1000 steel. From these images, strain maps were generated using DIC and used as boundary conditions for a FE model to investigate the stress state of martensite and ferrite before the onset of the martensite phase cracking. Based on the simulation results, a maximum principal stress of about 1700 MPa has been estimated for crack initiation in the martensite of the investigated DP1000 steel. The SEM image observations in combination with the FE analyses provide new insights for the development of physically-based damage models for DP-steels.

  12. Mechanism of Radiation Damage Reduction in Equiatomic Multicomponent Single Phase Alloys.

    PubMed

    Granberg, F; Nordlund, K; Ullah, Mohammad W; Jin, K; Lu, C; Bei, H; Wang, L M; Djurabekova, F; Weber, W J; Zhang, Y

    2016-04-01

    Recently a new class of metal alloys, of single-phase multicomponent composition at roughly equal atomic concentrations ("equiatomic"), have been shown to exhibit promising mechanical, magnetic, and corrosion resistance properties, in particular, at high temperatures. These features make them potential candidates for components of next-generation nuclear reactors and other high-radiation environments that will involve high temperatures combined with corrosive environments and extreme radiation exposure. In spite of a wide range of recent studies of many important properties of these alloys, their radiation tolerance at high doses remains unexplored. In this work, a combination of experimental and modeling efforts reveals a substantial reduction of damage accumulation under prolonged irradiation in single-phase NiFe and NiCoCr alloys compared to elemental Ni. This effect is explained by reduced dislocation mobility, which leads to slower growth of large dislocation structures. Moreover, there is no observable phase separation, ordering, or amorphization, pointing to a high phase stability of this class of alloys. PMID:27081990

  13. Mechanism of Radiation Damage Reduction in Equiatomic Multicomponent Single Phase Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granberg, F.; Nordlund, K.; Ullah, Mohammad W.; Jin, K.; Lu, C.; Bei, H.; Wang, L. M.; Djurabekova, F.; Weber, W. J.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Recently a new class of metal alloys, of single-phase multicomponent composition at roughly equal atomic concentrations ("equiatomic"), have been shown to exhibit promising mechanical, magnetic, and corrosion resistance properties, in particular, at high temperatures. These features make them potential candidates for components of next-generation nuclear reactors and other high-radiation environments that will involve high temperatures combined with corrosive environments and extreme radiation exposure. In spite of a wide range of recent studies of many important properties of these alloys, their radiation tolerance at high doses remains unexplored. In this work, a combination of experimental and modeling efforts reveals a substantial reduction of damage accumulation under prolonged irradiation in single-phase NiFe and NiCoCr alloys compared to elemental Ni. This effect is explained by reduced dislocation mobility, which leads to slower growth of large dislocation structures. Moreover, there is no observable phase separation, ordering, or amorphization, pointing to a high phase stability of this class of alloys.

  14. Radiation damage studies on STAR250 CMOS sensor at 300 keV for electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruqi, A. R.; Henderson, R.; Holmes, J.

    2006-09-01

    There is a pressing need for better electronic detectors to replace film for recording high-resolution images using electron cryomicroscopy. Our previous work has shown that direct electron detection in CMOS sensors is promising in terms of resolution and efficiency at 120 keV [A.R. Faruqi, R. Henderson, M. Prydderch, R. Turchetta, P. Allport, A. Evans, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 546 (2005) 170], but in addition, the detectors must not be damaged by the electron irradiation. We now present new measurements on the radiation tolerance of a 25 μm pitch CMOS active-pixel sensor, the STAR250, which was designed by FillFactory using radiation-hard technology for space applications. Our tests on the STAR250 aimed to establish the imaging performance at 300 keV following irradiation. The residual contrast, measured on shadow images of a 300 mesh grid, was >80% after corrections for increased dark current, following irradiation with up to 5×10 7 electrons/pixel (equivalent to 80,000 electron/μm 2). A CMOS sensor with this degree of radiation tolerance would survive a year of normal usage for low-dose electron cryomicroscopy, which is a very useful advance.

  15. Biophysical modelling of early and delayed radiation damage at chromosome level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, S.; Eidelman, Y.

    Exposure by ionising radiation increases cancer risk in human population Cancer is thought to originate from an altered expression of certain number of specific genes It is now widely recognised that chromosome aberrations CA are involved in stable change in expression of genes by gain or loss of their functions Thus CA can contribute to initiation or progression of cancer Therefore understanding mechanisms of CA formation in the course of cancer development might be valuable tool for quantification and prognosis of different stages of radiation carcinogenesis Early CA are defined as aberrations induced in first post-irradiation mitotic cycle The present work describes the original biophysical technique for early CA modelling It includes the following simulation steps the ionising particle track structure the structural organisation of all chromosomes in G 0 G 1 cell nucleus spatial distribution of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks dsb within chromosomes dsb rejoining and misrejoining modelling cell cycle taking into account mitotic delay which results in complex time dependence of aberrant cells in first mitosis The results on prediction of dose-response curves for simple and complex CA measured in cells undergoing first division cycle are presented in comparison with recent experimental data There is increasing evidence that CA are also observed in descendents of irradiated cells many generations after direct DNA damage These delayed CA or chromosome instability CI are thought to be a manifestation of genome

  16. Investigation of Stinson Beach Park storm damage and evaluation of alternative shore protection measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1984-07-01

    An investigation was made of storm damage during the winter of 1982-83 to the National Park Service's Stinson Beach Park. The investigation included an assessment of the storm damage, evaluation of physical processes contributing to the damage, subsequent beach recovery, and the feasibility of implementing shoreline protection measure to reduce future risk. During the winter of 1982-83, the beach was almost completely denuded of sand, wave overwash damaged the foredune, vegetation on the foredune was destroyed, and backshore flooding occurred. Two structures and a parking lot were endangered as the shoreline receded. Subsequent recovery of the park beach was rapid. By January 1982 sand had moved back onshore and a beach berm was beginning to reform. The foredune and dune vegetation received the only permanent damage. Four shoreline protection alternatives were evaluated. These include no action, dune development/enhancement, construction of a rock riprap revetment, and offshore installation of artificial seaweed. The first costs (estimated costs, excluding maintenance) range from about $90,000 to $475,000. The least-cost protection measure is riprap revetment, which protects the two structures and parking lot endangered during the 1982-83 winter storms. Construction of a foredune along the entire park beach is the highest cost protection measure. If no shore protection action measures are implemented, wave overwash of the foredune can be expected to occur on the average of every 2 to 3 years, and beach degradation, similar to that during the 1982-83 winter, can be expected to occur on the average of every 10 to 12 years. 12 references, 19 figures, 18 tables.

  17. Investigation of Infra-red and Nonequilibrium Air Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, Charles H.; Laux, Christophe O.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained during a research program on the infrared radiation of air plasmas conducted in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University. This program was intended to investigate the masking of infrared signatures by the air plasma formed behind the bow shock of high velocity missiles. Prior to this work, the radiative emission of air plasmas in the infrared had been the object of few experimental investigations, and although several infrared systems were already modeled in radiation codes such as NEQAIR, measurements were required to validate numerical predictions and indicate whether all transitions of importance were accounted for in the model. The program was further motivated by the fact that 9 excited states (A, B, C, D, B', F, H, and H') of NO radiate in the infrared, especially between 1 and 1.5 microns where at least 9 transitions involving can be observed. Because these IR transitions are relatively well separated from each other, excited NO states concentrations can be easily measured, thus providing essential information on excited-state chemistry for use in optical diagnostics or in electronic excitation model validation. Detailed comparisons between measured and simulated spectra are presented.

  18. Gamma irradiation and cellular damage in Kocuria rosea: investigation by one- and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Melin, Anne-Marie; Perromat, Annie; Lorin, Chrystelle; Déléris, Gérard

    2002-12-15

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the radiation-induced effects on Kocuria rosea. Bacterial suspensions at the stationary phase were exposed to increasing doses of gamma radiation. In the region 1350-840cm(-1), assigned to phosphodiester backbone, nucleic acids, and sugar rings, the radical damaging effects were dose-dependent, with the first threshold at 2.75kGy and the second at 13.75kGy inducing more striking spectral variations. Postirradiation reincubation did not significantly affect the biomolecular response, except in the spectral range 1100-1000cm(-1). These observations suggest the occurrence of new phylogenetic characteristics for K. rosea following irradiation. Moreover, two-dimensional analysis was used to highlight correlated evolutions of molecular species as radical aggression increased. The results point to an evolutionary scheme during the time course of irradiation. Thus, one- and two-dimensional IR analyses are convenient means of investigating the metabolic events following oxidative stress generated by either chemical or physical agents. PMID:12464274

  19. Radiation damage to Kokchetav UHPM diamonds in zircon: Variations in Raman, photoluminescence, and cathodoluminescence spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Rentaro; Ogasawara, Yoshihide

    2014-10-01

    We conducted detailed in-situ Raman, photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) studies on microdiamonds in a tourmaline-rich quartzofeldspathic rock from the Kokchetav Massif, Kazakhstan. The microdiamonds occur as inclusions in the cores of K-tourmaline and in zoned zircons with varying U contents. The results of 2D Raman mapping of zircon showed that the U-rich parts were more metamictized than the U-poor parts. All the diamonds showed a strong Raman band at approximately 1332 cm- 1, however, the features of the Raman bands were distinctly different depending on the host minerals. On the one hand, diamonds in tourmaline had a sharp Raman band that is similar to that of kimberlite diamonds [full width at half maximum (FWHM): 2-3 cm- 1]. On the other hand, diamonds in zircon had a broad and downshifted band compared to those in tourmaline. In particular, diamonds in U-rich cores of zircons (up to 0.15 wt.% UO2) showed broader and more downshifted Raman bands (FWHMs and peak positions varied up to 9.3 cm- 1 and 1328 cm- 1, respectively), with additional small bands at approximately 1490 cm- 1 and 1630 cm- 1. A negative correlation was observed between the peak position and the FWHM of the principal Raman band of microdiamonds. Furthermore, the PL and CL spectra showed systematic variations. Diamonds in zircons with low to moderate U-concentrations had very strong PL and CL compared to diamonds in U-rich zircons and in tourmalines. Several characteristic peaks appeared in the PL and CL spectra, indicating the presence of irradiation and/or nitrogen-related point defects in the diamonds. PL and CL of microdiamonds in high-U zircon were weak, but still showed irradiation-related peaks. The relationship between the occurrence of microdiamonds (i.e., corresponding to the estimated total α-dose since crystallization) and the Raman, PL, and CL spectral characteristics of microdiamonds strongly suggests that radiation damage predominantly caused by

  20. Experimental and theoretical investigation effect of flavonols antioxidants on DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Heydari-Soureshjani, E; Jafari-Asl, M; Rezaei, B; Ghasemi, Jahan B; Aghaee, Elham

    2015-08-01

    A new electrochemical biosensor was developed to demonstrate the effect of Acridine Orange (AO) on DNA damage. Then, the biosensor was used to check the inhibitors effect of three flavonols antioxidants (myricetin, fisetin and kaempferol) on DNA damage. Acridine Orange (AO) was used as a damaging agent because it shows a high affinity to nucleic acid and stretch of the double helical structure of DNA. Decreasing on the oxidation signals of adenine and guanine (in the DNA) in the presence of AO were used as probes to study the antioxidants power, using DNA-modified screen printed graphene electrode (DNA/SPGE). The results of our study showed that the DNA-biosensor could be suitable biosensor to investigate the inhibitors ability of the flavonols antioxidants on the DNA damage. The linear dependency was detected in the two regions in the ranges of 1.0-15.0 and 15.0-500.0 pmol L(-1). The detection limit was found 0.5 pmol L(-1) and 0.6 pmol L(-1) for guanine and adenine, respectively. To confirm the electrochemical results, Uv-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were used too. Finally molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was performed on the structure of DNA in a water box to study any interaction between the antioxidant, AO and DNA. PMID:26320789