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1

Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool.  

PubMed

Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic perspectives in a further development of independent accident investigation. PMID:15231346

Stoop, John A

2004-07-26

2

An Investigation of Different String Coding Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates techniques for automatic coding of English language strings which involve titles drawn from bibliographic files, but do not require prior knowledge of source. Coding methods (basic, maximum entropy principle), results of test using 6,260 titles from British National Bibliography, and variations in code element ordering are…

Goyal, Pankaj

1984-01-01

3

Independent rate and temporal coding in hippocampal pyramidal cells  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal pyramidal cells use temporal 1 as well as rate coding 2 to signal spatial aspects of the animal’s environment or behaviour. The temporal code takes the form of a phase relationship to the concurrent cycle of the hippocampal EEG theta rhythm (Figure 1?; 1). These two codes could each represent a different variable 3,4. However, this requires that rate and phase can vary independently, in contrast to recent suggestions 5,6 that they are tightly coupled: both reflecting the amplitude of the cell’s input. Here we show that the time of firing and firing rate are dissociable and can represent two independent variables, viz, the animal’s location within the place field and its speed of movement through the field, respectively. Independent encoding of location together with actions and stimuli occurring there may help to explain the dual roles of the hippocampus in spatial and episodic memory 7 8 or a more general role in relational/declarative memory9,10. PMID:14574410

Huxter, John; Burgess, Neil; O’Keefe, John

2009-01-01

4

Independent Population Coding of Speech with Sub-Millisecond Precision  

PubMed Central

To understand the strategies used by the brain to analyze complex environments, we must first characterize how the features of sensory stimuli are encoded in the spiking of neuronal populations. Characterizing a population code requires identifying the temporal precision of spiking and the extent to which spiking is correlated, both between cells and over time. In this study, we characterize the population code for speech in the gerbil inferior colliculus (IC), the hub of the auditory system where inputs from parallel brainstem pathways are integrated for transmission to the cortex. We find that IC spike trains can carry information about speech with sub-millisecond precision, and, consequently, that the temporal correlations imposed by refractoriness can play a significant role in shaping spike patterns. We also find that, in contrast to most other brain areas, the noise correlations between IC cells are extremely weak, indicating that spiking in the population is conditionally independent. These results demonstrate that the problem of understanding the population coding of speech can be reduced to the problem of understanding the stimulus-driven spiking of individual cells, suggesting that a comprehensive model of the subcortical processing of speech may be attainable in the near future. PMID:24305831

Garcia-Lazaro, Jose A.; Belliveau, Lucile A. C.

2013-01-01

5

Genetic code deviations in the ciliates: evidence for multiple and independent events.  

PubMed Central

In several species of ciliates, the universal stop codons UAA and UAG are translated into glutamine, while in the euplotids, the glutamine codon usage is normal, but UGA appears to be translated as cysteine. Because the emerging position of this monophyletic group in the eukaryotic lineage is relatively late, this deviant genetic code represents a derived state of the universal code. The question is therefore raised as to how these changes arose within the evolutionary pathways of the phylum. Here, we have investigated the presence of stop codons in alpha tubulin and/or phosphoglycerate kinase gene coding sequences from diverse species of ciliates scattered over the phylogenetic tree constructed from 28S rRNA sequences. In our data set, when deviations occur they correspond to in frame UAA and UAG coding for glutamine. By combining these new data with those previously reported, we show that (i) utilization of UAA and UAG codons occurs to different extents between, but also within, the different classes of ciliates and (ii) the resulting phylogenetic pattern of deviations from the universal code cannot be accounted for by a scenario involving a single transition to the unusual code. Thus, contrary to expectations, deviations from the universal genetic code have arisen independently several times within the phylum. PMID:7621837

Tourancheau, A B; Tsao, N; Klobutcher, L A; Pearlman, R E; Adoutte, A

1995-01-01

6

Semi-device-independent randomness certification using n?1 quantum random access codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study random-number-expansion protocols based on the n?1 quantum random access codes (QRACs). We consider them in the semi-device-independent scenario where the inner workings of the devices are unknown to us but we can certify the dimensions of the systems being communicated. This approach does not require the use of entanglement and makes the physical realization of these protocols much easier than in the standard device-independent scenario. In our work, we propose a protocol for randomness expansion, compute min-entropy for the semi-device-independent protocol, and investigate n?1 QRACs with a view to their use in randomness-expansion protocols. We also calculate the dependence of the effectiveness of the randomness generation on n and find it optimal for n=3, and provide the explanation for this fact.

Li, Hong-Wei; Paw?owski, Marcin; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

2012-05-01

7

Implementation of context independent code on a new array processor: The Super-65  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of rewriting standard uniprocessor programs into code which contains no context-dependent branches is explored. Context independent code (CIC) would contain no branches that might require different processing elements to branch different ways. In order to investigate the possibilities and restrictions of CIC, several programs were recoded into CIC and a four-element array processor was built. This processor (the Super-65) consisted of three 6502 microprocessors and the Apple II microcomputer. The results obtained were somewhat dependent upon the specific architecture of the Super-65 but within bounds, the throughput of the array processor was found to increase linearly with the number of processing elements (PEs). The slope of throughput versus PEs is highly dependent on the program and varied from 0.33 to 1.00 for the sample programs.

Colbert, R. O.; Bowhill, S. A.

1981-01-01

8

Order Code RL34294 Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007  

E-print Network

Order Code RL34294 Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: A Summary of Major Provisions Division #12;Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: A Summary of Major Provisions Summary The Energy Independence and Security Act (P.L. 110-140, H.R. 6) is an omnibus energy policy law that consists mainly

Laughlin, Robert B.

9

Two independent transcription initiation codes overlap on vertebrate core promoters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A core promoter is a stretch of DNA surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) that integrates regulatory inputs and recruits general transcription factors to initiate transcription. The nature and causative relationship of the DNA sequence and chromatin signals that govern the selection of most TSSs by RNA polymerase II remain unresolved. Maternal to zygotic transition represents the most marked change of the transcriptome repertoire in the vertebrate life cycle. Early embryonic development in zebrafish is characterized by a series of transcriptionally silent cell cycles regulated by inherited maternal gene products: zygotic genome activation commences at the tenth cell cycle, marking the mid-blastula transition. This transition provides a unique opportunity to study the rules of TSS selection and the hierarchy of events linking transcription initiation with key chromatin modifications. We analysed TSS usage during zebrafish early embryonic development at high resolution using cap analysis of gene expression, and determined the positions of H3K4me3-marked promoter-associated nucleosomes. Here we show that the transition from the maternal to zygotic transcriptome is characterized by a switch between two fundamentally different modes of defining transcription initiation, which drive the dynamic change of TSS usage and promoter shape. A maternal-specific TSS selection, which requires an A/T-rich (W-box) motif, is replaced with a zygotic TSS selection grammar characterized by broader patterns of dinucleotide enrichments, precisely aligned with the first downstream (+1) nucleosome. The developmental dynamics of the H3K4me3-marked nucleosomes reveal their DNA-sequence-associated positioning at promoters before zygotic transcription and subsequent transcription-independent adjustment to the final position downstream of the zygotic TSS. The two TSS-defining grammars coexist, often physically overlapping, in core promoters of constitutively expressed genes to enable their expression in the two regulatory environments. The dissection of overlapping core promoter determinants represents a framework for future studies of promoter structure and function across different regulatory contexts.

Haberle, Vanja; Li, Nan; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Plessy, Charles; Previti, Christopher; Nepal, Chirag; Gehrig, Jochen; Dong, Xianjun; Akalin, Altuna; Suzuki, Ana Maria; van Ijcken, Wilfred F. J.; Armant, Olivier; Ferg, Marco; Strähle, Uwe; Carninci, Piero; Müller, Ferenc; Lenhard, Boris

2014-03-01

10

Independent verification and benchmark testing of the UNSAT-H computer code, Version 2.0  

SciTech Connect

Independent testing of the UNSAT-H computer code, Version 2.0, was conducted to establish confidence that the code is ready for general use in performance assessment applications. Verification and benchmark test problems were used to check the correctness of the FORTRAN coding, computational efficiency and accuracy of the numerical algorithm, and code, capability to simulate diverse hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured and quantitative evaluation protocol. The protocol consisted of: blind testing, independent applications, maintaining test equivalence and use of graduated test cases. Graphical comparisons and calculation of the relative root mean square (RRMS) values were used as indicators of accuracy and consistency levels. Four specific ranges of RRMS values were chosen for in judging the quality of the comparison. Four verification test problems were used to check the computational accuracy of UNSAT-H in solving the uncoupled fluid flow and heat transport equations. Five benchmark test problems, ranging in complexity, were used to check the code`s simulation capability. Some of the benchmark test cases include comparisons with laboratory and field data. The primary findings of this independent testing is that the UNSAT-H is fully operationaL In general, the test results showed that computer code produced unsaturated flow simulations with excellent stability, reasonable accuracy, and acceptable speed. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of the independent testing. A number of future refinements to the UNSAT-H code are recommended that would improve: computational speed and accuracy, code usability and code portability. Aspects of the code that warrant further testing are outlined.

Baca, R.G.; Magnuson, S.O.

1990-02-01

11

Independent verification and benchmark testing of the UNSAT-H computer code, Version 2. 0  

SciTech Connect

Independent testing of the UNSAT-H computer code, Version 2.0, was conducted to establish confidence that the code is ready for general use in performance assessment applications. Verification and benchmark test problems were used to check the correctness of the FORTRAN coding, computational efficiency and accuracy of the numerical algorithm, and code, capability to simulate diverse hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured and quantitative evaluation protocol. The protocol consisted of: blind testing, independent applications, maintaining test equivalence and use of graduated test cases. Graphical comparisons and calculation of the relative root mean square (RRMS) values were used as indicators of accuracy and consistency levels. Four specific ranges of RRMS values were chosen for in judging the quality of the comparison. Four verification test problems were used to check the computational accuracy of UNSAT-H in solving the uncoupled fluid flow and heat transport equations. Five benchmark test problems, ranging in complexity, were used to check the code's simulation capability. Some of the benchmark test cases include comparisons with laboratory and field data. The primary findings of this independent testing is that the UNSAT-H is fully operationaL In general, the test results showed that computer code produced unsaturated flow simulations with excellent stability, reasonable accuracy, and acceptable speed. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of the independent testing. A number of future refinements to the UNSAT-H code are recommended that would improve: computational speed and accuracy, code usability and code portability. Aspects of the code that warrant further testing are outlined.

Baca, R.G.; Magnuson, S.O.

1990-02-01

12

An Investigation of Code Matched Interleaver for 3G Turbo Code Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, we have investigated Code Matched Interleaver (CMI) in turbo code system for both 3G Wireless Communication standards-WCDMA and cdma2000 systems-to substitute 3G interleavers, which are complex. The code matched interleaver design formula in both 3G turbo code systems is obtained through a meticulous study on the weight distributions of the systems. The simulation results for the 3G turbo code system using CMI for N = 400 (WCDMA) and N = 378 (cdma2000), code rate = 1/3 with Log-MAP decoder over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and Rayeligh fading channel are obtained and compared with 3G turbo code system using typical 3G interleavers. From the performance results, it is observed that the 3G turbo code system using CMI performs better than the typical 3G turbo code with coding gain of 0.15-0.35 dB.

Balamuralithara, B.; Kalpana, S.

13

INVESTIGATION Coding Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism  

E-print Network

Detection for Physiological Reproductive Traits in Brook Charr, Salvelinus fontinalis Christopher Sauvage for brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, using an F2 interstrain hybrid progeny (n = 171) and 256 coding gene QTL detection single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) reproduction Salvelinus fontinalis Linkages maps

Bernatchez, Louis

14

A coding-independent function of gene and pseudogene mRNAs regulates tumour biology  

PubMed Central

The canonical role of messenger RNA (mRNA) is to deliver protein-coding information to sites of protein synthesis. However, given that microRNAs bind to RNAs, we hypothesized that RNAs possess a biological role in cancer cells that relies upon their ability to compete for microRNA binding and is independent of their protein-coding function. As a paradigm for the protein-coding-independent role of RNAs, we describe the functional relationship between the mRNAs produced by the PTEN tumour suppressor gene and its pseudogene (PTENP1) and the critical consequences of this interaction. We find that PTENP1 is biologically active as determined by its ability to regulate cellular levels of PTEN, and that it can exert a growth-suppressive role. We also show that PTENP1 locus is selectively lost in human cancer. We extend our analysis to other cancer-related genes that possess pseudogenes, such as oncogenic KRAS. Further, we demonstrate that the transcripts of protein coding genes such as PTEN are also biologically active. Together, these findings attribute a novel biological role to expressed pseudogenes, as they can regulate coding gene expression, and reveal a non-coding function for mRNAs. PMID:20577206

Poliseno, Laura; Salmena, Leonardo; Zhang, Jiangwen; Carver, Brett; Haveman, William J.; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

2011-01-01

15

An investigation of error characteristics and coding performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first year's effort on NASA Grant NAG5-2006 was an investigation to characterize typical errors resulting from the EOS dorn link. The analysis methods developed for this effort were used on test data from a March 1992 White Sands Terminal Test. The effectiveness of a concatenated coding scheme of a Reed Solomon outer code and a convolutional inner code versus a Reed Solomon only code scheme has been investigated as well as the effectiveness of a Periodic Convolutional Interleaver in dispersing errors of certain types. The work effort consisted of development of software that allows simulation studies with the appropriate coding schemes plus either simulated data with errors or actual data with errors. The software program is entitled Communication Link Error Analysis (CLEAN) and models downlink errors, forward error correcting schemes, and interleavers.

Ebel, William J.; Ingels, Frank M.

1993-01-01

16

Board Governance of Independent Schools: A Framework for Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper develops a theoretical framework to guide future inquiry into board governance of independent schools. Design/methodology/approach: The authors' approach is to integrate literatures related to corporate and educational boards, motivation, leadership and group processes that are appropriate for conceptualizing independent school…

McCormick, John; Barnett, Kerry; Alavi, Seyyed Babak; Newcombe, Geoffrey

2006-01-01

17

Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding.  

PubMed

We have demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent phase coding quantum key distribution (RFI-QKD) over an 80-km optical fiber. After considering the finite-key bound, we still achieve a distance of 50?km. In this scenario, the phases of the basis states are related by a slowly time-varying transformation. Furthermore, we developed and realized a new decoy state method for RFI-QKD systems with weak coherent sources to counteract the photon-number-splitting attack. With the help of a reference-frame-independent protocol and a Michelson interferometer with Faraday rotator mirrors, our system is rendered immune to the slow phase changes of the interferometer and the polarization disturbances of the channel, making the procedure very robust. PMID:24402550

Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

2014-01-01

18

Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding  

E-print Network

We have demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent phase coding quantum key distribution (RFI-QKD) over an 80-km optical fiber. After considering the finite-key bound, we still achieve a distance of 50 km. In this scenario, the phases of the basis states are related by a slowly time-varying transformation. Furthermore, we developed and realized a new decoy state method for RFI-QKD systems with weak coherent sources to counteract the photon-number-splitting attack. With the help of a reference-frame-independent protocol and a Michelson interferometer with Faraday rotator mirrors, our system is rendered immune to the slow phase changes of the interferometer and the polarization disturbances of the channel, making the procedure very robust.

Wen-Ye Liang; Shuang Wang; Hong-Wei Li; Zhen-Qiang Yin; Wei Chen; Yao Yao; Jing-Zheng Huang; Guang-Can Guo; Zheng-Fu Han

2014-05-09

19

Developing independent investigators for clinical research relevant for Africa  

PubMed Central

Sustainable research capacity building requires training individuals at multiple levels within a supportive institutional infrastructure to develop a critical mass of independent researchers. At many African medical institutions, a PhD is important for academic promotion and is, therefore, an important focal area for capacity building programs. We examine the training at the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) as a model for in-country training based on systems capacity building and attention to the academic environment. PhD training in Africa should provide a strong research foundation for individuals to perform independent, original research and to mentor others. Training the next generation of researchers within excellent indigenous academic centers of excellence with strong institutional infrastructure will empower trainees to ask regionally relevant research questions that will benefit Africans. PMID:22206247

2011-01-01

20

RELAP5/MOD3 code manual: Summaries and reviews of independent code assessment reports. Volume 7, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Summaries of RELAP5/MOD3 code assessments, a listing of the assessment matrix, and a chronology of the various versions of the code are given. Results from these code assessments have been used to formulate a compilation of some of the strengths and weaknesses of the code. These results are documented in the report. Volume 7 was designed to be updated periodically and to include the results of the latest code assessments as they become available. Consequently, users of Volume 7 should ensure that they have the latest revision available.

Moore, R.L.; Sloan, S.M.; Schultz, R.R.; Wilson, G.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1996-10-01

21

Independent assessment of TRAC and RELAP5 codes through separate effects tests  

SciTech Connect

Independent assessment of TRAC-PF1 (Version 7.0), TRAC-BD1 (Version 12.0) and RELAP5/MOD1 (Cycle 14) that was initiated at BNL in FY 1982, has been completed in FY 1983. As in the previous years, emphasis at Brookhaven has been in simulating various separate-effects tests with these advanced codes and identifying the areas where further thermal-hydraulic modeling improvements are needed. The following six catetories of tests were simulated with the above codes: (1) critical flow tests (Moby-Dick nitrogen-water, BNL flashing flow, Marviken Test 24); (2) Counter-Current Flow Limiting (CCFL) tests (University of Houston, Dartmouth College single and parallel tube test); (3) level swell tests (G.E. large vessel test); (4) steam generator tests (B and W 19-tube model S.G. tests, FLECHT-SEASET U-tube S.G. tests); (5) natural circulation tests (FRIGG loop tests); and (6) post-CHF tests (Oak Ridge steady-state test).

Saha, P.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Jo, J.H.; Neymotin, L.; Slovik, G.; Yuelys-Miksis, C.; Pu, J.

1983-01-01

22

Independent code assessment at BNL in FY 1982. [TRAC-PF1; RELAP5/MOD1; TRAC-BD1  

SciTech Connect

Independent assessment of the advanced codes such as TRAC and RELAP5 has continued at BNL through the Fiscal Year 1982. The simulation tests can be grouped into the following five categories: critical flow, counter-current flow limiting (CCFL) or flooding, level swell, steam generator thermal performance, and natural circulation. TRAC-PF1 (Version 7.0) and RELAP5/MOD1 (Cycle 14) codes were assessed by simulating all of the above experiments, whereas the TRAC-BD1 (Version 12.0) code was applied only to the CCFL tests. Results and conclusions of the BNL code assessment activity of FY 1982 are summarized below.

Saha, P.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Jo, J.H.; Neymotin, L.; Slovik, G.; Yuelys-Miksis, C.

1982-01-01

23

Investigation of spectral screening techniques for independent-component-analysis-based hyperspectral image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of spectral screening on processing hyperspectral data through Independent Component Analysis (ICA). ICA is a multivariate data analysis method producing components that are statistically independent. In the context of the linear mixture model, the endmember abundances can be viewed as independent components, the endmembers forming the columns of the mixing matrix. In essence, the ICA

Stefan A. Robila

2003-01-01

24

An investigation of error characteristics and coding performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of forward error correcting coding schemes on errors anticipated for the Earth Observation System (EOS) Ku-band downlink are studied. The EOS transmits picture frame data to the ground via the Telemetry Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) to a ground-based receiver at White Sands. Due to unintentional RF interference from other systems operating in the Ku band, the noise at the receiver is non-Gaussian which may result in non-random errors output by the demodulator. That is, the downlink channel cannot be modeled by a simple memoryless Gaussian-noise channel. From previous experience, it is believed that those errors are bursty. The research proceeded by developing a computer based simulation, called Communication Link Error ANalysis (CLEAN), to model the downlink errors, forward error correcting schemes, and interleavers used with TDRSS. To date, the bulk of CLEAN was written, documented, debugged, and verified. The procedures for utilizing CLEAN to investigate code performance were established and are discussed.

Ebel, William J.; Ingels, Frank M.

1992-01-01

25

Investigating the Language and Literacy Skills Required for Independent Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation was undertaken to investigate the threshold levels of literacy and language proficiency necessary for adult learners to use the Internet for independent learning. The report is triangulated around learning from large-scale surveys, learning from the literature, and learning from the field. Reported findings include: (1)…

Silver-Pacuilla, Heidi

2008-01-01

26

Approaches to Learning at Work: Investigating Work Motivation, Perceived Workload, and Choice Independence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning and development are taking up a central role in the human resource policies of organizations because of their crucial contribution to the competitiveness of those organizations. The present study investigates the relationship of work motivation, perceived workload, and choice independence with employees' approaches to learning at…

Kyndt, Eva; Raes, Elisabeth; Dochy, Filip; Janssens, Els

2013-01-01

27

Investigation of Bandwidth-Efficient Coding and Modulation Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The necessary technology was studied to improve the bandwidth efficiency of the space-to-ground communications network using the current capabilities of that network as a baseline. The study was aimed at making space payloads, for example the Hubble Space Telescope, more capable without the need to completely redesign the link. Particular emphasis was placed on the following concepts: (1) what the requirements are which are necessary to convert an existing standard 4-ary phase shift keying communications link to one that can support, as a minimum, 8-ary phase shift keying with error corrections applied; and (2) to determine the feasibility of using the existing equipment configurations with additional signal processing equipment to realize the higher order modulation and coding schemes.

Osborne, William P.

1992-01-01

28

Investigation of spectral screening techniques for independent-component-analysis-based hyperspectral image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the effect of spectral screening on processing hyperspectral data through Independent Component Analysis (ICA). ICA is a multivariate data analysis method producing components that are statistically independent. In the context of the linear mixture model, the endmember abundances can be viewed as independent components, the endmembers forming the columns of the mixing matrix. In essence, the ICA processing can be seen as an alternative solution to endmember unmixing. In the context of feature extraction, each feature will be represented by an independent component, thus leading to maximum separability among features. Spectral screening is defined as the reduction of the image cube to a subset of representative pixel vectors with the goal of achieving a considerable speedup in further processing. At the base of spectral screening are the measure used to assess the similarity between two pixel vectors and a threshold value. Two pixel vectors are similar if the value yielded by the similarity measure is smaller than the threshold and dissimilar otherwise. The spectral screened subset has to be formed such that any two vectors in the subset are dissimilar and for any vector in the original image cube there is a similar vector in the subset. The method we present uses spectral angle as distance measure. A necessary condition for the success of spectral screening is that the result of processing the reduced subset can be extended to the entire data. Intuitively, a larger subset would lead to increased accuracy. However, the overhead introduced by the spectral screening is directly proportional to the subset size. Our investigation has focused on finding the "ideal" threshold value that maximizes both the accuracy and the speedup. The practical effectiveness of the methods was tested on HYDICE data. The results indicate that considerable speedup is obtained without a considerable loss of accuracy. The presented method leads to a significant increase in computational efficiency allowing faster processing of hyperspectral images.

Robila, Stefan A.

2003-09-01

29

Monitoring of marine mucilage formation in Italian seas investigated by infrared spectroscopy and independent component analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to present and to discuss some characteristics of recalcitrant organic matter mechanism and formation. These aggregates called mucilages that are produced by the degradation reactions of several algae, have been investigated by infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectra of macroaggregates produced by different algal samples have been daily collected in order to investigate the steps of aggregation. Afterwards, they have been elaborated by means of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). ICA investigation of FTIR spectra showed that the global aggregation process of marine mucilage always consisted of two different phases or independent components (ICs). One IC is related to the first degradation step of algal cells leading to the production of mono and oligosaccharides with aminoacids and oligopeptides. The second IC is related to the polymerization of oligosaccharides with aminoacids and oligopeptides and to their interaction with less polar compounds such as lipids thus producing supramolecular structures. The emerging mechanisms of anomalous size aggregates of organic matter match those of natural organic matter aggregation. The approach we suggest is to use synthetic mucilages which allows to monitor the macroaggregates formation because it can hardly be performed by means of natural marine macroaggregates. PMID:22020392

Mecozzi, Mauro; Pietroletti, Marco; Scarpiniti, Michele; Acquistucci, Rita; Conti, Marcelo Enrique

2012-10-01

30

Investigation of liquid crystal Fabry-Perot tunable filters: design, fabrication, and polarization independence.  

PubMed

Liquid crystal Fabry-Perot tunable filters are investigated in detail, with special attention to their manufacturability, design, tolerances, and polarization independence. The calculations were performed both numerically and analytically using the 4×4 propagation matrix method. A simplified analytic expression for the propagation matrix is derived for the case of nematic LC in the homogeneous geometry. At normal incidence, it is shown that one can use the 2×2 Abeles matrix method; however, at oblique incidence, the 4×4 matrix method is needed. The effects of dephasing originating from wedge or noncollimated light beams are investigated. Due to the absorption of the indium tin oxide layer and as an electrode, its location within the mirror multilayered stack is very important. The optimum location is found to be within the stack and not on its top or bottom. Finally, we give more detailed experimental results of our polarization-independent configuration that uses polarization diversity with a Wollaston prism. PMID:25322437

Isaacs, Sivan; Placido, Frank; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

2014-10-10

31

Investigation of the Use of Erasures in a Concatenated Coding Scheme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method for declaring erasures in a concatenated coding scheme is investigated. This method is used with the rate 1/2 K = 7 convolutional code and the (255, 223) Reed Solomon code. Errors and erasures Reed Solomon decoding is used. The erasure method proposed uses a soft output Viterbi algorithm and information provided by decoded Reed Solomon codewords in a deinterleaving frame. The results show that a gain of 0.3 dB is possible using a minimum amount of decoding trials.

Kwatra, S. C.; Marriott, Philip J.

1997-01-01

32

Binary neutron-star mergers with Whisky and SACRA: First quantitative comparison of results from independent general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes  

SciTech Connect

We present the first quantitative comparison of two independent general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes, the whisky code and the sacra code. We compare the output of simulations starting from the same initial data and carried out with the configuration (numerical methods, grid setup, resolution, gauges) which for each code has been found to give consistent and sufficiently accurate results, in particular, in terms of cleanness of gravitational waveforms. We focus on the quantities that should be conserved during the evolution (rest mass, total mass energy, and total angular momentum) and on the gravitational-wave amplitude and frequency. We find that the results produced by the two codes agree at a reasonable level, with variations in the different quantities but always at better than about 10%.

Baiotti, Luca [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, 565-0871 (Japan); Shibata, Masaru [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tetsuro [Yugen Club, Toyama, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 162-0052 (Japan)

2010-09-15

33

Binary neutron-star mergers with Whisky and SACRA: First quantitative comparison of results from independent general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first quantitative comparison of two independent general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes, the whisky code and the sacra code. We compare the output of simulations starting from the same initial data and carried out with the configuration (numerical methods, grid setup, resolution, gauges) which for each code has been found to give consistent and sufficiently accurate results, in particular, in terms of cleanness of gravitational waveforms. We focus on the quantities that should be conserved during the evolution (rest mass, total mass energy, and total angular momentum) and on the gravitational-wave amplitude and frequency. We find that the results produced by the two codes agree at a reasonable level, with variations in the different quantities but always at better than about 10%.

Baiotti, Luca; Shibata, Masaru; Yamamoto, Tetsuro

2010-09-01

34

Semantic association investigated with fMRI and independent component analysis  

PubMed Central

Semantic association, an essential element of human language, enables discourse and inference. Neuroimaging studies have revealed localization and lateralization of semantic circuitry making substantial contributions to cognitive neuroscience. However, due to methodological limitations, these investigations have only identified individual functional components rather than capturing the behavior of the entire network. To overcome these limitations, we have implemented group independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate the cognitive modules used by healthy adults performing fMRI semantic decision task. When compared to the results of a standard GLM analysis, ICA detected several additional brain regions subserving semantic decision. Eight task-related group ICA maps were identified including left inferior frontal gyrus (BA44/45), middle posterior temporal gyrus (BA39/22), angular gyrus/inferior parietal lobule (BA39/40), posterior cingulate (BA30), bilateral lingual gyrus (BA18/23), inferior frontal gyrus (L>R, BA47), hippocampus with parahippocampal gyrus (L>R, BA35/36) and anterior cingulate (BA32/24). While most of the components were represented bilaterally, we found a single, highly left-lateralized component that included the inferior frontal gyrus and the medial and superior temporal gyri, the angular and supramarginal gyri and the inferior parietal cortex. The presence of these spatially independent ICA components implies functional connectivity and can be equated with their modularity. These results are analyzed and presented in the framework of a biologically plausible theoretical model in preparation for similar analyses in patients with right- or left-hemispheric epilepsies. PMID:21296027

Kim, Kwang Ki; Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Privitera, Michael D.; Holland, Scott K.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

2010-01-01

35

User's description of second-order error propagation (SOERP) computer code for statistically independent variables. [In FORTRAN for IBM 360\\/75 and CDC 7600 (CYBER 7000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of second-order error propagation equations for the first four moments of a function of independently distributed random variables are discussed. The implementation of a computer code (SOERP) for solving these equations with up to 30 component variables is also presented.

N. D. Cox; C. F. Miller

1978-01-01

36

User's manual for three dimensional FDTD version A code for scattering from frequency-independent dielectric materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Scattering Code Version A is a three dimensional numerical electromagnetic scattering code based upon the Finite Difference Time Domain Technique (FDTD). This manual provides a description of the code and corresponding results for the default scattering problem. In addition to the description, the operation, resource requirements, version A code capabilities, a description of each subroutine, a brief discussion of the radar cross section computations, and a discussion of the scattering results.

Beggs, John H.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

1991-01-01

37

User's manual for three dimensional FDTD version C code for scattering from frequency-independent dielectric and magnetic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Penn State Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Scattering Code Version C is a three dimensional numerical electromagnetic scattering code based upon the Finite Difference Time Domain Technique (FDTD). The supplied version of the code is one version of our current three dimensional FDTD code set. This manual provides a description of the code and corresponding results for several scattering problems. The manual is organized into fourteen sections: introduction, description of the FDTD method, operation, resource requirements, Version C code capabilities, a brief description of the default scattering geometry, a brief description of each subroutine, a description of the include file (COMMONC.FOR), a section briefly discussing Radar Cross Section (RCS) computations, a section discussing some scattering results, a sample problem setup section, a new problem checklist, references and figure titles.

Beggs, John H.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

1991-07-01

38

User's manual for three dimensional FDTD version C code for scattering from frequency-independent dielectric and magnetic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Penn State Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Scattering Code Version C is a three-dimensional numerical electromagnetic scattering code based on the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique. The supplied version of the code is one version of our current three-dimensional FDTD code set. The manual given here provides a description of the code and corresponding results for several scattering problems. The manual is organized into 14 sections: introduction, description of the FDTD method, operation, resource requirements, Version C code capabilities, a brief description of the default scattering geometry, a brief description of each subroutine, a description of the include file (COMMONC.FOR), a section briefly discussing radar cross section computations, a section discussing some scattering results, a new problem checklist, references, and figure titles.

Beggs, John H.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

1992-01-01

39

User's manual for two dimensional FDTD version TEA and TMA codes for scattering from frequency-independent dielectic materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Penn State Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Scattering Code Versions TEA and TMA are two dimensional numerical electromagnetic scattering codes based upon the Finite Difference Time Domain Technique (FDTD) first proposed by Yee in 1966. The supplied version of the codes are two versions of our current two dimensional FDTD code set. This manual provides a description of the codes and corresponding results for the default scattering problem. The manual is organized into eleven sections: introduction, Version TEA and TMA code capabilities, a brief description of the default scattering geometry, a brief description of each subroutine, a description of the include files (TEACOM.FOR TMACOM.FOR), a section briefly discussing scattering width computations, a section discussing the scattering results, a sample problem set section, a new problem checklist, references and figure titles.

Beggs, John H.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

1991-01-01

40

User's manual for three dimensional FDTD version C code for scattering from frequency-independent dielectric and magnetic materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Penn State Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Scattering Code Version C is a three dimensional numerical electromagnetic scattering code based upon the Finite Difference Time Domain Technique (FDTD). The supplied version of the code is one version of our current three dimensional FDTD code set. This manual provides a description of the code and corresponding results for several scattering problems. The manual is organized into fourteen sections: introduction, description of the FDTD method, operation, resource requirements, Version C code capabilities, a brief description of the default scattering geometry, a brief description of each subroutine, a description of the include file (COMMONC.FOR), a section briefly discussing Radar Cross Section (RCS) computations, a section discussing some scattering results, a sample problem setup section, a new problem checklist, references and figure titles.

Beggs, John H.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

1991-01-01

41

User's manual for two dimensional FDTD version TEA and TMA codes for scattering from frequency-independent dielectric materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Penn State Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Scattering Code Versions TEA and TMA are two dimensional electromagnetic scattering codes based on the Finite Difference Time Domain Technique (FDTD) first proposed by Yee in 1966. The supplied version of the codes are two versions of our current FDTD code set. This manual provides a description of the codes and corresponding results for the default scattering problem. The manual is organized into eleven sections: introduction, Version TEA and TMA code capabilities, a brief description of the default scattering geometry, a brief description of each subroutine, a description of the include files (TEACOM.FOR TMACOM.FOR), a section briefly discussing scattering width computations, a section discussing the scattering results, a sample problem setup section, a new problem checklist, references, and figure titles.

Beggs, John H.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

1991-01-01

42

User's manual for three dimensional FDTD version A code for scattering from frequency-independent dielectric materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Penn State Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Electromagnetic Scattering Code Version A is a three dimensional numerical electromagnetic scattering code based on the Finite Difference Time Domain technique. The supplied version of the code is one version of our current three dimensional FDTD code set. The manual provides a description of the code and the corresponding results for the default scattering problem. The manual is organized into 14 sections: introduction, description of the FDTD method, operation, resource requirements, Version A code capabilities, a brief description of the default scattering geometry, a brief description of each subroutine, a description of the include file (COMMONA.FOR), a section briefly discussing radar cross section (RCS) computations, a section discussing the scattering results, a sample problem setup section, a new problem checklist, references, and figure titles.

Beggs, John H.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

1992-01-01

43

Investigation of blood mRNA biomarkers for suicidality in an independent sample.  

PubMed

Changes in the blood expression levels of SAT1, PTEN, MAP3K3 and MARCKS genes have been reported as biomarkers of high versus low suicidality state (Le-Niculescu et al.). Here, we investigate these expression biomarkers in the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study, of patients with major depressive disorder on a 12-week antidepressant treatment. Blood gene expression levels were available at baseline and week 8 for patients who experienced suicidal ideation during the study (n=20) versus those who did not (n=37). The analysis is well powered to detect the effect sizes reported in the original paper. Within either group, there was no significant change in the expression of these four genes over the course of the study, despite increasing suicidal ideation or initiation of antidepressant treatment. Comparison of the groups showed that the gene expression did not differ between patients with or without treatment-related suicidality. This independent study does not support the validity of the proposed biomarkers. PMID:25350297

Mullins, N; Hodgson, K; Tansey, K E; Perroud, N; Maier, W; Mors, O; Rietschel, M; Hauser, J; Henigsberg, N; Souery, D; Aitchison, K; Farmer, A; McGuffin, P; Breen, G; Uher, R; Lewis, C M

2014-01-01

44

Flight Investigation of Prescribed Simultaneous Independent Surface Excitations for Real-Time Parameter Identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near real-time stability and control derivative extraction is required to support flight demonstration of Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) concepts being developed by NASA, academia, and industry. Traditionally, flight maneuvers would be designed and flown to obtain stability and control derivative estimates using a postflight analysis technique. The goal of the IFCS concept is to be able to modify the control laws in real time for an aircraft that has been damaged in flight. In some IFCS implementations, real-time parameter identification (PID) of the stability and control derivatives of the damaged aircraft is necessary for successfully reconfiguring the control system. This report investigates the usefulness of Prescribed Simultaneous Independent Surface Excitations (PreSISE) to provide data for rapidly obtaining estimates of the stability and control derivatives. Flight test data were analyzed using both equation-error and output-error PID techniques. The equation-error PID technique is known as Fourier Transform Regression (FTR) and is a frequency-domain real-time implementation. Selected results were compared with a time-domain output-error technique. The real-time equation-error technique combined with the PreSISE maneuvers provided excellent derivative estimation in the longitudinal axis. However, the PreSISE maneuvers as presently defined were not adequate for accurate estimation of the lateral-directional derivatives.

Moes, Timothy R.; Smith, Mark S.; Morelli, Eugene A.

2003-01-01

45

Investigating the Magnetorotational Instability with Dedalus, and Open-Souce Hydrodynamics Code  

SciTech Connect

The magnetorotational instability is a fluid instability that causes the onset of turbulence in discs with poloidal magnetic fields. It is believed to be an important mechanism in the physics of accretion discs, namely in its ability to transport angular momentum outward. A similar instability arising in systems with a helical magnetic field may be easier to produce in laboratory experiments using liquid sodium, but the applicability of this phenomenon to astrophysical discs is unclear. To explore and compare the properties of these standard and helical magnetorotational instabilities (MRI and HRMI, respectively), magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) capabilities were added to Dedalus, an open-source hydrodynamics simulator. Dedalus is a Python-based pseudospectral code that uses external libraries and parallelization with the goal of achieving speeds competitive with codes implemented in lower-level languages. This paper will outline the MHD equations as implemented in Dedalus, the steps taken to improve the performance of the code, and the status of MRI investigations using Dedalus.

Burns, Keaton J; /UC, Berkeley, aff SLAC

2012-08-31

46

Investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of wings having vortex flow using different numerical codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic characteristics of highly sweptback wings having separation-induced vortex flow were investigated by employing different numerical codes with a view to determining some of the capabilities and limitations of these codes. Flat wings of various configurations-strake wing models, cropped, diamond, arrow and double delta wings, were studied. Cambered and cranked planforms have also been tested. The theoretical results predicted by the codes were compared with the experimental data, wherever possible, and found to agree favorably for most of the configurations investigated. However, large cambered wings could not be successfully modeled by the codes. It appears that the final solution in the free vortex sheet method is affected by the selection of the initial solution. Accumulated span loadings estimated for delta and diamond wings were found to be unusual in comparison with attached flow results in that the slopes of these load curves near the leading edge do not tend to infinity as they do in the case of attached flow.

Reddy, C. S.; Goglia, G. L.

1981-01-01

47

RACE, CODE OF THE STREET, AND VIOLENT DELINQUENCY: A MULTILEVEL INVESTIGATION OF NEIGHBORHOOD STREET CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL NORMS OF VIOLENCE*  

PubMed Central

The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent’s own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consistent with Anderson’s hypotheses, neighborhood street culture significantly predicts violent delinquency independent of individual-level street code effects. Additionally, neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on violence in neighborhoods where the street culture is widespread. In particular, the effect of street code values on violence is enhanced in neighborhoods where the street culture is endorsed widely. PMID:21666759

Stewart, Eric A.; Simons, Ronald L.

2011-01-01

48

Investigation of the AKT/PKB Kinase in the Development of Hormone- Independent Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our laboratory has been interested in the role of Akt in the development of hormone independent cancers. Using a breast cancer cell model, we previously demonstrated that tumors with a constitutively active Akt are resistant to anti-hormone therapy. In th...

L. A. DEGraffenried

2005-01-01

49

After a Long-Term Placement: Investigating Educational Achievement, Behaviour, and Transition to Independent Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the transition towards independent living of 123 former fostered young people reared for long periods in a private French organisation, SOS Children's Villages. Three generations of care leavers were analysed through a postal survey and interviews. Their narratives show typical pathways after leaving care. Two-thirds became…

Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Donati, Pascale; Crost, Monique

2011-01-01

50

Culture-Dependent and Independent Methods To Investigate the Microbial Ecology of Italian Fermented Sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the microbial ecology of three naturally fermented sausages produced in northeast Italy was studied by culture-dependent and -independent methods. By plating analysis, the predominance of lactic acid bacteria populations was pointed out, as well as the importance of coagulase-negative cocci. Also in the case of one fermentation, the fecal enterocci reached significant counts, highlighting their contribution to

Kalliopi Rantsiou; Rosalinda Urso; Lucilla Iacumin; Carlo Cantoni; Patrizia Cattaneo; Giuseppe Comi; Luca Cocolin

2005-01-01

51

Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

2011-01-01

52

An investigation on the capabilities of the PENELOPE MC code in nanodosimetry.  

PubMed

The Monte Carlo (MC) method has been widely implemented in studies of radiation effects on human genetic material. Most of these works have used specific-purpose MC codes to simulate radiation transport in condensed media. PENELOPE is one of the general-purpose MC codes that has been used in many applications related to radiation dosimetry. Based on the fact that PENELOPE can carry out event-by-event coupled electron-photon transport simulations following these particles down to energies of the order of few tens of eV, we have decided to investigate the capacities of this code in the field of nanodosimetry. Single and double strand break probabilities due to the direct impact of gamma rays originated from Co60 and Cs137 isotopes and characteristic x-rays, from Al and C K-shells, have been determined by use of PENELOPE. Indirect damage has not been accounted for in this study. A human genetic material geometrical model has been developed, taking into account five organizational levels. In an article by Friedland et al. [Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 38, 39-47 (1999)], a specific-purpose MC code and a very sophisticated DNA geometrical model were used. We have chosen that work as a reference to compare our results. Single and double strand-break probabilities obtained here underestimate those reported by Friedland and co-workers by 20%-76% and 50%-60%, respectively. However, we obtain RBE values for Cs137, AlK and CK radiations in agreement with those reported in previous works [Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 38, 39-47 (1999)] and [Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 233-244 (2008)]. Some enhancements can be incorporated into the PENELOPE code to improve its results in the nanodosimetry field. PMID:19292002

Bernal, M A; Liendo, J A

2009-02-01

53

Experimental investigation of mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionation of mercury isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury is a globally distributed and highly toxic pollutant, the mobility and bioaccumulation of which is highly dependent on its redox cycling. With seven isotopes (including two odd-mass isotopes) and a relative mass difference of 4%, stable isotope fractionation of Hg could be a powerful tool to track and understand Hg cycling in the environment. Ongoing studies of natural mercury isotope variations in ore deposits, hydrothermal fluids, sediments, soils, fish tissues and bacterial cultures have documented a measurable range in Hg isotopes of up to ~5‰ in the ^{202}Hg/^{198}Hg ratio with most samples displaying mass-dependent fractionation. A small, but growing, body of data also suggests that natural samples display mass-independent fractionation of Hg isotopes. In this study, we explore mechanisms that lead to both mass- dependent and mass-independent fractionation of Hg isotopes. Isotope ratios were measured by continuous- flow cold-vapor generation coupled to MC-ICPMS with an external precision of ±0.1‰ (2SD). We observe three distinct types of isotope fractionation for Hg: (1) mass-dependent fractionation, (2) mass- independent fractionation of odd isotopes concurrent with mass-dependent fractionation of even isotopes, and (3) mass-independent fractionation of all Hg isotopes. Reduction of Hg species to Hg(0) vapor is an important mechanism for removal of Hg from aqueous systems into the atmosphere. Reduction of Hg occurs through numerous pathways including photoreduction, abiotic organic reduction, and biological reduction. We find that photoreduction of Hg(II) by natural sunlight leads to mass-independent fractionation of the odd isotopes (^{201}Hg, ^{199}Hg) with several permil deviations from predicted mass dependence, and mass- dependent fractionation of the even isotopes. In contrast, both biological reduction (Kritee et al., 2006) and dark abiotic organically mediated reduction follow mass-dependent fractionation of even and odd isotopes. Additionally, the mass-dependent fractionation of the even isotopes during photoreduction has a distinct fractionation factor from both the biological and dark abiotic reduction pathways. In another set of experiments, Hg(II) was reduced with a Hg lamp and this photoreduction by Hg emission lines lead to an unusual fractionation of both even and odd isotopes. Hg isotope variation of natural samples including fish, coals, and sediments is also observed and will be reported. These three different isotopic fractionation mechanisms hold promise for quantifying Hg redox pathways and potentially tracking anthropogenic Hg in the environment.

Bergquist, B. A.; Blum, J. D.; Marcus, J. W.; Biswas, A.

2006-12-01

54

Analytical investigation of the effects of lateral connections on the accuracy of population coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied how lateral connections affect the accuracy of a population code by using a model of orientation selectivity in the primary visual cortex. Investigating the effects of lateral connections on population coding is a complex problem because these connections simultaneously change the shape of tuning curves and correlations between neurons. Both of these changes caused by lateral connections have to be taken into consideration to correctly evaluate their effects. We propose a theoretical framework for analytically computing the Fisher information, which measures the accuracy of a population code, in stochastic spiking neuron models with refractory periods. Within our framework, we accurately evaluated both the changes in tuning curves and correlations caused by lateral connections and their effects on the Fisher information. We found that their effects conflicted with each other and the answer to whether or not the lateral connections increased the Fisher information strongly depended on the intrinsic properties of the model neuron. By systematically changing the coupling strengths of excitations and inhibitions, we found the parameter regions of lateral connectivities where sharpening of tuning curves through Mexican-hat connectivities led to an increase in information, which is in contrast to some previous findings.

Oizumi, Masafumi; Miura, Keiji; Okada, Masato

2010-05-01

55

Investigation of in-band transmission of both spectral amplitude coding/optical code division multiple-access and wavelength division multiplexing signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmission of both optical code division multiple-access (OCDMA) and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) users on the same band is investigated. Code pulses of spectral amplitude coding (SAC)/optical code division multiple-access (CDMA) are overlaid onto a multichannel WDM system. Notch filters are utilized in order to suppress the WDM interference signals for detection of optical broadband CDMA signals. Modified quadratic congruence (MQC) codes are used as the signature codes for the SAC/OCDMA system. The proposed system is simulated and its performance in terms of both the bit-error rate and Q-factor are determined. In addition, eavesdropper probability of error-free code detection is evaluated. Our results are compared to traditional nonhybrid systems. It is concluded that the proposed hybrid scheme still achieves acceptable performance. In addition, it provides enhanced data confidentiality as compared to the scheme with SAC/OCDMA only. It is also shown that the performance of the proposed system is limited by the interference of the WDM signals. Furthermore, the simulation illustrates the tradeoff between the performance and confidentiality for authorized users.

Ashour, Isaac A. M.; Shaari, Sahbudin; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Menon, P. Susthitha

2011-06-01

56

Work in progress - an investigation into the effect of an institutional honor code policy on academic behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates significant cheating at institutions of higher learning; however, evidence indicates that a well-designed and clearly-communicated campus honor code might have a mitigating effect. This is the impetus behind the implementation of an academic honor code policy at a private university beginning in the fall of 2004. This situation presented a unique opportunity to investigate the potential of an

Donald D. Carpenter; Trevor S. Harding; Cynthia J. Finelli; Matthew Mayhew

2005-01-01

57

Culture-Dependent and -Independent Investigations of Microbial Diversity on Urinary Catheters  

PubMed Central

Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is caused by bacteria, which ascend the catheter along its external or internal surface to the bladder and subsequently develop into biofilms on the catheter and uroepithelium. Antibiotic-treated bacteria and bacteria residing in biofilm can be difficult to culture. In this study we used culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based culture-independent methods (fingerprinting, cloning, and pyrosequencing) to determine the microbial diversity of biofilms on 24 urinary catheters. Most of the patients were catheterized for <30 days and had undergone recent antibiotic treatment. In addition, the corresponding urine samples for 16 patients were cultured. We found that gene analyses of the catheters were consistent with cultures of the corresponding urine samples for the presence of bacteria but sometimes discordant for the identity of the species. Cultures of catheter tips detected bacteria more frequently than urine cultures and gene analyses; coagulase-negative staphylococci were, in particular, cultured much more often from catheter tips, indicating potential contamination of the catheter tips during sampling. The external and internal surfaces of 19 catheters were separately analyzed by molecular methods, and discordant results were found in six catheters, suggesting that bacterial colonization intra- and extraluminally may be different. Molecular analyses showed that most of the species identified in this study were known uropathogens, and infected catheters were generally colonized by one to two species, probably due to antibiotic usage and short-term catheterization. In conclusion, our data showed that culture-independent molecular methods did not detect bacteria from urinary catheters more frequently than culture-based methods. PMID:23015674

Xu, Yijuan; Moser, Claus; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; S?rensen, S?ren; H?iby, Niels; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer

2012-01-01

58

3D PiC code investigations of Auroral Kilometric Radiation mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient (~1%) electron cyclotron radio emissions are known to originate in the X mode from regions of locally depleted plasma in the Earths polar magnetosphere. These emissions are commonly referred to as the Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR). AKR occurs naturally in these polar regions where electrons are accelerated by electric fields into the increasing planetary magnetic dipole. Here conservation of the magnetic moment converts axial to rotational momentum forming a horseshoe distribution in velocity phase space. This distribution is unstable to cyclotron emission with radiation emitted in the X-mode. Initial studies were conducted in the form of 2D PiC code simulations [1] and a scaled laboratory experiment that was constructed to reproduce the mechanism of AKR. As studies progressed, 3D PiC code simulations were conducted to enable complete investigation of the complex interaction dimensions. A maximum efficiency of 1.25% is predicted from these simulations in the same mode and frequency as measured in the experiment. This is also consistent with geophysical observations and the predictions of theory.

Gillespie, K. M.; McConville, S. L.; Speirs, D. C.; Ronald, K.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Bingham, R.; Cross, A. W.; Robertson, C. W.; Whyte, C. G.; He, W.; Vorgul, I.; Cairns, R. A.; Kellett, B. J.

2014-05-01

59

Culture-Independent Investigation of the Microbiome Associated with the Nematode Acrobeloides maximus  

PubMed Central

Background Symbioses between metazoans and microbes are widespread and vital to many ecosystems. Recent work with several nematode species has suggested that strong associations with microbial symbionts may also be common among members of this phylu. In this work we explore possible symbiosis between bacteria and the free living soil bacteriovorous nematode Acrobeloides maximus. Methodology We used a soil microcosm approach to expose A. maximus populations grown monoxenically on RFP labeled Escherichia coli in a soil slurry. Worms were recovered by density gradient separation and examined using both culture-independent and isolation methods. A 16S rRNA gene survey of the worm-associated bacteria was compared to the soil and to a similar analysis using Caenorhabditis elegans N2. Recovered A. maximus populations were maintained on cholesterol agar and sampled to examine the population dynamics of the microbiome. Results A consistent core microbiome was extracted from A. maximus that differed from those in the bulk soil or the C. elegans associated set. Three genera, Ochrobactrum, Pedobacter, and Chitinophaga, were identified at high levels only in the A. maximus populations, which were less diverse than the assemblage associated with C. elegans. Putative symbiont populations were maintained for at least 4 months post inoculation, although the levels decreased as the culture aged. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes specific for Ochrobactrum and Pedobacter stained bacterial cells in formaldehyde fixed nematode guts. Conclusions Three microorganisms were repeatedly observed in association with Acrobeloides maximus when recovered from soil microcosms. We isolated several Ochrobactrum sp. and Pedobacter sp., and demonstrated that they inhabit the nematode gut by FISH. Although their role in A. maximus is not resolved, we propose possible mutualistic roles for these bacteria in protection of the host against pathogens and facilitating enzymatic digestion of other ingested bacteria. PMID:23894287

Baquiran, Jean-Paul; Thater, Brian; Sedky, Sammy; De Ley, Paul; Crowley, David; Orwin, Paul M.

2013-01-01

60

Independent forensic autopsies in an armed conflict: investigation of the victims from Racak, Kosovo.  

PubMed

In January 1999, a team of Finnish forensic experts under the mandate of the European Union (EU forensic expert team, EU-FET) performed forensic investigations in a sovereign state, in Kosovo, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). The team served as a neutral participant in the forensic investigation of victims of an incident at Racak, which was receiving considerable international attention. The Finnish team performed forensic autopsies, monitored forensic autopsies performed by local experts and verified findings of earlier executed autopsies. The victims had sustained varying numbers of gunshot wounds, which were established to be the cause of death. The manner of death remained undetermined by the EU-FET, because the scene investigation and the chain of custody for the bodies from the site of the incident to the autopsy were impossible to verify by the team. The events at Racak were the first of those leading to charges by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) against the highest authorities in power in the FRY for crimes against humanity and violations of the laws or customs of war. PMID:11182269

Rainio, J; Lalu, K; Penttilä, A

2001-02-15

61

The City Coding Project : an investigation into some presumed maxims for residential design in Hong Kong  

E-print Network

Formal expressions of architecture in a city are largely dictated by how the city is 'coded' ... re-coding - is capable of making fundamental changes in building forms that would proliferate across the entire city. Therefore, ...

Wong, Chit Kin Dickson

2008-01-01

62

Investigation of low temperature solid oxide fuel cells for air-independent UUV applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) will benefit greatly from high energy density (> 500 Wh/L) power systems utilizing high-energy-density fuels and air-independent oxidizers. Current battery-based systems have limited energy densities (< 400 Wh/L), which motivate development of alternative power systems such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). SOFC-based power systems have the potential to achieve the required UUV energy densities, and the current study explores how SOFCs based on gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) electrolytes with operating temperatures of 650°C and lower may operate in the unique environments of a promising UUV power plant. The plant would contain a H 2O2 decomposition reactor to supply humidified O2 to the SOFC cathode and exothermic aluminum/H2O combustor to provide heated humidified H2 fuel to the anode. To characterize low-temperature SOFC performance with these unique O2 and H2 source, SOFC button cells based on nickel/GDC (Gd0.1Ce0.9O 1.95) anodes, GDC electrolytes, and lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-? or LSCF)/GDC cathodes were fabricated and tested for performance and stability with humidity on both the anode and the cathode. Cells were also tested with various reactant concentrations of H2 and O2 to simulate gas depletion down the channel of an SOFC stack. Results showed that anode performance depended primarily on fuel concentration and less on the concentration of the associated increase in product H2O. O 2 depletion with humidified cathode flows also caused significant loss in cell current density at a given voltage. With the humidified flows in either the anode or cathode, stability tests of the button cells at 650 °C showed stable voltage is maintained at low operating current (0.17 A/cm2) at up to 50 % by mole H2O, but at higher current densities (0.34 A/cm2), irreversible voltage degradation occurred at rates of 0.8-3.7 mV/hour depending on exposure time. From these button cell results, estimated average current densities over the length of a low-temperature SOFC stack were estimated and used to size a UUV power system based on Al/H 2O oxidation for fuel and H2O2 decomposition for O2. The resulting system design suggested that energy densities above 300 Wh/L may be achieved at neutral buoyancy with seawater if the cell is operated at high reactant utilizations in the SOFC stack for missions longer than 20 hours.

Moton, Jennie Mariko

63

Further Investigation of Acoustic Propagation Codes for Three-Dimensional Geometries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to predict fan noise within complex three-dimensional aircraft engine nacelle geometries is a valuable tool in designing and assessing low-noise concepts. This work begins a systematic study to identify the areas of the design space in which propagation codes of varying fidelity may be used effectively to provide efficient design and assessment. An efficient lower-fidelity code is used in conjunction with two higher-fidelity, more computationally intensive methods to solve benchmark problems of increasing complexity. The codes represent a small sampling of the current propagation codes available or under development. Results of this initial study indicate that the lower-fidelity code provides satisfactory results for cases involving low to moderate attenuation rates, whereas, the two higher-fidelity codes perform well across the range of problems.

Nark, Douglas M.; Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.

2006-01-01

64

Investigation of independence in inter-animal tumor-type occurrences within the NTP rodent-bioassay database  

SciTech Connect

Statistically significant elevation in tumor incidence at multiple histologically distinct sites is occasionally observed among rodent bioassays of chemically induced carcinogenesis. If such data are to be relied on (as they have, e.g., by the US EPA) for quantitative cancer potency assessment, their proper analysis requires a knowledge of the extent to which multiple tumor-type occurrences are independent or uncorrelated within individual bioassay animals. Although difficult to assess in a statistically rigorous fashion, a few significant associations among tumor-type occurrences in rodent bioassays have been reported. However, no comprehensive studies of animal-specific tumor-type occurrences at death or sacrifice have been conducted using the extensive set of available NTP rodent-bioassay data, on which most cancer-potency assessment for environmental chemicals is currently based. This report presents the results of such an analysis conducted on behalf of the National Research Council`s Committee on Risk Assessment for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Tumor-type associations among individual animals were examined for {approximately}2500 to 3000 control and {approximately}200 to 600 treated animals using pathology data from 62 B6C3F1 mouse studies and 61 F/344N rat studies obtained from a readily available subset of the NTP carcinogenesis bioassay database. No evidence was found for any large correlation in either the onset probability or the prevalence-at-death or sacrifice of any tumor-type pair investigated in control and treated rats and niece, although a few of the small correlations present were statistically significant. Tumor-type occurrences were in most cases nearly independent, and departures from independence, where they did occur, were small. This finding is qualified in that tumor-type onset correlations were measured only indirectly, given the limited nature of the data analyzed.

Bogen, K.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Seilkop, S. [Analytical Sciences, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

1993-05-01

65

Investigations of an Independent Double-Gated Polycrystalline Silicon Nanowire Thin Film Transistor for Nonvolatile Memory Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the merits of an independent double-gated configuration for nonvolatile memory operations. In contrast to the convention where the programming/erasing gate also acts as the read gate, a dedicated read gate with an oxide-only dielectric is proposed in the new mode. Using the same device under identical programming/erasing conditions, greatly improved programming speed (e.g., 61% increase under the stress condition of 18 V for 10 µs) is achieved, while the erasing speed, albeit initially retarded, shows enhancement when the erasing time is larger than a certain value, which can be explained by the back-gate bias effects. Retention characterization indicates that the new mode offers a larger memory window after 10 year extrapolation. In addition, a proper auxiliary gate bias applied during programming/erasing processes is found to improve the programming/erasing speed. Finally, by taking advantage of the separate-gated feature, two independent storage sites can be obtained by employing an oxide-nitride-oxide layer as the dielectric for both gates, thus realizing 2-bit/cell functionality.

Chen, Wei-Chen; Lin, Horng-Chih; Huang, Tiao-Yuan

2011-08-01

66

What shape are the neural response functions underlying opponent coding in face space? A psychophysical investigation  

E-print Network

for adaptors with more extreme distortion levels (Robbins et al., 2007). In con- cert, monkey studies have, 2006). Current knowledge regarding the two-pool opponent coding leaves open the important question

Duchaine, Bradley C.

67

Investigation into the flow field around a maneuvering submarine using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate and efficient prediction of hydrodynamic forces and moments on a maneuvering submarine has been achieved by investigating the flow physics involving the interaction of the vortical flow shed from the sail and the cross-flow boundary layer of the hull. In this investigation, a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computer code is used to simulate the most important physical effects related

Bong Rhee

2009-01-01

68

Investigation of Different Constituent Encoders in a Turbo-code Scheme for Reduced Decoder Complexity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large number of papers have been published attempting to give some analytical basis for the performance of Turbo-codes. It has been shown that performance improves with increased interleaver length. Also procedures have been given to pick the best constituent recursive systematic convolutional codes (RSCC's). However testing by computer simulation is still required to verify these results. This thesis begins by describing the encoding and decoding schemes used. Next simulation results on several memory 4 RSCC's are shown. It is found that the best BER performance at low E(sub b)/N(sub o) is not given by the RSCC's that were found using the analytic techniques given so far. Next the results are given from simulations using a smaller memory RSCC for one of the constituent encoders. Significant reduction in decoding complexity is obtained with minimal loss in performance. Simulation results are then given for a rate 1/3 Turbo-code with the result that this code performed as well as a rate 1/2 Turbo-code as measured by the distance from their respective Shannon limits. Finally the results of simulations where an inaccurate noise variance measurement was used are given. From this it was observed that Turbo-decoding is fairly stable with regard to noise variance measurement.

Kwatra, S. C.

1998-01-01

69

Simulative Investigation on Spectral Efficiency of Unipolar Codes based OCDMA System using Importance Sampling Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyses the spectral efficiency of Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system using Importance Sampling (IS) technique. We consider three configurations of OCDMA system namely Direct Sequence (DS), Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) and Fast Frequency Hopping (FFH) that exploits the Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) based encoder/decoder. We evaluate the spectral efficiency of the considered system by taking into consideration the effect of different families of unipolar codes for both coherent and incoherent sources. The results show that the spectral efficiency of OCDMA system with coherent source is higher than the incoherent case. We demonstrate also that DS-OCDMA outperforms both others in terms of spectral efficiency in all conditions.

Farhat, A.; Menif, M.; Rezig, H.

2013-09-01

70

Investigating the Semantic Interoperability of Laboratory Data Exchanged Using LOINC Codes in Three Large Institutions  

PubMed Central

LOINC codes are seeing increased use in many organizations. In this study, we examined the barriers to semantic interoperability that still exist in electronic data exchange of laboratory results even when LOINC codes are being used as the observation identifiers. We analyzed semantic interoperability of laboratory data exchanged using LOINC codes in three large institutions. To simplify the analytic process, we divided the laboratory data into quantitative and non-quantitative tests. The analysis revealed many inconsistencies even when LOINC codes are used to exchange laboratory data. For quantitative tests, the most frequent problems were inconsistencies in the use of units of measure: variations in the strings used to represent units (unrecognized synonyms), use of units that result in different magnitudes of the numeric quantity, and missing units of measure. For non-quantitative tests, the most frequent problems were acronyms/synonyms, different classes of elements in enumerated lists, and the use of free text. Our findings highlight the limitations of interoperability in current laboratory reporting. PMID:22195138

Lin, Ming–Chin; Vreeman, Daniel J.; Huff, Stanley M.

2011-01-01

71

An Investigation of Two Acoustic Propagation Codes for Three-Dimensional Geometries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to predict fan noise within complex three-dimensional aircraft engine nacelle geometries is a valuable tool in studying low-noise designs. Recent years have seen the development of aeroacoustic propagation codes using various levels of approximation to obtain such a capability. In light of this, it is beneficial to pursue a design paradigm that incorporates the strengths of the various tools. The development of a quasi-3D methodology (Q3D-FEM) at NASA Langley has brought these ideas to mind in relation to the framework of the CDUCT-LaRC acoustic propagation and radiation tool. As more extensive three dimensional codes become available, it would seem appropriate to incorporate these tools into a framework similar to CDUCT-LaRC and use them in a complementary manner. This work focuses on such an approach in beginning the steps toward a systematic assessment of the errors, and hence the trade-offs, involved in the use of these codes. To illustrate this point, CDUCT-LaRC was used to study benchmark hardwall duct problems to quantify errors caused by wave propagation in directions far removed from that defined by the parabolic approximation. Configurations incorporating acoustic treatment were also studied with CDUCT-LaRC and Q3D-FEM. The cases presented show that acoustic treatment diminishes the effects of CDUCT-LaRC phase error as the solutions are attenuated. The results of the Q3D-FEM were very promising and matched the analytic solution very well. Overall, these tests were meant to serve as a step toward the systematic study of errors inherent in the propagation module of CDUCT-LaRC, as well as an initial test of the higher fidelity Q3D-FEM code.

Nark, D. M.; Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.

2005-01-01

72

MDMC2: A molecular dynamics code for investigating the fragmentation dynamics of multiply charged clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MDMC2 is a parallel code for performing molecular dynamics simulations on multiply charged clusters. It is a valuable complement to MCMC2, a Monte Carlo program devoted to Monte Carlo simulations of multiply charged clusters in the NVT ensemble (Bonhommeau and Gaigeot, 2013). Both MCMC2 and MDMC2 codes employ a mesoscopic coarse-grained simplified representation of the clusters (or droplets): these clusters are composed of neutral and charged spherical particles/grains that may be polarisable. One grain can be either neutral or charged. The interaction potential is a sum of 2-body Lennard-Jones potentials (main cohesive contribution) and electrostatic terms (repulsive contribution), possibly supplemented by N-body polarisation interactions. There is no restriction imposed on the values of the particle charges and/or polarisabilities. An external field can also be applied to the whole system. The derivatives of the potential energy-surface are determined analytically which ensures an accurate integration of classical equations of motion by a velocity Verlet algorithm. Conservation rules, such as energy conservation or centre-of-mass linear momentum conservation, can be steadily checked during the simulation. The program also provides some statistical information on the run and configuration files that can be used for data post-treatment. MDMC2 is provided with a serial conjugate gradient program, called CGMC2, that uses the same analytical derivatives as MDMC2 and was found useful to probe the minima of the energy landscape explored during Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics simulations performed on multiply charged clusters.

Bonhommeau, David A.; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

2014-02-01

73

Investigating What Undergraduate Students Know About Science: Results from Complementary Strategies to Code Open-Ended Responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents new findings from an ongoing study of undergraduate student science literacy. Using data drawn from a 22 year project and over 11,000 student responses, we present how students' word usage in open-ended responses relates to what it means to study something scientifically. Analysis of students' responses show that they easily use words commonly associated with science, such as hypothesis, study, method, test, and experiment; but do these responses use scientific words knowledgeably? As with many multifaceted disciplines, demonstration of comprehension varies. This paper presents three different ways that student responses have been coded to investigate their understanding of science; 1) differentiating quality of a response with a coding scheme; 2) using word counting as an indicator of overall response strength; 3) responses are coded for quality of students' response. Building on previous research, comparison of science literacy and open-ended responses demonstrates that knowledge of science facts and vocabulary does not indicate a comprehension of the concepts behind these facts and vocabulary. This study employs quantitative and qualitative methods to systematically determine frequency and meaning of responses to standardized questions, and illustrates how students are able to demonstrate a knowledge of vocabulary. However, this knowledge is not indicative of conceptual understanding and poses important questions about how we assess students' understandings of science.

Tijerino, K.; Buxner, S.; Impey, C.; CATS

2013-04-01

74

Theoretical models and simulation codes to investigate bystander effects and cellular communication at low doses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts in space are continuously exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from Galactic Cosmic Rays During the last ten years the effects of low radiation doses have been widely re-discussed following a large number of observations on the so-called non targeted effects in particular bystander effects The latter consist of induction of cytogenetic damage in cells not directly traversed by radiation most likely as a response to molecular messengers released by directly irradiated cells Bystander effects which are observed both for lethal endpoints e g clonogenic inactivation and apoptosis and for non-lethal ones e g mutations and neoplastic transformation tend to show non-linear dose responses This might have significant consequences in terms of low-dose risk which is generally calculated on the basis of the Linear No Threshold hypothesis Although the mechanisms underlying bystander effects are still largely unknown it is now clear that two types of cellular communication i e via gap junctions and or release of molecular messengers into the extracellular environment play a fundamental role Theoretical models and simulation codes can be of help in elucidating such mechanisms In the present paper we will review different available modelling approaches including one that is being developed at the University of Pavia The focus will be on the different assumptions adopted by the various authors and on the implications of such assumptions in terms of non-targeted radiobiological damage and more generally low-dose

Ballarini, F.; Alloni, D.; Facoetti, A.; Mairani, A.; Nano, R.; Ottolenghi, A.

75

National evaluation of the benefits and risks of greater structuring and coding of the electronic health record: exploratory qualitative investigation  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to explore stakeholder views, attitudes, needs, and expectations regarding likely benefits and risks resulting from increased structuring and coding of clinical information within electronic health records (EHRs). Materials and methods Qualitative investigation in primary and secondary care and research settings throughout the UK. Data were derived from interviews, expert discussion groups, observations, and relevant documents. Participants (n=70) included patients, healthcare professionals, health service commissioners, policy makers, managers, administrators, systems developers, researchers, and academics. Results Four main themes arose from our data: variations in documentation practice; patient care benefits; secondary uses of information; and informing and involving patients. We observed a lack of guidelines, co-ordination, and dissemination of best practice relating to the design and use of information structures. While we identified immediate benefits for direct care and secondary analysis, many healthcare professionals did not see the relevance of structured and/or coded data to clinical practice. The potential for structured information to increase patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment contrasted with concerns regarding the appropriateness of coded information for patients. Conclusions The design and development of EHRs requires the capture of narrative information to reflect patient/clinician communication and computable data for administration and research purposes. Increased structuring and/or coding of EHRs therefore offers both benefits and risks. Documentation standards within clinical guidelines are likely to encourage comprehensive, accurate processing of data. As data structures may impact upon clinician/patient interactions, new models of documentation may be necessary if EHRs are to be read and authored by patients. PMID:24186957

Morrison, Zoe; Fernando, Bernard; Kalra, Dipak; Cresswell, Kathrin; Sheikh, Aziz

2014-01-01

76

IMPLEMENTATION OF A DATABASE AND INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR FORENSIC INVESTIGATION OF PAVEMENTS 6. Performing Organization Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

16. Abstract This report describes the implementation of a database and information system for forensic investigation of pavements by enhancing the 1998 version of the ForenSys database software. The enhanced ForenSys database software can serve as the center component of an integrated forensic information and analysis system for analyzing forensic related data and information and producing forensic reports. In the

Zhanmin Zhang; Chunrong Zhou

77

Investigation into the flow field around a maneuvering submarine using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate and efficient prediction of hydrodynamic forces and moments on a maneuvering submarine has been achieved by investigating the flow physics involving the interaction of the vortical flow shed from the sail and the cross-flow boundary layer of the hull. In this investigation, a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computer code is used to simulate the most important physical effects related to maneuvering. It is applied to a generic axisymmetric body with the relatively simple case of the flow around an unappended hull at an angle of attack. After the code is validated for this simple case, it is validated for the case of a submarine with various appendages attached to the hull moving at an angle of drift. All six components of predicted forces and moments for various drift angles are compared with experimental data. Calculated pressure coefficients along the azimuthal angle are compared with experimental data and discussed to show the effect of the sail and the stern appendages. To understand the main flow features for a submarine in a straight flight, the RANS code is applied to simulate SUBOFF axisymmetric body at zero angle of attack in a straight-line basin. Pressure coefficient, skin friction coefficient, mean velocity components and the Reynolds shear stresses are compared with experimental data and discussed. The physical aspects of the interaction between the vortical flow shed by the sail and the cross-flow boundary layer on the hull are explained in greater detail. The understanding of this interaction is very important to characterize accurately the hydrodynamic behavior of a maneuvering submarine.

Rhee, Bong

78

Quantification of deaminase activity-dependent and -independent restriction of HIV-1 replication mediated by APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G through experimental-mathematical investigation.  

PubMed

APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G cytidine deaminases potently inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by enzymatically inserting G-to-A mutations in viral DNA and/or impairing viral reverse transcription independently of their deaminase activity. Through experimental and mathematical investigation, here we quantitatively demonstrate that 99.3% of the antiviral effect of APOBEC3G is dependent on its deaminase activity, whereas 30.2% of the antiviral effect of APOBEC3F is attributed to deaminase-independent ability. This is the first report quantitatively elucidating how APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G differ in their anti-HIV-1 modes. PMID:24623435

Kobayashi, Tomoko; Koizumi, Yoshiki; Takeuchi, Junko S; Misawa, Naoko; Kimura, Yuichi; Morita, Satoru; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Iwami, Shingo; Sato, Kei

2014-05-01

79

Quantification of Deaminase Activity-Dependent and -Independent Restriction of HIV-1 Replication Mediated by APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G through Experimental-Mathematical Investigation  

PubMed Central

APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G cytidine deaminases potently inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by enzymatically inserting G-to-A mutations in viral DNA and/or impairing viral reverse transcription independently of their deaminase activity. Through experimental and mathematical investigation, here we quantitatively demonstrate that 99.3% of the antiviral effect of APOBEC3G is dependent on its deaminase activity, whereas 30.2% of the antiviral effect of APOBEC3F is attributed to deaminase-independent ability. This is the first report quantitatively elucidating how APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G differ in their anti-HIV-1 modes. PMID:24623435

Kobayashi, Tomoko; Koizumi, Yoshiki; Takeuchi, Junko S.; Misawa, Naoko; Kimura, Yuichi; Morita, Satoru; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio

2014-01-01

80

The investigation of the radiation behavior of cells of energy-independent electrically reprogrammable memory based on self-formed conducting nanostructures. I. Mode of information storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the experimental investigation of the radiation behavior of cells with the use of the electroformed open Si-SiO2-W sandwich structures as memory cells are presented. Information in these structures is coded by the width of a nanometer\\u000a insulating gap in the conducting medium appearing on the free end of the silicon dioxide film during electroforming. The current-voltage\\u000a characteristics

V. M. Mordvintsev; A. V. Sogoyan; S. E. Kudryavtsev; V. L. Levin

2011-01-01

81

Error-correction coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

1996-01-01

82

Manipulation of independent synthesis and degradation of polyphosphate in Escherichia coli for investigation of phosphate secretion from the cell.  

PubMed Central

The genes involved in polyphosphate metabolism in Escherichia coli were cloned behind different inducible promoters on separate plasmids. The gene coding for polyphosphate kinase (PPK), the enzyme responsible for polyphosphate synthesis, was placed behind the Ptac promoter. Polyphosphatase, a polyphosphate depolymerase, was similarly expressed by using the arabinose-inducible PBAD promoter. The ability of cells containing these constructs to produce active enzymes only when induced was confirmed by polyphosphate extraction, enzyme assays, and RNA analysis. The inducer concentrations giving optimal expression of each enzyme were determined. Experiments were performed in which ppk was induced early in growth, overproducing PPK and allowing large amounts of polyphosphate to accumulate (80 mumol in phosphate monomer units per g of dry cell weight). The ppx gene was subsequently induced, and polyphosphate was degraded to inorganic phosphate. Approximately half of this polyphosphate was depleted in 210 min. The phosphate released from polyphosphate allowed the growth of phosphate-starved cells and was secreted into the medium, leading to a down-regulation of the phosphate-starvation response. In addition, the steady-state polyphosphate level was precisely controlled by manipulating the degree of ppx induction. The polyphosphate content varied from 98 to 12 mumol in phosphate monomer units per g of dry cell weight as the arabinose concentration was increased from 0 to 0.02% by weight. PMID:9143103

Van Dien, S J; Keyhani, S; Yang, C; Keasling, J D

1997-01-01

83

Independent assessment of TRAC-PF1 (Version 7. 0), RELAP5/MOD1 (Cycle 14), and TRAC-BD1 (Version 12. 0) codes using separate-effects experiments  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of independent code assessment conducted at BNL. The TRAC-PF1 (Version 7.0) and RELAP5/MOD1 (Cycle 14) codes were assessed using the critical flow tests, level swell test, countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) tests, post-CHF test, steam generator thermal performance tests, and natural circulation tests. TRAC-BD1 (Version 12.0) was applied only to the CCFL and post-CHF tests. The TRAC-PWR series of codes, i.e., TRAC-P1A, TRAC-PD2, and TRAC-PF1, have been gradually improved. However, TRAC-PF1 appears to need improvement in almost all categories of tests/phenomena attempted to BNL. Of the two codes, TRAC-PF1 and RELAP5/MOD1, the latter needs more improvement particularly in the areas of: CCFL, Level swell, CHF correlation and post-CHF heat transfer, and Numerical stability. For the CCFL and post-CHF tests, TRAC-BD1 provides the best overall results. However, the TRAC-BD1 interfacial shear package for the countercurrent annular flow regime needs further improvement for better prediction of CCFL phenomenon. 47 refs., 87 figs., 15 tabs.

Saha, P.; Jo, J.H.; Neymotin, L.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Slovik, G.C.; Yuelys-Miksis, C.

1985-08-01

84

instantaneously independently  

E-print Network

Lecture 4: Entropy & Huffman Codes Sam Roweis September 21, 2005 Reminder: Searching for Optimal Codes . Last class we saw how to construct an instantaneously decodable code for any set of codeword lengths l i satisfying # i 2 -l i # 1. .We also saw that if # i 2 -l i > 1, no uniquely decodable code

Roweis, Sam

85

Investigation of combined effects of independent variables on extraction of pectin from banana peel using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined effects of key factors (pH value, extraction temperature, extraction time, salting out time) on extraction of pectin from banana peel was investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). When enriched in pectin, this research can be useful for preparation of banana products. Results showed that extraction temperature and time had the most significant combined effect on the improvement of extraction

Li-ping Qiu; Guang-lei Zhao; Hui Wu; Lu Jiang; Xiao-feng Li; Jun-juan Liu

2010-01-01

86

Culture-independent and -dependent methods to investigate the diversity of planktonic bacteria in the northern Bering Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planktonic bacteria are abundant in the Bering Sea. However, very little is known about their diversity and the roles of various\\u000a bacteria in the ocean. Bacterioplankton diversity in the northern Bering Sea was investigated using a combination of molecular\\u000a and cultivation-based methods. Community fingerprint analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis\\u000a revealed an apparent difference in the bacterioplankton community

Yinxin Zeng; Yang Zou; Jacqueline M. Grebmeier; Jianfeng He; Tianling Zheng

87

Independent Technical Investigation of the Puna Geothermal Venture Unplanned Steam Release, June 12 and 13, 1991, Puna, Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

On June 24, 1991, a third-party investigation team consisting of Richard P. Thomas, Duey E. Milner, James L. Moore, and Dick Whiting began an investigation into the blowout of well KS-8, which occurred at the Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) site on June 12, 1991, and caused the unabated release of steam for a period of 31 hours before PGV succeeded in closing in the well. The scope of the investigation was to: (a) determine the cause(s) of the incident; (b) evaluate the adequacy of PGVs drilling and blowout prevention equipment and procedures; and (c) make recommendations for any appropriate changes in equipment and/or procedures. This report finds that the blowout occurred because of inadequacies in PGVs drilling plan and procedures and not as a result of unusual or unmanageable subsurface geologic or hydrologic conditions. While the geothermal resource in the area being drilled is relatively hot, the temperatures are not excessive for modem technology and methods to control. Fluid pressures encountered are also manageable if proper procedures are followed and the appropriate equipment is utilized. A previous blowout of short duration occurred on February 21, 1991, at the KS-7 injection well being drilled by PGV at a depth of approximately 1600'. This unexpected incident alerted PGV to the possibility of encountering a high temperature, fractured zone at a relatively shallow depth. The experience at KS-7 prompted PGV to refine its hydrological model; however, the drilling plan utilized for KS-8 was not changed. Not only did PGV fail to modify its drilling program following the KS-7 blowout, but they also failed to heed numerous ''red flags'' (warning signals) in the five days preceding the KS-8 blowout, which included a continuous 1-inch flow of drilling mud out of the wellbore, gains in mud volume while pulling stands, and gas entries while circulating muds bottoms up, in addition to lost circulation that had occurred earlier below the shoe of the 13-3/8-hch casing.

Thomas, Richard; Whiting, Dick; Moore, James; Milner, Duey

1991-07-01

88

Detecting pop-out targets in contexts of varying homogeneity: investigating homogeneity coding with event-related brain potentials (ERPs).  

PubMed

Searching for a target among many distracting context elements might be an easy or a demanding task. Duncan and Humphreys (Duncan, J., Humphreys, G.W., 1989. Visual search and stimulus similarity. Psychol. Rev. 96, 433-458) showed that not only the target itself plays a role in the difficulty of target detection. Similarity among context elements and dissimilarity of target and context are two main factors also affecting search efficiency. Moreover, many studies have shown that search becomes particularly efficient with large set sizes and perfectly homogeneous context elements, presumably due to grouping processes involved in target-context segmentation. Especially N2p amplitude has been found to be modulated by the number of context elements and their homogeneity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of context elements of different heterogeneities on search performance using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Results showed that contexts with perfectly homogeneous elements were indeed special: they were most efficient in visual search and elicited a large N2p differential amplitude effect. Increasing context heterogeneity led to a decrease in search performance and a reduction in N2p differential amplitude. Reducing the number of context elements led to a marked performance decrease for random heterogeneous contexts but not for grouped heterogeneous contexts. Behavioral and N2p results delivered evidence (a) in favor of specific processing modes operating on different spatial scales (b) for the existence of homogeneity coding postulated by Duncan and Humphreys. PMID:17276413

Schubö, Anna; Wykowska, Agnieszka; Müller, Hermann J

2007-03-23

89

Investigating Mitochondrial Metabolism in Contracting HL-1 Cardiomyocytes Following Hypoxia and Pharmacological HIF Activation Identifies HIF-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms of Regulation.  

PubMed

Hypoxia is a consequence of cardiac disease and downregulates mitochondrial metabolism, yet the molecular mechanisms through which this occurs in the heart are incompletely characterized. Therefore, we aimed to use a contracting HL-1 cardiomyocyte model to investigate the effects of hypoxia on mitochondrial metabolism. Cells were exposed to hypoxia (2% O2) for 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours to characterize the metabolic response. Cells were subsequently treated with the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-activating compound, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), to determine whether hypoxia-induced mitochondrial changes were HIF dependent or independent, and to assess the suitability of this cultured cardiac cell line for cardiovascular pharmacological studies. Hypoxic cells had increased glycolysis after 24 hours, with glucose transporter 1 and lactate levels increased 5-fold and 15-fold, respectively. After 24 hours of hypoxia, mitochondrial networks were more fragmented but there was no change in citrate synthase activity, indicating that mitochondrial content was unchanged. Cellular oxygen consumption was 30% lower, accompanied by decreases in the enzymatic activities of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I and IV, and aconitase by 81%, 96%, and 72%, relative to controls. Pharmacological HIF activation with DMOG decreased cellular oxygen consumption by 43%, coincident with decreases in the activities of aconitase and complex I by 26% and 30%, indicating that these adaptations were HIF mediated. In contrast, the hypoxia-mediated decrease in complex IV activity was not replicated by DMOG treatment, suggesting HIF-independent regulation of this complex. In conclusion, 24 hours of hypoxia increased anaerobic glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial respiration, which was associated with changes in ETC and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme activities in contracting HL-1 cells. Pharmacological HIF activation in this cardiac cell line allowed both HIF-dependent and independent mitochondrial metabolic changes to be identified. PMID:24607765

Ambrose, Lucy J A; Abd-Jamil, Amira H; Gomes, Renata S M; Carter, Emma E; Carr, Carolyn A; Clarke, Kieran; Heather, Lisa C

2014-11-01

90

A Novel 2.5D Culture Platform to Investigate the Role of Stiffness Gradients on Adhesion-Independent Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

Current studies investigating the role of biophysical cues on cell migration focus on the use of culture platforms with static material parameters. However, migrating cells in vivo often encounter spatial variations in extracellular matrix stiffness. To better understand the effects of stiffness gradients on cell migration, we developed a 2.5D cell culture platform where cells are sandwiched between stiff tissue culture plastic and soft alginate hydrogel. Under these conditions, we observed migration of cells from the underlying stiff substrate into the alginate matrix. Observation of migration into alginate in the presence of integrin inhibition as well as qualitative microscopic analyses suggested an adhesion-independent cell migration mode. Observed migration was dependent on alginate matrix stiffness and the RhoA-ROCK-myosin-II pathway; inhibitors specifically targeting ROCK and myosin-II arrested cell migration. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of the 2.5D culture platform to advance our understanding of the effects of stiffness gradients and mechanotransductive signaling on adhesion-independent cell migration. PMID:25310593

Pebworth, Mark-Phillip; Cismas, Sabrina A.; Asuri, Prashanth

2014-01-01

91

An investigation for population maintenance mechanism in a miniature garden: genetic connectivity or independence of small islet populations of the ryukyu five-lined skink.  

PubMed

The Ryukyu five-lined skink (Plestiodon marginatus) is an island lizard that is even found in tiny islets with less than half a hectare of habitat area. We hypothesized that the island populations are maintained under frequent gene flow among the islands or independent of each other. To test our hypotheses, we investigated genetic structure of 21 populations from 11 land-bridge islands that were connected during the latest glacial age, and 4 isolated islands. Analyses using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence (n = 67) and 10 microsatellite loci (n = 235) revealed moderate to high levels of genetic differentiation, existence of many private alleles/haplotypes in most islands, little contemporary migration, a positive correlation between genetic variability and island area, and a negative correlation between relatedness and island area. These evidences suggest a strong effect of independent genetic drift as opposed to gene flow, favoring the isolation hypothesis even in tiny islet populations. Isolation-by-distance effect was demonstrated and it became more prominent when the 4 isolated islands were excluded, suggesting that the pattern is a remnant of the land-bridge age. In a few island populations, however, the possibility of occasional overwater dispersals was partially supported and therefore could not be ruled out. PMID:25189776

Kurita, Kazuki; Hikida, Tsutomu; Toda, Mamoru

2014-01-01

92

CYP2B6 Non-Coding Variation Associated with Smoking Cessation Is Also Associated with Differences in Allelic Expression, Splicing, and Nicotine Metabolism Independent of Common Amino-Acid Changes  

PubMed Central

The Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) enzyme makes a small contribution to hepatic nicotine metabolism relative to CYP2A6, but CYP2B6 is the primary enzyme responsible for metabolism of the smoking cessation drug bupropion. Using CYP2A6 genotype as a covariate, we find that a non-coding polymorphism in CYP2B6 previously associated with smoking cessation (rs8109525) is also significantly associated with nicotine metabolism. The association is independent of the well-studied non-synonymous variants rs3211371, rs3745274, and rs2279343 (CYP2B6*5 and *6). Expression studies demonstrate that rs8109525 is also associated with differences in CYP2B6 mRNA expression in liver biopsy samples. Splicing assays demonstrate that specific splice forms of CYP2B6 are associated with haplotypes defined by variants including rs3745274 and rs8109525. These results indicate differences in mRNA expression and splicing as potential molecular mechanisms by which non-coding variation in CYP2B6 may affect enzymatic activity leading to differences in metabolism and smoking cessation. PMID:24260284

Bloom, A. Joseph; Martinez, Maribel; Chen, Li-Shiun; Bierut, Laura J.; Murphy, Sharon E.; Goate, Alison

2013-01-01

93

Further results on product codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of codes, called product generator codes, which are similar to Elias's iterated codes, are investigated. An important subclass of these codes is the generalized Reed-Muller codes. If the original codes that are iterated to produce a product code areL_1andL_2-step orthogonalizable, then the product code is (L_1 + L_2 - 1)-step orthogonalizable. Further if anuth-order product generator code

W. Gore

1970-01-01

94

A gene-environment investigation on personality traits in two independent clinical sets of adult patients with personality disorder and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder.  

PubMed

While an interactive effect of genes with adverse life events is increasingly appreciated in current concepts of depression etiology, no data are presently available on interactions between genetic and environmental (G x E) factors with respect to personality and related disorders. The present study therefore aimed to detect main effects as well as interactions of serotonergic candidate genes (coding for the serotonin transporter, 5-HTT; the serotonin autoreceptor, HTR1A; and the enzyme which synthesizes serotonin in the brain, TPH2) with the burden of life events (#LE) in two independent samples consisting of 183 patients suffering from personality disorders and 123 patients suffering from adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (aADHD). Simple analyses ignoring possible G x E interactions revealed no evidence for associations of either #LE or of the considered polymorphisms in 5-HTT and TPH2. Only the G allele of HTR1A rs6295 seemed to increase the risk of emotional-dramatic cluster B personality disorders (p = 0.019, in the personality disorder sample) and to decrease the risk of anxious-fearful cluster C personality disorders (p = 0.016, in the aADHD sample). We extended the initial simple model by taking a G x E interaction term into account, since this approach may better fit the data indicating that the effect of a gene is modified by stressful life events or, vice versa, that stressful life events only have an effect in the presence of a susceptibility genotype. By doing so, we observed nominal evidence for G x E effects as well as main effects of 5-HTT-LPR and the TPH2 SNP rs4570625 on the occurrence of personality disorders. Further replication studies, however, are necessary to validate the apparent complexity of G x E interactions in disorders of human personality. PMID:19894072

Jacob, Christian P; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Dempfle, Astrid; Heine, Monika; Windemuth-Kieselbach, Christine; Baumann, Katarina; Jacob, Florian; Prechtl, Julian; Wittlich, Maike; Herrmann, Martin J; Gross-Lesch, Silke; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas

2010-06-01

95

Investigation of ion toroidal rotation induced by Lower Hybrid waves in Alcator C-Mod using integrated numerical codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion toroidal rotation in the counter current direction has been measured in C-Mod during lower hybrid (LH) RF power injection. Toroidal momentum input from the LH waves determines the initial increase of the counter current ion toroidal rotation. Due to the fast build up time of the plateau (< 1msec), the electron distribution function is assumed to be in steady state. We calculate the toroidal momentum input of LH wave to electrons by iterating a full wave code (TORIC-LH) with a Fokker Plank code (CQL3D) to obtain a self consistent steady state electron distribution function. On the longer time scale, comparable to the transport time (˜100msec), ion rotation is changing due to the constant momentum transfer from electrons to ions and the radial flux of ion toroidal momentum by Reynolds stress and collisional viscosity. We suggest a way to evaluate the viscosity terms for the low flow level rotation bya modifielectrostatic gyrokinetic code.

Lee, Jungpyo; Wright, John; Bonoli, Paul; Parker, Ron; Catto, Peter; Podpaly, Yuri; Rice, John; Reinke, Matt; Parra, Felix

2010-11-01

96

The effects of left or right hemispheric epilepsy on language networks investigated with semantic decision fMRI task and independent component analysis  

PubMed Central

Chronic and progressive brain injury, as seen in epilepsy, may alter brain networks that underlie cognitive functions. To evaluate the effect of epilepsy on language functions we investigated the neuroanatomical basis of semantic processing in patients with left (LHE) or right (RHE) hemispheric onset epilepsy using semantic decision fMRI paradigm and group independent component analysis (ICA); we then compared the results of our investigations to language network in healthy subjects examined with the same language task (1). Group ICA is a data-driven technique capable of revealing the functional organization of the human brain based on fMRI data. In addition to providing functional connectivity information, ICA can also provide information about the temporal dynamics of underlying networks subserving specific cognitive functions. In this study, we implemented two complementary analyses to investigate group differences in underlying network dynamics based on associated independent component (IC) time courses (a priori defined criterion or a posteriori identified maximum likelihood descriptor). We detected several differences between healthy controls and patients with epilepsy not previously observed with standard fMRI analysis methods. Our analyses confirmed the presence of different effects of LHE or RHE on the behavior of the language network. In particular, a major difference was noted in the nodes subserving verbal encoding and retrieval in the bilateral medial temporal regions; these effects were dependent on the side of the epilepsy onset i.e., effects were different with left or right hemispheric epilepsy. These findings may explain the differences in verbal and non-verbal memory abilities between the left and right hemispheric epilepsy patients. Further, while the effects on other nodes of the network were more subtle, several deviations from normal network function were observed in patients with LHE (e.g., alterations in the functions of the primarily left fronto-temporal network module) or in patients with RHE (e.g., differences in the medial retrosplenial module responsible for mental imagery or in the anterior cingulate module subserving attention control). These findings highlight the negative effects of epilepsy not only on the main left hemispheric language network nodes in patients with LHE but also document the effects of epilepsy on other language network nodes whether exerted by LHE or RHE. Further, these results document the advantages of using group ICA for investigating the effects of disease state (e.g., epilepsy) on the network subserving cognitive processing and provide an interesting avenue for further exploration. PMID:21273134

Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Kim, Kwang Ki; Holland, Scott K.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

2011-01-01

97

Supporting the cybercrime investigation process: Effective discrimination of source code authors based on byte-level information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source code authorship analysis is the particular field that attempts to identify the author of a computer program by treating each program as a linguistically analyzable entity. This is usually based on other undisputed program samples from the same author. There are several cases where the application of such a method could be of a major benefit, such as tracing

Georgia Frantzeskou; Efstathios Stamatatos; Stefanos Gritzalis

2005-01-01

98

Theoretical and experimental investigation on tandem Theoretical and experimental investigation on tandem modulator configurations for Frequency Coded Quantum Key Distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have theoretically and experimentally address the possible tandem electro-optical modulator configurations that can be employed to implement Frequency Coded Quantum Key Distribution systems (FC-QKD). A closed and general formulation of the end to end field propagation in a dispersion compensated FC-QKD optical fiber system under the low modulation index regime is presented which accounts for all the possible tandem

J. Mora; A. Ruiz-Alba; W. Amaya; V. Garcia-Munoz; J. Capmany

2009-01-01

99

Supporting the Cybercrime Investigation Process: Effective Discrimination of Source Code Authors Based on Byte-Level Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Source code authorship analysis is the particular field that attempts to identify the author of a computer program by treating each program as a linguistically analyzable entity. This is usually based on other undisputed program samples from the same author. There are several cases where the application of such a method could be of a major benefit, such as tracing the source of code left in the system after a cyber attack, authorship disputes, proof of authorship in court, etc. In this paper, we present our approach which is based on byte-level n-gram profiles and is an extension of a method that has been successfully applied to natural language text authorship attribution. We propose a simplified profile and a new similarity measure which is less complicated than the algorithm followed in text authorship attribution and it seems more suitable for source code identification since is better able to deal with very small training sets. Experiments were performed on two different data sets, one with programs written in C++ and the second with programs written in Java. Unlike the traditional language-dependent metrics used by previous studies, our approach can be applied to any programming language with no additional cost. The presented accuracy rates are much better than the best reported results for the same data sets.

Frantzeskou, Georgia; Stamatatos, Efstathios; Gritzalis, Stefanos

100

Speech coding  

SciTech Connect

Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the coding techniques are equally applicable to any voice signal whether or not it carries any intelligible information, as the term speech implies. Other terms that are commonly used are speech compression and voice compression since the fundamental idea behind speech coding is to reduce (compress) the transmission rate (or equivalently the bandwidth) And/or reduce storage requirements In this document the terms speech and voice shall be used interchangeably.

Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

1998-05-08

101

Maintaining Independence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the over-all business and production operation of the "Daily Illini" at the University of Illinois to show how this college publication has assumed the burdens and responsibilities of true independence. (GW)

Upah-Bant, Marilyn

1978-01-01

102

A Comparison of the Drying Simulation Codes Transpore and Wood2D which are used for the Modelling of Two-Dimensional Wood Drying Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is devoted to investigating the heat and mass transfer phenomena that occur during the convective drying of wood at high temperatures. A comparison will be made between an existing two-dimensional computer code known as Transpore. which was developed by Perre in France, and another two-dimensional code which was developed independently by Turner in Australia. Both numerical codes use

I. W. Tumer; P. Perre

1995-01-01

103

Neuronal codes: reading them and learning how their structure influences network organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our investigations of the primate visual system show that neuronal responses carry information in a multi-dimensional code that is superimposed onto the response envelope in a slow time varying fashion. The precision of timing is 30 ms or more. In primary visual cortex response latency and response strength are largely independent, with latency more closely coding contrast or visibility and

Barry J. Richmond; Timothy J. Gawne; Guo-Xiong Jin

1997-01-01

104

An Investigation into Reliability of Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements, and into the Relationship between Muscle Strength and Means of Independent Mobility in the Ward: Examinations of Patients Who Underwent Femoral Neck Fracture Surgery  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery, as well as the relationship between independent mobility in the ward and knee muscle strength. [Subjects] The subjects were 75 patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery. [Methods] We used a hand-held dynamometer and a belt to measure isometric knee extension muscle strength three times, and used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to investigate the reliability of the measurements. We used a receiver operating characteristic curve to investigate the cutoff values for independent walking with walking sticks and non-independent mobility. [Results] ICCs (1, 1) were 0.9 or higher. The cutoff value for independent walking with walking sticks was 0.289 kgf/kg on the non-fractured side, 0.193 kgf/kg on the fractured side, and the average of both limbs was 0.238 kgf/kg. [Conclusion] We consider that the test-retest reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who have undergone femoral neck fracture surgery is high. We also consider that isometric knee extension muscle strength is useful for investigating means of independent mobility in the ward. PMID:24567667

Katoh, Munenori; Kaneko, Yoshihiro

2014-01-01

105

On the Minimum Weight of Simple Full-Length Array LDPC Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the minimum weights of simple full-length array LDPC codes (SFA-LDPC codes). The SFA-LDPC codes are a subclass of LDPC codes, and constructed algebraically according to two integer parameters p and j. Mittelholzer and Yang et al. have studied the minimum weights of SFA-LDPC codes, but the exact minimum weights of the codes are not known except for some small p and j. In this paper, we show that the minimum weights of the SFA-LDPC codes with j=4 and j=5 are upper-bounded by 10 and 12, respectively, independent from the prime number p. By combining the results with Yang's lower-bound limits, we can conclude that the minimum weights of the SFA-LDPC codes with j=4 and p>7 are exactly 10 and those of the SFA-LDPC codes with j=5 are 10 or 12.

Sugiyama, Kenji; Kaji, Yuichi

106

A systematic review of association studies investigating genes coding for serotonin receptors and the serotonin transporter: II. Suicidal behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different serotonin (5-HT) receptors, including the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), are excellent candidate genes for suicide and suicidal behavior, and thus, they have been investigated in a large number of allelic association studies. The individual results of these studies have been inconsistent and definite conclusions are difficult to establish. A reliable method for assessing individual studies and generating combined results

M Anguelova; C Benkelfat; G Turecki

2003-01-01

107

Application of a multi-block CFD code to investigate the impact of geometry modeling on centrifugal compressor flow field predictions  

SciTech Connect

CFD codes capable of utilizing multi-block grids provide the capability to analyze the complete geometry of centrifugal compressors. Attendant with this increased capability is potentially increased grid setup time and more computational overhead with the resultant increase in wall clock time to obtain a solution. If the increase in difficulty of obtaining a solution significantly improves the solution from that obtained by modeling the features of the tip clearance flow or the typical bluntness of a centrifugal compressor`s trailing edge, then the additional burden is worthwhile. However, if the additional information obtained is of marginal use, then modeling of certain features of the geometry may provide reasonable solutions for designers to make comparative choices when pursuing a new design. In this spirit a sequence of grids were generated to study the relative importance of modeling versus detailed gridding of the tip gap and blunt trailing edge regions of the NASA large low-speed centrifugal compressor for which there is considerable detailed internal laser anemometry data available for comparison. The results indicate: (1) There is no significant difference in predicted tip clearance mass flow rate whether the tip gap is gridded or modeled. (2) Gridding rather than modeling the trailing edge results in better predictions of some flow details downstream of the impeller, but otherwise appears to offer no great benefits. (3) The pitchwise variation of absolute flow angle decreases rapidly up to 8% impeller radius ratio and much more slowly thereafter. Although some improvements in prediction of flow field details are realized as a result of analyzing the actual geometry there is no clear consensus that any of the grids investigated produced superior results in every case when compared to the measurements. However, if a multi-block code is available, it should be used, as it has the propensity for enabling better predictions than a single block code.

Hathaway, M.D. [Vehicle Technology Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wood, J.R. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1997-10-01

108

Residential wire codes: reproducibility and relation with measured magnetic fields  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the reproducibility of wire codes to characterise residential power line configurations and to determine the extent to which wire codes provide a proxy measure of residential magnetic field strength in a case-control study of childhood leukaemia conducted in nine states within the United States. METHODS: Misclassification of wire codes was assessed with independent measurements by two technicians for 187 residences. The association between categories of wire code and measured level of magnetic field was evaluated in 858 residences with both a wire code measurement and a 24 hour measurement of the magnetic field in the bedroom. The strength of the association between category of wire code and risk of leukaemia was examined in two regions with different average levels of magnetic field in homes with high categories of wire code. RESULTS: The reproducibility of any of three different classifications of wire codes was excellent (kappa > or = 0.89). Mean and median magnetic fields, and the percentage of homes with high magnetic fields increased with increasing category for each of the wire code classification schemes. The size of the odds ratios for risk of leukaemia and high categories of wire code did not reflect the mean levels of the magnetic field in those categories in two study regions. CONCLUSION: Misclassification of categories of wire code is not a major source of bias in the study. Wire codes provide a proxy measure of exposure to residential magnetic fields. If magnetic fields were a risk factor for leukaemia, however, there would be some attenuation of risk estimates based on wire codes because of misclassification of exposure to magnetic fields at both extremes of the wire code range. The lack of an association between high categories of wire code and risk of leukaemia cannot be explained by a failure of the wire code classification schemes to estimate exposure to magnetic fields in the study area.   PMID:9764111

Tarone, R. E.; Kaune, W. T.; Linet, M. S.; Hatch, E. E.; Kleinerman, R. A.; Robison, L. L.; Boice, J. D.; Wacholder, S.

1998-01-01

109

Investigating the role of rare coding variability in Mendelian dementia genes (APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, GRN, MAPT, and PRNP) in late-onset Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

The overlapping clinical and neuropathologic features between late-onset apparently sporadic Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), and other neurodegenerative dementias (frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) raise the question of whether shared genetic risk factors may explain the similar phenotype among these disparate disorders. To investigate this intriguing hypothesis, we analyzed rare coding variability in 6 Mendelian dementia genes (APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, GRN, MAPT, and PRNP), in 141 LOAD patients and 179 elderly controls, neuropathologically proven, from the UK. In our cohort, 14 LOAD cases (10%) and 11 controls (6%) carry at least 1 rare variant in the genes studied. We report a novel variant in PSEN1 (p.I168T) and a rare variant in PSEN2 (p.A237V), absent in controls and both likely pathogenic. Our findings support previous studies, suggesting that (1) rare coding variability in PSEN1 and PSEN2 may influence the susceptibility for LOAD and (2) GRN, MAPT, and PRNP are not major contributors to LOAD. Thus, genetic screening is pivotal for the clinical differential diagnosis of these neurodegenerative dementias. PMID:25104557

Sassi, Celeste; Guerreiro, Rita; Gibbs, Raphael; Ding, Jinhui; Lupton, Michelle K.; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Niblock, Michael; Gallo, Jean-Marc; Adnan, Jihad; Killick, Richard; Brown, Kristelle S.; Medway, Christopher; Lord, Jenny; Turton, James; Bras, Jose; Morgan, Kevin; Powell, John F.; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John

2014-01-01

110

Finite-state codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of codes called finite-state (FS) codes is defined and investigated. The codes, which generalize both block and convolutional codes, are defined by their encoders, which are finite-state machines with parallel inputs and outputs. A family of upper bounds on the free distance of a given FS code is derived. A general construction for FS codes is given, and it is shown that in many cases the FS codes constructed in this way have a free distance that is the largest possible. Catastrophic error propagation (CEP) for FS codes is also discussed. It is found that to avoid CEP one must solve the graph-theoretic problem of finding a uniquely decodable edge labeling of the state diagram.

Pollara, Fabrizio; Mceliece, Robert J.; Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled

1988-01-01

111

Phase II Evaluation of Clinical Coding Schemes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: To compare three potential sources of controlled clinical terminology (READ codes version 3.1, SNOMED International, and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) version 1.6) relative to attributes of completeness, clinical taxonomy, administrative mapping, term definitions and clarity (duplicate coding rate). Methods: The authors assembled 1929 source concept records from a variety of clinical information taken from four medical centers across the United States. The source data included medical as well as ample nursing terminology. The source records were coded in each scheme by an investigator and checked by the coding scheme owner. The codings were then scored by an independent panel of clinicians for acceptability. Codes were checked for definitions provided with the scheme. Codes for a random sample of source records were analyzed by an investigator for “parent” and “child” codes within the scheme. Parent and child pairs were scored by an independent panel of medical informatics specialists for clinical acceptability. Administrative and billing code mapping from the published scheme were reviewed for all coded records and analyzed by independent reviewers for accuracy. The investigator for each scheme exhaustively searched a sample of coded records for duplications. Results: SNOMED was judged to be significantly more complete in coding the source material than the other schemes (SNOMED* 70%; READ 57%; UMLS 50%; *p <.00001). SNOMED also had a richer clinical taxonomy judged by the number of acceptable first-degree relatives per coded concept (SNOMED* 4.56; UMLS 3.17; READ 2.14, *p <.005). Only the UMLS provided any definitions; these were found for 49% of records which had a coding assignment. READ and UMLS had better administrative mappings (composite score: READ* 40.6%; UMLS* 36.1%; SNOMED 20.7%, *p <. 00001), and SNOMED had substantially more duplications of coding assignments (duplication rate: READ 0%; UMLS 4.2%; SNOMED* 13.9%, *p <. 004) associated with a loss of clarity. Conclusion: No major terminology source can lay claim to being the ideal resource for a computer-based patient record. However, based upon this analysis of releases for April 1995, SNOMED International is considerably more complete, has a compositional nature and a richer taxonomy. It suffers from less clarity, resulting from a lack of syntax and evolutionary changes in its coding scheme. READ has greater clarity and better mapping to administrative schemes (ICD-10 and OPCS-4), is rapidly changing and is less complete. UMLS is a rich lexical resource, with mappings to many source vocabularies. It provides definitions for many of its terms. However, due to the varying granularities and purposes of its source schemes, it has limitations for representation of clinical concepts within a computer-based patient record. PMID:9147343

Campbell, James R.; Carpenter, Paul; Sneiderman, Charles; Cohn, Simon; Chute, Christopher G.; Warren, Judith

1997-01-01

112

An extended version of the SERPENT-2 code to investigate fuel burn-up and core material evolution of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the Monte Carlo burn-up code SERPENT-2 has been extended and employed to study the material isotopic evolution of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). This promising GEN-IV nuclear reactor concept features peculiar characteristics such as the on-line fuel reprocessing, which prevents the use of commonly available burn-up codes. Besides, the presence of circulating nuclear fuel and radioactive streams from the core to the reprocessing plant requires a precise knowledge of the fuel isotopic composition during the plant operation. The developed extension of SERPENT-2 directly takes into account the effects of on-line fuel reprocessing on burn-up calculations and features a reactivity control algorithm. It is here assessed against a dedicated version of the deterministic ERANOS-based EQL3D procedure (PSI-Switzerland) and adopted to analyze the MSFR fuel salt isotopic evolution. Particular attention is devoted to study the effects of reprocessing time constants and efficiencies on the conversion ratio and the molar concentration of elements relevant for solubility issues (e.g., trivalent actinides and lanthanides). Quantities of interest for fuel handling and safety issues are investigated, including decay heat and activities of hazardous isotopes (neutron and high energy gamma emitters) in the core and in the reprocessing stream. The radiotoxicity generation is also analyzed for the MSFR nominal conditions. The production of helium and the depletion in tungsten content due to nuclear reactions are calculated for the nickel-based alloy selected as reactor structural material of the MSFR. These preliminary evaluations can be helpful in studying the radiation damage of both the primary salt container and the axial reflectors.

Aufiero, M.; Cammi, A.; Fiorina, C.; Leppänen, J.; Luzzi, L.; Ricotti, M. E.

2013-10-01

113

Coding for reliable satellite communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several error control coding techniques for reliable satellite communications were investigated to find algorithms for fast decoding of Reed-Solomon codes in terms of dual basis. The decoding of the (255,223) Reed-Solomon code, which is used as the outer code in the concatenated TDRSS decoder, was of particular concern.

Lin, S.

1984-01-01

114

Occupational social class, educational level and area deprivation independently predict plasma ascorbic acid concentration: a cross-sectional population based study in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the independent association between three different measures of socioeconomic status and plasma ascorbic acid level.Design: Cross-sectional population based study.Setting and participants: 20 292 men and women aged 39–79 y who participated in the EPIC-Norfolk study.Results: Individuals in manual social classes, who had no educational qualifications or those who lived in the most deprived areas had significantly lower

S Shohaimi; S Bingham; A Welch; R Luben; N Day; N Wareham; K-T Khaw

2004-01-01

115

Is ADHD a Risk Factor Independent of Conduct Disorder for Illicit Substance Use? A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate meta-analytically if the association between ADHD and illicit substance use (ISU) is maintained when controlling for conduct disorder/oppositional-defiant disorder (CD/ODD). Method: A systematic literature review was conducted through Medline from 1980 to 2008. Data extracted and selections made by one author were…

Serra-Pinheiro, Maria Antonia; Coutinho, Evandro S. F.; Souza, Isabella S.; Pinna, Camilla; Fortes, Didia; Araujo, Catia; Szobot, Claudia M.; Rohde, Luis A.; Mattos, Paulo

2013-01-01

116

Coding theory basics Toric codes  

E-print Network

. Little Department of Mathematics and Computer Science College of the Holy Cross July 29-31, 2013 John B(!) John B. Little Toric Varieties in Coding Theory #12;Coding theory basics Toric codes Tools from-up message noise encoder trans. channel rec. decoder message John B. Little Toric Varieties in Coding

Little, John B.

117

Investigation of plant control strategies for the supercritical C0{sub 2}Brayton cycle for a sodium-cooled fast reactor using the plant dynamics code.  

SciTech Connect

The development of a control strategy for the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle has been extended to the investigation of alternate control strategies for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) nuclear power plant incorporating a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle power converter. The SFR assumed is the 400 MWe (1000 MWt) ABR-1000 preconceptual design incorporating metallic fuel. Three alternative idealized schemes for controlling the reactor side of the plant in combination with the existing automatic control strategy for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle are explored using the ANL Plant Dynamics Code together with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) Analysis Code System coupled together using the iterative coupling formulation previously developed and implemented into the Plant Dynamics Code. The first option assumes that the reactor side can be ideally controlled through movement of control rods and changing the speeds of both the primary and intermediate coolant system sodium pumps such that the intermediate sodium flow rate and inlet temperature to the sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger (RHX) remain unvarying while the intermediate sodium outlet temperature changes as the load demand from the electric grid changes and the S-CO{sub 2} cycle conditions adjust according to the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control strategy. For this option, the reactor plant follows an assumed change in load demand from 100 to 0 % nominal at 5 % reduction per minute in a suitable fashion. The second option allows the reactor core power and primary and intermediate coolant system sodium pump flow rates to change autonomously in response to the strong reactivity feedbacks of the metallic fueled core and assumed constant pump torques representing unchanging output from the pump electric motors. The plant behavior to the assumed load demand reduction is surprising close to that calculated for the first option. The only negative result observed is a slight increase in the intermediate inlet sodium temperatures by about 10 C. This temperature rise could presumably be precluded or significantly reduced through fine adjustment of the control rods and pump motors. The third option assumes that the reactor core power and primary and intermediate system flow rates are ideally reduced linearly in a programmed fashion that instantaneously matches the prescribed load demand. The calculated behavior of this idealized case reveals a number of difficulties because the control strategy for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle overcools the reactor potentially resulting in the calculation of sodium bulk freezing and the onset of sodium boiling. The results show that autonomous SFR operation may be viable for the particular assumed load change transient and deserves further investigation for other transients and postulated accidents.

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-04-12

118

Optimal Decoding and Performance Analysis of a Noisy Channel Network with Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate sink decoding approaches and performance analysis for a network with intermediate node encoding (coded network). The network consists of statistically independent noisy channels. The sink bit error probability (BEP) is the performance measure. First, we investigate soft-decision decoding without statistical information on the upstream channels (the channels not directly connected to the sink). Numerical results show that the

Ming Xiao; Tor Aulin

2009-01-01

119

Synthesizing Certified Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

2002-01-01

120

Statistical mediation analysis with a multicategorical independent variable.  

PubMed

Virtually all discussions and applications of statistical mediation analysis have been based on the condition that the independent variable is dichotomous or continuous, even though investigators frequently are interested in testing mediation hypotheses involving a multicategorical independent variable (such as two or more experimental conditions relative to a control group). We provide a tutorial illustrating an approach to estimation of and inference about direct, indirect, and total effects in statistical mediation analysis with a multicategorical independent variable. The approach is mathematically equivalent to analysis of (co)variance and reproduces the observed and adjusted group means while also generating effects having simple interpretations. Supplementary material available online includes extensions to this approach and Mplus, SPSS, and SAS code that implements it. PMID:24188158

Hayes, Andrew F; Preacher, Kristopher J

2014-11-01

121

Expander codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new class of asymptotically good, linearerror-correcting codes based upon expander graphs.These codes have linear time sequential decoding algorithms,logarithmic time parallel decoding algorithmswith a linear number of processors, and are simple tounderstand. We present both randomized and explicitconstructions for some of these codes. Experimentalresults demonstrate the extremely good performance ofthe randomly chosen codes.1. IntroductionWe present a new class

Michael Sipser; Daniel A. Spielman

1996-01-01

122

The effects of a conceptual change coupled-inquiry cycle investigation on student understanding of the independence of mass in rolling motion on an incline plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle is designed to incorporate learning cycle, inquiry, and conceptual change instructional models. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle on first-year, high school students' misconceptions of Newton's Laws and incline motion. This study was a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study with both quantitative and qualitative data analyses. Student notebook and test data were collected and analyzed in this study. Quantitative and qualitative analytical methods were utilized in the analysis of these data. A Stuart-Maxwell chi-square was used to assess the quantitative significance of changes in student conceptual understanding of incline motion at each phase of the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle. Qualitative analysis of the notebooks provided important support of the quantitative findings. Results indicate that students report a better understanding of incline motion and Newton's Laws as a result of completing a Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle investigation. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of the notebooks, using the Stuart-Maxwell chi-square test, indicate significant increases in student understanding of Newton's Laws and incline motion, at the alpha = 0.05 level. Analysis of student test data was largely inconclusive. This study indicates the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle helps students better understand incline motion and Newton's Laws. Significant decreases in the number of students reporting misconceptions about incline motion were evident. Evidence suggests the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle is an effective learning cycle and that it can improve student understanding of science concepts.

Rowley, Eric Noel

123

Character coding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Character coding has been called the bete noire of phylogenetic analysis. As you may have seen from class, the definition of "character" is squishy and varies between authors. Although there isn't agreement on exactly what a character is, it is possible to predict how certain character definitions and coding strategies affect phylogenetic analysis. This activity focuses on character coding, specifically about how different coding strategies can affect analysis. In this exercise we will try to look at different coding strategies by considering the simple shapes below. (1) What is a character, and what qualities do characters have? (2) Given the 'morphology' depicted above, what features vary? (3) Given the variation you identified, come up with as many character codings as you can; i.e., different ways that this variation can be coded into characters. (4) For each of the coding strategies you come up with in question 3, identify its assumptions, limitations, and strengths. (5) Identify your preferred coding strategy and defend your choice. Students asked to define what a character is and to discuss what they 'require', and then to come up with an exhaustive list of coding strategies for the sample morphology. They are then asked to list assumptions/limitations of each strategy.

Wilson, Jeff

124

Organisational factors affecting the quality of hospital clinical coding.  

PubMed

The influence of organisational factors on the quality of hospital coding using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) was investigated using a mixed quantitative-qualitative approach. The organisational variables studied were: hospital specialty; geographical locality; structural characteristics of the coding unit; education, training and resource supports for Clinical Coders; and quality control mechanisms. Baseline data on the hospitals' coding quality, measured by the Performance Indicators for Coding Quality tool, were used as an independent index measure. No differences were found in error rates between rural and metropolitan hospitals, or general and specialist hospitals. Clinical Coder allocation to "general" rather than "specialist" unit coding resulted in fewer errors. Coding Managers reported that coding quality can be improved by: Coders engaging in a variety of role behaviours; improved Coder career opportunities; higher staffing levels; reduced throughput; fewer time constraints on coding outputs and associated work; and increased Coder interactions with medical staff. PMID:18245862

Santos, Suong; Murphy, Gregory; Baxter, Kathryn; Robinson, Kerin M

2008-01-01

125

Code constructions and code families for nonbinary quantum stabilizer code  

E-print Network

Stabilizer codes form a special class of quantum error correcting codes. Nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes are studied in this thesis. A lot of work on binary quantum stabilizer codes has been done. Nonbinary stabilizer codes have received much...

Ketkar, Avanti Ulhas

2005-11-01

126

Phonological coding during reading.  

PubMed

The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150679

Leinenger, Mallorie

2014-11-01

127

INVESTIGATION Independent FLC Mutations as Causes  

E-print Network

thaliana and Capsella rubella Ya-Long Guo,*, Marco Todesco,* Jörg Hagmann,* Sandip Das,*,1 and Detlef, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China ABSTRACT Capsella rubella is an inbreeding annual forb different conditions in 20 C. rubella accessions from across the species' range. Similar to A. thaliana

Weigel, Detlef

128

Suboptimum decoding of block codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates a class of decomposable codes, their distance and structural properties. it is shown that this class includes several classes of well known and efficient codes as subclasses. Several methods for constructing decomposable codes or decomposing codes are presented. A two-stage soft decision decoding scheme for decomposable codes, their translates or unions of translates is devised. This two-stage soft-decision decoding is suboptimum, and provides an excellent trade-off between the error performance and decoding complexity for codes of moderate and long block length.

Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao

1991-01-01

129

Raptor codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exhibit a class of universal Raptor Codes: for a given integer k, and any real ?> 0 ,R ap- tor Codes in this class produce a potentially infinite stream of symbols such that any subset of symbols of size k(1 + ?) is sufficient to recover the original k sym- bols, with high probability. Each output symbol is generated

Amin Shokrollahi

2006-01-01

130

Profile Guided Code Positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of our investigation of code positioning techniques using execution profile data as input into the compilation process. The primary objective of the positioning is to reduce the overhead of the instruction memory hierarchy. After initial investigation in the literature, we decided to implement two prototypes for the Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture (PA-RISC). The first, built on

Karl Pettis; Robert C. Hansen

1990-01-01

131

Poll Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you a pollster? Would you like to be one? PollCode makes all of this quite simple. With this handy application, visitors can type in a poll question and up to 30 possible answers. Visitors can customize the poll with their own colors, font, and settings. After visitors have completed their poll, they can use the HTML code provided here to share their poll with others via social media networks and the like. This version of Poll Code is compatible with all operating systems. [KMG

2013-05-09

132

High Performance “Reach” Codes  

E-print Network

Jim Edelson New Buildings Institute A Growing Role for Codes and Stretch Codes in Utility Programs Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency November 9, 2011 ESL-KT-11-11-39 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 New Buildings Institute ESL..., Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 ?31? Flavors of Codes ? Building Codes Construction Codes Energy Codes Stretch or Reach Energy Codes Above-code programs Green or Sustainability Codes Model Codes ?Existing Building? Codes Outcome-Based Codes ESL-KT-11...

Edelson, J.

2011-01-01

133

Constructions for finite-state codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of codes called finite-state (FS) codes is defined and investigated. These codes, which generalize both block and convolutional codes, are defined by their encoders, which are finite-state machines with parallel inputs and outputs. A family of upper bounds on the free distance of a given FS code is derived from known upper bounds on the minimum distance of block codes. A general construction for FS codes is then given, based on the idea of partitioning a given linear block into cosets of one of its subcodes, and it is shown that in many cases the FS codes constructed in this way have a d sub free which is as large as possible. These codes are found without the need for lengthy computer searches, and have potential applications for future deep-space coding systems. The issue of catastropic error propagation (CEP) for FS codes is also investigated.

Pollara, F.; Mceliece, R. J.; Abdel-Ghaffar, K.

1987-01-01

134

Coordinated design of coding and modulation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The joint optimization of the coding and modulation systems employed in telemetry systems was investigated. Emphasis was placed on formulating inner and outer coding standards used by the Goddard Spaceflight Center. Convolutional codes were found that are nearly optimum for use with Viterbi decoding in the inner coding of concatenated coding systems. A convolutional code, the unit-memory code, was discovered and is ideal for inner system usage because of its byte-oriented structure. Simulations of sequential decoding on the deep-space channel were carried out to compare directly various convolutional codes that are proposed for use in deep-space systems.

Massey, J. L.; Ancheta, T.; Johannesson, R.; Lauer, G.; Lee, L.

1976-01-01

135

Towards Independent Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on insights gained from an Australian program of adult migrant English language education, it is argued that independent learning centers (ILCs) can be effective in assisting adult learners to develop both independent learning skills and language skills. The principles of independent learning and contemporary understanding about learning…

Hoadley, Jack

136

STATIC CODE ANALYSIS IN JAVA Bachelor Thesis  

E-print Network

STATIC CODE ANALYSIS IN JAVA Bachelor Thesis Fabian van den Broek Supervisor: dr.ir. Erik Poll bugs quickly is the use of static code analysis. There are no exact numbers on the use of static code use static code analysis. Furthermore, a case study is performed to investigate the advantage of using

Lucas, Peter

137

An empirical study of code clone genealogies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been broadly assumed that code clones are inherently bad and that eliminating clones by refactoring would solve the problems of code clones. To investigate the validity of this assumption, we developed a formal denition of clone evolution and built a clone genealogy tool that automatically extracts the history of code clones from a source code repository. Using our

Miryung Kim; Vibha Sazawal; David Notkin; Gail C. Murphy

2005-01-01

138

Non-information-maximizing neural coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information theoretic techniques are often used to investigate neural coding. Results - in terms of bits per second or bits per spike - have been used as evidence to support temporal or rate coding, spike timing precision, etc. Despite its use this way, information theory does not tell one what the neural code (or any code) is. In artificial systems,

Michael Stiber

2003-01-01

139

Development of conformity and independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated age trends in conformity and independence with a total of 366 children from Grades 1, 4, 7, and 10. 3 types of stimuli were used: visual judgments, opinion statements, and delay of gratification preferences. Age trends were found for unanimous peer pressure, adult influence, and peer pressure with social support from a partner. Unanimous peer pressure generally produced decreasing

Vernon L. Allen; Darren Newtson

1972-01-01

140

Free Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Free Code, a service of Andover.Net, is a large index of Internet-related software tool source code. The tools are written in C/C++, Perl, Java, or Visual Basic, and are free for personal and commercial use. They range from handy Perl CGI scripts to Java-based graphics packages. Each tool in the index is briefly described, characterized by language and operating system, and linked to both the home page for the tool and the source code. The total lack of documentation for the search engine makes useful queries hard to create, but the tools are still easy-to-find. This is a very useful index for anyone building Internet or Web-based applications.

141

40 CFR 194.23 - Models and computer codes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...verify the results of computer simulations used to support any compliance application by performing independent simulations. Data files, source codes...representative to perform independent simulations, and access to necessary...

2010-07-01

142

QR Codes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

2013-01-01

143

Quantum coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theorem is proven for quantum information theory that is analogous to the noiseless coding theorem of classical information theory. In the quantum result, the von Neumann entropy S of the density operator describing an ensemble of pure quantum signal states is equal to the number of spin-1\\/2 systems (``quantum bits'' or ``qubits'') necessary to represent the signal faithfully. The

Benjamin Schumacher

1995-01-01

144

Multiple wavelet-tree-based image coding and robust transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present techniques based on multiple wavelet-tree coding for robust image transmission. The algorithm of set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) is a state-of-the-art technique for image compression. This variable length coding (VLC) technique, however, is extremely sensitive to channel errors. To improve the error resilience capability and in the meantime to keep the high source coding efficiency through VLC, we propose to encode each wavelet tree or a group of wavelet trees using SPIHT algorithm independently. Instead of encoding the entire image as one bitstream, multiple bitstreams are generated. Therefore, error propagation is limited within individual bitstream. Two methods based on subsampling and human visual sensitivity are proposed to group the wavelet trees. The multiple bitstreams are further protected by the rate compatible puncture convolutional (RCPC) codes. Unequal error protection are provided for both different bitstreams and different bit segments inside each bitstream. We also investigate the improvement of error resilience through error resilient entropy coding (EREC) and wavelet tree coding when channels are slightly corruptive. A simple post-processing technique is also proposed to alleviate the effect of residual errors. We demonstrate through simulations that systems with these techniques can achieve much better performance than systems transmitting a single bitstream in noisy environments.

Cao, Lei; Chen, Chang Wen

2004-10-01

145

CONTAIN independent peer review  

SciTech Connect

The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

1995-01-01

146

Using the local gyrokinetic code, GS2, to investigate global ITG modes in tokamaks. (I) s-${\\alpha}$ model with profile and flow shear effects  

E-print Network

This paper combines results from a local gyrokinetic code with analytical theory to reconstruct the global eigenmode structure of the linearly unstable ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) mode with adiabatic electrons. The simulations presented here employ the s-${\\alpha}$ tokamak equilibrium model. Local gyrokinetic calculations, using GS2 have been performed over a range of radial surfaces, x, and for ballooning phase angle, p, in the range -${\\pi} {\\leq} p {\\leq\\pi}$, to map out the complex local mode frequency, ${\\Omega_0(x, p) = \\omega_0(x, p) + i\\gamma_0(x, p)}$. Assuming a quadratic radial profile for the drive, namely ${\\eta_i = L_n/L_T}$, (holding constant all other equilibrium profiles such as safety factor, magnetic shear etc.), ${\\Omega_0(x, p)}$ has a stationary point. The reconstructed global mode then sits on the outboard mid plane of the tokamak plasma, and is known as a conventional or isolated mode, with global growth rate, ${\\gamma}$ ~ Max[${\\gamma_0(x, p)}$], where ${\\gamma_0(x, p)}$ is the loc...

Abdoul, P A; Roach, C M; Wilson, H R

2014-01-01

147

Error-Correcting Codes in Binary-Coded-Decimal Arithmetic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error-correcting coding schemes devised for binary arithmetic are not in general applicable to BCD arithmetic. In this paper, we investigate the new problem of using such coding schemes in BCD systems. We first discuss the general characteristics of arithmetic errors and define the arithmetic weight and distance in BCD systems. We show that the distance is a metric function. Number

Chao-kai Liu; Tse Lin Wang

1978-01-01

148

Profile guided code positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of our investigation of code positioning techniques using execution profile data as input into the compilation process. The primary objective of the positioning is to reduce the overhead of the instruction memory hierarchy.After initial investigation in the literature, we decided to implement two prototypes for the Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture (PA-RISC). The first, built on top

Karl Pettis; Robert C. Hansen; Jack W. Davidson

2004-01-01

149

Polarization independent microphotonic circuits  

E-print Network

Microphotonic circuits have been proposed for applications ranging from optical switching and routing to optical logic circuits. However many applications require microphotonic circuits to be polarization independent, a ...

Watts, Michael Robert, 1974-

2005-01-01

150

Fuel management optimization using genetic algorithms and code independence  

SciTech Connect

Fuel management optimization is a hard problem for traditional optimization techniques. Loading pattern optimization is a large combinatorial problem without analytical derivative information. Therefore, methods designed for continuous functions, such as linear programming, do not always work well. Genetic algorithms (GAs) address these problems and, therefore, appear ideal for fuel management optimization. They do not require derivative information and work well with combinatorial. functions. The GAs are a stochastic method based on concepts from biological genetics. They take a group of candidate solutions, called the population, and use selection, crossover, and mutation operators to create the next generation of better solutions. The selection operator is a {open_quotes}survival-of-the-fittest{close_quotes} operation and chooses the solutions for the next generation. The crossover operator is analogous to biological mating, where children inherit a mixture of traits from their parents, and the mutation operator makes small random changes to the solutions.

DeChaine, M.D.; Feltus, M.A.

1994-12-31

151

The investigation of tethered satellite system dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of the rotational dynamics of the satellite was focused on the rotational amplitude increase of the satellite, with respect to the tether, during retrieval. The dependence of the rotational amplitude upon the tether tension variation to the power 1/4 was thoroughly investigated. The damping of rotational oscillations achievable by reel control was also quantified while an alternative solution that makes use of a lever arm attached with a universal joint to the satellite was proposed. Comparison simulations between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Martin Marietta (MMA) computer code of reteival maneuvers were also carried out. The agreement between the two, completely independent, codes was extremely close, demonstrating the reliability of the models. The slack tether dynamics during reel jams was analytically investigated in order to identify the limits of applicability of the SLACK3 computer code to this particular case. Test runs with SLACK3 were also carried out.

Lorenzini, E. C.

1986-01-01

152

Vector coding for partial response channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear technique for combining equalization and coset codes on partial response channels with additive white Gaussian noise is developed. The technique, vector coding, uses a set of transmit filters or `vectors' to partition the channel into an independent set of parallel intersymbol interference (ISI)-free channels for any given finite (or infinite) block length. The optimal transmit vectors for such

Sanjay Kasturia; James T. Aslanis; John M. Cioffi

1990-01-01

153

BTC image coding with visual patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a block truncation coding (BTC) scheme for image compression that employs visual patterns designed independently of the image to be coded. In this method, image blocks are first classified into three classes: uniform, gentle edge, and sharp edge, according to their variations. Design focus is on edge blocks, where two sets of patterns, namely, visual patterns and

Tak Po Chan; Bing Zeng; Ming L. Liou

1994-01-01

154

Implementation issues in source coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An edge preserving image coding scheme which can be operated in both a lossy and a lossless manner was developed. The technique is an extension of the lossless encoding algorithm developed for the Mars observer spectral data. It can also be viewed as a modification of the DPCM algorithm. A packet video simulator was also developed from an existing modified packet network simulator. The coding scheme for this system is a modification of the mixture block coding (MBC) scheme described in the last report. Coding algorithms for packet video were also investigated.

Sayood, Khalid; Chen, Yun-Chung; Hadenfeldt, A. C.

1989-01-01

155

Central bank Financial Independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have

J. Ramon Martinez-Resano

2004-01-01

156

Seals Code Development Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

1996-01-01

157

The Independence of Reduced Subgroup-State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum hidden problem being one of the most important quantum computation problems has been widely investigated. Our purpose in this paper is to prove the independent or partial independent of the reduced state derived from the quantum query with the oracle implementation. We prove that if without bias on implementation functions the subgroup state is independent of evaluation functions using the group representation. This result is also used to improve the quantum query success probability.

Luo, Ming-Xing; Deng, Yun

2014-09-01

158

Independence and Community: Teaching Midwestern  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates how a Midwestern early childhood teacher’s practice and her views of her practice are culturally constrained. The research is framed by a cultural psychology and draws on an ethnographic and interpretive biographic study of Mary, an experienced first-grade teacher. We explore Mary’s practice through four central themes: (a) raising independent decision makers, (b) developing self-motivated lifelong learners,

Kyunghwa Lee; Daniel J. Walsh

2005-01-01

159

THE CRITICAL INDEPENDENCE NUMBER AND AN INDEPENDENCE DECOMPOSITION  

E-print Network

THE CRITICAL INDEPENDENCE NUMBER AND AN INDEPENDENCE DECOMPOSITION C. E. LARSON DEPARTMENT-828-5576 Abstract. An independent set Ic is a critical independent set if |Ic|-|N(Ic)| |J| - |N(J)|, for any independent set J. The critical independence number of a graph is the cardinality of a maximum critical

Larson, Craig E.

160

Investigating the Influence of the Added Mass Effect to Marine Hydrokinetic Horizontal-Axis Turbines Using a General Dynamic Wake Wind Turbine Code: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a recent study to investigate the applicability of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics analysis program (FAST and AeroDyn respectively) to modeling the forces on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. It summarizes the added mass model that has been added to AeroDyn. The added mass model only includes flow acceleration perpendicular to the rotor disc, and ignores added mass forces caused by blade deflection. A model of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) Phase VI wind turbine was analyzed using FAST and AeroDyn with sea water conditions and the new added mass model. The results of this analysis exhibited a 3.6% change in thrust for a rapid pitch case and a slight change in amplitude and phase of thrust for a case with 30 degrees of yaw.

Maniaci, D. C.; Li, Y.

2012-04-01

161

Investigating the Influence of the Added Mass Effect to Marine Hydrokinetic Horizontal-Axis Turbines Using a General Dynamic Wake Wind Turbine Code  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a recent study to investigate the applicability of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics analysis program (FAST and AeroDyn respectively) to modeling the forces on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. This paper summarizes the added mass model that has been added to AeroDyn. The added mass model only includes flow acceleration perpendicular to the rotor disc, and ignores added mass forces caused by blade deflection. A model of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) Phase VI wind turbine was analyzed using FAST and AeroDyn with sea water conditions and the new added mass model. The results of this analysis exhibited a 3.6% change in thrust for a rapid pitch case and a slight change in amplitude and phase of thrust for a case with 30{sup o} of yaw.

Maniaci, D. C.; Li, Y.

2011-10-01

162

Ideology Among Independent Voter Groups  

E-print Network

Not all independent voters are the same. Some independents lean toward a political party and are therefore called “independent leaners.” The objective here is to uncover what forces cause independent leaners to retain some level of partisanship...

Berry, Meagan

2007-07-14

163

The Meaning of Independence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An independent living curriculum builds skills in home management, money handling, on-and off-campus living, public transportation, and employment in secondary students at the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind. (CL)

Long, Milly

1984-01-01

164

Independents maintain slow recovery  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses how independent operators in the U.S. continue their recovery from the oil price collapse of 1986. A discussion of the profits and losses for individual operator in 1989 is presented. The financial performance of 129 independent operators in 1989 is described and compared to 1988 figures. A comparison of U.S. oil and gas prices for the first halves of 1988 and 1989 is given, as are production rates for that time period.

Not Available

1989-10-01

165

Text Independent Methods for Speech Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes several text independent speech segmentation methods. State-of-the-art applications and the prospected\\u000a use of automatic speech segmentation techniques are presented, including the direct applicability of automatic segmentation\\u000a in recognition, coding and speech corpora annotation, which is a central issue in today’s speech technology. Moreover, a novel\\u000a parametric segmentation algorithm will be presented and performance will be evaluated by

Anna Esposito; Guido Aversano

2004-01-01

166

Lymphoma Coding Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

Coding Guidelines LYMPHOMA M9590/3-M9738/3 See the Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Neoplasm Case Reportability and Coding Manual and the Hematopoietic Database (DB) for more information and coding instructions. First Course of Therapy Do not code

167

Thyroid Coding Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

Coding Guidelines THYROID GLAND C739 Coding Hormone Therapy Code Hormone Therapy as 01 for follicular and/or papillary thyroid cancer when thyroid hormone therapy is given. Do not code replacement therapy as treatment unless the tumor is papillary

168

subject identification code list  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a syn. patient log list, patient log book; code used in lieu of the subject’s name; “to document that investigator\\/ institution keeps a confidential list of names of all subjects allocated to trial numbers on\\u000a enrolling in the trial” and “to permit identification of all subjects enrolled in the trial in case follow-up is required.\\u000a The list should be kept in

Gerhard Nahler

169

Finite-State Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New class of codes with desirable properties constructed from block codes. Finite-state encoder is machine that has finite number of internal states. Receives k parallel information symbols and transmits n parallel code symbols at each clock pulse. Finite-state codes include both block and convolutional codes. Theory of finite-state codes used to study properties of error-correcting codes in general and to design new codes to various specifications.

Pollara, F.; Mceliece, R. J.; Abdel-Ghaffar, K.

1990-01-01

170

On generalized low-density parity-check codes based on Hamming component codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate a generalization of Gallager's (1963) low-density (LD) parity-check codes, where as component codes single error correcting Hamming codes are used instead of single error detecting parity-check codes. It is proved that there exist such generalized low-density (GLD) codes for which the minimum distance is growing linearly with the block length, and a lower bound of

M. Lentmaier; K. Sh. Zigangirov

1999-01-01

171

Structural Constraints in Code-Switched Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code switching, the use of mixed-language expressions, is gaining prominence in advertising targeting linguistic minorities. Two studies investigate the existence of linguistic rules governing the use of code switching and identify situations in which those rules have a greater impact on persuasion. The studies extend Myers-Scotton's 1995 model of code switching by revealing an interaction between linguistic correctness and type

David Luna; Dawn Lerman

2005-01-01

172

Code-Alteration Among Arab College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates Jordanian university students' attitudes toward code-switching (CS) and code mixing (CM) to find out when and why they code switch and the most frequent English expressions that they use in Arabic discourse. A three-section questionnaire was distributed to students (n=352). Students show both positive and negative attitudes toward…

Hussein, Riyad F.

1999-01-01

173

Code-Copying in Irano-Turkic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different types of Persian impact on Irano-Turkic language varieties are surveyed and classified according to the Code-Copying model, which implies that copies of elements from foreign codes are inserted, globally or selectively, into a basic code that provides the morphosyntactic frame for the insertion. The study investigates under what…

Johanson, Lars

1998-01-01

174

Computationally efficient multiuser detection for coded CDMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computationally efficient multiuser detection for coded asynchronous CDMA systems is investigated. The particular receiver studied is a near-far resistant multiuser detector known as the projection receiver (PR). The PR performs multiple access interference resolution for CDMA with error control coding. The output of the front-end of the projection receiver yields a metric for decoding of the coded sequences. This metric

C. Schlegel; V. J. Mathews

1997-01-01

175

Hospital coding of dementia: is it accurate?  

PubMed

This paper investigates the coding of dementia in the episode of care in a pilot study group (N=48) post hospital discharge and the possible implications of under-coding. The assigned ICD-10-AM codes and Diagnosis Related Groups were reviewed. Results demonstrate under-coding of dementia and of cognitive deficits; poor correlation between admission diagnoses and dementia codes on separation; and changes in individual patients' cognitive status across forms and assessments in the same admission. The complexities of accurately coding dementias will impact upon planning for future treatments and service provision and will have a flow-on effect for patients, hospitals, and patient care in Australia. PMID:22006431

Cummings, Elizabeth; Maher, Roxanne; Showell, Christopher Morris; Croft, Toby; Tolman, Jane; Vickers, James; Stirling, Christine; Robinson, Andrew; Turner, Paul

2011-01-01

176

On Background Independence  

E-print Network

This paper concerns what Background Independence itself is (as opposed to some particular physical theory that is background independent). The notions presented mostly arose from a layer-by-layer analysis of the facets of the Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity. Part of this coincides with two relational postulates which are thus identified as classical precursors of two of the facets of the Problem of Time. These are furthemore tied to the forms of each of the GR Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Other aspects of Background Independence include the algebraic closure of these constraints, expressing physics in terms of beables, foliation independence as implemented by refoliation invariance, the reconstruction of spacetime from space. The final picture is that Background Independence - a philosophically desirable and physically implementable feature for a theory to have - has the facets of the Problem of Time among its consequences. Thus these arise naturally and are problems to be resolved, as opposed to avoided `by making one's physics background-dependent in order not to have these problems'. This serves as a selection criterion that limits the use of a number of model arenas and physical theories.

Edward Anderson

2013-10-05

177

On automatic differentiation of codes with COMPLEX arithmetic with respect to real variables  

SciTech Connect

We explore what it means to apply automatic differentiation with respect to a set of real variables to codes containing complex arithmetic. That is, both dependent and independent variables with respect to differentiation are real variables, but in order to exploit features of complex mathematics, part of the code is expressed by employing complex arithmetic. We investigate how one can apply automatic differentiation to complex variables if one exploits the homomorphism of the complex numbers C onto R{sup 2}. It turns out that, by and large, the usual rules of differentiation apply, but subtle differences in special cases arise for sqrt (), abs (), and the power operator.

Pusch, G.D.; Bischof, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carle, A. [Rice Univ., St. Houston, TX (United States)

1995-06-01

178

Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT): Modeling and Validation Using the MACH2 Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical modeling of the Pulsed Inductive Thruster exercising the magnetohydrodynamics code, MACH2 aims to provide bilateral validation of the thruster's measured performance and the code's capability of capturing the pertinent physical processes. Computed impulse values for helium and argon propellants demonstrate excellent correlation to the experimental data for a range of energy levels and propellant-mass values. The effects of the vacuum tank wall and massinjection scheme were investigated to show trivial changes in the overall performance. An idealized model for these energy levels and propellants deduces that the energy expended to the internal energy modes and plasma dissipation processes is independent of the propellant type, mass, and energy level.

Schneider, Steven (Technical Monitor); Mikellides, Pavlos G.

2003-01-01

179

Using a clone genealogy extractor for understanding and supporting evolution of code clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmers often create similar code snippets or reuse existing code snippets by copying and pasting. Code clones---syntactically and semantically similar code snippets---can cause problems during software maintenance because programmers may need to locate code clones and change them consistently. In this work, we investigate (1) how code clones evolve, (2) how many code clones impose maintenance challenges, and (3) what

Miryung Kim; David Notkin

2005-01-01

180

Introduction Properties of Expander Codes  

E-print Network

of Expander Codes Our Results Conclusions Background Basic Definitions LDPC Codes Expander Codes Turbo CodesIntroduction Properties of Expander Codes Our Results Conclusions Expander Codes: Constructions, Haifa 32000, Israel. Vitaly Skachek Expander Codes: Constructions and Bounds #12;Introduction Properties

Skachek, Vitaly

181

Optimal Bacon-Shor codes  

E-print Network

We study the performance of Bacon-Shor codes, quantum subsystem codes which are well suited for applications to fault-tolerant quantum memory because the error syndrome can be extracted by performing two-qubit measurements. Assuming independent noise, we find the optimal block size in terms of the bit-flip error probability p_X and the phase error probability p_Z, and determine how the probability of a logical error depends on p_X and p_Z. We show that a single Bacon-Shor code block, used by itself without concatenation, can provide very effective protection against logical errors if the noise is highly biased (p_Z / p_X >> 1) and the physical error rate p_Z is a few percent or below. We also derive an upper bound on the logical error rate for the case where the syndrome data is noisy.

John Napp; John Preskill

2012-09-04

182

Coded Modulations for Mobile Satellite Communication Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobile satellite (MSAT) channel is subject to multipath fading, shadowing, Doppler frequency shift, and adjacent channel interference (ACI). Therefore, transmitted signals face severe amplitude and phase distortions. This dissertation investigates various high performance and low decoding complexity coded modulation schemes for reliable voice and data transmissions over the shadowed mobile satellite channel and the Rayleigh fading channel. The dissertation consists of four parts. The first part presents a systematic technique for constructing MPSK trellis coded modulation (TCM) codes for voice transmission over the MSAT channel. The multilevel coding method is used for constructing TCM codes using convolutional codes with good free branch distances as the component codes or using both convolutional and block codes as the component codes. Simulation results show that these codes achieve good coding gains over the uncoded reference system and outperform existing TCM codes with the same decoding complexity. In the second part, using the multilevel coding method, multilevel block coded modulation (BCM) codes are constructed for voice transmission over the MSAT channel. Even though BCM is generally less power efficient than TCM for AWGN channels, BCM has a great potential to compete with TCM in the MSAT channel because of its shorter decoding depth and hence more effective interleaving. Binary Reed -Muller (RM) codes of length up to 32 are used as component codes. Simulation results show that these codes achieve good coding gains over the uncoded reference system and outperform TCM codes with the same decoding complexity. In the third part, a simple and systematic technique for constructing multilevel concatenated BCM schemes for data transmission over the shadowed MSAT channel and the Rayleigh fading channel is presented. These schemes are designed to achieve high-performance or large coding gain with reduced decoding complexity. Construction is based on a multilevel concatenation approach in which long powerful (binary or non-binary) codes are used as the outer codes and coset codes constructed from a linear BCM code and its subcodes are used as the inner codes. Simulation results show that these codes achieve large coding gains over the uncoded reference system and outperform single-level concatenated BCM codes with the same inner codes. Especially, some multilevel concatenated BCM codes achieve an error-floor free communication at BER of 10^{-5 }. In the final part of the dissertation, product coded modulation schemes are constructed by using multilevel concatenating approach. In product coded modulation, the product coding technique and coded modulation are combined to achieve high performance with reduced decoding complexity. Good product 8-PSK modulation codes are constructed for various shadowed MSAT channels. Simulation results show that these codes achieve large coding gains over the uncoded reference system and outperform single-level concatenated BCM codes with the same inner codes.

Rhee, Dojun

1995-01-01

183

Layered Wyner-Ziv video coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wyner-Ziv coding refers to lossy source coding with side information at the decoder. Recently some practical applications of Wyner-Ziv coding to video compression have been studied due to its advantage of error robustness over standard video coding standards. Based on recent theoretical result on successive Wyner-Ziv coding, we propose in this paper a practical layered Wyner-Ziv video codec using the DCT, nested scalar quantizer (NSQ), and irregular LDPC code based Slepian-Wolf coding (or lossless source coding with side information). The DCT is applied as an approximation to the conditional KLT, which makes the components of the transformed block conditionally independent given the side information. NSQ is a binning scheme that facilitates layered bit-plane coding of the bin indices while reducing the bit rate. LDPC code based Slepian-Wolf coding exploits the correlation between the quantized version of the source and the side information to achieve further compression. Different from previous works, an attractive feature of our proposed system is that video encoding is done only once but decoding allowed at many lower bit rates without quality loss.

Xu, Qian; Xiong, Zixiang

2004-01-01

184

Caring about Independent Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rhetoric of independence, new cash for care systems were introduced in many developed welfare states at the end of the 20th century. These systems allow local authorities to pay people who are eligible for community care services directly, to enable them to employ their own careworkers. Despite the obvious importance of the careworker's…

Christensen, Karen

2010-01-01

185

Kernel Independent Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present a class of algorithms for Independent Component Analysis (ICA) which use contrast functions based on canonical correlations in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. On the one hand, we show that our contrast functions are related to mutual information and have desirable mathematical properties as measures of statistical de- pendence. On the other hand, building on recent developments

Francis R. Bach; Michael I. Jordan

2002-01-01

186

IEAB Independent Analysis Board  

E-print Network

IEAB Independent Economic Analysis Board Roger Mann, Chair Noelwah R. Netusil, Vice-Chair Kenneth L to be examined in terms of the specifics of the proposal. The ecological and economic consequences are specific problems that the land trust may encounter. Purchase may be a first step in a process. Purchased land may

187

Independent pharmacist prescribing in Canada  

PubMed Central

Background: While pharmacists are trained in the selection and management of prescription medicines, traditionally their role in prescribing has been limited. In the past 5 years, many provinces have expanded the pharmacy scope of practice. However, there has been no previous systematic investigation and comparison of these policies. Methods: We performed a comprehensive policy review and comparison of pharmacist prescribing policies in Canadian provinces in August 2010. Our review focused on documents, regulations and interviews with officials from the relevant government and professional bodies. We focused on policies that allowed community pharmacists to independently continue, adapt (modify) and initiate prescriptions. Results: Pharmacists could independently prescribe in 7 of 10 provinces, including continuing existing prescriptions (7 provinces), adapting existing prescriptions (4 provinces) and initiating new prescriptions (3 provinces). However, there was significant heterogeneity between provinces in the rules governing each function. Conclusions: The legislated ability of pharmacists to independently prescribe in a community setting has substantially increased in Canada over the past 5 years and looks poised to expand further in the near future. Moving forward, these programs must be evaluated and compared on issues such as patient outcomes and safety, professional development, human resources and reimbursement. PMID:23509483

Law, Michael R.; Ma, Tracey; Fisher, Judith; Sketris, Ingrid S.

2012-01-01

188

Homological stabilizer codes  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail: jonastyleranderson@gmail.com

2013-03-15

189

Optimal Long Binary Phase Code-Mismatched Filter Pairs with the Application to Ionospheric Radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary phase codes have been often used in radar systems. The most widely known binary phase codes are Barker codes. Families of binary phase codes, which are called alternating codes, have been also discovered]. In a radar system, which employs a binary phase code, a matched filter is usually used to obtain a very high range resolution without decreasing the average transmitted power. However, matched filtering of a binary phase code gives unwanted sidelobes at the filter output. The amplitude of the sidelobes depends on the phase patterns of the binary phase code. Significant research effort has gone to search binary phase patterns that give smallest possible sidelobes. Most often peak-to-sidelobe ratio (PSR), integrated sidelobe ratio (TSR) and merit factor (F) are used as criterions to search for the best binary phase codes. The Barker codes have relatively high PSR. Other kind of binary phases with improved PSR have been found, including the 28-element code by Turyn] and the 40-element code by Lindner]. Although binary phase codes with maximum PSR can be satisfactory for some applications, in some cases removing the sidelobes reveals new and important information. Key showed that weighting networks to be placed after the standard matched filter can be designed, which reduces the sidelobes to an arbitrary low level. For any periodic digital signal with linearly independent cyclical shifts, lpatov] has showed that a filter can be constructed that suppresses to a zero level all the sidelobes. However, the filter has associated SNR losses when compared to the corresponding matched filter. Lpatov carried out a computer search for a binary periodic signal-filter pair with minimum possible SNR losses. The search includes all binary codes of length up to 30 elements. A different approach for eliminating the sidelobes in periodical binary phase codes by using mismatched filter have been published by Rohling and Plagg]. Exhaustive search for optimal aperiodic binary phase codes and mismatched filter pairs up to length of 25 has been carried out by Lehtinen. The benefits of eliminating sidelobes are also demonstrated in using real radar measurements. In this paper we present mismatched filtering of aperiodic binary phase codes. This is done without creating any sidelobes. A mismatched filter has small losses in SNR when compared with the corresponding matched filter. We have selected the best binary phase codes with length from 26 to 39. The best codes are the ones which have the smallest SNR losses in mismatched filtering when compared with the corresponding matched filtering. We have chosen one best code from each length and this means we have selected 14 different length best binary phase codes. These codes were chosen from a total number of 5.4972 x 1011 investigated codes. We have found these codes have nearly similar losses in SNR and it is about 15 percent. We did not find a binary phase code that outperforms the well-known 13-element Barker code, which has 4.8 percent SYR losses .

Damtie, B.; Lehtinen, M.; Orispaã, M.; Vierinen, J.

2006-11-01

190

Knowledge and Performance about Nursing Ethic Codes from Nurses' and Patients' Perspective in Tabriz Teaching Hospitals, Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Nursing profession requires knowledge of ethics to guide performance. The nature of this profession necessitates ethical care more than routine care. Today, worldwide definition of professional ethic code has been done based on human and ethical issues in the communication between nurse and patient. To improve all dimensions of nursing, we need to respect ethic codes. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge and performance about nursing ethic codes from nurses' and patients' perspective. Methods: A descriptive study Conducted upon 345 nurses and 500 inpatients in six teaching hospitals of Tabriz, 2012. To investigate nurses' knowledge and performance, data were collected by using structured questionnaires. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive and analytic statistics, independent t-test and ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient, in SPSS13. Results: Most of the nurses were female, married, educated at BS degree and 86.4% of them were aware of Ethic codes also 91.9% of nurses and 41.8% of patients represented nurses respect ethic codes. Nurses' and patients' perspective about ethic codes differed significantly. Significant relationship was found between nurses' knowledge of ethic codes and job satisfaction and complaint of ethical performance. Conclusion: According to the results, consideration to teaching ethic codes in nursing curriculum for student and continuous education for staff is proposed, on the other hand recognizing failures of the health system, optimizing nursing care, attempt to inform patients about Nursing ethic codes, promote patient rights and achieve patient satisfaction can minimize the differences between the two perspectives.

Mohajjel-Aghdam, Alireza; Hassankhani, Hadi; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Khameneh, Saied; Moghaddam, Sara

2013-01-01

191

The Proteomic Code: a molecular recognition code for proteins  

PubMed Central

Background The Proteomic Code is a set of rules by which information in genetic material is transferred into the physico-chemical properties of amino acids. It determines how individual amino acids interact with each other during folding and in specific protein-protein interactions. The Proteomic Code is part of the redundant Genetic Code. Review The 25-year-old history of this concept is reviewed from the first independent suggestions by Biro and Mekler, through the works of Blalock, Root-Bernstein, Siemion, Miller and others, followed by the discovery of a Common Periodic Table of Codons and Nucleic Acids in 2003 and culminating in the recent conceptualization of partial complementary coding of interacting amino acids as well as the theory of the nucleic acid-assisted protein folding. Methods and conclusions A novel cloning method for the design and production of specific, high-affinity-reacting proteins (SHARP) is presented. This method is based on the concept of proteomic codes and is suitable for large-scale, industrial production of specifically interacting peptides. PMID:17999762

Biro, Jan C

2007-01-01

192

Minimizing correlation effect using zero cross correlation code in spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of minimal multiple access interference (MAI) in code design is investigated. Applying a projection and mapping techniques, a code that has a zero cross correlation (ZCC) between users in optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) is presented in this paper. The system is based on an incoherent light source—LED, spectral amplitude coding (SAC), and direct detection techniques at the receiver. Using power spectral density (PSD) function and Gaussian approximation, we obtain the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the bit-error rate (BER) to measure the code performance. Making a comparison with other existing codes, e.g., Hadamard, MFH and MDW codes, we show that our code performs better at BER 10-9 in terms of number of simultaneous users. We also demonstrate the comparison between the theoretical and simulation analyses, where the results are close to one another.

Safar, Anuar Mat; Aljunid, Syed Alwee; Arief, Amir Razif; Nordin, Junita; Saad, Naufal

2012-01-01

193

Homological Stabilizer Codes  

E-print Network

In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes.

Jonas T. Anderson

2011-07-18

194

V(D)J recombination coding junction formation without DNA homology: processing of coding termini.  

PubMed Central

Coding junction formation in V(D)J recombination generates diversity in the antigen recognition structures of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor molecules by combining processes of deletion of terminal coding sequences and addition of nucleotides prior to joining. We have examined the role of coding end DNA composition in junction formation with plasmid substrates containing defined homopolymers flanking the recombination signal sequence elements. We found that coding junctions formed efficiently with or without terminal DNA homology. The extent of junctional deletion was conserved independent of coding ends with increased, partial, or no DNA homology. Interestingly, G/C homopolymer coding ends showed reduced deletion regardless of DNA homology. Therefore, DNA homology cannot be the primary determinant that stabilizes coding end structures for processing and joining. PMID:8413286

Boubnov, N V; Wills, Z P; Weaver, D T

1993-01-01

195

Encyclopedia of Sparse Graph Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of Gallager codes for low error tolerance, short block length andhigh rate applications.Sparse graph codes include Gallager codes, Tanner codes, MN codes Repeat--Accumulate codes (RA codes), and turbo codes, all of which have near--Shannonlimit performance.This paper (which is still in preparation) describes empirical properties of a wideselection of these codes, comparing in particular the codes\\

David J. C. Mackay

1999-01-01

196

Space-Time Product Convolutional Codes with Full Antenna Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product convolutional codes are investigated as an alternative concatenated scheme to construct full antenna diversity space-time codes. The proposed space-time code construction is analyzed and the conditions to achieve full diversity are determined. The resulting space-time codes are compared with space-time serially concatenated and woven convolutional codes. Simulation results for quasi-static Rayleigh fading channels show that space-time product convolutional codes

Carlos Medina; Maria Gabrowska

2006-01-01

197

Independent Lens: Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, Independent Lens has produced a number of well-received documentaries that have aired on PBS and other places. They have also created some very nice websites in an attempt to enhance the viewing experience of their programs. The Independent Lens: Interactive site offers some additional web-original projects for the interested public. Some of these features include Beyond the Fire, which introduces visitors to the stories of fifteen teenagers living in the US, who have survived war in seven different regions. One very compelling highlight of the site is the Off the Map feature. Here visitors can learn about the visionary art produced by a selection of persons working in various media, such as bottle caps, matchsticks, and chewing gum. For those looking for something with a unique perspective on the world and its inhabitants, this website will definitely bring a smile to their eyes.

2005-01-01

198

An introduction to QR Codes: linking libraries and mobile patrons.  

PubMed

QR codes, or "Quick Response" codes, are two-dimensional barcodes that can be scanned by mobile smartphone cameras. These codes can be used to provide fast access to URLs, telephone numbers, and short passages of text. With the rapid adoption of smartphones, librarians are able to use QR codes to promote services and help library users find materials quickly and independently. This article will explain what QR codes are, discuss how they can be used in the library, and describe issues surrounding their use. A list of resources for generating and scanning QR codes is also provided. PMID:21800986

Hoy, Matthew B

2011-01-01

199

Independence of Liouville Series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An element ??K : = K((x-1)), the field of formal series over a field K complete with respective to the degree valuation, is said to be Liouville if ? has a representation of the form ? = ?? = 1?p-??, where p is a non-constant polynomial in K[x] and (??) is a strictly increasing sequence of positive integers such that limN???N+1/?N = ?. Criteria for algebraic independence of Liouville series in K are derived.

Chaichana, Tuangrat; Laohakosol, Vichian; Komatsu, Takao

2010-11-01

200

TESTBED MEASUREMENTS OF OPTIMIZED LINEAR DISPERSION CODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-rate optimized linear dispersion (LD) codes have been investigated extensively in theory and by simulation through- out the last years. Regardless of the findings of the research so far, little work has been performed to investigate the per- formance of such codes in a realistic transmission system. We implemented an optimized full-rate full-diversity space-time block code, derived by Damen, on

Martin Wrulich; Sebastian Caban; Markus Rupp

201

Agent independent task planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

Davis, William S.

1990-01-01

202

Neuronal Adaptation Translates Stimulus Gaps into a Population Code  

PubMed Central

Neurons in sensory pathways exhibit a vast multitude of adaptation behaviors, which are assumed to aid the encoding of temporal stimulus features and provide the basis for a population code in higher brain areas. Here we study the transition to a population code for auditory gap stimuli both in neurophysiological recordings and in a computational network model. Independent component analysis (ICA) of experimental data from the inferior colliculus of Mongolian gerbils reveals that the network encodes different gap sizes primarily with its population firing rate within 30 ms after the presentation of the gap, where longer gap size evokes higher network activity. We then developed a computational model to investigate possible mechanisms of how to generate the population code for gaps. Phenomenological (ICA) and functional (discrimination performance) analyses of our simulated networks show that the experimentally observed patterns may result from heterogeneous adaptation, where adaptation provides gap detection at the single neuron level and neuronal heterogeneity ensures discriminable population codes for the whole range of gap sizes in the input. Furthermore, our work suggests that network recurrence additionally enhances the network's ability to provide discriminable population patterns. PMID:24759970

Yuan, Chun-Wei; Khouri, Leila; Grothe, Benedikt; Leibold, Christian

2014-01-01

203

NERO- a post-maximum supernova radiation transport code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interpretation of supernova (SN) spectra is essential for deriving SN ejecta properties such as density and composition, which in turn can tell us about their progenitors and the explosion mechanism. A very large number of atomic processes are important for spectrum formation. Several tools for calculating SN spectra exist, but they mainly focus on the very early or late epochs. The intermediate phase, which requires a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) treatment of radiation transport has rarely been studied. In this paper, we present a new SN radiation transport code, NERO, which can look at those epochs. All the atomic processes are treated in full NLTE, under a steady-state assumption. This is a valid approach between roughly 50 and 500 days after the explosion depending on SN type. This covers the post-maximum photospheric and the early and the intermediate nebular phase. As a test, we compare NERO to the radiation transport code of Jerkstrand, Fransson & Kozma and to the nebular code of Mazzali et al. All three codes have been developed independently and a comparison provides a valuable opportunity to investigate their reliability. Currently, NERO is one-dimensional and can be used for predicting spectra of synthetic explosion models or for deriving SN properties by spectral modelling. To demonstrate this, we study the spectra of the 'normal' Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2005cf between 50 and 350 days after the explosion and identify most of the common SN Ia line features at post-maximum epochs.

Maurer, I.; Jerkstrand, A.; Mazzali, P. A.; Taubenberger, S.; Hachinger, S.; Kromer, M.; Sim, S.; Hillebrandt, W.

2011-12-01

204

Locally decodable source coding  

E-print Network

Source coding is accomplished via the mapping of consecutive source symbols (blocks) into code blocks of fixed or variable length. The fundamental limits in source coding introduces a tradeoff between the rate of compression ...

Makhdoumi, Ali (Makhdoumi Kakhaki)

2013-01-01

205

Error correcting codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear algebraic codes are an elegant illustration of the power of Algebra. We introduce linear codes, and try to explain\\u000a how the structure present in these codes permits easy implementation of encoding and decoding schemes.

Priti Shankar

1996-01-01

206

The Cosmic Code Comparison Project  

E-print Network

Current and upcoming cosmological observations allow us to probe structures on smaller and smaller scales, entering highly nonlinear regimes. In order to obtain theoretical predictions in these regimes, large cosmological simulations have to be carried out. The promised high accuracy from observations make the simulation task very demanding: the simulations have to be at least as accurate as the observations. This requirement can only be fulfilled by carrying out an extensive code validation program. The first step of such a program is the comparison of different cosmology codes including gravitation interactions only. In this paper we extend a recently carried out code comparison project to include five more simulation codes. We restrict our analysis to a small cosmological volume which allows us to investigate properties of halos. For the matter power spectrum and the mass function, the previous results hold, with the codes agreeing at the 10% level over wide dynamic ranges. We extend our analysis to the comparison of halo profiles and investigate the halo count as a function of local density. We introduce and discuss ParaView as a flexible analysis tool for cosmological simulations, the use of which immensely simplifies the code comparison task.

Katrin Heitmann; Zarija Lukic; Patricia Fasel; Salman Habib; Michael S. Warren; Martin White; James Ahrens; Lee Ankeny; Ryan Armstrong; Brian O'Shea; Paul M. Ricker; Volker Springel; Joachim Stadel; Hy Trac

2007-06-08

207

Characterizing History Independent Data Structures  

E-print Network

Characterizing History Independent Data Structures Jason D. Hartline 1 , Edwin S. Hong 1 history independent data structures as proposed for study by Teague and Naor [2]. In a history independent is available from the abstract data structure. We show that for the most part, strong history independent data

Bustamante, Fabián E.

208

Characterizing History Independent Data Structures  

E-print Network

Characterizing History Independent Data Structures Jason D. Hartline1 , Edwin S. Hong1 , Alexander history independent data structures as proposed for study by Teague and Naor [2]. In a history independent is available from the abstract data structure. We show that for the most part, strong history independent data

Bustamante, Fabián E.

209

Rate 3/4 convolutional coding of 16-PSK - Code design and performance study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convolutional coding coupled with 16-PSK modulation is investigated for bandwidth efficient transmission. Rate 3/4, small memory codes are found which are optimized in the free-distance sense on the Gaussian channel. These codes provide up to 4.8 dB of coding gain with 32 states over uncoded 8-PSK, a scheme having the same spectral efficiency as the codes described. The performance is compared with earlier findings of Ungerboeck and some recent results on R = 2/3 coded 8-PSK. In addition, results of a channel transmission study to assess the performance of the four-state code on the band-limited nonlinear channel are presented, and it is found that performance of the coded scheme degrades comparably with uncoded 8-PSK, i.e., coding gain is roughly preserved.

Wilson, S. G.; Sleeper, H. A.; Schottler, P. J.; Lyons, M. T.

1984-01-01

210

Independent Lens: Butte, America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Butte, Montana was a hard rock mining town that supplied the United States with much-needed copper, due to the electrification of the nation. The documentary created by Independent Lens of PBS shows the hardship the miners and their families encountered. The Independent Lens website has a multitude of interactive features that adds depth and increased understanding to the film. To find when and on what PBS station the film is playing, visitors can click the link "Check Local Listings". Under the "The Film" tab, three clips of the film are available, and under "The Making of " tab, visitors can find details the difficulties of the film crew in filming the underground mining tunnels. The filmmaker also addresses the challenges of working in 16mm film, and the painful decisions of what scenes to cut. "Related Links" can also be found at the bottom of "The Film" link and provides links to several articles on the town of Butte, as well as to the filmmaker's website.

211

On quantum advantage in dense coding  

E-print Network

The quantum advantage of dense coding is studied, considering general encoding quantum operations. Particular attention is devoted to the case of many senders, and it is shown that restrictions on the possible operations on the senders' side may make some quantum state useless for dense-coding. It is shown, e.g., that some states are useful for dense coding if the senders can communicate classically (but not quantumly), yet they cannot be used for dense coding, if classical communication is not allowed. These no-go results are actually independent of the particular quantification of the quantum advantage, being valid for any reasonable choice. It is further shown that the quantum advantage of dense coding satisfies a monogamy relation with the so-called entanglement of purification.

M. Horodecki; M. Piani

2007-01-18

212

Linear scalable dispersion codes: signal design and performance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Tarokhs criteria for space-time codes, we analyze the design of linear scalable dispersion (LSD) codes. These codes are designed to utilize large numbers of transmit antennas, to exploit high diversity factors and to trade spatial diversity gain for spatial multiplexing gain in a very flexible way. We investigate the diversity and coding gain for Rayleigh fading and show in

Marc Kuhn; I. Hammerstrom; A. Wittneben

2004-01-01

213

Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

1996-01-01

214

Transform picture coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Picture coding by first dividing the picture into sub-pictures and then performing a linear transformation on each sub-picture cud quantizing and coding the resulting coefficients is introduced from a heuristic point of view. Various transformation, quantization, and coding strategies are discussed. A survey of all known applications of these techniques to monochromatic image coding is presented along with a summary

P. A. Wintz

1972-01-01

215

Use of the PARC code for generic NASP nozzles operating at off-design transonic conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver, PARC3D, has been investigated for applications to the wind tunnel testing of high-speed nozzle configurations, particularly with extended expansion ramps, operating at transonic off-design conditions. Numerous cases have been run and compared with existing wind tunnel data. The code has been shown to be an efficient and robust tool in the analysis of complex nozzle configurations whose flows are substantially determined by three-dimensional effects. Although the method requires that a grid, generated independently of the code, be supplied to it, the robust nature of the code does not require that this grid be excessively detailed, nor does it seem to require that the grid be fine-tuned for individual cases. The directness and flexibility of the boundary condition specifications allow a variety of configurations and flow conditions to be handled very efficiently.

Yaros, Steven F.

1991-01-01

216

Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

2007-01-01

217

Algebraic geometric codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance characteristics are discussed of certain algebraic geometric codes. Algebraic geometric codes have good minimum distance properties. On many channels they outperform other comparable block codes; therefore, one would expect them eventually to replace some of the block codes used in communications systems. It is suggested that it is unlikely that they will become useful substitutes for the Reed-Solomon codes used by the Deep Space Network in the near future. However, they may be applicable to systems where the signal to noise ratio is sufficiently high so that block codes would be more suitable than convolutional or concatenated codes.

Shahshahani, M.

1991-01-01

218

Dnomination Ville Code postal  

E-print Network

Dénomination Adresse Ville Code postal Téléphone Télécopieur Courriel Facebook Site Web Nombre de membres Charte amendée : l Oui (pièces justificatives) l Non ADMINISTRATEURS Président Code permanent Adresse Téléphone Ville Code postal Courriel Vice-président Code permanent Adresse Téléphone Ville Code

Charette, André

219

QR Codes 101  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

2012-01-01

220

ARA type protograph codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

2008-01-01

221

Unbalanced Quantized Multiple State Video Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple state video coding (MSVC) is a multiple description scheme based on frame-wise splitting of the video sequence into two or more subsequences. Each subsequence is encoded separately to generate descriptions which can be decoded independently. Due to subsequence splitting, the prediction gain decreases. But since reconstruction capabilities improve, error resilience of the system increases. Our focus is on multiple

Sila Ekmekci Flierl; Thomas Sikora; Pascal Frossard

2006-01-01

222

Improvement in elastographic signal-to-noise ratio and resolution using coded excitation in elastography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coded excitation has been used in conventional sonography to improve the sonographic signal-to-noise ratio independently of resolution. In elastography, a tradeoff exists between spatial resolution and the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe). In the present work, the use of coded excitation was investigated to remove this ambiguity in elastography. Both numerical simulations and phantom experiments were carried out to estimate the SNRe in a homogeneous material and the resolution in a material containing calibrated inclusions. These results were compared with those obtained using conventional pulse excitation. Various codes (Golay, Barker, chirp) and code lengths were tested. The numerical simulations used a simple 1D backscattering model to show the theoretical effects of coded excitation. Experiments were carried out using a more realistic setup based on a sector-scan imaging probe. In the absence of sonographic noise, simulations showed that codes induced only a slight decrease in SNRe at no cost in resolution. When sonographic noise was added into the model, a large improvement in SNRe was obtained at constant resolution. The experimental results corroborated these findings. [Work supported in part by National Cancer Institute (USA) Program Project Grant P01-CA64597.

Souchon, Remi; Bera, Jean-Christophe; Pousse, Agnes; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

2001-05-01

223

Performance bounds for fractal coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on investigations concerning the performance of fractal transforms. Emerging from the structural constraints of fractal coding schemes, lower bounds for the reconstruction error are given without regarding quantization noise. This implies finding an at least locally optimal transformation matrix. A full search approach is by definition optimal but also intractable for practical implementations. In order to simplify the calculation

Bernd Hiirtgen; Rwth Aachen

1995-01-01

224

Optimal superdense coding over memory channels  

SciTech Connect

We study the superdense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and nonunitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The superdense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where nonunitary encoding leads to an improvement in the superdense coding capacity.

Shadman, Z.; Kampermann, H.; Bruss, D.; Macchiavello, C. [Institute fuer Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, DE-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Dipartimento di Fisica ''A. Volta'' and INFM-Unita di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, IT-27100 Pavia (Italy)

2011-10-15

225

Optimal super dense coding over memory channels  

E-print Network

We study the super dense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and non-unitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The super dense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where non-unitary encoding leads to an improvement in the super dense coding capacity.

Zahra Shadman; Hermann Kampermann; Chiara Macchiavello; Dagmar Bruß

2011-07-18

226

Data compression using inverted block codes  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the effects of common linear block codes on compression of the residual excitation of a speech processing system which is based on forward adaptive, differential pulse code modulation (ADPCM). Differen- tial... is optimized for redundancy removal snd entropy reduction of speech signals is denoted Adaptive Predictive Coding (APC). This research focuses on rate compres- sion of the quantized prediction error of a subjectively optimized APC system. The end...

McClellan, Stan

2012-06-07

227

Progress in The Semantic Analysis of Scientific Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, independent expert parsers. These semantic parsers encode domain knowledge and recognize formulae in different disciplines including physics, numerical methods, mathematics, and geometry. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and help locate some program semantic errors. These techniques may apply to a wider range of scientific codes. If so, the techniques could reduce the time, risk, and effort required to develop and modify scientific codes.

Stewart, Mark

2000-01-01

228

Independent Lens Strange Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The accompanying website for the Independent Lens film "Strange Fruit", about the famous protest song, allows visitors to hear a clip, or the entire song, of a famous rendition sung Billie Holiday. Strange Fruit is a phrase that actually comes from a poem that was turned into a song, and the song became the most renowned protest song of the 1940s. Visitors unfamiliar with the song will find that the link, "The Film", on the homepage gives an informative several paragraph synopsis and history. It also explains the unusual turns the life of the poet/songwriter took. Visitors should not miss the "Protest Music Overview" link, which provides clips of other protest songs. These protest songs are grouped by time period and the topic of protest for the period. Visitors should start at the beginning with 1776 and slavery, and then just wander through the centuries of music. Some of the clips featured within the different time periods include "Fight The Power" by Public Enemy, "Ohio" by Neil Young, and "We Shall Overcome" sung by Mahalia Jackson.

229

Graph concatenation for quantum codes  

E-print Network

Graphs are closely related to quantum error-correcting codes: every stabilizer code is locally equivalent to a graph code and every codeword stabilized code can be described by a graph and a classical code. For the ...

Beigi, Salman

230

Melanism in Peromyscus Is Caused by Independent Mutations in Agouti  

PubMed Central

Identifying the molecular basis of phenotypes that have evolved independently can provide insight into the ways genetic and developmental constraints influence the maintenance of phenotypic diversity. Melanic (darkly pigmented) phenotypes in mammals provide a potent system in which to study the genetic basis of naturally occurring mutant phenotypes because melanism occurs in many mammals, and the mammalian pigmentation pathway is well understood. Spontaneous alleles of a few key pigmentation loci are known to cause melanism in domestic or laboratory populations of mammals, but in natural populations, mutations at one gene, the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r), have been implicated in the vast majority of cases, possibly due to its minimal pleiotropic effects. To investigate whether mutations in this or other genes cause melanism in the wild, we investigated the genetic basis of melanism in the rodent genus Peromyscus, in which melanic mice have been reported in several populations. We focused on two genes known to cause melanism in other taxa, Mc1r and its antagonist, the agouti signaling protein (Agouti). While variation in the Mc1r coding region does not correlate with melanism in any population, in a New Hampshire population, we find that a 125-kb deletion, which includes the upstream regulatory region and exons 1 and 2 of Agouti, results in a loss of Agouti expression and is perfectly associated with melanic color. In a second population from Alaska, we find that a premature stop codon in exon 3 of Agouti is associated with a similar melanic phenotype. These results show that melanism has evolved independently in these populations through mutations in the same gene, and suggest that melanism produced by mutations in genes other than Mc1r may be more common than previously thought. PMID:19649329

Kingsley, Evan P.; Manceau, Marie; Wiley, Christopher D.; Hoekstra, Hopi E.

2009-01-01

231

The effects of channel characteristics on turbo code performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbo codes provide greater coding gain than commonly used convolutional codes. The maximum a-posteriori turbo decoder, unlike the Viterbi decoder often used for convolutional codes, explicitly uses E b\\/N0 as a parameter in the decoding process. We have investigated the effects of errors in estimating the Eb\\/N0 on turbo code bit error rate (BER) performance in additive white Gaussian noise

Michael A. Jordan; Robert A. Nichols

1996-01-01

232

Animal Behavior: An Independent Research Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an independent research project intended for second semester high school biology students. It could easily be modified for any age life science students. The purpose of the project is to allow students to conduct their own animal behavior research investigation, from beginning to end. The process models the way animal research is conducted by research scientists.

Ms. Jeannie Wenndorf (Lindbergh High School)

1997-07-01

233

The Influence of Board Independence, Competency and Ownership on Earnings Management in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the roles of independent members on the board, chief executive officer who also serves as a chairman of the company, board competency and management's share ownership on earnings management practices. Different from prior research, it also investigates whether independent board competency (an interaction of independence and competency) and independent board share ownership (an interaction of independence and

HASHIMAH JOHARI; MOHD SALEH; SABRI HASSAN

2008-01-01

234

Wireless Network Coding with Local Network Views: Coded Layer Scheduling  

E-print Network

One of the fundamental challenges in the design of distributed wireless networks is the large dynamic range of network state. Since continuous tracking of global network state at all nodes is practically impossible, nodes can only acquire limited local views of the whole network to design their transmission strategies. In this paper, we study multi-layer wireless networks and assume that each node has only a limited knowledge, namely 1-local view, where each S-D pair has enough information to perform optimally when other pairs do not interfere, along with connectivity information for rest of the network. We investigate the information-theoretic limits of communication with such limited knowledge at the nodes. We develop a novel transmission strategy, namely Coded Layer Scheduling, that solely relies on 1-local view at the nodes and incorporates three different techniques: (1) per layer interference avoidance, (2) repetition coding to allow overhearing of the interference, and (3) network coding to allow inter...

Vahid, Alireza; Avestimehr, A Salman; Sabharwal, Ashutosh

2011-01-01

235

The Syntax and Psycholinguistics of Bilingual Code Mixing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper challenges the characterization of bilingual behavior derived from the code-switching model, and especially the notion of linguistic independence on which psychological studies of bilingualism have focused almost exclusively. While linguists have concentrated on the situational determinants of code-switching, psychologists have focused…

Sridhar, S. N.; Sridhar, Kamal K.

1980-01-01

236

Source Code Plagiarism--A Student Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the problem of source code plagiarism by students within the computing disciplines and reports the results of a survey of students in Computing departments in 18 institutions in the U.K. This survey was designed to investigate how well students understand the concept of source code plagiarism and to discover what, if any,…

Joy, M.; Cosma, G.; Yau, J. Y.-K.; Sinclair, J.

2011-01-01

237

Matrix fraction descriptions in convolutional coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, polynomial matrix fraction descriptions (MFDs) are used as a tool for investigating the structure of a (linear) convolutional code and the family of its encoders and syndrome formers. As static feedback and precompensation allow to obtain all minimal encoders (in particular, polynomial encoders and decoupled encoders) of a given code, a simple parametrization of their MFDs is

Ettore Fornasini; Raquel Pinto

2004-01-01

238

An empirical study on the maintenance of source code clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code cloning has been very often indicated as a bad software development practice. However, many studies appearing in the\\u000a literature indicate that this is not always the case. In fact, either changes occurring in cloned code are consistently propagated,\\u000a or cloning is used as a sort of templating strategy, where cloned source code fragments evolve independently. This paper (a)\\u000a proposes

Suresh Thummalapenta; Luigi Cerulo; Lerina Aversano; Massimiliano Di Penta

2010-01-01

239

Speech coding using spline wavelet and adaptive backward prediction  

E-print Network

effort seems to be lacking in the application of using semi-orthogonal wavelets to speech coding, especially in real-time mode. In this thesis, the application of splinewavelets incorporating adaptive backward prediction to speech coding is investigated...

Zeng, Jingdong

2012-06-07

240

Impact of Ethics Codes on Judgments by Journalists: A Natural Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates whether ethics codes help shape the decisions journalists make in situations that raise ethical issues. Finds no evidence that ethics codes directly influence journalists' decisions. (RS)

Pritchard, David; Morgan, Madelyn Peroni

1989-01-01

241

Coding AuthentiCity  

E-print Network

This thesis analyzes the impact of form-based codes, focusing on two research questions: (1) What is the underlying motivation for adopting a form-based code? (2) What motivations have the most significant impact on ...

Mercier, Rachel Havens

2008-01-01

242

Cellulases and coding sequences  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)

2001-01-01

243

Cellulases and coding sequences  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)

2001-02-20

244

Verification of complex codes.  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several years, verifying and validating complex codes at Sandia National Laboratories has become a major part of code development. These aspects tackle two important parts of simulation modeling: determining if the models have been correctly implemented - verification, and determining if the correct models have been selected - validation. In this talk, we will focus on verification and discuss the basics of code verification and its application to a few codes and problems at Sandia.

Ober, Curtis Curry

2009-03-01

245

Tokamak reactor systems code  

SciTech Connect

A tokamak reactor systems code has been developed by combining a previously developed plasma engineering code with an existing reactor systems code and adding calculations for thermal hydraulics, stress analysis, physical sputtering, and neutron activation dose rate. Calculations from the thermal hydraulics and neutron activation dose rate modules are compared with results from more complex codes. The effects on reactor performance of unpredictable properties such as plasma profiles and confinement times are demonstrated.

Baxter, D.C.; Dabiri, A.E.

1983-09-01

246

EMF wire code research  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

Jones, T.

1993-11-01

247

The Woodland Carbon Code  

E-print Network

The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas that schemes will actually deliver the carbon savings that they claim. The Woodland Carbon Code will provide that reassurance. The voluntary code will encourage a consistent approach to woodland carbon projects, and offer

248

Occupational Code Assignment System (CodeSearch)  

Cancer.gov

The Codesearch System is a PC-based system which provides users with an interactive method for assigning standardized industry and occupation codes to related job description titles from specific studies.

249

Color code identification in coded structured light.  

PubMed

Color code is widely employed in coded structured light to reconstruct the three-dimensional shape of objects. Before determining the correspondence, a very important step is to identify the color code. Until now, the lack of an effective evaluation standard has hindered the progress in this unsupervised classification. In this paper, we propose a framework based on the benchmark to explore the new frontier. Two basic facets of the color code identification are discussed, including color feature selection and clustering algorithm design. First, we adopt analysis methods to evaluate the performance of different color features, and the order of these color features in the discriminating power is concluded after a large number of experiments. Second, in order to overcome the drawback of K-means, a decision-directed method is introduced to find the initial centroids. Quantitative comparisons affirm that our method is robust with high accuracy, and it can find or closely approach the global peak. PMID:22859022

Zhang, Xu; Li, Youfu; Zhu, Limin

2012-08-01

250

Bit-wise arithmetic coding for data compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article examines the problem of compressing a uniformly quantized independent and identically distributed (IID) source. We present a new compression technique, bit-wise arithmetic coding, that assigns fixed-length codewords to the quantizer output and uses arithmetic coding to compress the codewords, treating the codeword bits as independent. We examine the performance of this method and evaluate the overhead required when used block-adaptively. Simulation results are presented for Gaussian and Laplacian sources. This new technique could be used as the entropy coder in a transform or subband coding system.

Kiely, A. B.

1994-01-01

251

Energy aware network coding in wireless networks  

E-print Network

Energy is one of the most important considerations in designing reliable low-power wireless communication networks. We focus on the problem of energy aware network coding. In particular, we investigate practical energy ...

Shi, Xiaomeng, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

252

Fire investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

Gomberg, A.

253

Source Code Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the DevX Source Code Library and the newer Sourcebank, users can download source code, algorithms, and sample applications. The Library is culled from DevX services and magazines, and resources are grouped into browseable and searchable categories. The Sourcebank collects code and related tools from sites around the Web and also is searchable and browseable. Users can limit their browsing by type of resource as well (Perl code, Java code, research papers, etc.). Perhaps needless to say, file formats are too numerous to name here.

1969-12-31

254

XSOR codes users manual  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

Jow, Hong-Nian [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murfin, W.B. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-11-01

255

A Collusion-Secure Fingerprinting Code Reduced by Chinese Remaindering and Its Random-Error Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A c-secure code with ?-error is one of the fingerprinting codes robust against a collusion attack. The purpose of this study is to construct a new\\u000a c-secure code which has a shorter code length for a large-scale collusion than ever proposed. We call this code a c-secure CRT code. Furthermore, we investigate possible approaches to make this code robust against

Hirofumi Muratani; Komukai Toshiba-cho

2001-01-01

256

Codes and coding processes in pigeon short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) task was used in three experiments to investigate how pigeons code information about\\u000a sample stimuli. In all experiments, each trial consisted of a signaled presentation of a sample stimulus for a fixed duration\\u000a followed, after some delay, by the presentation of three comparison stimuli. After incorrect first choices, the bird was allowed\\u000a a second choice between

H. L. Roitblat

1980-01-01

257

Azerbaijani-Russian Code-Switching and Code-Mixing: Form, Function, and Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From incorporation into the Russian Empire in 1828, through the collapse of the U.S.S.R. in 1991 governmental language policies and other socio/political forces influenced the Turkic population of the Republic of Azerbaijan to speak Russian. Even with changes since independence Russian use--including various kinds of code-switching and…

Zuercher, Kenneth

2009-01-01

258

A distributed code for color in natural scenes derived from center-surround filtered cone signals  

PubMed Central

In the retina of trichromatic primates, chromatic information is encoded in an opponent fashion and transmitted to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and visual cortex via parallel pathways. Chromatic selectivities of neurons in the LGN form two separate clusters, corresponding to two classes of cone opponency. In the visual cortex, however, the chromatic selectivities are more distributed, which is in accordance with a population code for color. Previous studies of cone signals in natural scenes typically found opponent codes with chromatic selectivities corresponding to two directions in color space. Here we investigated how the non-linear spatio-chromatic filtering in the retina influences the encoding of color signals. Cone signals were derived from hyper-spectral images of natural scenes and preprocessed by center-surround filtering and rectification, resulting in parallel ON and OFF channels. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) on these signals yielded a highly sparse code with basis functions that showed spatio-chromatic selectivities. In contrast to previous analyses of linear transformations of cone signals, chromatic selectivities were not restricted to two main chromatic axes, but were more continuously distributed in color space, similar to the population code of color in the early visual cortex. Our results indicate that spatio-chromatic processing in the retina leads to a more distributed and more efficient code for natural scenes. PMID:24098289

Kellner, Christian J.; Wachtler, Thomas

2013-01-01

259

Independent and Interdependent Group Contingencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent and interdependent group contingencies have many applied advantages for influencing behaviors in school settings, However, there are negative side effects associated with these group oriented contingencies. A scenario is presented that illustrates some negative side effects of independent and interdependent group oriented contingencies. Specific recommendations for altering group oriented contingencies to reduce these negative side effects and increase the

Christopher H. Skinner; Craig S. Cashwell; Merrily S. Dunn

1996-01-01

260

Min-Wise Independent Permutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define and study the notion of min-wise independent families of per- mutations. We say that F? Sn is min-wise independent if for any set X ? (n) and any x ? X ,w hen? is chosen at random in F we have Pr(min{?(X)} = ?(x)) = 1 |X| .

Andrei Z. Broder; Moses Charikar; Alan M. Frieze; Michael Mitzenmacher

2000-01-01

261

Manual on Independent Learning Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual on independent learning centers (ILC) includes eleven chapters intended to provide assistance and resource materials to any institution or individual developing an ILC. The chapters each cover one of the following topics: learning center model; Hawkeye Institute of Technology's (HIT) Independent Learning Center; the ILC student from…

Shaw, R. Allan Valois, Ed.; Shaw, Laura G., Ed.

262

Independent unions and the merger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the independent unions in the U.S., or the unions unaffiliated with the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO). Types of independent unions; Effect of AFL-CIO merger on railroad unions; Role of the United Mine Workers and John L. Lewis in the expansion of the labor movement. (Abstract copyright EBSCO.)

Philip Taft

1956-01-01

263

IEAB Independent Economic Analysis Board  

E-print Network

IEAB Independent Economic Analysis Board Noelwah R. Netusil, Chair Hans Radtke, Vice-Chair Daniel D Strategies for Habitat Acquisition Independent Economic Analysis Board Task Number 117 October 30, 2007 markets for environmental attributes associated with habitat units? (3) What problems and opportunities

264

Independent Learning Models: A Comparison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five models of independent learning are suitable for use in adult education programs. The common factor is a facilitator who works in some way with the student in the learning process. They display different characteristics, including the extent of independence in relation to content and/or process. Nondirective tutorial instruction and learning…

Wickett, R. E. Y.

265

Board independence and CEO pay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model where a board of directors not completely independent from the CEO set the CEO's pay. We show that the board's monitoring intensity and the equilibrium pay-performance sensitivity of CEO's pay are increasing in the board's independence.

Saltuk Ozerturk

2005-01-01

266

REDUCE REVENUE: INCREASE REVENUE: DEPT & FUND CODE DEPT & FUND CODE  

E-print Network

REDUCE REVENUE: INCREASE REVENUE: DEPT & FUND CODE DEPT & FUND CODE ACCOUNT ACCOUNT PROJECT PROJECT: INCREASE REVENUE: DEPT & FUND CODE DEPT & FUND CODE ACCOUNT ACCOUNT PROJECT PROJECT CHARTFIELD 1 CHARTFIELD: DEPT & FUND CODE DEPT & FUND CODE ACCOUNT ACCOUNT PROJECT PROJECT CHARTFIELD 1 CHARTFIELD 1 CHARTFIELD

McQuade, D. Tyler

267

Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1 Code Red 2 settles into weekly pattern Nimda enters the ecosystem Code Red 2 dies off as programmed CR 1 returns thanks to bad clocks #12;Code Red 2 dies off as programmed Nimda hums along, slowly cleaned up With its predator gone, Code Red 1 comes back, still

Paxson, Vern

268

Performance of concatenated Reed-Solomon trellis-coded modulation over Rician fading channels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concatenated coding scheme for providing very reliable data over mobile-satellite channels at power levels similar to those used for vocoded speech is described. The outer code is a shorter Reed-Solomon code which provides error detection as well as error correction capabilities. The inner code is a 1-D 8-state trellis code applied independently to both the inphase and quadrature channels. To achieve the full error correction potential of this inner code, the code symbols are multiplexed with a pilot sequence which is used to provide dynamic channel estimation and coherent detection. The implementation structure of this scheme is discussed and its performance is estimated.

Moher, Michael L.; Lodge, John H.

1990-01-01

269

Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code  

DOEpatents

Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

Gschwind, Michael K

2013-06-04

270

Overview of Code Verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The verified code for the SIFT Executive is not the code that executes on the SIFT system as delivered. The running versions of the SIFT Executive contain optimizations and special code relating to the messy interface to the hardware broadcast interface and to packing of data to conserve space in the store of the BDX930 processors. The running code was in fact developed prior to and without consideration of any mechanical verification. This was regarded as necessary experimentation with the SIFT hardware and special purpose Pascal compiler. The Pascal code sections cover: the selection of a schedule from the global executive broadcast, scheduling, dispatching, three way voting, and error reporting actions of the SIFT Executive. Not included in these sections of Pascal code are: the global executive, five way voting, clock synchronization, interactive consistency, low level broadcasting, and program loading, initialization, and schedule construction.

1983-01-01

271

An insight into space-time block codes using Hurwitz-Radon families of matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that for four-transmitter systems, a family of four-by-four unit-rate complex quasi-orthogonal space–time block codes, where each entry equals a symbol variable up to a change of sign and\\/or complex conjugation, can be generated from any two independent codes via elementary operations. The two independent groups of codes in the family generally have different properties of diversity, but

Yu Chang; Yingbo Hua; Xiang-gen Xia; Brian M. Sadler

2008-01-01

272

The Gli code  

PubMed Central

The Gli code hypothesis postulates that the three vertebrate Gli transcription factors act together in responding cells to integrate intercellular Hedgehog (Hh) and other signaling inputs, resulting in the regulation of tissue pattern, size and shape. Hh and other inputs are then just ways to modify the Gli code. Recent data confirm this idea and suggest that the Gli code regulates stemness and also tumor progression and metastatic growth, opening exciting possibilities for both regenerative medicine and novel anticancer therapies. PMID:17845852

Ruiz i Altaba, Ariel; Mas, Christophe; Stecca, Barbara

2008-01-01

273

Density and Bounds for Grassmannian Codes with Chordal Distance  

E-print Network

Density and Bounds for Grassmannian Codes with Chordal Distance Renaud-Alexandre Pitaval, Olav. Abstract--We investigate the density of codes in the complex Grassmann manifolds GC n,p equipped with the chordal distance. The density of a code is defined as the fraction of the Grass- mannian covered

Blostein, Steven D.

274

Coding analysis of the IS-95A reverse link  

E-print Network

to the Viterbi decoder to improve performance. Then a new scheme by replacing the convolutional encoder/Viterbi decoder with an equal rate Reed-Solomon (RS) code is investigated. Two different RS codes are analyzed. One of them is a concatenation of two RS codes...

Amin, Noor Rajib

2012-06-07

275

Bar Code Labels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

1988-01-01

276

Sequence independent amplification of DNA  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei.

Bohlander, Stefan K. (Chicago, IL)

1998-01-01

277

Sequence independent amplification of DNA  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example, the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei. 25 figs.

Bohlander, S.K.

1998-03-24

278

Biographical factors of occupational independence.  

PubMed

The present study examined biographical factors of occupational independence including any kind of nonemployed profession. Participants were 59 occupationally independent and 58 employed persons of different age (M = 36.3 yr.), sex, and profession. They were interviewed on variables like family influence, educational background, occupational role models, and critical events for choosing a particular type of occupational career. The obtained results show that occupationally independent people reported stronger family ties, experienced fewer restrictions of formal education, and remembered fewer negative role models than the employed people. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:11783553

Müller, G F

2001-10-01

279

Computer Science in Dutch Secondary Education: Independent or Integrated?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports results of a study that investigated whether the objectives of teaching computer science as an independent subject are met when computer science is integrated with school subjects. Components of a formal (independent) curriculum, identified through interviews with computer science experts, are compared with the operational (integrated)…

van der Sijde, Pieter C.; Doornekamp, B. Gerard

1992-01-01

280

Adder circuits with transistors using independently controlled gates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circuits with transistors using independently controlled gates have been proposed to reduce the number of transistors and to increase the logic density per area. So far only small building blocks have been presented. This paper investigates for the first time the use of independent double gate transistors in 16 bit ripple carry and parallel prefix adders. New adder circuits and

Marcus Weis; Andrzej Pfitzner; Dominik Kasprowicz; Rainer Emling; Wojciech Maly; Doris Schmitt-Landsiedel

2009-01-01

281

Distributed transform coding via source-splitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transform coding (TC) is one of the best known practical methods for quantizing high-dimensional vectors. In this article, a practical approach to distributed TC of jointly Gaussian vectors is presented. This approach, referred to as source-split distributed transform coding (SP-DTC), can be used to easily implement two terminal transform codes for any given rate-pair. The main idea is to apply source-splitting using orthogonal-transforms, so that only Wyner-Ziv (WZ) quantizers are required for compression of transform coefficients. This approach however requires optimizing the bit allocation among dependent sets of WZ quantizers. In order to solve this problem, a low-complexity tree-search algorithm based on analytical models for transform coefficient quantization is developed. A rate-distortion (RD) analysis of SP-DTCs for jointly Gaussian sources is presented, which indicates that these codes can significantly outperform the practical alternative of independent TC of each source, whenever there is a strong correlation between the sources. For practical implementation of SP-DTCs, the idea of using conditional entropy constrained (CEC) quantizers followed by Slepian-Wolf coding is explored. Experimental results obtained with SP-DTC designs based on both CEC scalar quantizers and CEC trellis-coded quantizers demonstrate that actual implementations of SP-DTCs can achieve RD performance close to the analytically predicted limits.

Yahampath, Pradeepa

2012-12-01

282

Rate 3/4 16-PSK phase codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is carried out of convolutional-coding coupled with 16-PSK modulation for bandwidth efficient transmission. Small memory codes (rate three-fourths) are found that are optimum in the free-distance sense on the Gaussian channel. These codes furnish up to 4.8 dB of coding gain with 32 states over uncoded 8-PSK, a scheme having the same spectral efficiency as the codes described. The performance is compared with the earlier findings of Ungerboeck (1976, 1982) and certain recent results on R = 2/3 coded 8-PSK. It is shown that with 4 decoder states the coding gain is 3.5 dB and with 32 states it is 4.8 dB. What is more, the codes compare favorably with coded 16-QASK when envelope variations and peak energy constraints are considered.

Wilson, S. G.; Schottler, P. J.; Sleeper, H. A.

1982-01-01

283

Enhanced robustness in image watermarking using turbo codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the improvement achieved by turbo coding for robustness in still image watermarking. We use an error correcting scheme based on the concatenation of a BCH product code and a repetition code. The product code is iteratively decoded using the Chase-Pyndiah algorithm (turbo decoded). For this study, we set the watermarking distortion to around 38 dB and we consider different payloads that can correspond to different applications and services. We compare different coding strategies (i.e. repetition code only and a concatenation of product and repetition codes) in terms of robustness to different photometric attacks, in particular additive noise or lossy compression. Typically, for a payload of 121 bits, the robustness gain for a given message error probability is significant: first error appears at a JPEG quality factor of about 25% with the new coding scheme instead of about 50% when using only repetition codes.

Rey, Christian; Amis, Karine; Dugelay, Jean-Luc; Pyndiah, Ramesh; Picart, Annie

2003-06-01

284

Applications of numerical codes to space plasma problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar wind, earth's bowshock, and magnetospheric convection and substorms were investigated. Topics discussed include computational physics, multifluid codes, ionospheric irregularities, and modeling laser plasmas.

Northrop, T. G.; Birmingham, T. J.; Jones, F. C.; Wu, C. S.

1975-01-01

285

List of codes Language abbreviation codes  

E-print Network

Portugal MT Malta GR Greece SE Sweden TR Turkey Country codes for the ERASMUS Institutional Identification Hungary SI Slovenia F France P Portugal LT Lithuania SK Slovakia FL Liechtenstein S Sweden G Greece S F authority (regional) PUB.3 Public authority (national) IND Private company (manufacturing) SER Private

286

Emerging principles of population coding: in search for the neural code.  

PubMed

Population coding theory aims to provide quantitative tests for hypotheses concerning the neural code. Over the last two decades theory has focused on analyzing the ways in which various parameters that characterize neuronal responses to external stimuli affect the information content of these responses. This article reviews and provides an intuitive explanation for the major effects of noise correlations and neuronal heterogeneity, and discusses their implications for our ability to investigate the neural code. It is argued that to test neural code hypotheses further, additional constraints are required, including relating trial-to-trial variation in neuronal population responses to behavioral decisions and specifying how information is decoded by downstream networks. PMID:24487341

Shamir, Maoz

2014-04-01

287

Spina Bifida Experience: Developing Independence  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Independence Your browser does not support iFrames. Related Videos Spina Bifida Experience Managing Your Own Medical Care The Importance of Physical Activity More Videos Video Archive Find more NCBDDD videos to watch ...

288

Independent component analysis: recent advances.  

PubMed

Independent component analysis is a probabilistic method for learning a linear transform of a random vector. The goal is to find components that are maximally independent and non-Gaussian (non-normal). Its fundamental difference to classical multi-variate statistical methods is in the assumption of non-Gaussianity, which enables the identification of original, underlying components, in contrast to classical methods. The basic theory of independent component analysis was mainly developed in the 1990s and summarized, for example, in our monograph in 2001. Here, we provide an overview of some recent developments in the theory since the year 2000. The main topics are: analysis of causal relations, testing independent components, analysing multiple datasets (three-way data), modelling dependencies between the components and improved methods for estimating the basic model. PMID:23277597

Hyvärinen, Aapo

2013-02-13

289

Technology for Independent Living: Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook provides information for the practical implementation of independent living technology in the everyday rehabilitation process. "Information Services and Resources" lists databases, clearinghouses, networks, research and development programs, toll-free telephone numbers, consumer protection caveats, selected publications, and…

Enders, Alexandra, Ed.

290

Independent component analysis: recent advances  

PubMed Central

Independent component analysis is a probabilistic method for learning a linear transform of a random vector. The goal is to find components that are maximally independent and non-Gaussian (non-normal). Its fundamental difference to classical multi-variate statistical methods is in the assumption of non-Gaussianity, which enables the identification of original, underlying components, in contrast to classical methods. The basic theory of independent component analysis was mainly developed in the 1990s and summarized, for example, in our monograph in 2001. Here, we provide an overview of some recent developments in the theory since the year 2000. The main topics are: analysis of causal relations, testing independent components, analysing multiple datasets (three-way data), modelling dependencies between the components and improved methods for estimating the basic model. PMID:23277597

Hyvarinen, Aapo

2013-01-01

291

Banner Index Codes The Index code is a data-entry shortcut for the Fund code, Org code, and Program code in Banner  

E-print Network

Banner Index Codes The Index code is a data-entry shortcut for the Fund code, Org code, and Program code in Banner Finance (FO-P's). Implementation of the Index has greatly decreased data entry coding ­ Account (object) - Program (FOAP) code numbers on any of your accounting forms (Contracts, Purchase Orders

292

Distributed detection and coding in information networks  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the distributed information and detection of a binary source through a parallel system of relays. Each relay observes the source output through a noisy channel, and the channel outputs are independent ...

Ho, Shan-Yuan

2006-01-01

293

Spatial image coding for non-ideal channels  

E-print Network

-Ideal Channels (May 1982) Paul Gauntt Nietfeld, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. N. C. Griswold A recently developed spatial image coding technique known as Block Truncation Coding (BTC) is used as the basis for developing... coding technique. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION II THEORETICAL BACKGROUND. Block Truncation Coding Bit Weighting III INVESTIGATION AND MODIFICATION OF BTC. . 7 16 22 Implementation of Basic BTC Sensitivity of BTC...

Nietfeld, Paul Gauntt

2012-06-07

294

Graph Concatenation for Quantum Codes  

E-print Network

Graphs are closely related to quantum error-correcting codes: every stabilizer code is locally equivalent to a graph code, and every codeword stabilized code can be described by a graph and a classical code. For the construction of good quantum codes of relatively large block length, concatenated quantum codes and their generalizations play an important role. We develop a systematic method for constructing concatenated quantum codes based on "graph concatenation", where graphs representing the inner and outer codes are concatenated via a simple graph operation called "generalized local complementation." Our method applies to both binary and non-binary concatenated quantum codes as well as their generalizations.

Salman Beigi; Isaac Chuang; Markus Grassl; Peter Shor; Bei Zeng

2009-10-21

295

Validation of the reactor dynamics code TRAB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The validation of the one dimensional reactor dynamics code TRAB (Transient Analysis code for BWR's) is summarized. TRAB was validated with benchmark problems, comparative calculations against independent analyses, analyses of start up experiments of nuclear power plants, and real plant transients. The initial power excursion of the Chernobyl reactor accident was calculated with TRAB. TRAB was originally designed for BWR analyses, but it can in its present version be used for various modeling purposes. The core model of TRAB can be used separately for LWR calculations. For PWR modeling the core model of TRAB was coupled to circuit model SMABRE to form the SMATRA code. The versatile modeling capabilities of TRAB were used in analyses of e.g., the heating reactor SECURE and the RBMK type reactor (Chernobyl).

Raety, Hanna; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, Riitta; Rajamaeki, Markku

1991-05-01

296

PLUTO: a Numerical Code for Computational Astrophysics  

E-print Network

We present a new numerical code, PLUTO, for the solution of hypersonic flows in 1, 2 and 3 spatial dimensions and different systems of coordinates. The code provides a multi-physics, multi-algorithm modular environment particularly oriented towards the treatment of astrophysical flows in presence of discontinuities. Different hydrodynamic modules and algorithms may be independently selected to properly describe Newtonian, relativistic, MHD or relativistic MHD fluids. The modular structure exploits a general framework for integrating a system of conservation laws, built on modern Godunov-type shock-capturing schemes. Although a plethora of numerical methods has been successfully developed over the past two decades, the vast majority shares a common discretization recipe, involving three general steps: a piecewise polynomial reconstruction followed by the solution of Riemann problems at zone interfaces and a final evolution stage. We have checked and validated the code against several benchmarks available in literature. Test problems in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions are discussed.

A. Mignone; G. Bodo; S. Massaglia; T. Matsakos; O. Tesileanu; C. Zanni; A. Ferrari

2007-01-30

297

Local Equivalence of Surface Code States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface code states are an important class of stabilizer states that play a prominent role in quantum information processing. In this paper we show that these states do not contain any counterexamples to the recently disproved LU-LC conjecture. In the process we show that An important consequence of our result is that surface codes do not have any encoded non-Clifford transversal gates. We also prove some interesting structural properties of the CSS surface code states. We show that these states can be characterized as a class of minor closed binary matroids. This characterization could be of independent interest in that it makes a connection with the theory of binary matroids.

Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

298

A Turbo Code Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a tutorial exposition of turbo codes and the associated algorithms. Included are a simple derivation for the performance of turbo codes, and a straightforward presentation of the iterative decoding algorithm. The derivations of both the performance estimate and the modified BCJR decoding algorithm are novel. The treatment is intended to be a launching point for further study in

William E. Ryan

1997-01-01

299

APPENDICE B Code source  

E-print Network

APPENDICE B Code source On trouvera ici le code source des packages ou domaines 'evoqu'es dans lePack ConvPack(le:List Expression):Public == Prive where E ==? Expression SE ==? SortedExpressions L ==? List LE ==? L E I ==? Integer PI ==? Polynomial I RFI ==? RationalFunction I NDMP ==? New

Ollivier, François

300

Fluka Code: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NA...

F. Ballarini, G. Battistoni, M. Campanella, M. Carboni, F. Cerutti, A. Empol, A. Fasso, A. Ferrari, E. Gadioli, M. V. Garzelli

2005-01-01

301

Prostate Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Prostate C619 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Do not code an orchiectomy in this field. For prostate primaries, orchiectomies are coded in the data item “Hematologic Transplant and

302

Did You "Code"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of solving mathematical equations can be quite tough for some students hence they face a great difficulty when applying ideas to the actual process. Students in algebra classes are taught coding in which they write down what they will need to do to solve the equation and this coding makes the students more adept at solving equations…

Clausen, Mary C.

2005-01-01

303

Cervix Uteri Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Cervi x Uteri C530–C539 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code dilation and curettage (D&C) as Surgery of Primary Site for invasive cancers] Codes 00 None; no surgery

304

Anus Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Anus C210–C218 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code infrared coagulation as treatment.] Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor

305

Hadamard transform image coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the fast Fourier transform algorithm has led to the development of the Fourier transform image coding technique whereby the two-dimensional Fourier transform of an image is transmitted over a channel rather than the image itself. This devlopement has further led to a related image coding technique in which an image is transformed by a Hadamard matrix operator.

W. K. Pratt; J. Kane; H. C. Andrews

1969-01-01

306

Lichenase and coding sequences  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)

2000-08-15

307

International Code Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Code Council is �a membership association dedicated to building safety and fire prevention, develops the codes used to construct residential and commercial buildings, including homes and schools. Most U.S. cities, counties and states that adopt codes choose the International Codes developed by the International Code Council.� Although some sections of the site are reserved for members only (which requires a fee), there is a remarkable amount of material available to non-members. Available on the website are details about codes development, how to acquire an opinion on a code from multiple sources and how to reach a building code liaison for your locality. Under the �Certification and Testing� tab, users can find sample certification exam questions as well as outlines. The site also provides links to various periodicals, ICC meetings and also includes an event calendar to see dates for industry conferences and upcoming trade shows.

2006-12-04

308

Corpus Uteri Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Corpus Uteri C540–C559 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code dilation and curettage (D&C) as Surgery of Primary Site for invasive cancers] Codes 00 None; no surgery

309

Binary concatenated coding system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coding, using 3-bit binary words, is applicable to any measurement having integer scale up to 100. System using 6-bit data words can be expanded to read from 1 to 10,000, and 9-bit data words can increase range to 1,000,000. Code may be ''read'' directly by observation after memorizing simple listing of 9's and 10's.

Monford, L. G., Jr.

1973-01-01

310

Universal Features for the Classification of Coding and Non-coding DNA Sequences.  

PubMed

In this report, we revisited simple features that allow the classification of coding sequences (CDS) from non-coding DNA. The spectrum of codon usage of our sequence sample is large and suggests that these features are universal. The features that we investigated combine (i) the stop codon distribution, (ii) the product of purine probabilities in the three positions of nucleotide triplets, (iii) the product of Cytosine, Guanine, Adenine probabilities in 1st, 2nd, 3rd position of triplets, respectively, (iv) the product of G and C probabilities in 1st and 2nd position of triplets. These features are a natural consequence of the physico-chemical properties of proteins and their combination is successful in classifying CDS and non-coding DNA (introns) with a success rate >95% above 350 bp. The coding strand and coding frame are implicitly deduced when the sequences are classified as coding. PMID:20140069

Carels, Nicolas; Vidal, Ramon; Frías, Diego

2009-01-01

311

Universal Features for the Classification of Coding and Non-coding DNA Sequences  

PubMed Central

In this report, we revisited simple features that allow the classification of coding sequences (CDS) from non-coding DNA. The spectrum of codon usage of our sequence sample is large and suggests that these features are universal. The features that we investigated combine (i) the stop codon distribution, (ii) the product of purine probabilities in the three positions of nucleotide triplets, (iii) the product of Cytosine, Guanine, Adenine probabilities in 1st, 2nd, 3rd position of triplets, respectively, (iv) the product of G and C probabilities in 1st and 2nd position of triplets. These features are a natural consequence of the physico-chemical properties of proteins and their combination is successful in classifying CDS and non-coding DNA (introns) with a success rate >95% above 350 bp. The coding strand and coding frame are implicitly deduced when the sequences are classified as coding. PMID:20140069

Carels, Nicolas; Vidal, Ramon; Frias, Diego

2009-01-01

312

Combustion chamber analysis code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

1993-01-01

313

Energy Conservation Code Decoded  

SciTech Connect

Designing an energy-efficient, affordable, and comfortable home is a lot easier thanks to a slime, easier to read booklet, the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), published in March 2006. States, counties, and cities have begun reviewing the new code as a potential upgrade to their existing codes. Maintained under the public consensus process of the International Code Council, the IECC is designed to do just what its title says: promote the design and construction of energy-efficient homes and commercial buildings. Homes in this case means traditional single-family homes, duplexes, condominiums, and apartment buildings having three or fewer stories. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a key role in proposing the changes that resulted in the new code, is offering a free training course that covers the residential provisions of the 2006 IECC.

Cole, Pam C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

2006-09-01

314

Parallel CARLOS-3D code development  

SciTech Connect

CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.

Putnam, J.M. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States); Kotulski, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-02-01

315

Population coding of affect across stimuli, modalities and individuals.  

PubMed

It remains unclear how the brain represents external objective sensory events alongside our internal subjective impressions of them--affect. Representational mapping of population activity evoked by complex scenes and basic tastes in humans revealed a neural code supporting a continuous axis of pleasant-to-unpleasant valence. This valence code was distinct from low-level physical and high-level object properties. Although ventral temporal and anterior insular cortices supported valence codes specific to vision and taste, both the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices (OFC) maintained a valence code independent of sensory origin. Furthermore, only the OFC code could classify experienced affect across participants. The entire valence spectrum was represented as a collective pattern in regional neural activity as sensory-specific and abstract codes, whereby the subjective quality of affect can be objectively quantified across stimuli, modalities and people. PMID:24952643

Chikazoe, Junichi; Lee, Daniel H; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Anderson, Adam K

2014-08-01

316

LEXSTAT CAL. CODE. CIV. PROC. 1085 DEERING'S CALIFORNIA CODES ANNOTATED  

E-print Network

Page 1 LEXSTAT CAL. CODE. CIV. PROC. 1085 DEERING'S CALIFORNIA CODES ANNOTATED Copyright (c) 2006 IS CURRENT THROUGH THE 2007 SUPPLEMENT *** (ALL 2006 LEGISLATION) CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE Part 3. Special TO CALIFORNIA CODES ARCHIVE DIRECTORY Cal Code Civ Proc § 1085 (2006) § 1085. Issuing courts, and writ

Kammen, Daniel M.

317

Axisymmetric generalized harmonic evolution code  

SciTech Connect

We describe the first axisymmetric numerical code based on the generalized harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations, which is regular at the axis. We test the code by investigating gravitational collapse of distributions of complex scalar field in a Kaluza-Klein spacetime. One of the key issues of the harmonic formulation is the choice of the gauge source functions, and we conclude that a damped-wave gauge is remarkably robust in this case. Our preliminary study indicates that evolution of regular initial data leads to formation both of black holes with spherical and cylindrical horizon topologies. Intriguingly, we find evidence that near threshold for black hole formation the number of outcomes proliferates. Specifically, the collapsing matter splits into individual pulses, two of which travel in the opposite directions along the compact dimension and one which is ejected radially from the axis. Depending on the initial conditions, a curvature singularity develops inside the pulses.

Sorkin, Evgeny [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476, Golm (Germany)

2010-04-15

318

Local intensity adaptive image coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of preprocessing for machine vision is to extract intrinsic target properties. The most important properties ordinarily are structure and reflectance. Illumination in space, however, is a significant problem as the extreme range of light intensity, stretching from deep shadow to highly reflective surfaces in direct sunlight, impairs the effectiveness of standard approaches to machine vision. To overcome this critical constraint, an image coding scheme is being investigated which combines local intensity adaptivity, image enhancement, and data compression. It is very effective under the highly variant illumination that can exist within a single frame or field of view, and it is very robust to noise at low illuminations. Some of the theory and salient features of the coding scheme are reviewed. Its performance is characterized in a simulated space application, the research and development activities are described.

Huck, Friedrich O.

1989-01-01

319

Coding for spread-spectrum communications networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple-access capability of a frequency-hopp packet radio network is investigated from a coding point of view. The achievable region of code rate and channel traffic and the normalized throughput are considered as performance measures. We model the communication system from the modulator input to the demodulator output as an I-user interference channel, and evaluate the asymptotic performance of various

Bal G. Kim

1987-01-01

320

Image sequence coding by vector quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate image sequence coding by means of a classified vector quantization technique in which 3-D cubes of the image sequence are coded. A four-image-color sequence (512×768×4) is divided into 32×32×4 or smaller cubes, which are classified as to horizontal, vertical, and temporal activity. Once the final form of the cube has been determined, a 3-D discrete cosine transform

L. Thede; S. Kwatra

1989-01-01

321

Report number codes  

SciTech Connect

This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

1985-05-01

322

Rateless Coding for Gaussian Channels  

E-print Network

A rateless code-i.e., a rate-compatible family of codes-has the property that codewords of the higher rate codes are prefixes of those of the lower rate ones. A perfect family of such codes is one in which each of the codes ...

Wornell, Gregory W.

323

Title Code Step/Grade Title Code Step/Grade  

E-print Network

Title Code Step/Grade Salary / to Title Code Step/Grade Salary / to Dist% TEMPORARY INTERCAMPUS) Code (ex: BYA, by-agreement: REG, regular pay etc) SD Fund Source to be charged (Index, Fund & Location

Tsien, Roger Y.

324

The Independent Technical Analysis Process  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical analytical support for system-wide fish passage information (BPA Project No. 2006-010-00). The goal of this project was to produce rigorous technical analysis products using independent analysts and anonymous peer reviewers. In the past, regional parties have interacted with a single entity, the Fish Passage Center to access the data, analyses, and coordination related to fish passage. This project provided an independent technical source for non-routine fish passage analyses while allowing routine support functions to be performed by other well-qualified entities.

Duberstein, Corey A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Johnson, Gary E.

2007-04-13

325

Rectosigmoid Junction Coding Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

Coding Guidelines Rectosigmoid Junction C199 Primary Site A tumor is classified as rectosigmoid when differentiation between rectum and sigmoid is not possible. A tumor is classified as rectal if • lower margin lies less than 16 cm from the anal

326

Climate Code Foundation  

E-print Network

to greater understanding, and allows us to more easily reason about the scientific principles underlying the code. a CCF project Our flagship product is ccc-gistemp, a reimplementation in Python of the NASA GISS GISTEMP surface temperature reconstruction...

Barnes, Nick; Jones, David

2011-07-05

327

Network Coding Made Practical  

E-print Network

We propose a new architecture for wireless mesh networks. In addition to forwarding packets, routers mix (i.e., code) packets from different sources to increase the information content of each transmission. We show that ...

Katti, Sachin

2006-02-16

328

No Code: Null Programs  

E-print Network

To continue the productive discussion of uninscribed artworks in Craig Dworkin’s No Medium, this report discusses, in detail, those computer programs that have no code, and are thus empty or null. Several specific examples ...

Montfort, Nick

2014-06-05

329

Natural history and experimental evolution of the genetic code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard genetic code is a set of rules that relates the 20 canonical amino acids in proteins to groups of three bases\\u000a in the mRNA. It evolved from a more primitive form and the attempts to reconstruct its natural history are based on its present-day\\u000a features. Genetic code engineering as a new research field was developed independently in a

Birgit Wiltschi; Nediljko Budisa

2007-01-01

330

Seals Flow Code Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.

1991-01-01

331

Subband coding of images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subband coding has become quite popular for the source encoding of speech. This paper presents a simple yet efficient extension of this concept to the source coding of images. We specify the constraints for a set of two-dimensional quadrature mirror filters (QMF's) for a particular frequency-domain partition, and show that these constraints are satisfied by a separable combination of one-dimensional

JOHN W. WOODS; S. O'Neil

1986-01-01

332

Quantum error control codes  

E-print Network

QUANTUM ERROR CONTROL CODES A Dissertation by SALAH ABDELHAMID AWAD ALY AHMED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major... Subject: Computer Science QUANTUM ERROR CONTROL CODES A Dissertation by SALAH ABDELHAMID AWAD ALY AHMED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY...

Abdelhamid Awad Aly Ahmed, Sala

2008-10-10

333

GYRE: Stellar oscillation code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GYRE is an oscillation code that solves the stellar pulsation equations (both adiabatic and non-adiabatic) using a novel Magnus Multiple Shooting numerical scheme devised to overcome certain weaknesses of the usual relaxation and shooting schemes. The code is accurate (up to 6th order in the number of grid points), robust, and makes efficient use of multiple processor cores and/or nodes.

Townsend, R. H. D.; Teitler, S.

2013-08-01

334

On modular cyclic codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study cyclic codes of arbitrary length N over the ring of integers modulo M. We first reduce this to the study of cyclic codes of length N=pkn (n prime to p) over the ring Zpe for prime divisors p of N. We then use the discrete Fourier transform to obtain an isomorphism ? between Zpe[X]\\/?XN-1? and a direct sum ?i?ISi

Steven T. Dougherty; Young Ho Park

2007-01-01

335

Skeleton Simplicial Evaluation Codes  

E-print Network

For a subspace arrangement over a finite field we study the evaluation code defined on the arrangement's set of points. The length of this code is given by the subspace arrangement's characteristic polynomial. For coordinate subspace arrangements, the dimension is bounded below by the face vector of the corresponding simplicial complex. The minimum distance is determined for coordinate subspace arrangements where the simplicial complex is a skeleton.

Berg, James

2011-01-01

336

10 Questions about Independent Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers know that establishing a robust independent reading program takes more than giving kids a little quiet time after lunch. But how do they set up a program that will maximize their students' gains? Teachers have to know their students' reading levels inside and out, help them find just-right books, and continue to guide them during…

Truby, Dana

2012-01-01

337

Field Independence: Reviewing the Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The construct of ?eld independence (FI) remains one of the most widely cited notions in research on cognitive style and on learning and instruction more generally. However, a great deal of confusion continues to exist around the de?nition of FI, its measurement, and the interpretation of research results, all of which have served to…

Evans, Carol; Richardson, John T. E.; Waring, Michael

2013-01-01

338

Haptic Tracking Permits Bimanual Independence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study shows that in a novel task--bimanual haptic tracking--neurologically normal human adults can move their 2 hands independently for extended periods of time with little or no training. Participants lightly touched buttons whose positions were moved either quasi-randomly in the horizontal plane by 1 or 2 human drivers (Experiment 1), in…

Rosenbaum, David A.; Dawson, Amanda A.; Challis, John H.

2006-01-01

339

Auditor independence: an international perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the role of professional associations, governmental agencies, and international accounting and auditing bodies in promulgating standards to foster auditor independence domestically and abroad. Focuses specifically on the role played by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), the Securities and Exchange Commission and the US Government Accounting Office. Also looks at other professional

Rocco R. Vanasco

1996-01-01

340

InDependent Diabetes Trust.  

PubMed

The InDependent Diabetes Trust is a UK-based charity run by people with diabetes for others living with the condition. It was set up in 1994 as the Insulin Dependent Diabetes Trust (IDDT), a registered charity. It is run entirely by voluntary donations and does not accept funding from pharmaceutical companies. PMID:25315557

Evans, Roger

2014-10-15

341

Boston: Cradle of American Independence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2005 American Association of Community Colleges Annual Convention will be held April 6-9 in Boston. While thoroughly modern, the iconic city's identity is firmly rooted in the past. As the cradle of American independence, Boston's long history is an integral part of the American fabric. Adams, Revere, Hancock are more than historical figures;…

Community College Journal, 2004

2004-01-01

342

Refractoriness Enhances Temporal Coding by Auditory Nerve Fibers  

PubMed Central

A universal property of spiking neurons is refractoriness, a transient decrease in discharge probability immediately following an action potential (spike). The refractory period lasts only one to a few milliseconds, but has the potential to affect temporal coding of acoustic stimuli by auditory neurons, which are capable of submillisecond spike-time precision. Here this possibility was investigated systematically by recording spike times from chicken auditory nerve fibers in vivo while stimulating with repeated pure tones at characteristic frequency. Refractory periods were tightly distributed, with a mean of 1.58 ms. A statistical model was developed to recapitulate each fiber's responses and then used to predict the effect of removing the refractory period on a cell-by-cell basis for two largely independent facets of temporal coding: faithful entrainment of interspike intervals to the stimulus frequency and precise synchronization of spike times to the stimulus phase. The ratio of the refractory period to the stimulus period predicted the impact of refractoriness on entrainment and synchronization. For ratios less than ?0.9, refractoriness enhanced entrainment and this enhancement was often accompanied by an increase in spike-time precision. At higher ratios, little or no change in entrainment or synchronization was observed. Given the tight distribution of refractory periods, the ability of refractoriness to improve temporal coding is restricted to neurons responding to low-frequency stimuli. Enhanced encoding of low frequencies likely affects sound localization and pitch perception in the auditory system, as well as perception in nonauditory sensory modalities, because all spiking neurons exhibit refractoriness. PMID:23637161

Avissar, Michael; Wittig, John H.; Saunders, James C.

2013-01-01

343

Refractoriness enhances temporal coding by auditory nerve fibers.  

PubMed

A universal property of spiking neurons is refractoriness, a transient decrease in discharge probability immediately following an action potential (spike). The refractory period lasts only one to a few milliseconds, but has the potential to affect temporal coding of acoustic stimuli by auditory neurons, which are capable of submillisecond spike-time precision. Here this possibility was investigated systematically by recording spike times from chicken auditory nerve fibers in vivo while stimulating with repeated pure tones at characteristic frequency. Refractory periods were tightly distributed, with a mean of 1.58 ms. A statistical model was developed to recapitulate each fiber's responses and then used to predict the effect of removing the refractory period on a cell-by-cell basis for two largely independent facets of temporal coding: faithful entrainment of interspike intervals to the stimulus frequency and precise synchronization of spike times to the stimulus phase. The ratio of the refractory period to the stimulus period predicted the impact of refractoriness on entrainment and synchronization. For ratios less than ?0.9, refractoriness enhanced entrainment and this enhancement was often accompanied by an increase in spike-time precision. At higher ratios, little or no change in entrainment or synchronization was observed. Given the tight distribution of refractory periods, the ability of refractoriness to improve temporal coding is restricted to neurons responding to low-frequency stimuli. Enhanced encoding of low frequencies likely affects sound localization and pitch perception in the auditory system, as well as perception in nonauditory sensory modalities, because all spiking neurons exhibit refractoriness. PMID:23637161

Avissar, Michael; Wittig, John H; Saunders, James C; Parsons, Thomas D

2013-05-01

344

Progress in cultivation-independent phyllosphere microbiology  

PubMed Central

Most microorganisms of the phyllosphere are nonculturable in commonly used media and culture conditions, as are those in other natural environments. This review queries the reasons for their ‘noncultivability’ and assesses developments in phyllospere microbiology that have been achieved cultivation independently over the last 4?years. Analyses of total microbial communities have revealed a comprehensive microbial diversity. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate plant species, location and season as variables affecting the composition of these communities. In continuation to culture-based enzymatic and metabolic studies with individual isolates, metaproteogenomic approaches reveal a great potential to study the physiology of microbial communities in situ. Culture-independent microbiological technologies as well advances in plant genetics and biochemistry provide methodological preconditions for exploring the interactions between plants and their microbiome in the phyllosphere. Improving and combining cultivation and culture-independent techniques can contribute to a better understanding of the phyllosphere ecology. This is essential, for example, to avoid human–pathogenic bacteria in plant food. PMID:24003903

Muller, Thomas; Ruppel, Silke

2014-01-01

345

29 CFR 785.30 - Independent training.  

... Independent training. Of course, if an employee on his own initiative attends an independent school, college or independent trade school after hours, the time is not hours worked for his employer even if the courses are related to his...

2014-07-01

346

29 CFR 785.30 - Independent training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Independent training. Of course, if an employee on his own initiative attends an independent school, college or independent trade school after hours, the time is not hours worked for his employer even if the courses are related to his...

2010-07-01

347

29 CFR 785.30 - Independent training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Independent training. Of course, if an employee on his own initiative attends an independent school, college or independent trade school after hours, the time is not hours worked for his employer even if the courses are related to his...

2011-07-01

348

29 CFR 785.30 - Independent training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Independent training. Of course, if an employee on his own initiative attends an independent school, college or independent trade school after hours, the time is not hours worked for his employer even if the courses are related to his...

2012-07-01

349

29 CFR 785.30 - Independent training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Independent training. Of course, if an employee on his own initiative attends an independent school, college or independent trade school after hours, the time is not hours worked for his employer even if the courses are related to his...

2013-07-01

350

38 CFR 21.76 - Independent living.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Independent living. 21.76 Section 21.76 Pensions...Rehabilitation Programs § 21.76 Independent living. (a) General. A program of independent living services may be authorized to enable...

2010-07-01

351

FEFF5: An ab initio multiple scattering XAFS code  

SciTech Connect

FEFF5 is an efficient automated code which calculates multiple scattering (MS) curved wave XAFS spectra for molecules and solids. The theoretical ingredients and approximations contained in the code are revised, with the aim of describing the how XAFS spectra are efficiently simulated. The FEFF5 code consists of 4 independent modules: a scattering potential and phase shift module, a path finder module, a scattering amplitude module and an XAFS module. Multiple scattering Debye-Waller factors are built in using a correlated Debye model.

Rehr, J.J.; Zabinsky, S.I.

1992-12-31

352

An analytical and experimental investigation of ball bearing retainer instabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factors contributing to the dynamic instability of ball retainers in precision bearings were investigated. A real-time, rolling-element bearing dynamics simulation was written for rapid evaluation of key bearing design factors. This code permits economic screening of a large number of bearing geometric parameters as a prelude to other more comprehensive dynamic bearing codes. The simulation uses a recently-developed integration package to increase computational speed and accuracy, and also employs a simplified lubricant traction model. Tests with precision angular-contact ball bearings verified important features of this analysis, including friction threshold for instability, retainer motion, and the instability frequency. Retainer instability was found to be highly sensitive to retainer-ball friction and exhibited a constant characteristic frequency, which was independent of speed, external vibration, radial load, and preload.

Boesiger, E. A.; Donley, A. D.; Loewenthal, S.

1992-07-01

353

Prioritized LT Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original Luby Transform (LT) coding scheme is extended to account for data transmissions where some information symbols in a message block are more important than others. Prioritized LT codes provide unequal error protection (UEP) of data on an erasure channel by modifying the original LT encoder. The prioritized algorithm improves high-priority data protection without penalizing low-priority data recovery. Moreover, low-latency decoding is also obtained for high-priority data due to fast encoding. Prioritized LT codes only require a slight change in the original encoding algorithm, and no changes at all at the decoder. Hence, with a small complexity increase in the LT encoder, an improved UEP and low-decoding latency performance for high-priority data can be achieved. LT encoding partitions a data stream into fixed-sized message blocks each with a constant number of information symbols. To generate a code symbol from the information symbols in a message, the Robust-Soliton probability distribution is first applied in order to determine the number of information symbols to be used to compute the code symbol. Then, the specific information symbols are chosen uniform randomly from the message block. Finally, the selected information symbols are XORed to form the code symbol. The Prioritized LT code construction includes an additional restriction that code symbols formed by a relatively small number of XORed information symbols select some of these information symbols from the pool of high-priority data. Once high-priority data are fully covered, encoding continues with the conventional LT approach where code symbols are generated by selecting information symbols from the entire message block including all different priorities. Therefore, if code symbols derived from high-priority data experience an unusual high number of erasures, Prioritized LT codes can still reliably recover both high- and low-priority data. This hybrid approach decides not only "how to encode" but also "what to encode" to achieve UEP. Another advantage of the priority encoding process is that the majority of high-priority data can be decoded sooner since only a small number of code symbols are required to reconstruct high-priority data. This approach increases the likelihood that high-priority data is decoded first over low-priority data. The Prioritized LT code scheme achieves an improvement in high-priority data decoding performance as well as overall information recovery without penalizing the decoding of low-priority data, assuming high-priority data is no more than half of a message block. The cost is in the additional complexity required in the encoder. If extra computation resource is available at the transmitter, image, voice, and video transmission quality in terrestrial and space communications can benefit from accurate use of redundancy in protecting data with varying priorities.

Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.

2011-01-01

354

Coded source neutron imaging  

SciTech Connect

Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

2011-01-01

355

An Eye-Tracking Study of How Color Coding Affects Multimedia Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Color coding has been proposed to promote more effective learning. However, insufficient evidence currently exists to show how color coding leads to better learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the underlying cause of the color coding effect by utilizing eye movement data. Fifty-two participants studied either a color-coded or…

Ozcelik, Erol; Karakus, Turkan; Kursun, Engin; Cagiltay, Kursat

2009-01-01

356

Malicious Code Modeling and Analysis in WiFi-Based MANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing popularity of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) makes them increasingly attractive to malicious code writers, and malicious code targeting MANETs has already begun to appear. In this paper, using the theories of complex networks, we present a propagation model of malicious code in WiFi-based MANETs and investigate the propagating behaviors of the malicious code in such networks by

Chang-guang Wang; Xu Bai; Jian-feng Ma

2008-01-01

357

Automated searching for quantum subsystem codes  

SciTech Connect

Quantum error correction allows for faulty quantum systems to behave in an effectively error-free manner. One important class of techniques for quantum error correction is the class of quantum subsystem codes, which are relevant both to active quantum error-correcting schemes as well as to the design of self-correcting quantum memories. Previous approaches for investigating these codes have focused on applying theoretical analysis to look for interesting codes and to investigate their properties. In this paper we present an alternative approach that uses computational analysis to accomplish the same goals. Specifically, we present an algorithm that computes the optimal quantum subsystem code that can be implemented given an arbitrary set of measurement operators that are tensor products of Pauli operators. We then demonstrate the utility of this algorithm by performing a systematic investigation of the quantum subsystem codes that exist in the setting where the interactions are limited to two-body interactions between neighbors on lattices derived from the convex uniform tilings of the plane.

Crosswhite, Gregory M.; Bacon, Dave [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2011-02-15

358

Automated searching for quantum subsystem codes  

E-print Network

Quantum error correction allows for faulty quantum systems to behave in an effectively error free manner. One important class of techniques for quantum error correction is the class of quantum subsystem codes, which are relevant both to active quantum error correcting schemes as well as to the design of self-correcting quantum memories. Previous approaches for investigating these codes have focused on applying theoretical analysis to look for interesting codes and to investigate their properties. In this paper we present an alternative approach that uses computational analysis to accomplish the same goals. Specifically, we present an algorithm that computes the optimal quantum subsystem code that can be implemented given an arbitrary set of measurement operators that are tensor products of Pauli operators. We then demonstrate the utility of this algorithm by performing a systematic investigation of the quantum subsystem codes that exist in the setting where the interactions are limited to 2-body interactions between neighbors on lattices derived from the convex uniform tilings of the plane.

Gregory M. Crosswhite; Dave Bacon

2010-09-11

359

Non-Residential Energy Code National and Regional Codes  

E-print Network

Non-Residential Energy Code Comparison National and Regional Codes David Baylon Mike Kennedy #12 Energy Codes in the PNW ­ Oregon State Energy Code (OSEC) ­ Washington Non-Residential Energy Code (NREC;LPDs for Key Occupancies 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Retail Schools buildings,school

360

Quantum Secret Authentication Code  

E-print Network

This study proposes a quantum secret authentication code for protecting the integrity of secret quantum states. Since BB84[1] was first proposed, the eavesdropper detection strategy in almost all quantum cryptographic protocols is based on the random sample discussion, in which the probability of eavesdropper detection is depending on the number of check qubits eavesdropped by the eavesdropper. Hence, if the eavesdropper interferes only a few qubits of the transmitted quantum sequence, then the detection probability will be very low. This study attempts to propose a quantum secret authentication code to solve this problem. With the use of quantum secret authentication code, not only is the probability of eavesdropper detection guaranteed to be evenly distributed no matter how many qubits had been eavesdropped, but also can the quantum transmission efficiency be highly enhanced.

Tong-Xuan Wei; Tzonelih Hwang; Chia-Wei Tsai

2011-08-17

361

Rayleigh scatter in kilovoltage x-ray imaging: is the independent atom approximation good enough?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulation is the gold standard method for modelling scattering processes in medical x-ray imaging. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes, however, typically use the independent atom approximation (IAA). This is known to be inaccurate for Rayleigh scattering, for many materials, in the forward direction. This work addresses whether the IAA is sufficient for the typical modelling tasks in medical kilovoltage x-ray imaging. As a means of comparison, we incorporate a more realistic 'interference function' model into a custom-written Monte Carlo code. First, we conduct simulations of scatter from isolated voxels of soft tissue, adipose, cortical bone and spongiosa. Then, we simulate scatter profiles from a cylinder of water and from phantoms of a patient's head, thorax and pelvis, constructed from diagnostic-quality CT data sets. Lastly, we reconstruct CT numbers from simulated sets of projection images and investigate the quantitative effects of the approximation. We show that the IAA can produce errors of several per cent of the total scatter, across a projection image, for typical x-ray beams and patients. The errors in reconstructed CT number, however, for the phantoms simulated, were small (typically < 10 HU). The IAA can therefore be considered sufficient for the modelling of scatter correction in CT imaging. Where accurate quantitative estimates of scatter in individual projection images are required, however, the appropriate interference functions should be included.

Poludniowski, G.; Evans, P. M.; Webb, S.

2009-11-01

362

Code inspection instructional validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option will produce the most effective results.

Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

1992-01-01

363

An experimental investigation of clocking effects on turbine aerodynamics using a modern 3-D one and one-half stage high pressure turbine for code verification and flow model development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research uses a modern 1 and 1/2 stage high-pressure (HP) turbine operating at the proper design corrected speed, pressure ratio, and gas to metal temperature ratio to generate a detailed data set containing aerodynamic, heat-transfer and aero-performance information. The data was generated using the Ohio State University Gas Turbine Laboratory Turbine Test Facility (TTF), which is a short-duration shock tunnel facility. The research program utilizes an uncooled turbine stage for which all three airfoils are heavily instrumented at multiple spans and on the HPV and LPV endwalls and HPB platform and tips. Heat-flux and pressure data are obtained using the traditional shock-tube and blowdown facility operational modes. Detailed examination show that the aerodynamic (pressure) data obtained in the blowdown mode is the same as obtained in the shock-tube mode when the corrected conditions are matched. Various experimental conditions and configurations were performed, including LPV clocking positions, off-design corrected speed conditions, pressure ratio changes, and Reynolds number changes. The main research for this dissertation is concentrated on the LPV clocking experiments, where the LPV was clocked relative to the HPV at several different passage locations and at different Reynolds numbers. Various methods were used to evaluate the effect of clocking on both the aeroperformance (efficiency) and aerodynamics (pressure loading) on the LPV, including time-resolved measurements, time-averaged measurements and stage performance measurements. A general improvement in overall efficiency of approximately 2% is demonstrated and could be observed using a variety of independent methods. Maximum efficiency is obtained when the time-average pressures are highest on the LPV, and the time-resolved data both in the time domain and frequency domain show the least amount of variation. The gain in aeroperformance is obtained by integrating over the entire airfoil as the three-dimensional effects on the LPV surface are significant.

Haldeman, Charles Waldo, IV

2003-10-01

364

Active Distances for Convolutional Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— A family of active distance measures for general convolutional codes is defined. These distances are generalizations of the extended distances introduced by Thommesen and Justesen for unit memory,convolutional codes. It is shown that the error correcting capability of a convolutional code is determined by the active distances. The ensemble of periodically time-varying convolutional codes is defined and lower bounds

Stefan Höst; Rolf Johannesson; Kamil Sh. Zigangirov; Victor V. Zyablov

1999-01-01

365

Ascetic convolutional codes yvind Ytrehus  

E-print Network

convolutional codes were created, all the little convolutional code children were assigned the following task Hamming Distance. Every little (n = 8; k = 6; = 1) convolutional code distributed vectors from all of Fn 2 over their trellis edges. Ah, well, not quite everyone. One little code only selected even- weight

Ytrehus, Ã?yvind

366

Quick response codes and libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to explain the nature of quick response (QR) codes and their possible applications in libraries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Existing uses, applications, and functionality of QR codes are looked at, before turning to the limited existing use of QR codes in libraries. The author then suggests many different ways QR codes could be used in our libraries.

Andrew Walsh

2009-01-01

367

Free2Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a wide variety of computer related tutorials ranging from specific programming languages and operating systems to computer networking and Web development. Submitted by members of the Free2Code community, the tutorials vary in style and can be general introductions to a broad topic or they can focus on a particular aspect of an application. Some popular tutorials that fall into the former category include Number Systems, PHP and MySQL, and an Introduction to Flash MX Design. A code archive is also available to help programmers with common problems.

368

Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor-noise correlation model was developed from engine acoustic test results. This work provided several insights on potential approaches to reducing aircraft engine noise. Code development is described in this report, and those insights are discussed.

Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

369

The Code Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Code Project is an online repository of free tutorials, source code, and articles about a wide variety of programming languages. Sections devoted to C++, HTML, DirectX, and .NET are among the resources available on the site. Discussion forums and message boards are excellent places for developers to get quick answers to their questions from other members of the community (this requires a short registration). Featured articles and industry news keep the site up-to-date. There are some advertisements on the site, but they do not detract from the content.

2007-07-25

370

Coding for Cooperative Communications  

E-print Network

length k sequence X involves mapping the sequence to its corresponding n-bit syndrome. Thus the compression rate is given as RSW = nk and is related to the rate 12 R of the parity-check code as R = k ? nk = 1 ? RSW . The syndrome sequence, which... be recovered error free if the rate R of the code is less than the overall capacity on the two virtual channels, i.e., R ? Ccorr + Cap = I(X; Y ) + 1 ? H(X) = 1 ? H(X|Y ) (2.1) Now substituting R = 1?RSW in (2.1), we obtain the condition for error free...

Uppal, Momin Ayub

2011-10-21

371

Sibling and Independent Compound Chondrules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied compound chondrules in 79 cm2 of ordinary chondrite (OC) thin sections. Compound chondrules consist of a primary that solidified first and one or more secondaries attached to the primary. Sibling compound chondrules have very similar textures and compositions; most, perhaps all, seem to consist of chondrules melted in the same heating event. About 1.4% of all chondrules are the primaries of sibling compound chondrules. A smaller fraction, 1.0%, of all chondrules are the primaries of independent chondrules, the members of which were melted in separate heating events. Independent chondrules show appreciable differences in texture and/or composition. We propose that sibling chondrules originated when numerous chondrules were created from one large, more-or-less homogeneous, precursor assemblage that was flash-melted to produce a large set (perhaps 100-1000) of chondrules; some of these collided while molten, probably within several centimeters of the production site. We envision that small radial velocities were imparted to the members of the set, with small differences in velocity causing collisions among those few in intersecting trajectories. If all chondrules were produced this way, the collision efficiency was 1.4%; if only 10% were produced in this fashion, the efficiency rises to 14%. The original Gooding-Keil model of independent compound chondrule formation calls for random collisions to occur while the secondaries were molten. This appears improbable because the mean period between collisions in the dusty midplane of the nebula is estimated to be hours (or days), orders of magnitude longer than the period during which chondrules could have retained low viscosities following a flash-heating event in a cool (<700 K) nebula. We suggest that most independent compound chondrules formed by the mechanism that accounts for chondrules with relict grains and for chondrules with coarse- grained rims: the primary chondrule was embedded in a porous dust assemblage at the time of the second heating event; it experienced minimal melting because melting efficiency increases with increasing surface/volume ratio. There is a minor tendency for the FeO/(FeO+MgO) ratio in independent secondaries to be higher than in primaries, as expected if this ratio increased with time in the nebular dust. However, Monte Carlo calculations confirm that the compositions of independent secondaries are not randomly distributed, but related to those of primaries. Some exchange probably occurred during the fusion of the two chondrules, but this mechanism seems unable to account for the general similarity of independent primary/secondary compositions. This suggests that, in the environment where, at any one time, chondrules were forming (perhaps the interface between the gaseous nebula and the dusty midplane), the dust composition was more uniform than it was in the central midplane at a later time when agglomeration occurred.

Wasson, J. T.; Krot, A. N.; Rubin, A. E.

1993-07-01

372

Coded Adaptive Linear Precoded Discrete Multitone Over PLC Channel  

E-print Network

Discrete multitone modulation (DMT) systems exploit the capabilities of orthogonal subcarriers to cope efficiently with narrowband interference, high frequency attenuations and multipath fadings with the help of simple equalization filters. Adaptive linear precoded discrete multitone (LP-DMT) system is based on classical DMT, combined with a linear precoding component. In this paper, we investigate the bit and energy allocation algorithm of an adaptive LP-DMT system taking into account the channel coding scheme. A coded adaptive LPDMT system is presented in the power line communication (PLC) context with a loading algorithm which accommodates the channel coding gains in bit and energy calculations. The performance of a concatenated channel coding scheme, consisting of an inner Wei's 4-dimensional 16-states trellis code and an outer Reed-Solomon code, in combination with the proposed algorithm is analyzed. Theoretical coding gains are derived and simulation results are presented for a fixed target bit error ra...

Muhammad, Fahad Syed; Hélard, Jean-François; Crussière, Matthieu

2008-01-01

373

The TESS (Tandem Experiment Simulation Studies) computer code user's manual  

SciTech Connect

TESS (Tandem Experiment Simulation Studies) is a one-dimensional, bounded particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code designed to investigate the confinement and transport of plasma in a magnetic mirror device, including tandem mirror configurations. Mirror plasmas may be modeled in a system which includes an applied magnetic field and/or a self-consistent or applied electrostatic potential. The PIC code TESS is similar to the PIC code DIPSI (Direct Implicit Plasma Surface Interactions) which is designed to study plasma transport to and interaction with a solid surface. The codes TESS and DIPSI are direct descendants of the PIC code ES1 that was created by A. B. Langdon. This document provides the user with a brief description of the methods used in the code and a tutorial on the use of the code. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

Procassini, R.J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Cohen, B.I. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1990-06-01

374

High-Fidelity Coding with Correlated Neurons  

PubMed Central

Positive correlations in the activity of neurons are widely observed in the brain. Previous studies have shown these correlations to be detrimental to the fidelity of population codes, or at best marginally favorable compared to independent codes. Here, we show that positive correlations can enhance coding performance by astronomical factors. Specifically, the probability of discrimination error can be suppressed by many orders of magnitude. Likewise, the number of stimuli encoded—the capacity—can be enhanced more than tenfold. These effects do not necessitate unrealistic correlation values, and can occur for populations with a few tens of neurons. We further show that both effects benefit from heterogeneity commonly seen in population activity. Error suppression and capacity enhancement rest upon a pattern of correlation. Tuning of one or several effective parameters can yield a limit of perfect coding: the corresponding pattern of positive correlation leads to a ‘lock-in’ of response probabilities that eliminates variability in the subspace relevant for stimulus discrimination. We discuss the nature of this pattern and we suggest experimental tests to identify it. PMID:25412463

da Silveira, Rava Azeredo; Berry, Michael J.

2014-01-01

375

Lossless predictive coding of color graphics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General purpose image compression algorithms do not fully exploit the redundancy of color graphical images because the statistics of graphics differ substantially from those of other types of images, such as natural scenes or medical images. This paper reports the results of a study of lossless predictive coding techniques specifically optimized for the compression of computer generated color graphics. In order to determine the most suitable color representation space for coding purposes the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) transform was calculated for a set of test images and its energy compaction ability was compared with those of other color spaces, e.g., the RGB, or the YUV signal spaces. The KL transform completely decorrelates the input color data for a given image and provides a lower bound on the color entropy. Based on the color statistics measured on a corpus of test images a set of optimal spatial predictive coders were designed. These schemes process each component channel independently. The prediction error signal was compressed by both lossless textual substitutional codes and statistical codes to achieve distortionless reproduction. The performance of the developed schemes is compared with that of the lossless function of the JPEG standard.

Yovanof, Gregory S.; Sullivan, James R.

1992-05-01

376

The AMOS (Azimuthal Mode Simulator) code  

SciTech Connect

AMOS is a newly developed computer code that is finding application in the design of accelerator cavities. The program simulates the temporal evolution of electromagnetic fields in rotationally symmetric structures. An explicit Fourier series expansion is assumed in the azimuthal coordinate, which allows different multipole modes to be simulated independently. Nonuniform electrical properties (epsilon, ..mu.., sigma) are permitted, and both impedance and radiation boundary conditions are available. A geometric editor (DRAGON) allows for simple and rapid development/modification of models, and a direct CAD system-DRAGON data link is being used to facilitate the study of existing and developmental linac accelerator cells. A wakefield postprocessor (ANDY) allows the calculation of wake potentials, cavity impedances, etc., from AMOS simulation data. Code verification has consisted of comparisons with exact and approximate analytic results for simple geometries. 6 refs., 3 figs.

DeFord, J.F.; Craig, G.D.; McLeod, R.

1989-03-10

377

What's coming in 2012 codes  

E-print Network

The 2012 IECC America?s Model Building Energy Code November 9, 2011 Presentation to Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference Dallas, TX Eric Lacey Responsible Energy Codes Alliance Responsible Energy Codes Alliance ? A broad... ? Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance ? Southwest Energy Efficiency Project Why Building Energy Codes Matter Why Building Energy Codes Matter ? Share of Energy Consumed by Major Sectors of the Economy (2010) Source: U.S. Energy Information...

Lacey, E

2011-01-01

378

CodeCity: 3D visualization of large-scale software  

Microsoft Academic Search

CodeCity is a language-independent interactive 3D visualization tool for the analysis of large software systems. Based on a city metaphor, it depicts classes as buildings and packages as districts of a \\

Richard Wettel; Michele Lanza

2008-01-01

379

Speculations on a Definition of Independent Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conceptual view of independent study that is developed in this paper is based on discussions of four key ideas: (1) independent study is concerned with both learning and teaching; (2) independent study is concerned with the capacity of learners to be self-directing; (3) independent study systems are both internal and external to educational…

Moore, Michael G.

380

Extremal problems for independent sets David Galvin  

E-print Network

Extremal problems for independent sets David Galvin University of Notre Dame April 12, 2013 David Galvin (Notre Dame) Independent sets April 12, 2013 1 / 14 #12;An extremal question for independent sets? What about the maximum of it(G) for each t? David Galvin (Notre Dame) Independent sets April 12, 2013 2

Galvin, David

381

Bladder Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Bladder C670–C679 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12

382

Liver Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Ducts C220–C221 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic

383

Lung Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Lung C340–C349 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 19 Local tumor destruction or excision, NOS Unknown whether a specimen was

384

Lymph Nodes Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Lymph Nodes C770–C779 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 19 Local tumor destruction or excision, NOS Unknown whether a specimen

385

Breast Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Brea st C500–C509 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 19 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen was sent to pathology for

386

Thyroid Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Thyroid Gland C739 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 13 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen sent to pathology from surgical

387

Spleen Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Spleen C42.2 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 19 Local tumor destruction, NOS Unknown whether a specimen was sent to pathology

388

George Washington's Secret Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners decipher codes used by George Washington to safeguard messages during the American Revolution. Learners use a key to decode an excerpt from "Rules of Civility & Decent Behaviour in Company and Conversation," which Washington copied as a writing exercise when he was a teenager and historians believed influenced the development of his character.

Service, National P.

2011-08-20

389

Parotid Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Parotid and Other Unspecified Glands Parotid Gland C079, Major Salivary Glands C080–C089 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY

390

Rectum Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Rectum C209 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item #1294)

391

Larynx Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Larynx C320–C329 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12 Electrocautery;

392

Stomach Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Stomach C160–C169 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12 Electrocautery;

393

Colon Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Colon C180–C189 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item

394

Esophagus Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Esophagus C150–C159 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12

395

Colon Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

C olon C180–C189 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item

396

Pharynx Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Pharynx Tonsil C090–C099, Oropharynx C100–C109, Nasopharynx C110–C119 Pyriform Sinus C129, Hypopharynx C130–C139, Pharynx C140 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery

397

Kidney Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Kidney, Renal Pelvis, and Ureter Kidney C649, Renal Pelvis C659, Ureter C669 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor

398

Testis Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Testi s C620–C629 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 12 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen sent to pathology from surgical

399

Hematopoietic Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Hematopoietic/Reticuloendothelial/ Immunoproliferative/Myeloproliferative Disease C420, C421, C423, C424 (with any histology) or M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) (with any site) Codes 98 All

400

Coded IR proximity detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coded IR proximity detector is able to generate an electrical signal when the distance between the detector and a certain object becomes shorter than a preset value. The detector may be used as an automotive indicator and control. The detector consists of four parts: a controller, a transmitter, a receiver and the optical system, used both for transmission and

Tudor Zisu; Sorin Miclos

2001-01-01

401

Code Aware Resource Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multithreaded programs coordinate their interaction through synchronization primitives like mutexes and semaphores, which are managed by an OS-provided resource manager. We propose algorithms for the auto- matic construction of code-aware resource managers for multithreaded embedded applications. Such managers use knowledge about the structure and resource usage (mutex and semaphore usage) of the threads to guarantee deadlock freedom and progress while

Luca de Alfaro; Vishwanath Raman; Marco Faella; Rupak Majumdar

2005-01-01

402

Dress Codes and Uniforms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

2002-01-01

403

Esophagus Coding Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

Coding Guidelines ESOPHAGUS C150-C155, C158-C159 Primary Site There are two systems that divide the esophagus into three subsites. The first system divides the esophagus into the upper third, middle third, and lower third. The second system describes

404

Odor Coding Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Odor is a one of important sensing parameters for human life. However, odor has not been quantified by a measuring instrument because of its vagueness. In this paper, a measuring of odor with odor coding, which are vector quantities of plural odor molecular information, and its applications are described.

Hayashi, Kenshi

405

CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is an annually revised codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The CFR is divided into 50 titles which represent broad areas subje...

406

Code Games for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game for children promotes pattern recognition by identifying the missing numbers in a pattern displayed on a safe lock. Players drag number tiles into the gaps and if successful unlock the safe and move onto a different challenge. There are two practice rounds and then ten codes to crack.

2013-01-01

407

The Code Delusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

No, I’m not cashing in on that titular domino effect that exploits best sellers. The temptations are great, given the rich rewards from a gullible readership, but offset, in the minds of decent writers, by the shame of literary hitchhiking. Thus, guides to the Louvre become The Da Vinci Code Walkthrough for Dummies, milching, as it were, several hot cows

Stan Kelly-bootle

2007-01-01

408

Wyner-Ziv coding based on TCQ and LDPC codes and extensions to multiterminal source coding  

E-print Network

Driven by a host of emerging applications (e.g., sensor networks and wireless video), distributed source coding (i.e., Slepian-Wolf coding, Wyner-Ziv coding and various other forms of multiterminal source coding), has recently become a very active...

Yang, Yang

2005-11-01

409

Mass-independent isotope effects.  

PubMed

Three fundamental properties of atomic nuclei-mass, spin (and related magnetic moment), and volume-are the source of isotope effects. The mostly deserved and popular, with almost hundred-year history, is the mass-dependent isotope effect. The first mass-independent isotope effect which chemically discriminates isotopes by their nuclear spins and nuclear magnetic moments rather than by their masses was detected in 1976. It was named as the magnetic isotope effect because it is controlled by magnetic interaction, i.e., electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling in the paramagnetic species, the reaction intermediates. The effect follows from the universal physical property of chemical reactions to conserve angular momentum (spin) of electrons and nuclei. It is now detected for oxygen, silicon, sulfur, germanium, tin, mercury, magnesium, calcium, zinc, and uranium in a great variety of chemical and biochemical reactions including those of medical and ecological importance. Another mass-independent isotope effect was detected in 1983 as a deviation of isotopic distribution in reaction products from that which would be expected from the mass-dependent isotope effect. On the physical basis, it is in fact a mass-dependent effect, but it surprisingly results in isotope fractionation which is incompatible with that predicted by traditional mass-dependent effects. It is supposed to be a function of dynamic parameters of reaction and energy relaxation in excited states of products. The third, nuclear volume mass-independent isotope effect is detected in the high-resolution atomic and molecular spectra and in the extraction processes, but there are no unambiguous indications of its importance as an isotope fractionation factor in chemical reactions. PMID:23301791

Buchachenko, Anatoly L

2013-02-28

410

Picture independent quantum action principle  

SciTech Connect

The Schwinger action principle for quantum mechanics is extended into a picture independent form. This displays the quantum connection. Time variations are formulated as variations of a time variable and included into the kinematical variations. Kets and bras represent experimental operations. Experimental operations at different times cannot be identified. The ket and the bra spaces are fiber bundles over time. The same applies to the classical configuration space. For the classical action principle the action can be varied by changing the path or the classical variables. The latter variation of classical functions corresponds to kinematical variations of quantum variables. The picture independent formulation represents time evolution by a connection. A standard experiment is represented by a ket, a connection and a bra. For particular start and end times of experiments, the action and the contraction into a transition amplitude are elements of a new tensor space of quantum correspondents of path functionals. The classical correspondent of the transition amplitude is the probability for a specified state to evolve along a particular path segment. The elements of the dual tensor space represent standard experiments or superpositions thereof. The kinematical variations of the quantum variables are commuting numbers. Variations that include the effect of Poincare or gauge transformations have different commutator properties. The Schwinger action principle is derived from the Feynman path integral formulation. The limitations from the time-energy uncertainty relation might be accommodated by superposing experiments that differ in their start- and end-times. In its picture independent form the action principle can be applied to all superpositions of standard experiments. This may involve superpositions of different connections. The extension of the superposition principle to connections allows representation of a quantum field by a part of the connection.

Mantke, W.J.

1992-01-01

411

Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced

C. Bischof; G. Corliss; A. Griewank; L. Green; K. Haigler; P. Newman

1992-01-01

412

The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.  

SciTech Connect

A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

Biedron, S. G.

1999-04-20

413

Multidimensional free-electron laser simulation codes: a comparison study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

S. G. Biedron; Y. C. Chae; R. J. Dejus; B. Faatz; H. P. Freund; S. V. Milton; H.-D. Nuhn; S. Reiche

2000-01-01

414

Multidimensional free-electron laser simulation codes : a comparison study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

S. G. Biedron; Y. C. Chae; R. J. Dejus; B. Faatz; H. P. Freund; S. V. Milton; H.-D. Nuhn; S. Reiche

1999-01-01

415

The APS SASE FEL: modeling and code comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL

S. G. Biedrou; Y.-C. Chae; R. J. Dejus; B. Faatz; H. P. Freund; S. Milton; H.-D. Nuhn; S. Reiche

1999-01-01

416

Independent Component Analysis of Textures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A common method for texture representation is to use the marginal probability densities over the outputs of a set of multi-orientation, multi-scale filters as a description of the texture. We propose a technique, based on Independent Components Analysis, for choosing the set of filters that yield the most informative marginals, meaning that the product over the marginals most closely approximates the joint probability density function of the filter outputs. The algorithm is implemented using a steerable filter space. Experiments involving both texture classification and synthesis show that compared to Principal Components Analysis, ICA provides superior performance for modeling of natural and synthetic textures.

Manduchi, Roberto; Portilla, Javier

2000-01-01

417

Deep Learning using Robust Interdependent Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a simple yet eective method to introduce inhibitory and excitatory in- teractions between units in the layers of a deep neural network classifier. The method is based on the greedy layer-wise procedure of deep learning algorithms and extends the denoising autoencoder (Vincent et al., 2008) by adding asymmetric lateral connections be- tween its hidden coding units, in ...

Hugo Larochelle; Dumitru Erhan; Pascal Vincent

2009-01-01

418

Performance improvement of spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access systems using NAND detection with enhanced double weight code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bit-error rate (BER) performance of the spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SACOCDMA) system has been investigated by using NAND subtraction detection technique with enhanced double weight (EDW) code. The EDW code is the enhanced version of double weight (DW) code family where the code weight is any odd number and greater than one with ideal cross-correlation. In order to evaluate the performance of the system, we used mathematical analysis extensively along with the simulation experiment. The evaluation results obtained using the NAND subtraction detection technique was compared with those obtained using the complementary detection technique for the same number of active users. The comparison results revealed that the BER performance of the system using NAND subtraction detection technique has greatly been improved as compared to the complementary technique.

Ahmed, Nasim; Aljunid, Syed Alwee; Ahmad, R. Badlishah; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Rashid, Mohd Abdur

2012-01-01

419

Block coset codes for Mary phase shift keying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction of efficient block-encoded M-ary phase-shift-keying (M-PSK) schemes is investigated. An algebraic approach is adopted in which the basic modulation signals are associated with the elements of a finite group. Using some of the properties of group partition chains, the algebraic properties of the linear codes are studied. From this analysis, a class of codes called blocked coset codes is

FRANK R. KSCHISCHANG; PETER G. DE BUDA; SUBBARAYAN PASUPATHY

1989-01-01

420

On decoding of multi-level MPSK modulation codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decoding problem of multi-level block modulation codes is investigated. The hardware design of soft-decision Viterbi decoder for some short length 8-PSK block modulation codes is presented. An effective way to reduce the hardware complexity of the decoder by reducing the branch metric and path metric, using a non-uniform floating-point to integer mapping scheme, is proposed and discussed. The simulation results of the design are presented. The multi-stage decoding (MSD) of multi-level modulation codes is also investigated. The cases of soft-decision and hard-decision MSD are considered and their performance are evaluated for several codes of different lengths and different minimum squared Euclidean distances. It is shown that the soft-decision MSD reduces the decoding complexity drastically and it is suboptimum. The hard-decision MSD further simplifies the decoding while still maintaining a reasonable coding gain over the uncoded system, if the component codes are chosen properly. Finally, some basic 3-level 8-PSK modulation codes using BCH codes as component codes are constructed and their coding gains are found for hard decision multistage decoding.

Lin, Shu; Gupta, Alok Kumar

1990-01-01

421

]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

2000-01-01

422

Distributed Joint Source-Channel Coding in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Considering the fact that sensors are energy-limited and the wireless channel conditions in wireless sensor networks, there is an urgent need for a low-complexity coding method with high compression ratio and noise-resisted features. This paper reviews the progress made in distributed joint source-channel coding which can address this issue. The main existing deployments, from the theory to practice, of distributed joint source-channel coding over the independent channels, the multiple access channels and the broadcast channels are introduced, respectively. To this end, we also present a practical scheme for compressing multiple correlated sources over the independent channels. The simulation results demonstrate the desired efficiency. PMID:22408560

Zhu, Xuqi; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Lin

2009-01-01

423

A Comparative Study on Seismic Analysis of Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) with Other Building Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic framework of Bangladesh and adjoining areas indicate that Bangladesh lies well within an active seismic zone. The after effect of earthquake is more severe in an underdeveloped and a densely populated country like ours than any other developed countries. Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) was first established in 1993 to provide guidelines for design and construction of new structure subject to earthquake ground motions in order to minimize the risk to life for all structures. A revision of BNBC 1993 is undergoing to make this up to date with other international building codes. This paper aims at the comparison of various provisions of seismic analysis as given in building codes of different countries. This comparison will give an idea regarding where our country stands when it comes to safety against earth quake. Primarily, various seismic parameters in BNBC 2010 (draft) have been studied and compared with that of BNBC 1993. Later, both 1993 and 2010 edition of BNBC codes have been compared graphically with building codes of other countries such as National Building Code of India 2005 (NBC-India 2005), American Society of Civil Engineering 7-05 (ASCE 7-05). The base shear/weight ratios have been plotted against the height of the building. The investigation in this paper reveals that BNBC 1993 has the least base shear among all the codes. Factored Base shear values of BNBC 2010 are found to have increased significantly than that of BNBC 1993 for low rise buildings (?20 m) around the country than its predecessor. Despite revision of the code, BNBC 2010 (draft) still suggests less base shear values when compared to the Indian and American code. Therefore, this increase in factor of safety against the earthquake imposed by the proposed BNBC 2010 code by suggesting higher values of base shear is appreciable.

Bari, Md. S.; Das, T.

2013-09-01

424

Simulations with the COREDIV code of DEMO discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction in divertor target power load due to radiation of sputtered and externally seeded impurities in tokamak fusion reactors is investigated. The approach is based on integrated numerical modelling of DEMO discharges using the COREDIV code, which self-consistently solves 1D radial transport equations of plasma and impurities in the core region and 2D multifluid transport in the SOL. Calculations are performed for inductive DEMO scenarios and for DEMO steady-state configurations with tungsten walls and Ar or Ne seeding. For all considered DEMO scenarios significant fusion power can be achieved. Increase in seeded impurity influx leads to the reduction in fusion power and Q-factor (defined as the ratio of fusion power to auxiliary heating power) due to plasma dilution. Total radiation appears to be almost independent of the puffing level and is dominated by core radiation (>90%). The radiation due to seeding impurity is small and the type of seeded impurity weakly affects the results. For pulsed DEMO concepts, the accessible seeding level is limited. There is no steady-state solution for stronger puffing. The solution terminates due to helium accumulation, and if confirmed by more detailed investigations, might strongly affect DEMO design.

Zagórski, R.; Ivanova-Stanik, R. I.; Stankiewicz, R.

2013-07-01

425

The effects of intervention strategies on bullying in the independent middle school  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was: (a) to investigate the extent of student-to-student bullying as perceived by students in an independent middle school setting; (b) to analyze bullying among an independent middle school population; and (c) to determine if intervention strategies had an effect on bullying in an independent middle school population. This research was important because much of the

Andy Graham

2002-01-01

426

RAVE—a Detector-independent vertex reconstruction toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detector-independent toolkit for vertex reconstruction (RAVE ) is being developed, along with a standalone framework (VERTIGO ) for testing, analyzing and debugging. The core algorithms represent state of the art for geometric vertex finding and fitting by both linear (Kalman filter) and robust estimation methods. Main design goals are ease of use, flexibility for embedding into existing software frameworks, extensibility, and openness. The implementation is based on modern object-oriented techniques, is coded in C++ with interfaces for Java and Python, and follows an open-source approach. A beta release is available. VERTIGO = "vertex reconstruction toolkit and interface to generic objects".

Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Mitaroff, Winfried; Moser, Fabian

2007-10-01

427

Ethics in independent nurse consulting: strategies for avoiding ethical quicksand.  

PubMed

Changes in health care have created a variety of new roles and opportunities for nurses in advanced practice. One of these changes is the increasing number of advanced practice nurses carrying out independent consultation. Differences in goals between business and health care may create ethical dilemmas for nurse consultants. The purpose of this article is to describe possible ethical pitfalls that nurse consultants may encounter and strategies to prevent or solve these dilemmas. Three themes related to nursing codes of ethics will be discussed: the duty to uphold human rights, the duty to fulfill commitments, and the duty to practice the profession competently. PMID:21097975

Creel, Eileen L; Robinson, Jennifer C

2010-11-01

428

A novel electron gun with an independently addressable cathode array.  

SciTech Connect

The design of a novel electron gun with an array of independently addressable cathode elements is presented. Issues relating to operation in a 6.5 Tesla axial magnetic field are discussed. Simulations with the TriComp [1] electromagnetic field code that were used to determine the space charge limited tube characteristic and to model focusing of the electron beam in the magnetic field are reviewed. Foil heating and stress calculations are discussed. The results of CYLTRAN [2] simulations yielding the energy spectrum of the electron beam and the current transmitted through the foil window are presented.

Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Peña, Gary Edward; Schneider, Larry X.

2006-08-01

429

Detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes, quantum error designs, and quantum computation  

SciTech Connect

The recently introduced detected-jump-correcting quantum codes are capable of stabilizing qubit systems against spontaneous decay processes arising from couplings to statistically independent reservoirs. These embedded quantum codes exploit classical information about which qubit has emitted spontaneously and correspond to an active error-correcting code embedded in a passive error-correcting code. The construction of a family of one-detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes is shown and the optimal redundancy, encoding, and recovery as well as general properties of detected-jump-error-correcting quantum codes are discussed. By the use of design theory, multiple-jump-error-correcting quantum codes can be constructed. The performance of one-jump-error-correcting quantum codes under nonideal conditions is studied numerically by simulating a quantum memory and Grover's algorithm.

Alber, G.; Mussinger, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt, (Germany); Beth, Th. [Institut fuer Algorithmen und Kognitive Systeme, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76128, (Germany); Charnes, Ch. [Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, (Australia); Delgado, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA (United States); Grassl, M. [Institut fuer Algorithmen und Kognitive Systeme, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76128, (Germany); The Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, 1000 Centennial Drive, Berkeley, California 94720-5070, USA (United States)

2003-07-01

430

Determination of Problematic ICD-9-CM Subcategories for Further Study of Coding Performance: Delphi Method  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report on a qualitative method known as the Delphi method, used in the first part of a research study for improving the accuracy and reliability of ICD-9-CM coding. A panel of independent coding experts interacted methodically to determine that the three criteria to identify a problematic ICD-9-CM subcategory for further study were cost, volume, and level of coding confusion caused. The Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) 2007 fiscal year data set as well as suggestions from the experts were used to identify coding subcategories based on cost and volume data. Next, the panelists performed two rounds of independent ranking before identifying Excisional Debridement as the subcategory that causes the most confusion among coders. As a result, they recommended it for further study aimed at improving coding accuracy and variation. This framework can be adopted at different levels for similar studies in need of a schema for determining problematic subcategories of code sets. PMID:21796264

Zeng, Xiaoming; Bell, Paul D

2011-01-01

431

Development of the Code RITRACKS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document discusses the code RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks), which was developed to simulate heavy ion track structure at the microscopic and nanoscopic scales. It is a Monte-Carlo code that simulates the production of radiolytic species in water, event-by-event, and which may be used to simulate tracks and also to calculate dose in targets and voxels of different sizes. The dose deposited by the radiation can be calculated in nanovolumes (voxels). RITRACKS allows simulation of radiation tracks without the need of extensive knowledge of computer programming or Monte-Carlo simulations. It is installed as a regular application on Windows systems. The main input parameters entered by the user are the type and energy of the ion, the length and size of the irradiated volume, the number of ions impacting the volume, and the number of histories. The simulation can be started after the input parameters are entered in the GUI. The number of each kind of interactions for each track is shown in the result details window. The tracks can be visualized in 3D after the simulation is complete. It is also possible to see the time evolution of the tracks and zoom on specific parts of the tracks. The software RITRACKS can be very useful for radiation scientists to investigate various problems in the fields of radiation physics, radiation chemistry, and radiation biology. For example, it can be used to simulate electron ejection experiments (radiation physics).

Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2013-01-01

432

Neural Coding for Effective Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Successful neurological rehabilitation depends on accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and quantitative evaluation. Neural coding, a technology for interpretation of functional and structural information of the nervous system, has contributed to the advancements in neuroimaging, brain-machine interface (BMI), and design of training devices for rehabilitation purposes. In this review, we summarized the latest breakthroughs in neuroimaging from microscale to macroscale levels with potential diagnostic applications for rehabilitation. We also reviewed the achievements in electrocorticography (ECoG) coding with both animal models and human beings for BMI design, electromyography (EMG) interpretation for interaction with external robotic systems, and robot-assisted quantitative evaluation on the progress of rehabilitation programs. Future rehabilitation would be more home-based, automatic, and self-served by patients. Further investigations and breakthroughs are mainly needed in aspects of improving the computational efficiency in neuroimaging and multichannel ECoG by selection of localized neuroinformatics, validation of the effectiveness in BMI guided rehabilitation programs, and simplification of the system operation in training devices.

2014-01-01

433

On code parameters and coding vector representation for practical RLNC  

E-print Network

Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) provides a theoretically efficient method for coding. The drawbacks associated with it are the complexity of the decoding and the overhead resulting from the encoding vector. Increasing ...

Heide, Janus

434

Multi-h phase-coded modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of some recent results for multi-h phase-coded modulation (MHPM) schemes is provided. These schemes offer power and bandwidth efficiency where time-varying modulation indices are used. Following a brief description of the structure of MHPM, its fundamental properties (e.g., minimum Euclidean distance and power spectra) are described. Decoding and demodulation of MHPM also are discussed, and some results on synchronization are summarized. MHPM combined with convolutional codes, asymmetric modulation indices, or nonuniform mapping are investigated.

Sasase, Iwao; Mori, Shinsaku

1991-12-01

435

Reading a neural code.  

PubMed

Traditional approaches to neural coding characterize the encoding of known stimuli in average neural responses. Organisms face nearly the opposite task--extracting information about an unknown time-dependent stimulus from short segments of a spike train. Here the neural code was characterized from the point of view of the organism, culminating in algorithms for real-time stimulus estimation based on a single example of the spike train. These methods were applied to an identified movement-sensitive neuron in the fly visual system. Such decoding experiments determined the effective noise level and fault tolerance of neural computation, and the structure of the decoding algorithms suggested a simple model for real-time analog signal processing with spiking neurons. PMID:2063199

Bialek, W; Rieke, F; de Ruyter van Steveninck, R R; Warland, D

1991-06-28

436

The NIMROD Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NIMROD is a new code system that is being developed for the analysis of modern fusion experiments. It is being designed from the beginning to make the maximum use of massively parallel computer architectures and computer graphics. The NIMROD physics kernel solves the three-dimensional, time-dependent two-fluid equations with neo-classical effects in toroidal geometry of arbitrary poloidal cross section. The NIMROD system also includes a pre-processor, a grid generator, and a post processor. User interaction with NIMROD is facilitated by a modern graphical user interface (GUI). The NIMROD project is using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) team management techniques to minimize re-engineering and reduce code development time. This paper gives an overview of the NIMROD project. Operation of the GUI is demonstrated, and the first results from the physics kernel are given.

Schnack, D. D.; Glasser, A. H.

1996-11-01

437

Trellis coded vector quantization for the intraframe coding of images  

E-print Network

TRELLIS CODED VECTOR QUANTI'/ATION FOR THE INTRAFRAME CODING OF IMAGES A Thesis TODD HENRY CHAUVIN Submitted to the OITice of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering TRELLIS CODED VECTOR QUANTIZATION FOR THE INTRAFRAME CODING OF IMAGES A Thesis by TODD Id. CHAUVIN Approved as to style and content by: T. R. Fischer (Chair of Committee) P. E. Cantrell...

Chauvin, Todd Henry

2012-06-07

438

Independent Lens Online Shorts Festival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its creation a few years ago, the Independent Lens series has worked with various filmmakers and producers to create thoughtful portraits. These portraits have included subjects such as the life of Billy Strayhorn, people living with dystonia, and the world of Ethiopian coffee growers. Recently, they also embarked on yet another ambitious project: an online shorts festival. Visitors to this site can partake of all ten of these films at their leisure. Included are a film that explores a Parisian secret from 1951, a meditation of growing old, and an artist who created a monument out of mud, old paint, and adobe. After viewing the films, visitors are also welcome to leave their comments in the "Talkback" section, submit a film or find out more about the members of the jury for this online film festival.

439

Independent Lens: A Lion's Trail  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The road to creating a popular song can take decades and often includes a number of incarnations before the listening public finally becomes interested. Such is the complex and at times painful story of the song "Mbube" (which is perhaps best known in the United States by the version titled "The Lion Sleeps Tonight"), which was first recorded by Solomon Linda and the Evening Birds in 1939 in South Africa. This compelling website, designed to complement an Independent Lens/PBS documentary, provides substantive background into the stories of the people associated with this song, and its rather nuanced history during the past seven decades. On the site, visitors can learn about the filmmakers, the song itself, and also provide their own feedback on the controversy surrounding the song and the documentary itself.

440

Color-coded Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paleogeographic reconstructions for time periods within 620 million years to present are featured on this site. These global paleogeographic maps are viewed by scrolling down the page and are arranged in order of increasing age beginning with the present. Landmasses are color-coded to illustrate the movement of plates through time. The site also discusses how the maps are constructed and what lines of evidence are most commonly used, and includes several links to additional information.

Scotese, C.; Survey, United S.

441

Reeds computer code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

Bjork, C.

1981-01-01

442

Status of MARS Code  

SciTech Connect

Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

N.V. Mokhov

2003-04-09

443

VAC: Versatile Advection Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Versatile Advection Code (VAC) is a freely available general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulation software that works in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions on Cartesian and logically Cartesian grids. VAC runs on any Unix/Linux system with a Fortran 90 (or 77) compiler and Perl interpreter. VAC can run on parallel machines using either the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library or a High Performance Fortran (HPF) compiler.

Tóth, Gábor; Keppens, Rony

2012-07-01

444

Optimizing Interleaver for Turbo Codes by Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the appearance in 1993, first approaching the Shannon limit, the Turbo Codes give a new direction for the channel encoding field, especially since they were adopted for multiple norms of telecommunications, such as deeper communication. To obtain an excellent performance it is necessary to design robust turbo code interleaver. We are investigating genetic algorithms as a promising optimization method

P. Kromer; V. Snasel; J. Platos; P. N. Ouddane

2007-01-01

445

CODE OF PRACTICE ON PUBLIC INTEREST DISCLOSURE (WHISTLE-1 Introduction  

E-print Network

with mutual trust and confidence and it is reasonable to expect employees to use this Code of Practice in a police investigation if prima facie evidence of an offence is revealed. However, nothing within this Code of Practice removes the right of any individual to report a suspected crime to the police, nor is anything

Martin, Ralph R.

446

Automatic Coding of Dialogue Acts in Collaboration Protocols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although protocol analysis can be an important tool for researchers to investigate the process of collaboration and communication, the use of this method of analysis can be time consuming. Hence, an automatic coding procedure for coding dialogue acts was developed. This procedure helps to determine the communicative function of messages in online…

Erkens, Gijsbert; Janssen, Jeroen

2008-01-01

447

Preliminary Results from the Application of Automated Adjoint Code Generation to CFL3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes preliminary results obtained using an automated adjoint code generator for Fortran to augment a widely-used computational fluid dynamics flow solver to compute derivatives. These preliminary results with this augmented code suggest that, even in its infancy, the automated adjoint code generator can accurately and efficiently deliver derivatives for use in transonic Euler-based aerodynamic shape optimization problems with hundreds to thousands of independent design variables.

Carle, Alan; Fagan, Mike; Green, Lawrence L.

1998-01-01

448

Bar coded retroreflective target  

DOEpatents

This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

Vann, Charles S. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01

449

Orthopedics coding and funding.  

PubMed

The French tarification à l'activité (T2A) prospective payment system is a financial system in which a health-care institution's resources are based on performed activity. Activity is described via the PMSI medical information system (programme de médicalisation du système d'information). The PMSI classifies hospital cases by clinical and economic categories known as diagnosis-related groups (DRG), each with an associated price tag. Coding a hospital case involves giving as realistic a description as possible so as to categorize it in the right DRG and thus ensure appropriate payment. For this, it is essential to understand what determines the pricing of inpatient stay: namely, the code for the surgical procedure, the patient's principal diagnosis (reason for admission), codes for comorbidities (everything that adds to management burden), and the management of the length of inpatient stay. The PMSI is used to analyze the institution's activity and dynamism: change on previous year, relation to target, and comparison with competing institutions based on indicators such as the mean length of stay performance indicator (MLS PI). The T2A system improves overall care efficiency. Quality of care, however, is not presently taken account of in the payment made to the institution, as there are no indicators for this; work needs to be done on this topic. PMID:24461230

Baron, S; Duclos, C; Thoreux, P

2014-02-01

450

Independence Sequences of Well-Covered Graphs: Non-Unimodality and the Roller-Coaster Conjecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A graph G is well-covered provided each maximal independent set of vertices has the same cardinality. The term s k of the independence sequence ( s 0, s 1,…, s a) equals the number of independent k-sets of vertices of G. We investigate constraints on the linear orderings of the terms of the independence sequence of well-covered graphs. In particular,

T. S. Michael; William N. Traves

2003-01-01

451

Space time coded code division multiplexing on SC140 DSP  

E-print Network

is implemented on StarCore's SC140 fixed-point DSP core. The very large instruction word architecture of the SC140 is utilized to efficiently implement space-time coded code-division multiplexing system. The goal is to evaluate the suitability of space-time coded...

Menon, Murali P

2012-06-07

452

Near optimum error correcting coding and decoding: turbo-codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new family of convolutional codes, nicknamed turbo-codes, built from a particular concatenation of two recursive systematic codes, linked together by nonuniform interleaving. Decoding calls on iterative processing in which each component decoder takes advantage of the work of the other at the previous step, with the aid of the original concept of extrinsic information. For sufficiently

Claude Berrou; Alain Glavieux

1996-01-01

453

New optimal asymmetric quantum codes from constacyclic codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we construct two classes of asymmetric quantum codes by using constacyclic codes. The first class is the asymmetric quantum codes with parameters [[q2 + 1, q2 + 1 - 2(t + k + 1), (2k + 2)/(2t + 2)

Zhang, Guanghui; Chen, Bocong; Li, Liangchen

2014-06-01

454

Linear block codes for block fading channels based on Hadamard matrices  

E-print Network

We investigate the creation of linear block codes using Hadamard matrices for block fading channels. The aforementioned codes are very easy to find and have bounded cross correlation spectrum. The optimality is with respect to the metric...

Spyrou, Spyros

2006-04-12

455

TRAC-PF1 independent assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the Los Alamos results of the second assessment phase, independent assessment for TRAC-PF1. We documented the results of the developmental assessment for TRAC-PF1 in an earlier report. This report described calculations run with the released versions of TRAC-PF1. We analyzed separate-effects tests in the Semiscale facility to investigate natural-circulation and reflux cooling. We analyzed integral tests from the Semiscale and the Loss-of-Fluid Test facilities to explore the small- and intermediate-break loss-of-coolnt-accident (LOCA) capability and the non-LOCA capability. We also analyzed the loss-of-feedwater transient in the Crystal River plant. The results show reasonably good agreement with the data, but indicate that improvements are required for the critical-flow model and the interphasic-condensation model. 38 refs., 224 figs., 19 tabs.

Knight, T.D.; Metzger, V.B. (comps.)

1985-10-01

456

Noiseless coding for the magnetometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future unmanned space missions will continue to seek a full understanding of magnetic fields throughout the solar system. Severely constrained data rates during certain portions of these missions could limit the possible science return. This publication investigates the application of universal noiseless coding techniques to more efficiently represent magnetometer data without any loss in data integrity. Performance results indicated that compression factors of 2:1 to 6:1 can be expected. Feasibility for general deep space application was demonstrated by implementing a microprocessor breadboard coder/decoder using the Intel 8086 processor. The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission will incorporate these techniques in a buffer feedback, rate-controlled configuration. The characteristics of this system are discussed.

Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji

1987-01-01

457

Speeding Up Cosmological Boltzmann Codes  

E-print Network

We introduce a novel strategy for cosmological Boltzmann codes leading to an increase in speed by a factor of \\sim 30 for small scale Fourier modes. We (re-)investigate the tight coupling approximation and obtain analytic formulae reaching up to the octupoles of photon intensity and polarization. This leads to accurate results reaching optimal precision, while still being simple. Damping rapid oscillations of small scale modes at later times, we simplify the integration of cosmological perturbations. We obtain analytic expressions for the photon density contrast and velocity as well as an estimate of the quadrupole from after last scattering until today. These analytic formulae hold well during re-ionization and are in fact negligible for realistic cosmological scenarios. However, they do extend the validity of our approach to models with very large optical depth to the last scattering surface.

Michael Doran

2005-03-11

458

Arithmetic coding for data compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the art in data compression is arithmetic coding, not the better-known Huffman method. Arithmetic coding gives greater compression, is faster for adaptive models, and clearly separates the model from the channel encoding.

Ian H. witten; Radford M. Neal; John Gerald Cleary

1987-01-01

459

MHDEMP Code Simulation of Starfish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnetic field variations on the ground after Starfish are calculated by the MHDEMP code using input parameters produced by the MICE code. The results agree well with the experimental data at Johnston Island. These magnetic field variations extend ove...

C. L. Longmire, R. W. Kilb, S. Chavin, W. F. Crevier

1979-01-01

460

Matlab-Kinect Interface Code  

E-print Network

This .zip file contains code and installation instructions for acquiring 3d arm movements in Matlab using the Microsoft Kinect 3d camera. The provided code has been validated in 32-bit and 64-bit Matlab with 32-bit and ...

Kowalski, Kevin

2012-06-01

461

Code Completion From Abbreviated Input  

E-print Network

Abbreviation Completion is a novel technique to improve the efficiency of code-writing by supporting code completion of multiple keywords based on non-predefined abbreviated input - a different approach from conventional ...

Miller, Robert C.

462

Quantum codes on Hurwitz surfaces  

E-print Network

Ever since the birth of the first quantum error correcting code, many error correcting techniques and formalism has been constructed so far. Among those, generating a quantum code on a locally planar geometry have lead to ...

Kim, Isaac H. (Isaac Hyun)

2007-01-01

463

Open code for open science?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open source software is often seen as a path to reproducibility in computational science. In practice there are many obstacles, even when the code is freely available, but open source policies should at least lead to better quality code.

Easterbrook, Steve M.

2014-11-01

464

Design of proximity detecting codes  

E-print Network

a four-phase asynchronous communication protocol (or other similar protocols). A non-trivial t-proximity detecting code must be unordered. However, not all unordered codes are t-proximity detecting. This thesis analyzes the designs and bounds...

Perisetty, Srinivas

2012-06-07

465

Network coding for anonymous broadcast  

E-print Network

This thesis explores the use of network coding for anonymous broadcast. Network coding, the technique of transmitting or storing mixtures of messages rather than individual messages, can provide anonymity with its mixing ...

Sergeev, Ivan A

2013-01-01

466

Obituary: Arthur Dodd Code (1923-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former AAS president Arthur Dodd Code, age 85, passed away at Meriter Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin on 11 March 2009, from complications involving a long-standing pulmonary condition. Code was born in Brooklyn, New York on 13 August 1923, as the only child of former Canadian businessman Lorne Arthur Code and Jesse (Dodd) Code. An experienced ham radio operator, he entered the University of Chicago in 1940, but then enlisted in the U.S. Navy (1943-45) and was later stationed as an instructor at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. During the war, he gained extensive practical experience with the design and construction of technical equipment that served him well in years ahead. Concurrently, he took physics courses at George Washington University (some under the tutelage of George Gamow). In 1945, he was admitted to the graduate school of the University of Chicago, without having received his formal bachelor's degree. In 1950, he was awarded his Ph.D. for a theoretical study of radiative transfer in O- and B-type stars, directed by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. hired onto the faculty of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1951-56). He then accepted a tenured appointment at the California Institute of Technology and the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (1956-58). But following the launch of Sputnik, Code returned to Wisconsin in 1958 as full professor of astronomy, director of the Washburn Observatory, and department chairman so that he could more readily pursue his interest in space astronomy. That same year, he was chosen a member of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (created during the International Geophysical Year) and shortly became one of five principal investigators of the original NASA Space Science Working Group. In a cogent 1960 essay, Code argued that astrophysical investigations, when conducted from beyond the Earth's atmosphere, "cannot fail to have a tremendous impact on the future course of stellar astronomy," a prediction strongly borne out in the decades that followed. In 1959, Code founded the Space Astronomy Laboratory (SAL) within the UW Department of Astronomy. Early photometric and spectrographic equipment was test-flown aboard NASA's X-15 rocket plane and Aerobee sounding rockets. Along with other SAL personnel, including Theodore E. Houck, Robert C. Bless, and John F. McNall, Code (as principal investigator) was responsible for the design of the Wisconsin Experiment Package (WEP) as one of two suites of instruments to be flown aboard the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO), which represented a milestone in the advent of space astronomy. With its seven reflecting telescopes feeding five filter photometers and two scanning spectrometers, WEP permitted the first extended observations in the UV portion of the spectrum. After the complete failure of the OAO-1 spacecraft (launched in 1966), OAO-2 was successfully launched on 7 December 1968 and gathered data on over a thousand celestial objects during the next 50 months, including stars, nebulae, galaxies, planets, and comets. These results appeared in a series of more than 40 research papers, chiefly in the Ap.J., along with the 1972 monograph, The Scientific Results from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-2), edited by Code. Between the OAO launches, other SAL colleagues of Code developed the Wisconsin Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (or APT), the first computer-controlled (or "robotic") telescope. Driven by a PDP-8 mini-computer, it routinely collected atmospheric extinction data. Code was also chosen principal investigator for the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (or WUPPE). This used a UV-sensitive polarimeter designed by Kenneth Nordsieck that was flown twice aboard the space shuttles in 1990 and 1995. Among other findings, WUPPE observations demonstrated that interstellar dust does not appreciably change the direction of polarization of starlight, thereby supporting its possible composition as graphite. Code was the recipie

Marché, Jordan D., II

2009-12-01

467

Indeterminate-length quantum coding  

E-print Network

The quantum analogues of classical variable-length codes are indeterminate-length quantum codes, in which codewords may exist in superpositions of different lengths. This paper explores some of their properties. The length observable for such codes is governed by a quantum version of the Kraft-McMillan inequality. Indeterminate-length quantum codes also provide an alternate approach to quantum data compression.

Benjamin Schumacher; Michael D. Westmoreland

2000-11-02

468

Time Dependence in Plasma Codes  

E-print Network

Time-dependent plasma codes are a natural extension of static nonequilibrium plasma codes. Comparing relevant timescales will determine whether or not time-dependent treatment is necessary. In this article I outline the ingredients for a time-dependent plasma code in a homogeneous medium and discuss the computational method. In the second half of the article I describe recombination in the early Universe as a detailed example of a problem whose solution requires a time-dependent plasma code.

S. Seager

2001-06-12

469

The ISO audio coding standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ISO audio coding standard is being developed that will provide an audio quality comparable to that of a compact disc using a reduced bit rate of about 2×128 kb\\/s for a stereo sound signal instead of 2×706 kb\\/s. Four coding algorithms have been considered in order to develop the audio coding standard. Two of these coding algorithms have been

H. G. Musmann

1990-01-01

470

A Binary Coded Decimal Converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the many different coding schemes possible, the 8-4-2-1 binary decimal code was felt to be the most useful for data handling systems. A transducer wes developed for converting shaft positions to digital numbers in this code. The converter is small, light weight, and produces 10,000 binary coded decimal numbers in 100 revolutions of the input shaft. No ambiguity of

Martin Ziserman

1956-01-01

471

Noiseless Coding Of Magnetometer Signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses application of noiseless data-compression coding to digitized readings of spaceborne magnetometers for transmission back to Earth. Objective of such coding to increase efficiency by decreasing rate of transmission without sacrificing integrity of data. Adaptive coding compresses data by factors ranging from 2 to 6.

Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji

1989-01-01

472

Dual Coding, Reasoning and Fallacies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops the theory that a fallacy is not a comparison of a rhetorical text to a set of definitions but a comparison of one person's cognition with another's. Reviews Paivio's dual coding theory, relates nonverbal coding to reasoning processes, and generates a limited fallacy theory based on dual coding theory. (PD)

Hample, Dale

1982-01-01

473

Rotationally invariant multilevel block codes  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the performance of block codes that are designed to be rotationally invariant, in a multilevel coding scheme, over a channel modelled to be white gaussian noise. Also, the use of non-binary codes...

Kulandaivelu, Anita

2012-06-07

474

Code and data files for \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are 21 codes to solve the model and deliver the results in the paper. They are grouped in 4 categories: 1) 4 codes that deliver the main results in the paper and the distribution of initial characteristics. Note that this is the last step in the algorithm. 2) 3 codes that are used to solve for the no college

Felicia Ionescu

2008-01-01

475

Coding Issues in Grounded Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

Moghaddam, Alireza

2006-01-01

476

Hu man minimum redundancy coding  

E-print Network

14 Hu#11;man minimum redundancy coding It has become usual to store data and transmit messages a particular coded text. In a classic paper, published in 1952, David Hu#11;man described an algorithm to #12;nd the set of codes that would minimize the expected length 175 #12; 176 Hu#11;man minimum redundancy

Jones, Geraint