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1

MDS array codes with independent parity symbols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstruct- A new family of MDS array codes is presenled. The code arrays contain p information columns and T indelpendent parity columns, each column consisting of p- 1 bits, where p is a prime. We extend a previously known construction for 1 he case T = 2 to three and more parity columns. It is shown that when r =

Mario Blaum; Jehoshua Bruck; Alexander Vardy

1996-01-01

2

Independent peer review of nuclear safety computer codes  

SciTech Connect

A structured process of independent computer code peer review has been developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Department of Energy in their nuclear safety missions. This paper focuses on the process that evolved during recent reviews of NRC codes.

Boyack, B.E.; Jenks, R.P.

1993-02-01

3

Independent peer review of nuclear safety computer codes  

SciTech Connect

A structured process of independent computer code peer review has been developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Department of Energy in their nuclear safety missions. This paper focuses on the process that evolved during recent reviews of NRC codes.

Boyack, B.E.; Jenks, R.P.

1993-01-01

4

Getting Students to be Successful, Independent Investigators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Middle school students often struggle when writing testable problems, planning valid and reliable procedures, and drawing meaningful evidence-based conclusions. To address this issue, the author created a student-centered lab handout to facilitate the inquiry process for students. This handout has reduced studentsâ frustration and helped them become more independent and successful investigators.

Thomas, Jeffery D.

2010-02-01

5

Independent Benchmarking of a Hybrid Monte Carlo Cross Section Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the effects of high-energy neutron interactions with certain materials is of considerable interest to the field of space radiation protection. Due to the expected radiation environment, neutron production and interactions with spacecraft materials will result in neutrons that can cause significant biological risk to crewmembers. For investigating incident particle interactions with target materials, an existing statistical model code (ALICE2008) was used for determining the particle spectra from a hybrid Monte Carlo simulation (HMS) of pre-compound nuclear decay. Presented is a comparison of neutron reaction cross-section results from ALICE2008 to reported values from widely accepted sources to benchmark the code for this specialized use with targets of interest.

Delauder, Nathan; Townsend, Lawrence

2011-10-01

6

Genetic code deviations in the ciliates: evidence for multiple and independent events.  

PubMed Central

In several species of ciliates, the universal stop codons UAA and UAG are translated into glutamine, while in the euplotids, the glutamine codon usage is normal, but UGA appears to be translated as cysteine. Because the emerging position of this monophyletic group in the eukaryotic lineage is relatively late, this deviant genetic code represents a derived state of the universal code. The question is therefore raised as to how these changes arose within the evolutionary pathways of the phylum. Here, we have investigated the presence of stop codons in alpha tubulin and/or phosphoglycerate kinase gene coding sequences from diverse species of ciliates scattered over the phylogenetic tree constructed from 28S rRNA sequences. In our data set, when deviations occur they correspond to in frame UAA and UAG coding for glutamine. By combining these new data with those previously reported, we show that (i) utilization of UAA and UAG codons occurs to different extents between, but also within, the different classes of ciliates and (ii) the resulting phylogenetic pattern of deviations from the universal code cannot be accounted for by a scenario involving a single transition to the unusual code. Thus, contrary to expectations, deviations from the universal genetic code have arisen independently several times within the phylum.

Tourancheau, A B; Tsao, N; Klobutcher, L A; Pearlman, R E; Adoutte, A

1995-01-01

7

Code-Switching during Shared and Independent Reading: Lessons Learned from a Preschooler.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the code-switching patterns of a bilingual preschooler involved in English and German shared reading and independent reading. Finds that melodic text reduced code-switching; her view of the task influenced her code-switching; and her code-switching patterns during discussions were similar to talk outside the literacy event. Suggests…

Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

2000-01-01

8

Semi-device-independent randomness certification using n?1 quantum random access codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study random-number-expansion protocols based on the n?1 quantum random access codes (QRACs). We consider them in the semi-device-independent scenario where the inner workings of the devices are unknown to us but we can certify the dimensions of the systems being communicated. This approach does not require the use of entanglement and makes the physical realization of these protocols much easier than in the standard device-independent scenario. In our work, we propose a protocol for randomness expansion, compute min-entropy for the semi-device-independent protocol, and investigate n?1 QRACs with a view to their use in randomness-expansion protocols. We also calculate the dependence of the effectiveness of the randomness generation on n and find it optimal for n=3, and provide the explanation for this fact.

Li, Hong-Wei; Paw?owski, Marcin; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

2012-05-01

9

Independent verification and validation testing of the FLASH computer code, Versiion 3.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent testing of the FLASH computer code, Version 3.0, was conducted to determine if the code is ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies at various Department of Energy sites. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of this testing. Verification tests, and validation tests, were used to determine the operational status of the FLASH computer code.

P. Martian; J. N. Chung

1992-01-01

10

Independent verification and validation testing of the FLASH computer code, Versiion 3. 0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent testing of the FLASH computer code, Version 3.0, was conducted to determine if the code is ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies at various Department of Energy sites. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of this testing. Verification tests, and validation tests, were used to determine the operational status of the FLASH computer code.

P. Martian; J. N. Chung

1992-01-01

11

Independent verification and benchmark testing of the UNSAT-H computer code, Version 2.0  

SciTech Connect

Independent testing of the UNSAT-H computer code, Version 2.0, was conducted to establish confidence that the code is ready for general use in performance assessment applications. Verification and benchmark test problems were used to check the correctness of the FORTRAN coding, computational efficiency and accuracy of the numerical algorithm, and code, capability to simulate diverse hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured and quantitative evaluation protocol. The protocol consisted of: blind testing, independent applications, maintaining test equivalence and use of graduated test cases. Graphical comparisons and calculation of the relative root mean square (RRMS) values were used as indicators of accuracy and consistency levels. Four specific ranges of RRMS values were chosen for in judging the quality of the comparison. Four verification test problems were used to check the computational accuracy of UNSAT-H in solving the uncoupled fluid flow and heat transport equations. Five benchmark test problems, ranging in complexity, were used to check the code`s simulation capability. Some of the benchmark test cases include comparisons with laboratory and field data. The primary findings of this independent testing is that the UNSAT-H is fully operationaL In general, the test results showed that computer code produced unsaturated flow simulations with excellent stability, reasonable accuracy, and acceptable speed. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of the independent testing. A number of future refinements to the UNSAT-H code are recommended that would improve: computational speed and accuracy, code usability and code portability. Aspects of the code that warrant further testing are outlined.

Baca, R.G.; Magnuson, S.O.

1990-02-01

12

Adaptive Modulation and Coding Scheme with Independent MCS Level Selection in MIMO Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a system that adopts the independent MCS (modulation and coding scheme) level for each layer in the AMC (adaptive modulation and coding) scheme combined with the V-BLAST (vertical Bell lab layered space time) system. From the simulation results, we observe that since the independent MCS level case adapts modulation and coding rate for maximum throughput to each channel condition in separate layers, the combined AMC-V-BLAST system with the independent MCS level selection results in improved throughput compared to the combined AMC-V-BLAST system with the common MCS level selection and the conventional AMC system based on the 1x EV-DO standard. Especially, the combined AMC-V-BLAST system with the independent MCS level achieves a gain of 700kbps in 7-9dB SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) range.

Choi, Kwangwook; You, Cheolwoo; Hwang, Intae; Ryoo, Sangjin; Lee, Kyunghwan; Jung, Taejin; Kim, Cheolsung

13

Independent verification and benchmark testing of the UNSAT-H computer code, Version 2. 0  

SciTech Connect

Independent testing of the UNSAT-H computer code, Version 2.0, was conducted to establish confidence that the code is ready for general use in performance assessment applications. Verification and benchmark test problems were used to check the correctness of the FORTRAN coding, computational efficiency and accuracy of the numerical algorithm, and code, capability to simulate diverse hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured and quantitative evaluation protocol. The protocol consisted of: blind testing, independent applications, maintaining test equivalence and use of graduated test cases. Graphical comparisons and calculation of the relative root mean square (RRMS) values were used as indicators of accuracy and consistency levels. Four specific ranges of RRMS values were chosen for in judging the quality of the comparison. Four verification test problems were used to check the computational accuracy of UNSAT-H in solving the uncoupled fluid flow and heat transport equations. Five benchmark test problems, ranging in complexity, were used to check the code's simulation capability. Some of the benchmark test cases include comparisons with laboratory and field data. The primary findings of this independent testing is that the UNSAT-H is fully operationaL In general, the test results showed that computer code produced unsaturated flow simulations with excellent stability, reasonable accuracy, and acceptable speed. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of the independent testing. A number of future refinements to the UNSAT-H code are recommended that would improve: computational speed and accuracy, code usability and code portability. Aspects of the code that warrant further testing are outlined.

Baca, R.G.; Magnuson, S.O.

1990-02-01

14

PWS: an efficient code system for solving space-independent nuclear reactor dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactor kinetics equations are reduced to a differential equation in matrix form convenient for explicit power series solution involving no approximations beyond the usual space-independent assumption. The coefficients of the series have been obtained from a straightforward recurrence relation. Numerical evaluation is performed by PWS (power series solution) code, written in Visual FORTRAN for a personal computer. The results

A. E Aboanber; Y. M Hamada

2002-01-01

15

Investigations into resting-state connectivity using independent component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inferring resting-state connectivity patterns from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is a challenging task for any analytical technique. In this paper, we review a probabilistic independent component analysis (PICA) approach, optimized for the analysis of fMRI data, and discuss the role which this exploratory technique can take in scientific investigations into the structure of these effects. We apply PICA

Christian F. Beckmann; Marilena DeLuca; Joseph T. Devlin; Stephen M. Smith

2005-01-01

16

Independent verification and validation testing of the FLASH computer code, Versiion 3. 0  

SciTech Connect

Independent testing of the FLASH computer code, Version 3.0, was conducted to determine if the code is ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies at various Department of Energy sites. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of this testing. Verification tests, and validation tests, were used to determine the operational status of the FLASH computer code. These tests were specifically designed to test: correctness of the FORTRAN coding, computational accuracy, and suitability to simulating actual hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured evaluation protocol which consisted of: blind testing, independent applications, and graduated difficulty of test cases. Both quantitative and qualitative testing was performed through evaluating relative root mean square values and graphical comparisons of the numerical, analytical, and experimental data. Four verification test were used to check the computational accuracy and correctness of the FORTRAN coding, and three validation tests were used to check the suitability to simulating actual conditions. These tests cases ranged in complexity from simple 1-D saturated flow to 2-D variably saturated problems. The verification tests showed excellent quantitative agreement between the FLASH results and analytical solutions. The validation tests showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of this testing, it was concluded that the FLASH code is a versatile and powerful two-dimensional analysis tool for fluid flow. In conclusion, all aspects of the code that were tested, except for the unit gradient bottom boundary condition, were found to be fully operational and ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies.

Martian, P.; Chung, J.N. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering)

1992-06-01

17

Independent verification and validation testing of the FLASH computer code, Versiion 3.0  

SciTech Connect

Independent testing of the FLASH computer code, Version 3.0, was conducted to determine if the code is ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies at various Department of Energy sites. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of this testing. Verification tests, and validation tests, were used to determine the operational status of the FLASH computer code. These tests were specifically designed to test: correctness of the FORTRAN coding, computational accuracy, and suitability to simulating actual hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured evaluation protocol which consisted of: blind testing, independent applications, and graduated difficulty of test cases. Both quantitative and qualitative testing was performed through evaluating relative root mean square values and graphical comparisons of the numerical, analytical, and experimental data. Four verification test were used to check the computational accuracy and correctness of the FORTRAN coding, and three validation tests were used to check the suitability to simulating actual conditions. These tests cases ranged in complexity from simple 1-D saturated flow to 2-D variably saturated problems. The verification tests showed excellent quantitative agreement between the FLASH results and analytical solutions. The validation tests showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of this testing, it was concluded that the FLASH code is a versatile and powerful two-dimensional analysis tool for fluid flow. In conclusion, all aspects of the code that were tested, except for the unit gradient bottom boundary condition, were found to be fully operational and ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies.

Martian, P.; Chung, J.N. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

1992-06-01

18

SRFEL dynamics investigated with a 1-D numerical code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing a Storage Ring Free Electron Laser or improving the performance of an existing one first requires investigation of its longitudinal dynamics. With this aim, a 1-dimensional model, including energy spread and Microwave Instability (MI) effects, has been implemented in a numerical code. The code solves the differential equations of the longitudinal complex amplitude of the intra-cavity electric field, coupled with the differential equations describing the evolution of the electron bunch energy spread and of the MI. The agreement with experimental results of the Super-ACO FEL is also discussed.

Thomas, C. A.; Botman, J. I. M.; Ninno, G. De; Couprie, M. E.; Mezi, L.; Dattoli, G.

2002-05-01

19

Board Governance of Independent Schools: A Framework for Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper develops a theoretical framework to guide future inquiry into board governance of independent schools. Design/methodology/approach: The authors' approach is to integrate literatures related to corporate and educational boards, motivation, leadership and group processes that are appropriate for conceptualizing independent school…

McCormick, John; Barnett, Kerry; Alavi, Seyyed Babak; Newcombe, Geoffrey

2006-01-01

20

Board Governance of Independent Schools: A Framework for Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper develops a theoretical framework to guide future inquiry into board governance of independent schools. Design/methodology/approach: The authors' approach is to integrate literatures related to corporate and educational boards, motivation, leadership and group processes that are appropriate for conceptualizing independent

McCormick, John; Barnett, Kerry; Alavi, Seyyed Babak; Newcombe, Geoffrey

2006-01-01

21

RELAP5/MOD3 code manual: Summaries and reviews of independent code assessment reports. Volume 7, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Summaries of RELAP5/MOD3 code assessments, a listing of the assessment matrix, and a chronology of the various versions of the code are given. Results from these code assessments have been used to formulate a compilation of some of the strengths and weaknesses of the code. These results are documented in the report. Volume 7 was designed to be updated periodically and to include the results of the latest code assessments as they become available. Consequently, users of Volume 7 should ensure that they have the latest revision available.

Moore, R.L.; Sloan, S.M.; Schultz, R.R.; Wilson, G.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1996-10-01

22

Independent code assessment at BNL in FY 1982. [TRAC-PF1; RELAP5/MOD1; TRAC-BD1  

SciTech Connect

Independent assessment of the advanced codes such as TRAC and RELAP5 has continued at BNL through the Fiscal Year 1982. The simulation tests can be grouped into the following five categories: critical flow, counter-current flow limiting (CCFL) or flooding, level swell, steam generator thermal performance, and natural circulation. TRAC-PF1 (Version 7.0) and RELAP5/MOD1 (Cycle 14) codes were assessed by simulating all of the above experiments, whereas the TRAC-BD1 (Version 12.0) code was applied only to the CCFL tests. Results and conclusions of the BNL code assessment activity of FY 1982 are summarized below.

Saha, P.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Jo, J.H.; Neymotin, L.; Slovik, G.; Yuelys-Miksis, C.

1982-01-01

23

Performance of independent dose calculation in helical tomotherapy: implementation of the MCSIM code.  

PubMed

Currently, a software-based second check dose calculation for helical tomotherapy (HT) is not available. The goal of this study is to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy of the in-house software using EGS4/MCSIM Monte Carlo environment against the treatment planning system calculations. In-house software was used to convert HT treatment plan information into a non-helical format. The MCSIM dose calculation code was evaluated by comparing point dose calculations and dose profiles against those from the HT treatment plan. Fifteen patients, representing five treatment sites, were used in this comparison. Point dose calculations between the HT treatment planning system and the EGS4/MCSIM Monte Carlo environment had percent difference values below 5 % for the majority of this study. Vertical and horizontal planar profiles also had percent difference values below 5 % for the majority of this study. Down sampling was seen to improve speed without much loss of accuracy. EGS4/MCSIM Monte Carlo environment showed good agreement with point dose measurements, compared to the HT treatment plans. Vertical and horizontal profiles also showed good agreement. Significant time saving may be obtained by down-sampling beam projections. The dose calculation accuracy of the in-house software using the MCSIM code against the treatment planning system calculations was evaluated. By comparing point doses and dose profiles, the EGS4/MCSIM Monte Carlo environment was seen to provide an accurate independent dose calculation. PMID:23143880

Dzintars, Eric; Stathakis, Sotirios; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Sadeghi, Amir; Papanikolaou, Nikos

2012-11-10

24

Investigation of combined unfolding of neutron spectra using the UMG unfolding codes.  

PubMed

An investigation of the simultaneous unfolding of data from neutron spectrometers using the UMG codes MAXED and GRAVEL has been performed. This approach involves combining the data from the spectrometers before unfolding, thereby performing a single combined unfolding of all the data to yield a final combined spectrum. The study used measured data from three proton recoil counters and also Bonner sphere and proton recoil counter responses calculated from their response functions. In each case, the spectrum derived from combined unfolding is compared with either the spectrum obtained from merging the independently unfolded spectra or the spectrum used to calculate the responses. The advantages and disadvantages of this technique are discussed. PMID:17502320

Roberts, N J

2007-05-14

25

Independence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the four planes of development and the periods of creation and crystallization within each plane. Identifies the type of independence that should be achieved by the end of the first two planes of development. Maintains that it is through individual work on the environment that one achieves independence. (KB)

Stephenson, Margaret E.

2000-01-01

26

Investigating language independence in HMM PoS\\/MSD-tagging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an investigation of functional dependencies in morphosyntactic tagging using hidden Markov models. Starting from a well known fact that the HMM tagging paradigm relies on lexical knowledge acquired from training corpora and stored in form of transition and emission matrices, also called a language model, in the experiment, we apply the TnT trigram tagger on creating language

Z. Agic; M. Tadic; Z. Dovedan

2008-01-01

27

The role of stress on the language-independence and code-switching phenomena.  

PubMed

This investigation studies the extent to which stress affects the assumed functional separation of coordinate bilingual's linguistic organization. Spanish/English bilinguals were subjects in a GSR linguistic conditioning experiment using two intensities of buzzer sounds (stressful conditions) and two lists of words. One word for each list functioned as the conditioned stimulus. Generalization to semantically, phonemically, and unrelated words occurred in both languages and buzzer conditions. We found a differential impact of the buzzer on the functional separation of the languages, although not in the direction predicted. We concluded that stress produced code-switching, and hence, a primitivization of the subject's cognitive and linguistic functioning is assumed to have occurred. These findings are important in understanding the way stress affects the bilingual's languages at the linguistic and cognitive levels. They are also important in understanding the role of stress in language development and in the transfer of linguistic information. PMID:2593096

Javier, R A; Marcos, L R

1989-09-01

28

''Independent Duckweed Investigations to Review the Scientific Method''  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity allows students to apply the scientific method to an investigation involving duckweed This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2005 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Elleen Hutcheson (Rogers High School)

2005-04-01

29

The ‘deception’ of code smells: An empirical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code smells represent code decay and as such should be eradicated from a system to prevent future maintenance problems. A range of twenty smells described by Fowler and Beck each require varying numbers and combinations of refactorings in order to be eradicated - but exactly how many are needed when we consider related, nested refactorings is unclear. In this paper,

S. Counsell; H. Hamza; R. M. Hierons

2010-01-01

30

Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Style and Problem Posing: An Investigation with Sixth Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Field dependence/independence cognitive style was found to relate to general academic achievement and specific areas of mathematics; in the majority of studies, field-independent students were found to be superior to field-dependent students. The present study investigated the relationship between field dependence/independence cognitive style and…

Nicolaou, Aristoklis Andreas; Xistouri, Xenia

2011-01-01

31

ADF95: Tool for automatic differentiation of a FORTRAN code designed for large numbers of independent variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADF95 is a tool to automatically calculate numerical first derivatives for any mathematical expression as a function of user defined independent variables. Accuracy of derivatives is achieved within machine precision. ADF95 may be applied to any FORTRAN 77\\/90\\/95 conforming code and requires minimal changes by the user. It provides a new derived data type that holds the value and derivatives

Christian W. Straka

2005-01-01

32

Application of Kolmogorov complexity and universal codes to identity testing and nonparametric testing of serial independence for time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that Kolmogorov complexity and such its estimators as uni- versal codes (or data compression methods) can be applied for hypothesis testing in a framework of classical mathematical statistics. The methods for identity testing and nonparametric testing of serial independence for time series are described. AMS subject classification: 60G10, 62M07, 68Q30, 68W01, 94A29. Keywords. algorithmic complexity, algorithmic information theory,

Boris Ryabko; Jaakko Astola; Alexander Gammerman

2006-01-01

33

Online Text-independent Writer Identification Based on Temporal Sequence and Shape Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a novel method for online text-independent writer identification. Most of the exist- ing writer identification techniques require the data to be from a specific text which is not applicable to cases where such text is not available, such as in criminal justice systems when text documents with different content need to be com- pared. Text-independent

Bangy Li; Tieniu Tan

2009-01-01

34

An independent motion and disparity vector prediction method for multiview video coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inter-view prediction is used as well as the temporal prediction in order to exploit both the temporal and inter-view redundancies in multiview video coding. Accordingly, the multiview video coding has two types of motion vectors that are the temporal motion vector and the disparity vector, respectively. The disparity vector is generally uncorrelated with the temporal motion vector. However, they are used together to predict the motion vector regardless of their types, therefore an efficiency of the conventional predictive coding of multiview video coding is decreased. In order to increase the accuracy of the predicted motion vector, a new motion vector prediction method including virtual temporal motion vector and virtual disparity vector is proposed for both the multiview video and multiview video plus depth formats. The experimental results show that the proposed method can reduce the coding bitrates by 6.5% in average and 14.6% at maximum in terms of Bjontegaard metric compared to the conventional method.

Ryu, Seungchul; Seo, Jungdong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jin Young; Wey, Ho-Cheon; Sohn, Kwanghoon

2012-02-01

35

Coding-independent regulation of the tumor suppressor PTEN by competing endogenous mRNAs.  

PubMed

Here, we demonstrate that protein-coding RNA transcripts can crosstalk by competing for common microRNAs, with microRNA response elements as the foundation of this interaction. We have termed such RNA transcripts as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). We tested this hypothesis in the context of PTEN, a key tumor suppressor whose abundance determines critical outcomes in tumorigenesis. By a combined computational and experimental approach, we identified and validated endogenous protein-coding transcripts that regulate PTEN, antagonize PI3K/AKT signaling, and possess growth- and tumor-suppressive properties. Notably, we also show that these genes display concordant expression patterns with PTEN and copy number loss in cancers. Our study presents a road map for the prediction and validation of ceRNA activity and networks and thus imparts a trans-regulatory function to protein-coding mRNAs. PMID:22000013

Tay, Yvonne; Kats, Lev; Salmena, Leonardo; Weiss, Dror; Tan, Shen Mynn; Ala, Ugo; Karreth, Florian; Poliseno, Laura; Provero, Paolo; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Lieberman, Judy; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

2011-10-14

36

Investigation of Error Concealment Using Different Transform Codings and Multiple Description Codings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been increasing usage of Multiple Description Coding (MDC) for error concealment in non-ideal channels. A lot of ideas have been masterminded for MDC method up to now. This paper described the attempts to conceal the error and reconstruct the lost descriptions caused by combining MDC and lapped orthogonal transform (LOT). In this work LOT and other transforms codings (DCT and wavelet) are used to decorrelate the image pixels in the transform domain. LOT has better performance at low bit rates in comparison to DCT and wavelet transform. The results show that MSE for the proposed methods in comparison to DCT and wavelet have decreased significantly. The PSNR values of reconstructed images are high. The subjective evaluation of image is very good and clear. Furthermore, the standard deviations of reconstructed images are very small especially in low capacity channels.

Farzamnia, Ali; Syed-Yusof, Sharifah K.; Fisal, Norsheila; Abu-Bakar, Syed A. R.

2012-05-01

37

Empirical validation of the triple-code model of numerical processing for complex math operations using functional MRI and group Independent Component Analysis of the mental addition and subtraction of fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of a previously hypothesized triple-code model of numerical processing, involving analog magnitude, auditory verbal, and visual Arabic codes of representation, was investigated for the complex mathematical task of the mental addition and subtraction of fractions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 15 normal adult subjects were processed using exploratory group Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Separate task-related components

Vincent J. Schmithorst; Rhonda Douglas Brown

2004-01-01

38

CHEMKIN: A General-Purpose, Problem-Independent, Transportable, FORTRAN Chemical Kinetics Code Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CHEMKIN package is comprised of two major components -- the INTERPRETER and the gas-phase subroutine library. The INTERPRETER is a FORTRAN code which is used to read a symbolic description of an arbitrary, user-specific chemical reaction mechanism. Th...

R. J. Kee J. A. Miller T. H. Jefferson

1980-01-01

39

Reward skewness coding in the insula independent of probability and loss.  

PubMed

Rewards in the natural environment are rarely predicted with complete certainty. Uncertainty relating to future rewards has typically been defined as the variance of the potential outcomes. However, the asymmetry of predicted reward distributions, known as skewness, constitutes a distinct but neuroscientifically underexplored risk term that may also have an impact on preference. By changing only reward magnitudes, we study skewness processing in equiprobable ternary lotteries involving only gains and constant probabilities, thus excluding probability distortion or loss aversion as mechanisms for skewness preference formation. We show that individual preferences are sensitive to not only the mean and variance but also to the skewness of predicted reward distributions. Using neuroimaging, we show that the insula, a structure previously implicated in the processing of reward-related uncertainty, responds to the skewness of predicted reward distributions. Some insula responses increased in a monotonic fashion with skewness (irrespective of individual skewness preferences), whereas others were similarly elevated to both negative and positive as opposed to no reward skew. These data support the notion that the asymmetry of reward distributions is processed in the brain and, taken together with replicated findings of mean coding in the striatum and variance coding in the cingulate, suggest that the brain codes distinct aspects of reward distributions in a distributed fashion. PMID:21849610

Burke, Christopher J; Tobler, Philippe N

2011-08-17

40

An investigation of factors influencing public opinion of property bias in Canadian Criminal Code maximum sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheCriminal Code of Canada (Code) provides many statutory maximum sentences (maxima) that are more severe for property offenses than for offenses, against people. Past research has shown that, at least in the abstract, people consider offenses against the person as more serious and deserving of more severe sentences than property offenses. The present research investigated whether these results would be

Kevin S. Douglas; James R. P. Ogloff

1996-01-01

41

Immunization with DNA coding for gp100 results in CD4 + T-cell independent antitumor immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Xenogeneic DNA immunization can exploit small differences in expressed protein sequence resulting in immune recognition of self-molecules. We hypothesized that immunizing mice with xenogeneic DNA coding for the human melanosomal membrane glycoprotein gp100 would overcome immune ignorance or tolerance and result in tumor immunity. We also investigated the immunologic mechanisms of the antitumor immunity. Methods: C57BL\\/6 mice were immunized

William G. Hawkins; Jason S. Gold; Ruben Dyall; Jedd D. Wolchok; Axel Hoos; Wilbur B. Bowne; Roopa Srinivasan; Alan N. Houghton; Jonathan J. Lewis

2000-01-01

42

Geochemical and isotopic investigations on groundwater residence time and flow in the Independence Basin, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Independence Basin in the semi-arid Guanajuato state of central Mexico is facing serious groundwater resources deficiency due to an increasing demand linked to a rapid population growth and agricultural development. This problem is aggravated by an inadequate evaluation of groundwater resources in the region. Geochemistry and isotopic tracers were used in order to investigate the groundwater flow system and

J. Mahlknecht; J. Gárfias-Solis; R. Aravena; R. Tesch

2006-01-01

43

An Early Underwater Artificial Vision Model in Ocean Investigations via Independent Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

Underwater vision is one of the dominant senses and has shown great prospects in ocean investigations. In this paper, a hierarchical Independent Component Analysis (ICA) framework has been established to explore and understand the functional roles of the higher order statistical structures towards the visual stimulus in the underwater artificial vision system. The model is inspired by characteristics such as the modality, the redundancy reduction, the sparseness and the independence in the early human vision system, which seems to respectively capture the Gabor-like basis functions, the shape contours or the complicated textures in the multiple layer implementations. The simulation results have shown good performance in the effectiveness and the consistence of the approach proposed for the underwater images collected by autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs).

Nian, Rui; Liu, Fang; He, Bo

2013-01-01

44

Investigation of coding techniques for memory and delay efficient interleaving in slow Rayleigh fading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High data rate communication links operating under slow fading channel conditions may have interleaving memory requirements which are too large for practical applications. These requirements can be reduced by employing spacial diversity; however, a less costly alternative is to select coding and interleaving techniques that support memory efficient interleaving. The objective of this investigation has been to find coding and interleaving techniques with relatively small interleaving memory requirements and to accurately quantify these requirements. Toward this objective, convolutional and Ree-Solomon coding with single-stage and concatenated code configurations were evaluated with convolutional interleaving and differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulation to determine their interleaving memory requirements. Code performance for these link selections was computed by high-fidelity link simulations and approximations over a wide range of E(sub b)/N(0) and interleaver span to scintillation decorrelation times (T(sub il)/Tau(0)) and the results of these evaluations were converted to interleaving memory requirements. Interleaving delay requirements were also determined and code selections with low interleaving memory and delay requirements were identified.

Strater, Jay W.

1991-11-01

45

Binary neutron-star mergers with Whisky and SACRA: First quantitative comparison of results from independent general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes  

SciTech Connect

We present the first quantitative comparison of two independent general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes, the whisky code and the sacra code. We compare the output of simulations starting from the same initial data and carried out with the configuration (numerical methods, grid setup, resolution, gauges) which for each code has been found to give consistent and sufficiently accurate results, in particular, in terms of cleanness of gravitational waveforms. We focus on the quantities that should be conserved during the evolution (rest mass, total mass energy, and total angular momentum) and on the gravitational-wave amplitude and frequency. We find that the results produced by the two codes agree at a reasonable level, with variations in the different quantities but always at better than about 10%.

Baiotti, Luca [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, 565-0871 (Japan); Shibata, Masaru [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tetsuro [Yugen Club, Toyama, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 162-0052 (Japan)

2010-09-15

46

Power line noise model appropriate for investigation if channel coding methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental and theoretical research of power line noise performed on overhead power line. High voltage (HV) power line, as a communication media, is a source by itself of different noises characterizing an important signature of this communication media. Investigation of appropriate channel coding techniques by computer simulations requires transfer characteristics of channel and statistical model of

A. Mujcic; N. Suljanovic; M. Zajc; J. F. Tasic

2003-01-01

47

Final report of the independent counsel for Iran/Contra matters. Volume 1: Investigations and prosecutions  

SciTech Connect

In October and November 1986, two secret U.S. Government operations were publicly exposed, potentially implicating Reagan Administration officials in illegal activities. These operations were the provision of assistance to the military activities of the Nicaraguan contra rebels during an October 1984 to October 1986 prohibition on such aid, and the sale of U.S. arms to Iran in contravention of stated U.S. policy and in possible violation of arms-export controls. In late November 1986, Reagan Administration officials announced that some of the proceeds from the sale of U.S. arms to Iran had been diverted to the contras. As a result of the exposure of these operations, Attorney General Edwin Meese III sought the appointment of an independent counsel to investigate and, if necessary, prosecute possible crimes arising from them. This is the final report of that investigation.

Walsh, L.E.

1993-08-04

48

RACE, CODE OF THE STREET, AND VIOLENT DELINQUENCY: A MULTILEVEL INVESTIGATION OF NEIGHBORHOOD STREET CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL NORMS OF VIOLENCE*  

PubMed Central

The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent’s own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consistent with Anderson’s hypotheses, neighborhood street culture significantly predicts violent delinquency independent of individual-level street code effects. Additionally, neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on violence in neighborhoods where the street culture is widespread. In particular, the effect of street code values on violence is enhanced in neighborhoods where the street culture is endorsed widely.

Stewart, Eric A.; Simons, Ronald L.

2011-01-01

49

Investigation of Beam-RF Interactions in Twisted Waveguide Accelerating Structures Using Beam Tracking Codes  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of the RF properties of certain twisted waveguide structures show that they support favorable accelerating fields. This makes them potential candidates for accelerating cavities. Using the particle tracking code, ORBIT, We examine the beam - RF interaction in the twisted cavity structures to understand their beam transport and acceleration properties. The results will show the distinctive properties of these new structures for particle transport and acceleration, which have not been previously analyzed.

Holmes, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Zhang, Yan [ORNL; Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Galambos, John D [ORNL; Hassan, Mohamed H [ORNL; Wilson, Joshua L [ORNL

2009-01-01

50

Semantic association investigated with fMRI and independent component analysis  

PubMed Central

Semantic association, an essential element of human language, enables discourse and inference. Neuroimaging studies have revealed localization and lateralization of semantic circuitry making substantial contributions to cognitive neuroscience. However, due to methodological limitations, these investigations have only identified individual functional components rather than capturing the behavior of the entire network. To overcome these limitations, we have implemented group independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate the cognitive modules used by healthy adults performing fMRI semantic decision task. When compared to the results of a standard GLM analysis, ICA detected several additional brain regions subserving semantic decision. Eight task-related group ICA maps were identified including left inferior frontal gyrus (BA44/45), middle posterior temporal gyrus (BA39/22), angular gyrus/inferior parietal lobule (BA39/40), posterior cingulate (BA30), bilateral lingual gyrus (BA18/23), inferior frontal gyrus (L>R, BA47), hippocampus with parahippocampal gyrus (L>R, BA35/36) and anterior cingulate (BA32/24). While most of the components were represented bilaterally, we found a single, highly left-lateralized component that included the inferior frontal gyrus and the medial and superior temporal gyri, the angular and supramarginal gyri and the inferior parietal cortex. The presence of these spatially independent ICA components implies functional connectivity and can be equated with their modularity. These results are analyzed and presented in the framework of a biologically plausible theoretical model in preparation for similar analyses in patients with right- or left-hemispheric epilepsies.

Kim, Kwang Ki; Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Privitera, Michael D.; Holland, Scott K.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

2010-01-01

51

Investigating Resuscitation Code Assignment in the Intensive Care Unit using Structured and Unstructured Data.  

PubMed

This study investigates the feasibility of using structured data (age, gender, and medical condition), and unstructured medical notes on classification accuracy for resuscitation code status. Data was extracted from the MIMICII database. Natural language processing (NLP) was used to evaluate the social section of the nurses' progress notes. BoosTexter was used to predict the code-status using notes, age, gender, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). The relative impact of features was analyzed by feature ablation. Unstructured notes were the greatest single indicator of code status. The addition of text to medical condition features increased classification accuracy significantly (p<0.001.) N-gram frequency was analyzed. Gender differences were noted across all code-statuses, with women always more frequent (e.g. wife>husband.) Logistic regression on structured features was used determine gender bias or ageism. Evidence of bias was found; both females (OR=1.45) and patients over age 70 (OR=3.72) were more likely to be Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR). PMID:21347022

Lojun, Sharon L; Sauper, Christina J; Medow, Mitchell; Long, William J; Mark, Roger G; Barzilay, Regina

2010-11-13

52

Investigating Resuscitation Code Assignment in the Intensive Care Unit using Structured and Unstructured Data  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the feasibility of using structured data (age, gender, and medical condition), and unstructured medical notes on classification accuracy for resuscitation code status. Data was extracted from the MIMICII database. Natural language processing (NLP) was used to evaluate the social section of the nurses’ progress notes. BoosTexter was used to predict the code-status using notes, age, gender, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). The relative impact of features was analyzed by feature ablation. Unstructured notes were the greatest single indicator of code status. The addition of text to medical condition features increased classification accuracy significantly (p<0.001.) N-gram frequency was analyzed. Gender differences were noted across all code-statuses, with women always more frequent (e.g. wife>husband.) Logistic regression on structured features was used determine gender bias or ageism. Evidence of bias was found; both females (OR=1.45) and patients over age 70 (OR=3.72) were more likely to be Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR).

Lojun, Sharon L.; Sauper, Christina J.; Medow, Mitchell; Long, William J.; Mark, Roger G.; Barzilay, Regina

2010-01-01

53

An investigation on the capabilities of the PENELOPE MC code in nanodosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Monte Carlo (MC) method has been widely implemented in studies of radiation effects on human genetic material. Most of these works have used specific-purpose MC codes to simulate radiation transport in condensed media. PENELOPE is one of the general-purpose MC codes that has been used in many applications related to radiation dosimetry. Based on the fact that PENELOPE can carry out event-by-event coupled electron-photon transport simulations following these particles down to energies of the order of few tens of eV, we have decided to investigate the capacities of this code in the field of nanodosimetry. Single and double strand break probabilities due to the direct impact of {gamma} rays originated from Co{sup 60} and Cs{sup 137} isotopes and characteristic x-rays, from Al and C K-shells, have been determined by use of PENELOPE. Indirect damage has not been accounted for in this study. A human genetic material geometrical model has been developed, taking into account five organizational levels. In an article by Friedland et al. [Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 38, 39-47 (1999)], a specific-purpose MC code and a very sophisticated DNA geometrical model were used. We have chosen that work as a reference to compare our results. Single and double strand-break probabilities obtained here underestimate those reported by Friedland and co-workers by 20%-76% and 50%-60%, respectively. However, we obtain RBE values for Cs{sup 137}, Al{sub K} and C{sub K} radiations in agreement with those reported in previous works [Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 38, 39-47 (1999)] and [Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 233-244 (2008)]. Some enhancements can be incorporated into the PENELOPE code to improve its results in the nanodosimetry field.

Bernal, M. A.; Liendo, J. A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, P.O. Box 89000, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2009-02-15

54

Encoding emotions in speech with the size code. A perceptual investigation.  

PubMed

Our current understanding of how emotions are expressed in speech is still very limited. Part of the difficulty has been the lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here we report the findings of a somewhat unconventional investigation of emotional speech. Instead of looking for direct acoustic correlates of multiple emotions, we tested a specific theory, the size code hypothesis of emotional speech, about two emotions--anger and happiness. According to the hypothesis, anger and happiness are conveyed in speech by exaggerating or understating the body size of the speaker. In two studies consisting of six experiments, we synthesized vowels with a three-dimensional articulatory synthesizer with parameter manipulations derived from the size code hypothesis, and asked Thai listeners to judge the body size and emotion of the speaker. Vowels synthesized with a longer vocal tract and lower F(0) were mostly heard as from a larger person if the length and F(0) differences were stationary, but from an angry person if the vocal tract was dynamically lengthened and F(0) was dynamically lowered. The opposite was true for the perception of small body size and happiness. These results provide preliminary support for the size code hypothesis. They also point to potential benefits of theory-driven investigations in emotion research. PMID:19221452

Chuenwattanapranithi, Suthathip; Xu, Yi; Thipakorn, Bundit; Maneewongvatana, Songrit

2009-02-03

55

ALS beamlines for independent investigators: A summary of the capabilities and characteristics of beamlines at the ALS  

SciTech Connect

There are two mods of conducting research at the ALS: To work as a member of a participating research team (PRT). To work as a member of a participating research team (PRT); to work as an independent investigator; PRTs are responsible for building beamlines, end stations, and, in some cases, insertion devices. Thus, PRT members have privileged access to the ALS. Independent investigators will use beamline facilities made available by PRTs. The purpose of this handbook is to describe these facilities.

Not Available

1992-08-01

56

Independent assessment of the TRAC-BD1\\/MOD1 computer code at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under auspices of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, their primary boiling water reactor safety analysis code (TRAC-BWR) is being assessed with simulations of a wide range of experimental data. The FY-1984 assessment activities were associated with the latest version (TRAC-BD1\\/MOD1) of this code. Typical results of the assessment studies are given. Conclusions formulated from these results are presented. These

G. E. Wilson; B. L. Charboneau; R. J. Dallman; C. M. Kullberg; K. C. Wagner; P. D. Wheatley

1984-01-01

57

Safety Related Investigations of the VVER-1000 Reactor Type by the Coupled Code System TRACE\\/PARCS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed at the Institute of Reactor Safety at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. It is embedded in the ongoing investigations of the international code assessment and maintenance program (CAMP) for qualification and validation of system codes like TRACE(1) and PARCS(2). The chosen reactor type used to validate these two codes was the Russian designed VVER-1000 because the OECD\\/NEA VVER-1000

Wadim Jaeger; Victor Hugo Sánchez Espinoza; Wolfgang Lischke

2008-01-01

58

Geochemical and isotopic investigations on groundwater residence time and flow in the Independence Basin, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Independence Basin in the semi-arid Guanajuato state of central Mexico is facing serious groundwater resources deficiency due to an increasing demand linked to a rapid population growth and agricultural development. This problem is aggravated by an inadequate evaluation of groundwater resources in the region. Geochemistry and isotopic tracers were used in order to investigate the groundwater flow system and estimate the groundwater residence time. The groundwater is characterized by low salinity with some exceptions associated to a contribution of more saline groundwater from deep formations. The predominant reactions are CO2 gas dissolution, carbonate dissolution, albite weathering, kaolinite and chalcedony precipitation. Six principal hydrochemical zones were recognized, which provided information on plausible recharge sources and groundwater chemical evolution. The 14C concentration varies between 19 and 94 pmc. The high 14C values indicating recent recharge are observed at the basin margins and a trend to lower 14C values is observed along the modern groundwater flow paths. The groundwater residence time according to radiocarbon estimations ranges between recent and ˜11 ka. The residence time distribution matches the regional important discharge zones west in the basin center (from Dolores Hidalgo and southwest from Doctor Mora). Hydrochemical tracers are in general agreement with the predeveloped and current hydraulic-head configuration, however, show some inconsistencies with the predeveloped head in the downgradient areas, which means that the impact by gradually increasing groundwater extraction during the last decades is reflected on radiocarbon age distribution. Geochemical evidences imply that the recharge input from the northern basin area is insignificant.

Mahlknecht, J.; Gárfias-Solis, J.; Aravena, R.; Tesch, R.

2006-06-01

59

INVESTIGATION OF DAMPNESS DAMAGE IN THE HOUSE OF THE LITHUANIAN INDEPENDENCE SIGNATORIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the reconstruction of the House of the Lithuanian Independence Signatories the microclimate of its basement is damp, mycelium microorganisms, salt efflorescence occur on the enclosure wall surfaces, efflorescence and bubbles form on the facing of the walls and ceiling and an unpleasant smell appears in the building. Full-scale tests performed show that the protection of the basement exterior walls

?. Ignatavi?ius

2001-01-01

60

After a Long-Term Placement: Investigating Educational Achievement, Behaviour, and Transition to Independent Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes the transition towards independent living of 123 former fostered young people reared for long periods in a private French organisation, SOS Children's Villages. Three generations of care leavers were analysed through a postal survey and interviews. Their narratives show typical pathways after leaving care. Two-thirds became…

Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Donati, Pascale; Crost, Monique

2011-01-01

61

Culture-Dependent and Independent Methods To Investigate the Microbial Ecology of Italian Fermented Sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the microbial ecology of three naturally fermented sausages produced in northeast Italy was studied by culture-dependent and -independent methods. By plating analysis, the predominance of lactic acid bacteria populations was pointed out, as well as the importance of coagulase-negative cocci. Also in the case of one fermentation, the fecal enterocci reached significant counts, highlighting their contribution to

Kalliopi Rantsiou; Rosalinda Urso; Lucilla Iacumin; Carlo Cantoni; Patrizia Cattaneo; Giuseppe Comi; Luca Cocolin

2005-01-01

62

Independent reference frames in human spatial memory: body-centered and environment-centered coding in near and far space.  

PubMed

Our apparently seamless experience of the spatial environment seems to be derived from information coded across a variety of spatial reference frameworks, each tied to the metric of a different sensory or motor system. A fundamental distinction is that between body-centered and environment-centered reference frameworks. This study reports the first clear evidence of a behavioral dissociation between body-centered and environment-centered coding in human adults. Subjects, seated in a rotating chair with closed eyes, were required to point to remembered, auditorily presented target locations. The subjects were rotated between the presentation and recall of targets. Targets were held stationary with respect to either body-centered or environment-centered spatial coordinates. Prior to recall, subjects were required to point to a series of prelearned distractor locations, which also remained fixed with reference either to the subject's body or to the stationary environment. Memory for the target locations was selectively impaired when distractor locations were specified within the same spatial reference frame as the target, regardless of whether target and distractor locations were near to or distant from the subjects. In contrast, distractor locations specified in a different reference frame from that of the target had either little or no effect on memory for target locations. PMID:9847539

Woodin, M E; Allport, A

1998-11-01

63

Concordance of scores for breast infrared images by three independent investigators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether three investigators would produce similar results when reading/scoring the same breast infrared images. They used their standard methods of analysis (subjective to semi-objective analysis). Two of the investigators submitted breast infrared images from 71 screened patients. The images were stored in a database and displayed for scoring by three investigators (two who submitted the data and one additional reader). The left and right breasts were analyzed separately. The investigators submitted their scores to the database without knowledge of the scores of the other two investigators. Overall, concordance of results among all three investgators was 76% (all three investigators' readings agreed on 107 of 141 breasts). Comparison of paired results of the three investigators resulted in 79 to 94% agreement for the six comparisons (three investigators and two breasts) with an overall agreement of 88% (371 of 424 paired comparisons). This preliminary comparison of three investigators' blinded results of breast infrared image readings from a screening population, demonstrates that breast infrared images taken at different Centers with different techniques can be interpreted by different investigators with very similar results. As the database grows there will be an increase in the number and percentage of patients with abnormal infrared images (high risk and breast cancer patients). This will allow a better and more thorough analysis of the results to refine and standardize the reading technique, and further to allow the assessment of previously untested algorithms with this unique database.

Head, Jonathan F.; Hoekstra, Philip; Keyserlingk, Johnathan; Elliott, Robert L.

2003-09-01

64

Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR is an independent prognostic marker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression and survival.  

PubMed

Identification of new nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biomarkers is of great clinical value for the diagnosis and treatment of NPC. HOTAIR, a cancer-related long non-coding RNA, was tested and its prognostic value for NPC was evaluated. As determined using in situ hybridization (ISH), 91 of 160 (56.87%) paraffin-embedded NPC biopsies showed high expression levels of HOTAIR (staining index score ? 6). HOTAIR was upregulated in tumors with a large size (P = 0.021), more advanced clinical stage (P = 0.012) and increased lymph node tumor burden (P = 0.005). Quantified using real-time PCR, HOTAIR expression levels in fresh tissue and paraffin-embedded samples were 5.2 ~ 48.4-fold higher compared with non-cancer tissue samples. Moreover, HOTAIR expression levels increased with clinical stage progression, which was consistent with ISH findings in the paraffin-embedded tissue. Most importantly, NPC patients with higher HOTAIR levels had a poor prognosis for overall survival using univariate and multivariate analysis. In addition, HOTAIR mediated the migration, invasion and proliferation of NPC cells in vitro. HOTAIR is a potential biomarker for the prognosis of NPC, and dysregulation of HOTAIR might play an important role in NPC progression. PMID:23281836

Nie, Yan; Liu, Xiang; Qu, Shaohua; Song, Erwei; Zou, Hua; Gong, Chang

2013-01-30

65

Eukaryotic Gene Prediction by an Investigation of Nonlinear Dynamical Modeling Techniques on EIIP Coded Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many digital signal processing, techniques have been used to automatically distinguish protein coding regions (exons) from non-coding regions (introns) in DNA sequences. In this work, we have characterized these sequences according to their nonlinear dynamical features such as moment invariants, correlation dimension, and largest Lyapunov exponent estimates. We have applied our model to a number of real sequences encoded into

Mai S. Mabrouk; Nahed H. Solouma; Abou-Bakr M. Youssef; Yasser M. Kadah

2008-01-01

66

Investigating the structure preserving encryption of high efficiency video coding (HEVC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel method for the real-time protection of new emerging High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. Structure preserving selective encryption is being performed in CABAC entropy coding module of HEVC, which is significantly different from CABAC entropy coding of H.264/AVC. In CABAC of HEVC, exponential Golomb coding is replaced by truncated Rice (TR) up to a specific value for binarization of transform coefficients. Selective encryption is performed using AES cipher in cipher feedback mode on a plaintext of binstrings in a context aware manner. The encrypted bitstream has exactly the same bit-rate and is format complaint. Experimental evaluation and security analysis of the proposed algorithm is performed on several benchmark video sequences containing different combinations of motion, texture and objects.

Shahid, Zafar; Puech, William

2013-02-01

67

Common Violations of the United States Code in Economic Crime Investigations. The Fraud, Waste and Abuse Monster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This pamphlet was prepared to serve as a deskbook reference for use by USACIDC (U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command) special agents, many of whom have had little exposure to the United States Code. It is designed primarily to aid agents who are in th...

1983-01-01

68

Investigation into the flow field around a maneuvering submarine using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate and efficient prediction of hydrodynamic forces and moments on a maneuvering submarine has been achieved by investigating the flow physics involving the interaction of the vortical flow shed from the sail and the cross-flow boundary layer of the hull. In this investigation, a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computer code is used to simulate the most important physical effects related

Bong Rhee

2009-01-01

69

Investigation of Similarities among Human Joints through the Coding System of Human Joint Properties—Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rehabilitation engineering and assistive technology, precedent researches have focused on a single characteristic or property\\u000a of a single joint, while little attention was paid to similarities among joints. This work attempts to investigate similarities\\u000a among human joints by referring to the coding system of human joint properties proposed in Part 1. To investigate the similarities,\\u000a eight out of the

S. C. Chen; S. T. Hsu; C. L. Liu; C. H. Yu

70

Simulative Investigation on Spectral Efficiency of Unipolar Codes based OCDMA System using Importance Sampling Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyses the spectral efficiency of Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system using Importance Sampling (IS) technique. We consider three configurations of OCDMA system namely Direct Sequence (DS), Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) and Fast Frequency Hopping (FFH) that exploits the Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) based encoder/decoder. We evaluate the spectral efficiency of the considered system by taking into consideration the effect of different families of unipolar codes for both coherent and incoherent sources. The results show that the spectral efficiency of OCDMA system with coherent source is higher than the incoherent case. We demonstrate also that DS-OCDMA outperforms both others in terms of spectral efficiency in all conditions.

Farhat, A.; Menif, M.; Rezig, H.

2013-09-01

71

Investigation of coherent spectral and incoherent wavelength/time optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continued Internet growth is prompting the deployment of optical fiber-based local access networks throughout the world to meet increasing bandwidth demands. To enable flexible bandwidth allocation and the possibility of enhanced security within these networks, this work investigates optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA), an access technique that enables multiple users to broadcast across a shared fiber through optically encoded transmission. The work focuses on two different encoding methods, spectral phase encoded time spreading (SPECTS) and time/wavelength coding. The SPECTS technique encodes signal pulses through phase manipulation of the spectrum. The limitations caused by coherent beat noise and multiple access interference is analyzed, and techniques to mitigate their effects are experimentally demonstrated. Synchronous transmission, Walsh codes, and optical thresholding and time gating are all effectively employed on a SPECTS testbed, enabling it to support 32 users at 10 Gb/s/user with 20% spectral efficiency. Testbed simulations reveal the possibility of supporting up to 100 users, and a field trial utilizing integrated, silica-based encoders/decoders shows the viability of the SPECTS technique in a realistic telecommunications environment. In time/wavelength coding O-CDMA, signals are represented as a unique sequence of multi-wavelength pulses, defined by a code. This work develops a particular time/wavelength code set designed to optimize spectral efficiency, derived from Golomb rulers. Analysis and simulation of the codes establish design parameters for an O-CDMA technology demonstrator, and the implementation is able to support 16 users operating at 1.25 Gb/s/user at 10% spectral efficiency. A comparison of the two O-CDMA techniques reveals that time/wavelength codes have better performance than SPECTS in a coherent beat noise-limited regime, but cannot provide asynchronous transmission between users. If the absence of coherent beat noise, SPECTS outperforms time/wavelength codes. For completeness, this work also investigates optical label switching, which enables higher data throughput in wider area networks. The work focuses on the double sideband subcarrier technique and analyzes its performance, as limited by dispersion- and nonlinearity-induced RF fading. A field trial demonstrating key optical router functions validates the technique.

Hernandez, Vincent Jose

72

Investigating the semantic interoperability of laboratory data exchanged using LOINC codes in three large institutions.  

PubMed

LOINC codes are seeing increased use in many organizations. In this study, we examined the barriers to semantic interoperability that still exist in electronic data exchange of laboratory results even when LOINC codes are being used as the observation identifiers. We analyzed semantic interoperability of laboratory data exchanged using LOINC codes in three large institutions. To simplify the analytic process, we divided the laboratory data into quantitative and non-quantitative tests. The analysis revealed many inconsistencies even when LOINC codes are used to exchange laboratory data. For quantitative tests, the most frequent problems were inconsistencies in the use of units of measure: variations in the strings used to represent units (unrecognized synonyms), use of units that result in different magnitudes of the numeric quantity, and missing units of measure. For non-quantitative tests, the most frequent problems were acronyms/synonyms, different classes of elements in enumerated lists, and the use of free text. Our findings highlight the limitations of interoperability in current laboratory reporting. PMID:22195138

Lin, Ming-Chin; Vreeman, Daniel J; Huff, Stanley M

2011-10-22

73

Investigating the execution of EOPs in LOTDFP + ATWS + LOCA scenarios for an ABWR using MAAP code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the execution of emergency operation procedures (EOPs) for an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) during postulated accident conditions using MAAP 4 code is discussed in this paper. The simulation scenarios included the loss of turbine driven feedwater pump (LOTDRFP), the anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), and the loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Based on the comparisons of

Yuh-Ming Ferng; Ying-Ting Liu; Chunkuan Shih

2010-01-01

74

Investigation of spatial coupling aspects for coupled code application in PWR safety analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation of nuclear power plant accident conditions requires three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of the reactor core to ensure a realistic description of physical phenomena. This paper describes a part of the research activities carried out on the sensitivity of coupled neutronics\\/thermal-hydraulic system code's results to the spatial mesh overlays used for modeling pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores for analysis of

Nadejda K Todorova; Kostadin N Ivanov

2003-01-01

75

Investigations of an Independent Double-Gated Polycrystalline Silicon Nanowire Thin Film Transistor for Nonvolatile Memory Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the merits of an independent double-gated configuration for nonvolatile memory operations. In contrast to the convention where the programming/erasing gate also acts as the read gate, a dedicated read gate with an oxide-only dielectric is proposed in the new mode. Using the same device under identical programming/erasing conditions, greatly improved programming speed (e.g., 61% increase under the stress condition of 18 V for 10 ?s) is achieved, while the erasing speed, albeit initially retarded, shows enhancement when the erasing time is larger than a certain value, which can be explained by the back-gate bias effects. Retention characterization indicates that the new mode offers a larger memory window after 10 year extrapolation. In addition, a proper auxiliary gate bias applied during programming/erasing processes is found to improve the programming/erasing speed. Finally, by taking advantage of the separate-gated feature, two independent storage sites can be obtained by employing an oxide--nitride--oxide layer as the dielectric for both gates, thus realizing 2-bit/cell functionality.

Chen, Wei-Chen; Lin, Horng-Chih; Huang, Tiao-Yuan

2011-08-01

76

Statistical investigation of new topological indices based on the molecular path code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On checking for the statistical significance of correlations between six physical properties of 131 constitutional isomers of alkanes with 6-10 carbon atoms and new topological indices based on the molecular path code analyzed previously in [A.T. Balaban, A. Beteringhe, T. Constantinescu, P.A. Filip, O. Ivanciuc, J. Chem. Inf. Model. 47 (2007) 716.], it was found that only the correlations with the density at 25 °C, the Gibbs free energy of formation in gaseous state, and the refractive index at 25 °C had valid high coefficients of determination, whereas the variance of the molar heat capacity and of the normal boiling point was due to clustering according to the number of carbon atoms. Correlations with the vaporization enthalpy had an intermediate position.

Vuki?evi?, Damir; Beteringhe, Adrian; Constantinescu, Titus; Pompe, Matevž; Balaban, Alexandru T.

2008-10-01

77

Theoretical models and simulation codes to investigate bystander effects and cellular communication at low doses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts in space are continuously exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from Galactic Cosmic Rays During the last ten years the effects of low radiation doses have been widely re-discussed following a large number of observations on the so-called non targeted effects in particular bystander effects The latter consist of induction of cytogenetic damage in cells not directly traversed by radiation most likely as a response to molecular messengers released by directly irradiated cells Bystander effects which are observed both for lethal endpoints e g clonogenic inactivation and apoptosis and for non-lethal ones e g mutations and neoplastic transformation tend to show non-linear dose responses This might have significant consequences in terms of low-dose risk which is generally calculated on the basis of the Linear No Threshold hypothesis Although the mechanisms underlying bystander effects are still largely unknown it is now clear that two types of cellular communication i e via gap junctions and or release of molecular messengers into the extracellular environment play a fundamental role Theoretical models and simulation codes can be of help in elucidating such mechanisms In the present paper we will review different available modelling approaches including one that is being developed at the University of Pavia The focus will be on the different assumptions adopted by the various authors and on the implications of such assumptions in terms of non-targeted radiobiological damage and more generally low-dose

Ballarini, F.; Alloni, D.; Facoetti, A.; Mairani, A.; Nano, R.; Ottolenghi, A.

78

78 FR 37571 - Certain Opaque Polymers; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United States Code  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 337-TA-883] Certain Opaque Polymers; Institution of Investigation Pursuant...States after importation of certain opaque polymers by reason of infringement of certain...States after importation of certain opaque polymers that infringe one or more of claims...

2013-06-21

79

Groundwater flow analyses in preliminary site investigations. Modelling strategy and computer codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The analyses of groundwater flow comprised a part of the preliminary site investigations which were carried out by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) for five areas in Finland during 1987 -1992. The main objective of the flow analyses was to characterize groundw...

V. Taivassalo L. Koskinen K. Meling

1994-01-01

80

SPARTAN: a simple performance assessment code for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

SPARTAN is a simple computer model designed for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project to calculate radionuclide transport in geologic media. The physical processes considered are limited to Darcy`s flow, radionuclide decay, and convective transport with constant retardation of radionuclides relative to water flow. Inputs for the model must be provided for the geometry, repository area, flow path, water

Lin

1985-01-01

81

Investigation into the flow field around a maneuvering submarine using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate and efficient prediction of hydrodynamic forces and moments on a maneuvering submarine has been achieved by investigating the flow physics involving the interaction of the vortical flow shed from the sail and the cross-flow boundary layer of the hull. In this investigation, a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computer code is used to simulate the most important physical effects related to maneuvering. It is applied to a generic axisymmetric body with the relatively simple case of the flow around an unappended hull at an angle of attack. After the code is validated for this simple case, it is validated for the case of a submarine with various appendages attached to the hull moving at an angle of drift. All six components of predicted forces and moments for various drift angles are compared with experimental data. Calculated pressure coefficients along the azimuthal angle are compared with experimental data and discussed to show the effect of the sail and the stern appendages. To understand the main flow features for a submarine in a straight flight, the RANS code is applied to simulate SUBOFF axisymmetric body at zero angle of attack in a straight-line basin. Pressure coefficient, skin friction coefficient, mean velocity components and the Reynolds shear stresses are compared with experimental data and discussed. The physical aspects of the interaction between the vortical flow shed by the sail and the cross-flow boundary layer on the hull are explained in greater detail. The understanding of this interaction is very important to characterize accurately the hydrodynamic behavior of a maneuvering submarine.

Rhee, Bong

82

Response Margins Investigation of Piping Dynamic Analyses Using the Independent Support Motion Method and PVRC (Pressure Vessel Research Committee) Damping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of Independent Support Motion (ISM) response spectrum methods of analysis coupled with the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) recommendation for damping, to compute the dynamic component of the seismic response of piping systems, was ...

M. Reich P. Bezler Y. K. Wang

1988-01-01

83

Utilization of a Photon Transport Code to Investigate Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning Quantities and Techniques.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile computer program MORSE, based on neutron and photon transport theory has been utilized to investigate radiation therapy treatment planning quantities and techniques. A multi-energy group representation of transport equation provides a concise approach in utilizing Monte Carlo numerical techniques to multiple radiation therapy treatment planning problems. A general three dimensional geometry is used to simulate radiation therapy treatment planning problems in configurations of an actual clinical setting. Central axis total and scattered dose distributions for homogeneous and inhomogeneous water phantoms are calculated and the correction factor for lung and bone inhomogeneities are also evaluated. Results show that Monte Carlo calculations based on multi-energy group transport theory predict the depth dose distributions that are in good agreement with available experimental data. Improved correction factors based on the concepts of lung-air-ratio and bone-air-ratio are proposed in lieu of the presently used correction factors that are based on tissue-air-ratio power law method for inhomogeneity corrections. Central axis depth dose distributions for a bremsstrahlung spectrum from a linear accelerator is also calculated to exhibit the versatility of the computer program in handling multiple radiation therapy problems. A novel approach is undertaken to study the dosimetric properties of brachytherapy sources. Dose rate constants for various radionuclides are calculated from the numerically generated dose rate versus source energy curves. Dose rates can also be generated for any point brachytherapy source with any arbitrary energy spectrum at various radial distances from this family of curves.

Palta, Jatinder Raj

84

The Utility of CBM Written Language Indices: An Investigation of ProductionDependent, Production Independent, and Accurate-Production Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the utility of three categories of CBM written lan- guage indices including production-dependent indices (Total Words Written, Words Spelled Correctly, and Correct Writing Sequences), production-independent indi- ces (Percentage of Words Spelled Correctly and Percentage of Correct Writing Sequences), and an accurate-production indicator (Correct Minus Incorrect Writ- ing Sequences) and was designed to answer three research questions. First,

Jennifer Jewell; Christine Kerres Malecki

2005-01-01

85

Code-Switching in Japanese Language Classrooms: An Exploratory Investigation of Native vs. Non-Native Speaker Teacher Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on language classroom code-switching ranges from describing both teachers' and learners' first language and target language use to making connections between code-switching and student learning. However, few studies compare differences in practice between native and non-native speaker teachers and even fewer consider culture of learning…

Hobbs, Valerie; Matsuo, Ayumi; Payne, Mark

2010-01-01

86

Investigations of the VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmark I with the Coupled Code System RELAP5/PARCS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Karlsruhe Research Center (FZK) is involved in the overall qualification of computational tools for the safety evaluation of nuclear power plants of different design to improve their prediction capability and acceptability. In this framework, the code...

V. Sanchez-Espinoza

2009-01-01

87

Modified COBRA-EN code to investigate thermal-hydraulic analysis of the Iranian VVER-1000 core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a typical VVER-1000 core at steady-state condition, using COBRA-EN code, is presented herein. Required power distribution was computed by the WIMS-D4 and CITATION codes based on the neutronic calculations. Maximum and average fuel temperature, enthalpy, void fraction, coolant temperature and density, coolant mass flow rate and pressure drop are calculated using EPRI model. Thermal-hydraulic calculations of the

S. Safaei Arshi; S. M. Mirvakili; F. Faghihi

2010-01-01

88

Chromatographic separation and multicollection-ICPMS analysis of iron. Investigating mass-dependent and -independent isotope effects.  

PubMed

A procedure was developed that allows precise determination of Fe isotopic composition. Purification of Fe was achieved by ion chromatography on AG1-X8 strongly basic anion-exchange resin. No isotopic fractionation is associated with column chemistry within 0.02 per thousand /amu at 2sigma. The isotopic composition was measured with a Micromass IsoProbe multicollection inductively coupled plasma hexapole mass spectrometer. The Fe isotopic composition of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous chondrite, which best approximates the solar composition, is indistinguishable from that of IRMM-014 (-0.005 +/- 0.017 per thousand /amu). The IRMM-014 reference material is therefore used for normalization of the isotopic ratios. The protocol for analyzing mass-dependent variations is validated by measuring geostandards (IF-G, DTS-2, BCR-2, AGV-2) and heavily fractionated Fe left after vacuum evaporation of molten wüstite (FeO) and solar (MgO-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2)-CaO-FeO in chondritic proportions) compositions. It is shown that the isotopic composition of Fe during evaporation of FeO follows a Rayleigh distillation with a fractionation factor alpha equal to (m(1)/m(2)()1/2), where m(1) and m(2) are the masses of the considered isotopes. This agrees with earlier measurements and theoretical expectations. The isotopic composition of Fe left after vacuum evaporation of solar composition also follows a Rayleigh distillation but with a fractionation factor (1.013 22 +/- 0.000 67 for the (56)Fe/(54)Fe ratio) that is lower than the square root of the masses (1.018 35). The protocol for analyzing mass-independent variations is validated by measuring terrestrial rocks that are not expected to show departure from mass-dependent fractionation. After internal normalization of the (57)Fe/(54)Fe ratio, the isotopic composition of Fe can be measured accurately with precisions of 0.2epsilon and 0.5epsilon at 2sigma for (56)Fe/(54)Fe and (58)Fe/(54)Fe ratios, respectively (epsilon refers to relative variations in parts per 10 000). For (58)Fe, this precision is an order of magnitude better than what had been achieved before. The method is applied to rocks that could potentially exhibit mass-independent effects, meteorites and Archaean terrestrial samples. The isotopic composition of a 3.8-Ga-old banded iron formation from Isua (IF-G, Greenland), and quartz-pyroxene rocks from Akilia and Innersuartuut (GR91-26 and SM/GR/171770, Greenland) are normal within uncertainties. Similarly, the Orgueil (CI1), Allende (CV3.2), Eagle Station (ESPAL), Brenham (MGPAL), and Old Woman (IIAB) meteorites do not show any mass-independent effect. PMID:15456307

Dauphas, Nicolas; Janney, Philip E; Mendybaev, Ruslan A; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Richter, Frank M; Davis, Andrew M; van Zuilen, Mark; Hines, Rebekah; Foley, C Nicole

2004-10-01

89

Polyphasic Study of the Spatial Distribution of Microorganisms in Mexican Pozol, a Fermented Maize Dough, Demonstrates the Need for Cultivation-Independent Methods To Investigate Traditional Fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of microorganisms in pozol balls, a fermented maize dough, was investigated by a polypha- sic approach in which we used both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, including microbial enumeration, fermentation product analysis, quantification of microbial taxa with 16S rRNA-targeted oligo- nucleotide probes, determination of microbial fingerprints by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. Our

FREDERIC AMPE; NABIL BEN OMAR; CLAIRE MOIZAN; CARMEN WACHER

1999-01-01

90

Further results on product codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of codes, called product generator codes, which are similar to Elias's iterated codes, are investigated. An important subclass of these codes is the generalized Reed-Muller codes. If the original codes that are iterated to produce a product code areL_1andL_2-step orthogonalizable, then the product code is (L_1 + L_2 - 1)-step orthogonalizable. Further if anuth-order product generator code

W. Gore

1970-01-01

91

Culture-independent and -dependent methods to investigate the diversity of planktonic bacteria in the northern Bering Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planktonic bacteria are abundant in the Bering Sea. However, very little is known about their diversity and the roles of various\\u000a bacteria in the ocean. Bacterioplankton diversity in the northern Bering Sea was investigated using a combination of molecular\\u000a and cultivation-based methods. Community fingerprint analysis using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis\\u000a revealed an apparent difference in the bacterioplankton community

Yinxin Zeng; Yang Zou; Jacqueline M. Grebmeier; Jianfeng He; Tianling Zheng

92

The duck hepatitis virus 5'-UTR possesses HCV-like IRES activity that is independent of eIF4F complex and modulated by downstream coding sequences  

PubMed Central

Duck hepatitis virus (DHV-1) is a worldwide distributed picornavirus that causes acute and fatal disease in young ducklings. Recently, the complete genome of DHV-1 has been determined and comparative sequence analysis has shown that possesses the typical picornavirus organization but exhibits several unique features. For the first time, we provide evidence that the 626-nucleotide-long 5'-UTR of the DHV-1 genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficiently both in vitro and in mammalian cells. The prediction of the secondary structure of the DHV-1 IRES shows significant similarity to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES. Moreover, similarly to HCV IRES, DHV-1 IRES can direct translation initiation in the absence of a functional eIF4F complex. We also demonstrate that the activity of the DHV-1 IRES is modulated by a viral coding sequence located downstream of the DHV-1 5'-UTR, which enhances DHV-1 IRES activity both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, mutational analysis of the predicted pseudo-knot structures at the 3'-end of the putative DHV-1 IRES supported the presence of conserved domains II and III and, as it has been previously described for other picornaviruses, these structures are essential for keeping the normal internal initiation of translation of DHV-1.

2011-01-01

93

The duck hepatitis virus 5'-UTR possesses HCV-like IRES activity that is independent of eIF4F complex and modulated by downstream coding sequences.  

PubMed

Duck hepatitis virus (DHV-1) is a worldwide distributed picornavirus that causes acute and fatal disease in young ducklings. Recently, the complete genome of DHV-1 has been determined and comparative sequence analysis has shown that possesses the typical picornavirus organization but exhibits several unique features. For the first time, we provide evidence that the 626-nucleotide-long 5'-UTR of the DHV-1 genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficiently both in vitro and in mammalian cells. The prediction of the secondary structure of the DHV-1 IRES shows significant similarity to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES. Moreover, similarly to HCV IRES, DHV-1 IRES can direct translation initiation in the absence of a functional eIF4F complex. We also demonstrate that the activity of the DHV-1 IRES is modulated by a viral coding sequence located downstream of the DHV-1 5'-UTR, which enhances DHV-1 IRES activity both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, mutational analysis of the predicted pseudo-knot structures at the 3'-end of the putative DHV-1 IRES supported the presence of conserved domains II and III and, as it has been previously described for other picornaviruses, these structures are essential for keeping the normal internal initiation of translation of DHV-1. PMID:21450110

Liu, Guangqing; Yángüez, Emilio; Chen, Zongyan; Li, Chuanfeng

2011-03-31

94

Dispersed flow film boiling: An investigation of the possibility to improve the models implemented in the NRC computer codes for the reflooding phase of the LOCA  

SciTech Connect

Dispersed Flow Film Boiling is the heat transfer regime that occurs at high void fractions in a heated channel. The way this heat transfer mode is modelled in the NRC computer codes (RELAP5 and TRAC) and the validity of the assumptions and empirical correlations used is discussed. An extensive review of the theoretical and experimental work related with heat transfer to highly dispersed mixtures reveals the basic deficiencies of these models: the investigation refers mostly to the typical conditions of low rate bottom reflooding, since the simulation of this physical situation by the computer codes has often showed poor results. The alternative models that are available in the literature are reviewed, and their merits and limits are highlighted. The modifications that could improve the physics of the models implemented in the codes are identified.

Andreani, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Yadigaroglu, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)]|[Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Thermal-Hydraulics

1992-08-01

95

Evaluation of the rodent Hershberger bioassay on intact juvenile males--testing of coded chemicals and supplementary biochemical investigations.  

PubMed

Under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) the Hershberger assay on juvenile intact male rats is being validated as a screen for compounds with anti-androgenic potential. We participated in the testing of coded chemicals. Compounds included the positive control flutamide (FLUT, 3 mg/kg), linuron (LIN, 10, 100 mg/kg), p,p'-DDE (16, 160 mg/kg), and two negative substances, 4-nonylphenol (NP, 160 mg/kg) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP, 10 mg/kg). Compounds were administered for 10 consecutive days by gavage to testosterone propionate (TP, 1 mg/kgs.c.)-supplemented rats. Uncoding revealed these results: compared to vehicle controls, treatment with TP resulted in increased androgen-sensitive tissue (AST) weights of ventral prostate (VP), seminal vesicles (SV), levator ani and bulbocavernosus muscles (LABC), Cowper's glands, and epididymides, and in decreased testes weight. When assessing anti-androgenic potential in TP-supplemented rats, FLUT decreased all AST weights, and increased testes weight. p,p'-DDE at the high dose, decreased final body weight and all AST weights, whereas the low dose only affected SV weight. LIN slightly decreased final body weight and decreased absolute SV and LABC and relative SV weights only at the high dose. NP decreased final body weight and only absolute SV weights, DNP was ineffective. Investigations not requested by OECD included measurement of liver enzymes and revealed strong induction of testosterone-metabolizing and phase II conjugating enzymes by p,p'-DDE. Our findings suggest that in principle the juvenile intact male rat can be used in the Hershberger assay to screen for anti-androgenic potential thereby contributing to a refinement of the assay in terms of animal welfare. However, in our hands this animal model was somewhat less sensitive than the peripubertal castrated rat. Final conclusions, however, can only be drawn on the basis of all available validation data. Results obtained with the negative reference compound NP suggest that a treatment-related decrement in body weights may affect AST weights and represent a confounding factor when screening for anti-androgenic properties. Finally, p,p'-DDE may affect AST weights by several mechanisms including enhanced testosterone metabolism. PMID:19467291

Freyberger, A; Schladt, L

2009-05-23

96

Independent Technical Investigation of the Puna Geothermal Venture Unplanned Steam Release, June 12 and 13, 1991, Puna, Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

On June 24, 1991, a third-party investigation team consisting of Richard P. Thomas, Duey E. Milner, James L. Moore, and Dick Whiting began an investigation into the blowout of well KS-8, which occurred at the Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) site on June 12, 1991, and caused the unabated release of steam for a period of 31 hours before PGV succeeded in closing in the well. The scope of the investigation was to: (a) determine the cause(s) of the incident; (b) evaluate the adequacy of PGVs drilling and blowout prevention equipment and procedures; and (c) make recommendations for any appropriate changes in equipment and/or procedures. This report finds that the blowout occurred because of inadequacies in PGVs drilling plan and procedures and not as a result of unusual or unmanageable subsurface geologic or hydrologic conditions. While the geothermal resource in the area being drilled is relatively hot, the temperatures are not excessive for modem technology and methods to control. Fluid pressures encountered are also manageable if proper procedures are followed and the appropriate equipment is utilized. A previous blowout of short duration occurred on February 21, 1991, at the KS-7 injection well being drilled by PGV at a depth of approximately 1600'. This unexpected incident alerted PGV to the possibility of encountering a high temperature, fractured zone at a relatively shallow depth. The experience at KS-7 prompted PGV to refine its hydrological model; however, the drilling plan utilized for KS-8 was not changed. Not only did PGV fail to modify its drilling program following the KS-7 blowout, but they also failed to heed numerous ''red flags'' (warning signals) in the five days preceding the KS-8 blowout, which included a continuous 1-inch flow of drilling mud out of the wellbore, gains in mud volume while pulling stands, and gas entries while circulating muds bottoms up, in addition to lost circulation that had occurred earlier below the shoe of the 13-3/8-hch casing.

Thomas, Richard; Whiting, Dick; Moore, James; Milner, Duey

1991-07-01

97

DNA codes  

SciTech Connect

We have begun to characterize a variety of codes, motivated by potential implementation as (quaternary) DNA n-sequences, with letters denoted A, C The first codes we studied are the most reminiscent of conventional group codes. For these codes, Hamming similarity was generalized so that the score for matched letters takes more than one value, depending upon which letters are matched [2]. These codes consist of n-sequences satisfying an upper bound on the similarities, summed over the letter positions, of distinct codewords. We chose similarity 2 for matches of letters A and T and 3 for matches of the letters C and G, providing a rough approximation to double-strand bond energies in DNA. An inherent novelty of DNA codes is 'reverse complementation'. The latter may be defined, as follows, not only for alphabets of size four, but, more generally, for any even-size alphabet. All that is required is a matching of the letters of the alphabet: a partition into pairs. Then, the reverse complement of a codeword is obtained by reversing the order of its letters and replacing each letter by its match. For DNA, the matching is AT/CG because these are the Watson-Crick bonding pairs. Reversal arises because two DNA sequences form a double strand with opposite relative orientations. Thus, as will be described in detail, because in vitro decoding involves the formation of double-stranded DNA from two codewords, it is reasonable to assume - for universal applicability - that the reverse complement of any codeword is also a codeword. In particular, self-reverse complementary codewords are expressly forbidden in reverse-complement codes. Thus, an appropriate distance between all pairs of codewords must, when large, effectively prohibit binding between the respective codewords: to form a double strand. Only reverse-complement pairs of codewords should be able to bind. For most applications, a DNA code is to be bi-partitioned, such that the reverse-complementary pairs are separated across the two blocks. For the foregoing reasons, these two blocks of codewords suffice as the hooks and loops of a digital Velcro. We began our investigations of such codes by constructing quaternary BCH reverse-complement codes, using cyclic codes and conventional Hamming distance [4]. We also obtained upper and lower bounds on the rate of reverse-complement codes with a metric function based on the foregoing similarities [3]. For most applications involving DNA, however, the reverse-complementary analogue of codes based on the insertion-deletion distance is more advantageous. This distance equals the codeword length minus the longest length of a common (not necessarily contiguous) subsequence. (The 'aligned' codes described above may be used under special experimental conditions), The advantage arises because, under the assumption that DNA is very flexible, the sharing of sufficiently long subsequences between codewords would be tantamount to the ability of one of their reverse complements to form a double strand with the other codeword. Thus far, using the random coding method, we have derived an asymptotic lower bound on the rate of reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes, as a function of the insertion-deletion distance fraction and of the alphabet size [1]. For the quaternary DNA alphabet of primary importance, this lower bound yields an asymptotically positive rate if the insertion-deletion-distance fraction does not exceed the threshold {approx} 0.19. Extensions of the Varsamov-Tenengol'ts construction of insertion-deletion codes [5] for reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes will be described. Experiments have been performed involving some of our DNA codes.

Torney, D. C. (David C.)

2001-01-01

98

View-independent coding of face identity in frontal and temporal cortices is modulated by familiarity: an event-related fMRI study.  

PubMed

Face recognition is a unique visual skill enabling us to recognize a large number of person identities, despite many differences in the visual image from one exposure to another due to changes in viewpoint, illumination, or simply passage of time. Previous familiarity with a face may facilitate recognition when visual changes are important. Using event-related fMRI in 13 healthy observers, we studied the brain systems involved in extracting face identity independent of modifications in visual appearance during a repetition priming paradigm in which two different photographs of the same face (either famous or unfamiliar) were repeated at varying delays. We found that functionally defined face-selective areas in the lateral fusiform cortex showed no repetition effects for faces across changes in image views, irrespective of pre-existing familiarity, suggesting that face representations formed in this region do not generalize across different visual images, even for well-known faces. Repetition of different but easily recognizable views of an unfamiliar face produced selective repetition decreases in a medial portion of the right fusiform gyrus, whereas distinct views of a famous face produced repetition decreases in left middle temporal and left inferior frontal cortex selectively, but no decreases in fusiform cortex. These findings reveal that different views of the same familiar face may not be integrated within a single representation at initial perceptual stages subserved by the fusiform face areas, but rather involve later processing stages where more abstract identity information is accessed. PMID:15670699

Pourtois, Gilles; Schwartz, Sophie; Seghier, Mohamed L; Lazeyras, François; Vuilleumier, Patrik

2004-12-19

99

Supporting the cybercrime investigation process: Effective discrimination of source code authors based on byte-level information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source code authorship analysis is the particular field that attempts to identify the author of a computer program by treating each program as a linguistically analyzable entity. This is usually based on other undisputed program samples from the same author. There are several cases where the application of such a method could be of a major benefit, such as tracing

Georgia Frantzeskou; Efstathios Stamatatos; Stefanos Gritzalis

2005-01-01

100

Investigations on boron carbide oxidation for nuclear reactors safety—General modelling for ICARE\\/CATHARE code applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper deals with the problem of boron carbide pellet oxidation which might occur during a severe accident. A basic correlation, involving global variables, has been developed for the simulation of boron carbide oxidation with the ICARE\\/CATHARE code. This modelling has been based on available experimental data, including the VERDI separate effects experiments performed by IRSN at low pressures

N. Seiler; F. Bertrand; O. Marchand; G. Repetto; S. Ederli

2008-01-01

101

Investigation of a Two-Phase Nozzle Flow and Validation of Several Computer Codes by the Experimental Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stationary experiments with a convergent nozzle are performed in order to validate advanced two-phase computer codes, which find application in the blowdown-phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The steam/water flow presents a broad variety of initi...

F. Kedziur

1980-01-01

102

Investigations on possible roles of C-terminal propeptide of a Ca-independent ?-amylase from bacillus.  

PubMed

Previously, an extracellular ?-amylase (BKA) had been purified from the culture of Bacillus sp. KR8104. Subsequently, the crystal structure of the active enzyme revealed a 422 amino acids polypeptide. In this study, the bka was cloned into E. coli, which encoded a polypeptide of 659 amino acids including two additional fragments: one 44 residues N-terminal fragment and another 193 residues C-terminal fragment. In order to investigate the role of the C-terminal fragment, two constructs with and without this region [BKA?(N44) and BKA?(N44C193)] were designed and expressed in E. coli BL21. The optimum pH, thermal stability, and the end-products of starch hydrolysis were found to be similar in both constructs. The Km and V(max) values for BKA?(N44) were lower than BKA?(N44C193), using either starch or ethylidene-blocked 4-nitrophenylmaltoheptaoside as a substrate. PMID:22713983

Salimi, Ali; Yousefi, Fatemeh; Ghollasi, Marzieh; Daneshjou, Sara; Tavoli, Hesam; Ghobadi, Sirous; Khajeh, Khosro

2012-08-01

103

Supporting the Cybercrime Investigation Process: Effective Discrimination of Source Code Authors Based on Byte-Level Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Source code authorship analysis is the particular field that attempts to identify the author of a computer program by treating each program as a linguistically analyzable entity. This is usually based on other undisputed program samples from the same author. There are several cases where the application of such a method could be of a major benefit, such as tracing the source of code left in the system after a cyber attack, authorship disputes, proof of authorship in court, etc. In this paper, we present our approach which is based on byte-level n-gram profiles and is an extension of a method that has been successfully applied to natural language text authorship attribution. We propose a simplified profile and a new similarity measure which is less complicated than the algorithm followed in text authorship attribution and it seems more suitable for source code identification since is better able to deal with very small training sets. Experiments were performed on two different data sets, one with programs written in C++ and the second with programs written in Java. Unlike the traditional language-dependent metrics used by previous studies, our approach can be applied to any programming language with no additional cost. The presented accuracy rates are much better than the best reported results for the same data sets.

Frantzeskou, Georgia; Stamatatos, Efstathios; Gritzalis, Stefanos

104

The Golay convolutional code - Some application aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golay convolutional code and related block codes are investigated from an application point of view. We calculate the distance spectrum of the Golay convolutional code and the weight distributions of the block codes using the transfer-matrix method. The performance of the considered codes is shown and discussed. Moreover, the codes are applied as component codes of parallel concatenated codes

Sven Riedel; Christian Weiß

1999-01-01

105

Independence Is.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook is designed to help participants of the Independence Training Program (ITP) to achieve a definition of "independence." The program was developed for teenage girls. The process for developing the concept of independence consists of four steps. Step one instructs the participant to create an imaginary situation where she is completely…

Stickney, Sharon

106

Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

2009-01-01

107

Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

2009-01-01

108

A comparative analysis of independent director appointments on stock price behaviour: an empirical investigation based on the Markov regime-switching model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002, the Taiwanese government regulated that new companies should appoint independent directors for good corporate governance. The purpose of this article is to compare appointing independent directors' motivation of structural changes in stock behaviour. The empirical results showed that the companies with mandatory or voluntary independent director appointments significantly reduced both stock returns and risks over 2000–2006.

Yung Chuan Lee; Su-Lien Lu

2013-01-01

109

MORSE Monte Carlo code  

SciTech Connect

The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

Cramer, S.N.

1984-01-01

110

On the Minimum Weight of Simple Full-Length Array LDPC Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the minimum weights of simple full-length array LDPC codes (SFA-LDPC codes). The SFA-LDPC codes are a subclass of LDPC codes, and constructed algebraically according to two integer parameters p and j. Mittelholzer and Yang et al. have studied the minimum weights of SFA-LDPC codes, but the exact minimum weights of the codes are not known except for some small p and j. In this paper, we show that the minimum weights of the SFA-LDPC codes with j=4 and j=5 are upper-bounded by 10 and 12, respectively, independent from the prime number p. By combining the results with Yang's lower-bound limits, we can conclude that the minimum weights of the SFA-LDPC codes with j=4 and p>7 are exactly 10 and those of the SFA-LDPC codes with j=5 are 10 or 12.

Sugiyama, Kenji; Kaji, Yuichi

111

Application of a multi-block CFD code to investigate the impact of geometry modeling on centrifugal compressor flow field predictions  

SciTech Connect

CFD codes capable of utilizing multi-block grids provide the capability to analyze the complete geometry of centrifugal compressors. Attendant with this increased capability is potentially increased grid setup time and more computational overhead with the resultant increase in wall clock time to obtain a solution. If the increase in difficulty of obtaining a solution significantly improves the solution from that obtained by modeling the features of the tip clearance flow or the typical bluntness of a centrifugal compressor`s trailing edge, then the additional burden is worthwhile. However, if the additional information obtained is of marginal use, then modeling of certain features of the geometry may provide reasonable solutions for designers to make comparative choices when pursuing a new design. In this spirit a sequence of grids were generated to study the relative importance of modeling versus detailed gridding of the tip gap and blunt trailing edge regions of the NASA large low-speed centrifugal compressor for which there is considerable detailed internal laser anemometry data available for comparison. The results indicate: (1) There is no significant difference in predicted tip clearance mass flow rate whether the tip gap is gridded or modeled. (2) Gridding rather than modeling the trailing edge results in better predictions of some flow details downstream of the impeller, but otherwise appears to offer no great benefits. (3) The pitchwise variation of absolute flow angle decreases rapidly up to 8% impeller radius ratio and much more slowly thereafter. Although some improvements in prediction of flow field details are realized as a result of analyzing the actual geometry there is no clear consensus that any of the grids investigated produced superior results in every case when compared to the measurements. However, if a multi-block code is available, it should be used, as it has the propensity for enabling better predictions than a single block code.

Hathaway, M.D. [Vehicle Technology Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wood, J.R. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1997-10-01

112

Independent Safety Organization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brookhaven National Laboratory has conducted a study on the need and feasibility of an independent organization to investigate significant safety events for the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, USNRC. The study consists of three par...

W. Y. Kato E. V. Weinstock J. F. Carew R. J. Cerbone J. G. Guppy

1985-01-01

113

Laplacian sparse coding, Hypergraph Laplacian sparse coding, and applications.  

PubMed

Sparse coding exhibits good performance in many computer vision applications. However, due to the overcomplete codebook and the independent coding process, the locality and the similarity among the instances to be encoded are lost. To preserve such locality and similarity information, we propose a Laplacian sparse coding (LSc) framework. By incorporating the similarity preserving term into the objective of sparse coding, our proposed Laplacian sparse coding can alleviate the instability of sparse codes. Furthermore, we propose a Hypergraph Laplacian sparse coding (HLSc), which extends our Laplacian sparse coding to the case where the similarity among the instances defined by a hypergraph. Specifically, this HLSc captures the similarity among the instances within the same hyperedge simultaneously, and also makes the sparse codes of them be similar to each other. Both Laplacian sparse coding and Hypergraph Laplacian sparse coding enhance the robustness of sparse coding. We apply the Laplacian sparse coding to feature quantization in Bag-of-Words image representation, and it outperforms sparse coding and achieves good performance in solving the image classification problem. The Hypergraph Laplacian sparse coding is also successfully used to solve the semi-auto image tagging problem. The good performance of these applications demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed formulations in locality and similarity preservation. PMID:22392702

Gao, Shenghua; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Chia, Liang-Tien

2013-01-01

114

Independent Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the Rehabilitation Act of…

Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

1994-01-01

115

CIGALE: Code Investigating GALaxy Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present CIGALE (Burgarella et al. 2005; Noll et al. 2009), a software developed at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille to fit galaxy spectral energy distributions from the rest-frame far-UV to far-IR wavelength range, and to derive some of their physical parameters. We also give some examples of scientific results obtained with CIGALE.

Roehlly, Y.; Burgarella, D.; Buat, V.; Giovannoli, É.; Noll, S.; Serra, P.

2012-09-01

116

Investigation of plant control strategies for the supercritical C0{sub 2}Brayton cycle for a sodium-cooled fast reactor using the plant dynamics code.  

SciTech Connect

The development of a control strategy for the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle has been extended to the investigation of alternate control strategies for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) nuclear power plant incorporating a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle power converter. The SFR assumed is the 400 MWe (1000 MWt) ABR-1000 preconceptual design incorporating metallic fuel. Three alternative idealized schemes for controlling the reactor side of the plant in combination with the existing automatic control strategy for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle are explored using the ANL Plant Dynamics Code together with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) Analysis Code System coupled together using the iterative coupling formulation previously developed and implemented into the Plant Dynamics Code. The first option assumes that the reactor side can be ideally controlled through movement of control rods and changing the speeds of both the primary and intermediate coolant system sodium pumps such that the intermediate sodium flow rate and inlet temperature to the sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger (RHX) remain unvarying while the intermediate sodium outlet temperature changes as the load demand from the electric grid changes and the S-CO{sub 2} cycle conditions adjust according to the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control strategy. For this option, the reactor plant follows an assumed change in load demand from 100 to 0 % nominal at 5 % reduction per minute in a suitable fashion. The second option allows the reactor core power and primary and intermediate coolant system sodium pump flow rates to change autonomously in response to the strong reactivity feedbacks of the metallic fueled core and assumed constant pump torques representing unchanging output from the pump electric motors. The plant behavior to the assumed load demand reduction is surprising close to that calculated for the first option. The only negative result observed is a slight increase in the intermediate inlet sodium temperatures by about 10 C. This temperature rise could presumably be precluded or significantly reduced through fine adjustment of the control rods and pump motors. The third option assumes that the reactor core power and primary and intermediate system flow rates are ideally reduced linearly in a programmed fashion that instantaneously matches the prescribed load demand. The calculated behavior of this idealized case reveals a number of difficulties because the control strategy for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle overcools the reactor potentially resulting in the calculation of sodium bulk freezing and the onset of sodium boiling. The results show that autonomous SFR operation may be viable for the particular assumed load change transient and deserves further investigation for other transients and postulated accidents.

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-04-12

117

Investigations into Resting-state Connectivity using Independent Component Analysis FMRIB Technical Report TR05CB1 (A related paper has been accepted for publication in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Special Issue on 'Multimodal neuroimaging of brain connectivity')  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inferring resting-state connectivity patterns from functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) data is a challenging task for any analytical technique. In this paper we review a probabilistic independent component analysis (PICA) approach, optimised for the analysis of FMRI data (Beckmann and Smith, 2004), and discuss the role which this exploratory technique can take in scientific investigations into the structure of these

Christian F. Beckmann; Marilena DeLuca; Joseph T. Devlin; Stephen M. Smith

118

Proceedings of the SMBE Tri-National Young Investigators' Workshop 2005 Relaxation of Functional Constraint on Light-Independent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Thuja  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light-independent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) plays a key role in the ability of nonflowering plants and algae to synthesize chlorophyll in darkness. This enzyme consists of three subunits encoded by the chlB, chlL, and chlN genes in the plastid genome. Previously, we found a high nonsynonymous substitution rate (dN) of the chlL gene in the lineage of Thuja standishii, a

Junko Kusumi; Aya Sato; Hidenori Tachida

119

Comet assay in reconstructed 3D human epidermal skin models--investigation of intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility with coded chemicals.  

PubMed

Reconstructed 3D human epidermal skin models are being used increasingly for safety testing of chemicals. Based on EpiDerm™ tissues, an assay was developed in which the tissues were topically exposed to test chemicals for 3h followed by cell isolation and assessment of DNA damage using the comet assay. Inter-laboratory reproducibility of the 3D skin comet assay was initially demonstrated using two model genotoxic carcinogens, methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and 4-nitroquinoline-n-oxide, and the results showed good concordance among three different laboratories and with in vivo data. In Phase 2 of the project, intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility was investigated with five coded compounds with different genotoxicity liability tested at three different laboratories. For the genotoxic carcinogens MMS and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, all laboratories reported a dose-related and statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in DNA damage in every experiment. For the genotoxic carcinogen, 2,4-diaminotoluene, the overall result from all laboratories showed a smaller, but significant genotoxic response (P < 0.05). For cyclohexanone (CHN) (non-genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and non-carcinogenic), an increase compared to the solvent control acetone was observed only in one laboratory. However, the response was not dose related and CHN was judged negative overall, as was p-nitrophenol (p-NP) (genotoxic in vitro but not in vivo and non-carcinogenic), which was the only compound showing clear cytotoxic effects. For p-NP, significant DNA damage generally occurred only at doses that were substantially cytotoxic (>30% cell loss), and the overall response was comparable in all laboratories despite some differences in doses tested. The results of the collaborative study for the coded compounds were generally reproducible among the laboratories involved and intra-laboratory reproducibility was also good. These data indicate that the comet assay in EpiDerm™ skin models is a promising model for the safety assessment of compounds with a dermal route of exposure. PMID:24150594

Reus, Astrid A; Reisinger, Kerstin; Downs, Thomas R; Carr, Gregory J; Zeller, Andreas; Corvi, Raffaella; Krul, Cyrille A M; Pfuhler, Stefan

2013-11-01

120

Differentiating cause-of-death terminology for deaths coded as sudden infant death syndrome, accidental suffocation, and unknown cause: an investigation using US death certificates, 2003-2004.  

PubMed

We compared written text on infant death certificates for deaths coded as sudden infant death syndrome (R95), unknown cause (R99), and accidental suffocation (W75). Using US mortality files supplemented with the death certifiers' written text for all infant deaths with International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 assigned codes R95, R99, and W75, we formed cause-of-death subcategories from common themes identified from the written text. Among all infant deaths in 2003-2004, the underlying cause of death was listed as R99 for 2128 deaths, R95 for 4408 deaths, and W75 for 931 deaths. Among the postneonatal deaths, the differences in subcategories varied between assigned ICD-10 codes: for R99-coded deaths, 45.8% were categorized as "Unknown" and 48.6% as "Pending"; for R95-coded deaths, 67.7% were categorized as "sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)"; and for W75-coded deaths, 76.4% were categorized as "Suffocation." Examination of the written text on the death certificates demonstrates variability in the assigned ICD-10 codes which could have an important effect on the estimates of SIDS cases in the United States. PMID:21981558

Kim, Shin Y; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Chu, Susan Y; Camperlengo, Lena T; Anderson, Robert N

2011-10-07

121

Character coding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Character coding has been called the bete noire of phylogenetic analysis. As you may have seen from class, the definition of "character" is squishy and varies between authors. Although there isn't agreement on exactly what a character is, it is possible to predict how certain character definitions and coding strategies affect phylogenetic analysis. This activity focuses on character coding, specifically about how different coding strategies can affect analysis. In this exercise we will try to look at different coding strategies by considering the simple shapes below. (1) What is a character, and what qualities do characters have? (2) Given the 'morphology' depicted above, what features vary? (3) Given the variation you identified, come up with as many character codings as you can; i.e., different ways that this variation can be coded into characters. (4) For each of the coding strategies you come up with in question 3, identify its assumptions, limitations, and strengths. (5) Identify your preferred coding strategy and defend your choice. Students asked to define what a character is and to discuss what they 'require', and then to come up with an exhaustive list of coding strategies for the sample morphology. They are then asked to list assumptions/limitations of each strategy.

Wilson, Jeff

122

Numerical investigations on methods to control the rate of heat release of HCCI combustion using reduced mechanism of n-heptane with a multidimensional CFD code  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a semi-reduced reaction scheme developed previously was used to derive a 26 step reduced mechanism, using the sensitivity approach and the steady state approximation (QSS) with Chemkin code. This 26 step model has been implemented in a CFD combustion code (Star-CD\\/Kinetics) to study combustion process in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. The first results obtained have

F. Maroteaux; L. Noel; A. Ahmed

2007-01-01

123

Extension of the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle to low reactor power operation: investigations using the coupled anl plant dynamics code-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor code system.  

SciTech Connect

Significant progress has been made on the development of a control strategy for the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle enabling removal of power from an autonomous load following Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) down to decay heat levels such that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be used to cool the reactor until decay heat can be removed by the normal shutdown heat removal system or a passive decay heat removal system such as Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) loops with DRACS in-vessel heat exchangers. This capability of the new control strategy eliminates the need for use of a separate shutdown heat removal system which might also use supercritical CO{sub 2}. It has been found that this capability can be achieved by introducing a new control mechanism involving shaft speed control for the common shaft joining the turbine and two compressors following reduction of the load demand from the electrical grid to zero. Following disconnection of the generator from the electrical grid, heat is removed from the intermediate sodium circuit through the sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger, the turbine solely drives the two compressors, and heat is rejected from the cycle through the CO{sub 2}-to-water cooler. To investigate the effectiveness of shaft speed control, calculations are carried out using the coupled Plant Dynamics Code-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code for a linear load reduction transient for a 1000 MWt metallic-fueled SFR with autonomous load following. No deliberate motion of control rods or adjustment of sodium pump speeds is assumed to take place. It is assumed that the S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery shaft speed linearly decreases from 100 to 20% nominal following reduction of grid load to zero. The reactor power is calculated to autonomously decrease down to 3% nominal providing a lengthy window in time for the switchover to the normal shutdown heat removal system or for a passive decay heat removal system to become effective. However, the calculations reveal that the compressor conditions are calculated to approach surge such that the need for a surge control system for each compressor is identified. Thus, it is demonstrated that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate in the initial decay heat removal mode even with autonomous reactor control. Because external power is not needed to drive the compressors, the results show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be used for initial decay heat removal for a lengthy interval in time in the absence of any off-site electrical power. The turbine provides sufficient power to drive the compressors. Combined with autonomous reactor control, this represents a significant safety advantage of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle by maintaining removal of the reactor power until the core decay heat falls to levels well below those for which the passive decay heat removal system is designed. The new control strategy is an alternative to a split-shaft layout involving separate power and compressor turbines which had previously been identified as a promising approach enabling heat removal from a SFR at low power levels. The current results indicate that the split-shaft configuration does not provide any significant benefits for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle over the current single-shaft layout with shaft speed control. It has been demonstrated that when connected to the grid the single-shaft cycle can effectively follow the load over the entire range. No compressor speed variation is needed while power is delivered to the grid. When the system is disconnected from the grid, the shaft speed can be changed as effectively as it would be with the split-shaft arrangement. In the split-shaft configuration, zero generator power means disconnection of the power turbine, such that the resulting system will be almost identical to the single-shaft arrangement. Without this advantage of the split-shaft configuration, the economic benefits of the single-shaft arrangement, provided by just one turbine and lower losses at the design point, are more important to the overall cycle performance. Therefore, the single-shaft

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-05-10

124

An Evaluation of Two Different Methods of Assessing Independent Investigations in an Operational Pre-University Level Examination in Biology in England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored aspects of assessment of extended investigation ("project") practiced in the operational examinations of The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES) for the perspective of construct validity. Samples of the 1993 (n=333) and 1996 (n=259) biology test results reveal two methods of assessing the project. (MAK)

Brown, Chris

1998-01-01

125

Arterial stiffness independently predicts cardiovascular events in an elderly community — Longitudinal Investigation for the Longevity and Aging in Hokkaido County (LILAC) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the predictive value of arterial stiffness to assess cardiovascular risk in elderly community-dwelling people by means of a multivariate Cox model. In 298 people older than 75 years (120 men and 178 women, average age: 79.6 years), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured between the right arm and ankle in a supine position. The LILAC study started

O. Matsuoka; K. Otsuka; S. Murakami; N. Hotta; G. Yamanaka; Y. Kubo; T. Yamanaka; M. Shinagawa; S. Nunoda; Y. Nishimura; K. Shibata; H. Saitoh; M. Nishinaga; M. Ishine; T. Wada; K. Okumiya; K. Matsubayashi; S. Yano; K. Ichihara; G. Cornélissen; F. Halberg; T. Ozawa

2005-01-01

126

Pharmacological investigations with different protein kinase C inhibitors on IgE-dependent and IgE-independent activation of human basophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study different selective inhibitors of the multifunctional serine\\/threonine kinase protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated on classical activation pathways of basophils in comparison to the nonselective protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine. The potent inhibitors Ro 31-7549, Ro 31-8220, calphostin C and ilmofosine (BM 41.440), which show selectivity for PKCin vitro, significantly potentiated Fc?RI-mediated histamine release up to 50%

U. Amon; E. von Stebut; H. H. Wolff

1993-01-01

127

A new code for Galileo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past six to eight years, an extensive research effort was conducted to investigate advanced coding techniques which promised to yield more coding gain than is available with current NASA standard codes. The delay in Galileo's launch due to the temporary suspension of the shuttle program provided the Galileo project with an opportunity to evaluate the possibility of including some version of the advanced codes as a mission enhancement option. A study was initiated last summer to determine if substantial coding gain was feasible for Galileo and, is so, to recommend a suitable experimental code for use as a switchable alternative to the current NASA-standard code. The Galileo experimental code study resulted in the selection of a code with constant length 15 and rate 1/4. The code parameters were chosen to optimize performance within cost and risk constraints consistent with retrofitting the new code into the existing Galileo system design and launch schedule. The particular code was recommended after a very limited search among good codes with the chosen parameters. It will theoretically yield about 1.5 dB enhancement under idealizing assumptions relative to the current NASA-standard code at Galileo's desired bit error rates. This ideal predicted gain includes enough cushion to meet the project's target of at least 1 dB enhancement under real, non-ideal conditions.

Dolinar, S.

1988-05-01

128

Poll Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you a pollster? Would you like to be one? PollCode makes all of this quite simple. With this handy application, visitors can type in a poll question and up to 30 possible answers. Visitors can customize the poll with their own colors, font, and settings. After visitors have completed their poll, they can use the HTML code provided here to share their poll with others via social media networks and the like. This version of Poll Code is compatible with all operating systems. [KMG

2013-05-09

129

Profile Guided Code Positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of our investigation of code positioning techniques using execution profile data as input into the compilation process. The primary objective of the positioning is to reduce the overhead of the instruction memory hierarchy. After initial investigation in the literature, we decided to implement two prototypes for the Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture (PA-RISC). The first, built on

Karl Pettis; Robert C. Hansen

1990-01-01

130

Investigating the burning characteristics of electric cables used in the nuclear power plant by way of 3-D transient FDS code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning characteristics of electrical cables are one of the key parameters for the fire hazard assessment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) since the cables are the essential sources of fire in the plants. A three-dimensional (3-D) transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code_FDS is adopted in this paper to simulate these characteristics related to the cable burning. Being one of the

Y. M. Ferng; C. H. Liu

2011-01-01

131

The effects of a conceptual change coupled-inquiry cycle investigation on student understanding of the independence of mass in rolling motion on an incline plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle is designed to incorporate learning cycle, inquiry, and conceptual change instructional models. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle on first-year, high school students' misconceptions of Newton's Laws and incline motion. This study was a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study with both quantitative and qualitative data analyses. Student notebook and test data were collected and analyzed in this study. Quantitative and qualitative analytical methods were utilized in the analysis of these data. A Stuart-Maxwell chi-square was used to assess the quantitative significance of changes in student conceptual understanding of incline motion at each phase of the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle. Qualitative analysis of the notebooks provided important support of the quantitative findings. Results indicate that students report a better understanding of incline motion and Newton's Laws as a result of completing a Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle investigation. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of the notebooks, using the Stuart-Maxwell chi-square test, indicate significant increases in student understanding of Newton's Laws and incline motion, at the alpha = 0.05 level. Analysis of student test data was largely inconclusive. This study indicates the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle helps students better understand incline motion and Newton's Laws. Significant decreases in the number of students reporting misconceptions about incline motion were evident. Evidence suggests the Conceptual Change Coupled-Inquiry Cycle is an effective learning cycle and that it can improve student understanding of science concepts.

Rowley, Eric Noel

132

Arterial stiffness independently predicts cardiovascular events in an elderly community -- Longitudinal Investigation for the Longevity and Aging in Hokkaido County (LILAC) study.  

PubMed

We investigated the predictive value of arterial stiffness to assess cardiovascular risk in elderly community-dwelling people by means of a multivariate Cox model. In 298 people older than 75 years (120 men and 178 women, average age: 79.6 years), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured between the right arm and ankle in a supine position. The LILAC study started on July 25, 2000, consultation was repeated yearly, and the last follow-up ended on November 30, 2004. During this follow-up span of 1227 days, there were nine cardiovascular deaths, the cause of death being myocardial infarction for two men and three women or stroke for two men and two women. In Cox proportional hazard models, baPWV as well as age, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hasegawa Dementia Scale Revised (HDSR) and the low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio showed a statistically significant association with the occurrence of cardiovascular death. A two-point increase in MMSE and HDSR score significantly protected against cardiovascular death, the relative risk (RR) being 0.776 (P = 0.0369) and 0.753 (P = 0.0029), respectively. The LF/HF ratio also was significant (P = 0.025), but the other indices of HRV were not. After adjustment for age and HDSR, a 200 cm/s increase in baPWV was associated with a 30.2% increase in risk (RR = 1.302, 95% CI: 1.110-1.525), and a 500 cm/s increase in baPWV with a 93.3% increase in risk (RR = 1.933, 95% CI: 1.300-2.874, P = 0.0011), whereas the LF/HF ratio was no longer associated with a statistically significant increase in cardiovascular mortality. In elderly community-dwelling people, arterial stiffness measured by means of baPWV predicted the occurrence of cardiovascular death beyond the prediction provided by age, gender, blood pressure and cognitive functions. baPWV should be added to the cardiovascular assessment in various clinical settings, including field medical surveys and preventive screening. The early detection of risk by chronomics allows the timely institution of prophylactic measures, thereby shifting the focus from rehabilitation to prehabilitation medicine, as a public service to several Japanese towns. PMID:16275505

Matsuoka, O; Otsuka, K; Murakami, S; Hotta, N; Yamanaka, G; Kubo, Y; Yamanaka, T; Shinagawa, M; Nunoda, S; Nishimura, Y; Shibata, K; Saitoh, H; Nishinaga, M; Ishine, M; Wada, T; Okumiya, K; Matsubayashi, K; Yano, S; Ichihara, K; Cornélissen, G; Halberg, F; Ozawa, T

2005-10-01

133

Medical imaging with coded apertures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Now algorithms were investigated for image reconstruction in emission tomography which could incorporate complex instrumental effects such as might be obtained with a coded aperture system. The investigation focused on possible uses of the wavelet transfo...

E. Keto S. Libby

1995-01-01

134

Concatenated quantum codes in biological systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk investigates how biological systems such as photosynthetic bacteria use quantum coding techniques such as decoherent subspaces, noiseless subsystems, and concatenated quantum codes to engineer long exitonic lifetimes and rapid energy transport. The existence of hierarchical structures in photosynthetic complexes is associated with concatenated quantum codes. A concatenated code is one that combines two or more codes to construct a hierarchical code that possesses features of all its constituent codes. In photosynthetic complexes, structures at the smallest level use quantum coding techniques to enhance exciton lifetimes, and structures at higher scales possess symmetries that enhance exciton hopping rates. The result is a concatenated quantum code that simultaneously protects excitons and enhances their transport rate. All known quantum codes can be described within the framework of group representation theory. This talk reviews the relationship between symmetry and quantum codes, and shows how photosynthetic bacteria and plants put quantum coding techniques to use to improve the efficiency of photosynthetic transport.

Lloyd, Seth

2011-03-01

135

Power-Distortion Performance of Successive Coding Strategy in Gaussian Ceo Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the power-distortion performance of the successive coding strategy in the so-called quadratic Gaussian CEO problem. In the CEO problem, L sensors will be deployed to observe independently corrupted versions of the source. They communicate information about their observations to the CEO through a Gaussian multiple access channel (MAC) without cooperating with each other. Two types

Hamid Behroozi; M. Reza Soleymani

2006-01-01

136

Distortion sum-rate performance of successive coding strategy in Gaussian wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the distortion sum-rate performance of the successive coding strategy in the so-called quadratic Gaussian CEO problem. In the CEO problem, the central unit or the CEO desires to obtain an optimal estimate of the source signal. Since the source cannot be observed directly, L sensors will be deployed to observe independently corrupted versions of the

Hamid Behroozi; M. Reza Soleymani

2005-01-01

137

Frontal units of the monkey coding the associative significance of visual and auditory stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two monkeys were trained on both visual and auditory association tasks. Single unit activity of the frontal (prefrontal and post-arcuate premotor) cortex was recorded in these monkeys to investigate the convergence of visual and auditory inputs and to examine whether the frontal units are involved in coding the meaning (associative significance) of the stimulus, independent of its modality. A total

Masataka Watanabe

1992-01-01

138

Suboptimum decoding of decomposable block codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To decode a long block code with a large minimum distance by maximum likelihood decoding is practically impossible because the decoding complexity is simply enormous. However, if a code can be decomposed into constituent codes with smaller dimensions and simpler structure, it is possible to devise a practical and yet efficient scheme to decode the code. This paper investigates a

Toyoo Takata; Yuji Yamashita; Toru Fujiwara; Tadao Kasami; Shu Lin

1994-01-01

139

Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools

John A Stoop

2004-01-01

140

NIH Funding of the Independent Investigator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This editorial describes the doubling of funding for the National Institute of Health (NIH) for biomedical research. The article expresses concerns about the NIH because their budget is failing due to 9/11.

MD/PhD Walter F. Boron (Yale University School of Medicine Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology)

2006-10-01

141

Subcortical neural synchrony and absolute thresholds predict frequency discrimination independently.  

PubMed

The neural mechanisms of pitch coding have been debated for more than a century. The two main mechanisms are coding based on the profiles of neural firing rates across auditory nerve fibers with different characteristic frequencies (place-rate coding), and coding based on the phase-locked temporal pattern of neural firing (temporal coding). Phase locking precision can be partly assessed by recording the frequency-following response (FFR), a scalp-recorded electrophysiological response that reflects synchronous activity in subcortical neurons. Although features of the FFR have been widely used as indices of pitch coding acuity, only a handful of studies have directly investigated the relation between the FFR and behavioral pitch judgments. Furthermore, the contribution of degraded neural synchrony (as indexed by the FFR) to the pitch perception impairments of older listeners and those with hearing loss is not well known. Here, the relation between the FFR and pure-tone frequency discrimination was investigated in listeners with a wide range of ages and absolute thresholds, to assess the respective contributions of subcortical neural synchrony and other age-related and hearing loss-related mechanisms to frequency discrimination performance. FFR measures of neural synchrony and absolute thresholds independently contributed to frequency discrimination performance. Age alone, i.e., once the effect of subcortical neural synchrony measures or absolute thresholds had been partialed out, did not contribute to frequency discrimination. Overall, the results suggest that frequency discrimination of pure tones may depend both on phase locking precision and on separate mechanisms affected in hearing loss. PMID:23760984

Marmel, F; Linley, D; Carlyon, R P; Gockel, H E; Hopkins, K; Plack, C J

2013-06-13

142

Reconfigurable all-optical code translation in spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconfigurable all-optical code translation are demonstrated in a spectrally phase-coded optical-code-division multiple-access (O-CDMA) testbed with an interference user. For both one-stage and two-stage code translations, less than 0.9-dB power penalties are induced at each code translation. Multistage code translations are investigated via simulation and experimental emulation in a loop pulse shaper to show the potential application of the proposed method

Z. Jiang; D. S. Seo; D. E. Leaird; R. V. Roussev; C. Langrock; M. M. Fejer; A. M. Weiner

2005-01-01

143

Online error correcting output codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a general extension of the error correcting output codes framework to the online learning scenario. As a result, the final classifier handles the addition of new classes independently of the base classifier used. In particular, this extension supports the use of both online example incremental and batch classifiers as base learners. The extension of the traditional problem

Sergio Escalera; David Masip; Eloi Puertas; Petia Radeva; Oriol Pujol

2011-01-01

144

Varieties of Codes and Kraft Inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Decipherability conditions for codes are investigated by using the approach of Guzmán, who introduced in [7] the notion of\\u000a variety of codes and established a connection between classes of codes and varieties of monoids. The class of Uniquely Decipherable\\u000a (UD) codes is a special case of variety of codes, corresponding to the variety of all monoids.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a It is well known

Fabio Burderi; Antonio Restivo

2005-01-01

145

Profile guided code positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of our investigation of code positioning techniques using execution profile data as input into the compilation process. The primary objective of the positioning is to reduce the overhead of the instruction memory hierarchy.After initial investigation in the literature, we decided to implement two prototypes for the Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture (PA-RISC). The first, built on top

Karl Pettis; Robert C. Hansen; Jack W. Davidson

2004-01-01

146

Multiple wavelet-tree-based image coding and robust transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present techniques based on multiple wavelet-tree coding for robust image transmission. The algorithm of set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) is a state-of-the-art technique for image compression. This variable length coding (VLC) technique, however, is extremely sensitive to channel errors. To improve the error resilience capability and in the meantime to keep the high source coding efficiency through VLC, we propose to encode each wavelet tree or a group of wavelet trees using SPIHT algorithm independently. Instead of encoding the entire image as one bitstream, multiple bitstreams are generated. Therefore, error propagation is limited within individual bitstream. Two methods based on subsampling and human visual sensitivity are proposed to group the wavelet trees. The multiple bitstreams are further protected by the rate compatible puncture convolutional (RCPC) codes. Unequal error protection are provided for both different bitstreams and different bit segments inside each bitstream. We also investigate the improvement of error resilience through error resilient entropy coding (EREC) and wavelet tree coding when channels are slightly corruptive. A simple post-processing technique is also proposed to alleviate the effect of residual errors. We demonstrate through simulations that systems with these techniques can achieve much better performance than systems transmitting a single bitstream in noisy environments.

Cao, Lei; Chen, Chang Wen

2004-10-01

147

Codes of split type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generalizing a way to construct Golay codes, codes of split type are defined. A lot of interesting codes, for example, extremal codes of length n ? 40 such as Golay codes and binary doubly even self-dual codes [48, 24, 12], [72, 36, w] with w ? 12, are represented as codes of split type.

Kimizuka, Maro; Sasaki, Ryuji

148

A code in the protein coding genes.  

PubMed

A statistical analysis with 12,288 autocorrelation functions applied in protein (coding) genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes identifies three subsets of trinucleotides in their three frames: T0 = X0 [symbol: see text] {AAA, TTT} with X0 = {AAC, AAT, ACC, ATC, ATT, CAG, CTC, CTG, GAA, GAC, GAG, GAT, GCC, GGC, GGT, GTA, GTC, GTT, TAC, TTC} in frame 0 (the reading frame established by the ATG start trinucleotide), T1 = X1 [symbol: see text] {CCC} in frame 1 and T2 = X2 [symbol: see text] {GGG} in frame 2 (the frames 1 and 2 being the frame 0 shifted by one and two nucleotides, respectively, to the right). These three subsets are identical in these two gene populations and have five important properties: (i) the property of maximal (20 trinucleotides) circular code for X0 (resp. X1, X2) allowing to retrieve automatically the frame 0 (resp. 1, 2) in any region of the gene without start codon; (ii) the DNA complementarity property C (e.g. C(AAC) = GTT): C(T0) = T0, C(T1) = T2 and C(T2) = T1 allowing the two paired reading frames of a DNA double helix simultaneously to code for amino acids; (iii) the circular permutation property P (e.g. P(AAC) = ACA): P(X0) = X1 and P(X1) = X2 implying that the two subsets X1 and X2 can be deduced from X0; (iv) the rarity property with an occurrence probability of X0 = 6 x 10(-8); and (v) the concatenation properties in favour of an evolutionary code: a high frequency (27.5%) of misplaced trinucleotides in the shifted frames, a maximum (13 nucleotides) length of the minimal window to retrieve automatically the frame and an occurrence of the four types of nucleotides in the three trinucleotide sites. In Discussion, a simulation based on an independent mixing of the trinucleotides of T0 allows to retrieve the two subsets T1 and T2. Then, the identified subsets T0, T1 and T2 replaced in the 2-letter genetic alphabet {R, Y} (R = purine = A or G, Y = pyrimidine = C or T) allow to retrieve the RNY model (N = R or Y) and to explain previous works in the alphabet {R, Y}. Then, these three subsets are related to the genetic code. The trinucleotides of T0 code for 13 amino acids: Ala, Asn, Asp, Gln, Glu, Gly, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, Tyr and Val. Finally, a strong correlation between the usage of the trinucleotides of T0 in protein genes and the amino acid frequencies in proteins is observed as six among seven amino acids not coded by T0, have as expected the lowest frequencies in proteins of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:9429747

Arquès, D G; Michel, C J

1997-01-01

149

Image subband coding using arithmetic coded trellis coded quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for encoding memoryless sources using trellis coded quantization (TCQ) with uniform thresholds. The trellis symbols are entropy-coded using arithmetic coding. The performance of the arithmetic coded uniform threshold TCQ, for encoding the family of generalized Gaussian densities, is compared with uniform threshold quantization (UTQ) and the Shannon lower bound (SLB). At high rates, the method performs

Rajan L. Joshi; Valerie J. Crump; Thomas R. Fischer

1995-01-01

150

Allele coding in genomic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being the best. Conclusions Different allele coding methods lead to the same inference in the marker-based and equivalent models when a fixed general mean is included in the model. However, reliabilities of genomic breeding values are affected by the allele coding method used. The centered coding has some numerical advantages when Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are used.

2011-01-01

151

A preliminary investigation of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the flow around a cylinder at ReD = 3900 using a commercial CFD code  

SciTech Connect

Engineering fluid mechanics simulations at high Reynolds numbers have traditionally been performed using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations and a turbulence model. The RANS methodology has well-documented shortcomings in the modeling of separated or bluff body wake flows that are characterized by unsteady vortex shedding. The resulting turbulence statistics are strongly influenced by the detailed structure and dynamics of the large eddies, which are poorly captured using RANS models (Rodi 1997; Krishnan et al. 2004). The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methodology offers the potential to more accurately simulate these flows as it resolves the large-scale unsteady motions and entails modeling of only the smallest-scale turbulence structures. Commercial computational fluid dynamics products are beginning to offer LES capability, allowing practicing engineers an opportunity to apply this turbulence modeling technique to much wider array of problems than in dedicated research codes. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of the LES capability in the commercial CFD solver StarCD by simulating the flow around a cylinder at a Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter, D, of 3900 using the constant coefficient Smagorinsky LES model. The results are compared to both the experimental and computational results provided in Kravchenko & Moin (2000). We find that StarCD provides predictions of lift and drag coefficients that are within 15% of the experimental values. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the time-averaged velocity statistics and the published data. The differences in these metrics may be due to the use of a truncated domain in the spanwise direction and the short time-averaging period used for the statistics presented here. The instantaneous flow field visualizations show a coarser, larger-scale structure than the study of Kravchenko & Moin (2000), which may be a product of the LES implementation or of the domain and resolution used. Based on this preliminary study, we conclude that StarCD's LES implementation may useful for low Reynolds number LES computations if proper care is used in the problem and mesh definition.

Paschkewitz, J S

2006-02-14

152

Medical coding in clinical trials.  

PubMed

Data generated in all clinical trial are recorded on the data collection instrument Case report Form / Electronic Case Report Form by investigators located at various sites in various countries. In multicentric clinical trials since different investigator or medically qualified experts are from different sites / centers recording the medical term(s) uniformly is a big challenge. Medical coders from clinical data management team process these terms and perform medical coding. Medical coding is performed to categorize the medical terms reported appropriately so that they can be analyzed/reviewed. This article describes process which is used for medical coding in clinical data management and two most commonly used medical dictionaries MedDRA and WHO-DDE in brief. It is expected to help medical coders to understand the process of medical coding in clinical data management. Few common issues which the medical coder faces while performing medical coding, are also highlighted. PMID:21829779

Babre, Deven

2010-01-01

153

Coding/Mux Overhead Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of an investigation of the combined design of an asynchronous-to-synchronous multiplexer and error correction coding techniques for megabit data transmission over a troposcatter channel. In addition to the conventional in...

D. Chase P. A. Bello L. J. Weng A. Joffe K. Wilmer

1975-01-01

154

Investigation of plant control strategies for the supercritical C0Brayton cycle for a sodium-cooled fast reactor using the plant dynamics code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a control strategy for the supercritical CO (S-CO) Brayton cycle has been extended to the investigation of alternate control strategies for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) nuclear power plant incorporating a S-CO Brayton cycle power converter. The SFR assumed is the 400 MWe (1000 MWt) ABR-1000 preconceptual design incorporating metallic fuel. Three alternative idealized schemes for controlling

A. Moisseytsev; J. Sienicki

2011-01-01

155

Expansion of genome coding regions by acquisition of new genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the case for non-coding regions, the coding regions of organisms can be expanded or shrunk during evolutionary processes. However, the dynamics of coding regions are expected to be more correlated with functional complexity and diversity than are the dynamics of non-coding regions. Hence, it is interesting to investigate the increase of diversity in coding regions – the

Esther Betrán; Manyuan Long

2002-01-01

156

Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster: Amendments to the Fire Protection and Life Safety Provisions of the New York City Building Code by Local Laws Adopted While World Trade Center 1, 2, and 7 Were in Use. NIST NCSTAR 1-1G.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was prepared to support the analysis of building and fire codes and practices of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) World Trade Center (WTC) Investigation. This report supports the objective of documenting the requiremen...

J. C. Razza R. A. Grill

2005-01-01

157

Code-carrying theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code-Carrying Theory (CCT) is an alternative to the Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) approach to secure delivery of code. With PCC, code is accompanied by assertions and a proof of correctness or of other required properties. The code consumer does not accept delivery unless it first succeeds in generating theorems, called verification conditions, from the code and assertions and checking that the

Aytekin Vargun; David R. Musser

2008-01-01

158

Investigating the Influence of the Added Mass Effect to Marine Hydrokinetic Horizontal-Axis Turbines Using a General Dynamic Wake Wind Turbine Code: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a recent study to investigate the applicability of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics analysis program (FAST and AeroDyn respectively) to modeling the forces on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. It summarizes the added mass model that has been added to AeroDyn. The added mass model only includes flow acceleration perpendicular to the rotor disc, and ignores added mass forces caused by blade deflection. A model of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) Phase VI wind turbine was analyzed using FAST and AeroDyn with sea water conditions and the new added mass model. The results of this analysis exhibited a 3.6% change in thrust for a rapid pitch case and a slight change in amplitude and phase of thrust for a case with 30 degrees of yaw.

Maniaci, D. C.; Li, Y.

2012-04-01

159

Regularized robust coding for face recognition.  

PubMed

Recently the sparse representation based classification (SRC) has been proposed for robust face recognition (FR). In SRC, the testing image is coded as a sparse linear combination of the training samples, and the representation fidelity is measured by the l2-norm or l1 -norm of the coding residual. Such a sparse coding model assumes that the coding residual follows Gaussian or Laplacian distribution, which may not be effective enough to describe the coding residual in practical FR systems. Meanwhile, the sparsity constraint on the coding coefficients makes the computational cost of SRC very high. In this paper, we propose a new face coding model, namely regularized robust coding (RRC), which could robustly regress a given signal with regularized regression coefficients. By assuming that the coding residual and the coding coefficient are respectively independent and identically distributed, the RRC seeks for a maximum a posterior solution of the coding problem. An iteratively reweighted regularized robust coding (IR(3)C) algorithm is proposed to solve the RRC model efficiently. Extensive experiments on representative face databases demonstrate that the RRC is much more effective and efficient than state-of-the-art sparse representation based methods in dealing with face occlusion, corruption, lighting, and expression changes, etc. PMID:23269753

Yang, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jian; Zhang, David

2012-12-21

160

On generalized low-density parity-check codes based on Hamming component codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate a generalization of Gallager's (1963) low-density (LD) parity-check codes, where as component codes single error correcting Hamming codes are used instead of single error detecting parity-check codes. It is proved that there exist such generalized low-density (GLD) codes for which the minimum distance is growing linearly with the block length, and a lower bound of

M. Lentmaier; K. Sh. Zigangirov

1999-01-01

161

Which linear codes are algebraic-geometric?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infinite series of curves is constructed in order to show that all linear codes can be obtained from curves using Goppa's construction. If one imposes conditions on the degree of the divisor used, then we derive criteria for linear codes to be algebraic-geometric. In particular, we investigate the family of q-ary Hamming codes, and prove that only those with

Ruud Pellikaan; Ba-zhong Shen; Gerhard J. M. Van Wee

1991-01-01

162

Random Binning and Turbo Source Coding for Lossless Compression of Memoryless Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a tree structured variable length random binning scheme that enables an error correcting code to act as a source code. The existing source coding schemes based on turbo codes, low density parity check codes, and repeat accumulate codes can be regarded as practical implementations of this random binning scheme. We investigate the performance of lossless turbo source coding

Javad Haghighat; Walaa Hamouda; M. Reza Soleymani

2006-01-01

163

Using a clone genealogy extractor for understanding and supporting evolution of code clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmers often create similar code snippets or reuse existing code snippets by copying and pasting. Code clones---syntactically and semantically similar code snippets---can cause problems during software maintenance because programmers may need to locate code clones and change them consistently. In this work, we investigate (1) how code clones evolve, (2) how many code clones impose maintenance challenges, and (3) what

Miryung Kim; David Notkin

2005-01-01

164

New Parallel computing framework for radiation transport codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new parallel computing framework has been developed to use with general-purpose radiation transport codes. The framework was implemented as a C++ module that uses MPI for message passing. The module is significantly independent of radiation transport codes it can be used with, and is connected to the codes by means of a number of interface functions. The framework was

M. A. Kostin; N. V. Mokhov; K. Niita

2010-01-01

165

Independent Factor Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the independent factor analysis (IFA) method for recovering independent hidden sourcesfrom their observed mixtures. IFA generalizes and unifies ordinary factor analysis (FA), principal componentanalysis (PCA), and independent component analysis (ICA), and can handle not only squarenoiseless mixing, but also the general case where the number of mixtures differs from the number ofsources and the data are noisy. IFA

Hagai Attias; W. M. Keck

1999-01-01

166

Independence in CLP languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying independence of goals has proven very useful in the context of logic programming. In particular, it has provided a formal basis for powerful automatic parallelization tools, since independence ensures that two goals may be evaluated in parallel while preserving correctness and efficiency. We extend the concept of independence to constraint logic programs (CLP) and prove that it also ensures

Maria J. García de la Banda; Manuel V. Hermenegildo; Kim Marriott

2000-01-01

167

Exceptional error minimization in putative primordial genetic codes  

PubMed Central

Background The standard genetic code is redundant and has a highly non-random structure. Codons for the same amino acids typically differ only by the nucleotide in the third position, whereas similar amino acids are encoded, mostly, by codon series that differ by a single base substitution in the third or the first position. As a result, the code is highly albeit not optimally robust to errors of translation, a property that has been interpreted either as a product of selection directed at the minimization of errors or as a non-adaptive by-product of evolution of the code driven by other forces. Results We investigated the error-minimization properties of putative primordial codes that consisted of 16 supercodons, with the third base being completely redundant, using a previously derived cost function and the error minimization percentage as the measure of a code's robustness to mistranslation. It is shown that, when the 16-supercodon table is populated with 10 putative primordial amino acids, inferred from the results of abiotic synthesis experiments and other evidence independent of the code's evolution, and with minimal assumptions used to assign the remaining supercodons, the resulting 2-letter codes are nearly optimal in terms of the error minimization level. Conclusion The results of the computational experiments with putative primordial genetic codes that contained only two meaningful letters in all codons and encoded 10 to 16 amino acids indicate that such codes are likely to have been nearly optimal with respect to the minimization of translation errors. This near-optimality could be the outcome of extensive early selection during the co-evolution of the code with the primordial, error-prone translation system, or a result of a unique, accidental event. Under this hypothesis, the subsequent expansion of the code resulted in a decrease of the error minimization level that became sustainable owing to the evolution of a high-fidelity translation system. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Paul Higgs (nominated by Arcady Mushegian), Rob Knight, and Sandor Pongor. For the complete reports, go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

2009-01-01

168

Performance testing of thermal analysis codes for nuclear fuel casks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982 Sandia National Laboratories held the First Industry\\/Government Joint Thermal and Structural Codes Information Exchange and presented the initial stages of an investigation of thermal analysis computer codes for use in the design of nuclear fuel shipping casks. The objective of the investigation was to (1) document publicly available computer codes, (2) assess code capabilities as determined from their

1987-01-01

169

Multilevel LDPC-Coded High-Speed Optical Systems: Efficient Hard Decoding and Code Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a multilevel coding scheme employing low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and high-order modulations for high-speed optical transmissions, where the coherent receiver performs either parallel independent decoding (PID) or multistage decoding (MSD). To meet the severe complexity constraint imposed by the ultrahigh data rate of the emerging optical transmission systems, we focus on hard-decision decoding of LDPC codes. A new

Chen Gong; Xiaodong Wang

2010-01-01

170

CONTAIN independent peer review  

SciTech Connect

The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

1995-01-01

171

Independence of depersonalization-derealization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used data from structured mental state interviews given to 866 psychiatric inpatients to investigate the hypothesized independence of the depersonalization-derealization syndrome from diagnosis and other factors of psychopathology. Results support the hypothesized relation, and confirm previous findings that depersonalization and derealization are nonspecific to other behaviors, are not related to sex, and decrease with age.

Joseph L. Fleiss; Barry J. Gurland; Kenneth Goldberg

1975-01-01

172

Content Independence in Multimedia Databases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the role of data management in multimedia digital libraries, and its implications for the design of database management systems. Introduces the notions of content abstraction and content independence. Proposes a blueprint of a new class of database technology, which supports the basic functionality for the management of both content…

de Vries, Arjen P.

2001-01-01

173

Concatenated quantum codes  

SciTech Connect

One main problem for the future of practial quantum computing is to stabilize the computation against unwanted interactions with the environment and imperfections in the applied operations. Existing proposals for quantum memories and quantum channels require gates with asymptotically zero error to store or transmit an input quantum state for arbitrarily long times or distances with fixed error. This report gives a method which has the property that to store or transmit a qubit with maximum error {epsilon} requires gates with errors at most {ital c}{epsilon} and storage or channel elements with error at most {epsilon}, independent of how long we wish to store the state or how far we wish to transmit it. The method relies on using concatenated quantum codes and hierarchically implemented recovery operations. The overhead of the method is polynomial in the time of storage or the distance of the transmission. Rigorous and heuristic lower bounds for the constant {ital c} are given.

Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.

1996-07-01

174

Homological stabilizer codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes.

Anderson, Jonas T.

2013-03-01

175

Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added ...

M. W. Thompson

1997-01-01

176

On automatic differentiation of codes with COMPLEX arithmetic with respect to real variables  

SciTech Connect

We explore what it means to apply automatic differentiation with respect to a set of real variables to codes containing complex arithmetic. That is, both dependent and independent variables with respect to differentiation are real variables, but in order to exploit features of complex mathematics, part of the code is expressed by employing complex arithmetic. We investigate how one can apply automatic differentiation to complex variables if one exploits the homomorphism of the complex numbers C onto R{sup 2}. It turns out that, by and large, the usual rules of differentiation apply, but subtle differences in special cases arise for sqrt (), abs (), and the power operator.

Pusch, G.D.; Bischof, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carle, A. [Rice Univ., St. Houston, TX (United States)

1995-06-01

177

Clinical Investigator Inspection List (CIIL) Database Codes  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Page Last Updated: 04/16/2009 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/enforcementactivitiesbyfda

178

Hybrid Distributed Video Coding Using SCA Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the architecture for our distributed video coding (DVC) system. Some key differences between our work and previous systems include a new method of enabling decoder motion compensation, and the use of serially concatenated accumulate syndrome codes for distributed source coding. To evaluate performance, we compare our system to the H.263+ and H.264\\/AVC video codecs. Experiments show that our

Emin Martinian; Anthony Vetro; Jonathan S. Yedidia; Joao Ascenso; Ashish Khisti; Dmitry Malioutov

2006-01-01

179

To Code or Not To Code?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article considers arguments for and against the use of coding systems in classroom-based language research and touches on some relevant considerations from ethnographic and conversational analysis approaches. The four authors each explain and elaborate on their practical decision to code or not to code events or utterances at a specific…

Parkinson, Brian; Sandhu, Parveen; Lacorte, Manel; Gourlay, Lesley

1998-01-01

180

Utilizing sequence intrinsic composition to classify protein-coding and long non-coding transcripts  

PubMed Central

It is a challenge to classify protein-coding or non-coding transcripts, especially those re-constructed from high-throughput sequencing data of poorly annotated species. This study developed and evaluated a powerful signature tool, Coding-Non-Coding Index (CNCI), by profiling adjoining nucleotide triplets to effectively distinguish protein-coding and non-coding sequences independent of known annotations. CNCI is effective for classifying incomplete transcripts and sense–antisense pairs. The implementation of CNCI offered highly accurate classification of transcripts assembled from whole-transcriptome sequencing data in a cross-species manner, that demonstrated gene evolutionary divergence between vertebrates, and invertebrates, or between plants, and provided a long non-coding RNA catalog of orangutan. CNCI software is available at http://www.bioinfo.org/software/cnci.

Sun, Liang; Luo, Haitao; Bu, Dechao; Zhao, Guoguang; Yu, Kuntao; Zhang, Changhai; Liu, Yuanning; Chen, Runsheng; Zhao, Yi

2013-01-01

181

V(D)J recombination coding junction formation without DNA homology: processing of coding termini.  

PubMed Central

Coding junction formation in V(D)J recombination generates diversity in the antigen recognition structures of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor molecules by combining processes of deletion of terminal coding sequences and addition of nucleotides prior to joining. We have examined the role of coding end DNA composition in junction formation with plasmid substrates containing defined homopolymers flanking the recombination signal sequence elements. We found that coding junctions formed efficiently with or without terminal DNA homology. The extent of junctional deletion was conserved independent of coding ends with increased, partial, or no DNA homology. Interestingly, G/C homopolymer coding ends showed reduced deletion regardless of DNA homology. Therefore, DNA homology cannot be the primary determinant that stabilizes coding end structures for processing and joining.

Boubnov, N V; Wills, Z P; Weaver, D T

1993-01-01

182

Utilizing sequence intrinsic composition to classify protein-coding and long non-coding transcripts.  

PubMed

It is a challenge to classify protein-coding or non-coding transcripts, especially those re-constructed from high-throughput sequencing data of poorly annotated species. This study developed and evaluated a powerful signature tool, Coding-Non-Coding Index (CNCI), by profiling adjoining nucleotide triplets to effectively distinguish protein-coding and non-coding sequences independent of known annotations. CNCI is effective for classifying incomplete transcripts and sense-antisense pairs. The implementation of CNCI offered highly accurate classification of transcripts assembled from whole-transcriptome sequencing data in a cross-species manner, that demonstrated gene evolutionary divergence between vertebrates, and invertebrates, or between plants, and provided a long non-coding RNA catalog of orangutan. CNCI software is available at http://www.bioinfo.org/software/cnci. PMID:23892401

Sun, Liang; Luo, Haitao; Bu, Dechao; Zhao, Guoguang; Yu, Kuntao; Zhang, Changhai; Liu, Yuanning; Chen, Runsheng; Zhao, Yi

2013-07-27

183

DCG: an efficient, retargetable dynamic code generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic code generation allows aggressive optimization through the use of runtime information. Previous systems typically relied on ad hoc code generators that were not designed for retargetability, and did not shield the client from machine-specific details. We present a system, dcg, that allows clients to specify dynamically generated code in a machine-independent manner. Our one-pass code generator is easily retargeted

Dawson R. Engler; Todd A. Proebstingt

1994-01-01

184

Checking coding completeness by mining discharge summaries.  

PubMed

Incomplete coding is a known problem in hospital information systems. In order to detect non-coded secondary diseases we developed a text classification system which scans discharge summaries for drug names. Using a drug knowledge base in which drug names are linked to sets of ICD-10 codes, the system selects those documents in which a drug name occurs that is not justified by any ICD-10 code within the corresponding record in the patient database. Treatment episodes with missing codes for diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease, and asthma/COPD were subject to investigation in a large German university hospital. The precision of the method was 79%, 14%, and 45% respectively, roughly estimated recall values amounted to 43%, 70%, and 36%. Based on these data we predict roughly 716 non-coded diabetes cases, 13 non-coded Parkinson cases, and 420 non-coded asthma/COPD cases among 34,865 treatment episodes. PMID:21893818

Schulz, Stefan; Seddig, Thorsten; Hanser, Susanne; Zaiss, Albrecht; Daumke, Philipp

2011-01-01

185

Generalized concatenated quantum codes  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

Grassl, Markus [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Technikerstrasse 21a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Shor, Peter [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Zeng Bei [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2009-05-15

186

AEST: Adaptive Eigenvalue Stability Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adaptive eigenvalue linear stability code is developed. The aim is on one hand to include the non-ideal MHD effects into the global MHD stability calculation for both low and high n modes and on the other hand to resolve the numerical difficulty involving MHD singularity on the rational surfaces at the marginal stability. Our code follows some parts of philosophy of DCON by abandoning relaxation methods based on radial finite element expansion in favor of an efficient shooting procedure with adaptive gridding. The ? W criterion is replaced by the shooting procedure and subsequent matrix eigenvalue problem. Since the technique of expanding a general solution into a summation of the independent solutions employed, the rank of the matrices involved is just a few hundreds. This makes easier to solve the eigenvalue problem with non-ideal MHD effects, such as FLR or even full kinetic effects, as well as plasma rotation effect, taken into account. To include kinetic effects, the approach of solving for the distribution function as a local eigenvalue ? problem as in the GS2 code will be employed in the future. Comparison of the ideal MHD version of the code with DCON, PEST, and GATO will be discussed. The non-ideal MHD version of the code will be employed to study as an application the transport barrier physics in tokamak discharges.

Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Waelbroeck, F.; van Dam, J. W.; Berk, H.

2002-11-01

187

Polyphase alternating codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p 1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p 1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We handle a few specific examples in detail. The new codes offer an enlarged collection of code lengths for radar experiments.

Markkanen, M.; Vierinen, J.; Markkanen, J.

2008-08-01

188

Consistent Comparison of the Codes RELAP5\\/PARCS and TRAC-M\\/PARCS for the OECD MSLB Coupled Code Benchmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized interface module was developed for coupling any thermal-hydraulic code to any spatial kinetic code. In the design used here the thermal-hydraulic and spatial kinetic codes function as independent processes and communicate using the Parallel Virtual Machine software. This approach helps maximize flexibility while minimizing modifications to the respective codes. Using this interface, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

Tomasz Kozlowski; R. Matthew Miller; Thomas J. Downar; Douglas A. Barber; Han Gyu Joo

2004-01-01

189

Distributed single source coding with side information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper we advocate image compression technique in the scope of distributed source coding framework. The novelty of the proposed approach is twofold: classical image compression is considered from the positions of source coding with side information and, contrarily to the existing scenarios, where side information is given explicitly, side information is created based on deterministic approximation of local image features. We consider an image in the transform domain as a realization of a source with a bounded codebook of symbols where each symbol represents a particular edge shape. The codebook is image independent and plays the role of auxiliary source. Due to the partial availability of side information at both encoder and decoder we treat our problem as a modification of Berger-Flynn-Gray problem and investigate a possible gain over the solutions when side information is either unavailable or available only at decoder. Finally, we present a practical compression algorithm for passport photo images based on our concept that demonstrates the superior performance in very low bit rate regime.

Vila-Forcen, Jose E.; Koval, Oleksiy; Voloshynovskiy, Sviatoslav V.

2004-01-01

190

Independent components of relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a multiattribute relation or, equivalently, a multicolumn table a certain collection of the projections can be shown to be independent in much the same way as the factors in a Cartesian product or orthogonal components of a vector. A precise notion of independence for relations is defined and studied. The main result states that the operator which reconstructs the

Jorma Rissanen

1977-01-01

191

Queries Independent of Updates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of detecting indepen- dence of a queries expressed by datalog programs from updates. We provide new insight into the independence problem by reducing it to the equivalence problem for dat- alog programs (both for the case of insertion and deletion updates). Equivalence, as well as independence, is unde- cidable in general. However, algorithms for detecting

Alon Y. Levy; Yehoshua Sagiv

1993-01-01

192

Small Wind Independent Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet describes the Small Wind Independent Testing at the NWTC and the Regional Test Center's project. NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program established the Small Wind Independent Testing project in 2008 and...

2010-01-01

193

Decoding low-density generator matrix codes with the aid of comma-free source codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-density generator matrix with iterative belief propagation decoding comma-free source codes are natural choices for noisy channel encoding and source coding, respectively. In earlier work, we found that avoiding 6 cycles had little impact on the performance of a code established by performing a fixed number of decoding algorithm iterations. In this work, we carried out a more detailed investigation

J. W. Bond; Stefen Hui; H. Schmidt

1998-01-01

194

The intercomparison of aerosol codes  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of aerosols in a reactor containment vessel following a severe accident could be an important determinant of the accident source term to the environment. Various processes result in the deposition of the aerosol onto surfaces within the containment, from where they are much less likely to be released. Some of these processes are very sensitive to particle size, so it is important to model the aerosol growth processes: agglomeration and condensation. A number of computer codes have been written to model growth and deposition processes. They have been tested against each other in a series of code comparison exercises. These exercises have investigated sensitivities to physical and numerical assumptions and have also proved a useful means of quality control for the codes. Various exercises in which code predictions are compared with experimental results are now under way.

Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Gauvain, J.

1988-07-01

195

Medical imaging with coded apertures  

SciTech Connect

Now algorithms were investigated for image reconstruction in emission tomography which could incorporate complex instrumental effects such as might be obtained with a coded aperture system. The investigation focused on possible uses of the wavelet transform to handle non-stationary instrumental effects and analytic continuation of the Radon transform to handle self-absorption. Neither investigation was completed during the funding period and whether such algorithms will be useful remains an open question.

Keto, E.; Libby, S.

1995-06-16

196

Ethical Codes of Conduct in Irish Companies: A Survey of Code Content and Enforcement Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an investigation of issues surrounding the use of ethical codes\\/codes of conduct in Irish based companies.\\u000a Using a comprehensive questionnaire survey, the paper examines the incidence, content and enforcement of codes of conduct\\u000a among a sample of the top 1000 companies based in Ireland. The main findings indicate that the overall usage of codes of conduct

Brendan O’Dwyer; Grainne Madden

2006-01-01

197

Analog codes on graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many channels (e.g., the broadcast channels) require combined coding and modulation to approach capacity. Furthermore, it is often desirable to have a graceful degradation of information rate with decreasing SNR. In these situations, codes over large alphabets are advantageous. In this work, we consider analog codes, whose alphabet is the real line K. Traditionally, decoding analog codes has been difficult.

Nandakishore Santhi; Alexander Vardy

2003-01-01

198

Partial Dead Code Elimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new aggressive algorithm for the elimination of par- tially dead code is presented, i.e., of code which is only dead on some program paths. Besides being more pow- erful than the usual approaches to dead code elimina- tion, this algorithm is optimal in the following sense: partially dead code remaining in the resulting program cannot be eliminated without changing

Jens Knoop; Oliver Rüthing; Bernhard Steffen

1994-01-01

199

Secure network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on network coding renders a new view on multicasting in a network. In the paradigm of network coding, the nodes in a network are allowed to encode the information received from the input links. The usual function of switching at a node is a special case of network coding. The advantage of network coding is that the full

Ning Cai; Raymond W. Yeung

2002-01-01

200

Mobile Code Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile code is an exciting new technology. By its very nature, however, it is fraught withinherent security risks. In the paper, we give an overview of some of the techniques for securingmobile code environments that have been suggested and deployed. We examine the sandboxapproach, code signing, hybrid approaches, firewalling techniques and proof carrying code. Therelative merits of each approach are

Aviel D. Rubin; Daniel E. Geer Jr.

1998-01-01

201

Robust image coding with EBCOT and RVLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EBCOT is an efficient image coding technique, which divides each subband into independently coded blocks. It is therefore inherently more error resilient than many other wavelet-based schemes. However, the loss of data of a block in any lower frequency subband in EBCOT can still degrade the perceptual image quality considerably. This paper discusses the use of reversible variable length codes (RVLC) and data partitioning for coding lower frequency subbands in EBCOT, instead of the use of arithmetic codes. RVLCs are known to have superior error recovery properties due to their two-way decode capability. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach has very little additional bit-rate overhead and significantly improved the performance in the presence of errors.

Yang, Techung; Kumar, Sunil; Kuo, C.-C. J.

1999-10-01

202

Subsystem codes with spatially local generators  

SciTech Connect

We study subsystem codes whose gauge group has local generators in two-dimensional (2D) geometry. It is shown that there exists a family of such codes defined on lattices of size LxL with the number of logical qubits k and the minimum distance d both proportional to L. The gauge group of these codes involves only two-qubit generators of type XX and ZZ coupling nearest-neighbor qubits (and some auxiliary one-qubit generators). Our proof is not constructive as it relies on a certain version of the Gilbert-Varshamov bound for classical codes. Along the way, we introduce and study properties of generalized Bacon-Shor codes that might be of independent interest. Secondly, we prove that any 2D subsystem [n,k,d] code with spatially local generators obeys upper bounds kd=O(n) and d{sup 2}=O(n). The analogous upper bound proved recently for 2D stabilizer codes is kd{sup 2}=O(n). Our results thus demonstrate that subsystem codes can be more powerful than stabilizer codes under the spatial locality constraint.

Bravyi, Sergey [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

2011-01-15

203

Adaptive entropy coded subband coding of images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a design approach, called 2-D entropy-constrained subband coding (ECSBC), based upon recently developed 2-D entropy-constrained vector quantization (ECVQ) schemes. The output indexes of the embedded quantizers are further compressed by use of noiseless entropy coding schemes, such as Huffman or arithmetic codes, resulting in variable-rate outputs. Depending upon the specific configurations of the ECVQ and the ECPVQ

Yong Han Kim; James W. Modestino

1992-01-01

204

Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of VHF signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in FORTRAN 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, delta times of arrival (DTOA) study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of DTOAs vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

Roussel-Dupre, Robert; Kelley, Thomas A.

1990-10-01

205

Maximum distance -nary codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aq-nary error-correcting code withN = q^{k}code words of lengthn = k + rcan have no greater minimum distancedthanr+1. The class of codes for whichd = r+1is studied first in general, then with the restriction that the codes be linear. Examples and construction methods are given to show that these codes exist for a number of values ofq, k, andr.

R. Singleton

1964-01-01

206

Codes on finite geometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

New algebraic methods for constructing codes based on hyperplanes of two different dimensions in finite geometries are presented. The new construction methods result in a class of multistep majority-logic decodable codes and three classes of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Decoding methods for the class of majority-logic decodable codes, and a class of codes that perform well with iterative decoding in

Heng Tang; Jun Xu; Shu Lin; Khaled A. S. Abdel-ghaffar

2005-01-01

207

Compound Independent Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of compound independent events by drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record the results of successive draws with or without replacement of marbles to calculate the experimental probability.

2007-12-12

208

Computational Investigation of Subsonic Torsional Airfoil Flutter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis single-degree-of-freedom torsional airfoil flutter is investigated using an incompressible potential flow code, a compressible inviscid Euler code and a compressible viscous Navier-Stokes code. It is found that the classical linearized inco...

C. Kakkavas

1998-01-01

209

Photoacoustic generation using coded excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has been used to image soft tissue due to its high contrast and high spatial resolution. The generation of PA signal is based on the object's absorption characteristic to the emitted electromagnetic energy. Typically, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser providing mJ pulse energy is suitable for biomedical PA applications. However, such laser is relatively bulky and expensive. An alternative way is to use a diode laser. A diode laser can generate laser pulse at much higher pulse repetition frequency (PRF). However, the output power of the diode laser is too low for effective PA generation. One method to overcome this problem is to increase the transmission energy using coded excitation. The coded laser signals can be transmitted by a diode laser with high PRF and the signal intensity of the received signal can be enhanced using pulse compression. In this study, we proposed a chirp coded excitation algorithm for a diode laser. Compared to Golay coded excitation seen in the literature, the proposed chirp coded excitation requires only a single transmission. Chirp-coded PA signal was generated by tuning the pulse duration of individual laser pulses in time domain. Result shows that the PA signal intensity can be enhanced after matched filtering. However, high range side-lobes are still present. The compression filter is an important tool to reduce the range side-lobes, which is subject to further investigation.

Su, Shin-Yuan; Li, Pai-Chi

2011-02-01

210

Application of the MELCOR Code to Design Basis PWR Large Dry Containment Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MELCOR computer code has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories under USNRC sponsorship to provide capability for independently auditing analyses submitted by reactor manufactures and utilities. MELCOR is a fully integrated code (encompassing ...

A. Notafrancesco J. Phillips J. L. Tills

2009-01-01

211

An automated injury coding system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a prototype expert system for assigning codes to injuries detected in medical records such as hospital discharge summaries and coroner's reports. The system is intended to assist investigators in the task of analyzing official data related to injuries sustained by the occupants of automobiles involved in highway accidents. The design draws on previous work by the authors

Richard M. Tong; L. A. Appelbaum; Laura Blumer Balcom

1989-01-01

212

Performance bounds for fractal coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on investigations concerning the performance of fractal transforms. Emerging from the structural constraints of fractal coding schemes, lower bounds for the reconstruction error are given without regarding quantization noise. This implies finding an at least locally optimal transformation matrix. A full search approach is by definition optimal but also intractable for practical implementations. In order to simplify the calculation

Bernd Hiirtgen; Rwth Aachen

1995-01-01

213

An interactive morse code emulation management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assistive technology (AT) is becoming increasingly important in improving mobility, language, and learning capabilities of persons who have disabilities enabling them to function independently and to improve their social opportunities. Morse code has been shown to be a valuable tool in Assistive technology, augmentative and alternative communication, rehabilitation, and education, as well as adapted computer access methods via special software

Cheng-Hong Yang

2003-01-01

214

Asynchronous 3D Free Lagrange code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FLIT3D is a Free Lagrange code developed for three dimensional fluid flow and radiation transport on massively parallel computers. The acronym FLIT3D stands for Free Lagrange Independent Timesteps in 3 Dimensions. The basic ideas are developed from those ...

P. G. Eltgroth

1990-01-01

215

Predictive naturalness preserving transform coding of monochrome images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transform predictive coding of pictorial data using the naturalness-preserving transform (NPT) is investigated. The hybrid coding system uses one-dimensional NPTs and parallel differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) systems. The problem of determining the basis giving the minimum mean square error (MSE) for coding images is addressed. Results of coding schemes using the Hadamard NPT and the sine NPT are presented. Superior

A. O. Osinubi; R. A. King

1989-01-01

216

Temporal layered vs. multistate video coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple Description Video Coding (MDC) and Layered Coding (LC) are both error-resilient source coding techniques used for transmission over error-prone channels. Both techniques generate multiple streams. The streams generated by MDC correspond to different descriptions of the same source whereas the streams produced by LC are differentiated as base and enhancement layer streams. Moreover whereas the MDC streams are independently decodable the decoding of the enhancement layer stream is dependent on the decoding of the base layer stream. In this work we concentrate on specific MDC and LC schemes, i.e. Multi-State Video Coding (MSVC) and Temporal Layered Coding (TLC). MSVC was introduced by John Apostolopoulos and it was showed that if each frame is transmitted in a separate packet and if motion information for each lost frame is also lost, MSVC outperforms Single Layer Coding (SC) in recovering from single as well as burst losses. Here we compared MSVC with TLC as an extension of SC based on transmission simulations over lossy channels under the assumption that the motion vectors are always available. Using different coding modes and specific reconstruction methods average reconstructed frame PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio) is measured and compared. Results show that when motion vectors are received TLC performs better than MSVC for every coding option tested. The performance difference is bigger for low motion sequences.

Ekmekci, Sila; Sikora, Thomas

2004-01-01

217

Carrier and Timing Synchronization of BPSK via LDPC Code Feedback.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In traditional receiver architectures, symbol acquisition and tracking are performed using phase lock techniques that are independent of the channel-code decoding process. In previous research Lee, Valles, Villasenor & Jones, 2006, feedback from the const...

C. R. Jones E. L. Valles J. D. Villasenor R. D. Wesel

2006-01-01

218

Improvement in elastographic signal-to-noise ratio and resolution using coded excitation in elastography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coded excitation has been used in conventional sonography to improve the sonographic signal-to-noise ratio independently of resolution. In elastography, a tradeoff exists between spatial resolution and the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe). In the present work, the use of coded excitation was investigated to remove this ambiguity in elastography. Both numerical simulations and phantom experiments were carried out to estimate the SNRe in a homogeneous material and the resolution in a material containing calibrated inclusions. These results were compared with those obtained using conventional pulse excitation. Various codes (Golay, Barker, chirp) and code lengths were tested. The numerical simulations used a simple 1D backscattering model to show the theoretical effects of coded excitation. Experiments were carried out using a more realistic setup based on a sector-scan imaging probe. In the absence of sonographic noise, simulations showed that codes induced only a slight decrease in SNRe at no cost in resolution. When sonographic noise was added into the model, a large improvement in SNRe was obtained at constant resolution. The experimental results corroborated these findings. [Work supported in part by National Cancer Institute (USA) Program Project Grant P01-CA64597.

Souchon, Remi; Bera, Jean-Christophe; Pousse, Agnes; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

2001-05-01

219

Description of ground motion data processing codes: Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

Data processing codes developed to process ground motion at the Nevada Test Site for the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations Project are used today as part of the program to process ground motion records for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The work contained in this report documents and lists codes and verifies the ``PSRV`` code. 39 figs.

Sanders, M.L.

1988-02-01

220

Asynchronous 3D Free Lagrange code  

SciTech Connect

FLIT3D is a Free Lagrange code developed for three dimensional fluid flow and radiation transport on massively parallel computers. The acronym FLIT3D stands for Free Lagrange Independent Timesteps in 3 Dimensions. The basic ideas are developed from those covered in the previous conference. The code has been designed from the start for concurrent execution and uses only local operations to achieve node updates and reconnections. This somewhat unusual orientation means that many new algorithms were needed. The present version of the code evaluates mass and momentum at node positions. Nodes are connected into tetrahedra. The choice of tetrahedra (connections) is carried out independently of the partitioning of spacetime volumes. The spacetime partitioning is carried out by constructing vertices associated with the nodes in a given tetrahedron.

Eltgroth, P.G.

1990-06-01

221

Telephone Area Code  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... for representing the telephone area code for the United States, Canada, and ... of a verifiable area code list extremely tedious and time consuming. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/formssubmissionrequirements

222

Verification of complex codes.  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several years, verifying and validating complex codes at Sandia National Laboratories has become a major part of code development. These aspects tackle two important parts of simulation modeling: determining if the models have been correctly implemented - verification, and determining if the correct models have been selected - validation. In this talk, we will focus on verification and discuss the basics of code verification and its application to a few codes and problems at Sandia.

Ober, Curtis Curry

2009-03-01

223

Optimum Classification in Subband Coding of Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the classification technique, applied to subband coding of images, as a way of exploiting the non-stationary nature of image subbands. An algorithm for maximizing the classification gain, is presented. Each subband is optimally classified and the classification map is sent as side information. After optimum rate allocation, the classes are encoded using arithmetic and trellis coded quantization

Rajan L. Joshi; Thomas R. Fischer; Roberto H. Bamberger

1994-01-01

224

MININEC: A mini-numerical electromagnetics code  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the merits of techniques that may result in a reduced version of an antenna modeling code applicable to small problems and small computer resources. The result is the identification of one promising numerical approach suggested by Dr DR Wilton of the University of Mississippi. The approach has been coded in BASIC and implemented on a microcomputer. The

A. J. Julian; J. C. Logan; J. W. Rockway

1982-01-01

225

Secure Network Coding with a Cost Criterion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network cost and network security are two of many network parameters that are important to network users. While these two parameters have been separately considered in coded networks (networks that employ network coding), a joint investigation of them both has not been done yet to our knowledge, thus providing the motivation for this work. In this paper, we consider the

Jianlong Tan; M. Medard

2006-01-01

226

Decoding of Cyclic Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a Russian translation devoted to methods of construction and decoding of cyclic correction codes. The properties of linear cyclic codes are considered in detail and new results on construction and analysis of the properties of such codes are...

E. T. Mironchikov V. D. Kolesnik

1973-01-01

227

Morse Code Activity Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This activity packet offers simple directions for setting up a Morse Code system appropriate to interfacing with any of several personal computer systems. Worksheets are also included to facilitate teaching Morse Code to persons with visual or other disabilities including blindness, as it is argued that the code is best learned auditorily. (PB)|

Clinton, Janeen S.

228

EMF wire code research  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

Jones, T.

1993-11-01

229

Origin of Genetic Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general features of the genetic code are described. It is considered that originally only a few amino acids were coded, but that most of the possible codons were fairly soon brought into use. In subsequent steps additional amino acids were substituted when they were able to confer a selective advantage, until even- tually the code became frozen in its

F. H. C. CRICK

1966-01-01

230

Steep32 Computer Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A manual is presented as an aid in using the STEEP32 code. The code is the EXEC 8 version of the STEEP code (STEEP is an acronym for shock two-dimensional Eulerian elastic plastic). The major steps in a STEEP32 run are illustrated in a sample problem. The...

W. S. Goerke

1972-01-01

231

Kernel Independent Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present a class of algorithms for Independent Component Analysis (ICA) which use contrast functions based on canonical correlations in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. On the one hand, we show that our contrast functions are related to mutual information and have desirable mathematical properties as measures of statistical de- pendence. On the other hand, building on recent developments

Francis R. Bach; Michael I. Jordan

2002-01-01

232

Independence of Velocity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity should be completed before discussing with students that a projectile's motion in the vertical direction is independent of its motion in the horizontal direction. As long as students use their apparatus carefully and don't flip coins

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

233

Touchstones of Independence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Foundations affiliated with public higher education institutions can avoid having to open records for public scrutiny, by having independent boards of directors, occupying leased office space or paying market value for university space, using only foundation personnel, retaining legal counsel, being forthcoming with information and use of public…

Roha, Thomas Arden

1999-01-01

234

32 CFR 636.11 - Installation traffic codes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Installation traffic codes. 636.11 Section 636.11...CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS...Georgia § 636.11 Installation traffic codes. In addition to the...

2013-07-01

235

Occupational Code Assignment System (CodeSearch)  

Cancer.gov

The Codesearch System is a PC-based system which provides users with an interactive method for assigning standardized industry and occupation codes to related job description titles from specific studies.

236

Optimal subband filter banks for multiple description coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple description coding refers to the encoding of an information source into multiple bit streams, in a manner that each bit stream independently represents a “coarse” description of the source, while multiple descriptions jointly convey a higher fidelity source representation. Thus multiple description coding allows enhanced resilience to loss of individual descriptions, and can be viewed as a form of

Xuguang Yang; Kannan Ramchandran

2000-01-01

237

Audio coding using a psychoacoustic pre- and post-filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel concept for perceptual audio coding is presented which is based on the combination of a pre- and post-filter, controlled by a psychoacoustic model, with a transform coding scheme. This paradigm allows modeling of the temporal and spectral shape of the masked threshold with a resolution independent of the used transform. By using frequency warping techniques the maximum possible

Bernd Edler; Gerald Schuller

2000-01-01

238

Physical optics computer code optimized for synchrotron radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) - a physical optics computer code optimized for the simulation of emission and propagation of coherent and partially-coherent synchrotron radiation is presented. The code consists of two parts, which can be used independently. One part is dedicated to the computation of electric field, intensity, spectral-angular characteristics of radiation emitted by relativistic electrons in undulators, wigglers, short

Oleg Chubar; Pascal Elleaume; Serguei Kuznetsov; Anatoly A. Snigirev

2002-01-01

239

Secure-broadcast codes over linear-deterministic channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a non-multicast secure network coding problem with two receivers. First we study a linear-deterministic channel model with two receivers and a collection of eavesdroppers, which generalizes the Ozarow-Wyner wiretap channel II. The secrecy capacity region for independent and common messages is characterized and is achieved by concatenating a coset-coding scheme based on maximum rank distance codes with a

Ashish Khisti; Danilo Silva; Frank Kschischang

2010-01-01

240

Huffman sequence design for coded excitation in medical ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the design of coded-excitation signal for medical ultrasound imaging. In order to design a code sequence that generates an ultrasound signal with good detail resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, both in frequency-dependent and frequency-independent attenuating media, we propose to use a linear Huffman code obtained by an efficiency-driven optimizing procedure. By resorting to computer simulations, we show

Alessandro Polpetta; Paolo Banelli

2009-01-01

241

Independence and symbolic independence of nonstationary heartbeat series during atrial fibrillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heartbeat intervals during atrial fibrillation are commonly believed to form a series of almost independent variables. The series extracted from 24 h Holter recordings show a nonstationary behavior. Because of nonstationarity it is difficult to give a quantitative measure of independence. In this paper, we use and compare two methods for this. The first is a classical method which models a nonstationary series using a linear Gaussian state space model. In this framework, the independence is tested on the stationary sequence of the residuals. The second method codes data into permutations and tests the uniformity of their distribution. This test assumes as null hypothesis a weaker form of independence which we call symbolic independence. We discuss some advantages of symbolic independence in the context of heartbeat series. We analyze the time series of heartbeat intervals from 24 h Holter recordings of nine subjects with chronic atrial fibrillation and find that the detrended series is a zero or one memory process for 83% of regular segments and is symbolically independent for 93% of segments.

Cammarota, Camillo; Rogora, Enrico

2005-08-01

242

Validation of a new computer program for Minnesota coding.  

PubMed

The Minnesota code (MC) is a classification system for electrocardiograms (ECGs) that is used for ECG coding in epidemiologic studies. As the MC measurement procedures and rules are complex, visual coding is time-consuming and error-prone. Automation should reduce measurement and coding errors. The authors developed an MC program, closely adhering to the MC regulations. To validate the program, a test set of 300 ECGs containing a wide variety of codable patterns was collected. The ECGs were coded independently by the program and by an experienced human reader. A reference code ("truth") was established by resolving disagreements through a consensus procedure. If the computer and human agreed, they were considered to be correct. Sensitivity and specificity were computed for each of the nine main code categories of the MC, both for the computer and for visual coding. The results show that the program is as good as or better than the human reader for sensitivity and specificity of all MC categories. Particularly noteworthy is the good program performance for arrhythmia coding. Most coding differences between the program and truth arise from small, borderline measurement differences in combination with the all-or-none character of the coding criteria. In conclusion, computerized Minnesota coding is a valuable alternative or supplement to visual coding. PMID:9238383

Kors, J A; van Herpen, G; Wu, J; Zhang, Z; Prineas, R J; van Bemmel, J H

1996-01-01

243

Independent Lens: Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, Independent Lens has produced a number of well-received documentaries that have aired on PBS and other places. They have also created some very nice websites in an attempt to enhance the viewing experience of their programs. The Independent Lens: Interactive site offers some additional web-original projects for the interested public. Some of these features include Beyond the Fire, which introduces visitors to the stories of fifteen teenagers living in the US, who have survived war in seven different regions. One very compelling highlight of the site is the Off the Map feature. Here visitors can learn about the visionary art produced by a selection of persons working in various media, such as bottle caps, matchsticks, and chewing gum. For those looking for something with a unique perspective on the world and its inhabitants, this website will definitely bring a smile to their eyes.

2005-01-01

244

Scale Independent Fracture Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fracture mechanics is considered from the viewpoint of a field theoretical approach based on the physical principle known\\u000a as gauge invariance. The advantage of this approach is scale independent and universal. All stages of deformation, from the\\u000a elastic stage to fracturing stage can be treated on the same theoretical foundation. A quantity identified as the deformation\\u000a charge is found to

Sanichiro Yoshida; Diwas Bhattarai; Tatsuo Okiyama; Kensuke Ichinose

245

Vista Information System, Independent Solution  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Vista Information System, Independent Solution. Applicant: Gambro BCT, Inc. ... Product: Vista Information System, Independent Solution. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

246

International exploration by independents  

SciTech Connect

Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues.

Bertagne, R.G. (Marex, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

247

International exploration by independent  

SciTech Connect

Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

Bertragne, R.G.

1992-04-01

248

The impact of independent directors and independent audit committees on earnings quality reported by Indonesian firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether independent directors and audit committees that are chaired by an independent director as required by the Jakarta Stock Exchange (JSX) affect the quality of reported earnings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper uses both total discretionary accruals (DA) and earnings response coefficient (ERC) as the proxies for earnings quality. It runs

Ferdinand T. Siagian; Elok Tresnaningsih

2011-01-01

249

Dispersed Flow Film Boiling. An Investigation of the Possibility to Improve the Models Implemented in the NRC Computer Codes for the Reflooding Phase of the LOCA. International Agreement Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dispersed Flow Film Boiling is the heat transfer regime that occurs at high void fractions in a heated channel. The way the heat transfer mode is modelled in the NRC computer codes (RELAP5 and TRAC) and the validity of the assumptions and empirical correl...

M. Andreani G. Yadigaroglu

1992-01-01

250

A Collusion-Secure Fingerprinting Code Reduced by Chinese Remaindering and Its Random-Error Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A c-secure code with ?-error is one of the fingerprinting codes robust against a collusion attack. The purpose of this study is to construct a new\\u000a c-secure code which has a shorter code length for a large-scale collusion than ever proposed. We call this code a c-secure CRT code. Furthermore, we investigate possible approaches to make this code robust against

Hirofumi Muratani; Komukai Toshiba-cho

2001-01-01

251

Speaker-independent phone recognition using hidden Markov models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hidden Markov modeling is extended to speaker-independent phone recognition. Using multiple codebooks of various linear-predictive-coding (LPC) parameters and discrete hidden Markov models (HMMs) the authors obtain a speaker-independent phone recognition accuracy of 58.8-73.8% on the TIMIT database, depending on the type of acoustic and language models used. In comparison, the performance of expert spectrogram readers is only 69% without use

Kai-fu Lee; Hsiao-wuen Hon

1989-01-01

252

Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the existing beam port configuration of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) was designed to test and validate the code package in its entirety, as well as its modules separately. The selected physics code, TORT, and the requisite data such as source distribution, cross-sections, and angular quadratures were comprehensively tested with these computational models. The modular feature and the parallel performance of the code package were also examined using these computational models. Another outcome of these computational models is to provide the necessary background information for determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The first mission of the code package was completed successfully by determining the optimal tank shape which was sought for the current beam tube configuration and two new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The performance of the new beam tube configurations and the current beam tube configuration were evaluated with the new optimal tank shapes determined by MOZAIK. Furthermore, the performance of the code package with the two different optimization strategies were analyzed showing that while GA is capable of achieving higher thermal beam intensity for a given beam tube setup, Min-max produces an optimal shape that is more amenable to machining and manufacturing. The optimal D2O moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK with the current beam port configuration improves the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam port exit end by 9.5%. Similarly, the new tangential beam port configuration (beam port near the core interface) with the optimal moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK improves the thermal neutron beam intensity by a factor of 1.4 compared to the existing beam port configuration (with the existing D2O moderator tank). Another new beam port configuration, radial beam tube configuration, with the optimal moderator tank shape increases the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit by a factor of 1.8. All these results

Bekar, Kursat B.

253

Handheld coded data reader  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A reading device adapted to read an interface surface provided on a product item, the interface surface having disposed thereon coded data which includes, at a plurality of locations on the interface surface, a corresponding plurality of coded data portions, each coded data portion being indicative of an identity of the product item, the reading device including: a housing adapted to be held by a user in use; a radiation source for emitting radiation from the housing such that it exposes at least one coded data portion; an image sensor for sensing the at least one exposed coded data portion; a processor for determining, using at least some of the sensed coded data, product identity data indicative of the identity of the product item.

2007-07-17

254

Mechanical code comparator  

DOEpatents

A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Dalton, Larry J. (Bernalillo, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

255

Experimental evaluation of photoacoustic coded excitation using unipolar golay codes.  

PubMed

Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers are commonly used as light sources for photoacoustic imaging. However, laser diodes are attractive as an alternative to Nd:YAG lasers because they are less expensive and more compact. Although laser diodes deliver about three orders of magnitude less light pulse energy than Nd:YAG lasers (tens of microjoules compared with tens of millijoules), their pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is four to five orders of magnitude higher (up to 1 MHz compared with tens of hertz); this enables the use of averaging to improve SNR without compromising the image acquisition rate. In photoacoustic imaging, the PRF is limited by the maximum acoustic time-of-flight. This limit can be overcome by using coded excitation schemes in which the coding eliminates ambiguities between echoes induced by subsequent pulses. To evaluate the benefits of photoacoustic coded excitation (PACE), the performance of unipolar Golay codes is investigated analytically and validated experimentally. PACE imaging of a copper slab using laser diodes at a PRF of 1 MHz and a modified clinical ultrasound scanner is successfully demonstrated. Considering laser safety regulations and taking into account a comparison between a laser diode system and Nd:YAG systems with respect to SNR, we conclude that PACE is feasible for small animal imaging. PMID:20639152

Mienkina, Martin P; Friedrich, Claus-Stefan; Gerhardt, Nils C; Wilkening, Wilko G; Hofmann, Martin R; Schmitz, Georg

2010-07-01

256

Codes of Ethics Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at the Illinois Institute of Technology maintains the Codes of Ethics Online Web site. The Center writes: "With the advent of the Internet, it seemed clear that digitizing the codes and making them accessible over the World-Wide Web would benefit researchers, students, and professionals alike." The science page contains links to over fifty organizations' ethical codes, including the American Institute of Chemists, the American Physical Society, the Water Quality Association, etc.

257

United States Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every six years, the Office of the Law Revision Counsel, US House of Representatives, publishes the United States Code, the "codification of the general and permanent laws of the United States." The first seven titles of the 2000 code have been made available this month at GPO Access. The code can be browsed and searched, and search results include citations plus links to the full text of the legislation.

2001-01-01

258

Myth or Truth: Independence Day.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most Americans think of the Fourth of July as Independence Day, but is it really the day the U.S. declared and celebrated independence? By exploring myths and truths surrounding Independence Day, this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed stories regarding the beginning of the Revolutionary War and the Independence Day…

Gardner, Traci

259

Myth or Truth: Independence Day.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most Americans think of the Fourth of July as Independence Day, but is it really the day the U.S. declared and celebrated independence? By exploring myths and truths surrounding Independence Day, this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed stories regarding the beginning of the Revolutionary War and the Independence Day…

Gardner, Traci

260

Exclusion principle for quantum dense coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the classical capacity of a quantum state, as quantified by its ability to perform dense coding, respects an exclusion principle, for arbitrary pure or mixed three-party states in any dimension. This states that no two bipartite states which are reduced states of a common tripartite quantum state can have simultaneous quantum advantage in dense coding. The exclusion principle is robust against noise. Such a principle also holds for an arbitrary number of parties. This exclusion principle is independent of the content and distribution of entanglement in the multipartite state.

Prabhu, R.; Pati, Arun Kumar; Sen(De), Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

2013-05-01

261

Previous Editions of Codes  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Food Code, 1993 Recommendations of the United States Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, National Technical Information ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

262

Bar Code Labels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

1988-01-01

263

Performance of concatenated Reed-Solomon trellis-coded modulation over Rician fading channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concatenated coding scheme for providing very reliable data over mobile-satellite channels at power levels similar to those used for vocoded speech is described. The outer code is a shorter Reed-Solomon code which provides error detection as well as error correction capabilities. The inner code is a 1-D 8-state trellis code applied independently to both the inphase and quadrature channels. To achieve the full error correction potential of this inner code, the code symbols are multiplexed with a pilot sequence which is used to provide dynamic channel estimation and coherent detection. The implementation structure of this scheme is discussed and its performance is estimated.

Moher, Michael L.; Lodge, John H.

264

Independent Lens: Butte, America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Butte, Montana was a hard rock mining town that supplied the United States with much-needed copper, due to the electrification of the nation. The documentary created by Independent Lens of PBS shows the hardship the miners and their families encountered. The Independent Lens website has a multitude of interactive features that adds depth and increased understanding to the film. To find when and on what PBS station the film is playing, visitors can click the link "Check Local Listings". Under the "The Film" tab, three clips of the film are available, and under "The Making of " tab, visitors can find details the difficulties of the film crew in filming the underground mining tunnels. The filmmaker also addresses the challenges of working in 16mm film, and the painful decisions of what scenes to cut. "Related Links" can also be found at the bottom of "The Film" link and provides links to several articles on the town of Butte, as well as to the filmmaker's website.

265

Independent component representations for face recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a task such as face recognition, much of the important information may be contained in the high-order relationships among the image pixels. A number of face recognition algorithms employ principal component analysis (PCA), which is based on the second-order statistics of the image set, and does not address high-order statistical dependencies such as the relationships among three or more pixels. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a generalization of PCA which separates the high-order moments of the input in addition to the second-order moments. ICA was performed on a set of face images by an unsupervised learning algorithm derived from the principle of optimal information transfer through sigmoidal neurons. The algorithm maximizes the mutual information between the input and the output, which produces statistically independent outputs under certain conditions. ICA was performed on the face images under two different architectures. The first architecture provided a statistically independent basis set for the face images that can be viewed as a set of independent facial features. The second architecture provided a factorial code, in which the probability of any combination of features can be obtained from the product of their individual probabilities. Both ICA representations were superior to representations based on principal components analysis for recognizing faces across sessions and changes in expression.

Stewart Bartlett, Marian; Lades, H. M.; Sejnowski, Terry J.

1998-07-01

266

Irregular Repeat-Accumulate Codes for Volume Holographic Memory Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the application of irregular repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes in volume holographic memory (VHM) systems. We introduce methodologies to design efficient IRA codes. We show that a judiciously designed IRA code for a typical VHM can be as good as the optimized irregular low-density-parity-check codes while having the additional advantage of lower encoding complexity. Moreover, we present a method to reduce the error-floor effect of the IRA codes in the VHM systems. This method explores the structure of the noise pattern in holographic memories. Finally, we explain why IRA codes are good candidates for the VHM systems.

Pishro-Nik, Hossein; Fekri, Faramarz

2004-09-01

267

Adaptive coding of reward prediction errors is gated by striatal coupling.  

PubMed

To efficiently represent all of the possible rewards in the world, dopaminergic midbrain neurons dynamically adapt their coding range to the momentarily available rewards. Specifically, these neurons increase their activity for an outcome that is better than expected and decrease it for an outcome worse than expected, independent of the absolute reward magnitude. Although this adaptive coding is well documented, it remains unknown how this rescaling is implemented. To investigate the adaptive coding of prediction errors and its underlying rescaling process, we used human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with a reward prediction task that involved different reward magnitudes. We demonstrate that reward prediction errors in the human striatum are expressed according to an adaptive coding scheme. Strikingly, we show that adaptive coding is gated by changes in effective connectivity between the striatum and other reward-sensitive regions, namely the midbrain and the medial prefrontal cortex. Our results provide evidence that striatal prediction errors are normalized by a magnitude-dependent alteration in the interregional connectivity within the brain's reward system. PMID:22371590

Park, Soyoung Q; Kahnt, Thorsten; Talmi, Deborah; Rieskamp, Jörg; Dolan, Raymond J; Heekeren, Hauke R

2012-02-27

268

A distributed code for color in natural scenes derived from center-surround filtered cone signals  

PubMed Central

In the retina of trichromatic primates, chromatic information is encoded in an opponent fashion and transmitted to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and visual cortex via parallel pathways. Chromatic selectivities of neurons in the LGN form two separate clusters, corresponding to two classes of cone opponency. In the visual cortex, however, the chromatic selectivities are more distributed, which is in accordance with a population code for color. Previous studies of cone signals in natural scenes typically found opponent codes with chromatic selectivities corresponding to two directions in color space. Here we investigated how the non-linear spatio-chromatic filtering in the retina influences the encoding of color signals. Cone signals were derived from hyper-spectral images of natural scenes and preprocessed by center-surround filtering and rectification, resulting in parallel ON and OFF channels. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) on these signals yielded a highly sparse code with basis functions that showed spatio-chromatic selectivities. In contrast to previous analyses of linear transformations of cone signals, chromatic selectivities were not restricted to two main chromatic axes, but were more continuously distributed in color space, similar to the population code of color in the early visual cortex. Our results indicate that spatio-chromatic processing in the retina leads to a more distributed and more efficient code for natural scenes.

Kellner, Christian J.; Wachtler, Thomas

2013-01-01

269

Focal angiogen therapy using intramyocardial delivery of an adenovirus vector coding for vascular endothelial growth factor 121 1 1 Ronald G. Crystal and Todd K. Rosengart contributed equally as senior investigators in this study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated gene therapy strategies have emerged as promising modalities for the “biological revascularization” of tissues. We hypothesized that direct intramyocardial, as opposed to intracoronary, administration of an Ad vector coding for the vascular endothelial growth factor 121 cDNA (AdGVVEGF121.10) would provide highly focal Ad genome levels, and increases in VEGF, ideal for inducing localized therapeutic angiogenesis.Methods. Persistence

Leonard Y Lee; Shailen R Patel; Neil R Hackett; Charles A Mack; Dean R Polce; Tarek El-Sawy; Rory Hachamovitch; Pat Zanzonico; Timothy A Sanborn; Manish Parikh; O. Wayne Isom; Ronald G Crystal; Todd K Rosengart

2000-01-01

270

Unified construction algorithm of network coding in cyclic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network coding in cyclic networks may have better performance than network coding in acyclic networks with regard to the multi-unicast scenarios. Harvey et al. showed that network coding in cyclic networks can be strictly better than fractional routing in conservative networks which have widely practical scenarios such as P2P networks. Hence, we motivated investigating how to achieve that better performance

Jiaqing Huang; Liang Wang; Tiyuan Zhang; Hui Li

2009-01-01

271

Gear Crack Propagation Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analytical and experimental studies were performed to investigate the effect of gear rim thickness on crack propagation life. The FRANC (FRacture ANalysis Code) computer program was used to simulate crack propagation. The FRANC program used principles of ...

D. G. Lewicki R. Ballarini

1996-01-01

272

Deciding Whether There is Statistical Independence or Not?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated how students assess statistical independence (SI). A sample of 98 students was available to the researcher. One group was probed on their understanding of statistical independence, a second group was given a proficiency test and a third group was presented a proof for statistical Independence. Interview data from the first two groups exposed student misconception on their

Ramzi Nasser

2007-01-01

273

Central bank independence: Only part of the inflation story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Central bank independence: Only part of the inflation story The idea that countries with an independent central bank perform better on price stability is very popular and confirmed by studies investigating the issue empirically. Yet, using the Barro-Gordon model we show that the gains from a more independent central bank are not fixed. They are larger in countries with

Freddy Heylen; André van Poeck

1996-01-01

274

On code design in joint MAC scheduling and wireless network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the problem of network coding and media scheduling in wireless multihop networks. Unique characteristics of the wireless media, such as omnidirectional transmissions and destructive interference, as well as the limitations of wireless nodes to either transmit or receive at any given time, imply new code design constraints for wireless networks. In this work, following the

Raheleh Niati; Amir H. Banihashemi; Thomas Kunz

2010-01-01

275

Grammar-based codes: A new class of universal lossless source codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a type of lossless source code called a grammar based code, which, inresponse to any input data string x over a fixed finite alphabet, selects a context-freegrammar G x representing x in the sense that x is the unique string belonging to the languagegenerated by G x . Lossless compression of x takes place indirectly via compressionof the

John C. Kieffer; En-hui Yang

2000-01-01

276

Sugar, Spice, and Street Codes: The Influences of Gender and Family Attachment on Street Code Adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elijah Anderson's (1999) Code of the Street thesis argues that joblessness, alienation, structural disadvantage, and black status converge to explain higher rates of violence among African-American, inner-city males. Few studies examine whether a similar phenomenon extends to females. Additionally, few studies investigate how family attachment affects belief in an oppositional culture that Anderson calls “street codes.” Using data from the

Jeffrey S. Nowacki

2012-01-01

277

The `Independent Components' of Natural Scenes are Edge Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field (1994) has suggested that neurons with line and edge selectivities found in primary visual cortex of cats and monkeys form a sparse, distributed representaton of natural scenes, and Barlow (1989) has reasoned that such responses should emerge from an unsupervised learning algorithm that attempts to find a factorial code of independent visual features. We show here that a new

Anthony J. Bell

1997-01-01

278

A neural network-based text independent voice recognition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A text-independent voice recognition experiment was conducted using an artificial neural network. The speech data were collected from three different speakers uttering thirteen different words. Each word was repeated ten times. The speech data were then pre-processed for signal conditioning. A total of 12 feature parameters were obtained from Cepstral coefficients via a linear predictive coding (LPC). These feature parameters

K. Kuah; M. Bodruzzaman; S. Zein-Sabatto

1994-01-01

279

PRINCIPAL AND INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS IN IMAGE PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to practical utilization of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and its extension Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Our inten- sion is to demonstrate different applications of the above mentioned methods in biomedical image and signal processing. The concept of ICA in terms of blind source separation is illustrated on EEG signals, whereas the approach of sparse coding is

S. Vaseghi; H. Jetelova

280

Value of Laboratory Experiments for Code Validations  

SciTech Connect

Numerical codes have become indispensable for designing underground structures and interpretating the behavior of geologic systems. Because of the complexities of geologic systems, however, code calculations often are associated with large quantitative uncertainties. This papers presents three examples to demonstrate the value of laboratory(or bench scale) experiments to evaluate the predictive capabilities of such codes with five major conclusions: Laboratory or bench-scale experiments are a very cost-effective, controlled means of evaluating and validating numerical codes, not instead of but before or at least concurrent with the implementation of in situ studies. The design of good laboratory validation tests must identifj what aspects of a code are to be scrutinized in order to optimize the size, geometry, boundary conditions, and duration of the experiments. The design of good and sometimes difficult numerical analyses and sensitivity studies. Laboratory validation tests must involve: Good validation experiments will generate independent data sets to identify the combined effect of constitutive models, model generalizations, material parameters, and numerical algorithms. Successfid validations of numerical codes mandate a close collaboration between experimentalists and analysts drawing from the full gamut of observations, measurements, and mathematical results.

Wawersik, W.R.

1998-12-14

281

Prostate Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Prostate C619 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Do not code an orchiectomy in this field. For prostate primaries, orchiectomies are coded in the data item “Hematologic Transplant and

282

MORSE Monte Carlo Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the ...

S. N. Cramer

1984-01-01

283

Analog Codes on Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many examples of channels for which a combined coding and modulation scheme is needed to approach capacity. In some cases, it is desirable to employ codes which result in a graceful degradation of information rate with decreasing SNR(2, 3, 4). It is also known that in some applications like Broadcast channels(1), it is impossible to achieve capacity if

Nandakishore Santhi; Alexander Vardy

2006-01-01

284

Reversible variable length codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes some reversible variable length codes (RVLCs) which can be decoded instantaneously both in the forward and backward directions and have high transmission efficiency. These codes can be used, for example, in the backward reconstruction of video signals from the data last received when some signal is lost midway in the transmission. Schemes for a symmetrical RVLC requiring only a

Y. Takishima; M. Wada; H. Murakami

1995-01-01

285

Code of Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

2009-01-01

286

Deciphering the splicing code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing has a crucial role in the generation of biological complexity, and its misregulation is often involved in human disease. Here we describe the assembly of a `splicing code', which uses combinations of hundreds of RNA features to predict tissue-dependent changes in alternative splicing for thousands of exons. The code determines new classes of splicing patterns, identifies distinct regulatory

Yoseph Barash; John A. Calarco; Weijun Gao; Qun Pan; Xinchen Wang; Ofer Shai; Benjamin J. Blencowe; Brendan J. Frey

2010-01-01

287

Secure Code Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Java Virtual Machine does not offer a way for code obtained from trusted sources to be granted extra rights. The article describes two approaches to authentification for code distribution: one extends the JVM to include a digital signature in applets; the other uses MIME encapsulation to take advantage of available security infrastructures. The signed-applet approach gives a programmer more

X. Nick Zhang

1997-01-01

288

Secure Arithmetic Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although arithmetic coding offers extremely high coding efficiency, it provides little or no security as traditionally implemented. We present a modified scheme that offers both encryption and compression. The system utilizes an arithmetic coder in which the overall length within the range [0,1) allocated to each symbol is preserved, but the traditional assumption that a single contiguous interval is used

Hyungjin Kim; Jiangtao Wen; John D. Villasenor

2007-01-01

289

Did You "Code"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem of solving mathematical equations can be quite tough for some students hence they face a great difficulty when applying ideas to the actual process. Students in algebra classes are taught coding in which they write down what they will need to do to solve the equation and this coding makes the students more adept at solving equations…

Clausen, Mary C.

2005-01-01

290

Coupled distributed arithmetic coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of coupled distributed arithmetic coding to overcome the de-synchronization problem caused by causal decoding in existing distributed arithmetic coding system. Simulation results show that decoding performance is significantly improved and longer sequences outperform shorter sequences using this approach.

Xi Chen; David S. Taubman

2011-01-01

291

Coded Orthogonal Signaling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, a new scheme of encoding orthogonal MFSK signals with convolutional codes is proposed. Instead of separating the code and the signals as is done conventionally, here the m outputs of the convolutional encoder of rate k/m are used to select...

S. Semerciler

1992-01-01

292

International Code Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Code Council is �a membership association dedicated to building safety and fire prevention, develops the codes used to construct residential and commercial buildings, including homes and schools. Most U.S. cities, counties and states that adopt codes choose the International Codes developed by the International Code Council.� Although some sections of the site are reserved for members only (which requires a fee), there is a remarkable amount of material available to non-members. Available on the website are details about codes development, how to acquire an opinion on a code from multiple sources and how to reach a building code liaison for your locality. Under the �Certification and Testing� tab, users can find sample certification exam questions as well as outlines. The site also provides links to various periodicals, ICC meetings and also includes an event calendar to see dates for industry conferences and upcoming trade shows.

2006-12-04

293

Frame independent cosmological perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan

2013-09-01

294

Throughput and Energy Optimization in Wireless Networks: Joint MAC Scheduling and Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies joint scheduling and network coding in wireless multicast networks with independent sources. Designing a network coding solution for wireless networks involves scheduling interference-free transmissions and optimizing a performance measure for the predetermined scheduling sets, followed by constructing network codes for the specific solution. In such a design process, the results of prior steps need to provide enough

Raheleh Niati; Amir H. Banihashemi; Thomas Kunz

2012-01-01

295

Coding of sources with unknown statistics--I: Probability of encoding error  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that it is often possible to obtain considerable data compression by encoding messages in long blocks. Usually the coding scheme for a specific source depends parametrically on the statistics of the source. Universal codes which are independent of the source statistics are introduced. These codes are shown to be asymptotically optimal in the sense that the

J. Ziv

1972-01-01

296

Serial Code Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide presents the main features of serial optimisation for computationally intensive codes with a focus on the HECToR computing resources. From a user point of view, two main avenues can be followed when trying to optimise an application. One type of optimisations DO NOT involve modifying the source code (modification may not be desirable); optimisation consists of searching for the best compiler, set of flags and libraries. Another type of optimisations DO involve modifying the source code; in the first instance the programmer must evaluate if a new algorithm is necessary, followed by writing or rewriting optimised code. According to the these choices this guide presents optimisation as a problem of compiler and library selection, followed by a presentation of the key factors that must be considered when writing numerically intensive code.

297

Evolving genetic code  

PubMed Central

In 1985, we reported that a bacterium, Mycoplasma capricolum, used a deviant genetic code, namely UGA, a “universal” stop codon, was read as tryptophan. This finding, together with the deviant nuclear genetic codes in not a few organisms and a number of mitochondria, shows that the genetic code is not universal, and is in a state of evolution. To account for the changes in codon meanings, we proposed the codon capture theory stating that all the code changes are non-disruptive without accompanied changes of amino acid sequences of proteins. Supporting evidence for the theory is presented in this review. A possible evolutionary process from the ancient to the present-day genetic code is also discussed.

OHAMA, Takeshi; INAGAKI, Yuji; BESSHO, Yoshitaka; OSAWA, Syozo

2008-01-01

298

Astrophysics Source Code Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

Allen, A.; DuPrie, K.; Berriman, B.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J.; Teuben, P. J.

2013-10-01

299

Independent Research/Independent Exploratory Development FY86.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides summaries of FY86 Independent Research (IR) and Independent Exploratory Development (IED) efforts and the IR/IED funding profile, and presentations and publications based on IR/IED efforts. The following IR efforts are described: mode...

A. M. Crawford M. H. Metcalfe

1987-01-01

300

Auto-blocking matrix-multiplication or tracking BLAS3 performance from source code  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elementary, machine-independent, recursive algorithm for matrix multiplication C+=A*B provides implicit blocking at every level of the memory hierarchy and tests out faster than classically optimrd code, tracking hand-coded BLAS3 routines. Proof of concept is demonstrated by racing the in-place algorithm against manufacturer's hand-tuned BLAS3 routines; it can win.The recursive code bifurcates naturally at the top level into independent block-oriented

Jeremy D. Frens; David S. Wise

1997-01-01

301

Melanism in Peromyscus Is Caused by Independent Mutations in Agouti  

PubMed Central

Identifying the molecular basis of phenotypes that have evolved independently can provide insight into the ways genetic and developmental constraints influence the maintenance of phenotypic diversity. Melanic (darkly pigmented) phenotypes in mammals provide a potent system in which to study the genetic basis of naturally occurring mutant phenotypes because melanism occurs in many mammals, and the mammalian pigmentation pathway is well understood. Spontaneous alleles of a few key pigmentation loci are known to cause melanism in domestic or laboratory populations of mammals, but in natural populations, mutations at one gene, the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r), have been implicated in the vast majority of cases, possibly due to its minimal pleiotropic effects. To investigate whether mutations in this or other genes cause melanism in the wild, we investigated the genetic basis of melanism in the rodent genus Peromyscus, in which melanic mice have been reported in several populations. We focused on two genes known to cause melanism in other taxa, Mc1r and its antagonist, the agouti signaling protein (Agouti). While variation in the Mc1r coding region does not correlate with melanism in any population, in a New Hampshire population, we find that a 125-kb deletion, which includes the upstream regulatory region and exons 1 and 2 of Agouti, results in a loss of Agouti expression and is perfectly associated with melanic color. In a second population from Alaska, we find that a premature stop codon in exon 3 of Agouti is associated with a similar melanic phenotype. These results show that melanism has evolved independently in these populations through mutations in the same gene, and suggest that melanism produced by mutations in genes other than Mc1r may be more common than previously thought.

Kingsley, Evan P.; Manceau, Marie; Wiley, Christopher D.; Hoekstra, Hopi E.

2009-01-01

302

Blockiness in JPEG-coded images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In two experiments, dissimilarity data and numerical scaling data were obtained to determine the underlying attributes of image quality in baseline sequential JPEG coded imags. Although several distortions were perceived, i.e., blockiness, ringing and blur, the subjective data for all attributes where highly correlated, so that image quality could approximately be described by one independent attribute. We therefore proceeded by developing an instrumental measure for one of these distortions, i.e., blockiness. In this paper a single-ended blockiness measure is proposed, i.e., one that uses only the coded image. Our approach is therefore fundamentally different from most image quality models that use both the original and the degraded image. The measure is based on detecting the low- amplitude edges that result from blocking and estimating the amplitudes. Because of the approximate 1D of the underlying psychological space, the proposed blockiness measure also predicts the image quality of sequential baseline coded JPEG images.

Meesters, Lydia; Martens, Jean-Bernard

1999-05-01

303

Parallel CARLOS-3D code development  

SciTech Connect

CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and runs on both serial workstations and parallel super computers such as the Intel Paragon. CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional surface integral equation scattering code based on a Galerkin method of moments formulation employing Rao- Wilton-Glisson roof-top basis for triangular faceted surfaces. Fully arbitrary 3D geometries composed of multiple conducting and homogeneous bulk dielectric materials can be modeled. This presentation describes some of the extensions to the CARLOS-3D code, and how the operator structure of the code facilitated these improvements. Body of revolution (BOR) and two-dimensional geometries were incorporated by simply including new input routines, and the appropriate Galerkin matrix operator routines. Some additional modifications were required in the combined field integral equation matrix generation routine due to the symmetric nature of the BOR and 2D operators. Quadrilateral patched surfaces with linear roof-top basis functions were also implemented in the same manner. Quadrilateral facets and triangular facets can be used in combination to more efficiently model geometries with both large smooth surfaces and surfaces with fine detail such as gaps and cracks. Since the parallel implementation in CARLOS-3D is at high level, these changes were independent of the computer platform being used. This approach minimizes code maintenance, while providing capabilities with little additional effort. Results are presented showing the performance and accuracy of the code for some large scattering problems. Comparisons between triangular faceted and quadrilateral faceted geometry representations will be shown for some complex scatterers.

Putnam, J.M. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States); Kotulski, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-02-01

304

Quality-of-service differentiation by multilength variable-weight time-and-frequency-hopping optical orthogonal codes in optical code-division multiple-access networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider multilength variable-weight time-and-frequency-hopping (TFH) codes for optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. To design a TFH code that can support differentiated requirements on transmission rates (TRs) and bit error rates (BERs), we propose a general construction method for two-dimensional optical CDMA code sequences with arbitrary code lengths and variable code weights. The cross-correlation peak and the autocorrelation sidelobe of the proposed code are made to be at most '1' and '0', respectively, for any pair of different-length and different-weight code sequences. We show that the ratio between signal-to-interference ratios (SIRs) of the codes with different weight and length can effectively be approximated by the ratio of the code weights, regardless of the code lengths for the proposed codes. Therefore, independent adjustment of code length and weight can differentiate TR and BER for multiple service classes, and it simplifies code design for the service differentiation. We also demonstrate BER performances under various conditions and corroborate that the proposed codes accomplish accurate and fine-tuned differentiation of TR and BER compared to the fixed-weight or fixed-length codes.

Lee, Chung-Keun; Kim, Jinsoo; Seo, Seung-Woo

2006-08-01

305

Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

2012-05-01

306

Universal Rateless Codes From Coupled LT Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was recently shown that spatial coupling of individual low-density parity-check codes improves the belief-propagation threshold of the coupled ensemble essentially to the maximum a posteriori threshold of the underlying ensemble. We study the performance of spatially coupled low-density generator-matrix ensembles when used for transmission over binary-input memoryless output-symmetric channels. We show by means of density evolution that the threshold

Vahid Aref; Rüdiger L. Urbanke

2011-01-01

307

Axisymmetric generalized harmonic evolution code  

SciTech Connect

We describe the first axisymmetric numerical code based on the generalized harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations, which is regular at the axis. We test the code by investigating gravitational collapse of distributions of complex scalar field in a Kaluza-Klein spacetime. One of the key issues of the harmonic formulation is the choice of the gauge source functions, and we conclude that a damped-wave gauge is remarkably robust in this case. Our preliminary study indicates that evolution of regular initial data leads to formation both of black holes with spherical and cylindrical horizon topologies. Intriguingly, we find evidence that near threshold for black hole formation the number of outcomes proliferates. Specifically, the collapsing matter splits into individual pulses, two of which travel in the opposite directions along the compact dimension and one which is ejected radially from the axis. Depending on the initial conditions, a curvature singularity develops inside the pulses.

Sorkin, Evgeny [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476, Golm (Germany)

2010-04-15

308

Report number codes  

SciTech Connect

This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

1985-05-01

309

Error-resilient EBCOT image coding with content classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EBCOT, as the baseline algorithm of JPEG-2000 final draft, is an efficient image coding technique. It is inherently more error resilient than many other wavelet-based schemes due to its independent coding of blocks in each subband. However, the loss of data of a block, in any lower frequency subband, in EBCOT can still degrade the perceptual image quality considerably. As robust entropy codes are used, the information of image content can help recover damaged regions of blocks. This paper discusses the use of reversible variable length codes (RVLC) and data partitioning for coding lower frequency subbands in EBCOT, instead of arithmetic codes. The selection of RVLC is based on content of images, which is classified as active and shape. We have observed that the proposed approach has very little additional bit-rate overhead and improved performance in the presence of errors from the help of content.

Yang, Te-Chung; Kumar, Sunil; Kuo, C.-C. J.

2000-04-01

310

Independent Lens Strange Fruit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The accompanying website for the Independent Lens film "Strange Fruit", about the famous protest song, allows visitors to hear a clip, or the entire song, of a famous rendition sung Billie Holiday. Strange Fruit is a phrase that actually comes from a poem that was turned into a song, and the song became the most renowned protest song of the 1940s. Visitors unfamiliar with the song will find that the link, "The Film", on the homepage gives an informative several paragraph synopsis and history. It also explains the unusual turns the life of the poet/songwriter took. Visitors should not miss the "Protest Music Overview" link, which provides clips of other protest songs. These protest songs are grouped by time period and the topic of protest for the period. Visitors should start at the beginning with 1776 and slavery, and then just wander through the centuries of music. Some of the clips featured within the different time periods include "Fight The Power" by Public Enemy, "Ohio" by Neil Young, and "We Shall Overcome" sung by Mahalia Jackson.

311

Independents' group posts loss  

SciTech Connect

Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices.

Sanders, V.; Price, R.B.

1992-11-23

312

Independent Representation of Parts and the Relations Between Them: Evidence From Integrative Agnosia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether objects are represented as a collection of parts whose relations are coded independently remains a topic of ongoing discussion among theorists in the domain of shape perception. S.M., an individual with integrative agnosia, and neurologically intact (\\

Marlene Behrmann; Mary A. Peterson; Morris Moscovitch; Satoru Suzuki

2006-01-01

313

Space-frequency coded broadband OFDM systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space-time coding for fading channels is a communication technique that realizes the diversity benefits of multiple transmit antennas. Previous work in this area has focused on the narrowband flat fading case where spatial diversity only is available. We investigate the use of space-time coding in OFDM-based broadband systems where both spatial and frequency diversity are available. We consider a strategy

Helmut Bolcskei; Arogyaswami J. Paulraj

2000-01-01

314

Zero-Knowledge and Code Obfuscation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the gap between auxiliary-input zero-knowledge (AIZK) and blackbox-simulation zero-knowledge (BSZK). It is an interestingopen problem whether or not there exists a proto- col which achieves AIZK, but not BSZK. We show that the existence of such a protocol is closely related to the existence of secure code obfus- cators. A code obfuscator is used to

Satoshi Hada

2000-01-01

315

Studying the Independent School Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2005, the American Association of School Librarians' Independent Schools Section conducted a national survey of independent school libraries. This article analyzes the results of the survey, reporting specialized data and information regarding independent school library budgets, collections, services, facilities, and staffing. Additionally,…

Cahoy, Ellysa Stern; Williamson, Susan G.

2008-01-01

316

Coding and non-coding DNA thermal stability differences in eukaryotes studied by melting simulation, base shuffling and DNA nearest neighbor frequency analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The melting of the coding and non-coding classes of natural DNA sequences was investigated using a program, MELTSIM, which simulates DNA melting based upon an empirically parameterized nearest neighbor thermodynamic model. We calculated Tm results of 8144 natural sequences from 28 eukaryotic organisms of varying FGC (mole fraction of G and C) and of 3775 coding and 3297 non-coding sequences

Dang D Long; Ivo Grosse; Kenneth A Marx

2004-01-01

317

The Comparative Performance of Conditional Independence Indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

To realize the benefits of item response theory (IRT), one must have model-data fit. One facet of a model-data fit investigation involves assessing the tenability of the conditional item independence (CII) assumption. In this Monte Carlo study, the comparative performance of 10 indices for identifying conditional item dependence is assessed. The relative performances of these indices are evaluated in terms

Doyoung Kim; R. J. De Ayala; Abdullah A. Ferdous; Michael L. Nering

2011-01-01

318

Direct entrants in transition: becoming independent learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the dynamic transitions that college leavers make to university. It draws on qualitative research with a group of students who took direct entry to the second or third year of a degree programme at university, to show that successful transitions depend on the students becoming independent learners. It argues that the students who adapt best to the

Hazel Christie; Paul Barron; Norma DAnnunzio-Green

2011-01-01

319

Independent spanning trees on even networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of multiple independent spanning trees (ISTs) for data broadcasting in networks provides a number of advantages, including the increase of fault-tolerance and bandwidth. Thus, the designs of multiple ISTs on several classes of networks have been widely investigated. In this paper, we give an algorithm to construct ISTs on even networks, and show that these ISTs are optimal

Jong-Seok Kim; Hyeong-Ok Lee; Eddie Cheng; László Lipták

2011-01-01

320

Atmospheric Radiance Profile Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents and describes the computer codes developed to generate atmospheric radiance profiles for various molecules, species, and rotational bands. Researchers extracted radiance profiles from the standard NLTE program output files and transfe...

B. K. Yap

1986-01-01

321

Braille Codes Pilot Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A project (1970-1972) to determine whether a massive research program could provide a coordinated solution to braille code problems in the areas of textbook formats and techniques, mathematics and science, music notation, and maps, charts, and diagrams fo...

C. J. Kederis C. Y. Nolan

1972-01-01

322

FDA Food Code  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

The Food Code represents FDA's best advice for a system of provisions that address the safety and protection of food offered at retail and in food ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

323

SASSYS LMFBR systems code  

SciTech Connect

The SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code is being developed mainly to analyze the behavior of the shut-down heat-removal system and the consequences of failures in the system, although it is also capable of analyzing a wide range of transients, from mild operational transients through more severe transients leading to sodium boiling in the core and possible melting of clad and fuel. The code includes a detailed SAS4A multi-channel core treatment plus a general thermal-hydraulic treatment of the primary and intermediate heat-transport loops and the steam generators. The code can handle any LMFBR design, loop or pool, with an arbitrary arrangement of components. The code is fast running: usually faster than real time.

Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.; Weber, D.P.

1983-01-01

324

Bar Code Label Requirements  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Blood and blood components must be labeled with with specific machine-readable bar code information by April 26th, 2006. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess/advertisinglabelingpromotionalmaterials

325

Materials Identification and Coding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the contract was to develop and evaluate materials and methods to achieve post-explosion identification of explosives reliably and economically through the use of phosphor-coded grains incorporated into the explosive during its manufactur...

F. M. Vodoklys

1974-01-01

326

Nuclear aerosol codes  

SciTech Connect

Codes used to simulate aerosol behavior inside containments of nuclear power plants after assumed severe accidents are described. The basic aerosol physical equations of all codes are the same worldwide. Only minor differences can be detected regarding some special aerosol physical processes. These differences are not inherent but caused by boundary conditions, which are of special interest for the code users. The comparison of the single codes also shows that the general agreement achieved by the numerical treatment of the aerosol equation requires an appropriate discretization of the distribution function to yield stable solutions under all arbitrary conditions. The application of solutions based on special distribution functions should, therefore, be restricted to certain scenarios.

Beonio-Brocchieri, F.; Bunz, H.; Schock, W.; Dunbar, I.H.; Gauvain, J.; Miyahara, S.; Himeno, Y.; Soda, K.; Yamano, N.

1988-05-01

327

Food Code 2005  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

The Food Code is a model for safeguarding public health and ensuring food is unadulterated and honestly presented when offered to the consumer. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

328

Aphasia for Morse code.  

PubMed

The ability to communicate by Morse code at high speed has, to our knowledge, not been localized within the cerebral cortex, but might be suspected as residing within the left (dominant) hemisphere. We report a case of a 54-year-old male who suffered a left temporal tip intracerebral hematoma and who temporarily lost his ability to communicate in Morse code, but who was minimally aphasic. PMID:2420410

Wyler, A R; Ray, M W

1986-03-01

329

Security embedding codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of simultaneously communicating high-security and low-security messages, referred to as the security embedding problem. An information-theoretic model is presented. A coding scheme that combines superposition coding and random binning is proposed and is shown to achieve the capacity region in several communication scenarios. As an application, it is shown that a simple scheme that combines

Hung D. Ly; Tie Liu; Yufei Blankenship

2010-01-01

330

Multiphysics Coupling of Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the coupling of codes for the solution of multi{component multi{phase ow problems in the subsurface. The coupled codes simulate the owand transport in a porous reservoir which can be decomposed into several parts,based on the number and type of uids which ow there. Each part is associatedwith a physical model which comprises a set of conservation equations, constitutivelaws

Malgorzata Peszynska; Qin Lu; Mary F. Wheeler

2000-01-01

331

A 3D Monte Carlo code for plasma transport in island divertors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully 3D self-consistent Monte Carlo code EMC3 (edge Monte Carlo 3D) for modelling the plasma transport in island divertors has been developed. In a first step, the code solves a simplified version of the 3D time-independent plasma fluid equations. Coupled to the neutral transport code EIRENE, the EMC3 code has been used to study the particle, energy and neutral

Y. Feng; F. Sardei; J. Kisslinger; P. Grigull

1997-01-01

332

The FAR codes  

SciTech Connect

The FAR code models in the time and frequency domains, the far fields resulting from electromagnetic fields generated in complex near field environments. There are three versions of the code, a stand-alone version and two post-processor versions (time histories and frequency patterns) which model the far fields of the outputs from finite difference time domain codes. This report covers the formula development, code construction, code validation, and error sources of the code. The errors which may be mitigated, but not eliminated, are the grid sampling error, the magnetic field adjustment error, and the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) errors. Only the last error occurs with the stand-alone version. The grid sampling error is inversely proportional to the number of sampling points per square wavelength and is mitigated by using a finer mesh. The magnetic field adjustment error is mitigated by using a two point spatial averaging and a three point time interpolation. The DFT errors are aliasing, leakage, and picket-fence errors. They are mitigated by using a transit pulse with reduced high frequency content and using a zero packing technique in the DFT routine. 19 refs., 293 figs., 44 tabs.

Barth, M.J.; Ziolkowski, R.

1990-06-07

333

KENO-V code  

SciTech Connect

The KENO-V code is the current release of the Oak Ridge multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code development. The original KENO, with 16 group Hansen-Roach cross sections and P/sub 1/ scattering, was one ot the first multigroup Monte Carlo codes and it and its successors have always been a much-used research tool for criticality studies. KENO-V is able to accept large neutron cross section libraries (a 218 group set is distributed with the code) and has a general P/sub N/ scattering capability. A supergroup feature allows execution of large problems on small computers, but at the expense of increased calculation time and system input/output operations. This supergroup feature is activated automatically by the code in a manner which utilizes as much computer memory as is available. The primary purpose of KENO-V is to calculate the system k/sub eff/, from small bare critical assemblies to large reflected arrays of differing fissile and moderator elements. In this respect KENO-V neither has nor requires the many options and sophisticated biasing techniques of general Monte Carlo codes.

Cramer, S.N.

1984-01-01

334

Adaptive format conversion for scalable video coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enhancement layer in many scalable coding algorithms is composed of residual coding information. There is another type of information that can be transmitted instead of (or in addition to) residual coding. Since the encoder has access to the original sequence, it can utilize adaptive format conversion (AFC) to generate the enhancement layer and transmit the different format conversion methods as enhancement data. This paper investigates the use of adaptive format conversion information as enhancement data in scalable video coding. Experimental results are shown for a wide range of base layer qualities and enhancement bitrates to determine when AFC can improve video scalability. Since the parameters needed for AFC are small compared to residual coding, AFC can provide video scalability at low enhancement layer bitrates that are not possible with residual coding. In addition, AFC can also be used in addition to residual coding to improve video scalability at higher enhancement layer bitrates. Adaptive format conversion has not been studied in detail, but many scalable applications may benefit from it. An example of an application that AFC is well-suited for is the migration path for digital television where AFC can provide immediate video scalability as well as assist future migrations.

Wan, Wade K.; Lim, Jae S.

2001-12-01

335

Scalable L-infinite coding of meshes.  

PubMed

The paper investigates the novel concept of local-error control in mesh geometry encoding. In contrast to traditional mesh-coding systems that use the mean-square error as target distortion metric, this paper proposes a new L-infinite mesh-coding approach, for which the target distortion metric is the L-infinite distortion. In this context, a novel wavelet-based L-infinite-constrained coding approach for meshes is proposed, which ensures that the maximum error between the vertex positions in the original and decoded meshes is lower than a given upper bound. Furthermore, the proposed system achieves scalability in L-infinite sense, that is, any decoding of the input stream will correspond to a perfectly predictable L-infinite distortion upper bound. An instantiation of the proposed L-infinite-coding approach is demonstrated for MESHGRID, which is a scalable 3D object encoding system, part of MPEG-4 AFX. In this context, the advantages of scalable L-infinite coding over L-2-oriented coding are experimentally demonstrated. One concludes that the proposed L-infinite mesh-coding approach guarantees an upper bound on the local error in the decoded mesh, it enables a fast real-time implementation of the rate allocation, and it preserves all the scalability features and animation capabilities of the employed scalable mesh codec. PMID:20224144

Munteanu, Adrian; Cernea, Dan C; Alecu, Alin; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

336

States on Symmetric Logics: Conditional Probability and Independence. II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the notions of conditional probabilities, independence and ?-independence for states on symmetric logics. We prove that a non-atomic state on the logic with the Lyapunov's property is determined by its specification of independent events. We present the examples of (1) ?-subadditive but is not subadditive and (2) two-valued non ?-subadditive states on symmetric logic. We investigate the independence relation transitivity for a ?-subadditive state. We also study continuity properties of conditional probabilities and ?-independence relation with respect to natural pseudometric for ?-subadditive state. Finally, we pose two open problems.

Bikchentaev, Airat; Yakushev, Rinat

2013-09-01

337

Growing Salt: An Independent Course Research Project Investigating Chemical Sediments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare for this project, students read a journal article about the processes and products of chemical sedimentation and early diagenesis in saline pan environments (Lowenstein and Hardie, 1985). In class, students are given some handouts that tabluate various evaporite minerals and how water chemistry affects their formation and dissolution. A short slide show and video illustrate some different types of saline environments. Photos and samples guide a lecture on the formation of different types of evaporite minerals and how they form. For example, chevron halite crystals are generally large (cm-scale) and grow upward from the floor of a shallow (less than ~0.5 m) surface water body; cumulate halite crystals are smaller (typically mm-scale) and grow on the water-air interface and settle to the bottom, regardless of water depth. Randomly-oriented halite crystals can grow displacively from groundwater in mud or sand. The students learn that the specific sedimentology of halite can be used to trace past surface water depth and groundwater salinity. I also give examples of how past quantitative climate data, past chemical data and even past microbiologial data can be interpreted from evaporites. I emphasize how, in order to understand evaporites, one must think critically about sedimentology and geochemistry. The students are told, at the end of this lecture, that their next lab period will focus on designing and setting up a research project on growing salt. They are encouraged to start thinking about a research question they can pose about evaporite sedimentology. At this time, I also tell them what materials are available for their use (tap water, distilled water, seawater, various types of saline water I have collected during field trips, various types of store-bought table and road salt (including iodized, non-iodized, sea salt, etc.). A variety of table salts can be purchased cheaply (~$1 - $2/carton) at almost any grocery store. If you live in a cold climate, most grocery stores and hardware stores also sell several types of road salt (~$3-$4/bag). The table salts are mostly Na and Cl; some have lesser amopunts of Ca and SO4. Some road salts have Ca, Mg, Na, and Cl. In my experience, one carton and one bag of each type will provide more than enough salt for a class of 15 students. When it is time for lab to begin, I gather my students in my research lab (but could also be done in a classroom), where I show them the materials I have available to them: various types of salt, various types of water, and plastic, glass, and metal containers of various shapes (baby food glass jars, plastic take-out food containers, etc). My lab also contains a variety of other miscellaneous materials, such as sand, gravel, clay, morter and pestle, wooden sticks, metal stirring rods, string, plastic tubing, beakers, food coloring (shows fluid inclusion bands well and everyone loves playing with food coloring), etc. I remind the students that they have a microwave oven, a freezer, a lab hood, a windowsill with plenty of sunlight, and a heating vent that can be used, as well. I make available a few thermometers, pH strips (or pH meter), and a hand-held refractometer for measuring salinity. These analytical field instruments are not neccessary for this assignment to work. However, as instructor, I would encourage you to use anything available to you. I ask each student to tell me informally of their research question/hypothesis and then I try to help them find any materials they need for their experiments. Here are some examples of student research questions that have been tested with this assignment: (1) Does temperature of water affect rate of haite/gypsum growth?: (2) Will evaporite minerals grown from a complex saline fluid form a "bulls eye" pattern as their textbook claims?; (3) Will halite grow preferentially on glass substrates versus wooden and plastic substrates?; (4) Will evaporation of salt water make halite cement equally well in a gravel, a sand, a clay?; (5) What conditions best produce large halite crystals?; (6) Does pH of water influence halite and gypsum precipitation or dissolution? Students spend most of a lab period (2-3 hours) setting up their experiment. As part of this initial experimental set-up, they start to learn basic research skills such as labelling samples well, documenting starting conditions, and taking detailed notes. The students are allowed to leave their experiments on a windowsill in my lab or our classroom, on a radiator, in a lab fume hood, or in a lab refridgerator or freezer, depending upon the nature of the particular experiment. I encourage the students to check their samples on a daily basis and remind them to record their observations each time they check their experiment. I give the students an assignment sheet that details the final lab report requirements. Most students will have results in 2-3 weeks, but some experiments may last up to 4-5 weeks. For this reason, I plan for this lab assignment to be started in the middle of the semester (which works well if your syllabus, like mine, calls for weathering, physical sedimentology, siliciclastics, and carbonates to be covered in the first 6-8 weeks of class; evaporites follow well after carbonates). The final lab report is not due until the end of the semester so that all students have time to bring their expermient to completion, make interpretations, and write their lab report. At the end of the semester, depending on the number of students and time permitted, I ask the students to informally tell the class about their experiment and show the results. This has worked well for me. However, even in semesters in which we have not done this, the students still become familiar with each other's projects. On the initial experiment day, the students informally share their ideas. As students come to check on their own experiiments periodically, they usually look in on their classmates' experiments as well. Students tell me that this is one of their favorite lab exercises. It encourages critical thinking and shows the importance of experimentation in science. In addition, I feel as if the students leave my course knowing more about evaporites than the average geologist.

Benison, Kathy

338

Natural history and experimental evolution of the genetic code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard genetic code is a set of rules that relates the 20 canonical amino acids in proteins to groups of three bases\\u000a in the mRNA. It evolved from a more primitive form and the attempts to reconstruct its natural history are based on its present-day\\u000a features. Genetic code engineering as a new research field was developed independently in a

Birgit Wiltschi; Nediljko Budisa

2007-01-01

339

Multi-receiver authentication code for network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems exploiting network coding suffer greatly from pollution attacks which consist of injecting malicious packets in the network. The pollution attacks are amplified by the network coding process resulting in a greater damage than under traditional routing. In this paper, we address this issue with unconditionally secure multi-receiver authentication codes designed for network coding. Our scheme is robust against pollution

F. Oggier; H. Fathi

2008-01-01

340

Coded source neutron imaging  

SciTech Connect

Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

2011-01-01

341

Coded source neutron imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100?m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100?m and 10?m aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

Bingham, Philip; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Tobin, Ken

2011-02-01

342

Lossless Source Coding Using Nested Error Correcting Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a tree-structured variable-length random binning scheme for lossless source coding. The existing source coding schemes based on turbo codes, low-density parity check codes, and repeat accumulate codes can be regarded as practical implementations of this random binning scheme. For sufficiently large data blocks, we show that the proposed scheme asymptotically achieves the entropy limit. We also derive the

Javad Haghighat; Walaa Hamouda; Mohammad Reza Soleymani

2007-01-01

343

SAC: Sheffield Advanced Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.

Griffiths, Mike; Fedun, Viktor; Mumford, Stuart; Gent, Frederick

2013-06-01

344

Parental Beliefs about Emotions Are Associated with Early Adolescents' Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We assessed linkages between parents' beliefs and their children's self-construals with 60 7th and 8th graders. Early adolescents completed an open-ended, Self-Guide Questionnaire and an independent and interdependent reaction-time measure. The self-guide responses were coded for independent and interdependent traits. Parents reported beliefs…

Her, Pa; Dunsmore, Julie C.

2011-01-01

345

The RAID6 Liberation Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RAID-6 specification calls for a storage system with multiple storage devices to tolerate the failure of any two devices. Numerous erasure coding techniques have been developed that can implement RAID-6; however, each has limitations. In this paper, we describe a new class of RAID-6 codes called the Liberation Codes .T hese codes encode, update and decode either optimally or

James S. Plank

2008-01-01

346

Image segmentation using fractal coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying fractal coding to image segmentation was attempted as its new application. The encoding method is the same as the conventional fractal coding method, and the fractal-code is used for image segmentation. An image can be segmented by calculating basins on a dynamical system parametrized by the fractal-code. It is shown that the new method has the ability to segment

T. Ida; Y. Sambonsugi

1995-01-01

347

Active Distances for Convolutional Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— A family of active distance measures for general convolutional codes is defined. These distances are generalizations of the extended distances introduced by Thommesen and Justesen for unit memory,convolutional codes. It is shown that the error correcting capability of a convolutional code is determined by the active distances. The ensemble of periodically time-varying convolutional codes is defined and lower bounds

Stefan Höst; Rolf Johannesson; Kamil Sh. Zigangirov; Victor V. Zyablov

1999-01-01

348

The Code Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Code Project is an online repository of free tutorials, source code, and articles about a wide variety of programming languages. Sections devoted to C++, HTML, DirectX, and .NET are among the resources available on the site. Discussion forums and message boards are excellent places for developers to get quick answers to their questions from other members of the community (this requires a short registration). Featured articles and industry news keep the site up-to-date. There are some advertisements on the site, but they do not detract from the content.

2007-07-25

349

Highly overcomplete sparse coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores sparse coding of natural images in the highly overcomplete regime. We show that as the overcompleteness ratio approaches l0x, new types of dictionary elements emerge beyond the classical Gabor function shape obtained from complete or only modestly overcomplete sparse coding. These more diverse dic­ tionaries allow images to be approximated with lower L1 norm (for a fixed SNR), and the coefficients exhibit steeper decay. We also evaluate the learned dictionaries in a denoising task, showing that higher degrees of overcompleteness yield modest gains in peformance.

Olshausen, Bruno A.

2013-03-01

350

Corporate Codes of Labour Practice and Employment Relations in Sports Shoe Contractor Factories in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the way a leading US-based, global athletic shoe and sports apparel firm applies its labour code of practice to four prime contractors located in South Korea. The content of the code, the mechanisms used in implementing the code, and employment relations behaviour associated with the code are investigated. We find evidence for arrangements resembling relational contracting and high

Stephen J. Frenkel; Seongsu Kim

2004-01-01

351

An Eye-Tracking Study of How Color Coding Affects Multimedia Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Color coding has been proposed to promote more effective learning. However, insufficient evidence currently exists to show how color coding leads to better learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the underlying cause of the color coding effect by utilizing eye movement data. Fifty-two participants studied either a color-coded or…

Ozcelik, Erol; Karakus, Turkan; Kursun, Engin; Cagiltay, Kursat

2009-01-01

352

Dynamical stabilization of Grover's algorithm with embedded quantum codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stabilizing quantum algorithms against external perturbations and preserving quantum coherence are main challenges in the area of quantum information processing. In this contribution main ideas underlying a new class of recently proposed embedded error-correcting quantum codes are discussed. These detected-jump correcting quantum codes are capable of stabilizing distinguishable qubits against spontaneous decay provided these decay processes originate from couplings to statistically independent reservoirs. Exploiting the classical information about which qubit has been affected by the environment these embedded quantum codes minimize the number of required control measurements and recovery operations as well as redundancy. Their stabilizing properties are exemplified by applying them to Grover's quantum search algorithm.

Alber, Gernot; Mussinger, Michael; Delgado, Aldo

2001-05-01

353

FEFF5: An ab initio multiple scattering XAFS code  

SciTech Connect

FEFF5 is an efficient automated code which calculates multiple scattering (MS) curved wave XAFS spectra for molecules and solids. The theoretical ingredients and approximations contained in the code are revised, with the aim of describing the how XAFS spectra are efficiently simulated. The FEFF5 code consists of 4 independent modules: a scattering potential and phase shift module, a path finder module, a scattering amplitude module and an XAFS module. Multiple scattering Debye-Waller factors are built in using a correlated Debye model.

Rehr, J.J.; Zabinsky, S.I.

1992-12-31

354

Automated searching for quantum subsystem codes  

SciTech Connect

Quantum error correction allows for faulty quantum systems to behave in an effectively error-free manner. One important class of techniques for quantum error correction is the class of quantum subsystem codes, which are relevant both to active quantum error-correcting schemes as well as to the design of self-correcting quantum memories. Previous approaches for investigating these codes have focused on applying theoretical analysis to look for interesting codes and to investigate their properties. In this paper we present an alternative approach that uses computational analysis to accomplish the same goals. Specifically, we present an algorithm that computes the optimal quantum subsystem code that can be implemented given an arbitrary set of measurement operators that are tensor products of Pauli operators. We then demonstrate the utility of this algorithm by performing a systematic investigation of the quantum subsystem codes that exist in the setting where the interactions are limited to two-body interactions between neighbors on lattices derived from the convex uniform tilings of the plane.

Crosswhite, Gregory M.; Bacon, Dave [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2011-02-15

355

Two-dimensional MHD generator model. [GEN code  

SciTech Connect

A steady state, two-dimensional MHD generator code, GEN, is presented. The code solves the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, using a Von Mises transformation and a local linearization of the equations. By splitting the source terms into a part proportional to the axial pressure gradient and a part independent of the gradient, the pressure distribution along the channel is easily obtained to satisfy various criteria. Thus, the code can run effectively in both design modes, where the channel geometry is determined, and analysis modes, where the geometry is previously known. The code also employs a mixing length concept for turbulent flows, Cebeci and Chang's wall roughness model, and an extension of that model to the effective thermal diffusities. Results on code validation, as well as comparisons of skin friction and Stanton number calculations with experimental results, are presented.

Geyer, H.K.; Ahluwalia, R.K.; Doss, E.D.

1980-09-01

356

High rate concatenated coding systems using bandwidth efficient trellis inner codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-rate concatenated coding systems with bandwidth-efficient trellis inner codes and Reed-Solomon (RS) outer codes are investigated for application in high-speed satellite communication systems. Two concatenated coding schemes are proposed. In one the inner code is decoded with soft-decision Viterbi decoding, and the outer RS code performs error-correction-only decoding (decoding without side information). In the other, the inner code is decoded with a modified Viterbi algorithm, which produces reliability information along with the decoded output. In this algorithm, path metrics are used to estimate the entire information sequence, whereas branch metrics are used to provide reliability information on the decoded sequence. This information is used to erase unreliable bits in the decoded output. An errors-and-erasures RS decoder is then used for the outer code. The two schemes have been proposed for high-speed data communication on NASA satellite channels. The rates considered are at least double those used in current NASA systems, and the results indicate that high system reliability can still be achieved.

Deng, Robert H.; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

1989-05-01

357

System verification and validation report for the TMAD code  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as the Verification and Validation Report for the TMAD code system, which includes the TMAD code and the LIBMAKR Code. The TMAD code was commissioned to facilitate the interpretation of moisture probe measurements in the Hanford Site waste tanks. In principle, the code is an interpolation routine that acts over a library of benchmark data based on two independent variables, typically anomaly size and moisture content. Two additional variables, anomaly type and detector type, can also be considered independent variables, but no interpolation is done over them. The dependent variable is detector response. The intent is to provide the code with measured detector responses from two or more detectors. The code will then interrogate (and interpolate upon) the benchmark data library and find the anomaly-type/anomaly-size/moisture-content combination that provides the closest match to the measured data. The primary purpose of this document is to provide the results of the system testing and the conclusions based thereon. The results of the testing process are documented in the body of the report. Appendix A gives the test plan, including test procedures, used in conducting the tests. Appendix B lists the input data required to conduct the tests, and Appendices C and 0 list the numerical results of the tests.

Finfrock, S.H.

1995-10-06

358

Independent and Interdependent Group Contingencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent and interdependent group contingencies have many applied advantages for influencing behaviors in school settings, However, there are negative side effects associated with these group oriented contingencies. A scenario is presented that illustrates some negative side effects of independent and interdependent group oriented contingencies. Specific recommendations for altering group oriented contingencies to reduce these negative side effects and increase the

Christopher H. Skinner; Craig S. Cashwell; Merrily S. Dunn

1996-01-01

359

Board Independence and Family Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we tend to find the determinants of board independence. In addition, two competing theories, incentives for shareholder protection and private benefits of control are further examined to evaluate the effect of family control on board independence The evidence shows that firms with more complex operations, higher growth opportunities, and larger incentives for monitoring are likely to appoint

Chih-Liang Liu; Huimin Chung; Pei-Ting Liao

360

Scale Independence in Marking Menus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how marking menus use an explicit recognizer to support menu selection using marks. A key property of the recognizer is scale independence: recognition of marks drawn at any size. We hypothesize that scale independence contributes to fast selections and reduces the effort required. To test this hypothesis, we present an experiment to examine the effects of scale

Gordon Kurtenbach; George Fitzmaurice; Azam Khan; Don Almeida

361

Binary models for marginal independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Log-linear models are a classical tool for the analysis of contingency tables. In particular, the subclass of graphical log-linear models provides a general framework for modelling conditional independences. However, with the exception of special structures, marginal independence hypotheses cannot be accommodated by these traditional models. Focusing on binary variables, we present a model class that provides a framework for modelling

Mathias Drton; Thomas S. Richardson

2008-01-01

362

Precommitment by central bank independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the issue of central bank independence. The central argument is that government can precommit to the objective of price stability by providing a constitutional status of independence to the central bank. A sufficient set of institutional elements and the problem of incentive compatibility are discussed. It is argued that the solution is superior to a constitutional money

Manfred J. M. Neumann

1991-01-01

363

Chinese disability independent living policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite strong statements on disability rights in Chinese legislation since 1990, independent living policy as experienced by disabled people falls short of the social inclusion goals expected from such a policy commitment. Analysis of empirical research about disabled people's experiences shows that responsibility for independent living rests primarily with disabled people and their families. Only when they have no family

Karen Fisher; Li Jing

2008-01-01

364

Analysis of Some Antecipated Transients Without Scram for PWR Type Reactors by Coupling of the CORAN Code to the ALMOD Code System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates some antecipated transients without scram for a pressurized water cooled reactor, using coupling of the containment CORAN code to the ALMOD code system, under severe random conditions. This coupling has the objective of including c...

F. A. T. Carvalho

1985-01-01

365

Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC)is a state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model that can be used to simulate aquatic systems in one, two, and three dimensions. It has evolved over the past two decades to become one of the most widely used and technically defensible hydrodyn...

366

Code Games for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game for children promotes pattern recognition by identifying the missing numbers in a pattern displayed on a safe lock. Players drag number tiles into the gaps and if successful unlock the safe and move onto a different challenge. There are two practice rounds and then ten codes to crack.

2013-01-01

367

The code COSY INFINITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

COSY INFINITY is a design and simulation code for particle accelerators, guidance systems, and spectrometers utilizing novel techniques. It allows the computation and manipulation of maps of arbitrary systems including fringe fields and other s-dependent effects to arbitrary order, including the dependence of system parameters. Maps can be analyzed and manipulated in a variety of ways, including normal form techniques.

M. Berz

1991-01-01

368

Error-Correcting Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The minimum distances are determined for all quadratic-residue codes of lengths 3, 5, 7, and 11 by means of permutation groups. Upper bounds on the minimum distance are obtained for many lengths up to 50,000 for various ground fields; the method used is c...

E. F. Assmus H. F. Mattson

1971-01-01

369

Odor Coding Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Odor is a one of important sensing parameters for human life. However, odor has not been quantified by a measuring instrument because of its vagueness. In this paper, a measuring of odor with odor coding, which are vector quantities of plural odor molecular information, and its applications are described.

Hayashi, Kenshi

370

Liver Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Ducts C220–C221 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic

371

Bone Coding Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

Coding Guidelines BONES, JOINTS, AND ARTICULAR CARTILAGE C400–C419 PERIPHERAL NERVES AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM C470–C479 CONNECTIVE, SUBCUTANEOUS, AND OTHER SOFT TISSUES C490–C499 (Except for M9750, 9760-9764, 9800-9820, 9826, 9831-9920, 9931-9992)

372

Decode de Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, users must decode a scientific quote that has been encoded by the computer. The computer will generate an "alphabet" (either random or rotated) and then substitute every letter of the real quote with the computer generated alphabet's letter. To decode the code, you must look for patterns of letters and then substitute guesses for the real letters.

373

Deciphering the splicing code.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing has a crucial role in the generation of biological complexity, and its misregulation is often involved in human disease. Here we describe the assembly of a 'splicing code', which uses combinations of hundreds of RNA features to predict tissue-dependent changes in alternative splicing for thousands of exons. The code determines new classes of splicing patterns, identifies distinct regulatory programs in different tissues, and identifies mutation-verified regulatory sequences. Widespread regulatory strategies are revealed, including the use of unexpectedly large combinations of features, the establishment of low exon inclusion levels that are overcome by features in specific tissues, the appearance of features deeper into introns than previously appreciated, and the modulation of splice variant levels by transcript structure characteristics. The code detected a class of exons whose inclusion silences expression in adult tissues by activating nonsense-mediated messenger RNA decay, but whose exclusion promotes expression during embryogenesis. The code facilitates the discovery and detailed characterization of regulated alternative splicing events on a genome-wide scale. PMID:20445623

Barash, Yoseph; Calarco, John A; Gao, Weijun; Pan, Qun; Wang, Xinchen; Shai, Ofer; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Frey, Brendan J

2010-05-01

374

Adaptive coded aperture projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

With adaptive coded aperture projection, we present solutions for taking projectors to the next level. By placing a programmable liquid crystal array at a projectors aperture plane we show how the depth of field (DOF) of a projection can be greatly enhanced. This allows focussed imagery to be shown on complex screens with varying distances to the projectors focal plane,

Max Grosse; Gordon Wetzstein; Oliver Bimber; Anselm Grundhöfer

2009-01-01

375

Phonological Coding in Prereaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To examine changes in phonetic coding two age groups of 40 preschoolers were shown rhyming and nonrhyming letter sets. Recall was measured by oral free recall (testing item memory) and serial reconstruction (testing order memory). A large phonetic similarity effect was present in both groups with no developmental changes in the effect magnitude.…

Lean, Debra S.; Arbuckle, Tannis Y.

1984-01-01

376

An Unethical Ethics Code.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts an incident where a sociologist heard stories challenging violations concerning toxic chemicals. Lawyers advised that corroborating these stories would obligate the sociologist to inform the authorities, thereby jeopardizing his sources. Discusses the ineffectuality of the American Sociological Associations' code of ethics and legal…

Clarke, Lee

1995-01-01

377

Cooperation diversity through coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new user cooperation scheme for wireless communications in which we combine cooperation with existing channel coding methods. Simulation results show a significant improvement in the BER for both users, even when the channel between them is poor, or when they have significantly different channel qualities to the base station.

Todd E. Hunter; Aria Nosratinia

2002-01-01

378

Rectum Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Rectum C209 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item #1294)

379

Rectosigmoid Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

R ectosigmoid C199 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item

380

Rectosigmoid Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Rectosigmoid C199 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item

381

Dress Codes and Uniforms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

2002-01-01

382

Pharynx Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Pharynx Tonsil C090–C099, Oropharynx C100–C109, Nasopharynx C110–C119 Pyriform Sinus C129, Hypopharynx C130–C139, Pharynx C140 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery

383

The TESS (Tandem Experiment Simulation Studies) computer code user's manual  

SciTech Connect

TESS (Tandem Experiment Simulation Studies) is a one-dimensional, bounded particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code designed to investigate the confinement and transport of plasma in a magnetic mirror device, including tandem mirror configurations. Mirror plasmas may be modeled in a system which includes an applied magnetic field and/or a self-consistent or applied electrostatic potential. The PIC code TESS is similar to the PIC code DIPSI (Direct Implicit Plasma Surface Interactions) which is designed to study plasma transport to and interaction with a solid surface. The codes TESS and DIPSI are direct descendants of the PIC code ES1 that was created by A. B. Langdon. This document provides the user with a brief description of the methods used in the code and a tutorial on the use of the code. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

Procassini, R.J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Cohen, B.I. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1990-06-01

384

Channel coding for satellite mobile channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deployment of channel coding and interleaving to enhance the bit-error performance of a satellite mobile radio channel is addressed for speech and data transmissions. Different convolutional codes (CC) using Viterbi decoding with soft decision are examined with interblock interleaving. Reed-Solomon (RS) codes with Berlekamp-Massey hard decision decoding or soft decision trellis decoding combined with block interleaving are also investigated. A concatenated arrangement employing RS and CC coding as the outer and inner coders, respectively, is used for transmissions via minimum shift keying over Gaussian and Rayleigh fading channels. For an interblock interleaving period of 2880 bits, a concatenated arrangement of an RS(48,36), over the Galois field GF(256) and punctured PCC(3,1,7) yielding an overall coding rate of 1/2, provides a coding gain of 42dB for a BER of 10 to the -6th, and an uncorrectable error detection probability of 1 - 10 to the -9th.

Wong, K. H. H.; Hanzo, L.; Steele, R.

1989-09-01

385

Do Phonological Codes Constrain the Selection of Orthographic Codes in Written Picture Naming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound-to-print consistency of picture labels was manipulated in five experiments to investigate whether phonological codes constrain the selection of orthographic codes in written picture naming. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants wrote down picture names which were inconsistent or consistent in the phono-orthographic mapping defined either at the level of the word unit, i.e., heterographic homophones versus nonhomophones (Experiment 1),

Patrick Bonin; Ronald Peereman; Michel Fayol

2001-01-01

386

The time-varying independence of Italian peak judicial institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the stability of the degree of independence of the judiciary vis à vis both the classical political\\u000a branches and other independent institutions, such as regulatory agencies, using evidence about the Italian Constitutional\\u000a Court and the Council of State. Both peak judicial courts feature time varying factors of independence that affect their jurisprudence,\\u000a especially in the case of

Fabio Padovano

2009-01-01

387

Adaptive Modulation and Code Channel Elimination for Vector Coding System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vector coding (VC) is a kind of eigen mode transmission scheme which is typically considered in MIMO systems. In VC systems, several code channels corresponding to the eigenvalues of the channel matrix are created. However, any code channels with low eigenvalues will cause a degradation in performance. In this paper, adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) for a VC system is proposed. In addition to AMC, the number of code channels is adaptively changed by code channel elimination. We show that the BER performance of VC is better than that of MMSE. Secondly, we also show the throughput performance of the proposed scheme is improved compared with the maximum throughput of each individual MCS.

Takeda, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Masao

388

Project Independence: is it out of reach for U. S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project Independence, President Nixon's code name for the massive energy effort, appears to be more difficult if anything than developing an atom bomb or placing a man on the moon. There are at least 3 reasons why the U.S. may fall short of the stated goals: boosting energy production from 30.5 million bpd of oil equivalent in 1973 to 42.1

Kinney

1974-01-01

389

Fiscal Year 1972 Independent Research and Independent Exploratory Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents brief summaries of a few of the independent research and exploratory development projects conducted at Naval Undersea Center. The projects described are animal attraction to sunken submarines, porpoise sonar simulation, venemous and da...

1971-01-01

390

America\\'s Journey to Independence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

*Examine the role of leaders that led to United States Independence *Trace the development of the U.S. Constitution Learn about the Founding Fathers and Constitution of the United States by reading valuable information and viewing many wonderful pictures: America s Founding Fathers Investigate the life of Benjamin Franklin, a man very influential in the forming of the American nation. View information, pictures, and video: Benjamin Franklin Check out facts of the Revolutionary War and how it ...

Nielsen, Ms.

2007-10-08

391

Optimal Independent Spanning Trees on Odd Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of multiple independent spanning trees (ISTs) for data broadcasting in networks provides a number of advantages, including\\u000a the increase of fault-tolerance and bandwidth. The designs of multiple ISTs on several classes of networks have been widely\\u000a investigated. In this paper we show a construction algorithm of ISTs on odd graphs, and we analyze that all the lengths of\\u000a the paths

Jong-Seok Kim; Hyeong-Ok Lee; Eddie Cheng; László Lipták

2011-01-01

392

Sequence independent amplification of DNA  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei.

Bohlander, Stefan K. (Chicago, IL)

1998-01-01

393

Sequence independent amplification of DNA  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example, the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei. 25 figs.

Bohlander, S.K.

1998-03-24

394

Memoryless near-collisions via coding theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate generic methods to find near-collisions in cryptographic hash functions. We introduce a new generic approach\\u000a based on methods to find cycles in the space of codewords of a code with low covering radius. We give an analysis of our approach\\u000a and demonstrate it on the SHA-3 candidate TIB3.

Mario Lamberger; Florian Mendel; Vincent Rijmen; Koen Simoens

395

Improvements of embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we investigate several improvements of embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) coding. Several topics addressed include: the choice of wavelet transforms and boundary conditions, the use of arithmetic coder and arithmetic context and the design of encoding order for effective embedding. The superior performance of our improvements is demonstrated with extensive experimental results.

Jin Li; Po-Yuen Cheng; C.-C. J. Kuo

1995-01-01

396

Error-correcting codes for rank modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate error-correcting codes for a novel storage technology for flash memories, the rank-modulation scheme. In this scheme, a set of n cells stores information in the permutation induced by the different charge levels of the individual cells. The resulting scheme eliminates the need for discrete cell levels, overcomes overshoot errors when programming cells (a serious problem that reduces the

Anxiao Jiang; M. Schwartz; J. Bruck

2008-01-01

397

Superposition Coding with Peak-Power Limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a peak-power-limited superposition coding scheme based on clipping. A low-complexity soft compensation algorithm (SCA) for combating the clipping effect is investigated. It can be easily combined with soft-input soft-output (SISO) decoding algorithms in an iterative manner. Various numerical results show that the SCA can effectively mitigate the performance loss due to clipping.

Jun Tong; Li Ping; Xiao Ma

2006-01-01

398

A bandwidth-efficient class of signal-space codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of codes in signal space is presented, and their error and spectral properties are investigated. A constant-amplitude continuous-phase signal carries a coded sequence of linear-phase changes; the possible signal phases form a cylindrical trellis in phase and time. Simple codes using 4-16 phases, together with a Viterbi algorithm decoder, allow transmitter power savings of 2-4 dB over

JOHN B. ANDERSON; DESMOND P. TAYLOR

1978-01-01

399

Reliability of ICD-10 external cause of death codes in the National Coroners Information System.  

PubMed

Availability of ICD-10 cause of death codes in the National Coroners Information System (NCIS) strengthens its value as a public health surveillance tool. This study quantified the completeness of external cause ICD-10 codes in the NCIS for Victorian deaths (as assigned by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in the yearly Cause of Death data). It also examined the concordance between external cause ICD-10 codes contained in the NCIS and a re-code of the same deaths conducted by an independent coder. Of 7,400 NCIS external cause deaths included in this study, 961 (13.0%) did not contain an ABS assigned ICD-10 code and 225 (3.0%) contained only a natural cause code. Where an ABS assigned external cause ICD-10 code was present (n=6,214), 4,397 (70.8%) matched exactly with the independently assigned ICD-10 code. Coding disparity primarily related to differences in assignment of intent and specificity. However, in a small number of deaths (n=49, 0.8%) there was coding disparity for both intent and external cause category. NCIS users should be aware of the limitations of relying only on ICD-10 codes contained within the NCIS for deaths prior to 2007 and consider using these in combination with the other NCIS data fields and code sets to ensure optimum case identification. PMID:21041843

Bugeja, Lyndal; Clapperton, Angela J; Killian, Jessica J; Stephan, Karen L; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

2010-01-01

400

Field-Dependence-Independence and Mathematics Problem-Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a discussion of the nature of individual differences in the learning of mathematics, which leads to a review of field-dependent and field-independent cognitive styles. Field-dependence-independence is noted as an important variable in school learning and a study is cited that investigated the relationship between pupil success at…

Vaidya, Sheila; And Others

401

Code White: A Signed Code Protection Mechanism for Smartphones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research develops Code White, a hardware-implemented trusted execution mechanism for the Symbian mobile operating system. Code White combines a signed whitelist approach with the 'execute never' bit in the ARM architecture. It prevents all untrusted ...

I. J. Hinson

2010-01-01

402

Compound Independent and Dependent Events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compare the theoretical and experimental probability of a compound independent event by drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record the results of successive draws with or without replacement of marbles to calculate the experimental probability.

2007-12-12

403

Technology for Independent Living: Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This sourcebook provides information for the practical implementation of independent living technology in the everyday rehabilitation process. "Information Services and Resources" lists databases, clearinghouses, networks, research and development programs, toll-free telephone numbers, consumer protection caveats, selected publications, and…

Enders, Alexandra, Ed.

404

Whatever Happened to Independent Inventors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discuss the increasing problems, facing the private innovator, which may seriously affect the progress of American technology. Statistics show a decrease in patents issued to independent inventors. Information concerning patents, suggested cautions, and useful publications are cited. (Author/EB)|

Douglas, John H.

1976-01-01

405

Confocal coded aperture imaging  

DOEpatents

A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

406

MARS code developments  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in the physical model of 1 MeV to 100 TeV hadron and lepton interactions with nuclei and atoms are described. These include a new nuclear cross section library, a model for soft pion production, the cascade-exciton model, the dual parton model, deuteron-nucleus and neutrino-nucleus interaction models, detailed description of mu, pi and anti p absorption and a unified treatment of muon and charged hadron electromagnetic interactions with matter. New algorithms are implemented into the MARS13(98) Monte Carlo code and benchmarked against experimental data. The code capabilities to simulate cascades and generate a variety of results in complex media have been also enhanced.

N.V.Mokhov, S.I.Striganov, A.Van Ginneken, S.G.Mashnik, A.J.Sierk and J.Ranft

1998-12-01

407

X-Code: MDS Array Codes with Optimal Encoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new class of MDS array codes of size ( a prime number) called X-code. The X-codes are of minimum column distance , namely, they can correct either one column error or two column erasures. The key novelty in X-code is that it has a simple geometrical construction which achieves encoding\\/update optimal complexity, i.e., a change of any

Lihao Xu; Jehoshua Bruck

1999-01-01

408

An Authentication Code against Pollution Attacks in Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems exploiting network coding to increase their throughput suffer greatly\\u000afrom pollution attacks which consist of injecting malicious packets in the\\u000anetwork. The pollution attacks are amplified by the network coding process,\\u000aresulting in a greater damage than under traditional routing. In this paper, we\\u000aaddress this issue by designing an unconditionally secure authentication code\\u000asuitable for multicast network coding.

Frédérique E. Oggier; Hanane Fathi

2009-01-01

409

VAC: Versatile Advection Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Versatile Advection Code (VAC) is a freely available general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulation software that works in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions on Cartesian and logically Cartesian grids. VAC runs on any Unix/Linux system with a Fortran 90 (or 77) compiler and Perl interpreter. VAC can run on parallel machines using either the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library or a High Performance Fortran (HPF) compiler.

Tóth, Gábor; Keppens, Rony

2012-07-01

410

TYCHO: Stellar evolution code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TYCHO is a general, one dimensional (spherically symmetric) stellar evolution code written in structured Fortran 77; it is designed for hydrostatic and hydrodynamic stages including mass loss, accretion, pulsations and explosions. Mixing and convection algorithms are based on 3D time-dependent simulations. It offers extensive on-line graphics using Tim Pearson's PGPLOT with X-windows and runs effectively on Linux and Mac OS X laptop and desktop computers.

Arnett, D.

2013-03-01

411

EGS4 code system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EGS (Electron Gamma Shower) system of computer codes is a general purpose package for the Monte Carlo simulation of the coupled transport of electrons and photons in an arbitrary geometry for particles with energies above a few keV up to several TeV. This report introduces a new, enhanced version called EGS4. In addition to explaining and documenting the various

W. R. Nelson; H. Hirayama; D. W. O. Rogers

1985-01-01

412

Computer code abstract: NESTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

NESTLE is a few-group neutron diffusion equation solver utilizing the nodal expansion method (NEM) for eigenvalue, adjoint, and fixed-source steady-state and transient problems. The NESTLE code solve the eigenvalue (criticality), eigenvalue adjoint, external fixed-source steady-state, and external fixed-source or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search

P. J. Turinsky; R. M. K. Al-Chalabi; P. Engrand; H. N. Sarsour; F. X. Faure; W. Guo

1995-01-01

413

Subband coding of images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an extension of sub-band coding to two-dimensions with particular application to images. We employ a 16 band decomposition using a tree structure of separable quadrature mirror filters and decimators. The sub-bands are encoded using DPCM with bits allocated to approximately minimize the mean-square error. A block-adaptive variant is also presented. A limited SNR comparison shows adaptive sub-band

J. Woods; Sean O'Neil

1986-01-01

414

Decoding the LIM development code.  

PubMed Central

During development a vast number of distinct cell types arise from dividing progenitor cells. Concentration gradients of ligands that act via cell surface receptors signal transcriptional regulators that repress and activate particular genes. LIM homeodomain proteins are an important class of transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate. Although in C. elegans only a single LIM homeodomain protein is expressed in a particular cell type, in vertebrates combinations of LIM homeodomain proteins are expressed in cells that determine cell fates. We have investigated the molecular basis of the LIM domain "code" that determines cell fates such as wing formation in Drosophilia and motor neuron formation in chicks. The basic code is a homotetramer of 2 LIM homeodomain proteins bridged by the adaptor protein, nuclear LIM interactor (NLI). A more complex molecular language consisting of a hexamer complex involving NLI and 2 LIM homeodomain proteins, Lhx3 and Isl1 determines ventral motor neuron formation. The same molecular "words" adopt different meanings depending on the context of expression of other molecular "words." Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Gill, Gordon N.

2003-01-01

415

Recovery of Jump Table Case Statements from Binary Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental problems with the analy- sis of binary (executable) code is that of recognizing, in a machine-independent way, the target addresses of n-conditional branches implemented via a jump table. Without these addresses, the decoding of the machine instructions for a given procedure is incomplete, as well as any analysis on that procedure. In this paper we present

Cristina Cifuentes; Mike Van Emmerik

1999-01-01

416

The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.  

SciTech Connect

A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

Biedron, S. G.

1999-04-20

417

Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced

C. Bischof; G. Corliss; A. Griewank; L. Green; K. Haigler; P. Newman

1992-01-01

418

Partitioning a finite difference code for a local memory multiprocessor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TSAR code, a 3d finite difference EM model, was partitioned into parallel modules where each processor computed a subset of the 3d mesh. The multiprocessor was arranged in a square mesh of processors with the full range of one dimension in each processor and sub ranges in the other dimensions. Finding the range and checking for independence of array

Lawver

1989-01-01

419

An acoustic scattering code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustical scattering from atmospheric turbulence is of interest to the Army because it has been identified as a candidate cause of higher than expected sound levels in shadow zones. Shadow zones are those regions where ray theory indicates no sound penetrates. Scattering into these zones may give non-line-of-sight detection through acoustic detection. This report documents the creation of a computer code for acoustic scattering from a collection of turbules or eddies. The picture is a collection of turbules of different sizes with a specified number density in each size increment. In this aspect, the picture is similar to that of optical scattering from atmospheric aerosols where there is a collection of particles of different sizes with a specified size distribution. The optical scattering code AGAUS is the starting point for creation of the acoustic scattering from turbules (ASCT) code, which will accomplish for acoustic scattering what AGAUS accomplishes for optical scattering. The similarities and differences between the two types of scattering are pointed out as they influence the computational algorithm.

Lopez, Jose; Goedecke, G. H.; Auvermann, Harry J.

1993-04-01

420

An enumerative method for runlength-limited codes: permutation codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permutation codes, introduced by Slepian (1965), were shown to perform well on an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Unfortunately, these codes required large lookup tables, making them quite complex to implement even though the maximum-likelihood decoder is very simple. In this correspondence, we present an enumeration scheme which encodes and decodes permutation codes with low complexity. We concentrate on

Suparna Datta; Steven W. Mclaughlin

1999-01-01

421

An Authentication Code Against Pollution Attacks in Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems exploiting network coding to increase their throughput suffer greatly from pollution attacks, which consist of injecting malicious packets in the network. The pollution attacks are amplified by the network coding process, resulting in a greater damage than under traditional routing. In this paper, we address this issue by designing an unconditionally secure authentication code (that is, which does not

Frédérique Oggier; Hanane Fathi

2011-01-01

422

Universal Secure Network Coding via Rank-Metric Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of securing a network coding communication system against a wiretapper adversary is considered. The network implements linear network coding to deliver n packets from source to each receiver, and the wiretapper can eavesdrop onarbitrarily chosen links. A coding scheme is proposed that can achieve the maximum possible rate of k = n?? packets that are information-theoretically secure from

Danilo Silva; Frank R. Kschischang

2008-01-01

423

What's the code?: automatic classification of source code archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are various source code archives on the World Wide Web. These archives are usually organized by application categories and programming languages. However, manually organizing source code repositories is not a trivial task since they grow rapidly and are very large (on the order of terabytes). We demonstrate machine learning methods for automatic classification of archived source code into eleven

Secil Ugurel; Robert Krovetz; C. Lee Giles

2002-01-01

424

Method of optical image coding by time integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Method of optical image coding by time integration is proposed. Coding in proposed method is accomplished by shifting object image over photosensor area of digital camera during registration. It results in optically calculated convolution of original image with shifts trajectory. As opposed to optical coding methods based on the use of diffractive optical elements the described coding method is feasible for implementation in totally incoherent light. The method was preliminary tested by using LC monitor for image displaying and shifting. Shifting of object image is realized by displaying video consisting of frames with image to be encoded at different locations on screen of LC monitor while registering it by camera. Optical encoding and numerical decoding of test images were performed successfully. Also more practical experimental implementation of the method with use of LCOS SLM Holoeye PLUTO VIS was realized. Objects images to be encoded were formed in monochromatic spatially incoherent light. Shifting of object image over camera photosensor area was accomplished by displaying video consisting of frames with blazed gratings on LCOS SLM. Each blazed grating deflects reflecting from SLM light at different angle. Results of image optical coding and encoded images numerical restoration are presented. Obtained experimental results are compared with results of numerical modeling. Optical image coding with time integration could be used for accessible quality estimation of optical image coding using diffractive optical elements or as independent optical coding method which can be implemented in incoherent light.

Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Starikov, Sergey N.; Cheryomkhin, Pavel A.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.

2012-05-01

425

Finding Minimum Entropy Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether a particular sensory event is a reliable predictor of reward or punishment it is necessary to know the prior probability of that event. If the variables of a sensory representation normally occur independently of each other, then it is possible to derive the prior probability of any logical function of the variables from the prior probabilities of

H. B. Barlow; T. P. Kaushal; G. J. Mitchison

1989-01-01

426

Conservative Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by practical networking scenarios, we in- troduce a notion of restricted communication called conservative networking. Consider a network of lossless links and a number of independent sources. Each node needs to recover a certain subset of the sources. However, each node is conservative in that all information it receives can only be a function of the sources it will

Nicholas J. A. Harvey; Kamal Jain; Lap Chi; Lau Chandra; Nair Yunnan

427

Summary of 1990 Code Conference  

SciTech Connect

The Conference on Codes and the Linear Accelerator Community was held in Los Alamos in January 1990, and had approximately 100 participants. This conference was the second in a series which has as its goal the exchange of information about codes and code practices among those writing and actually using these codes for the design and analysis of linear accelerators and their components. The first conference was held in San Diego in January 1988, and concentrated on beam dynamics codes and Maxwell solvers. This most recent conference concentrated on 3-D codes and techniques to handle the large amounts of data required for three-dimensional problems. In addition to descriptions of codes, their algorithms and implementations, there were a number of paper describing the use of many of the codes. Proceedings of both these conferences are available. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

Cooper, R.K.; Chan, Kwok-Chi D.

1990-01-01

428

Subspace Arrangement Codes and Cryptosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Errors often occur in transferring electronic data, ranging from sensitive government information to everyday bar codes. Encoding information with an error-correcting code can alleviate the problem of corrupt or lost data. In order to not overburden compu...

J. A. Berg

2011-01-01

429

Scientists Rewrite Germ's Genetic Code  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Scientists Rewrite Germ's Genetic Code Aim is to redesign natural biological systems for ... researchers say. "This is the first time the genetic code has been fundamentally changed," study co-author Farren ...

430

MHDEMP Code Simulation of Starfish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnetic field variations on the ground after Starfish are calculated by the MHDEMP code using input parameters produced by the MICE code. The results agree well with the experimental data at Johnston Island. These magnetic field variations extend ove...

C. L. Longmire R. W. Kilb S. Chavin W. F. Crevier

1979-01-01

431

Error exponents of expander codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that expander codes attain the capacity of the binary symmetric channel under iterative decoding. The error probability has a positive exponent for all rates between 0 and channel capacity. The decoding complexity grows linearly with code length

Alexander Barg; G. Zemor

2001-01-01

432

Trellis Complexity of Convolutional Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has long been known that convolutional codes have a natural, regular trellis structure that facilitates the implementation of Viterbi's algorithm. It has gradually become apparent that linear block codes also have a natural, though not in general a reg...

R. J. Mceliece W. Lin

1995-01-01

433

Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year, the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) undertakes several independent research and development (IRAD) projects. These projects serve to (1) support feasibility studies investigating whether further work by the SEI would be of potential benefi...

B. Anderson C. J. Alberts L. Bass M. Bass P. Boxer

2007-01-01

434

[Coding for clinical laboratory information].  

PubMed

The field of clinical laboratory tests is facing an increase in the number of test items as well as a corresponding diversification due to the demands of medical institutions as well as improvements in analytical techniques. To respond to this situation, medical institutions have been promoting systematization of their testing procedures; information exchange among the institutions has likewise expanded with the use of media such as on-line systems and internet. Standardization of interfaces has been proposed to secure a common framework compatible with different types of information. Some embodiments in this country includes; (1) Interface Standards on Clinical Laboratory Information For information exchange, the format and reporting comments used in the media systems were standardized under the sponsorship of The Medical Information System Development Center, with a publication issued on 1993. (2) Standardization of Laboratory Test Code Standardization of codes for information exchange has been established under the sponsorship of The Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (Laboratory Test Coding Committee), through the systematization of laboratory test code used in media systems. A publication entitled "Classification & Coding for Clinical Laboratory Tests (8th edition in 1992, 9th edition in 1994 and supplement in 1996)" has been issued. The system for "Classification & Coding for Clinical Laboratory Tests" is divided into 5 components; (1) analyte code, (2) identification code, (3) specimen code, (4) methodology code, and (5) data classification code. The Laboratory test codes are precisely classified by "(1) analyte code", and then are identified by combination of additional codes such as specimen and methodology codes. In this year, we are making a new easily-used-codes composed of 5 Arabic figures. PMID:9306714

Sakurabayashi, I

1997-06-01

435

Mobile radio data transmission—Coding for error control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error patterns recorded during mobile radio data transmission experiments in London have been used to assess what error control strategies are required to achieve reliable data communication. The performance of error detecting and correcting codes has been investigated and the effects of varying code parameters explored. Results are given for transmission at 462 MHz using data rates of 1200 b\\/s

PETER J. MABEY

1978-01-01

436

Protein Classification with Extended-Sequence Coding by Sliding Window  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of unclassified sequences is still found in public databases, which suggests that there is still need for new investigations in the area. In this contribution, we present a methodology based on Artificial Neural Networks for protein functional classification. A new protein coding scheme, called here Extended-Sequence Coding by Sliding Windows, is presented with the goal of overcoming

Thiago de Souza Rodrigues; Fernanda Caldas Cardoso; Santuza Maria Ribeiro Teixeira; Sergio Costa Oliveira; Antonio Padua Braga

2011-01-01

437

Automatic Coding of Dialogue Acts in Collaboration Protocols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although protocol analysis can be an important tool for researchers to investigate the process of collaboration and communication, the use of this method of analysis can be time consuming. Hence, an automatic coding procedure for coding dialogue acts was developed. This procedure helps to determine the communicative function of messages in online…

Erkens, Gijsbert; Janssen, Jeroen

2008-01-01

438

Error avoiding quantum codes and dynamical stabilization of Grover's algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical stabilization properties of error avoiding quantum codes are investigated beyond the perturbative regime. As an example Grover's search algorithm and its behaviour under a particular class of coherent errors are studied. Numerical examples which demonstrate that error avoiding quantum codes may be capable of stabilizing quantum algorithms well beyond the regime for which they were designed originally are presented.

Mussinger, Michael; Delgado, Aldo; Alber, Gernot

2000-09-01

439

Incorporation of Condensation Heat Transfer in a Flow Network Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we have investigated the condensation of water vapor in a short tube. A numerical model of condensation heat transfer was incorporated in a flow network code. The flow network code that we have used in this paper is Generalized Fluid System ...

M. Anthony A. Majumdar

2001-01-01

440

Some Results in the Theory of Arithmetic Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents a simple number-theoretic investigation of the structure of binary arithmetic AN codes. The range (0, B-1) of represented integers is related to the code length n through ((2 to the nth power)-1 = AB). The analysis is based on the parti...

R. T. Chien S. J. Hong F. P. Preparata

1969-01-01

441

Zigzag and Replacement Product Graphs and LDPC Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of codes defined from graphs depends on the expansion property of the underlying graph in a crucial way. Graph products, such as the zig-zag product (13) and replacement product provide new infinite families of constant degree expander graphs. The paper investigates the use of zig-zag and replacement product graphs for the construction of codes on graphs (16). A

Christine A. Kelley; Deepak Sridhara; Joachim Rosenthal

2006-01-01

442

Challenges in Coding Adverse Events in Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Misclassification of adverse events in clinical trials can sometimes have serious consequences. Therefore, each of the many steps involved, from a patient's adverse experience to presentation in tables in publications, should be as standardised as possible, minimising the scope for interpretation. Adverse events are categorised by a predefined dictionary, e.g. MedDRA, which is updated biannually with many new categories. The objective of this paper is to study interobserver variation and other challenges of coding. Methods Systematic review using PRISMA. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. All studies were screened for eligibility by two authors. Results Our search returned 520 unique studies of which 12 were included. Only one study investigated interobserver variation. It reported that 12% of the codes were evaluated differently by two coders. Independent physicians found that 8% of all the codes deviated from the original description. Other studies found that product summaries could be greatly affected by the choice of dictionary. With the introduction of MedDRA, it seems to have become harder to identify adverse events statistically because each code is divided in subgroups. To account for this, lumping techniques have been developed but are rarely used, and guidance on when to use them is vague. An additional challenge is that adverse events are censored if they already occurred in the run-in period of a trial. As there are more than 26 ways of determining whether an event has already occurred, this can lead to bias, particularly because data analysis is rarely performed blindly. Conclusion There is a lack of evidence that coding of adverse events is a reliable, unbiased and reproducible process. The increase in categories has made detecting adverse events harder, potentially compromising safety. It is crucial that readers of medical publications are aware of these challenges. Comprehensive interobserver studies are needed.

Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Maund, Emma; G?tzsche, Peter C.

2012-01-01

443

Concatenated space-time block codes and TCM, turbo TCM, convolutional as well as turbo codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space-time block codes provide substantial diversity advantages for multiple transmit antenna systems at a low decoding complexity. We concatenate space-time codes with convolutional codes (CC), turbo convolutional codes (TC), turbo BCH codes (TBCH), trellis coded modulation (TCM) and turbo trellis coded modulation (TTCM) schemes for achieving a high coding gain. The associated performance and complexity of the the coding schemes

T. H. Liew; J. Pliquett; B. L. Yeap; L.-L. Yang; L. Hanzo

2000-01-01

444

Complexity of decoding Gabidulin codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the complexity of decoding Gabidulin codes using the analogs in rank metric codes of the extended Euclidean algorithm or the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm. We show that a subclass of Gabidulin codes reduces the complexity and the memory requirements of the decoding algorithm. We also simplify an existing algorithm for finding roots of linearized polynomials for decoding

Maximilien Gadouleau; Zhiyuan Yan

2008-01-01

445

Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

2007-01-01

446

Compression Coding for HDTV Signal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes a signal compression coding for High Definition Television (HDTV). The compression coding is a key technology for processing bulky information of the HDTV. From the simulation results, it is verified that the coding rates of 30 Mbps th...

M. Ohta S. Nogaki

1990-01-01

447

Code compression for embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is one of the most restricted resources in many modern embedded systems. Code compression can provide substantial savings in terms of size. In a compressed code CPU, a cache miss triggers the decompression of a main memory block, before it gets transferred to the cache. Because the code must be decompressible starting from any point (or at least at

Haris Lekatsas; Wayne Wolf

1998-01-01

448

TOPS: A Multigroup Opacity Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From T-4 Opacity Library Data, the TOPS code calculates multigroup opacities that can be written in a variety of formats for use in radiation transport codes. Arbritary mixture of any elements for which OPLIB data exist is supported. Versions of the code ...

J. Abdallah R. E. H. Clark

1985-01-01

449

Error exponents of expander codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that expander codes attain the capacity of the binary symmetric channelunder iterative decoding. The error probability has a positive exponent for all ratesbetween 0 and channel capacity. The decoding complexity grows linearly with code length.Index terms: Expander code, Iterative decoding, Ramanujan graph.1

Alexander Barg; Gilles Zémor

2002-01-01

450

Pipeline design codes compared graphically  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety levels implied by the criteria for the major design codes governing offshore pipeline and riser construction are compared. This article focuses on graphic comparisons to provide insights into the relative safety levels implied by the codes' criteria. These comparisons center on an examination of the theoretical basis for each design code.

D. R. Stephens; D. P. McConnell

1985-01-01

451

Secure Mobile Code Computing Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile code systems are technologies that allow applications to move their codes, and possibly the corresponding state, among the nodes of a wide area network. The code mobility is a flexible and powerful mechanism that can be exploited to build distributed applications in an internet scale. However, these new technologies capabilities come with inherent security hazards, both for the machines

KHALED E. A. NEGM; WAEL ADI; FAHEY ABD AL-WAHAB

452

Cryptographic Security for Mobile Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the protection of mobile code against cheating and potentially malicioushosts. We point out that the recent approach based on computing with \\\\encryptedfunctions" is limited to the case where only the code originator learns the result of thecomputation and the host running the code must not notice anything at all. We arguethat if the host is to receive

Joy Algesheimer; Christian Cachin

2000-01-01

453

On network coding for security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of network coding in military networks opens many interesting issues for security. The mixing of data inherent to network coding may at first appear to pose challenges, but it also enables new security approaches. In this paper, we overview the recent current theoretical understanding and application areas for network-coding based security in the areas of robustness to Byzantine

Keesook Han; Tracey Ho; Ralf Koetter; Muriel M

454

Orthogonal-polarization alternating codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose that by using orthogonal polarizations for alternating bauds of an alternating code, improvements are available both in cycle length, by means of using weak condition alternating codes, and in code performance through a reduction of autocorrelation function estimate variances by a factor of 4. This means an increase in the speed of incoherent scatter radar experiments by the same factor of 4.

Gustavsson, B.; Grydeland, T.

2009-12-01

455

Obituary: Arthur Dodd Code (1923-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Former AAS president Arthur Dodd Code, age 85, passed away at Meriter Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin on 11 March 2009, from complications involving a long-standing pulmonary condition. Code was born in Brooklyn, New York on 13 August 1923, as the only child of former Canadian businessman Lorne Arthur Code and Jesse (Dodd) Code. An experienced ham radio operator, he entered the University of Chicago in 1940, but then enlisted in the U.S. Navy (1943-45) and was later stationed as an instructor at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. During the war, he gained extensive practical experience with the design and construction of technical equipment that served him well in years ahead. Concurrently, he took physics courses at George Washington University (some under the tutelage of George Gamow). In 1945, he was admitted to the graduate school of the University of Chicago, without having received his formal bachelor's degree. In 1950, he was awarded his Ph.D. for a theoretical study of radiative transfer in O- and B-type stars, directed by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. hired onto the faculty of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1951-56). He then accepted a tenured appointment at the California Institute of Technology and the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (1956-58). But following the launch of Sputnik, Code returned to Wisconsin in 1958 as full professor of astronomy, director of the Washburn Observatory, and department chairman so that he could more readily pursue his interest in space astronomy. That same year, he was chosen a member of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (created during the International Geophysical Year) and shortly became one of five principal investigators of the original NASA Space Science Working Group. In a cogent 1960 essay, Code argued that astrophysical investigations, when conducted from beyond the Earth's atmosphere, "cannot fail to have a tremendous impact on the future course of stellar astronomy," a prediction strongly borne out in the decades that followed. In 1959, Code founded the Space Astronomy Laboratory (SAL) within the UW Department of Astronomy. Early photometric and spectrographic equipment was test-flown aboard NASA's X-15 rocket plane and Aerobee sounding rockets. Along with other SAL personnel, including Theodore E. Houck, Robert C. Bless, and John F. McNall, Code (as principal investigator) was responsible for the design of the Wisconsin Experiment Package (WEP) as one of two suites of instruments to be flown aboard the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO), which represented a milestone in the advent of space astronomy. With its seven reflecting telescopes feeding five filter photometers and two scanning spectrometers, WEP permitted the first extended observations in the UV portion of the spectrum. After the complete failure of the OAO-1 spacecraft (launched in 1966), OAO-2 was successfully launched on 7 December 1968 and gathered data on over a thousand celestial objects during the next 50 months, including stars, nebulae, galaxies, planets, and comets. These results appeared in a series of more than 40 research papers, chiefly in the Ap.J., along with the 1972 monograph, The Scientific Results from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-2), edited by Code. Between the OAO launches, other SAL colleagues of Code developed the Wisconsin Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (or APT), the first computer-controlled (or "robotic") telescope. Driven by a PDP-8 mini-computer, it routinely collected atmospheric extinction data. Code was also chosen principal investigator for the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (or WUPPE). This used a UV-sensitive polarimeter designed by Kenneth Nordsieck that was flown twice aboard the space shuttles in 1990 and 1995. Among other findings, WUPPE observations demonstrated that interstellar dust does not appreciably change the direction of polarization of starlight, thereby supporting its possible composition as graphite. Code was the recipie

Marché, Jordan D., II

2009-12-01

456

Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes  

SciTech Connect

Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3{sup t} times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

Li Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2010-05-15

457

Modality Effects in Scanning Nonverbal Information: Evidence for Multiple Memory Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this experiment was to study memory coding processes as a function of input sensory modality. Some investigators have proposed a single auditory/articulatory code, regardless of stimulus modality, while others have suggested that multiple s...

R. L. Hann

1979-01-01

458

Totally Orthogonal Complementary Binary Coded Sequences and Applications to Communications Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Complementary binary code sequence were invented by M. J. E. Golay in the investigation of infrared multislit spectrometry. Complementary coding sequences have the property of an infinite correlation peak to peak ambiguity ratio when detected with a match...

C. E. French

1971-01-01

459

Video coding: Death is not near  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient compression and network compatibility are two challenging tasks for video coding. This paper provides an overview of advanced techniques for the next generation video coding including high efficiency video coding, content-based video coding, distributed video coding, scalable video coding and multiple description video coding. Keywords—video compression, video transmission. I. INTRODUCTION With the popularity of digital video applications, efficiently representing

Meilin Yang; Ye He; Fengqing Zhu; Marc Bosch; Mary Comer; Edward J. Delp

2011-01-01

460

The Leech lattice and the Golay code: bounded-distance decoding and multilevel constructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilevel constructions of the binary Golay code and the Leech lattice are described. Both constructions are based upon the projection of the Golay code and the Leech lattice onto the (6,3,4) hexacode over GF(4). However, unlike the previously reported constructions, the new multilevel constructions make the three levels independent by way of using a different set of coset representatives for

Ofer Amrani; Yair Be'ery; Alexander Vardy; Feng-wen Sun; Henk C. A. Van Tilborg

1994-01-01

461

Distributed Coding of Highly Correlated Image Sequences with Motion-Compensated Temporal Wavelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses robust coding of visual content for a distributed multimedia system. The system encodes independently two correlated video signals and reconstructs them jointly at a central decoder. The video signals are captured from a dynamic scene where each signal is robustly coded by a motion-compensated Haar wavelet. The efcienc y of the decoder is improved by a disparity

Markus Flierl; Pierre Vandergheynst

2006-01-01

462

Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability  

SciTech Connect

The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented.

Mee, W.T.

1983-07-01

463

MININEC: A mini-numerical electromagnetics code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the merits of techniques that may result in a reduced version of an antenna modeling code applicable to small problems and small computer resources. The result is the identification of one promising numerical approach suggested by Dr DR Wilton of the University of Mississippi. The approach has been coded in BASIC and implemented on a microcomputer. The computer code has been dubbed MININEC (Mini-Numerical Electromagnetics Code). MININEC solves an integral equation relating the electric field and the vector and scalar potentials. The solution involves a modified Galerkin procedure. This formulation results in a compact code suitable for use on a microcomputer. MININEC solves for the impedance and currents on arbitrarily oriented wires including configurations with multiple junctions. Options include lumped impedance loading and far field patterns. MININEC has been written in the BASIC language compatible with many popular microcomputers. MININEC has been implemented on the NOSC Univac 1100/82, the NOSC VAX, a CDI microcomputer, and an Apple microcomputer.

Julian, A. J.; Logan, J. C.; Rockway, J. W.

1982-09-01

464

On Hyperbolic Cascaded Reed-Solomon Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a class of two-dimensional codes called cascaded Reed-Solomon (CRS) codes and an algorithm for decoding these codes up to their minimum distance. CRS codes are cascade (or generalized concatenated) codes in which Reed-Solomon codes are used for both the inner and outer codes. We introduce hyperbolic cascaded Reed-Solomon (HCRS) codes, which have maximal rate among CRS codes

Keith Saints; Chris Heegard

1993-01-01

465

PMD mitigation through interleaving LDPC codes with polarization scramblers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of forward error correction (FEC) and distributed fast polarization scramblers (D-FPSs) is approved an effective method to mitigate polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in high-speed optical fiber communication system. The low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are newly introduced into the PMD mitigation scheme with D-FPSs in this article as one of the promising FEC codes to achieve better performance. The scrambling speed of FPS for LDPC (2040, 1903) codes system is discussed, and the reasonable speed 10 MHz is obtained from the simulation results. For easy application in practical large scale integrated (LSI) circuit, the number of iterations in decoding LDPC codes is also investigated. The PMD tolerance and cut-off optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of LDPC codes are compared with Reed-Solomon (RS) codes in different conditions. In the simulation, the interleaving LDPC codes bring incremental performance of error correction, and the PMD tolerance is 10 ps at OSNR=11.4 dB. The results show the meaning of the work is that LDPC codes are a substitute for traditional RS codes with D-FPSs and all of the executable code files are open for researchers who have practical LSI platform for PMD mitigation.

Han, Dahai; Chen, Haoran; Xi, Lixia

2013-09-01

466

On codings and dynamics of planar piecewise rotations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate codings and dynamics of the piecewise rotations belonging to a sub-class of piecewise isometries. We show that the irrational set is empty for some piecewise rational rotations under some assumptions, while a piecewise irrational rotation has at least one irrational coding by extending the definition of the coding map onto the entire phase space. We further prove that the cell corresponding to irrational coding is a single point set for a piecewise irrational rotation. The irrational set is empty for some piecewise rational rotations. A piecewise irrational rotation has at least one irrational coding. The cell corresponding to irrational coding is a single point set for a piecewise irrational rotation.

Yu, Rong-Zhong; Fu, Xin-Chu; Ye, Lin

2011-10-01

467

Modeling anomalous radial transport in kinetic transport codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous transport is typically the dominant component of the radial transport in magnetically confined plasmas, where the physical origin of this transport is believed to be plasma turbulence. A model is presented for anomalous transport that can be used in continuum kinetic edge codes like TEMPEST, NEO and the next-generation code being developed by the Edge Simulation Laboratory. The model can also be adapted to particle-based codes. It is demonstrated that the model with a velocity-dependent diffusion and convection terms can match a diagonal gradient-driven transport matrix as found in contemporary fluid codes, but can also include off-diagonal effects. The anomalous transport model is also combined with particle drifts and a particle/energy-conserving Krook collision operator to study possible synergistic effects with neoclassical transport. For the latter study, a velocity-independent anomalous diffusion coefficient is used to mimic the effect of long-wavelength ExB turbulence.

Bodi, K.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Cohen, R. H.; Rognlien, T. D.

2009-11-01

468

Continuous-variable topological codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological code is a stabilizer quantum error correcting code whose generators are local but logical operators are topologically nontrivial and nonlocal. It offers interesting features such as the homological deformations of string operators and anyonic excitations on it. Topological codes are also closely related to the “topological order,” which has been an important concept in condensed-matter physics. In this paper, we consider continuous-variable versions of topological codes, including the toric code by Kitaev [A. Y. Kitaev, Ann. Phys.APNYA60003-491610.1016/S0003-4916(02)00018-0 303, 2 (2003)] with a single type of stabilizer on the checkerboard lattice, and the color code by Bombin and Martin-Delgado [H. Bombin and M. A. Martin-Delgado, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.180501 97, 180501 (2006)]. We show that it is possible to consider continuous-variable analog of these topological codes.

Morimae, Tomoyuki

2013-10-01

469

Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

2012-09-01

470

Fast Gyrosynchrotron Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation produced by charged particles gyrating in a magnetic field is highly significant in the astrophysics context. Persistently increasing resolution of astrophysical observations calls for corresponding three-dimensional modeling of the radiation. However, available exact equations are prohibitively slow in computing a comprehensive table of high-resolution models required for many practical applications. To remedy this situation, we develop approximate gyrosynchrotron (GS) codes capable of quickly calculating the GS emission (in non-quantum regime) from both isotropic and anisotropic electron distributions in non-relativistic, mildly relativistic, and ultrarelativistic energy domains applicable throughout a broad range of source parameters including dense or tenuous plasmas and weak or strong magnetic fields. The computation time is reduced by several orders of magnitude compared with the exact GS algorithm. The new algorithm performance can gradually be adjusted to the user's needs depending on whether precision or computation speed is to be optimized for a given model. The codes are made available for users as a supplement to this paper.

Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.

2010-10-01

471

FAST GYROSYNCHROTRON CODES  

SciTech Connect

Radiation produced by charged particles gyrating in a magnetic field is highly significant in the astrophysics context. Persistently increasing resolution of astrophysical observations calls for corresponding three-dimensional modeling of the radiation. However, available exact equations are prohibitively slow in computing a comprehensive table of high-resolution models required for many practical applications. To remedy this situation, we develop approximate gyrosynchrotron (GS) codes capable of quickly calculating the GS emission (in non-quantum regime) from both isotropic and anisotropic electron distributions in non-relativistic, mildly relativistic, and ultrarelativistic energy domains applicable throughout a broad range of source parameters including dense or tenuous plasmas and weak or strong magnetic fields. The computation time is reduced by several orders of magnitude compared with the exact GS algorithm. The new algorithm performance can gradually be adjusted to the user's needs depending on whether precision or computation speed is to be optimized for a given model. The codes are made available for users as a supplement to this paper.

Fleishman, Gregory D. [Center For Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kuznetsov, Alexey A. [Armagh Observatory, Armagh BT61 9DG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2010-10-01

472

N-Body Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review some recent advances relating to direct N-body codes. Ongoing efforts are focused on alleviating the serious time-scale and accuracy problem due to strongly bound orbits. A parallel endeavour is concerned with the challenge of reaching larger N. Both of these aspects are vital in the quest for realistic simulations of globular clusters and galactic nuclei. The possible presence of black holes with significant mass ratios increases the difficulties even in the non-relativistic regime. We discuss several methods which have been developed to study large systems with one or more massive bodies. Such treatments appear to be most suitable in combination with regularization methods based on dominant two-body motion. Very recent attempts to include post-Newtonian terms will also be highlighted. It is still early days in this subject but interest is bound to grow with the coming of the next generation of GRAPE hardware. In the meantime much can be learnt by experimenting with post-Newtonian toy codes for two-body motion. Finally, we report on a new stability criterion derived from first principles for the general three-body problem which will also be important for studying stellar systems containing binaries where hierarchical triples are a common feature.

Aarseth, S. J.

2006-08-01

473

Vision-based reading system for color-coded bar codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barcode systems are used to mark commodities, articles and products with price and article numbers. The advantage of the barcode systems is the safe and rapid availability of the information about the product. The size of the barcode depends on the used barcode system and the resolution of the barcode scanner. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the information content and the length of the barcode. To increase the information content, new 2D-barcode systems like CodaBlock or PDF-417 are introduced. In this paper we present a different way to increase the information content of a barcode and we would like to introduce the color coded barcode. The new color coded barcode is created by offset printing of the three colored barcodes, each barcode with different information. Therefore, three times more information content can be accommodated in the area of a black printed barcode. This kind of color coding is usable in case of the standard 1D- and 2D-barcodes. We developed two reading devices for the color coded barcodes. First, there is a vision based system, consisting of a standard color camera and a PC-based color frame grabber. Omnidirectional barcode decoding is possible with this reading device. Second, a bi-directional handscanner was developed. Both systems use a color separation process to separate the color image of the barcodes into three independent grayscale images. In the case of the handscanner the image consists of one line only. After the color separation the three grayscale barcodes can be decoded with standard image processing methods. In principle, the color coded barcode can be used everywhere instead of the standard barcode. Typical applications with the color coded barcodes are found in the medicine technique, stock running and identification of electronic modules.

Schubert, Erhard; Schroeder, Axel

1996-02-01

474

Independent Segregation of Loci for Activation of Biologically Distinguishable RNA C-Type Viruses in Mouse Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genetic loci for induction of RNA C-type virus in BALB\\/c mouse embryo cells segregate independently in backcross embryo cell lines. The viruses at these loci are shown to be biologically distinguishable. The first, described previously, codes for activation of a virus that grows preferentially in NIH Swiss embryo cells. The newly detected locus codes for activation of a virus

Stuart A. Aaronson; John R. Stephenson

1973-01-01

475

32 CFR 634.24 - Traffic planning and codes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Traffic planning and codes. 634.24 Section 634...ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.24 Traffic planning...

2013-07-01

476

Problem of the Neurodynamic Code of Mental Phenomena.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a discussion of the problem of the neurodynamic code of mental phenomena which deals with the philosophical, psychological, cybernetic and ethical aspects of investigation of the brain and its mental functions.

D. I. Dubrovskii

1975-01-01

477

Semantic Source Coding for Flexible Lossy Image Compression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Semantic Source Coding for Lossy Video Compression investigates methods for Mission-oriented lossy image compression, by developing methods to use different compression levels for different portions of an image based on their utility in understanding the ...

M. Schmiedekamp S. Phoha

2007-01-01

478

Transformation of the Independent Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In representing a realationship between a response and a number of independent variables, it is preferable when possible to work with a simple functional form in transformed variables rather than with a more complicated form in the original variables. This paper describes and illustrates a procedure to estimate appropriate transformations in this context.

G. E. P. Box; Paul W. Tidwell

1962-01-01

479

The scale independence of evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In this paper, I argue that the ultimate causes of morphological, and hence developmental, evolution are scale independent. In other words, micro- and macroevolu- tionary patterns show fundamental similarities and therefore are most simply explained as being caused by the same kinds of evolutionary forces. I begin by examining the evolu- tion of single lineages and argue that dynamics

Armand M. Leroi

2000-01-01

480

Premise Independence in Judgment Aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Judgment aggregation studies how agent opinions on logically in- terconnected propositions can be mapped into a collective judg- ment on the same propositions, and is plagued by impossibility re- sults. In this paper we study the central notion of independence in these impossibility results. First, we argue that the distinction be- tween the premises and conclusions play an important role

Gabriella Pigozzi; Leendert Van Der Torre

2007-01-01

481

What is Independent Component Analysis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a relatively new research topic called independent component analysis (ICA), which is becoming very popular in the signal processing literature and amongst those working in machine learning and data mining. The primary focus of ICA is to resolve the classical problem of blind source separation (BSS), in which an unknown mixture of nonGaussian signals is decomposed into

David R. Brillinger

482

Text-independent speaker identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe current approaches to text-independent speaker identification based on probabilistic modeling techniques. The probabilistic approaches have largely supplanted methods based on comparisons of long-term feature averages. The probabilistic approaches have an important and basic dichotomy into nonparametric and parametric probability models. Nonparametric models have the advantage of being potentially more accurate models (though possibly more fragile) while parametric models

H. Gish; M. Schmidt

1994-01-01

483

Haptic Tracking Permits Bimanual Independence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study shows that in a novel task--bimanual haptic tracking--neurologically normal human adults can move their 2 hands independently for extended periods of time with little or no training. Participants lightly touched buttons whose positions were moved either quasi-randomly in the horizontal plane by 1 or 2 human drivers (Experiment 1), in…

Rosenbaum, David A.; Dawson, Amanda A.; Challis, John H.

2006-01-01

484

Environmentalism and Estonia's independence movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spirit of environmentalism generated some of the most memorable images of the eastern and central European independence movements of the late 1980s and early 1990s. In 1988, protesters formed a human chain around the Ignalina nuclear reactor in Lithuania. That same year, thousands of Hungarians marched through downtown Budapest to rally against their government's prospective participation in the construction

Matthew R. Auer

1998-01-01

485

Diversity Efforts in Independent Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, independent schools have begun committing themselves to diversity. Schools are recruiting more students and teachers of color and have transformed their curriculum to better address race, gender, class religion, and sexual orientation. Schools must start marketing themselves to a broad spectrum of families, teachers, and administrators, and have done so in order to prepare students for the

Michael Brosnan

2001-01-01

486

Lattice code decoder for space-time codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the lattice sphere packing representation of a multi-antenna system and the algebraic space-time (ST) codes. We apply the sphere decoding (SD) algorithm to the resulted lattice code. For the uncoded system, SD yields, with small increase in complexity, a huge improvement over the well-known V-BLAST detection algorithm. SD of algebraic ST codes exploits the full diversity of the

Oussama Damen; Ammar Chkeif; Jean-Claude Belfiore

2000-01-01

487

POLARIZED OPTICAL ORTHOGONAL CODE FOR OPTICAL CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESSSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—In this paper a Polarized Optical Orthogonal Code (Polarized-OOC) is proposed by exploiting the polarization property of the fiber and the chip’s polarization state. The polarized-OOC code is generated using the concept of Mark Position Difference (MPD) set. Polarized-OOC code cardinality is shown to be two times that of the conventional OOC which reflects an increase in the number of

Naser G. Tarhuni; Mohammed Elmusrati; T. Korhonen

2006-01-01

488

FSU pipeline design code compared to U. S. codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major pipeline design code of the former Soviet Union (FSU) has been translated into English and, where possible, compared to relevant parts of pertinent US codes. Design of Transmission Pipelines (SNIP 2.05.06-85) governs stress criteria and calculations of pipeline-stress variables. The comparable U.S. codes are Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols'' (ASME B31.4)

A. Aynbinder; Y. Tabakman; J. T. Powers; P. Dalton

1994-01-01

489