Sample records for investigators independently coded

  1. Reward Sharpens Orientation Coding Independently of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Baldassi, Stefano; Simoncini, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that rewarding improves performance. However it is unclear whether this is due to high level modulations in the output modules of associated neural systems or due to low level mechanisms favoring more “generous” inputs? Some recent studies suggest that primary sensory areas, including V1 and A1, may form part of the circuitry of reward-based modulations, but there is no data indicating whether reward can be dissociated from attention or cross-trial forms of perceptual learning. Here we address this issue with a psychophysical dual task, to control attention, while perceptual performance on oriented targets associated with different levels of reward is assessed by measuring both orientation discrimination thresholds and behavioral tuning functions for tilt values near threshold. We found that reward, at any rate, improved performance. However, higher reward rates showed an improvement of orientation discrimination thresholds by about 50% across conditions and sharpened behavioral tuning functions. Data were unaffected by changing the attentional load and by dissociating the feature of the reward cue from the task-relevant feature. These results suggest that reward may act within the span of a single trial independently of attention by modulating the activity of early sensory stages through a improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio of task-relevant channels. PMID:21369356

  2. Independent Coding of Wind Direction in Cockroach Giant Interneurons

    E-print Network

    Libersat, Frederic

    Independent Coding of Wind Direction in Cockroach Giant Interneurons ADI MIZRAHI AND FREDERIC are located in the most posterior ganglion of the nerve direction in cockroach giant interneurons. J­3 ) control the stimulus by the cockroach cercal system. Such sensory processing initiation of a highly

  3. Benchmark testing and independent verification of the VS2DT computer code

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Risk Assessment and Risk Management Dept.; Goodrich, M.T. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The finite difference flow and transport simulator VS2DT was benchmark tested against several other codes which solve the same equations (Richards equation for flow and the Advection-Dispersion equation for transport). The benchmark problems investigated transient two-dimensional flow in a heterogeneous soil profile with a localized water source at the ground surface. The VS2DT code performed as well as or better than all other codes when considering mass balance characteristics and computational speed. It was also rated highly relative to the other codes with regard to ease-of-use. Following the benchmark study, the code was verified against two analytical solutions, one for two-dimensional flow and one for two-dimensional transport. These independent verifications show reasonable agreement with the analytical solutions, and complement the one-dimensional verification problems published in the code`s original documentation.

  4. Investigation of Near Shannon Limit Coding Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatra, S. C.; Kim, J.; Mo, Fan

    1999-01-01

    Turbo codes can deliver performance that is very close to the Shannon limit. This report investigates algorithms for convolutional turbo codes and block turbo codes. Both coding schemes can achieve performance near Shannon limit. The performance of the schemes is obtained using computer simulations. There are three sections in this report. First section is the introduction. The fundamental knowledge about coding, block coding and convolutional coding is discussed. In the second section, the basic concepts of convolutional turbo codes are introduced and the performance of turbo codes, especially high rate turbo codes, is provided from the simulation results. After introducing all the parameters that help turbo codes achieve such a good performance, it is concluded that output weight distribution should be the main consideration in designing turbo codes. Based on the output weight distribution, the performance bounds for turbo codes are given. Then, the relationships between the output weight distribution and the factors like generator polynomial, interleaver and puncturing pattern are examined. The criterion for the best selection of system components is provided. The puncturing pattern algorithm is discussed in detail. Different puncturing patterns are compared for each high rate. For most of the high rate codes, the puncturing pattern does not show any significant effect on the code performance if pseudo - random interleaver is used in the system. For some special rate codes with poor performance, an alternative puncturing algorithm is designed which restores their performance close to the Shannon limit. Finally, in section three, for iterative decoding of block codes, the method of building trellis for block codes, the structure of the iterative decoding system and the calculation of extrinsic values are discussed.

  5. CODE OF PRACTICE ON INVESTIGATIONS

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Nigel

    clinical trials 25 9.1 Process 26 9.2 Honorary contracts 26 9.3 Model agreement for non-commercial research of investigators 15 4.2 Recruitment of participants 15 4.3 Informed consent 16 4.4. Anonymity 20 4.5 Information history 21 4.7. Medical records and other records relating to care, education etc 22 4.8 Research

  6. Genetic code deviations in the ciliates: evidence for multiple and independent events.

    PubMed

    Tourancheau, A B; Tsao, N; Klobutcher, L A; Pearlman, R E; Adoutte, A

    1995-07-01

    In several species of ciliates, the universal stop codons UAA and UAG are translated into glutamine, while in the euplotids, the glutamine codon usage is normal, but UGA appears to be translated as cysteine. Because the emerging position of this monophyletic group in the eukaryotic lineage is relatively late, this deviant genetic code represents a derived state of the universal code. The question is therefore raised as to how these changes arose within the evolutionary pathways of the phylum. Here, we have investigated the presence of stop codons in alpha tubulin and/or phosphoglycerate kinase gene coding sequences from diverse species of ciliates scattered over the phylogenetic tree constructed from 28S rRNA sequences. In our data set, when deviations occur they correspond to in frame UAA and UAG coding for glutamine. By combining these new data with those previously reported, we show that (i) utilization of UAA and UAG codons occurs to different extents between, but also within, the different classes of ciliates and (ii) the resulting phylogenetic pattern of deviations from the universal code cannot be accounted for by a scenario involving a single transition to the unusual code. Thus, contrary to expectations, deviations from the universal genetic code have arisen independently several times within the phylum. PMID:7621837

  7. Multilevel coding with independent decoding on levels for efficient communication on static and interleaved fading channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Schramm; Ericsson Eurolab Deutschland

    1997-01-01

    Error coded modulation is considered with focus on mobile radio. A new scheme, namely multilevel coded modulation with independent decoding on levels, and some attractive derivatives (coding based on multiple classes of levels) are introduced. A comparison of the new coded modulation schemes and well-known methods is performed by simulations on both static and interleaved Rayleigh fading channels. It is

  8. Pcigale: Porting Code Investigating Galaxy Emission to Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehlly, Y.; Burgarella, D.; Buat, V.; Boquien, M.; Ciesla, L.; Heinis, S.

    2014-05-01

    We present pcigale, the port to Python of CIGALE (Code Investigating Galaxy Emission) a Fortran spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code developed at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. After recalling the specifics of the SED fitting method, we show the gains in modularity and versatility offered by Python, as well as the drawbacks compared to the compiled code.

  9. Two independent transcription initiation codes overlap on vertebrate core promoters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, Vanja; Li, Nan; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Plessy, Charles; Previti, Christopher; Nepal, Chirag; Gehrig, Jochen; Dong, Xianjun; Akalin, Altuna; Suzuki, Ana Maria; van Ijcken, Wilfred F. J.; Armant, Olivier; Ferg, Marco; Strähle, Uwe; Carninci, Piero; Müller, Ferenc; Lenhard, Boris

    2014-03-01

    A core promoter is a stretch of DNA surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) that integrates regulatory inputs and recruits general transcription factors to initiate transcription. The nature and causative relationship of the DNA sequence and chromatin signals that govern the selection of most TSSs by RNA polymerase II remain unresolved. Maternal to zygotic transition represents the most marked change of the transcriptome repertoire in the vertebrate life cycle. Early embryonic development in zebrafish is characterized by a series of transcriptionally silent cell cycles regulated by inherited maternal gene products: zygotic genome activation commences at the tenth cell cycle, marking the mid-blastula transition. This transition provides a unique opportunity to study the rules of TSS selection and the hierarchy of events linking transcription initiation with key chromatin modifications. We analysed TSS usage during zebrafish early embryonic development at high resolution using cap analysis of gene expression, and determined the positions of H3K4me3-marked promoter-associated nucleosomes. Here we show that the transition from the maternal to zygotic transcriptome is characterized by a switch between two fundamentally different modes of defining transcription initiation, which drive the dynamic change of TSS usage and promoter shape. A maternal-specific TSS selection, which requires an A/T-rich (W-box) motif, is replaced with a zygotic TSS selection grammar characterized by broader patterns of dinucleotide enrichments, precisely aligned with the first downstream (+1) nucleosome. The developmental dynamics of the H3K4me3-marked nucleosomes reveal their DNA-sequence-associated positioning at promoters before zygotic transcription and subsequent transcription-independent adjustment to the final position downstream of the zygotic TSS. The two TSS-defining grammars coexist, often physically overlapping, in core promoters of constitutively expressed genes to enable their expression in the two regulatory environments. The dissection of overlapping core promoter determinants represents a framework for future studies of promoter structure and function across different regulatory contexts.

  10. Two independent transcription initiation codes overlap on vertebrate core promoters.

    PubMed

    Haberle, Vanja; Li, Nan; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Plessy, Charles; Previti, Christopher; Nepal, Chirag; Gehrig, Jochen; Dong, Xianjun; Akalin, Altuna; Suzuki, Ana Maria; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Armant, Olivier; Ferg, Marco; Strähle, Uwe; Carninci, Piero; Müller, Ferenc; Lenhard, Boris

    2014-03-20

    A core promoter is a stretch of DNA surrounding the transcription start site (TSS) that integrates regulatory inputs and recruits general transcription factors to initiate transcription. The nature and causative relationship of the DNA sequence and chromatin signals that govern the selection of most TSSs by RNA polymerase II remain unresolved. Maternal to zygotic transition represents the most marked change of the transcriptome repertoire in the vertebrate life cycle. Early embryonic development in zebrafish is characterized by a series of transcriptionally silent cell cycles regulated by inherited maternal gene products: zygotic genome activation commences at the tenth cell cycle, marking the mid-blastula transition. This transition provides a unique opportunity to study the rules of TSS selection and the hierarchy of events linking transcription initiation with key chromatin modifications. We analysed TSS usage during zebrafish early embryonic development at high resolution using cap analysis of gene expression, and determined the positions of H3K4me3-marked promoter-associated nucleosomes. Here we show that the transition from the maternal to zygotic transcriptome is characterized by a switch between two fundamentally different modes of defining transcription initiation, which drive the dynamic change of TSS usage and promoter shape. A maternal-specific TSS selection, which requires an A/T-rich (W-box) motif, is replaced with a zygotic TSS selection grammar characterized by broader patterns of dinucleotide enrichments, precisely aligned with the first downstream (+1) nucleosome. The developmental dynamics of the H3K4me3-marked nucleosomes reveal their DNA-sequence-associated positioning at promoters before zygotic transcription and subsequent transcription-independent adjustment to the final position downstream of the zygotic TSS. The two TSS-defining grammars coexist, often physically overlapping, in core promoters of constitutively expressed genes to enable their expression in the two regulatory environments. The dissection of overlapping core promoter determinants represents a framework for future studies of promoter structure and function across different regulatory contexts. PMID:24531765

  11. An investigation of coded aperture imaging for small animal SPECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Meikle; Roger R. Fulton; Stefan Eberl; Magnus Dahlbom; Koon-Pong Wong; Michael J. Fulham

    2001-01-01

    Coded apertures provide a substantial gain in detection efficiency compared with conventional collimation and are well suited to imaging small volumes. Here, the authors investigated several aspects of coded aperture design for a small animal SPECT system, including aperture\\/detector configuration, sampling requirements, and susceptibility to scatter. They simulated various source distributions and detection systems which included one, two, and four

  12. An investigation of error characteristics and coding performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebel, William J.; Ingels, Frank M.

    1993-01-01

    The first year's effort on NASA Grant NAG5-2006 was an investigation to characterize typical errors resulting from the EOS dorn link. The analysis methods developed for this effort were used on test data from a March 1992 White Sands Terminal Test. The effectiveness of a concatenated coding scheme of a Reed Solomon outer code and a convolutional inner code versus a Reed Solomon only code scheme has been investigated as well as the effectiveness of a Periodic Convolutional Interleaver in dispersing errors of certain types. The work effort consisted of development of software that allows simulation studies with the appropriate coding schemes plus either simulated data with errors or actual data with errors. The software program is entitled Communication Link Error Analysis (CLEAN) and models downlink errors, forward error correcting schemes, and interleavers.

  13. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Independent Coding of Reward Magnitude and Valence in

    E-print Network

    Yeung, Nick

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Independent Coding of Reward Magnitude and Valence in the Human Brain with monetary gains and losses of variable magnitude. The aim was to determine the sensitivity of each component to two critical features of reward stimuli: magnitude (small or large) and valence (win or loss

  14. PWS: an efficient code system for solving space-independent nuclear reactor dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E Aboanber; Y. M Hamada

    2002-01-01

    The reactor kinetics equations are reduced to a differential equation in matrix form convenient for explicit power series solution involving no approximations beyond the usual space-independent assumption. The coefficients of the series have been obtained from a straightforward recurrence relation. Numerical evaluation is performed by PWS (power series solution) code, written in Visual FORTRAN for a personal computer. The results

  15. Order Code RL34294 Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Storage Peter Folger 7-1517 Energy Prices Robert Pirog 7-6847 Energy Taxes Salvatore Lazzari 7-7825 EnergyOrder Code RL34294 Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: A Summary of Major Provisions December 21, 2007 Fred Sissine, Coordinator Specialist in Energy Policy Resources, Science, and Industry

  16. Board Governance of Independent Schools: A Framework for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John; Barnett, Kerry; Alavi, Seyyed Babak; Newcombe, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper develops a theoretical framework to guide future inquiry into board governance of independent schools. Design/methodology/approach: The authors' approach is to integrate literatures related to corporate and educational boards, motivation, leadership and group processes that are appropriate for conceptualizing independent school…

  17. Independent verification and validation testing of the FLASH computer code, Versiion 3. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Martian, P.; Chung, J.N. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering)

    1992-06-01

    Independent testing of the FLASH computer code, Version 3.0, was conducted to determine if the code is ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies at various Department of Energy sites. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of this testing. Verification tests, and validation tests, were used to determine the operational status of the FLASH computer code. These tests were specifically designed to test: correctness of the FORTRAN coding, computational accuracy, and suitability to simulating actual hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured evaluation protocol which consisted of: blind testing, independent applications, and graduated difficulty of test cases. Both quantitative and qualitative testing was performed through evaluating relative root mean square values and graphical comparisons of the numerical, analytical, and experimental data. Four verification test were used to check the computational accuracy and correctness of the FORTRAN coding, and three validation tests were used to check the suitability to simulating actual conditions. These tests cases ranged in complexity from simple 1-D saturated flow to 2-D variably saturated problems. The verification tests showed excellent quantitative agreement between the FLASH results and analytical solutions. The validation tests showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of this testing, it was concluded that the FLASH code is a versatile and powerful two-dimensional analysis tool for fluid flow. In conclusion, all aspects of the code that were tested, except for the unit gradient bottom boundary condition, were found to be fully operational and ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies.

  18. Independent verification and validation testing of the FLASH computer code, Versiion 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Martian, P.; Chung, J.N. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    1992-06-01

    Independent testing of the FLASH computer code, Version 3.0, was conducted to determine if the code is ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies at various Department of Energy sites. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of this testing. Verification tests, and validation tests, were used to determine the operational status of the FLASH computer code. These tests were specifically designed to test: correctness of the FORTRAN coding, computational accuracy, and suitability to simulating actual hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured evaluation protocol which consisted of: blind testing, independent applications, and graduated difficulty of test cases. Both quantitative and qualitative testing was performed through evaluating relative root mean square values and graphical comparisons of the numerical, analytical, and experimental data. Four verification test were used to check the computational accuracy and correctness of the FORTRAN coding, and three validation tests were used to check the suitability to simulating actual conditions. These tests cases ranged in complexity from simple 1-D saturated flow to 2-D variably saturated problems. The verification tests showed excellent quantitative agreement between the FLASH results and analytical solutions. The validation tests showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of this testing, it was concluded that the FLASH code is a versatile and powerful two-dimensional analysis tool for fluid flow. In conclusion, all aspects of the code that were tested, except for the unit gradient bottom boundary condition, were found to be fully operational and ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies.

  19. An investigation of dehazing effects on image and video coding.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Kristofor B; Võ, Dung T; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2012-02-01

    This paper makes an investigation of the dehazing effects on image and video coding for surveillance systems. The goal is to achieve good dehazed images and videos at the receiver while sustaining low bitrates (using compression) in the transmission pipeline. At first, this paper proposes a novel method for single-image dehazing, which is used for the investigation. It operates at a faster speed than current methods and can avoid halo effects by using the median operation. We then consider the dehazing effects in compression by investigating the coding artifacts and motion estimation in cases of applying any dehazing method before or after compression. We conclude that better dehazing performance with fewer artifacts and better coding efficiency is achieved when the dehazing is applied before compression. Simulations for Joint Photographers Expert Group images in addition to subjective and objective tests with H.264 compressed sequences validate our conclusion. PMID:21896391

  20. Signal-independent timescale analysis (SITA) and its application for neural coding during reaching and walking

    PubMed Central

    Zacksenhouse, Miriam; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2014-01-01

    What are the relevant timescales of neural encoding in the brain? This question is commonly investigated with respect to well-defined stimuli or actions. However, neurons often encode multiple signals, including hidden or internal, which are not experimentally controlled, and thus excluded from such analysis. Here we consider all rate modulations as the signal, and define the rate-modulations signal-to-noise ratio (RM-SNR) as the ratio between the variance of the rate and the variance of the neuronal noise. As the bin-width increases, RM-SNR increases while the update rate decreases. This tradeoff is captured by the ratio of RM-SNR to bin-width, and its variations with the bin-width reveal the timescales of neural activity. Theoretical analysis and simulations elucidate how the interactions between the recovery properties of the unit and the spectral content of the encoded signals shape this ratio and determine the timescales of neural coding. The resulting signal-independent timescale analysis (SITA) is applied to investigate timescales of neural activity recorded from the motor cortex of monkeys during: (i) reaching experiments with Brain-Machine Interface (BMI), and (ii) locomotion experiments at different speeds. Interestingly, the timescales during BMI experiments did not change significantly with the control mode or training. During locomotion, the analysis identified units whose timescale varied consistently with the experimentally controlled speed of walking, though the specific timescale reflected also the recovery properties of the unit. Thus, the proposed method, SITA, characterizes the timescales of neural encoding and how they are affected by the motor task, while accounting for all rate modulations. PMID:25191263

  1. Hundreds of conserved non-coding genomic regions are independently lost in mammals.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Michael; Schaar, Bruce T; Bejerano, Gill

    2012-12-01

    Conserved non-protein-coding DNA elements (CNEs) often encode cis-regulatory elements and are rarely lost during evolution. However, CNE losses that do occur can be associated with phenotypic changes, exemplified by pelvic spine loss in sticklebacks. Using a computational strategy to detect complete loss of CNEs in mammalian genomes while strictly controlling for artifacts, we find >600 CNEs that are independently lost in at least two mammalian lineages, including a spinal cord enhancer near GDF11. We observed several genomic regions where multiple independent CNE loss events happened; the most extreme is the DIAPH2 locus. We show that CNE losses often involve deletions and that CNE loss frequencies are non-uniform. Similar to less pleiotropic enhancers, we find that independently lost CNEs are shorter, slightly less constrained and evolutionarily younger than CNEs without detected losses. This suggests that independently lost CNEs are less pleiotropic and that pleiotropic constraints contribute to non-uniform CNE loss frequencies. We also detected 35 CNEs that are independently lost in the human lineage and in other mammals. Our study uncovers an interesting aspect of the evolution of functional DNA in mammalian genomes. Experiments are necessary to test if these independently lost CNEs are associated with parallel phenotype changes in mammals. PMID:23042682

  2. Developing independent investigators for clinical research relevant for Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable research capacity building requires training individuals at multiple levels within a supportive institutional infrastructure to develop a critical mass of independent researchers. At many African medical institutions, a PhD is important for academic promotion and is, therefore, an important focal area for capacity building programs. We examine the training at the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) as a model for in-country training based on systems capacity building and attention to the academic environment. PhD training in Africa should provide a strong research foundation for individuals to perform independent, original research and to mentor others. Training the next generation of researchers within excellent indigenous academic centers of excellence with strong institutional infrastructure will empower trainees to ask regionally relevant research questions that will benefit Africans. PMID:22206247

  3. Outage probability evaluation for systems employing linear block codes on independent channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Tralli

    1992-01-01

    Outage probability for systems employing such codes jointly with interleaving, frequency hopping or selection diversity, is evaluated. A unified formal description and a new evaluation algorithm have been developed and applied. In order to check their applicability to some microcellular systems, the behavior of such techniques is investigated in the presence of Rice\\/Rayleigh flat fading and co-channel interference. Their convenience

  4. ''Independent Duckweed Investigations to Review the Scientific Method''

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elleen Hutcheson (Rogers High School)

    2005-04-01

    This inquiry activity allows students to apply the scientific method to an investigation involving duckweed This inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2005 Frontiers in Physiology Program. The NSES Standards addressed by this activity are current as of the year of development. For more information on the Frontiers in Physiology Program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  5. C: a language for high-level, efficient, and machine-independent dynamic code generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawson R. Engler; Wilson C. Hsieh; M. Frans Kaashoek

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic code generation allows specialized code sequences to be created using runtime information. Since this information is by definitionnot available statically, the use of dynamic code generation can achieve performance inherently beyond that of static code generation. Previous attempts to support dynamic code generation have been low-level, expensive, or machine- dependent. Despite the growing use of dynamic code genera- tion,

  6. RELAP5/MOD3 code manual: Summaries and reviews of independent code assessment reports. Volume 7, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.L.; Sloan, S.M.; Schultz, R.R.; Wilson, G.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Summaries of RELAP5/MOD3 code assessments, a listing of the assessment matrix, and a chronology of the various versions of the code are given. Results from these code assessments have been used to formulate a compilation of some of the strengths and weaknesses of the code. These results are documented in the report. Volume 7 was designed to be updated periodically and to include the results of the latest code assessments as they become available. Consequently, users of Volume 7 should ensure that they have the latest revision available.

  7. An investigation of factors predictive of independence in transfers and ambulation after hip fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross G. Duke; Jennifer L. Keating

    2002-01-01

    Duke RG, Keating JL. An investigation of factors predictive of independence in transfers and ambulation after hip fracture. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:158-64. Objectives: To compare the predictive value of measurements of mobility on the second day postsurgery with previously established outcome predictors after hip fracture and to establish a statistical model for the prediction of independence in transfers and

  8. An investigation of error characteristics and coding performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebel, William J.; Ingels, Frank M.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of forward error correcting coding schemes on errors anticipated for the Earth Observation System (EOS) Ku-band downlink are studied. The EOS transmits picture frame data to the ground via the Telemetry Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) to a ground-based receiver at White Sands. Due to unintentional RF interference from other systems operating in the Ku band, the noise at the receiver is non-Gaussian which may result in non-random errors output by the demodulator. That is, the downlink channel cannot be modeled by a simple memoryless Gaussian-noise channel. From previous experience, it is believed that those errors are bursty. The research proceeded by developing a computer based simulation, called Communication Link Error ANalysis (CLEAN), to model the downlink errors, forward error correcting schemes, and interleavers used with TDRSS. To date, the bulk of CLEAN was written, documented, debugged, and verified. The procedures for utilizing CLEAN to investigate code performance were established and are discussed.

  9. Norepinephrine Modulates Coding of Complex Vocalizations in the Songbird Auditory Cortex Independent of Local Neuroestrogen Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Maaya Z; Jeon, Sung David; Cowell, Rosemary A; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2015-06-24

    The catecholamine norepinephrine plays a significant role in auditory processing. Most studies to date have examined the effects of norepinephrine on the neuronal response to relatively simple stimuli, such as tones and calls. It is less clear how norepinephrine shapes the detection of complex syntactical sounds, as well as the coding properties of sensory neurons. Songbirds provide an opportunity to understand how auditory neurons encode complex, learned vocalizations, and the potential role of norepinephrine in modulating the neuronal computations for acoustic communication. Here, we infused norepinephrine into the zebra finch auditory cortex and performed extracellular recordings to study the modulation of song representations in single neurons. Consistent with its proposed role in enhancing signal detection, norepinephrine decreased spontaneous activity and firing during stimuli, yet it significantly enhanced the auditory signal-to-noise ratio. These effects were all mimicked by clonidine, an ?-2 receptor agonist. Moreover, a pattern classifier analysis indicated that norepinephrine enhanced the ability of single neurons to accurately encode complex auditory stimuli. Because neuroestrogens are also known to enhance auditory processing in the songbird brain, we tested the hypothesis that norepinephrine actions depend on local estrogen synthesis. Neither norepinephrine nor adrenergic receptor antagonist infusion into the auditory cortex had detectable effects on local estradiol levels. Moreover, pretreatment with fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, did not block norepinephrine's neuromodulatory effects. Together, these findings indicate that norepinephrine enhances signal detection and information encoding for complex auditory stimuli by suppressing spontaneous "noise" activity and that these actions are independent of local neuroestrogen synthesis. PMID:26109659

  10. Approaches to Learning at Work: Investigating Work Motivation, Perceived Workload, and Choice Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Raes, Elisabeth; Dochy, Filip; Janssens, Els

    2013-01-01

    Learning and development are taking up a central role in the human resource policies of organizations because of their crucial contribution to the competitiveness of those organizations. The present study investigates the relationship of work motivation, perceived workload, and choice independence with employees' approaches to learning at…

  11. tRNA acceptor stem and anticodon bases form independent codes related to protein folding.

    PubMed

    Carter, Charles W; Wolfenden, Richard

    2015-06-16

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases recognize tRNA anticodon and 3' acceptor stem bases. Synthetase Urzymes acylate cognate tRNAs even without anticodon-binding domains, in keeping with the possibility that acceptor stem recognition preceded anticodon recognition. Representing tRNA identity elements with two bits per base, we show that the anticodon encodes the hydrophobicity of each amino acid side-chain as represented by its water-to-cyclohexane distribution coefficient, and this relationship holds true over the entire temperature range of liquid water. The acceptor stem codes preferentially for the surface area or size of each side-chain, as represented by its vapor-to-cyclohexane distribution coefficient. These orthogonal experimental properties are both necessary to account satisfactorily for the exposed surface area of amino acids in folded proteins. Moreover, the acceptor stem codes correctly for ?-branched and carboxylic acid side-chains, whereas the anticodon codes for a wider range of such properties, but not for size or ?-branching. These and other results suggest that genetic coding of 3D protein structures evolved in distinct stages, based initially on the size of the amino acid and later on its compatibility with globular folding in water. PMID:26034281

  12. Language-independent sandboxing of just-in-time compilation and self-modifying code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Ansel; Petr Marchenko; Ulfar Erlingsson; Elijah Taylor; Brad Chen; Derek L. Schuff; David Sehr; Cliff L. Biffle; Bennet Yee

    2011-01-01

    When dealing with dynamic, untrusted content, such as on the Web, software behavior must be sandboxed, typically through use of a language like JavaScript. However, even for such specially-designed languages, it is difficult to ensure the safety of highly-optimized, dynamic language runtimes which, for efficiency, rely on advanced techniques such as Just-In-Time (JIT) compilation, large libraries of native-code support routines,

  13. Modality-independent coding of spatial layout in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Wolbers, Thomas; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Loomis, Jack M.; Wutte, Magdalena G.; Giudice, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary In many non-human species, neural computations of navigational information such as position and orientation are not tied to a specific sensory modality [1, 2]. Rather, spatial signals are integrated from multiple input sources, likely leading to abstract representations of space. In contrast, the potential for abstract spatial representations in humans is not known, as most neuroscientific experiments on human navigation have focused exclusively on visual cues. Here, we tested the modality independence hypothesis with two fMRI experiments that characterized computations in regions implicated in processing spatial layout [3]. According to the hypothesis, such regions should be recruited for spatial computation of 3-D geometric configuration, independent of a specific sensory modality. In support of this view, sighted participants showed strong activation of the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) for visual and haptic exploration of information-matched scenes but not objects. Functional connectivity analyses suggested that these effects were not related to visual recoding, which was further supported by a similar preference for haptic scenes found with blind participants. Taken together, these findings establish the PPA/RSC network as critical in modality-independent spatial computations and provide important evidence for a theory of high-level abstract spatial information processing in the human brain. PMID:21620708

  14. HFSS code for Thermoacoustic Tomography Testbed Liping Yan, co-investigator (sherryyan05@gmail.com)

    E-print Network

    Patch, Sarah

    HFSS code for Thermoacoustic Tomography Testbed Liping Yan, co-investigator (sherryyan05@gmail to design the UW-Milwaukee Thermoacoustic Testbed. "Testbed.hfss" can be run material, testbed length, etc. The UWM thermoacoustic testbed is essentially

  15. Independent assessment of TRAC-PD2 and RELAP5/MOD1 codes at BNL in FY 1981. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, P; Jo, J H; Neymotin, L; Rohatgi, U S; Slovik, G

    1982-12-01

    This report documents the independent assessment calculations performed with the TRAC-PD2 and RELAP/MOD1 codes at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) during Fiscal Year 1981. A large variety of separate-effects experiments dealing with (1) steady-state and transient critical flow, (2) level swell, (3) flooding and entrainment, (4) steady-state flow boiling, (5) integral economizer once-through steam generator (IEOTSG) performance, (6) bottom reflood, and (7) two-dimensional phase separation of two-phase mixtures were simulated with TRAC-PD2. In addition, the early part of an overcooling transient which occurred at the Rancho Seco nuclear power plant on March 20, 1978 was also computed with an updated version of TRAC-PD2. Three separate-effects tests dealing with (1) transient critical flow, (2) steady-state flow boiling, and (3) IEOTSG performance were also simulated with RELAP5/MOD1 code. Comparisons between the code predictions and the test data are presented.

  16. Final report of the independent counsel for Iran/Contra matters. Volume 1: Investigations and prosecutions

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, L.E.

    1993-08-04

    In October and November 1986, two secret U.S. Government operations were publicly exposed, potentially implicating Reagan Administration officials in illegal activities. These operations were the provision of assistance to the military activities of the Nicaraguan contra rebels during an October 1984 to October 1986 prohibition on such aid, and the sale of U.S. arms to Iran in contravention of stated U.S. policy and in possible violation of arms-export controls. In late November 1986, Reagan Administration officials announced that some of the proceeds from the sale of U.S. arms to Iran had been diverted to the contras. As a result of the exposure of these operations, Attorney General Edwin Meese III sought the appointment of an independent counsel to investigate and, if necessary, prosecute possible crimes arising from them. This is the final report of that investigation.

  17. Investigation of liquid crystal Fabry-Perot tunable filters: design, fabrication, and polarization independence.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Sivan; Placido, Frank; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2014-10-10

    Liquid crystal Fabry-Perot tunable filters are investigated in detail, with special attention to their manufacturability, design, tolerances, and polarization independence. The calculations were performed both numerically and analytically using the 4×4 propagation matrix method. A simplified analytic expression for the propagation matrix is derived for the case of nematic LC in the homogeneous geometry. At normal incidence, it is shown that one can use the 2×2 Abeles matrix method; however, at oblique incidence, the 4×4 matrix method is needed. The effects of dephasing originating from wedge or noncollimated light beams are investigated. Due to the absorption of the indium tin oxide layer and as an electrode, its location within the mirror multilayered stack is very important. The optimum location is found to be within the stack and not on its top or bottom. Finally, we give more detailed experimental results of our polarization-independent configuration that uses polarization diversity with a Wollaston prism. PMID:25322437

  18. An investigation of non-uniform bandwidths auditory filterbank in audio coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Lin; Stevan Berber; Waleed Abdulla

    This paper presents an investigation on the use of non-linear auditory filterbank in wideband audio coding. The perceptually based parameterization of the audio signal using gammatone filterbank is examined and discussed. Conventional gammatone filters requires high order FIR filters in the synthesis stage which introduces long delay and large computation cost. Here, a simple and efficient synthesis technique is investigated

  19. Investigation of the Use of Erasures in a Concatenated Coding Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatra, S. C.; Marriott, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    A new method for declaring erasures in a concatenated coding scheme is investigated. This method is used with the rate 1/2 K = 7 convolutional code and the (255, 223) Reed Solomon code. Errors and erasures Reed Solomon decoding is used. The erasure method proposed uses a soft output Viterbi algorithm and information provided by decoded Reed Solomon codewords in a deinterleaving frame. The results show that a gain of 0.3 dB is possible using a minimum amount of decoding trials.

  20. A model to investigate the mechanisms underlying the emergence and development of independent sitting.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kathleen M; Zhang, Jing; Walley, Philip R; Rhoads, Jeffrey F; Haddad, Jeffrey M; Claxton, Laura J

    2015-07-01

    When infants first begin to sit independently, they are highly unstable and unable to maintain upright sitting posture for more than a few seconds. Over the course of 3 months, the sitting ability of infants drastically improves. To investigate the mechanisms controlling the development of sitting posture, a single-degree-of-freedom inverted pendulum model was developed. Passive muscle properties were modeled with a stiffness and damping term, while active neurological control was modeled with a time-delayed proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The findings of the simulations suggest that infants primarily utilize passive muscle stiffness to remain upright when they first begin to sit. This passive control mechanism allows the infant to remain upright so that active feedback control mechanisms can develop. The emergence of active control mechanisms allows infants to integrate sensory information into their movements so that they can exhibit more adaptive sitting. PMID:25442426

  1. ALS beamlines for independent investigators: A summary of the capabilities and characteristics of beamlines at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    There are two mods of conducting research at the ALS: To work as a member of a participating research team (PRT). To work as a member of a participating research team (PRT); to work as an independent investigator; PRTs are responsible for building beamlines, end stations, and, in some cases, insertion devices. Thus, PRT members have privileged access to the ALS. Independent investigators will use beamline facilities made available by PRTs. The purpose of this handbook is to describe these facilities.

  2. A 4-cell miniature direct formic acid fuel cell stack with independent fuel reservoir: Design and performance investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Hong; Yiliang Zhong; Shijun Liao; Jianhuang Zeng; Xueyi Lu; Wei Chen

    2011-01-01

    A miniature air-breathing direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) based 4-cell stack, with a gold coated printed circuit board as the end plate and current collector, and with an independent fuel reservoir to avoid undesired interlaced electrolysis between different cells, is designed and investigated. Emphasis in the investigation is placed on design details, cell performance, dynamic response, and the stability

  3. Investigation of blood mRNA biomarkers for suicidality in an independent sample

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, N; Hodgson, K; Tansey, K E; Perroud, N; Maier, W; Mors, O; Rietschel, M; Hauser, J; Henigsberg, N; Souery, D; Aitchison, K; Farmer, A; McGuffin, P; Breen, G; Uher, R; Lewis, C M

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the blood expression levels of SAT1, PTEN, MAP3K3 and MARCKS genes have been reported as biomarkers of high versus low suicidality state (Le-Niculescu et al.). Here, we investigate these expression biomarkers in the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study, of patients with major depressive disorder on a 12-week antidepressant treatment. Blood gene expression levels were available at baseline and week 8 for patients who experienced suicidal ideation during the study (n=20) versus those who did not (n=37). The analysis is well powered to detect the effect sizes reported in the original paper. Within either group, there was no significant change in the expression of these four genes over the course of the study, despite increasing suicidal ideation or initiation of antidepressant treatment. Comparison of the groups showed that the gene expression did not differ between patients with or without treatment-related suicidality. This independent study does not support the validity of the proposed biomarkers. PMID:25350297

  4. Investigating the Magnetorotational Instability with Dedalus, and Open-Souce Hydrodynamics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Keaton J; /UC, Berkeley, aff SLAC

    2012-08-31

    The magnetorotational instability is a fluid instability that causes the onset of turbulence in discs with poloidal magnetic fields. It is believed to be an important mechanism in the physics of accretion discs, namely in its ability to transport angular momentum outward. A similar instability arising in systems with a helical magnetic field may be easier to produce in laboratory experiments using liquid sodium, but the applicability of this phenomenon to astrophysical discs is unclear. To explore and compare the properties of these standard and helical magnetorotational instabilities (MRI and HRMI, respectively), magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) capabilities were added to Dedalus, an open-source hydrodynamics simulator. Dedalus is a Python-based pseudospectral code that uses external libraries and parallelization with the goal of achieving speeds competitive with codes implemented in lower-level languages. This paper will outline the MHD equations as implemented in Dedalus, the steps taken to improve the performance of the code, and the status of MRI investigations using Dedalus.

  5. Investigation of Coded Source Neutron Imaging at the North Carolina State University PULSTAR Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Ziyu [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University; Mishra, Kaushal [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University; Hawari, Ayman [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL] [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL] [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    A neutron imaging facility is located on beam-tube #5 of the 1-MWth PULSTAR reactor at the North Carolina State University. An investigation has been initiated to explore the application of coded imaging techniques at the facility. Coded imaging uses a mosaic of pinholes to encode an aperture, thus generating an encoded image of the object at the detector. To reconstruct the image recorded by the detector, corresponding decoding patterns are used. The optimized design of coded masks is critical for the performance of this technique and will depend on the characteristics of the imaging beam. In this work, Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations were utilized to explore the needed modifications to the PULSTAR thermal neutron beam to support coded imaging techniques. In addition, an assessment of coded mask design has been performed. The simulations indicated that a 12 inch single crystal sapphire filter is suited for such an application at the PULSTAR beam in terms of maximizing flux with good neutron-to-gamma ratio. Computational simulations demonstrate the feasibility of correlation reconstruction methods on neutron transmission imaging. A gadolinium aperture with thickness of 500 m was used to construct the mask using a 38 34 URA pattern. A test experiment using such a URA design has been conducted and the point spread function of the system has been measured.

  6. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  7. Investigation of inconsistent ENDF/B-VII.1 independent and cumulative fission product yields with proposed revisions

    SciTech Connect

    Pigni, Marco T [ORNL; Francis, Matthew W [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A recent implementation of ENDF/B-VII. independent fission product yields and nuclear decay data identified inconsistencies in the data caused by the use of updated nuclear scheme in the decay sub-library that is not reflected in legacy fission product yield data. Recent changes in the decay data sub-library, particularly the delayed neutron branching fractions, result in calculated fission product concentrations that are incompatible with the cumulative fission yields in the library, and also with experimental measurements. A comprehensive set of independent fission product yields was generated for thermal and fission spectrum neutron induced fission for 235,238U and 239,241Pu in order to provide a preliminary assessment of the updated fission product yield data consistency. These updated independent fission product yields were utilized in the ORIGEN code to evaluate the calculated fission product inventories with experimentally measured inventories, with particular attention given to the noble gases. An important outcome of this work is the development of fission product yield covariance data necessary for fission product uncertainty quantification. The evaluation methodology combines a sequential Bayesian method to guarantee consistency between independent and cumulative yields along with the physical constraints on the independent yields. This work was motivated to improve the performance of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library in the case of stable and long-lived cumulative yields due to the inconsistency of ENDF/B-VII.1 fission p;roduct yield and decay data sub-libraries. The revised fission product yields and the new covariance data are proposed as a revision to the fission yield data currently in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  8. A principal possibility for computer investigation of evolution of dynamical systems independent on time accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurzadyan, V. G.; Harutyunyan, V. V.; Kocharyan, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    Extensive N-body simulations are among the key means for the study of numerous astrophysical and cosmological phenomena, so various schemes are developed for possibly higher accuracy computations. We demonstrate the principal possibility for revealing the evolution of a perturbed Hamiltonian system with an accuracy independent on time. The method is based on the Laplace transform and the derivation and analytical solution of an evolution equation in the phase space for the resolvent and using computer algebra.

  9. Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office independent scientific investigations program annual report, May 1997--April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office (NWRPO), summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1997 to April 30, 1998. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO`s on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment; identifying areas not being addressed adequately by the Department of Energy (DOE). Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues. This report summarizes the results of monitoring from two boreholes and the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel that have been instrumented by Nye County since March and April of 1995. The preliminary data and interpretations presented in this report do not constitute and should not be considered as the official position of Nye County. The ISIP presently includes borehole and tunnel instrumentation, monitoring, data analysis, and numerical modeling activities to address the concerns of Nye County.

  10. Investigation of in-band transmission of both spectral amplitude coding/optical code division multiple-access and wavelength division multiplexing signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Isaac A. M.; Shaari, Sahbudin; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Menon, P. Susthitha

    2011-06-01

    The transmission of both optical code division multiple-access (OCDMA) and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) users on the same band is investigated. Code pulses of spectral amplitude coding (SAC)/optical code division multiple-access (CDMA) are overlaid onto a multichannel WDM system. Notch filters are utilized in order to suppress the WDM interference signals for detection of optical broadband CDMA signals. Modified quadratic congruence (MQC) codes are used as the signature codes for the SAC/OCDMA system. The proposed system is simulated and its performance in terms of both the bit-error rate and Q-factor are determined. In addition, eavesdropper probability of error-free code detection is evaluated. Our results are compared to traditional nonhybrid systems. It is concluded that the proposed hybrid scheme still achieves acceptable performance. In addition, it provides enhanced data confidentiality as compared to the scheme with SAC/OCDMA only. It is also shown that the performance of the proposed system is limited by the interference of the WDM signals. Furthermore, the simulation illustrates the tradeoff between the performance and confidentiality for authorized users.

  11. Training camp: The quest to become a new National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded independent investigator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklare, Daniel A.

    2003-04-01

    This presentation will provide information on the research training and career development programs of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). The predoctoral and postdoctoral fellowship (F30, F31, F32) programs and the research career development awards for clinically trained individuals (K08/K23) and for individuals trained in the quantitative sciences and in engineering (K25) will be highlighted. In addition, the role of the NIDCD Small Grant (R03) in transitioning postdoctoral-level investigators to research independence will be underscored.

  12. The City Coding Project : an investigation into some presumed maxims for residential design in Hong Kong

    E-print Network

    Wong, Chit Kin Dickson

    2008-01-01

    Formal expressions of architecture in a city are largely dictated by how the city is 'coded' ... re-coding - is capable of making fundamental changes in building forms that would proliferate across the entire city. Therefore, ...

  13. “There Are Too Many, but Never Enough": Qualitative Case Study Investigating Routine Coding of Clinical Information in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Morrison, Zoe; Sheikh, Aziz; Kalra, Dipak

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to understand how clinical information relating to the management of depression is routinely coded in different clinical settings and the perspectives of and implications for different stakeholders with a view to understanding how these may be aligned. Materials and Methods Qualitative investigation exploring the views of a purposefully selected range of healthcare professionals, managers, and clinical coders spanning primary and secondary care. Results Our dataset comprised 28 semi-structured interviews, a focus group, documents relating to clinical coding standards and participant observation of clinical coding activities. We identified a range of approaches to coding clinical information including templates and order entry systems. The challenges inherent in clearly establishing a diagnosis, identifying appropriate clinical codes and possible implications of diagnoses for patients were particularly prominent in primary care. Although a range of managerial and research benefits were identified, there were no direct benefits from coded clinical data for patients or professionals. Secondary care staff emphasized the role of clinical coders in ensuring data quality, which was at odds with the policy drive to increase real-time clinical coding. Conclusions There was overall no evidence of clear-cut direct patient care benefits to inform immediate care decisions, even in primary care where data on patients with depression were more extensively coded. A number of important secondary uses were recognized by healthcare staff, but the coding of clinical data to serve these ends was often poorly aligned with clinical practice and patient-centered considerations. The current international drive to encourage clinical coding by healthcare professionals during the clinical encounter may need to be critically examined. PMID:22937106

  14. Specific wiring of distinct amacrine cells in the directionally selective retinal circuit permits independent coding of direction and size.

    PubMed

    Hoggarth, Alex; McLaughlin, Amanda J; Ronellenfitch, Kara; Trenholm, Stuart; Vasandani, Rishi; Sethuramanujam, Santhosh; Schwab, David; Briggman, Kevin L; Awatramani, Gautam B

    2015-04-01

    Local and global forms of inhibition controlling directionally selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) in the mammalian retina are well documented. It is established that local inhibition arising from GABAergic starburst amacrine cells (SACs) strongly contributes to direction selectivity. Here, we demonstrate that increasing ambient illumination leads to the recruitment of GABAergic wide-field amacrine cells (WACs) endowing the DS circuit with an additional feature: size selectivity. Using a combination of electrophysiology, pharmacology, and light/electron microscopy, we show that WACs predominantly contact presynaptic bipolar cells, which drive direct excitation and feedforward inhibition (through SACs) to DSGCs, thus maintaining the appropriate balance of inhibition/excitation required for generating DS. This circuit arrangement permits high-fidelity direction coding over a range of ambient light levels, over which size selectivity is adjusted. Together, these results provide novel insights into the anatomical and functional arrangement of multiple inhibitory interneurons within a single computational module in the retina. PMID:25801705

  15. Investigation of independence in inter-animal tumor-type occurrences within the NTP rodent-bioassay database

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Seilkop, S. [Analytical Sciences, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Statistically significant elevation in tumor incidence at multiple histologically distinct sites is occasionally observed among rodent bioassays of chemically induced carcinogenesis. If such data are to be relied on (as they have, e.g., by the US EPA) for quantitative cancer potency assessment, their proper analysis requires a knowledge of the extent to which multiple tumor-type occurrences are independent or uncorrelated within individual bioassay animals. Although difficult to assess in a statistically rigorous fashion, a few significant associations among tumor-type occurrences in rodent bioassays have been reported. However, no comprehensive studies of animal-specific tumor-type occurrences at death or sacrifice have been conducted using the extensive set of available NTP rodent-bioassay data, on which most cancer-potency assessment for environmental chemicals is currently based. This report presents the results of such an analysis conducted on behalf of the National Research Council`s Committee on Risk Assessment for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Tumor-type associations among individual animals were examined for {approximately}2500 to 3000 control and {approximately}200 to 600 treated animals using pathology data from 62 B6C3F1 mouse studies and 61 F/344N rat studies obtained from a readily available subset of the NTP carcinogenesis bioassay database. No evidence was found for any large correlation in either the onset probability or the prevalence-at-death or sacrifice of any tumor-type pair investigated in control and treated rats and niece, although a few of the small correlations present were statistically significant. Tumor-type occurrences were in most cases nearly independent, and departures from independence, where they did occur, were small. This finding is qualified in that tumor-type onset correlations were measured only indirectly, given the limited nature of the data analyzed.

  16. Further Investigation of Acoustic Propagation Codes for Three-Dimensional Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to predict fan noise within complex three-dimensional aircraft engine nacelle geometries is a valuable tool in designing and assessing low-noise concepts. This work begins a systematic study to identify the areas of the design space in which propagation codes of varying fidelity may be used effectively to provide efficient design and assessment. An efficient lower-fidelity code is used in conjunction with two higher-fidelity, more computationally intensive methods to solve benchmark problems of increasing complexity. The codes represent a small sampling of the current propagation codes available or under development. Results of this initial study indicate that the lower-fidelity code provides satisfactory results for cases involving low to moderate attenuation rates, whereas, the two higher-fidelity codes perform well across the range of problems.

  17. Computer models to support investigations of surface subsidence and associated ground motion induced by underground coal gasification. [STEALTH Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Langland, R.T.; Trent, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Two computer codes compare surface subsidence induced by underground coal gasification at Hoe Creek, Wyoming, and Centralia, Washington. Calculations with the STEALTH explicit finite-difference code are shown to match equivalent, implicit finite-element method solutions for the removal of underground material. Effects of removing roof material, varying elastic constants, investigating thermal shrinkage, and burning multiple coal seams are studied. A coupled, finite-difference continuum rigid-block caving code is used to model underground opening behavior. Numerical techniques agree qualitatively with empirical studies but, so far, underpredict ground surface displacement. The two methods, numerical and empirical, are most effective when used together. It is recommended that the thermal characteristics of coal measure rock be investigated and that additional calculations be carried out to longer times so that cooling influences can be modeled.

  18. Agreement in participant-coded and investigator-coded food-record analysis in overweight research participants: an examination of interpretation bias.

    PubMed

    Bjorge-Schohl, Brooke; Johnston, Carol S; Trier, Catherine M; Fleming, Katie R

    2014-05-01

    Validation studies support the use of self-administered computerized methods for reporting energy intake; however, the degree of interpretation bias with these methods is unknown. This research compared nutrient intake for food records that were both participant coded (using the National Cancer Institute's Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall [ASA24] online program) and investigator-coded (a single investigator coded all food records using the ESHA Food Processor diet analysis program). Participants (n=28; mean age=41±11 years; mean body mass index=31±6) were participants in an 8-week trial (conducted between March 2011 and June 2011 in Phoenix, AZ) investigating the impact of meal preloads on satiety. Food records were collected on four occasions during the trial and, of the food records available for this investigation (n=161), 88% were completed on a weekday. Intra-class correlation coefficients were computed for selected nutrients and ranged from 0.65 to 0.81 for the macronutrients and from 0.50 to 0.66 for the micronutrients (overall mean=0.67). Overall mean coefficient improved to 0.77 when the data from three or more food records per participant were averaged, as is commonly done in nutrition research. All intra-class correlation coefficients were significant (P<0.020) and were not impacted by the day of week that food was recorded. For energy, macronutrients, and minerals, the percent median differences between coders were <±17%; however, percent median differences were large for vitamin C (+27%) and beta carotene (+294%). Findings from this study suggest that self-administered dietary assessment has merit as a research tool. Pretrial training for research participants is suggested to reduce interpretation bias. PMID:24210517

  19. Investigating the structure preserving encryption of high efficiency video coding (HEVC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Zafar; Puech, William

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the real-time protection of new emerging High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. Structure preserving selective encryption is being performed in CABAC entropy coding module of HEVC, which is significantly different from CABAC entropy coding of H.264/AVC. In CABAC of HEVC, exponential Golomb coding is replaced by truncated Rice (TR) up to a specific value for binarization of transform coefficients. Selective encryption is performed using AES cipher in cipher feedback mode on a plaintext of binstrings in a context aware manner. The encrypted bitstream has exactly the same bit-rate and is format complaint. Experimental evaluation and security analysis of the proposed algorithm is performed on several benchmark video sequences containing different combinations of motion, texture and objects.

  20. Investigation of Different Constituent Encoders in a Turbo-code Scheme for Reduced Decoder Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatra, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    A large number of papers have been published attempting to give some analytical basis for the performance of Turbo-codes. It has been shown that performance improves with increased interleaver length. Also procedures have been given to pick the best constituent recursive systematic convolutional codes (RSCC's). However testing by computer simulation is still required to verify these results. This thesis begins by describing the encoding and decoding schemes used. Next simulation results on several memory 4 RSCC's are shown. It is found that the best BER performance at low E(sub b)/N(sub o) is not given by the RSCC's that were found using the analytic techniques given so far. Next the results are given from simulations using a smaller memory RSCC for one of the constituent encoders. Significant reduction in decoding complexity is obtained with minimal loss in performance. Simulation results are then given for a rate 1/3 Turbo-code with the result that this code performed as well as a rate 1/2 Turbo-code as measured by the distance from their respective Shannon limits. Finally the results of simulations where an inaccurate noise variance measurement was used are given. From this it was observed that Turbo-decoding is fairly stable with regard to noise variance measurement.

  1. Role Asymmetry and Code Transmission in Signaling Games: An Experimental and Computational Investigation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Maggie; Baggio, Giosuè

    2015-07-01

    In signaling games, a sender has private access to a state of affairs and uses a signal to inform a receiver about that state. If no common association of signals and states is initially available, sender and receiver must coordinate to develop one. How do players divide coordination labor? We show experimentally that, if players switch roles at each communication round, coordination labor is shared. However, in games with fixed roles, coordination labor is divided: Receivers adjust their mappings more frequently, whereas senders maintain the initial code, which is transmitted to receivers and becomes the common code. In a series of computer simulations, player and role asymmetry as observed experimentally were accounted for by a model in which the receiver in the first signaling round has a higher chance of adjusting its code than its partner. From this basic division of labor among players, certain properties of role asymmetry, in particular correlations with game complexity, are seen to follow. PMID:25352016

  2. An investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of wings having vortex flow using different numerical codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaturvedi, S.; Ghaffari, F.

    1984-01-01

    Three different numerical codes are employed to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of wings with separation induced vortex flows. Both flat as well as cambered wings of various planform shapes are studied. The effects of wing thickness, fuselage, notch ratio and multiple vortex modeling on aerodynamic performance of the wing are also examined. The theoretically predicted results are compared with experimental results to validate the various computer codes used in this study. An analytical procedure for designing aerodynamically effective leading edge extension (LEE) for a thick delta wing is also presented.

  3. THE CODE OF THE STREET AND INMATE VIOLENCE: INVESTIGATING THE SALIENCE OF IMPORTED BELIEF SYSTEMS*

    PubMed Central

    MEARS, DANIEL P.; STEWART, ERIC A.; SIENNICK, SONJA E.; SIMONS, RONALD L.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have long argued that inmate behaviors stem in part from cultural belief systems that they “import” with them into incarcerative settings. Even so, few empirical assessments have tested this argument directly. Drawing on theoretical accounts of one such set of beliefs—the code of the street—and on importation theory, we hypothesize that individuals who adhere more strongly to the street code will be more likely, once incarcerated, to engage in violent behavior and that this effect will be amplified by such incarceration experiences as disciplinary sanctions and gang involvement, as well as the lack of educational programming, religious programming, and family support. We test these hypotheses using unique data that include measures of the street code belief system and incarceration experiences. The results support the argument that the code of the street belief system affects inmate violence and that the effect is more pronounced among inmates who lack family support, experience disciplinary sanctions, and are gang involved. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24068837

  4. Investigating the impact of the cielo cray XE6 architecture on scientific application codes.

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, Mahesh; Barrett, Richard; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Cielo, a Cray XE6, is the Department of Energy NNSA Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) campaign's newest capability machine. Rated at 1.37 PFLOPS, it consists of 8,944 dual-socket oct-core AMD Magny-Cours compute nodes, linked using Cray's Gemini interconnect. Its primary mission objective is to enable a suite of the ASC applications implemented using MPI to scale to tens of thousands of cores. Cielo is an evolutionary improvement to a successful architecture previously available to many of our codes, thus enabling a basis for understanding the capabilities of this new architecture. Using three codes strategically important to the ASC campaign, and supplemented with some micro-benchmarks that expose the fundamental capabilities of the XE6, we report on the performance characteristics and capabilities of Cielo.

  5. Investigating the accuracy of the FLUKA code for transport of therapeutic ion beams in matter.

    PubMed

    Sommerer, Florian; Parodi, Katia; Ferrari, Alfredo; Poljanc, Karin; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Aiginger, Hannes

    2006-09-01

    In-beam positron emission tomography (PET) is currently used for monitoring the dose delivery at the heavy ion therapy facility at GSI Darmstadt. The method is based on the fact that carbon ions produce positron emitting isotopes in fragmentation reactions with the atomic nuclei of the tissue. The relation between dose and beta(+)-activity is not straightforward. Hence it is not possible to infer the delivered dose directly from the PET distribution. To overcome this problem and enable therapy monitoring, beta(+)-distributions are simulated on the basis of the treatment plan and compared with the measured ones. Following the positive clinical impact, it is planned to apply the method at future ion therapy facilities, where beams from protons up to oxygen nuclei will be available. A simulation code capable of handling all these ions and predicting the irradiation-induced beta(+)-activity distributions is desirable. An established and general purpose radiation transport code is preferred. FLUKA is a candidate for such a code. For application to in-beam PET therapy monitoring, the code has to model with high accuracy both the electromagnetic and nuclear interactions responsible for dose deposition and beta(+)-activity production, respectively. In this work, the electromagnetic interaction in FLUKA was adjusted to reproduce the same particle range as from the experimentally validated treatment planning software TRiP, used at GSI. Furthermore, projectile fragmentation spectra in water targets have been studied in comparison to available experimental data. Finally, cross sections for the production of the most abundant fragments have been calculated and compared to values found in the literature. PMID:16912388

  6. An Investigation of Two Acoustic Propagation Codes for Three-Dimensional Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, D. M.; Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to predict fan noise within complex three-dimensional aircraft engine nacelle geometries is a valuable tool in studying low-noise designs. Recent years have seen the development of aeroacoustic propagation codes using various levels of approximation to obtain such a capability. In light of this, it is beneficial to pursue a design paradigm that incorporates the strengths of the various tools. The development of a quasi-3D methodology (Q3D-FEM) at NASA Langley has brought these ideas to mind in relation to the framework of the CDUCT-LaRC acoustic propagation and radiation tool. As more extensive three dimensional codes become available, it would seem appropriate to incorporate these tools into a framework similar to CDUCT-LaRC and use them in a complementary manner. This work focuses on such an approach in beginning the steps toward a systematic assessment of the errors, and hence the trade-offs, involved in the use of these codes. To illustrate this point, CDUCT-LaRC was used to study benchmark hardwall duct problems to quantify errors caused by wave propagation in directions far removed from that defined by the parabolic approximation. Configurations incorporating acoustic treatment were also studied with CDUCT-LaRC and Q3D-FEM. The cases presented show that acoustic treatment diminishes the effects of CDUCT-LaRC phase error as the solutions are attenuated. The results of the Q3D-FEM were very promising and matched the analytic solution very well. Overall, these tests were meant to serve as a step toward the systematic study of errors inherent in the propagation module of CDUCT-LaRC, as well as an initial test of the higher fidelity Q3D-FEM code.

  7. Bacterial toxin RelE mediates frequent codon-independent mRNA cleavage from the 5' end of coding regions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Jennifer M; Cruz, Jonathan W; Ouyang, Ming; Woychik, Nancy A

    2011-04-29

    The enzymatic activity of the RelE bacterial toxin component of the Escherichia coli RelBE toxin-antitoxin system has been extensively studied in vitro and to a lesser extent in vivo. These earlier reports revealed that 1) RelE alone does not exhibit mRNA cleavage activity, 2) RelE mediates mRNA cleavage through its association with the ribosome, 3) RelE-mediated mRNA cleavage occurs at the ribosomal A site and, 4) Cleavage of mRNA by RelE exhibits high codon specificity. More specifically, RelE exhibits a preference for the stop codons UAG and UGA and sense codons CAG and UCG in vitro. In this study, we used a comprehensive primer extension approach to map the frequency and codon specificity of RelE cleavage activity in vivo. We found extensive cleavage at the beginning of the coding region of five transcripts, ompA, lpp, ompF, rpsA, and tufA. We then mapped RelE cleavage sites across one short transcript (lpp) and two long transcripts (ompF and ompA). RelE cut all of these transcripts frequently and efficiently within the first ?100 codons, only occasionally cut beyond this point, and rarely cut at sites in proximity to the 3' end. Among 196 RelE sites in these five transcripts, there was no preference for CAG or UCG sense codons. In fact, bioinformatic analysis of the RelE cleavage sites failed to identify any sequence preferences. These results suggest a model of RelE function distinct from those proposed previously, because RelE directed frequent codon-independent mRNA cleavage coincident with the commencement of translation elongation. PMID:21324908

  8. Code of Practice on Investigations Involving Human Beings | Sixth Edition 2 INTRODUCTION 4

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Nigel

    . Specific ethical principles 15 4.1 Suitability of investigators 15 4.2 Recruitment of participants 15 4 relating to care, education etc 22 4.8 Research in relation to deceased persons 22 4.9 Cadaveric tissue 22 Contents 9. Investigations involving the NHS, including clinical trials 25 9.1 Process 26 9.2 Honorary

  9. National evaluation of the benefits and risks of greater structuring and coding of the electronic health record: exploratory qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Zoe; Fernando, Bernard; Kalra, Dipak; Cresswell, Kathrin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to explore stakeholder views, attitudes, needs, and expectations regarding likely benefits and risks resulting from increased structuring and coding of clinical information within electronic health records (EHRs). Materials and methods Qualitative investigation in primary and secondary care and research settings throughout the UK. Data were derived from interviews, expert discussion groups, observations, and relevant documents. Participants (n=70) included patients, healthcare professionals, health service commissioners, policy makers, managers, administrators, systems developers, researchers, and academics. Results Four main themes arose from our data: variations in documentation practice; patient care benefits; secondary uses of information; and informing and involving patients. We observed a lack of guidelines, co-ordination, and dissemination of best practice relating to the design and use of information structures. While we identified immediate benefits for direct care and secondary analysis, many healthcare professionals did not see the relevance of structured and/or coded data to clinical practice. The potential for structured information to increase patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment contrasted with concerns regarding the appropriateness of coded information for patients. Conclusions The design and development of EHRs requires the capture of narrative information to reflect patient/clinician communication and computable data for administration and research purposes. Increased structuring and/or coding of EHRs therefore offers both benefits and risks. Documentation standards within clinical guidelines are likely to encourage comprehensive, accurate processing of data. As data structures may impact upon clinician/patient interactions, new models of documentation may be necessary if EHRs are to be read and authored by patients. PMID:24186957

  10. Theoretical models and simulation codes to investigate bystander effects and cellular communication at low doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, F.; Alloni, D.; Facoetti, A.; Mairani, A.; Nano, R.; Ottolenghi, A.

    Astronauts in space are continuously exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from Galactic Cosmic Rays During the last ten years the effects of low radiation doses have been widely re-discussed following a large number of observations on the so-called non targeted effects in particular bystander effects The latter consist of induction of cytogenetic damage in cells not directly traversed by radiation most likely as a response to molecular messengers released by directly irradiated cells Bystander effects which are observed both for lethal endpoints e g clonogenic inactivation and apoptosis and for non-lethal ones e g mutations and neoplastic transformation tend to show non-linear dose responses This might have significant consequences in terms of low-dose risk which is generally calculated on the basis of the Linear No Threshold hypothesis Although the mechanisms underlying bystander effects are still largely unknown it is now clear that two types of cellular communication i e via gap junctions and or release of molecular messengers into the extracellular environment play a fundamental role Theoretical models and simulation codes can be of help in elucidating such mechanisms In the present paper we will review different available modelling approaches including one that is being developed at the University of Pavia The focus will be on the different assumptions adopted by the various authors and on the implications of such assumptions in terms of non-targeted radiobiological damage and more generally low-dose

  11. Investigation of wellbore cooling by circulation and fluid penetration into the formation using a wellbore thermal simulator computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    The high temperatures of geothermal wells present severe problems for drilling, logging, and developing these reservoirs. Cooling the wellbore is perhaps the most common method to solve these problems. However, it is usually not clear what may be the most effective wellbore cooling mechanism for a given well. In this paper, wellbore cooling by the use of circulation or by fluid injection into the surrounding rock is investigated using a wellbore thermal simulator computer code. Short circulation times offer no prolonged cooling of fluid in the wellbore, but long circulation times (greater than ten or twenty days) greatly reduce the warming rate after shut-in. The dependence of the warming rate on the penetration distance of cooler temperatures into the rock formation (as by fluid injection) is investigated. Penetration distances of greater than 0.6 m appear to offer a substantial reduction in the warming rate. Several plots are shown which demonstrate these effects. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Polyphasic Study of the Spatial Distribution of Microorganisms in Mexican Pozol, a Fermented Maize Dough, Demonstrates the Need for Cultivation-Independent Methods To Investigate Traditional Fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FREDERIC AMPE; NABIL BEN OMAR; CLAIRE MOIZAN; CARMEN WACHER

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of microorganisms in pozol balls, a fermented maize dough, was investigated by a polypha- sic approach in which we used both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, including microbial enumeration, fermentation product analysis, quantification of microbial taxa with 16S rRNA-targeted oligo- nucleotide probes, determination of microbial fingerprints by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. Our

  13. Investigations on the sensitivity of the computer code TURBO-2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amon, B.

    1994-12-01

    The two-dimensional computer model TURBO-2D for the calculation of two-phase flow was used to calculate the cold injection of fuel into a model chamber. Investigations of the influence of the input parameter on its sensitivity relative to the obtained results were made. In addition to that calculations were performed and compared using experimental injection pressure data and corresponding averaged injection parameter.

  14. Investigation of Nuclear Data Libraries with TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo Code for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.-K.; Brun, E.

    2014-04-01

    The Sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor ASTRID is currently under design and development in France. Traditional ECCO/ERANOS fast reactor code system used for ASTRID core design calculations relies on multi-group JEFF-3.1.1 data library. To gauge the use of ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data libraries in the fast reactor applications, two recent OECD/NEA computational benchmarks specified by Argonne National Laboratory were calculated. Using the continuous-energy TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo transport code, both ABR-1000 MWth MOX core and metallic (U-Pu) core were investigated. Under two different fast neutron spectra and two data libraries, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1.1, reactivity impact studies were performed. Using JEFF-3.1.1 library under the BOEC (Beginning of equilibrium cycle) condition, high reactivity effects of 808 ± 17 pcm and 1208 ± 17 pcm were observed for ABR-1000 MOX core and metallic core respectively. To analyze the causes of these differences in reactivity, several TRIPOLI-4 runs using mixed data libraries feature allow us to identify the nuclides and the nuclear data accounting for the major part of the observed reactivity discrepancies.

  15. Chromatographic separation and multicollection-ICPMS analysis of iron. Investigating mass-dependent and -independent isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Dauphas, Nicolas; Janney, Philip E; Mendybaev, Ruslan A; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Richter, Frank M; Davis, Andrew M; van Zuilen, Mark; Hines, Rebekah; Foley, C Nicole

    2004-10-01

    A procedure was developed that allows precise determination of Fe isotopic composition. Purification of Fe was achieved by ion chromatography on AG1-X8 strongly basic anion-exchange resin. No isotopic fractionation is associated with column chemistry within 0.02 per thousand /amu at 2sigma. The isotopic composition was measured with a Micromass IsoProbe multicollection inductively coupled plasma hexapole mass spectrometer. The Fe isotopic composition of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous chondrite, which best approximates the solar composition, is indistinguishable from that of IRMM-014 (-0.005 +/- 0.017 per thousand /amu). The IRMM-014 reference material is therefore used for normalization of the isotopic ratios. The protocol for analyzing mass-dependent variations is validated by measuring geostandards (IF-G, DTS-2, BCR-2, AGV-2) and heavily fractionated Fe left after vacuum evaporation of molten wüstite (FeO) and solar (MgO-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2)-CaO-FeO in chondritic proportions) compositions. It is shown that the isotopic composition of Fe during evaporation of FeO follows a Rayleigh distillation with a fractionation factor alpha equal to (m(1)/m(2)()1/2), where m(1) and m(2) are the masses of the considered isotopes. This agrees with earlier measurements and theoretical expectations. The isotopic composition of Fe left after vacuum evaporation of solar composition also follows a Rayleigh distillation but with a fractionation factor (1.013 22 +/- 0.000 67 for the (56)Fe/(54)Fe ratio) that is lower than the square root of the masses (1.018 35). The protocol for analyzing mass-independent variations is validated by measuring terrestrial rocks that are not expected to show departure from mass-dependent fractionation. After internal normalization of the (57)Fe/(54)Fe ratio, the isotopic composition of Fe can be measured accurately with precisions of 0.2epsilon and 0.5epsilon at 2sigma for (56)Fe/(54)Fe and (58)Fe/(54)Fe ratios, respectively (epsilon refers to relative variations in parts per 10 000). For (58)Fe, this precision is an order of magnitude better than what had been achieved before. The method is applied to rocks that could potentially exhibit mass-independent effects, meteorites and Archaean terrestrial samples. The isotopic composition of a 3.8-Ga-old banded iron formation from Isua (IF-G, Greenland), and quartz-pyroxene rocks from Akilia and Innersuartuut (GR91-26 and SM/GR/171770, Greenland) are normal within uncertainties. Similarly, the Orgueil (CI1), Allende (CV3.2), Eagle Station (ESPAL), Brenham (MGPAL), and Old Woman (IIAB) meteorites do not show any mass-independent effect. PMID:15456307

  16. Utilization of a Photon Transport Code to Investigate Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning Quantities and Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palta, Jatinder Raj

    A versatile computer program MORSE, based on neutron and photon transport theory has been utilized to investigate radiation therapy treatment planning quantities and techniques. A multi-energy group representation of transport equation provides a concise approach in utilizing Monte Carlo numerical techniques to multiple radiation therapy treatment planning problems. A general three dimensional geometry is used to simulate radiation therapy treatment planning problems in configurations of an actual clinical setting. Central axis total and scattered dose distributions for homogeneous and inhomogeneous water phantoms are calculated and the correction factor for lung and bone inhomogeneities are also evaluated. Results show that Monte Carlo calculations based on multi-energy group transport theory predict the depth dose distributions that are in good agreement with available experimental data. Improved correction factors based on the concepts of lung-air-ratio and bone-air-ratio are proposed in lieu of the presently used correction factors that are based on tissue-air-ratio power law method for inhomogeneity corrections. Central axis depth dose distributions for a bremsstrahlung spectrum from a linear accelerator is also calculated to exhibit the versatility of the computer program in handling multiple radiation therapy problems. A novel approach is undertaken to study the dosimetric properties of brachytherapy sources. Dose rate constants for various radionuclides are calculated from the numerically generated dose rate versus source energy curves. Dose rates can also be generated for any point brachytherapy source with any arbitrary energy spectrum at various radial distances from this family of curves.

  17. Independent Technical Investigation of the Puna Geothermal Venture Unplanned Steam Release, June 12 and 13, 1991, Puna, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard; Whiting, Dick; Moore, James; Milner, Duey

    1991-07-01

    On June 24, 1991, a third-party investigation team consisting of Richard P. Thomas, Duey E. Milner, James L. Moore, and Dick Whiting began an investigation into the blowout of well KS-8, which occurred at the Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) site on June 12, 1991, and caused the unabated release of steam for a period of 31 hours before PGV succeeded in closing in the well. The scope of the investigation was to: (a) determine the cause(s) of the incident; (b) evaluate the adequacy of PGVs drilling and blowout prevention equipment and procedures; and (c) make recommendations for any appropriate changes in equipment and/or procedures. This report finds that the blowout occurred because of inadequacies in PGVs drilling plan and procedures and not as a result of unusual or unmanageable subsurface geologic or hydrologic conditions. While the geothermal resource in the area being drilled is relatively hot, the temperatures are not excessive for modem technology and methods to control. Fluid pressures encountered are also manageable if proper procedures are followed and the appropriate equipment is utilized. A previous blowout of short duration occurred on February 21, 1991, at the KS-7 injection well being drilled by PGV at a depth of approximately 1600'. This unexpected incident alerted PGV to the possibility of encountering a high temperature, fractured zone at a relatively shallow depth. The experience at KS-7 prompted PGV to refine its hydrological model; however, the drilling plan utilized for KS-8 was not changed. Not only did PGV fail to modify its drilling program following the KS-7 blowout, but they also failed to heed numerous ''red flags'' (warning signals) in the five days preceding the KS-8 blowout, which included a continuous 1-inch flow of drilling mud out of the wellbore, gains in mud volume while pulling stands, and gas entries while circulating muds bottoms up, in addition to lost circulation that had occurred earlier below the shoe of the 13-3/8-hch casing.

  18. Independent assessment of TRAC-PF1 (Version 7. 0), RELAP5/MOD1 (Cycle 14), and TRAC-BD1 (Version 12. 0) codes using separate-effects experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, P; Jo, J H; Neymotin, L; Rohatgi, U S; Slovik, G C; Yuelys-Miksis, C

    1985-08-01

    This report presents the results of independent code assessment conducted at BNL. The TRAC-PF1 (Version 7.0) and RELAP5/MOD1 (Cycle 14) codes were assessed using the critical flow tests, level swell test, countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) tests, post-CHF test, steam generator thermal performance tests, and natural circulation tests. TRAC-BD1 (Version 12.0) was applied only to the CCFL and post-CHF tests. The TRAC-PWR series of codes, i.e., TRAC-P1A, TRAC-PD2, and TRAC-PF1, have been gradually improved. However, TRAC-PF1 appears to need improvement in almost all categories of tests/phenomena attempted to BNL. Of the two codes, TRAC-PF1 and RELAP5/MOD1, the latter needs more improvement particularly in the areas of: CCFL, Level swell, CHF correlation and post-CHF heat transfer, and Numerical stability. For the CCFL and post-CHF tests, TRAC-BD1 provides the best overall results. However, the TRAC-BD1 interfacial shear package for the countercurrent annular flow regime needs further improvement for better prediction of CCFL phenomenon. 47 refs., 87 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Investigating mitochondrial metabolism in contracting HL-1 cardiomyocytes following hypoxia and pharmacological HIF activation identifies HIF-dependent and independent mechanisms of regulation.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Lucy J A; Abd-Jamil, Amira H; Gomes, Renata S M; Carter, Emma E; Carr, Carolyn A; Clarke, Kieran; Heather, Lisa C

    2014-11-01

    Hypoxia is a consequence of cardiac disease and downregulates mitochondrial metabolism, yet the molecular mechanisms through which this occurs in the heart are incompletely characterized. Therefore, we aimed to use a contracting HL-1 cardiomyocyte model to investigate the effects of hypoxia on mitochondrial metabolism. Cells were exposed to hypoxia (2% O2) for 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours to characterize the metabolic response. Cells were subsequently treated with the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-activating compound, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), to determine whether hypoxia-induced mitochondrial changes were HIF dependent or independent, and to assess the suitability of this cultured cardiac cell line for cardiovascular pharmacological studies. Hypoxic cells had increased glycolysis after 24 hours, with glucose transporter 1 and lactate levels increased 5-fold and 15-fold, respectively. After 24 hours of hypoxia, mitochondrial networks were more fragmented but there was no change in citrate synthase activity, indicating that mitochondrial content was unchanged. Cellular oxygen consumption was 30% lower, accompanied by decreases in the enzymatic activities of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I and IV, and aconitase by 81%, 96%, and 72%, relative to controls. Pharmacological HIF activation with DMOG decreased cellular oxygen consumption by 43%, coincident with decreases in the activities of aconitase and complex I by 26% and 30%, indicating that these adaptations were HIF mediated. In contrast, the hypoxia-mediated decrease in complex IV activity was not replicated by DMOG treatment, suggesting HIF-independent regulation of this complex. In conclusion, 24 hours of hypoxia increased anaerobic glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial respiration, which was associated with changes in ETC and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme activities in contracting HL-1 cells. Pharmacological HIF activation in this cardiac cell line allowed both HIF-dependent and independent mitochondrial metabolic changes to be identified. PMID:24607765

  20. Evaluation of the rodent Hershberger bioassay: testing of coded chemicals and supplementary molecular-biological and biochemical investigations.

    PubMed

    Freyberger, A; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, H; Krötlinger, F

    2007-09-24

    Under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) the Hershberger assay is being validated as an in vivo screen for compounds with (anti)androgenic potential. We participated in the final activity, the testing of coded chemicals. Test compounds included trenbolone (TREN; 1.5, 40 mg/kg), testosterone propionate (TP; 0.4 mg/kg), flutamide (FLUT; 3mg/kg), linuron (LIN; 10, 100mg/kg), 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE; 16, 160 mg/kg), and two negative reference substances, i.e., compounds not considered to affect androgen-sensitive tissue weights (ASTWs) in the Hershberger assay, namely 4-nonylphenol (NP; 160 mg/kg) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP; 10mg/kg); TREN, LIN, p,p'-DDE, NP, and DNP being used under code. Compounds were administered for 10 days by oral intubation or subcutaneous injection (TP). Additional investigations not mandatorily requested by OECD included organ gravimetry of the liver, gene expression analysis in prostate using quantitative RT PCR for prostate specific binding protein polypeptide C3 (PBPC3) and ornithine decarboxylase 1 (ODC1) and determination of testosterone metabolizing and phase II conjugating enzymes in the liver. After submission of all study reports to OECD by participants uncoding revealed the following results: (A) When assessing androgenic potential in castrated rats, administration of TREN increased the weights of ventral prostate (VP), seminal vesicles (SV), glans penis, levator ani and bulbocavernosus muscles, and Cowper's glands at the high dose. A similar or stronger (VP, SV) increase of ASTWs was observed for TP; NP and DNP were ineffective. TREN dose-dependently increased gene expression of ODC1 and PBPC3, TP induced expression of these genes even more strongly (almost) to the level of untreated intact animals, whereas NP and DNP were inactive. Liver enzyme activities depending on physiological androgen levels were lower in castrated than in intact rats and could not be restored by androgen treatment. (B) When assessing antiandrogenic potential in TP-supplemented castrated rats, administration of LIN and p,p'-DDE decreased ASTWs only at the high dose. FLUT even more effectively decreased ASTWs, NP and DNP were again without effect. Decreases in androgen-responsive gene expression in the prostate corresponding to the organ weight changes were only observed for p,p'-DDE (high dose) and flutamide (PBPC3 only). p,p'-DDE dose-dependently induced liver weights and most liver enzyme activities including androgen-dependent ones. Our study accurately reproduced ASTW changes obtained in previous studies also under code suggesting that the Hershberger assay is a robust tool to screen for an (anti)androgenic potential. Assessment of ODC1 and PBPC3 gene expression in prostate, however, may only represent a sensitive tool for the detection of an androgenic potential. Finally, p,p'-DDE may affect ASTWs by several mechanisms including enhanced testosterone metabolism. PMID:17688994

  1. 860 volume 45 | NumBeR 8 | AuGuST 2013 | nature genetics were comprehensively investigated for entire coding sequences in only a

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    manner. Thus, knowledge about genetic and/or epigenetic alterations in ccRCC is most likely still860 volume 45 | NumBeR 8 | AuGuST 2013 | nature genetics articles were comprehensively investigated for entire coding sequences in only a limited number of cases, and other genetic or epigenetic lesions

  2. A Novel 2.5D Culture Platform to Investigate the Role of Stiffness Gradients on Adhesion-Independent Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Pebworth, Mark-Phillip; Cismas, Sabrina A.; Asuri, Prashanth

    2014-01-01

    Current studies investigating the role of biophysical cues on cell migration focus on the use of culture platforms with static material parameters. However, migrating cells in vivo often encounter spatial variations in extracellular matrix stiffness. To better understand the effects of stiffness gradients on cell migration, we developed a 2.5D cell culture platform where cells are sandwiched between stiff tissue culture plastic and soft alginate hydrogel. Under these conditions, we observed migration of cells from the underlying stiff substrate into the alginate matrix. Observation of migration into alginate in the presence of integrin inhibition as well as qualitative microscopic analyses suggested an adhesion-independent cell migration mode. Observed migration was dependent on alginate matrix stiffness and the RhoA-ROCK-myosin-II pathway; inhibitors specifically targeting ROCK and myosin-II arrested cell migration. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of the 2.5D culture platform to advance our understanding of the effects of stiffness gradients and mechanotransductive signaling on adhesion-independent cell migration. PMID:25310593

  3. Polyphasic Study of the Spatial Distribution of Microorganisms in Mexican Pozol, a Fermented Maize Dough, Demonstrates the Need for Cultivation-Independent Methods To Investigate Traditional Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Ampe, Frédéric; ben Omar, Nabil; Moizan, Claire; Wacher, Carmen; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of microorganisms in pozol balls, a fermented maize dough, was investigated by a polyphasic approach in which we used both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, including microbial enumeration, fermentation product analysis, quantification of microbial taxa with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes, determination of microbial fingerprints by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. Our results demonstrate that DGGE fingerprinting and rRNA quantification should allow workers to precisely and rapidly characterize the microbial assemblage in a spontaneous lactic acid fermented food. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) accounted for 90 to 97% of the total active microflora; no streptococci were isolated, although members of the genus Streptococcus accounted for 25 to 50% of the microflora. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, together with members of the genera Leuconostoc and Weissella, were the other dominant organisms. The overall activity was more important at the periphery of a ball, where eucaryotes, enterobacteria, and bacterial exopolysacharide producers developed. Our results also showed that the metabolism of heterofermentative LAB was influenced in situ by the distribution of the LAB in the pozol ball, whereas homolactic fermentation was controlled primarily by sugar limitation. We propose that starch is first degraded by amylases from LAB and that the resulting sugars, together with the lactate produced, allow a secondary flora to develop in the presence of oxygen. Our results strongly suggest that cultivation-independent methods should be used to study traditional fermented foods. PMID:10584005

  4. Evaluation of the rodent Hershberger bioassay on intact juvenile males--testing of coded chemicals and supplementary biochemical investigations.

    PubMed

    Freyberger, A; Schladt, L

    2009-08-01

    Under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) the Hershberger assay on juvenile intact male rats is being validated as a screen for compounds with anti-androgenic potential. We participated in the testing of coded chemicals. Compounds included the positive control flutamide (FLUT, 3 mg/kg), linuron (LIN, 10, 100 mg/kg), p,p'-DDE (16, 160 mg/kg), and two negative substances, 4-nonylphenol (NP, 160 mg/kg) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP, 10 mg/kg). Compounds were administered for 10 consecutive days by gavage to testosterone propionate (TP, 1 mg/kgs.c.)-supplemented rats. Uncoding revealed these results: compared to vehicle controls, treatment with TP resulted in increased androgen-sensitive tissue (AST) weights of ventral prostate (VP), seminal vesicles (SV), levator ani and bulbocavernosus muscles (LABC), Cowper's glands, and epididymides, and in decreased testes weight. When assessing anti-androgenic potential in TP-supplemented rats, FLUT decreased all AST weights, and increased testes weight. p,p'-DDE at the high dose, decreased final body weight and all AST weights, whereas the low dose only affected SV weight. LIN slightly decreased final body weight and decreased absolute SV and LABC and relative SV weights only at the high dose. NP decreased final body weight and only absolute SV weights, DNP was ineffective. Investigations not requested by OECD included measurement of liver enzymes and revealed strong induction of testosterone-metabolizing and phase II conjugating enzymes by p,p'-DDE. Our findings suggest that in principle the juvenile intact male rat can be used in the Hershberger assay to screen for anti-androgenic potential thereby contributing to a refinement of the assay in terms of animal welfare. However, in our hands this animal model was somewhat less sensitive than the peripubertal castrated rat. Final conclusions, however, can only be drawn on the basis of all available validation data. Results obtained with the negative reference compound NP suggest that a treatment-related decrement in body weights may affect AST weights and represent a confounding factor when screening for anti-androgenic properties. Finally, p,p'-DDE may affect AST weights by several mechanisms including enhanced testosterone metabolism. PMID:19467291

  5. Validation and application of the WABE code: Investigations of constitutive laws and 2D effects on debris coolability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Bürger; Michael Buck; Werner Schmidt; Walter Widmann

    2006-01-01

    The WABE-2D model aims at the problem of coolability of degraded core material during a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) and describes the transient boil-off and quenching behavior of debris beds. It is being developed in the frame of the KESS code system, which is considered to describe the processes of core heatup, melting, degradation and relocation

  6. Supporting the cybercrime investigation process: Effective discrimination of source code authors based on byte-level information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgia Frantzeskou; Efstathios Stamatatos; Stefanos Gritzalis

    2005-01-01

    Source code authorship analysis is the particular field that attempts to identify the author of a computer program by treating each program as a linguistically analyzable entity. This is usually based on other undisputed program samples from the same author. There are several cases where the application of such a method could be of a major benefit, such as tracing

  7. On Symmetrical Multilevel Diversity Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond W. Yeung; Zhen Zhang

    1999-01-01

    Symmetrical multilevel diversity coding with independent data streams has been studied by Roche et al. (1992), and the admissible coding rate region was determined for the case of three levels. In particular, it was shown that coding by superposition is optimal, which means that optimality can be achieved by very simple coding. However, it is very difficult to generalize their

  8. Individualized Independent

    E-print Network

    Dennehy, John

    Individualized Studies for Independent Minds His Faculty Mentor: Prof. Sherrie Baver, Political Policy City P SC 236 Latin American Political Systems City P SC 310 Independent Study (Domestic Energy options would be much more limited. Thanks to CUNY Baccalaureate, the world is my oyster! Her Next Step

  9. Do code clones matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elmar Juergens; Florian Deissenboeck; Benjamin Hummel; Stefan Wagner

    2009-01-01

    Code cloning is not only assumed to inflate mainte- nance costs but also considered defect-prone as inconsistent changes to code duplicates can lead to unexpected behavior. Consequently, the identification of duplicated code, clone detection, has been a very active area of research in recent years. Up to now, however, no substantial investigation of the consequences of code cloning on program

  10. Supporting the Cybercrime Investigation Process: Effective Discrimination of Source Code Authors Based on Byte-Level Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantzeskou, Georgia; Stamatatos, Efstathios; Gritzalis, Stefanos

    Source code authorship analysis is the particular field that attempts to identify the author of a computer program by treating each program as a linguistically analyzable entity. This is usually based on other undisputed program samples from the same author. There are several cases where the application of such a method could be of a major benefit, such as tracing the source of code left in the system after a cyber attack, authorship disputes, proof of authorship in court, etc. In this paper, we present our approach which is based on byte-level n-gram profiles and is an extension of a method that has been successfully applied to natural language text authorship attribution. We propose a simplified profile and a new similarity measure which is less complicated than the algorithm followed in text authorship attribution and it seems more suitable for source code identification since is better able to deal with very small training sets. Experiments were performed on two different data sets, one with programs written in C++ and the second with programs written in Java. Unlike the traditional language-dependent metrics used by previous studies, our approach can be applied to any programming language with no additional cost. The presented accuracy rates are much better than the best reported results for the same data sets.

  11. An Investigation into Reliability of Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements, and into the Relationship between Muscle Strength and Means of Independent Mobility in the Ward: Examinations of Patients Who Underwent Femoral Neck Fracture Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Munenori; Kaneko, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery, as well as the relationship between independent mobility in the ward and knee muscle strength. [Subjects] The subjects were 75 patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery. [Methods] We used a hand-held dynamometer and a belt to measure isometric knee extension muscle strength three times, and used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to investigate the reliability of the measurements. We used a receiver operating characteristic curve to investigate the cutoff values for independent walking with walking sticks and non-independent mobility. [Results] ICCs (1, 1) were 0.9 or higher. The cutoff value for independent walking with walking sticks was 0.289 kgf/kg on the non-fractured side, 0.193 kgf/kg on the fractured side, and the average of both limbs was 0.238 kgf/kg. [Conclusion] We consider that the test-retest reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who have undergone femoral neck fracture surgery is high. We also consider that isometric knee extension muscle strength is useful for investigating means of independent mobility in the ward. PMID:24567667

  12. An Investigation into Reliability of Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements, and into the Relationship between Muscle Strength and Means of Independent Mobility in the Ward: Examinations of Patients Who Underwent Femoral Neck Fracture Surgery.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Munenori; Kaneko, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery, as well as the relationship between independent mobility in the ward and knee muscle strength. [Subjects] The subjects were 75 patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery. [Methods] We used a hand-held dynamometer and a belt to measure isometric knee extension muscle strength three times, and used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to investigate the reliability of the measurements. We used a receiver operating characteristic curve to investigate the cutoff values for independent walking with walking sticks and non-independent mobility. [Results] ICCs (1, 1) were 0.9 or higher. The cutoff value for independent walking with walking sticks was 0.289 kgf/kg on the non-fractured side, 0.193 kgf/kg on the fractured side, and the average of both limbs was 0.238 kgf/kg. [Conclusion] We consider that the test-retest reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who have undergone femoral neck fracture surgery is high. We also consider that isometric knee extension muscle strength is useful for investigating means of independent mobility in the ward. PMID:24567667

  13. Theoretical and experimental investigation on tandem Theoretical and experimental investigation on tandem modulator configurations for Frequency Coded Quantum Key Distribution systems

    E-print Network

    J. Mora; A. Ruiz-Alba; W. Amaya; V. Garcia-Munoz; J. Capmany

    2009-11-04

    We have theoretically and experimentally address the possible tandem electro-optical modulator configurations that can be employed to implement Frequency Coded Quantum Key Distribution systems (FC-QKD). A closed and general formulation of the end to end field propagation in a dispersion compensated FC-QKD optical fiber system under the low modulation index regime is presented which accounts for all the possible tandem combinations. The properties and the parameter selection of the modulators to achieve each one are summarized. We also address which protocol (B92, BB84 or either) is feasible to be implemented with each configuration. The results confirm those reported for the configurations previously reported in the literature and, at the same time, show the existence of four novel tandem modulator configurations that can also be employed. We have also provided experimental evidence of the successful operation of the novel configurations that confirm the behavior predicted by the theoretical results.

  14. DNA codes

    SciTech Connect

    Torney, D. C. (David C.)

    2001-01-01

    We have begun to characterize a variety of codes, motivated by potential implementation as (quaternary) DNA n-sequences, with letters denoted A, C The first codes we studied are the most reminiscent of conventional group codes. For these codes, Hamming similarity was generalized so that the score for matched letters takes more than one value, depending upon which letters are matched [2]. These codes consist of n-sequences satisfying an upper bound on the similarities, summed over the letter positions, of distinct codewords. We chose similarity 2 for matches of letters A and T and 3 for matches of the letters C and G, providing a rough approximation to double-strand bond energies in DNA. An inherent novelty of DNA codes is 'reverse complementation'. The latter may be defined, as follows, not only for alphabets of size four, but, more generally, for any even-size alphabet. All that is required is a matching of the letters of the alphabet: a partition into pairs. Then, the reverse complement of a codeword is obtained by reversing the order of its letters and replacing each letter by its match. For DNA, the matching is AT/CG because these are the Watson-Crick bonding pairs. Reversal arises because two DNA sequences form a double strand with opposite relative orientations. Thus, as will be described in detail, because in vitro decoding involves the formation of double-stranded DNA from two codewords, it is reasonable to assume - for universal applicability - that the reverse complement of any codeword is also a codeword. In particular, self-reverse complementary codewords are expressly forbidden in reverse-complement codes. Thus, an appropriate distance between all pairs of codewords must, when large, effectively prohibit binding between the respective codewords: to form a double strand. Only reverse-complement pairs of codewords should be able to bind. For most applications, a DNA code is to be bi-partitioned, such that the reverse-complementary pairs are separated across the two blocks. For the foregoing reasons, these two blocks of codewords suffice as the hooks and loops of a digital Velcro. We began our investigations of such codes by constructing quaternary BCH reverse-complement codes, using cyclic codes and conventional Hamming distance [4]. We also obtained upper and lower bounds on the rate of reverse-complement codes with a metric function based on the foregoing similarities [3]. For most applications involving DNA, however, the reverse-complementary analogue of codes based on the insertion-deletion distance is more advantageous. This distance equals the codeword length minus the longest length of a common (not necessarily contiguous) subsequence. (The 'aligned' codes described above may be used under special experimental conditions), The advantage arises because, under the assumption that DNA is very flexible, the sharing of sufficiently long subsequences between codewords would be tantamount to the ability of one of their reverse complements to form a double strand with the other codeword. Thus far, using the random coding method, we have derived an asymptotic lower bound on the rate of reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes, as a function of the insertion-deletion distance fraction and of the alphabet size [1]. For the quaternary DNA alphabet of primary importance, this lower bound yields an asymptotically positive rate if the insertion-deletion-distance fraction does not exceed the threshold {approx} 0.19. Extensions of the Varsamov-Tenengol'ts construction of insertion-deletion codes [5] for reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes will be described. Experiments have been performed involving some of our DNA codes.

  15. Parallelization of the SIR code for the investigation of small-scale features in the solar photosphere

    E-print Network

    Thonhofer, Stefan; Utz, Dominik; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Jur?ák, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields are one of the most important drivers of the highly dynamic processes that occur in the lower solar atmosphere. They span a broad range of sizes, from large- and intermediate-scale structures such as sunspots, pores and magnetic knots, down to the smallest magnetic elements observable with current telescopes. On small scales, magnetic flux tubes are often visible as Magnetic Bright Points (MBPs). Apart from simple $V/I$ magnetograms, the most common method to deduce their magnetic properties is the inversion of spectropolarimetric data. Here we employ the SIR code for that purpose. SIR is a well-established tool that can derive not only the magnetic field vector and other atmospheric parameters (e.g., temperature, line-of-sight velocity), but also their stratifications with height, effectively producing 3-dimensional models of the lower solar atmosphere. In order to enhance the runtime performance and the usability of SIR we parallelized the existing code and standardized the input and output ...

  16. Investigations to determine whether Section XI of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code should include PLEX (plant life extension) baseline inspection guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    A plant life extension (PLEX) issue repeatedly mentioned is whether special PLEX supplemental inspection requirements should be added to Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. To assist the ASME answer this question, the DOE Technology Management Center performed an industry survey to assess whether there was a technical consensus regarding the desirability and scope of a supplemental PLEX baseline inspection. This survey demonstrated the lack of an initial industry consensus. In response to the survey results, ASME has formed a task group to investigate various PLEX supplemental inspection strategies and to assess their value and liabilities. The results of the survey and initial task group activities are reviewed.

  17. Investigations into Resting-state Connectivity using Independent Component Analysis FMRIB Technical Report TR05CB1 (A related paper has been accepted for publication in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Special Issue on 'Multimodal neuroimaging of brain connectivity')

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian F. Beckmann; Marilena DeLuca; Joseph T. Devlin; Stephen M. Smith

    Inferring resting-state connectivity patterns from functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) data is a challenging task for any analytical technique. In this paper we review a probabilistic independent component analysis (PICA) approach, optimised for the analysis of FMRI data (Beckmann and Smith, 2004), and discuss the role which this exploratory technique can take in scientific investigations into the structure of these

  18. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the Rehabilitation Act of…

  19. Persistent Code Caching: Exploiting Code Reuse Across Executions and Applications

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    translation costs, they are in- effective for programs with short run times or large amounts of cold code the dynamic in- struction stream of an application during execution. Func- tioning independently of tool-chain remains significant for infrequently executed (or cold) code. Cold code, in the context of a run-time com

  20. Quantum Error Correcting Subsystem Codes From Two Classical Linear Codes

    E-print Network

    Dave Bacon; Andrea Casaccino

    2006-10-17

    The essential insight of quantum error correction was that quantum information can be protected by suitably encoding this quantum information across multiple independently erred quantum systems. Recently it was realized that, since the most general method for encoding quantum information is to encode it into a subsystem, there exists a novel form of quantum error correction beyond the traditional quantum error correcting subspace codes. These new quantum error correcting subsystem codes differ from subspace codes in that their quantum correcting routines can be considerably simpler than related subspace codes. Here we present a class of quantum error correcting subsystem codes constructed from two classical linear codes. These codes are the subsystem versions of the quantum error correcting subspace codes which are generalizations of Shor's original quantum error correcting subspace codes. For every Shor-type code, the codes we present give a considerable savings in the number of stabilizer measurements needed in their error recovery routines.

  1. A gene–environment investigation on personality traits in two independent clinical sets of adult patients with personality disorder and attention deficit\\/hyperactive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian P. Jacob; Thuy Trang Nguyen; Astrid Dempfle; Monika Heine; Christine Windemuth-Kieselbach; Katarina Baumann; Florian Jacob; Julian Prechtl; Maike Wittlich; Martin J. Herrmann; Silke Gross-Lesch; Klaus-Peter Lesch; Andreas Reif

    2010-01-01

    While an interactive effect of genes with adverse life events is increasingly appreciated in current concepts of depression\\u000a etiology, no data are presently available on interactions between genetic and environmental (G × E) factors with respect to\\u000a personality and related disorders. The present study therefore aimed to detect main effects as well as interactions of serotonergic\\u000a candidate genes (coding for the serotonin

  2. Independence and

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Hansberg; Dirk Meierling; Lutz Volkmann

    2011-01-01

    A subset S of vertices of a graph G is k-dominating if every vertex not in S has at least k neighbours in S. The k-domination number ?k(G) is the minimum cardinality of a k-dominating set of G, and ?(G) denotes the cardinality of a maximum independent set of G. Brook's well-known bound for the chromatic number ? and the

  3. Application of a multi-block CFD code to investigate the impact of geometry modeling on centrifugal compressor flow field predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, M.D. [Vehicle Technology Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wood, J.R. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1997-10-01

    CFD codes capable of utilizing multi-block grids provide the capability to analyze the complete geometry of centrifugal compressors. Attendant with this increased capability is potentially increased grid setup time and more computational overhead with the resultant increase in wall clock time to obtain a solution. If the increase in difficulty of obtaining a solution significantly improves the solution from that obtained by modeling the features of the tip clearance flow or the typical bluntness of a centrifugal compressor`s trailing edge, then the additional burden is worthwhile. However, if the additional information obtained is of marginal use, then modeling of certain features of the geometry may provide reasonable solutions for designers to make comparative choices when pursuing a new design. In this spirit a sequence of grids were generated to study the relative importance of modeling versus detailed gridding of the tip gap and blunt trailing edge regions of the NASA large low-speed centrifugal compressor for which there is considerable detailed internal laser anemometry data available for comparison. The results indicate: (1) There is no significant difference in predicted tip clearance mass flow rate whether the tip gap is gridded or modeled. (2) Gridding rather than modeling the trailing edge results in better predictions of some flow details downstream of the impeller, but otherwise appears to offer no great benefits. (3) The pitchwise variation of absolute flow angle decreases rapidly up to 8% impeller radius ratio and much more slowly thereafter. Although some improvements in prediction of flow field details are realized as a result of analyzing the actual geometry there is no clear consensus that any of the grids investigated produced superior results in every case when compared to the measurements. However, if a multi-block code is available, it should be used, as it has the propensity for enabling better predictions than a single block code.

  4. A Parallel Tree Code

    E-print Network

    John Dubinski

    1996-03-18

    We describe a new implementation of a parallel N-body tree code. The code is load-balanced using the method of orthogonal recursive bisection to subdivide the N-body system into independent rectangular volumes each of which is mapped to a processor on a parallel computer. On the Cray T3D, the load balance in the range of 70-90\\% depending on the problem size and number of processors. The code can handle simulations with $>$ 10 million particles roughly a factor of 10 greater than allowed in vectorized tree codes.

  5. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  6. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  7. Investigating the role of rare coding variability in Mendelian dementia genes (APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, GRN, MAPT, and PRNP) in late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Celeste; Guerreiro, Rita; Gibbs, Raphael; Ding, Jinhui; Lupton, Michelle K; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Niblock, Michael; Gallo, Jean-Marc; Adnan, Jihad; Killick, Richard; Brown, Kristelle S; Medway, Christopher; Lord, Jenny; Turton, James; Bras, Jose; Morgan, Kevin; Powell, John F; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John

    2014-12-01

    The overlapping clinical and neuropathologic features between late-onset apparently sporadic Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), and other neurodegenerative dementias (frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) raise the question of whether shared genetic risk factors may explain the similar phenotype among these disparate disorders. To investigate this intriguing hypothesis, we analyzed rare coding variability in 6 Mendelian dementia genes (APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, GRN, MAPT, and PRNP), in 141 LOAD patients and 179 elderly controls, neuropathologically proven, from the UK. In our cohort, 14 LOAD cases (10%) and 11 controls (6%) carry at least 1 rare variant in the genes studied. We report a novel variant in PSEN1 (p.I168T) and a rare variant in PSEN2 (p.A237V), absent in controls and both likely pathogenic. Our findings support previous studies, suggesting that (1) rare coding variability in PSEN1 and PSEN2 may influence the susceptibility for LOAD and (2) GRN, MAPT, and PRNP are not major contributors to LOAD. Thus, genetic screening is pivotal for the clinical differential diagnosis of these neurodegenerative dementias. PMID:25104557

  8. System and method for investigating sub-surface features of a rock formation with acoustic sources generating coded signals

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Nihei, Kurt; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; Ten Cate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Larmat, Carene S

    2014-12-30

    A system and a method for investigating rock formations includes generating, by a first acoustic source, a first acoustic signal comprising a first plurality of pulses, each pulse including a first modulated signal at a central frequency; and generating, by a second acoustic source, a second acoustic signal comprising a second plurality of pulses. A receiver arranged within the borehole receives a detected signal including a signal being generated by a non-linear mixing process from the first-and-second acoustic signal in a non-linear mixing zone within the intersection volume. The method also includes-processing the received signal to extract the signal generated by the non-linear mixing process over noise or over signals generated by a linear interaction process, or both.

  9. 'Independence' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Independence' Panorama (QTVR)

    This is the Spirit 'Independence' panorama, acquired on martian days, or sols, 536 to 543 (July 6 to 13, 2005), from a position in the 'Columbia Hills' near the summit of 'Husband Hill.' The summit of 'Husband Hill' is the peak near the right side of this panorama and is about 100 meters (328 feet) away from the rover and about 30 meters (98 feet) higher in elevation. The rocky outcrops downhill and on the left side of this mosaic include 'Larry's Lookout' and 'Cumberland Ridge,' which Spirit explored in April, May, and June of 2005.

    The panorama spans 360 degrees and consists of 108 individual images, each acquired with five filters of the rover's panoramic camera. The approximate true color of the mosaic was generated using the camera's 750-, 530-, and 480-nanometer filters. During the 8 martian days, or sols, that it took to acquire this image, the lighting varied considerably, partly because of imaging at different times of sol, and partly because of small sol-to-sol variations in the dustiness of the atmosphere. These slight changes produced some image seams and rock shadows. These seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see. However, it is often not possible or practical to smooth out such seams for regions of rock, soil, rover tracks or solar panels. Such is the nature of acquiring and assembling large panoramas from the rovers.

  10. Is ADHD a Risk Factor Independent of Conduct Disorder for Illicit Substance Use? A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra-Pinheiro, Maria Antonia; Coutinho, Evandro S. F.; Souza, Isabella S.; Pinna, Camilla; Fortes, Didia; Araujo, Catia; Szobot, Claudia M.; Rohde, Luis A.; Mattos, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate meta-analytically if the association between ADHD and illicit substance use (ISU) is maintained when controlling for conduct disorder/oppositional-defiant disorder (CD/ODD). Method: A systematic literature review was conducted through Medline from 1980 to 2008. Data extracted and selections made by one author were…

  11. Investigation of plant control strategies for the supercritical C0{sub 2}Brayton cycle for a sodium-cooled fast reactor using the plant dynamics code.

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-04-12

    The development of a control strategy for the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle has been extended to the investigation of alternate control strategies for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) nuclear power plant incorporating a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle power converter. The SFR assumed is the 400 MWe (1000 MWt) ABR-1000 preconceptual design incorporating metallic fuel. Three alternative idealized schemes for controlling the reactor side of the plant in combination with the existing automatic control strategy for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle are explored using the ANL Plant Dynamics Code together with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) Analysis Code System coupled together using the iterative coupling formulation previously developed and implemented into the Plant Dynamics Code. The first option assumes that the reactor side can be ideally controlled through movement of control rods and changing the speeds of both the primary and intermediate coolant system sodium pumps such that the intermediate sodium flow rate and inlet temperature to the sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger (RHX) remain unvarying while the intermediate sodium outlet temperature changes as the load demand from the electric grid changes and the S-CO{sub 2} cycle conditions adjust according to the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control strategy. For this option, the reactor plant follows an assumed change in load demand from 100 to 0 % nominal at 5 % reduction per minute in a suitable fashion. The second option allows the reactor core power and primary and intermediate coolant system sodium pump flow rates to change autonomously in response to the strong reactivity feedbacks of the metallic fueled core and assumed constant pump torques representing unchanging output from the pump electric motors. The plant behavior to the assumed load demand reduction is surprising close to that calculated for the first option. The only negative result observed is a slight increase in the intermediate inlet sodium temperatures by about 10 C. This temperature rise could presumably be precluded or significantly reduced through fine adjustment of the control rods and pump motors. The third option assumes that the reactor core power and primary and intermediate system flow rates are ideally reduced linearly in a programmed fashion that instantaneously matches the prescribed load demand. The calculated behavior of this idealized case reveals a number of difficulties because the control strategy for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle overcools the reactor potentially resulting in the calculation of sodium bulk freezing and the onset of sodium boiling. The results show that autonomous SFR operation may be viable for the particular assumed load change transient and deserves further investigation for other transients and postulated accidents.

  12. Proceedings of the SMBE Tri-National Young Investigators' Workshop 2005. Relaxation of functional constraint on light-independent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase in Thuja.

    PubMed

    Kusumi, Junko; Sato, Aya; Tachida, Hidenori

    2006-05-01

    The light-independent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) plays a key role in the ability of nonflowering plants and algae to synthesize chlorophyll in darkness. This enzyme consists of three subunits encoded by the chlB, chlL, and chlN genes in the plastid genome. Previously, we found a high nonsynonymous substitution rate (dN) of the chlL gene in the lineage of Thuja standishii, a conifer belonging to the Cupressaceae. Here we revealed that the acceleration of dN in the chlL occurred as well in other species of Thuja, Thuja occidentalis and Thuja plicata. In addition, dark-grown seedlings of T. occidentalis were found to exhibit a pale yellowish color, and their chlorophyll concentration was much lower than that of other species of Cupressaceae. The results suggested that the species of Thuja have lost the ability to synthesize chlorophyll in darkness, and the functional constraint on the DPOR would thus be expected to be relaxed in this genus. Therefore, we expected to find that the evolutionary rates of all subunits of DPOR would in this case be accelerated. Sequence analyses of the chlN and chlB (encoding the other subunits of DPOR) in 18 species of Cupressaceae revealed that the dN of the chlN gene was accelerated in Thuja as was the dN of the chlL gene, but the dN of the chlB gene did not appear to differ significantly among the species of Cupressaceae. Sequencing of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products of these genes showed that RNA editing was rare and unlikely to have contributed to the acceleration. Moreover, the RT-PCR analysis indicated that all chl genes were still transcriptionally active in T. occidentalis. Based on these results, it appears that species of Thuja still bear the DPOR protein, although the enzyme has lost its activity because of nonsynonymous mutations of some of the chl genes. The lack of acceleration of the dN of the chlB gene might be accounted for by various unknown functions of its gene product. PMID:16428257

  13. Investigation of the thermal response of a gasdynamic heater with helical impellers. Calspan Report No. 6961-A-1. [MAZE and TACO2D codes

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, W. J.

    1981-12-01

    A gasdynamic heater, capable of producing contamination-free gas streams at temperatures up to 9000/sup 0/K, is being developed by the Vulcan project. The design of a cooling system for the case parts and the associated thermal analysis are a critical part of a successful design. The purpose of the present work was to perform a preliminary cooling passage design and complete thermal analysis for the center body liner, end plate liners and exit nozzle. The approach envisioned for this work was the use of a set of LLNL finite-element codes, called MAZE and TACO2D. These were to be used at LLNL in a series of visits by the Calspan principal investigator. The project was cancelled shortly after the first of these visits; this report contains a summary of the work accomplished during the abbreviated contract period, and a review of the items that will need to be considered when the work is resumed at some future date.

  14. Comet assay in reconstructed 3D human epidermal skin models--investigation of intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility with coded chemicals.

    PubMed

    Reus, Astrid A; Reisinger, Kerstin; Downs, Thomas R; Carr, Gregory J; Zeller, Andreas; Corvi, Raffaella; Krul, Cyrille A M; Pfuhler, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Reconstructed 3D human epidermal skin models are being used increasingly for safety testing of chemicals. Based on EpiDerm™ tissues, an assay was developed in which the tissues were topically exposed to test chemicals for 3h followed by cell isolation and assessment of DNA damage using the comet assay. Inter-laboratory reproducibility of the 3D skin comet assay was initially demonstrated using two model genotoxic carcinogens, methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and 4-nitroquinoline-n-oxide, and the results showed good concordance among three different laboratories and with in vivo data. In Phase 2 of the project, intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility was investigated with five coded compounds with different genotoxicity liability tested at three different laboratories. For the genotoxic carcinogens MMS and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, all laboratories reported a dose-related and statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in DNA damage in every experiment. For the genotoxic carcinogen, 2,4-diaminotoluene, the overall result from all laboratories showed a smaller, but significant genotoxic response (P < 0.05). For cyclohexanone (CHN) (non-genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and non-carcinogenic), an increase compared to the solvent control acetone was observed only in one laboratory. However, the response was not dose related and CHN was judged negative overall, as was p-nitrophenol (p-NP) (genotoxic in vitro but not in vivo and non-carcinogenic), which was the only compound showing clear cytotoxic effects. For p-NP, significant DNA damage generally occurred only at doses that were substantially cytotoxic (>30% cell loss), and the overall response was comparable in all laboratories despite some differences in doses tested. The results of the collaborative study for the coded compounds were generally reproducible among the laboratories involved and intra-laboratory reproducibility was also good. These data indicate that the comet assay in EpiDerm™ skin models is a promising model for the safety assessment of compounds with a dermal route of exposure. PMID:24150594

  15. Comparison of deterministic phase coding with random phase coding in terms of dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Akahori, H

    1973-10-01

    Phase coding techniques are useful for lowering the dynamic range of the recorded spectrum in digitally generated hologram and kinoform memories. Two types of phase coding schemes, random phase coding and deterministic phase coding, which is independent of the input sequence, are compared in terms of the dynamic range of the spectrum. A probabilistic analysis shows that deterministic phase coding is advantageous over random phase coding. It is shown that Frank codes and a specialized form of Schroeder codes are effective for deterministic phase coding. PMID:20125786

  16. Behavioral correlates for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 4-9, 9-4 code types: A case of the emperor's new clothes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm D. Gynther; Harold Altman; Robert W. Warbin

    1973-01-01

    Attempted to demonstrate behavioral correlates of 2 related MMPI code types (4-9, 9-4) with 2 large independent samples of inpatients from state psychiatric facilities (N = 2,869). Sample size permitted subanalyses of the effects of sex, race, and separate code type on results. While earlier investigations have typically found that this code type is given by sociopaths who are irritable,

  17. Arterial stiffness independently predicts cardiovascular events in an elderly community - Longitudinal Investigation for the Longevity and Aging in Hokkaido County (LILAC) study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, O.; Otsuka, K.; Murakami, S.; Hotta, N.; Yamanaka, G.; Kubo, Y.; Yamanaka, T.; Shinagawa, M.; Nunoda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Shibata, K.; Saitoh, H.; Nishinaga, M.; Ishine, M.; Wada, T.; Okumiya, K.; Matsubayashi, K.; Yano, S.; Ichihara, K.; Corné1issen, G.; Halberg, F.; Ozawa, T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the predictive value of arterial stiffness to assess cardiovascular risk in elderly community-dwelling people by means of a multivariate Cox model. In 298 people older than 75 years (120 men and 178 women, average age: 79.6 years), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured between the right arm and ankle in a supine position. The LILAC study started on July 25, 2000, consultation was repeated yearly, and the last follow-up ended on November 30, 2004. During this follow-up span of 1227 days, there were nine cardiovascular deaths, the cause of death being myocardial infarction for two men and three women or stroke for two men and two women. In Cox proportional hazard models, baPWV as well as age, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hasegawa Dementia Scale Revised (HDSR) and the low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio showed a statistically significant association with the occurrence of cardiovascular death. A two-point increase in MMSE and HDSR score significantly protected against cardiovascular death, the relative risk (RR) being 0.776 (P = 0.0369) and 0.753 (P = 0.0029), respectively. The LF/HF ratio also was significant (P = 0.025), but the other indices of HRV were not. After adjustment for age and HDSR, a 200 cm/s increase in baPWV was associated with a 30.2% increase in risk (RR = 1.302, 95% CI: 1.110-1.525), and a 500 cm/s increase in baPWV with a 93.3% increase in risk (RR = 1.933, 95% CI: 1.300-2.874, P = 0.0011), whereas the LF/HF ratio was no longer associated with a statistically significant increase in cardiovascular mortality. In elderly community-dwelling people, arterial stiffness measured by means of baPWV predicted the occurrence of cardiovascular death beyond the prediction provided by age, gender, blood pressure and cognitive functions, baPWV should be added to the cardiovascular assessment in various clinical settings, including field medical surveys and preventive screening. The early detection of risk by chronomics allows the timely institution of prophylactic measures, thereby shifting the focus from rehabilitation to prehabilitation medicine, as a public service to several Japanese towns. PMID:16275505

  18. Synthesizing Certified Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  19. Extension of the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle to low reactor power operation: investigations using the coupled anl plant dynamics code-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor code system.

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-05-10

    Significant progress has been made on the development of a control strategy for the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle enabling removal of power from an autonomous load following Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) down to decay heat levels such that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be used to cool the reactor until decay heat can be removed by the normal shutdown heat removal system or a passive decay heat removal system such as Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) loops with DRACS in-vessel heat exchangers. This capability of the new control strategy eliminates the need for use of a separate shutdown heat removal system which might also use supercritical CO{sub 2}. It has been found that this capability can be achieved by introducing a new control mechanism involving shaft speed control for the common shaft joining the turbine and two compressors following reduction of the load demand from the electrical grid to zero. Following disconnection of the generator from the electrical grid, heat is removed from the intermediate sodium circuit through the sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger, the turbine solely drives the two compressors, and heat is rejected from the cycle through the CO{sub 2}-to-water cooler. To investigate the effectiveness of shaft speed control, calculations are carried out using the coupled Plant Dynamics Code-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code for a linear load reduction transient for a 1000 MWt metallic-fueled SFR with autonomous load following. No deliberate motion of control rods or adjustment of sodium pump speeds is assumed to take place. It is assumed that the S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery shaft speed linearly decreases from 100 to 20% nominal following reduction of grid load to zero. The reactor power is calculated to autonomously decrease down to 3% nominal providing a lengthy window in time for the switchover to the normal shutdown heat removal system or for a passive decay heat removal system to become effective. However, the calculations reveal that the compressor conditions are calculated to approach surge such that the need for a surge control system for each compressor is identified. Thus, it is demonstrated that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate in the initial decay heat removal mode even with autonomous reactor control. Because external power is not needed to drive the compressors, the results show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be used for initial decay heat removal for a lengthy interval in time in the absence of any off-site electrical power. The turbine provides sufficient power to drive the compressors. Combined with autonomous reactor control, this represents a significant safety advantage of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle by maintaining removal of the reactor power until the core decay heat falls to levels well below those for which the passive decay heat removal system is designed. The new control strategy is an alternative to a split-shaft layout involving separate power and compressor turbines which had previously been identified as a promising approach enabling heat removal from a SFR at low power levels. The current results indicate that the split-shaft configuration does not provide any significant benefits for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle over the current single-shaft layout with shaft speed control. It has been demonstrated that when connected to the grid the single-shaft cycle can effectively follow the load over the entire range. No compressor speed variation is needed while power is delivered to the grid. When the system is disconnected from the grid, the shaft speed can be changed as effectively as it would be with the split-shaft arrangement. In the split-shaft configuration, zero generator power means disconnection of the power turbine, such that the resulting system will be almost identical to the single-shaft arrangement. Without this advantage of the split-shaft configuration, the economic benefits of the single-shaft arrangement, provided by just one turbine and lower losses at the design point, are more important to the overall cycle performance. Therefore, the single-shaft

  20. NIH Funding of the Independent Investigator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MD/PhD Walter F. Boron (Yale University School of Medicine Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology)

    2006-10-01

    This editorial describes the doubling of funding for the National Institute of Health (NIH) for biomedical research. The article expresses concerns about the NIH because their budget is failing due to 9/11.

  1. Numerical Investigation on Smoke Movement in a Large Space Building under Fire Scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Xiaoge; Guo Yincheng

    Numerical investigations on smoke filling process in large space buildings were carried out in this paper. Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) code, based on the concept of large eddy simulation, is adopted to simulate a fire process in the PolyU\\/USTC Atrium. In order to investigate the grid independency of the simulation, three grid systems were employed, and an appropriate one was

  2. Application of a multi-block CFD code to investigate the impact of geometry modeling on centrifugal compressor flow field predictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Hathaway; J. R. Wood

    1997-01-01

    CFD codes capable of utilizing multi-block grids provide the capability to analyze the complete geometry of centrifugal compressors. Attendant with this increased capability is potentially increased grid setup time and more computational overhead with the resultant increase in wall clock time to obtain a solution. If the increase in difficulty of obtaining a solution significantly improves the solution from that

  3. System-Level Genetic Codes: An Explanation for Biological Complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. McGowan

    2000-01-01

    Complex systems with tightly coadapted parts frequently appear in living systems and are difficult to account for through Darwinian evolution, that is random variation and natural selection, if the constituent parts are independently coded in the genetic code. If the parts are independently coded, multiple simultaneous mutations appear necessary to create or modify these systems. It is generally believed that

  4. Chronotope and regional Chinese independent films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingya LIU

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims to re-categorize Chinese independent films from a region-based perspective as a critical response to existing literature on Chinese independent films. This thesis analyzes three independent films made in three different regions of China in order to investigate regional Chinese independent cinema as a recently rising phenomenon: respectively, Jia Zhangke’s Xiaowu (1997) made in Shanxi Province, Ying Liang’s

  5. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

  6. Code constructions and code families for nonbinary quantum stabilizer code 

    E-print Network

    Ketkar, Avanti Ulhas

    2005-11-01

    Stabilizer codes form a special class of quantum error correcting codes. Nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes are studied in this thesis. A lot of work on binary quantum stabilizer codes has been done. Nonbinary stabilizer codes have received much...

  7. Coordinated design of coding and modulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.; Ancheta, T.; Johannesson, R.; Lauer, G.; Lee, L.

    1976-01-01

    The joint optimization of the coding and modulation systems employed in telemetry systems was investigated. Emphasis was placed on formulating inner and outer coding standards used by the Goddard Spaceflight Center. Convolutional codes were found that are nearly optimum for use with Viterbi decoding in the inner coding of concatenated coding systems. A convolutional code, the unit-memory code, was discovered and is ideal for inner system usage because of its byte-oriented structure. Simulations of sequential decoding on the deep-space channel were carried out to compare directly various convolutional codes that are proposed for use in deep-space systems.

  8. Loose block independence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice Rahe; Laif Swanson

    1981-01-01

    A finite state stationary process is defined to be loosely block independent if long blocks are almost independent in the\\u000a $$\\\\overline f $$\\u000a sense. We show that loose block independence is preserved under Kakutani equivalence and\\u000a $$\\\\overline f $$\\u000a limits. We show directly that any loosely block independent process is the\\u000a $$\\\\overline f $$\\u000a limit of Bernoulli processes and is

  9. Reconfigurable all-optical code translation in spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Jiang; D. S. Seo; D. E. Leaird; R. V. Roussev; C. Langrock; M. M. Fejer; A. M. Weiner

    2005-01-01

    Reconfigurable all-optical code translation are demonstrated in a spectrally phase-coded optical-code-division multiple-access (O-CDMA) testbed with an interference user. For both one-stage and two-stage code translations, less than 0.9-dB power penalties are induced at each code translation. Multistage code translations are investigated via simulation and experimental emulation in a loop pulse shaper to show the potential application of the proposed method

  10. High Performance “Reach” Codes 

    E-print Network

    Edelson, J.

    2011-01-01

    Jim Edelson New Buildings Institute A Growing Role for Codes and Stretch Codes in Utility Programs Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency November 9, 2011 ESL-KT-11-11-39 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 New Buildings Institute ESL..., Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 ?31? Flavors of Codes ? Building Codes Construction Codes Energy Codes Stretch or Reach Energy Codes Above-code programs Green or Sustainability Codes Model Codes ?Existing Building? Codes Outcome-Based Codes ESL-KT-11...

  11. The Independence of Reduced Subgroup-State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Deng, Yun

    2014-09-01

    Quantum hidden problem being one of the most important quantum computation problems has been widely investigated. Our purpose in this paper is to prove the independent or partial independent of the reduced state derived from the quantum query with the oracle implementation. We prove that if without bias on implementation functions the subgroup state is independent of evaluation functions using the group representation. This result is also used to improve the quantum query success probability.

  12. All-Optical Network Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric D. Manley; Jitender S. Deogun; Lisong Xu; Dennis R. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the application of network coding to all-optical networks from both the algorithmic and infrastructural perspectives. We study the effectiveness of using network coding for optical-layer dedicated protection of multicast traffic that provides robustness against link failures in the network. We present a heuristic for solving this problem and compare it with both inefficient optimal methods and non-network-coding approaches.

  13. Homomorphic encryption from codes Andrej Bogdanov

    E-print Network

    Homomorphic encryption from codes Andrej Bogdanov Chin Ho Lee Abstract We propose a new homomorphic encryption scheme based on the hardness of decoding under independent random noise from certain affine families of codes. Unlike in previous lattice- based homomorphic encryption schemes, where the message

  14. Mobile Code Alternatives for Secure Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Algirdas Pakstas; Igor Shagaev

    2000-01-01

    Growing popularity of the mobile code requires to consider various aspects related to its security. In the aviation industry there is a case when additional information needs to be delivered to the pilot by uploading it from the ground station. It creates a need for a platform-independent solution and it raises a problem of the mobile code security as well.

  15. Speech recognition for image animation and coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Chou; H. H. Chen

    1995-01-01

    We discuss some issues related to acoustic assisted image coding and animation. An approach of talker independent acoustic assisted image coding and animation scheme is studied. A perceptually based sliding window encoder is proposed. It utilizes the high rate (or oversampled) viseme sequence from the audio domain for image domain viseme interpolation and smoothing. The image domain visemes in our

  16. Vector coding for partial response channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kasturia; James T. Aslanis; John M. Cioffi

    1990-01-01

    A linear technique for combining equalization and coset codes on partial response channels with additive white Gaussian noise is developed. The technique, vector coding, uses a set of transmit filters or `vectors' to partition the channel into an independent set of parallel intersymbol interference (ISI)-free channels for any given finite (or infinite) block length. The optimal transmit vectors for such

  17. Polarization independent microphotonic circuits

    E-print Network

    Watts, Michael Robert, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Microphotonic circuits have been proposed for applications ranging from optical switching and routing to optical logic circuits. However many applications require microphotonic circuits to be polarization independent, a ...

  18. Homomorphic encryption from codes

    E-print Network

    Bogdanov, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new homomorphic encryption scheme based on the hardness of decoding under independent random noise from certain affine families of codes. Unlike in previous lattice-based homomorphic encryption schemes, where the message is hidden in the noisy part of the ciphertext, our scheme carries the message in the affine part of the transformation and applies noise only to achieve security. Our scheme can tolerate noise of arbitrary magnitude, as long as the noise vector has sufficiently small hamming weight (and its entries are independent). Our design achieves "proto-homomorphic" properties in an elementary manner: message addition and multiplication are emulated by pointwise addition and multiplication of the ciphertext vectors. Moreover, the extremely simple nature of our decryption makes the scheme easily amenable to bootstrapping. However, some complications are caused by the inherent presence of noticeable encryption error. Our main technical contribution is the development of two new techniques for...

  19. Development of safety incident coding systems through improving coding reliability.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Nikki S; Williamson, Ann M

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews classification theory sources to develop five research questions concerning factors associated with incident coding system development and use and how these factors affect coding reliability. Firstly, a method was developed to enable the comparison of reliability results obtained using different methods. Second, a statistical and qualitative review of reliability studies was conducted to investigate the influence of the identified factors on the reliability of incident coding systems. As a result several factors were found to have a statistically significant effect on reliability. Four recommendations for system development and use are provided to assist researchers in improving the reliability of incident coding systems in high hazard industries. PMID:26154213

  20. Investigation of plant control strategies for the supercritical C0Brayton cycle for a sodium-cooled fast reactor using the plant dynamics code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Moisseytsev; J. Sienicki

    2011-01-01

    The development of a control strategy for the supercritical CO (S-CO) Brayton cycle has been extended to the investigation of alternate control strategies for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) nuclear power plant incorporating a S-CO Brayton cycle power converter. The SFR assumed is the 400 MWe (1000 MWt) ABR-1000 preconceptual design incorporating metallic fuel. Three alternative idealized schemes for controlling

  1. Investigating the influence of the added mass effect to marine hydrokinetic horizontal-axis turbines using a General Dynamic Wake wind turbine code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Maniaci; Ye Li

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a recent study to investigate the applicability of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics analysis program (FAST and AeroDyn respectively) to modeling the forces on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. This paper summarizes the added mass model that has been added to AeroDyn. The added mass model only includes flow acceleration perpendicular to the

  2. Investigating the Influence of the Added Mass Effect to Marine Hydrokinetic Horizontal-Axis Turbines Using a General Dynamic Wake Wind Turbine Code: Preprint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Maniaci; Y. Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a recent study to investigate the applicability of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics analysis program (FAST and AeroDyn respectively) to modeling the forces on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. It summarizes the added mass model that has been added to AeroDyn. The added mass model only includes flow acceleration perpendicular to the rotor

  3. Accounting for Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonenstein, Burton

    The diversity of independent schools in size, function, and mode of operation has resulted in a considerable variety of accounting principles and practices. This lack of uniformity has tended to make understanding, evaluation, and comparison of independent schools' financial statements a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This manual has…

  4. Energy efficient rateless codes for high speed data transfer over free space optical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Geetha; Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Acharya, U. S.

    2015-03-01

    Terrestrial Free Space Optical (FSO) links transmit information by using the atmosphere (free space) as a medium. In this paper, we have investigated the use of Luby Transform (LT) codes as a means to mitigate the effects of data corruption induced by imperfect channel which usually takes the form of lost or corrupted packets. LT codes, which are a class of Fountain codes, can be used independent of the channel rate and as many code words as required can be generated to recover all the message bits irrespective of the channel performance. Achieving error free high data rates with limited energy resources is possible with FSO systems if error correction codes with minimal overheads on the power can be used. We also employ a combination of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) with provision for modification of threshold and optimized LT codes with belief propagation for decoding. These techniques provide additional protection even under strong turbulence regimes. Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) is another method of improving link reliability. Performance of ARQ is limited by the number of retransmissions and the corresponding time delay. We prove through theoretical computations and simulations that LT codes consume less energy per bit. We validate the feasibility of using energy efficient LT codes over ARQ for FSO links to be used in optical wireless sensor networks within the eye safety limits.

  5. On the performance of parity codes in magnetic recording systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weishi Feng; Andrei Vityaev; Greg Burd; Nersi Nazari

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the performance of single and multiple parity codes in magnetic recording systems. We evaluate the codes with respect to bit error rate as well as error correction code (ECC) failure rate. While multiple parity codes outperform the single parity code in bit error rate, their performance is worse with respect to the ECC failure rate

  6. On multilevel block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

    1991-01-01

    The multilevel (ML) technique for combining block coding and modulation is investigated. A general formulation is presented for ML modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate distance measures. A specific method for constructing ML block modulation codes (MLBMCs) with interdependency among component codes is proposed. Given an MLBMC C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed method gives an MLBC C-prime that has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C, and a smaller number of nearest-neighbor codewords than that of C. Finally, a technique is presented for analyzing the error performance of MLBMCs for an additive white Gaussian noise channel based on soft-decision maximum-likelihood decoding.

  7. Investigating the Influence of the Added Mass Effect to Marine Hydrokinetic Horizontal-Axis Turbines Using a General Dynamic Wake Wind Turbine Code

    SciTech Connect

    Maniaci, D. C.; Li, Y.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes a recent study to investigate the applicability of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics analysis program (FAST and AeroDyn respectively) to modeling the forces on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. This paper summarizes the added mass model that has been added to AeroDyn. The added mass model only includes flow acceleration perpendicular to the rotor disc, and ignores added mass forces caused by blade deflection. A model of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) Phase VI wind turbine was analyzed using FAST and AeroDyn with sea water conditions and the new added mass model. The results of this analysis exhibited a 3.6% change in thrust for a rapid pitch case and a slight change in amplitude and phase of thrust for a case with 30{sup o} of yaw.

  8. Investigating the Influence of the Added Mass Effect to Marine Hydrokinetic Horizontal-Axis Turbines Using a General Dynamic Wake Wind Turbine Code: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Maniaci, D. C.; Li, Y.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a recent study to investigate the applicability of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics analysis program (FAST and AeroDyn respectively) to modeling the forces on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. It summarizes the added mass model that has been added to AeroDyn. The added mass model only includes flow acceleration perpendicular to the rotor disc, and ignores added mass forces caused by blade deflection. A model of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) Phase VI wind turbine was analyzed using FAST and AeroDyn with sea water conditions and the new added mass model. The results of this analysis exhibited a 3.6% change in thrust for a rapid pitch case and a slight change in amplitude and phase of thrust for a case with 30 degrees of yaw.

  9. Network coding

    E-print Network

    Lehman, April Rasala, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    In the network coding problem, there are k commodities each with an associated message Mi, a set of sources that know Mi and a set of sinks that request Mi. Each edge in the graph may transmit any function of the messages. ...

  10. Code Crackers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-12-03

    This math unit from Illuminations introduces students to the concepts of cryptology and coding. It includes two lessons, which cover the Caesar Cipher and the Vignere Cipher. Students will learn to encode and decode messages using these ciphers. This unit is intended for grades 9-12; each lesson should take one class period to complete.

  11. MCNP code

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids.

  12. Seals Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

  13. Using a clone genealogy extractor for understanding and supporting evolution of code clones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miryung Kim; David Notkin

    2005-01-01

    Programmers often create similar code snippets or reuse existing code snippets by copying and pasting. Code clones---syntactically and semantically similar code snippets---can cause problems during software maintenance because programmers may need to locate code clones and change them consistently. In this work, we investigate (1) how code clones evolve, (2) how many code clones impose maintenance challenges, and (3) what

  14. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being the best. Conclusions Different allele coding methods lead to the same inference in the marker-based and equivalent models when a fixed general mean is included in the model. However, reliabilities of genomic breeding values are affected by the allele coding method used. The centered coding has some numerical advantages when Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are used. PMID:21703021

  15. Fixed and Adaptive Predictors for Hybrid Predictive\\/Transform Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ericsson

    1985-01-01

    Hybrid predictive\\/transform coding is studied. The usual formulation is to first apply a unitary transform and then code the transform coefficients with independent DPCM coders, i.e., the prediction is performed in the transform domain. This structure is compared to spatial domain prediction, where a difference signal is formed in the spatial domain and then coded by a transform coder. A

  16. Independent GIS Synthesis Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian Hynek

    Brian Hynek, University of Colorado Summary A capstone project consisting of independent research and communication of scientific results. Context Type and level of course capstone project for an entry-level GIS ...

  17. Compound Independent Events

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of compound independent events by drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record the results of successive draws with or without replacement of marbles to calculate the experimental probability.

  18. Non-White, No More: Effect Coding as an Alternative to Dummy Coding with Implications for Higher Education Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Simonoff, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe effect coding as an alternative quantitative practice for analyzing and interpreting categorical, race-based independent variables in higher education research. Unlike indicator (dummy) codes that imply that one group will be a reference group, effect codes use average responses as a means for…

  19. Code-Copying in Irano-Turkic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Lars

    1998-01-01

    Different types of Persian impact on Irano-Turkic language varieties are surveyed and classified according to the Code-Copying model, which implies that copies of elements from foreign codes are inserted, globally or selectively, into a basic code that provides the morphosyntactic frame for the insertion. The study investigates under what…

  20. Subspace Properties of Randomized Network Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahdi Jafarisiavoshani; Christina Fragouli; Suhas Diggavi

    2007-01-01

    Randomized network coding has network nodes randomly combine and exchange linear combinations of the source packets. A header appended to the packet, called coding vector, specifies the exact linear combination that each packet carries. The main contribution of this work is to investigate properties of the subspaces spanned by the collected coding vectors in each network node. We use these

  1. Nature's Code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa J. Hill; Peter Rowlands

    2008-01-01

    We propose that the mathematical structures related to the `universal rewrite system' define a universal process applicable to Nature, which we may describe as `Nature's code'. We draw attention here to such concepts as 4 basic units, 64- and 20-unit structures, symmetry-breaking and 5-fold symmetry, chirality, double 3-dimensionality, the double helix, the Van der Waals force and the harmonic oscillator

  2. Grid-independent LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sanjeeb; Moin, Parviz

    2009-11-01

    Grid independent turbulent statistics are obtained in a planar channel flow at Re?= 640 by explicit filtering the governing equations for LES. Three dimensional filters (Vasilyev et al., JCP, 1998) are utilized such that commutation error is the same order as the truncation error of the fourth-order, conservative finite difference scheme (Morinishi et al., JCP, 1998). Several calculations are performed with a fixed filter width, but with varying grid resolutions. The grid-independent mean velocity profile is in good agreement with the experimental data of Hussain & Reynolds (1970). The rms velocity profiles and one-dimensional energy spectra are compared with previous LES results and the unfiltered DNS of Abe et al. (2001), and show convergence toward a grid-independent profile. Ensemble averaged contributions of the dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid model to the Reynolds shear stress have also converged to a grid-independent profile across all grid resolutions. The effect of effective filter shape on the convergence of turbulence statistics will be discussed. Progress in the development of grid-independent LES for complex geometries with unstructured meshes will be presented.

  3. Groundwater flow code verification ``benchmarking`` activity (COVE-2A): Analysis of participants` work

    SciTech Connect

    Dykhuizen, R.C.; Barnard, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The Nuclear Waste Repository Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is investigating the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for underground burial of nuclear wastes. One element of the investigations is to assess the potential long-term effects of groundwater flow on the integrity of a potential repository. A number of computer codes are being used to model groundwater flow through geologic media in which the potential repository would be located. These codes compute numerical solutions for problems that are usually analytically intractable. Consequently, independent confirmation of the correctness of the solution is often not possible. Code verification is a process that permits the determination of the numerical accuracy of codes by comparing the results of several numerical solutions for the same problem. The international nuclear waste research community uses benchmarking for intercomparisons that partially satisfy the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) definition of code verification. This report presents the results from the COVE-2A (Code Verification) project, which is a subset of the COVE project.

  4. Independent technical review, handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  5. Approximating the minimum independent dominating set in perturbed graphs

    E-print Network

    Lin, Guohui

    Approximating the minimum independent dominating set in perturbed graphs Weitian Tong, Randy Goebel, Guohui Lin,§ November 3, 2013 Abstract We investigate the minimum independent dominating set in perturbed with a probability p > 0. The minimum independent dominating set (MIDS) problem does not admit a polynomial running

  6. Neuronal Adaptation Translates Stimulus Gaps into a Population Code

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chun-Wei; Khouri, Leila; Grothe, Benedikt; Leibold, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in sensory pathways exhibit a vast multitude of adaptation behaviors, which are assumed to aid the encoding of temporal stimulus features and provide the basis for a population code in higher brain areas. Here we study the transition to a population code for auditory gap stimuli both in neurophysiological recordings and in a computational network model. Independent component analysis (ICA) of experimental data from the inferior colliculus of Mongolian gerbils reveals that the network encodes different gap sizes primarily with its population firing rate within 30 ms after the presentation of the gap, where longer gap size evokes higher network activity. We then developed a computational model to investigate possible mechanisms of how to generate the population code for gaps. Phenomenological (ICA) and functional (discrimination performance) analyses of our simulated networks show that the experimentally observed patterns may result from heterogeneous adaptation, where adaptation provides gap detection at the single neuron level and neuronal heterogeneity ensures discriminable population codes for the whole range of gap sizes in the input. Furthermore, our work suggests that network recurrence additionally enhances the network's ability to provide discriminable population patterns. PMID:24759970

  7. Dual-code quantum computation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Soo

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose the dual-code quantum computation model—a fault-tolerant quantum computation scheme which alternates between two different quantum error-correction codes. Since the chosen two codes have different sets of transversal gates, we can implement a universal set of gates transversally, thereby reducing the overall cost. We use code teleportation to convert between quantum states in different codes. The overall cost is decreased if code teleportation requires fewer resources than the fault-tolerant implementation of the non-transversal gate in a specific code. To analyze the cost reduction, we investigate two cases with different base codes, namely the Steane and Bacon-Shor codes. For the Steane code, neither the proposed dual-code model nor another variation of it achieves any cost reduction since the conventional approach is simple. For the Bacon-Shor code, the three proposed variations of the dual-code model reduce the overall cost. However, as the encoding level increases, the cost reduction decreases and becomes negative. Therefore, the proposed dual-code model is advantageous only when the encoding level is low and the cost of the non-transversal gate is relatively high.

  8. Caring about Independent Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Karen

    2010-01-01

    With the rhetoric of independence, new cash for care systems were introduced in many developed welfare states at the end of the 20th century. These systems allow local authorities to pay people who are eligible for community care services directly, to enable them to employ their own careworkers. Despite the obvious importance of the careworker's…

  9. Independent School Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Allan K.

    Findings of a study that examined the role of the governing body in the independent school's self-renewing processes are presented in this paper. From the holistic paradigm, the school is viewed as a self-renewing system that is able to maintain its identity despite environmental changes through existing structures that define and create…

  10. Independent power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. N. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A gas turbine powered aircraft auxiliary power system is described which is capable of efficiently supplying all aircraft auxiliary services both in flight and on the ground and is further capable of operating independently of the aircraft main engines. The system employs multiple gas turbine compressor stages, thereby accomplishing cabin pressurization, ventilation and heating.

  11. Independent power generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Young

    1978-01-01

    A gas turbine powered aircraft auxiliary power system is described which is capable of efficiently supplying all aircraft auxiliary services both in flight and on the ground and is further capable of operating independently of the aircraft main engines. The system employs multiple gas turbine compressor stages, thereby accomplishing cabin pressurization, ventilation and heating. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred

  12. IEAB Independent Analysis Board

    E-print Network

    ­Effectiveness of Improved Irrigation Efficiency and Water Transactions for Instream Flow for Fish1 Independent Economic for their support and helpful comments. #12;IEAB: Irrigation Efficiency and Water Transactions December 2011 1 Table..................................................................................................................... 7 2.1 What is Irrigation Efficiency

  13. The Independent Educational Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Ann E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The article reviews provisions of P.L. 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) regarding parents' rights for independent educational evaluations and describes the program at the Central Institute for the Deaf to provide this service. (Author/CL)

  14. Coding for Satellite Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William W. Wu; David Haccoun; Robert Peile; Yasuo Hirata

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of coding techniques for future satellite communication; they include Reed-Solomon error decoding for message blocks, probabilistic decoding techniques for punctured convolutional codes, and planar Euclidean geometry difference set codes for random multiple access applications. The provision of code concatenation, helical interleaving, and simulation results of new punctured convolutional codes are included. A number of coded

  15. Optimal Bacon-Shor codes

    E-print Network

    John Napp; John Preskill

    2012-09-04

    We study the performance of Bacon-Shor codes, quantum subsystem codes which are well suited for applications to fault-tolerant quantum memory because the error syndrome can be extracted by performing two-qubit measurements. Assuming independent noise, we find the optimal block size in terms of the bit-flip error probability p_X and the phase error probability p_Z, and determine how the probability of a logical error depends on p_X and p_Z. We show that a single Bacon-Shor code block, used by itself without concatenation, can provide very effective protection against logical errors if the noise is highly biased (p_Z / p_X >> 1) and the physical error rate p_Z is a few percent or below. We also derive an upper bound on the logical error rate for the case where the syndrome data is noisy.

  16. Independent verification of radionuclide calculations for selected accident scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Cazzoli, E.; Davis, R.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Lee, M.; Nourbakhsh, H.; Schmidt, E.; Divadeenam, M.; Davis, R.

    1986-07-01

    An independent verification of the Source Term Code Package (STCP) calculated source terms resulting from severe nuclear reactor accidents is presented. This consists of assessing the modeling options, data transfer, and problem nodalization for both Boiling and Pressurized Water Reactor applications. Independent calculations are also performed for four specific accident scenarios in three different light water reactor containment designs. A detailed review and assessment of the Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL) calculated results using the STCP for four reference plants is also made. Comparison of the STCP calculated source terms with the suite of codes as documented in BMI-2104 is also given when applicable.

  17. Intersections of perfect binary codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olof Heden; F. I. Solov'eva; Ivan Yu. Mogilnykh

    2010-01-01

    Intersections of perfect binary codes are investigated. In 1998 Etzion and Vardy proved that the intersection number ?(C, D), for any two distinct perfect codes C and D, is always in the range 0 ? ?(C, D) ? 2n-log(n+1) -2(n-1)\\/2, where the upper bound is attainable. We improve the upper bound and show that the intersection number 2n-log(n+1) -2(n-1)\\/2 is

  18. Concatenated Quantum Codes

    E-print Network

    Emanuel Knill; Raymond Laflamme

    1996-08-08

    One of the main problems for the future of practical quantum computing is to stabilize the computation against unwanted interactions with the environment and imperfections in the applied operations. Existing proposals for quantum memories and quantum channels require gates with asymptotically zero error to store or transmit an input quantum state for arbitrarily long times or distances with fixed error. In this report a method is given which has the property that to store or transmit a qubit with maximum error $\\epsilon$ requires gates with error at most $c\\epsilon$ and storage or channel elements with error at most $\\epsilon$, independent of how long we wish to store the state or how far we wish to transmit it. The method relies on using concatenated quantum codes with hierarchically implemented recovery operations. The overhead of the method is polynomial in the time of storage or the distance of the transmission. Rigorous and heuristic lower bounds for the constant $c$ are given.

  19. Speaker-independent phone recognition using hidden Markov models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai-fu Lee; Hsiao-wuen Hon

    1989-01-01

    Hidden Markov modeling is extended to speaker-independent phone recognition. Using multiple codebooks of various linear-predictive-coding (LPC) parameters and discrete hidden Markov models (HMMs) the authors obtain a speaker-independent phone recognition accuracy of 58.8-73.8% on the TIMIT database, depending on the type of acoustic and language models used. In comparison, the performance of expert spectrogram readers is only 69% without use

  20. Dynamic Allocation of OVSF Codes to Access Terminals with an Adaptive Antenna Array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kavak; M. Karakoc; J. R. Cleveland; H. E. Demiray

    2005-01-01

    Orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) codes are widely used to provide variable data rates for supporting different bandwidth requirements in wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) systems. Many works in the literature have intensively investigated code placement and replacement schemes in OVSF code trees to reduce the code blocking probability and increase the code spectral efficiency. This paper describes a

  1. A New Dynamic OVSF Code Allocation Method based on Adaptive Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithm (ASAGA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Karakoc; Adnan Kavak

    2007-01-01

    Orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) codes are widely used to provide variable data rates for supporting different bandwidth requirements in wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) systems. Many works in the literature have intensively investigated to find an optimal dynamic code assignment scheme for OVSF codes. Unlike earlier studies, which assign OVSF codes using conventional (CCA) or dynamic (DCA) code

  2. Reviewing the Challenges and Opportunities Presented by Code Switching and Mixing in Bangla

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul; Akhand, Mohd. Moniruzzaman

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the issues related to code-switching/code-mixing in an ESL context. Some preliminary data on Bangla-English code-switching/code-mixing has been analyzed in order to determine which structural pattern of code-switching/code-mixing is predominant in different social strata. This study also explores the relationship of…

  3. Cross-over component code construction for multi-level block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the multilevel technique for combining block coding and modulation. Several specific methods for constructing multilevel block modulation codes with interdependency among component codes are presented. Given a multilevel block modulation code C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed methods give a multilevel block modulation code C-prime which has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C, and a smaller number of nearest neighbor codewords than that of C.

  4. Myth or Truth: Independence Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    Most Americans think of the Fourth of July as Independence Day, but is it really the day the U.S. declared and celebrated independence? By exploring myths and truths surrounding Independence Day, this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed stories regarding the beginning of the Revolutionary War and the Independence Day…

  5. Auditor independence: an international perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rocco R. Vanasco; Clifford R. Skousen; L. Roger Santagato

    1997-01-01

    Examines the role of professional associations and governments in developing and promulgating standards to foster auditor independence. Presents a survey of countries which showed that many had taken steps to enhance auditor independence. Governments of several countries had implemented professional audit standards sanctioned by their professional accounting associations dealing with auditor independence. In many countries independent auditors may be censured

  6. Rate 3/4 convolutional coding of 16-PSK - Code design and performance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. G.; Sleeper, H. A.; Schottler, P. J.; Lyons, M. T.

    1984-01-01

    Convolutional coding coupled with 16-PSK modulation is investigated for bandwidth efficient transmission. Rate 3/4, small memory codes are found which are optimized in the free-distance sense on the Gaussian channel. These codes provide up to 4.8 dB of coding gain with 32 states over uncoded 8-PSK, a scheme having the same spectral efficiency as the codes described. The performance is compared with earlier findings of Ungerboeck and some recent results on R = 2/3 coded 8-PSK. In addition, results of a channel transmission study to assess the performance of the four-state code on the band-limited nonlinear channel are presented, and it is found that performance of the coded scheme degrades comparably with uncoded 8-PSK, i.e., coding gain is roughly preserved.

  7. Half-Product Codes 

    E-print Network

    Emmadi, Santosh Kumar

    2014-12-11

    A class of codes, half-product codes, derived from product codes, is characterized. These codes have the implementation advantages of product codes and possess a special structural property which leads them to have larger (at least 3/2 times more...

  8. STARLIGHT: Spectral Synthesis Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid Fernandes, R.; Mateus, A.; Sodré, L.; Stasinska, G.; Gomes, J. M.

    2011-08-01

    The study of stellar populations in galaxies is entering a new era with the availability of large and high quality databases of both observed galactic spectra and state-of-the-art evolutionary synthesis models. The power of spectral synthesis can be investigated as a mean to estimate physical properties of galaxies. Spectral synthesis is nothing more than the decomposition of an observed spectrum in terms of a superposition of a base of simple stellar populations of various ages and metallicities, producing astrophysically interesting output such as the star-formation and chemical enrichment histories of a galaxy, its extinction and velocity dispersion. This is what the STARLIGHT spectral synthesis code does.

  9. The Comparative Performance of Conditional Independence Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Doyoung; De Ayala, R. J.; Ferdous, Abdullah A.; Nering, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    To realize the benefits of item response theory (IRT), one must have model-data fit. One facet of a model-data fit investigation involves assessing the tenability of the conditional item independence (CII) assumption. In this Monte Carlo study, the comparative performance of 10 indices for identifying conditional item dependence is assessed. The…

  10. Subsystem codes with spatially local generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravyi, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We study subsystem codes whose gauge group has local generators in two-dimensional (2D) geometry. It is shown that there exists a family of such codes defined on lattices of size L×L with the number of logical qubits k and the minimum distance d both proportional to L. The gauge group of these codes involves only two-qubit generators of type XX and ZZ coupling nearest-neighbor qubits (and some auxiliary one-qubit generators). Our proof is not constructive as it relies on a certain version of the Gilbert-Varshamov bound for classical codes. Along the way, we introduce and study properties of generalized Bacon-Shor codes that might be of independent interest. Secondly, we prove that any 2D subsystem [n,k,d] code with spatially local generators obeys upper bounds kd=O(n) and d2=O(n). The analogous upper bound proved recently for 2D stabilizer codes is kd2=O(n). Our results thus demonstrate that subsystem codes can be more powerful than stabilizer codes under the spatial locality constraint.

  11. Subsystem codes with spatially local generators

    SciTech Connect

    Bravyi, Sergey [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    We study subsystem codes whose gauge group has local generators in two-dimensional (2D) geometry. It is shown that there exists a family of such codes defined on lattices of size LxL with the number of logical qubits k and the minimum distance d both proportional to L. The gauge group of these codes involves only two-qubit generators of type XX and ZZ coupling nearest-neighbor qubits (and some auxiliary one-qubit generators). Our proof is not constructive as it relies on a certain version of the Gilbert-Varshamov bound for classical codes. Along the way, we introduce and study properties of generalized Bacon-Shor codes that might be of independent interest. Secondly, we prove that any 2D subsystem [n,k,d] code with spatially local generators obeys upper bounds kd=O(n) and d{sup 2}=O(n). The analogous upper bound proved recently for 2D stabilizer codes is kd{sup 2}=O(n). Our results thus demonstrate that subsystem codes can be more powerful than stabilizer codes under the spatial locality constraint.

  12. Independent Verification Worksheet 20122013 A. Independent Student's Information

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    and Signatures Each person signing this worksheet certifies that all of the information reported information to be available for the IRS Data Retrieval Tool for elIndependent Verification Worksheet 20122013 A. Independent Student's Information

  13. Quantum convolutional stabilizer codes

    E-print Network

    Chinthamani, Neelima

    2004-09-30

    Quantum error correction codes were introduced as a means to protect quantum information from decoherance and operational errors. Based on their approach to error control, error correcting codes can be divided into two different classes: block codes...

  14. Quantum convolutional stabilizer codes 

    E-print Network

    Chinthamani, Neelima

    2004-09-30

    Quantum error correction codes were introduced as a means to protect quantum information from decoherance and operational errors. Based on their approach to error control, error correcting codes can be divided into two different classes: block codes...

  15. Description of ground motion data processing codes: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.L.

    1988-02-01

    Data processing codes developed to process ground motion at the Nevada Test Site for the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations Project are used today as part of the program to process ground motion records for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The work contained in this report documents and lists codes and verifies the ``PSRV`` code. 39 figs.

  16. Coding Basics Reed-Solomon Codes

    E-print Network

    Little, John B.

    Beginning of coding theory as a mathematical and engineering subject: a 1948 paper by Claude Shannon called "A Mathematical Theory of Communication." Shannon lived from 1916 to 2001, and spent most of his Control #12;Coding Basics Reed-Solomon Codes List Decoding Algorithms Shannon's conceptual communication

  17. Coding for Cooperative Communications 

    E-print Network

    Uppal, Momin Ayub

    2011-10-21

    . Source Coding with Side-information . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. Slepian-Wolf coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 a. Practical Slepian-Wolf coding . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2. Wyner-Ziv coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 a...-station. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 Source coding with side-information. The side-information se- quence is correlated with the information sequence and is available at the decoder but not at the encoder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4 Slepian-Wolf coding with parity...

  18. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Grassl, Markus [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Technikerstrasse 21a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Shor, Peter [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Zeng Bei [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  19. Entropy of a quantum error correction code

    E-print Network

    David W. Kribs; Aron Pasieka; Karol Zyczkowski

    2008-11-11

    We define and investigate a notion of entropy for quantum error correcting codes. The entropy of a code for a given quantum channel has a number of equivalent realisations, such as through the coefficients associated with the Knill-Laflamme conditions and the entropy exchange computed with respect to any initial state supported on the code. In general the entropy of a code can be viewed as a measure of how close it is to the minimal entropy case, which is given by unitarily correctable codes (including decoherence-free subspaces), or the maximal entropy case, which from dynamical Choi matrix considerations corresponds to non-degenerate codes. We consider several examples, including a detailed analysis in the case of binary unitary channels, and we discuss an extension of the entropy to operator quantum error correcting subsystem codes.

  20. Progress in The Semantic Analysis of Scientific Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark

    2000-01-01

    This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, independent expert parsers. These semantic parsers encode domain knowledge and recognize formulae in different disciplines including physics, numerical methods, mathematics, and geometry. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and help locate some program semantic errors. These techniques may apply to a wider range of scientific codes. If so, the techniques could reduce the time, risk, and effort required to develop and modify scientific codes.

  1. An interactive morse code emulation management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Hong Yang

    2003-01-01

    Assistive technology (AT) is becoming increasingly important in improving mobility, language, and learning capabilities of persons who have disabilities enabling them to function independently and to improve their social opportunities. Morse code has been shown to be a valuable tool in Assistive technology, augmentative and alternative communication, rehabilitation, and education, as well as adapted computer access methods via special software

  2. Speech coding based upon vector quantization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDRES BUZO; R. Gray; J. Markel

    1980-01-01

    With rare exception, all presently available narrow-band speech coding systems implement scalar quantization (independent quantization) of the transmission parameters (such as reflection coefficients or transformed reflection coefficients in LPC systems). This paper presents a new approach called vector quantization. For very low data rates, realistic experiments have shown that vector quantization can achieve a given level of average distortion with

  3. The robustness of block truncation coding for image compression 

    E-print Network

    Hinojosa, Teresa Yvonne

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the robustness of the block truncation coding algorithm. Block truncation coding is an efficient image compression scheme which requires relatively simple calculations and a small amount of ...

  4. The Syntax and Psycholinguistics of Bilingual Code Mixing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sridhar, S. N.; Sridhar, Kamal K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper challenges the characterization of bilingual behavior derived from the code-switching model, and especially the notion of linguistic independence on which psychological studies of bilingualism have focused almost exclusively. While linguists have concentrated on the situational determinants of code-switching, psychologists have focused…

  5. Publications NODC Taxonomic Code and

    E-print Network

    of worldwide flora and fauna from viruses to mammals. The code was developed to simplify and systematize computer processing of data about ma- rine organisms. Because of its flexibility and scope, however, it can exchange of data collected by different investigators and the production of uniform computer-generated data

  6. Transparent self-healing communication networks via diversity coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Lin I; Ender Ayanoglu; R. D. Gitlin; J. E. Mazo

    1990-01-01

    The authors present an error control based approach, called diversity coding, to provide nearly instantaneous self-healing digital communication networks. This is achieved by constructing an error-correcting code across logically independent channels and by treating link failures within the framework of an erasure channel model. Diversity coding is more efficient than the existing approaches to self-healing communication networks since it is

  7. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in drosophila larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek J. Hoare; James Humble; Ding Jin; Niall Gilding; Rasmus Petersen; Matthew Cobb; Catherine McCrohan

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19\\/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This

  8. Source Code Plagiarism--A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, M.; Cosma, G.; Yau, J. Y.-K.; Sinclair, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of source code plagiarism by students within the computing disciplines and reports the results of a survey of students in Computing departments in 18 institutions in the U.K. This survey was designed to investigate how well students understand the concept of source code plagiarism and to discover what, if any,…

  9. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  10. Transform picture coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Wintz

    1972-01-01

    Picture coding by first dividing the picture into sub-pictures and then performing a linear transformation on each sub-picture cud quantizing and coding the resulting coefficients is introduced from a heuristic point of view. Various transformation, quantization, and coding strategies are discussed. A survey of all known applications of these techniques to monochromatic image coding is presented along with a summary

  11. Wear Independent Similarity.

    PubMed

    Steele, Adam; Davis, Alexander; Kim, Joohyung; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

    2015-06-17

    This study presents a new factor that can be used to design materials where desired surface properties must be retained under in-system wear and abrasion. To demonstrate this factor, a synthetic nonwetting coating is presented that retains chemical and geometric performance as material is removed under multiple wear conditions: a coarse vitrified abradant (similar to sanding), a smooth abradant (similar to rubbing), and a mild abradant (a blend of sanding and rubbing). With this approach, such a nonwetting material displays unprecedented mechanical durability while maintaining desired performance under a range of demanding conditions. This performance, herein termed wear independent similarity performance (WISP), is critical because multiple mechanisms and/or modes of wear can be expected to occur in many typical applications, e.g., combinations of abrasion, rubbing, contact fatigue, weathering, particle impact, etc. Furthermore, these multiple wear mechanisms tend to quickly degrade a novel surface's unique performance, and thus many promising surfaces and materials never scale out of research laboratories. Dynamic goniometry and scanning electron microscopy results presented herein provide insight into these underlying mechanisms, which may also be applied to other coatings and materials. PMID:26018058

  12. Independents' group posts loss

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, V.; Price, R.B.

    1992-11-23

    Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices.

  13. Parafermion stabilizer codes

    E-print Network

    Utkan Güngördü; Rabindra Nepal; Alexey A. Kovalev

    2014-10-29

    We define and study parafermion stabilizer codes which can be viewed as generalizations of Kitaev's one dimensional model of unpaired Majorana fermions. Parafermion stabilizer codes can protect against low-weight errors acting on a small subset of parafermion modes in analogy to qudit stabilizer codes. Examples of several smallest parafermion stabilizer codes are given. A locality preserving embedding of qudit operators into parafermion operators is established which allows one to map known qudit stabilizer codes to parafermion codes. We also present a local 2D parafermion construction that combines topological protection of Kitaev's toric code with additional protection relying on parity conservation.

  14. Transform coding of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, R. J.

    The theoretical and practical aspects of transform coding systems for processing still or moving images are discussed. Among the specific topics considered are: the statistical properties of images; orthogonal transforms for image coding; and transform coefficient quantization and bit allocation. Some practical methods of image coding are described, including: interframe coding; intraframe coding; and transform coding of color data. The application of human visual models to the assessment of image quality is also discussed. Techniques for measuring rms error in coded images are given in an appendix.

  15. Diagnosis code assignment: models and evaluation metrics

    PubMed Central

    Perotte, Adler; Pivovarov, Rimma; Natarajan, Karthik; Weiskopf, Nicole; Wood, Frank; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective The volume of healthcare data is growing rapidly with the adoption of health information technology. We focus on automated ICD9 code assignment from discharge summary content and methods for evaluating such assignments. Methods We study ICD9 diagnosis codes and discharge summaries from the publicly available Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) repository. We experiment with two coding approaches: one that treats each ICD9 code independently of each other (flat classifier), and one that leverages the hierarchical nature of ICD9 codes into its modeling (hierarchy-based classifier). We propose novel evaluation metrics, which reflect the distances among gold-standard and predicted codes and their locations in the ICD9 tree. Experimental setup, code for modeling, and evaluation scripts are made available to the research community. Results The hierarchy-based classifier outperforms the flat classifier with F-measures of 39.5% and 27.6%, respectively, when trained on 20?533 documents and tested on 2282 documents. While recall is improved at the expense of precision, our novel evaluation metrics show a more refined assessment: for instance, the hierarchy-based classifier identifies the correct sub-tree of gold-standard codes more often than the flat classifier. Error analysis reveals that gold-standard codes are not perfect, and as such the recall and precision are likely underestimated. Conclusions Hierarchy-based classification yields better ICD9 coding than flat classification for MIMIC patients. Automated ICD9 coding is an example of a task for which data and tools can be shared and for which the research community can work together to build on shared models and advance the state of the art. PMID:24296907

  16. Software for universal noiseless coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Schlutsmeyer, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    An overview is provided of the universal noiseless coding algorithms as well as their relationship to the now available FORTRAN implementations. It is suggested that readers considering investigating the utility of these algorithms for actual applications should consult both NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) and descriptions of coding techniques provided by Rice (1979). Examples of applying these techniques have also been given by Rice (1975, 1979, 1980). Attention is given to reversible preprocessing, general implementation instructions, naming conventions, and calling arguments. A general applicability of the considered algorithms to solving practical problems is obtained because most real data sources can be simply transformed into the required form by appropriate preprocessing.

  17. A distributed code for color in natural scenes derived from center-surround filtered cone signals

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Christian J.; Wachtler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In the retina of trichromatic primates, chromatic information is encoded in an opponent fashion and transmitted to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and visual cortex via parallel pathways. Chromatic selectivities of neurons in the LGN form two separate clusters, corresponding to two classes of cone opponency. In the visual cortex, however, the chromatic selectivities are more distributed, which is in accordance with a population code for color. Previous studies of cone signals in natural scenes typically found opponent codes with chromatic selectivities corresponding to two directions in color space. Here we investigated how the non-linear spatio-chromatic filtering in the retina influences the encoding of color signals. Cone signals were derived from hyper-spectral images of natural scenes and preprocessed by center-surround filtering and rectification, resulting in parallel ON and OFF channels. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) on these signals yielded a highly sparse code with basis functions that showed spatio-chromatic selectivities. In contrast to previous analyses of linear transformations of cone signals, chromatic selectivities were not restricted to two main chromatic axes, but were more continuously distributed in color space, similar to the population code of color in the early visual cortex. Our results indicate that spatio-chromatic processing in the retina leads to a more distributed and more efficient code for natural scenes. PMID:24098289

  18. Progressive image coding using trellis coded quantization.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, A; Sementilli, P J; Marcellin, M W

    1999-01-01

    In this work, we present coding techniques that enable progressive transmission when trellis coded quantization (TCQ) is applied to wavelet coefficients. A method for approximately inverting TCQ in the absence of least significant bits is developed. Results are presented using different rate allocation strategies and different entropy coders. The proposed wavelet-TCQ coder yields excellent coding efficiency while supporting progressive modes analogous to those available in JPEG. PMID:18267438

  19. Zigzag codes and concatenated zigzag codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Ping; Xiaoling Huang; Nam Phamdo

    2001-01-01

    Abstract—This paper introduces a family of error-correcting codes called zigzag codes. A zigzag code is described by a highly structured zigzag graph. Due to the structural properties of the graph, very low-complexity soft-in\\/soft-out decoding rules can be implemented. We present a decoding rule, based on the Max-Log-APP (MLA) formulation, which requires a total of only 20 addition-equivalent operations per information

  20. Concatenating Decoherence Free Subspaces with Quantum Error Correcting Codes

    E-print Network

    D. A. Lidar; D. Bacon; K. B. Whaley

    1999-04-28

    An operator sum representation is derived for a decoherence-free subspace (DFS) and used to (i) show that DFSs are the class of quantum error correcting codes (QECCs) with fixed, unitary recovery operators, and (ii) find explicit representations for the Kraus operators of collective decoherence. We demonstrate how this can be used to construct a concatenated DFS-QECC code which protects against collective decoherence perturbed by independent decoherence. The code yields an error threshold which depends only on the perturbing independent decoherence rate.

  1. Graph concatenation for quantum codes

    E-print Network

    Beigi, Salman

    Graphs are closely related to quantum error-correcting codes: every stabilizer code is locally equivalent to a graph code and every codeword stabilized code can be described by a graph and a classical code. For the ...

  2. Energy aware network coding in wireless networks

    E-print Network

    Shi, Xiaomeng, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important considerations in designing reliable low-power wireless communication networks. We focus on the problem of energy aware network coding. In particular, we investigate practical energy ...

  3. Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double a conventional 0.3-mm-thick glass separator. ©2005 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (230.3720) Liquid: A polarization-independent phase-only liquid crystal (LC) phase modulator using a double-layered structure

  4. Parental Beliefs about Emotions Are Associated with Early Adolescents' Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her, Pa; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed linkages between parents' beliefs and their children's self-construals with 60 7th and 8th graders. Early adolescents completed an open-ended, Self-Guide Questionnaire and an independent and interdependent reaction-time measure. The self-guide responses were coded for independent and interdependent traits. Parents reported beliefs…

  5. An introduction to functional independency in relational database normalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tennyson X. Chen; Sean Shuangquan Liu; Martin D. Meyer; Donald Gotterbarn

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the deficiencies of normal form definitions based on Functional Dependency and introduce a new normal form concept based on Functional Independency. Functional Independency has not been systematically investigated while there is a very strong theoretical foundation for the study of Functional Dependency in relational database normalization. This paper will demonstrate that considering Functional Dependency alone

  6. DRG benchmarking study establishes national coding norms.

    PubMed

    Vaul, J H

    1998-05-01

    With the increase in fraud and abuse investigations, healthcare financial managers should examine their organization's medical record coding procedures. The Federal government and third-party payers are looking specifically for improper billing of outpatient services, unbundling of procedures to increase payment, assigning higher-paying DRG codes for inpatient claims, and other abuses. A recent benchmarking study of Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) data has established national norms for hospital coding and case mix based on DRGs and has revealed the majority of atypical coding cases fall into six DRG pairs. Organizations with a greater percentage of atypical cases--those more likely to be scrutinized by Federal investigators--will want to conduct suitable review and be sure appropriate documentation exists to justify the coding. PMID:10179440

  7. Ideology Among Independent Voter Groups

    E-print Network

    Berry, Meagan

    2007-07-14

    Dennis identifies four “dominant rationales” that explain why people may become political independents. These rationales, or “attitude clusters,” are “anti-partyism”, “political autonomy”, “partisan neutrality”, and “partisan variability” (Dennis 1988... institutions. Dennis describes “political autonomy” as “identification with some positive ideals of being politically independent” (1988, 202). This encompasses the idea that one should remain politically independent in order to make sound, unbiased choices...

  8. On Unique Independence Weighted Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farzad Didehvar; Ali D. Mehrabi

    2009-01-01

    An independent set in a graph G is a set of vertices no two of which are joined by an edge (no two of which share an edge). A vertex-weighted graph associates a weight with every vertex in the graph. A vertex-weighted graph G is called a unique independence vertex-weighted graphif it has a unique independent set with maximum sum

  9. On Unique Independence Weighted Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farzad Didehvar; Ali D. Mehrabi; Fatemeh Raee B

    2009-01-01

    An independent set in a graph G is a set of vertices no two of which are joined by an edge. A vertex-weighted graph associates a weight with every vertex in the graph. A vertex-weighted graph G is called a unique independence vertex-weighted graph if it has a unique independent set with maximum sum of weights. Although, in this paper

  10. Markovianness and conditional independence in annotated bacterial DNA.

    PubMed

    Hart, Andrew; Martínez, Servet

    2014-12-01

    We explore the probabilistic structure of DNA in a number of bacterial genomes and conclude that a form of Markovianness is present at the boundaries between coding and non-coding regions, that is, the sequence of START and STOP codons annotated for the bacterial genome. This sequence is shown to satisfy a conditional independence property which allows its governing Markov chain to be uniquely identified from the abundances of START and STOP codons. Furthermore, we show that the annotated sequence of STARTs and STOPs complies with Chargaff's second parity rule. PMID:25503673

  11. America\\'s Journey to Independence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Nielsen

    2007-10-08

    *Examine the role of leaders that led to United States Independence *Trace the development of the U.S. Constitution Learn about the Founding Fathers and Constitution of the United States by reading valuable information and viewing many wonderful pictures: America s Founding Fathers Investigate the life of Benjamin Franklin, a man very influential in the forming of the American nation. View information, pictures, and video: Benjamin Franklin Check out facts of the Revolutionary War and how it ...

  12. A scene adaptive hybrid video coding scheme based on the LOT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Chin Li; Tong-Hai Wu; Yung-Chang Chen

    1998-01-01

    Conventional standard video coding schemes based on independent coding of nonoverlapping image blocks produce undesirable effects (blocking effect and color bleeding, etc.) at low bit rate. A hybrid coding scheme evolving from the standard MPEG codec that combines lapped orthogonal transform (LOT) and overlapped block motion compensation and quantization approaches based on human visual system sensitivity is proposed to remove

  13. Coding of sources with unknown statistics--II: Distortion relative to a fidelity criterion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ziv

    1972-01-01

    The encoding of sources with unknown statistics is considered. The average distortion that is obtained with universal coding schemes that are independent of the source statistics is shown to be asymptotically identical to the smallest average distortion that can be achieved with the best individual coding scheme (i.e., a code that is based on the specific statistics of the source).

  14. Image Denoising by Sparse Code Shrinkage Aapo Hyv#rinen, Patrik Hoyer and Erkki Oja

    E-print Network

    Hyvärinen, Aapo

    Image Denoising by Sparse Code Shrinkage Aapo Hyv#rinen, Patrik Hoyer and Erkki Oja Neural Networks://www.cis.hut.fi/projects/ica/ November 15, 1999 Abstract Sparse coding is a method for ønding a representation of data in which each sparse coding can be used for image denoising. We model the noise­free image data by independent

  15. Azerbaijani-Russian Code-Switching and Code-Mixing: Form, Function, and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuercher, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    From incorporation into the Russian Empire in 1828, through the collapse of the U.S.S.R. in 1991 governmental language policies and other socio/political forces influenced the Turkic population of the Republic of Azerbaijan to speak Russian. Even with changes since independence Russian use--including various kinds of code-switching and…

  16. P-code enhanced method for processing encrypted GPS signals without knowledge of the encryption code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, Thomas K. (Inventor); Thomas, Jr., Jess Brooks (Inventor); Young, Lawrence E. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    In the preferred embodiment, an encrypted GPS signal is down-converted from RF to baseband to generate two quadrature components for each RF signal (L1 and L2). Separately and independently for each RF signal and each quadrature component, the four down-converted signals are counter-rotated with a respective model phase, correlated with a respective model P code, and then successively summed and dumped over presum intervals substantially coincident with chips of the respective encryption code. Without knowledge of the encryption-code signs, the effect of encryption-code sign flips is then substantially reduced by selected combinations of the resulting presums between associated quadrature components for each RF signal, separately and independently for the L1 and L2 signals. The resulting combined presums are then summed and dumped over longer intervals and further processed to extract amplitude, phase and delay for each RF signal. Precision of the resulting phase and delay values is approximately four times better than that obtained from straight cross-correlation of L1 and L2. This improved method provides the following options: separate and independent tracking of the L1-Y and L2-Y channels; separate and independent measurement of amplitude, phase and delay L1-Y channel; and removal of the half-cycle ambiguity in L1-Y and L2-Y carrier phase.

  17. Concatenated space-time block coding with trellis coded modulation using a delay processor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeong-luh Ueng; Yu-lung Wu; Ruey-yi Wei

    2007-01-01

    It is known that tail-biting codes T' constructed from trellis coded modulation (TCM) with a delay processor can achieve large minimum Euclidean distances. In this paper, concatenated space-time block coding (STBC) with T' for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and MIMO-OFDM (orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing) systems is investigated. We propose an improved system which is implemented by inserting a specific block interleaver between

  18. Independent regulatory agencies in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Thatcher

    Three aspects of the life of IRAs (Independent Regulatory Agencies) after delegation are examined: their independence from elected officials, their relationship with regulatees; their decision-making processes. The article suggests that IRAs enjoy considerable insulation from elected politicians in terms of party politicisation and tenure. The picture for relations between IRAs and business regulatees is more mixed: the two have been

  19. Vector spaces Linear independence & bases

    E-print Network

    Geuvers, Herman

    Vector spaces Linear independence & bases Linear maps Linear maps and matrices Radboud University Nijmegen Matrix Calculations: Vector Spaces and Linear Maps H. Geuvers Institute for Computing: fall 2014 Matrix Calculations 1 / 40 #12;Vector spaces Linear independence & bases Linear maps Linear

  20. DIALOGUE: providing total terminal independence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Vaskevitch

    1982-01-01

    A software tool, called DIALOGUE, makes application programs completely terminal-independent so that they can be used from both formatted screens and character mode terminals. The independence is achieved by providing programmers with a high-level record definition language for describing the data. This language isolates the programmer from the details of terminal interaction so they can be automatically handled in the

  1. Atomic modelling of crystal/complex fluid/crystal contacts--Part II. Simulating AFM tests via the GenMol code for investigating the impact of CO2

    E-print Network

    Luquot, Linda

    a,n , J. Dweik b , P. Jouanna b , P. Gouze b , M. Andreani c , L. Luquot b a CINaM UPR-CNRS 3118 5570--ENS Lyon--UCB Lyon 1, France a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 21 June 2010. Computer simulation A1. Interfaces B1. Mineral a b s t r a c t GenMolTM code is used to simulate Atomic

  2. Coding AuthentiCity

    E-print Network

    Mercier, Rachel Havens

    2008-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the impact of form-based codes, focusing on two research questions: (1) What is the underlying motivation for adopting a form-based code? (2) What motivations have the most significant impact on ...

  3. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  4. STEEP32 computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goerke, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    A manual is presented as an aid in using the STEEP32 code. The code is the EXEC 8 version of the STEEP code (STEEP is an acronym for shock two-dimensional Eulerian elastic plastic). The major steps in a STEEP32 run are illustrated in a sample problem. There is a detailed discussion of the internal organization of the code, including a description of each subroutine.

  5. Credible investigation of air accidents.

    PubMed

    Smart, K

    2004-07-26

    Within the United Kingdom the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) has been used as a model for the other transport modes accident investigation bodies. Government Ministers considered that the AAIB's approach had established the trust of the public and the aviation industry in its ability to conduct independent and objective investigations. The paper will examine the factors that are involved in establishing this trust. They include: the investigation framework; the actual and perceived independence of the accident investigating body; the aviation industry's safety culture; the qualities of the investigators and the quality of their liaison with bereaved families those directly affected by the accidents they investigate. PMID:15231355

  6. Codes of Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    Most schools have a code of conduct, pledge, or behavioral standards, set by the district or school board with the school community. In this article, the author features some schools that created a new vision of instilling code of conducts to students based on work quality, respect, safety and courtesy. She suggests that communicating the code

  7. Morse Code Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Janeen S.

    This activity packet offers simple directions for setting up a Morse Code system appropriate to interfacing with any of several personal computer systems. Worksheets are also included to facilitate teaching Morse Code to persons with visual or other disabilities including blindness, as it is argued that the code is best learned auditorily. (PB)

  8. Distributed detection and coding in information networks

    E-print Network

    Ho, Shan-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    This thesis investigates the distributed information and detection of a binary source through a parallel system of relays. Each relay observes the source output through a noisy channel, and the channel outputs are independent ...

  9. Rate 3/4 16-PSK phase codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. G.; Schottler, P. J.; Sleeper, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation is carried out of convolutional-coding coupled with 16-PSK modulation for bandwidth efficient transmission. Small memory codes (rate three-fourths) are found that are optimum in the free-distance sense on the Gaussian channel. These codes furnish up to 4.8 dB of coding gain with 32 states over uncoded 8-PSK, a scheme having the same spectral efficiency as the codes described. The performance is compared with the earlier findings of Ungerboeck (1976, 1982) and certain recent results on R = 2/3 coded 8-PSK. It is shown that with 4 decoder states the coding gain is 3.5 dB and with 32 states it is 4.8 dB. What is more, the codes compare favorably with coded 16-QASK when envelope variations and peak energy constraints are considered.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation and statistical analysis of genetic information coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, E.; Kurnaz, M. L.

    2005-11-01

    The rules that specify how the information contained in DNA codes amino acids, are called “the genetic code”. Using a simplified version of the Penna model, we are utilizing computer simulations to investigate the importance of the genetic code and the number of amino acids in Nature on population dynamics. We find that the genetic code is not a random pairing of codons to amino acids and the number of amino acids in Nature is an optimum under mutations.

  11. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the existing beam port configuration of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) was designed to test and validate the code package in its entirety, as well as its modules separately. The selected physics code, TORT, and the requisite data such as source distribution, cross-sections, and angular quadratures were comprehensively tested with these computational models. The modular feature and the parallel performance of the code package were also examined using these computational models. Another outcome of these computational models is to provide the necessary background information for determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The first mission of the code package was completed successfully by determining the optimal tank shape which was sought for the current beam tube configuration and two new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The performance of the new beam tube configurations and the current beam tube configuration were evaluated with the new optimal tank shapes determined by MOZAIK. Furthermore, the performance of the code package with the two different optimization strategies were analyzed showing that while GA is capable of achieving higher thermal beam intensity for a given beam tube setup, Min-max produces an optimal shape that is more amenable to machining and manufacturing. The optimal D2O moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK with the current beam port configuration improves the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam port exit end by 9.5%. Similarly, the new tangential beam port configuration (beam port near the core interface) with the optimal moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK improves the thermal neutron beam intensity by a factor of 1.4 compared to the existing beam port configuration (with the existing D2O moderator tank). Another new beam port configuration, radial beam tube configuration, with the optimal moderator tank shape increases the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit by a factor of 1.8. All these results

  12. Coding for Electronic Mail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  13. High-Speed Soft-Decision Decoding of Two Reed-Muller Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Uehara, Gregory T.

    1996-01-01

    In his research, we have proposed the (64, 40, 8) subcode of the third-order Reed-Muller (RM) code to NASA for high-speed satellite communications. This RM subcode can be used either alone or as an inner code of a concatenated coding system with the NASA standard (255, 233, 33) Reed-Solomon (RS) code as the outer code to achieve high performance (or low bit-error rate) with reduced decoding complexity. It can also be used as a component code in a multilevel bandwidth efficient coded modulation system to achieve reliable bandwidth efficient data transmission. This report will summarize the key progress we have made toward achieving our eventual goal of implementing a decoder system based upon this code. In the first phase of study, we investigated the complexities of various sectionalized trellis diagrams for the proposed (64, 40, 8) RNI subcode. We found a specific 8-trellis diagram for this code which requires the least decoding complexity with a high possibility of achieving a decoding speed of 600 M bits per second (Mbps). The combination of a large number of states and a hi ch data rate will be made possible due to the utilization of a high degree of parallelism throughout the architecture. This trellis diagram will be presented and briefly described. In the second phase of study which was carried out through the past year, we investigated circuit architectures to determine the feasibility of VLSI implementation of a high-speed Viterbi decoder based on this 8-section trellis diagram. We began to examine specific design and implementation approaches to implement a fully custom integrated circuit (IC) which will be a key building block for a decoder system implementation. The key results will be presented in this report. This report will be divided into three primary sections. First, we will briefly describe the system block diagram in which the proposed decoder is assumed to be operating and present some of the key architectural approaches being used to implement the system at high speed. Second, we will describe details of the 8-trellis diagram we found to best meet the trade-offs between chip and overall system complexity. The chosen approach implements the trellis for the (64, 40, 8) RM subcode with 32 independent sub-trellises. And third, we will describe results of our feasibility study on the implementation of such an IC chip in CMOS technology to implement one of these sub-trellises.

  14. High-Speed Soft-Decision Decoding of Two Reed-Muller Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Uehara, Gregory T.

    1996-01-01

    In this research, we have proposed the (64, 40, 8) subcode of the third-order Reed-Muller (RM) code to NASA for high-speed satellite communications. This RM subcode can be used either alone or as an inner code of a concatenated coding system with the NASA standard (255, 233, 33) Reed-Solomon (RS) code as the outer code to achieve high performance (or low bit-error rate) with reduced decoding complexity. It can also be used as a component code in a multilevel bandwidth efficient coded modulation system to achieve reliable bandwidth efficient data transmission. This report will summarize the key progress we have made toward achieving our eventual goal of implementing, a decoder system based upon this code. In the first phase of study, we investigated the complexities of various sectionalized trellis diagrams for the proposed (64, 40, 8) RM subcode. We found a specific 8-trellis diagram for this code which requires the least decoding complexity with a high possibility of achieving a decoding speed of 600 M bits per second (Mbps). The combination of a large number of states and a high data rate will be made possible due to the utilization of a high degree of parallelism throughout the architecture. This trellis diagram will be presented and briefly described. In the second phase of study, which was carried out through the past year, we investigated circuit architectures to determine the feasibility of VLSI implementation of a high-speed Viterbi decoder based on this 8-section trellis diagram. We began to examine specific design and implementation approaches to implement a fully custom integrated circuit (IC) which will be a key building block for a decoder system implementation. The key results will be presented in this report. This report will be divided into three primary sections. First, we will briefly describe the system block diagram in which the proposed decoder is assumed to be operating, and present some of the key architectural approaches being used to implement the system at high speed. Second, we will describe details of the 8-trellis diagram we found to best meet the trade-offs between chip and overall system complexity. The chosen approach implements the trellis for the (64, 40, 8) RM subcode with 32 independent sub-trellises. And third, we will describe results of our feasibility study on the implementation of such an IC chip in CMOS technology to implement one of these sub-trellises.

  15. Serially Concatenated IRA Codes

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Taikun; Belzer, Benjamin J

    2007-01-01

    We address the error floor problem of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes on the binary-input additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, by constructing a serially concatenated code consisting of two systematic irregular repeat accumulate (IRA) component codes connected by an interleaver. The interleaver is designed to prevent stopping-set error events in one of the IRA codes from propagating into stopping set events of the other code. Simulations with two 128-bit rate 0.707 IRA component codes show that the proposed architecture achieves a much lower error floor at higher SNRs, compared to a 16384-bit rate 1/2 IRA code, but incurs an SNR penalty of about 2 dB at low to medium SNRs. Experiments indicate that the SNR penalty can be reduced at larger blocklengths.

  16. Multi-level bandwidth efficient block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1989-01-01

    The multilevel technique is investigated for combining block coding and modulation. There are four parts. In the first part, a formulation is presented for signal sets on which modulation codes are to be constructed. Distance measures on a signal set are defined and their properties are developed. In the second part, a general formulation is presented for multilevel modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate Euclidean distances. The distance properties, Euclidean weight distribution and linear structure of multilevel modulation codes are investigated. In the third part, several specific methods for constructing multilevel block modulation codes with interdependency among component codes are proposed. Given a multilevel block modulation code C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed methods give a multilevel block modulation code C which has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of code C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C and a smaller number of nearest neighbor codewords than that of C. In the last part, error performance of block modulation codes is analyzed for an AWGN channel based on soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding. Error probabilities of some specific codes are evaluated based on their Euclidean weight distributions and simulation results.

  17. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  18. Code Clone Analysis Using a Code Clone Analysis Tool Gemini

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiki HIGO; Shinji KUSUMOTO; Katsuro INOUE

    Abstract Recently, code clone has been regarded as one of factors that make software maintenance more difficult. A code clone is a code fragment in a source code that is identical or similar to another. For example, if we modify a code fragment which has code clones, it is necessary to consider whether we have to modify each of its

  19. CodeBricks: code fragments as building blocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Attardi; Antonio Cisternino; Andrew Kennedy

    2003-01-01

    We present a framework for code generation that allows programs to manipulate and generate code at the source level while the joining and splicing of executable code is carried out automatically at the intermediate code\\/VM level. The framework introduces a data type Code to represent code fragments: methods\\/operators from this class are used to reify a method from a class,

  20. Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1

    E-print Network

    Paxson, Vern

    #12;#12;Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1 Code Red 2 settles into weekly pattern Nimda enters the ecosystem Code Red 2 dies off as programmed CR 1 returns thanks to bad clocks #12;Code Red 2 dies off as programmed Nimda hums along, slowly cleaned up With its predator gone, Code Red 1 comes back, still

  1. Quasi-Cyclic Asymptotically Regular LDPC Codes

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, David G M; Lentmaier, Michael; Costello, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    Families of "asymptotically regular" LDPC block code ensembles can be formed by terminating (J,K)-regular protograph-based LDPC convolutional codes. By varying the termination length, we obtain a large selection of LDPC block code ensembles with varying code rates, minimum distance that grows linearly with block length, and capacity approaching iterative decoding thresholds, despite the fact that the terminated ensembles are almost regular. In this paper, we investigate the properties of the quasi-cyclic (QC) members of such an ensemble. We show that an upper bound on the minimum Hamming distance of members of the QC sub-ensemble can be improved by careful choice of the component protographs used in the code construction. Further, we show that the upper bound on the minimum distance can be improved by using arrays of circulants in a graph cover of the protograph.

  2. Compound Independent and Dependent Events

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Compare the theoretical and experimental probability of a compound independent event by drawing colored marbles from a bag. Record the results of successive draws with or without replacement of marbles to calculate the experimental probability.

  3. Independence of Depersonalization-Derealization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleiss, Joseph L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article presents data on a measure of depersonalization and derealization which are germane to the hypothesized independence of this syndrome from diagnosis and other factors of psychopathology. (Author)

  4. The Salish Independent Pronoun System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Stanley

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes Salish independent pronouns and attempts to reconstruct the Proto-Salish forms as well as to trace the history of the innovative changes that have taken place in the daughter languages. (Author/NCR)

  5. Technology for Independent Living: Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Alexandra, Ed.

    This sourcebook provides information for the practical implementation of independent living technology in the everyday rehabilitation process. "Information Services and Resources" lists databases, clearinghouses, networks, research and development programs, toll-free telephone numbers, consumer protection caveats, selected publications, and…

  6. Experimental interference of independent photons

    E-print Network

    Rainer Kaltenbaek; Bibiane Blauensteiner; Marek Zukowski; Markus Aspelmeyer; Anton Zeilinger

    2006-04-04

    Interference of photons emerging from independent sources is essential for modern quantum information processing schemes, above all quantum repeaters and linear-optics quantum computers. We report an observation of non-classical interference of two single photons originating from two independent, separated sources, which were actively synchronized with an r.m.s. timing jitter of 260 fs. The resulting (two-photon) interference visibility was 83(+/-)4 %.

  7. Stochastic Methods for Dynamic OVSF Code Assignment in 3G Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Karakoç; Adnan Kavak

    2007-01-01

    Orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) codes are widely used to provide variable data rates for supporting different\\u000a bandwidth requirements in wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) systems. Many works in the literature have intensively\\u000a investigated to find an optimal dynamic code assignment scheme for OVSF codes. Unlike earlier studies, which assign OVSF codes\\u000a using conventional (CCA) or dynamic (DCA) code

  8. Population coding of affect across stimuli, modalities and individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chikazoe, Junichi; Lee, Daniel H.; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Anderson, Adam K.

    2014-01-01

    It remains unclear how the brain represents external objective sensory events alongside our internal subjective impressions of them—affect. Representational mapping of population level activity evoked by complex scenes and basic tastes uncovered a neural code supporting a continuous axis of pleasant-to-unpleasant valence. This valence code was distinct from low-level physical and high-level object properties. While ventral temporal and anterior insular cortices supported valence codes specific to vision and taste, both the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices (OFC), maintained a valence code independent of sensory origin. Further only the OFC code could classify experienced affect across participants. The entire valence spectrum is represented as a collective pattern in regional neural activity as sensory-specific and abstract codes, whereby the subjective quality of affect can be objectively quantified across stimuli, modalities, and people. PMID:24952643

  9. PLUTO: a Numerical Code for Computational Astrophysics

    E-print Network

    A. Mignone; G. Bodo; S. Massaglia; T. Matsakos; O. Tesileanu; C. Zanni; A. Ferrari

    2007-03-12

    We present a new numerical code, PLUTO, for the solution of hypersonic flows in 1, 2 and 3 spatial dimensions and different systems of coordinates. The code provides a multi-physics, multi-algorithm modular environment particularly oriented towards the treatment of astrophysical flows in presence of discontinuities. Different hydrodynamic modules and algorithms may be independently selected to properly describe Newtonian, relativistic, MHD or relativistic MHD fluids. The modular structure exploits a general framework for integrating a system of conservation laws, built on modern Godunov-type shock-capturing schemes. Although a plethora of numerical methods has been successfully developed over the past two decades, the vast majority shares a common discretization recipe, involving three general steps: a piecewise polynomial reconstruction followed by the solution of Riemann problems at zone interfaces and a final evolution stage. We have checked and validated the code against several benchmarks available in literature. Test problems in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions are discussed.

  10. Trellis coding with multidimensional QAM signal sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietrobon, Steven S.; Costello, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Trellis coding using multidimensional QAM signal sets is investigated. Finite-size 2D signal sets are presented that have minimum average energy, are 90-deg rotationally symmetric, and have from 16 to 1024 points. The best trellis codes using the finite 16-QAM signal set with two, four, six, and eight dimensions are found by computer search (the multidimensional signal set is constructed from the 2D signal set). The best moderate complexity trellis codes for infinite lattices with two, four, six, and eight dimensions are also found. The minimum free squared Euclidean distance and number of nearest neighbors for these codes were used as the selection criteria. Many of the multidimensional codes are fully rotationally invariant and give asymptotic coding gains up to 6.0 dB. From the infinite lattice codes, the best codes for transmitting J, J + 1/4, J + 1/3, J + 1/2, J + 2/3, and J + 3/4 bit/sym (J an integer) are presented.

  11. The Sign Rule and Beyond: Boundary Effects, Flexibility, and Noise Correlations in Neural Population Codes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu; Zylberberg, Joel; Shea-Brown, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Over repeat presentations of the same stimulus, sensory neurons show variable responses. This “noise” is typically correlated between pairs of cells, and a question with rich history in neuroscience is how these noise correlations impact the population's ability to encode the stimulus. Here, we consider a very general setting for population coding, investigating how information varies as a function of noise correlations, with all other aspects of the problem – neural tuning curves, etc. – held fixed. This work yields unifying insights into the role of noise correlations. These are summarized in the form of theorems, and illustrated with numerical examples involving neurons with diverse tuning curves. Our main contributions are as follows. (1) We generalize previous results to prove a sign rule (SR) — if noise correlations between pairs of neurons have opposite signs vs. their signal correlations, then coding performance will improve compared to the independent case. This holds for three different metrics of coding performance, and for arbitrary tuning curves and levels of heterogeneity. This generality is true for our other results as well. (2) As also pointed out in the literature, the SR does not provide a necessary condition for good coding. We show that a diverse set of correlation structures can improve coding. Many of these violate the SR, as do experimentally observed correlations. There is structure to this diversity: we prove that the optimal correlation structures must lie on boundaries of the possible set of noise correlations. (3) We provide a novel set of necessary and sufficient conditions, under which the coding performance (in the presence of noise) will be as good as it would be if there were no noise present at all. PMID:24586128

  12. Multiple trellis coded frequency and phase modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shalini S. Periyalwar; Solomon M. Fleisher

    1992-01-01

    Multiple trellis coded modulation of constant envelope frequency and phase modulated signal sets (MTCM\\/FPM) is investigated for performance on the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel and on the one-sided normal, Rayleigh and Rician fading channels. The Nakagami- m fading model is used as an alternative to the Rician fading model to calculate the error probability upper bound for trellis-coded

  13. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Dalton, Larry J. (Bernalillo, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  14. A Uniform Bibliographic Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Helou, G.; Lague, C.; Madore, B.; Corwin, G. G., Jr.; Dubois, P.; Lesteven, S.

    The uniform 19-digit code used for bibliographic references within NED and SIMBAD was developed by both teams in consultation with Dr. H. Abt, editor of the Astrophysical Journal. The primary purpose of the "REF-CODE" is to provide a unique and traceable representation of a bibliographic reference within the structure of each database. However, in many cases, the code has sufficient information to be quickly deciphered by eye, and it is used frequently in the interfaces as a succinct abbreviation of a full bibliographic reference. Since its inception, it has become a standard code not only for NED and SIMBAD, but - with minor variations - for ADS and other bibliographic services. The format of the standard code is as follows: YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPFA. For example: 1994A&AS..108. .235J would be how the paper by Jackson, et al. 1994, A&AS, 108,235 would be coded. A description of the different fields will be given.

  15. Qudit Colour Codes and Gauge Colour Codes in All Spatial Dimensions

    E-print Network

    Fern H. E. Watson; Earl T. Campbell; Hussain Anwar; Dan E. Browne

    2015-03-30

    Two-level quantum systems, qubits, are not the only basis for quantum computation. Advantages exist in using qudits, d-level quantum systems, as the basic carrier of quantum information. We show that colour codes---a class of topological quantum codes with remarkable transversality properties---can be generalised to the qudit paradigm. In recent developments it was found that in three spatial dimensions a qubit colour code can support a transversal non-Clifford gate, and that in higher spatial dimensions additional non-Clifford gates can be found, saturating Bravyi and K\\"onig's bound [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170503 (2013)]. Furthermore, by using gauge fixing techniques, an effective set of Clifford gates can be achieved, removing the need for state distillation. We show that the qudit colour code can support the qudit analogues of these gates, and show that in higher spatial dimensions a colour code can support a phase gate from higher levels of the Clifford hierarchy which can be proven to saturate Bravyi and K\\"onig's bound in all but a finite number of special cases. The methodology used is a generalisation of Bravyi and Haah's method of triorthogonal matrices [Phys. Rev. A 86 052329 (2012)], which may be of independent interest. For completeness, we show explicitly that the qudit colour codes generalise to gauge colour codes, and share the many of the favourable properties of their qubit counterparts.

  16. The Gli code

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz i Altaba, Ariel; Mas, Christophe; Stecca, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The Gli code hypothesis postulates that the three vertebrate Gli transcription factors act together in responding cells to integrate intercellular Hedgehog (Hh) and other signaling inputs, resulting in the regulation of tissue pattern, size and shape. Hh and other inputs are then just ways to modify the Gli code. Recent data confirm this idea and suggest that the Gli code regulates stemness and also tumor progression and metastatic growth, opening exciting possibilities for both regenerative medicine and novel anticancer therapies. PMID:17845852

  17. Scalable Hyperspectral Image Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoli Tang; William A. Pearlman

    2005-01-01

    Here we propose scalable Three-Dimensional Set Partitioned Embedded bloCK (3D-SPECK)–an embedded, block-based, wavelet transform coding algorithm of low complexity for hyperspectral image compression. Scalable 3D-SPECK supports both SNR and resolution progressive coding. After wavelet transform, 3D-SPECK treats each subband as a coding block. To generate SNR scalable bitstream, the stream is organized so that the same indexed bit planes are

  18. Building Codes and Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cohan, David

    This brief document from David Cohan includes some information on building codes and standards. The purpose of building codes and standards is defined, and how they relate to energy and sustainability topics is also explored. This document would be useful for instructors looking for some notes on how to incorporate building codes and standards into their class work, or for students looking to learn more about the topic. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  19. Concatenated codes based on multidimensional parity-check codes and turbo codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Shea; Tan F. Wong

    2001-01-01

    Turbo-codes provide communications near capacity when very large interleavers (and thus codeword lengths) are used. However, many military communication systems require packet lengths that are too short to exploit the full capability of these codes. We have previously shown that a rectangular parity-check code can be used as an outer code with a turbo code as an inner code in

  20. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  1. Half-Product Codes

    E-print Network

    Emmadi, Santosh Kumar

    2014-12-11

    of product codes,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 54, pp. 1551–1560, April 2008. [4] H. Burton and J. Weldon, E., “Cyclic product codes,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 11, pp. 433–439, Jul 1965. [5] N. Abramson, “Cascade... are greater than 0.9 [2]. These codes can be found used in the CD standard IEC-908, the CD-ROM standard ECMA-130, and in the DVD standard [3]. Product codes are useful for a variety of reasons including their burst-error cor- recting capabilities [4...

  2. Graph Concatenation for Quantum Codes

    E-print Network

    Salman Beigi; Isaac Chuang; Markus Grassl; Peter Shor; Bei Zeng

    2010-02-03

    Graphs are closely related to quantum error-correcting codes: every stabilizer code is locally equivalent to a graph code, and every codeword stabilized code can be described by a graph and a classical code. For the construction of good quantum codes of relatively large block length, concatenated quantum codes and their generalizations play an important role. We develop a systematic method for constructing concatenated quantum codes based on "graph concatenation", where graphs representing the inner and outer codes are concatenated via a simple graph operation called "generalized local complementation." Our method applies to both binary and non-binary concatenated quantum codes as well as their generalizations.

  3. New opportunities seen for independents

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, G.A. (Wolverine Exploration Co., Fort Worth, TX (US))

    1990-10-22

    The collapse of gas and oil prices in the mid-1980s significantly reduced the number of independent exploration companies. At the same time, a fundamental shift occurred among major oil companies as they allocated their exploration budgets toward international operations and made major production purchases. Several large independents also embraced a philosophy of budget supplementation through joint venture partnership arrangements. This has created a unique and unusual window of opportunity for the smaller independents (defined for this article as exploration and production companies with a market value of less than $1 billion) to access the extensive and high quality domestic prospect inventories of the major and large independent oil and gas companies and to participate in the search for large reserve targets on attractive joint venture terms. Participation in these types of joint ventures, in conjunction with internally generated plays selected through the use of today's advanced technology (computer-enhanced, high-resolution seismic; horizontal drilling; etc.) and increasing process for oil and natural gas, presents the domestic exploration-oriented independent with an attractive money-making opportunity for the 1990s.

  4. Experimental measurement-device-independent entanglement detection.

    PubMed

    Nawareg, Mohamed; Muhammad, Sadiq; Amselem, Elias; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is one of the most puzzling features of quantum theory and of great importance for the new field of quantum information. The determination whether a given state is entangled or not is one of the most challenging open problems of the field. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of measurement-device-independent (MDI) entanglement detection using witness method for general two qubits photon polarization systems. In the MDI settings, there is no requirement to assume perfect implementations or neither to trust the measurement devices. This experimental demonstration can be generalized for the investigation of properties of quantum systems and for the realization of cryptography and communication protocols. PMID:25649664

  5. Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Entanglement Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawareg, Mohamed; Muhammad, Sadiq; Amselem, Elias; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Entanglement is one of the most puzzling features of quantum theory and of great importance for the new field of quantum information. The determination whether a given state is entangled or not is one of the most challenging open problems of the field. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of measurement-device-independent (MDI) entanglement detection using witness method for general two qubits photon polarization systems. In the MDI settings, there is no requirement to assume perfect implementations or neither to trust the measurement devices. This experimental demonstration can be generalized for the investigation of properties of quantum systems and for the realization of cryptography and communication protocols.

  6. Model-independent WIMP Characterisation using ISR

    E-print Network

    Christoph Bartels; Olaf Kittel; Ulrich Langenfeld; Jenny List

    2012-03-01

    The prospects of measuring the parameters of WIMP dark matter in a model independent way at the International Linear Collider are investigated. The signal under study is direct WIMP pair production with associated initial state radiation. The analysis is performed in full simulation of the ILD detector concept. With an integrated luminosity of L = 500 fb-1 and realistic beam polarizations the helicity structure of the WIMP couplings to electrons can be determined, and the masses and cross sections can be measured to the percent level. The systematic uncertainties are dominated by the polarization measurement and the luminosity spectrum.

  7. Axisymmetric generalized harmonic evolution code

    SciTech Connect

    Sorkin, Evgeny [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476, Golm (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    We describe the first axisymmetric numerical code based on the generalized harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations, which is regular at the axis. We test the code by investigating gravitational collapse of distributions of complex scalar field in a Kaluza-Klein spacetime. One of the key issues of the harmonic formulation is the choice of the gauge source functions, and we conclude that a damped-wave gauge is remarkably robust in this case. Our preliminary study indicates that evolution of regular initial data leads to formation both of black holes with spherical and cylindrical horizon topologies. Intriguingly, we find evidence that near threshold for black hole formation the number of outcomes proliferates. Specifically, the collapsing matter splits into individual pulses, two of which travel in the opposite directions along the compact dimension and one which is ejected radially from the axis. Depending on the initial conditions, a curvature singularity develops inside the pulses.

  8. Leveraging Legacy Code to Deploy Desktop Applications on the Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Douceur; Jeremy Elson; Jon Howell; Jacob R. Lorch

    2008-01-01

    Xax is a browser plugin model that enables developers to leverage existing tools, libraries, and entire programs to deliver feature-rich applications on the web. Xax em- ploys a novel combination of mechanisms that collec- tively provide security, OS-independence, performance, and support for legacy code. These mechanisms include memory-isolated native code execution behind a narrow syscall interface, an abstraction layer that

  9. Towards Maintenance Support for Idiom-based Code Using Sequential Pattern Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuya Miyake; Takashi Ishio; Koji Taniguchi; Katsuro Inoue

    Developers often use an idiom to implement a con- cern. When a fault is found in an idiom, developers have to find all source code fragments derived from the origi- nal. While code-clone detection tools can detect copy-and- pasted code, such tools cannot detect code fragments mod- ified after pasted. We are investigating a sequential pattern mining approach to capture

  10. On the impact of erasure coding parameters to the reliability of distributed brick storage systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangyu Luo; Yun Wang; Zhuowei Shen

    2009-01-01

    For a given amount of storage overhead, erasure coding offers a higher degree of survivability than pure replication. Consequently, erasure coding attracts much attention these years in the research area of reliable distributed storage systems. Although numerous erasure codes have been put forward, how to choose erasure coding parameters to maximize system reliability has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Erasure

  11. Independent safety evaluation of the enriched uranium oxide test UO-1

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1989-11-01

    The UO-1 test is designed to provide information on the performance of D9 clad, enriched uranium oxide fuel in FFTF. The Series IV FFTF driver fuel will utilize enriched uranium oxide fuel with D9 cladding. Irradiation data are needed for computer code calibration to support the FSAR analysis effort for the series IV fuel. The UO-1 assembly consists of a 217-pin bundle with the same pin and duct dimensions as a standard driver fuel assembly. The test consists of seven UO{sub 2} pins, 30 mixed oxide test pins, and 180 driver type pins. The test will be irradiated for approximately 250 EFPD. An Independent Safety Evaluation (ISE) of the test has been conducted. Information has been taken from the Test Design Documents, but independent calculations have been made of the safety-related parameters. The scope includes all items specified in the Users` Guide for Irradiation of Experiments in the FTR. Areas investigated include Technical Specification Compliance, Steady State Operation, Transient Operation, Failure Consequences, Stress and Seismic, HCDA, and Test Handling and Criticality Considerations.

  12. List of codes Language abbreviation codes

    E-print Network

    Ireland EE Estonia SK Slovakia DK Denmark LI Liechtenstein HU Hungary SI Slovenia ES Spain LU Luxembourg codes A Austria IR L Ireland BG Bulgaria LV Latvia B Belgium IS Iceland CY Cyprus MT Malta D Germany L RaphaelC2000 Culture 2000 FPR D Framework Programme Research.and Development. SOC SOCRATES CONN Connect

  13. Soil, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within an existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and requires minimal teacher preparation. The philosophy of the series is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages self-paced independent student work. This particular unit investigates soil in relation to…

  14. Coding with side information 

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Szeming

    2005-11-01

    the design problem into the two cases when the distortion of the reconstructed source is zero and when it is not. We review that the ?rst case, which is commonly called Slepian-Wolf coding (SWC), can be implemented using conventional channel coding...

  15. Reversible variable length codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Takishima; M. Wada; H. Murakami

    1995-01-01

    Proposes some reversible variable length codes (RVLCs) which can be decoded instantaneously both in the forward and backward directions and have high transmission efficiency. These codes can be used, for example, in the backward reconstruction of video signals from the data last received when some signal is lost midway in the transmission. Schemes for a symmetrical RVLC requiring only a

  16. Minor Codes Accounting 1100

    E-print Network

    Bolding, M. Chad

    Pathology 6300 Political Science 6400 Psychology 6700 Public Policy 6408 Minor Name Code Minor Name Code #12 Animal and Veterinary Sciences 2125 Anthropology 1970 Architecture 4010 Art 4020 Athletic Leadership 2420 Biochemistry 2150 Biological Sciences 2200 Business Administration 2510 Chemistry 2750 Cluster (Engineering

  17. An independent component analysis based tool for exploring functional connections in the brain

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    An independent component analysis based tool for exploring functional connections in the brain S. M for investigating functional connectivity in the brain. Independent component analysis (ICA) is used as a measure of voxel similarity which allows the user to find and view statistically independent maps of correlated

  18. 38 CFR 21.76 - Independent living.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Independent living. 21.76 Section 21.76 Pensions...Rehabilitation Programs § 21.76 Independent living. (a) General. A program of independent living services may be authorized to enable...

  19. 38 CFR 21.76 - Independent living.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Independent living. 21.76 Section 21.76 Pensions...Rehabilitation Programs § 21.76 Independent living. (a) General. A program of independent living services may be authorized to enable...

  20. Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; DuPrie, K.; Berriman, B.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J.; Teuben, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

  1. Serial Code Optimization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This guide presents the main features of serial optimisation for computationally intensive codes with a focus on the HECToR computing resources. From a user point of view, two main avenues can be followed when trying to optimise an application. One type of optimisations DO NOT involve modifying the source code (modification may not be desirable); optimisation consists of searching for the best compiler, set of flags and libraries. Another type of optimisations DO involve modifying the source code; in the first instance the programmer must evaluate if a new algorithm is necessary, followed by writing or rewriting optimised code. According to the these choices this guide presents optimisation as a problem of compiler and library selection, followed by a presentation of the key factors that must be considered when writing numerically intensive code.

  2. Independent Study Project, Topic: Topology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notre Dame High School, Easton, PA.

    Using this guide and the four popular books noted in it, a student, working independently, will learn about some of the classical ideas and problems of topology: the Meobius strip and Klein bottle, the four color problem, genus of a surface, networks, Euler's formula, and the Jordan Curve Theorem. The unit culminates in a project of the students'…

  3. Haptic Tracking Permits Bimanual Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Dawson, Amanda A.; Challis, John H.

    2006-01-01

    This study shows that in a novel task--bimanual haptic tracking--neurologically normal human adults can move their 2 hands independently for extended periods of time with little or no training. Participants lightly touched buttons whose positions were moved either quasi-randomly in the horizontal plane by 1 or 2 human drivers (Experiment 1), in…

  4. IEAB Independent Economic Analysis Board

    E-print Network

    Cases of Production and Harvest Management Policies in the Columbia River Basin Table 3b: Estimated Commercial Salmon Fishery, Harvest Volume Below Bonneville in 1987 to 2004 Figure 4b: Columbia River Effects From Columbia River Basin Anadromous Salmonid Fish Production Independent Economic Analysis Board

  5. IEAB Independent Economic Analysis Board

    E-print Network

    IEAB Independent Economic Analysis Board Daniel D. Huppert, Chair Lon L. Peters, Vice-Chair Joel R. Hamilton Kenneth L. Casavant Noelwah R. Netusil Roger Mann Susan S. Hanna Hans Radtke MEMORANDUM January 6, 2003 To: Lee Hillwig United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service From

  6. Auditor independence: an international perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rocco R. Vanasco

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role of professional associations, governmental agencies, and international accounting and auditing bodies in promulgating standards to foster auditor independence domestically and abroad. Focuses specifically on the role played by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), the Securities and Exchange Commission and the US Government Accounting Office. Also looks at other professional

  7. Toward Third World oil independence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanzer

    1980-01-01

    This is an interview with Michael Tanzer, an oil economist and independent consultant on petroleum production and economic development. Mr. Tanzer discussed the role of non-OPEC developing countries in the world oil industry. In most of the developing countries there is a serious lack of capital for drilling and exploration. Multinational corporations not only have tremendous overall assets and capital

  8. Transformation of the Independent Variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. P. Box; Paul W. Tidwell

    1962-01-01

    In representing a realationship between a response and a number of independent variables, it is preferable when possible to work with a simple functional form in transformed variables rather than with a more complicated form in the original variables. This paper describes and illustrates a procedure to estimate appropriate transformations in this context.

  9. Employee and independent contractor relationships.

    PubMed

    Wren, K R; Wren, T L; Monti, E J; Turco, S J

    1999-05-01

    Most practitioners find themselves at a disadvantage in dealing with business issues and relationships. As health care continues to change, knowledge of contracts and business relationships will help CRNA practitioners navigate new as well as traditional practice settings. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of two business relationships: employee and independent contractor. PMID:10504911

  10. 20122013 Verification Worksheet Independent Student

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    Student's Family Information List below the people in your household; please include: Yourself. Your if they do not live with you. Other people if they now live with you and you provide more than half: _________________________________________________ SSN: _______________________ C. Independent Student Information to Be Verified: · Do you or your

  11. 20122013 Verification Worksheet Independent Student

    E-print Network

    Lahav, Galit

    Student's Family Information List below the people in your household. Include: Yourself. Your spouse if they do not live with you. Other people if they now live with you and you provide more than half: ______________________________________________ SSN: __________________________ C. Independent Student's Income Information to Be Verified 1.TAX

  12. Boston: Cradle of American Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2005 American Association of Community Colleges Annual Convention will be held April 6-9 in Boston. While thoroughly modern, the iconic city's identity is firmly rooted in the past. As the cradle of American independence, Boston's long history is an integral part of the American fabric. Adams, Revere, Hancock are more than historical figures;…

  13. Identifying personal microbiomes using metagenomic codes.

    PubMed

    Franzosa, Eric A; Huang, Katherine; Meadow, James F; Gevers, Dirk; Lemon, Katherine P; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2015-06-01

    Community composition within the human microbiome varies across individuals, but it remains unknown if this variation is sufficient to uniquely identify individuals within large populations or stable enough to identify them over time. We investigated this by developing a hitting set-based coding algorithm and applying it to the Human Microbiome Project population. Our approach defined body site-specific metagenomic codes: sets of microbial taxa or genes prioritized to uniquely and stably identify individuals. Codes capturing strain variation in clade-specific marker genes were able to distinguish among 100s of individuals at an initial sampling time point. In comparisons with follow-up samples collected 30-300 d later, ?30% of individuals could still be uniquely pinpointed using metagenomic codes from a typical body site; coincidental (false positive) matches were rare. Codes based on the gut microbiome were exceptionally stable and pinpointed >80% of individuals. The failure of a code to match its owner at a later time point was largely explained by the loss of specific microbial strains (at current limits of detection) and was only weakly associated with the length of the sampling interval. In addition to highlighting patterns of temporal variation in the ecology of the human microbiome, this work demonstrates the feasibility of microbiome-based identifiability-a result with important ethical implications for microbiome study design. The datasets and code used in this work are available for download from huttenhower.sph.harvard.edu/idability. PMID:25964341

  14. Scalable L-infinite coding of meshes.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Adrian; Cernea, Dan C; Alecu, Alin; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the novel concept of local-error control in mesh geometry encoding. In contrast to traditional mesh-coding systems that use the mean-square error as target distortion metric, this paper proposes a new L-infinite mesh-coding approach, for which the target distortion metric is the L-infinite distortion. In this context, a novel wavelet-based L-infinite-constrained coding approach for meshes is proposed, which ensures that the maximum error between the vertex positions in the original and decoded meshes is lower than a given upper bound. Furthermore, the proposed system achieves scalability in L-infinite sense, that is, any decoding of the input stream will correspond to a perfectly predictable L-infinite distortion upper bound. An instantiation of the proposed L-infinite-coding approach is demonstrated for MESHGRID, which is a scalable 3D object encoding system, part of MPEG-4 AFX. In this context, the advantages of scalable L-infinite coding over L-2-oriented coding are experimentally demonstrated. One concludes that the proposed L-infinite mesh-coding approach guarantees an upper bound on the local error in the decoded mesh, it enables a fast real-time implementation of the rate allocation, and it preserves all the scalability features and animation capabilities of the employed scalable mesh codec. PMID:20224144

  15. Material-Independent and Size-Independent Tractor Beams for Dipole Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-07-01

    A Bessel beam without an axial gradient can exert a pulling force on an object [A. Novitsky, C. W. Qiu, and H. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203601 (2011)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.203601]. However, it cannot be called a “tractor beam” per se, as long as the light pulling effect is ultrasensitive to the object’s material and size, a perturbation of which will make the optical traction go away. In this Letter, we investigate and report on the universality for a Bessel beam to be either a material-independent or size-independent optical tractor beam within the dipolar regime. Moreover, a general condition for a nonparaxial laser to be simultaneously a material- and size-independent tractor beam is proposed. These universal pulling effects and conditions are discussed in association with insight on modified far-field scattering, scattering resonances, and induced polarizabilities. Interestingly, we find that the acoustic pulling force exhibits only size independence, owing to the acoustic scattering theory in contrast to the light scattering counterpart. The findings pave the way for the realistic engineering and application of universal tractor beams pulling a wide variety of objects.

  16. Material-independent and size-independent tractor beams for dipole objects.

    PubMed

    Novitsky, Andrey; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-07-13

    A Bessel beam without an axial gradient can exert a pulling force on an object [A. Novitsky, C.?W. Qiu, and H. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203601 (2011)]. However, it cannot be called a "tractor beam" per se, as long as the light pulling effect is ultrasensitive to the object's material and size, a perturbation of which will make the optical traction go away. In this Letter, we investigate and report on the universality for a Bessel beam to be either a material-independent or size-independent optical tractor beam within the dipolar regime. Moreover, a general condition for a nonparaxial laser to be simultaneously a material- and size-independent tractor beam is proposed. These universal pulling effects and conditions are discussed in association with insight on modified far-field scattering, scattering resonances, and induced polarizabilities. Interestingly, we find that the acoustic pulling force exhibits only size independence, owing to the acoustic scattering theory in contrast to the light scattering counterpart. The findings pave the way for the realistic engineering and application of universal tractor beams pulling a wide variety of objects. PMID:23030161

  17. Concatenated coding in the presence of dephasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourlay, Iain; Snowdon, John F.

    2000-08-01

    We investigate the use of concatenated coding to protect against dephasing in the absence of other types of error in order to carry out large quantum computations. This analysis is based on a well-known three-bit quantum code. Fault tolerant methods for carrying out gate operations, ancilla preparation, and syndrome identification are discussed and the maximum (or threshold) error rate which can be tolerated (if quantum coherence is to be maintained for arbitrarily long computations) is estimated. The methods for performing fault tolerant gate operations are compared to the methods appropriate for the seven-bit code and it is concluded that the three-bit code is not likely to be useful for large-scale quantum computation.

  18. System verification and validation report for the TMAD code

    SciTech Connect

    Finfrock, S.H.

    1995-10-06

    This document serves as the Verification and Validation Report for the TMAD code system, which includes the TMAD code and the LIBMAKR Code. The TMAD code was commissioned to facilitate the interpretation of moisture probe measurements in the Hanford Site waste tanks. In principle, the code is an interpolation routine that acts over a library of benchmark data based on two independent variables, typically anomaly size and moisture content. Two additional variables, anomaly type and detector type, can also be considered independent variables, but no interpolation is done over them. The dependent variable is detector response. The intent is to provide the code with measured detector responses from two or more detectors. The code will then interrogate (and interpolate upon) the benchmark data library and find the anomaly-type/anomaly-size/moisture-content combination that provides the closest match to the measured data. The primary purpose of this document is to provide the results of the system testing and the conclusions based thereon. The results of the testing process are documented in the body of the report. Appendix A gives the test plan, including test procedures, used in conducting the tests. Appendix B lists the input data required to conduct the tests, and Appendices C and 0 list the numerical results of the tests.

  19. Independent evolution of four heme peroxidase superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Zámocký, Marcel; Hofbauer, Stefan; Schaffner, Irene; Gasselhuber, Bernhard; Nicolussi, Andrea; Soudi, Monika; Pirker, Katharina F; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian

    2015-05-15

    Four heme peroxidase superfamilies (peroxidase-catalase, peroxidase-cyclooxygenase, peroxidase-chlorite dismutase and peroxidase-peroxygenase superfamily) arose independently during evolution, which differ in overall fold, active site architecture and enzymatic activities. The redox cofactor is heme b or posttranslationally modified heme that is ligated by either histidine or cysteine. Heme peroxidases are found in all kingdoms of life and typically catalyze the one- and two-electron oxidation of a myriad of organic and inorganic substrates. In addition to this peroxidatic activity distinct (sub)families show pronounced catalase, cyclooxygenase, chlorite dismutase or peroxygenase activities. Here we describe the phylogeny of these four superfamilies and present the most important sequence signatures and active site architectures. The classification of families is described as well as important turning points in evolution. We show that at least three heme peroxidase superfamilies have ancient prokaryotic roots with several alternative ways of divergent evolution. In later evolutionary steps, they almost always produced highly evolved and specialized clades of peroxidases in eukaryotic kingdoms with a significant portion of such genes involved in coding various fusion proteins with novel physiological functions. PMID:25575902

  20. Banner Index Codes The Index code is a data-entry shortcut for the Fund code, Org code, and Program code in Banner

    E-print Network

    Banner Index Codes The Index code is a data-entry shortcut for the Fund code, Org code, and Program code in Banner Finance (FO-P's). Implementation of the Index has greatly decreased data entry coding, Journal Entries, ISSV's, Petty Cash, Travel TA/TE, Voucher Requests, etc.) you should now use Index

  1. Fast Progressive Wavelet Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrique S. Malvar

    1999-01-01

    Fast and efficient image compression can be achieved with the progressive wavelet coder (PWC) introduced in this paper. Unlike many previous wavelet coders, PWC does not rely on zerotrees or other ordering schemes based on parent-child wavelet relationships. PWC has a very simple structure, based on two key concepts: (1) data-independent reordering and blocking, and (2) low- complexity independent encoding

  2. An experimental investigation of clocking effects on turbine aerodynamics using a modern 3-D one and one-half stage high pressure turbine for code verification and flow model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldeman, Charles Waldo, IV

    2003-10-01

    This research uses a modern 1 and 1/2 stage high-pressure (HP) turbine operating at the proper design corrected speed, pressure ratio, and gas to metal temperature ratio to generate a detailed data set containing aerodynamic, heat-transfer and aero-performance information. The data was generated using the Ohio State University Gas Turbine Laboratory Turbine Test Facility (TTF), which is a short-duration shock tunnel facility. The research program utilizes an uncooled turbine stage for which all three airfoils are heavily instrumented at multiple spans and on the HPV and LPV endwalls and HPB platform and tips. Heat-flux and pressure data are obtained using the traditional shock-tube and blowdown facility operational modes. Detailed examination show that the aerodynamic (pressure) data obtained in the blowdown mode is the same as obtained in the shock-tube mode when the corrected conditions are matched. Various experimental conditions and configurations were performed, including LPV clocking positions, off-design corrected speed conditions, pressure ratio changes, and Reynolds number changes. The main research for this dissertation is concentrated on the LPV clocking experiments, where the LPV was clocked relative to the HPV at several different passage locations and at different Reynolds numbers. Various methods were used to evaluate the effect of clocking on both the aeroperformance (efficiency) and aerodynamics (pressure loading) on the LPV, including time-resolved measurements, time-averaged measurements and stage performance measurements. A general improvement in overall efficiency of approximately 2% is demonstrated and could be observed using a variety of independent methods. Maximum efficiency is obtained when the time-average pressures are highest on the LPV, and the time-resolved data both in the time domain and frequency domain show the least amount of variation. The gain in aeroperformance is obtained by integrating over the entire airfoil as the three-dimensional effects on the LPV surface are significant.

  3. Coding and Cryptography Chris Wuthrich

    E-print Network

    Wuthrich, Christian

    £ ¢ ¡ Coding and Cryptography Chris Wuthrich £ ¢ ¡ #12;Contents Information Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 II Cryptography 39 II.1 Modular Arithmetic Problem sheets 63 Bibliography 71 2 #12;Coding and Cryptography G13CCR cw '13 £ ¢ ¡ Essential

  4. Predictive Coding for Efficient Host-Device Communication in a Pneumatic Force-Feedback Display

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph W. Borst

    2005-01-01

    We investigate predictive coding for reducing the amount of data communicated between a haptic controller and a host. This allows increased update rate, which potentially improves quality even if coding is lossy. A low-order predictive coding is investigated for a pneumatic force display. Due to human and device characteristics, some compression is possible without loss, although the technique is lossy

  5. Linear Dependence and Linear Independence

    E-print Network

    PRETEX (Halifax NS) #1 1054 1999 Mar 05 10:59:16

    2010-02-12

    Feb 16, 2007 ... (7, 2, 5). (3,2, 1). (3,2, 0). (1, 1, 0). (1, 1, 1). (7, 2, 0) v3. 4v1 v2 v1 v2 ..... Corollary 4.5.12 is actually true even if the set of vectors in question is .... The set of functions {f1,f2,...,fk} is linearly independent on an interval I if and.

  6. Codes Base on Unambiguous Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Ngoc Vinh; Vu Thanh Nam; Phan Trung Huy

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper, we propose the notion of +-unambiguous product which is expanded from unambiguous product and the definitions\\u000a of alternative product, alternative code, even alternative code on a pair (X, Y) of languages. Some basic properties of +-unambiguous product, alternative codes and even alternative codes related to usual\\u000a codes are given which show that these new codes can be

  7. Joint design of multi-resolution codes and intra / inter- layer network coding

    E-print Network

    Wang, Tong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the joint design of multi-resolution (MR) coding and network coding. The three step coding process consists of MR source coding, layer coding and multi-stream coding. The source coding considers ...

  8. Network coding meets TCP

    E-print Network

    Barros, Joao

    We propose a mechanism that incorporates network coding into TCP with only minor changes to the protocol stack, thereby allowing incremental deployment. In our scheme, the source transmits random linear combinations of ...

  9. FAST2 Code validation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.; Freeman, L.N.; Walker, S.N. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    The FAST2 Code which is capable of determining structural loads of a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data at two wind speeds for the ESI-80 are given. The FAST2 Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade flap, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffness, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST2 Code and test results is good.

  10. Systematic wireless network coding

    E-print Network

    Shrader, Brooke E.

    We present a systematic network coding strategy for cooperative communication, in which some nodes may replicate-and-forward packets in addition to sending random linear combinations of the packets. We argue that if this ...

  11. Melanoma Coding Guidelines

    Cancer.gov

    Coding Guidelines MELANOMA C440-C449 with Histology 8720-8780 Reportability In situ melanoma, including early or evolving in situ melanoma, is reportable Early or evolving melanoma is not reportable Thickness (Depth) in millimeters (mm) [Based

  12. Quantum error control codes

    E-print Network

    Abdelhamid Awad Aly Ahmed, Sala

    2008-10-10

    , the classical Hamming bound can be stated as tX i=0 n i ¶ (q ¡1)i • qn¡k; (2.9) 16 where t = b(d¡1)=2c. Codes that attain Hamming bound with equality are classifled as perfect codes. Let every codeword be represented by a sphere of radius t. The interpretation..., the classical Hamming bound can be stated as tX i=0 n i ¶ (q ¡1)i • qn¡k; (2.9) 16 where t = b(d¡1)=2c. Codes that attain Hamming bound with equality are classifled as perfect codes. Let every codeword be represented by a sphere of radius t. The interpretation...

  13. CONTRACTORS' CODE OF PRACTICE

    E-print Network

    carry out their work safely and to prevent accidents or potential adverse health effects eitherCONTRACTORS' CODE OF PRACTICE HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT SUMMER 2007 #12;CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ON FRAGILE ROOFS............................................................ 11 20 CONTROL OF POLLUTION

  14. PPPL Lorentz orbit code

    SciTech Connect

    Felt, J.; Barnes, C.W.; Chrien, R.E.; Cohen, S.A.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Manos, D.; Zweben, S. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (USA))

    1990-10-01

    A code that integrates the Lorentz force equation has been developed to trace a single charged particle's trajectory under the influence of toroidally symmetric magnetic fields found in tokamaks. This code is used primarily to design and estimate the efficiency of charged fusion product probes, which detect escaping energetic ions such as the 1 MeV tritons, 3 MeV protons, 15 MeV protons, and 3.5 MeV alphas created in TFTR. This interactive code has also been used as a teaching tool to illustrate classes of orbits such as trapped and passing, as well as subtle orbital motions, e.g., precession of banana orbits in tokamaks, or orbits in dipole magnetic field configuration. This paper describes the code as well as recent modifications which (1) include Shafranov shifts of the magnetic surfaces, (2) use more realistic current density profiles, and (3) allow modeling of the detector and limiters.

  15. The impact of time step definition on code convergence and robustness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, S.; Weiss, J. M.; Merkle, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    We have implemented preconditioning for multi-species reacting flows in two independent codes, an implicit (ADI) code developed in-house and the RPLUS code (developed at LeRC). The RPLUS code was modified to work on a four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme. The performance of both the codes was tested, and it was shown that preconditioning can improve convergence by a factor of two to a hundred depending on the problem. Our efforts are currently focused on evaluating the effect of chemical sources and on assessing how preconditioning may be applied to improve convergence and robustness in the calculation of reacting flows.

  16. Subband coding of images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN W. WOODS; S. O'Neil

    1986-01-01

    Subband coding has become quite popular for the source encoding of speech. This paper presents a simple yet efficient extension of this concept to the source coding of images. We specify the constraints for a set of two-dimensional quadrature mirror filters (QMF's) for a particular frequency-domain partition, and show that these constraints are satisfied by a separable combination of one-dimensional

  17. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Summers; R. K. Jr. Cole; R. C. Smith; D. S. Stuart; S. L. Thompson; S. A. Hodge; C. R. Hyman; R. L. Sanders

    1995-01-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in

  18. MAPA: an interactive accelerator design code with GUI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Bruhwiler; John R. Cary; Svetlana G. Shasharina

    1999-01-01

    The MAPA code is an interactive accelerator modeling and design tool with an X\\/Motif GUI. MAPA has been developed in C++ and makes full use of object-oriented features. We present an overview of its features and describe how users can independently extend the capabilities of the entire application, including the GUI. For example, a user can define a new model

  19. Coding systems and controlled vocabularies for hospital information systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Rossi Mori

    1995-01-01

    Modern healthcare information systems are requested to support an increasing interaction among professionals (inside and across the borders of the hospital) and a growing integration of specialised tasks (provision of care. reimbursement, document retrieval, optimisation of resource use, clinical audit, etc.). Coding systems were conceived and optimised independently for various specific purposes. They are now facing each other and thus

  20. Extending .NET Security to Unmanaged Code Patrick Klinkoff1

    E-print Network

    Kruegel, Christopher

    the .NET framework, a new development and runtime environment where machine- independent byte development and runtime framework called .NET [5]. This framework leverages the previous experiences gatheredExtending .NET Security to Unmanaged Code Patrick Klinkoff1 , Christopher Kruegel1 , Engin Kirda1

  1. Universal trellis coded quantization.

    PubMed

    Kasner, J H; Marcellin, M W; Hunt, B R

    1999-01-01

    A new form of trellis coded quantization based on uniform quantization thresholds and "on-the-fly" quantizer training is presented. The universal trellis coded quantization (UTCQ) technique requires neither stored codebooks nor a computationally intense codebook design algorithm. Its performance is comparable with that of fully optimized entropy-constrained trellis coded quantization (ECTCQ) for most encoding rates. The codebook and trellis geometry of UTCQ are symmetric with respect to the trellis superset. This allows sources with a symmetric probability density to be encoded with a single variable-rate code. Rate allocation and quantizer modeling procedures are given for UTCQ which allow access to continuous quantization rates. An image coding application based on adaptive wavelet coefficient subblock classification, arithmetic coding, and UTCQ is presented. The excellent performance of this coder demonstrates the efficacy of UTCQ. We also present a simple scheme to improve the perceptual performance of UTCQ for certain imagery at low bit rates. This scheme has the added advantage of being applied during image decoding, without the need to reencode the original image. PMID:18267446

  2. Smart Antenna Based OVSF Code Assignment for WCDMA Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adnan Kavak; Mustafa Karakoc

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for dynamic allocation of orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) codes in WCDMA networks\\u000a where each base station is equipped with an adaptive antenna array (AAA). Previous works about OVSF code assignment problem\\u000a deal with the code limited case. Here, we investigate the feasibility to turn the problem into the SIR limited case. With our

  3. RAVE—a Detector-independent vertex reconstruction toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Mitaroff, Winfried; Moser, Fabian

    2007-10-01

    A detector-independent toolkit for vertex reconstruction (RAVE ) is being developed, along with a standalone framework (VERTIGO ) for testing, analyzing and debugging. The core algorithms represent state of the art for geometric vertex finding and fitting by both linear (Kalman filter) and robust estimation methods. Main design goals are ease of use, flexibility for embedding into existing software frameworks, extensibility, and openness. The implementation is based on modern object-oriented techniques, is coded in C++ with interfaces for Java and Python, and follows an open-source approach. A beta release is available. VERTIGO = "vertex reconstruction toolkit and interface to generic objects".

  4. A novel electron gun with an independently addressable cathode array.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Peña, Gary Edward; Schneider, Larry X.

    2006-08-01

    The design of a novel electron gun with an array of independently addressable cathode elements is presented. Issues relating to operation in a 6.5 Tesla axial magnetic field are discussed. Simulations with the TriComp [1] electromagnetic field code that were used to determine the space charge limited tube characteristic and to model focusing of the electron beam in the magnetic field are reviewed. Foil heating and stress calculations are discussed. The results of CYLTRAN [2] simulations yielding the energy spectrum of the electron beam and the current transmitted through the foil window are presented.

  5. Linear block codes for block fading channels based on Hadamard matrices 

    E-print Network

    Spyrou, Spyros

    2006-04-12

    We investigate the creation of linear block codes using Hadamard matrices for block fading channels. The aforementioned codes are very easy to find and have bounded cross correlation spectrum. The optimality is with respect to the metric...

  6. Update-Efficiency and Local Repairability Limits for Capacity Approaching Codes

    E-print Network

    Mazumdar, Arya

    Motivated by distributed storage applications, we investigate the degree to which capacity achieving codes can be efficiently updated when a single information symbol changes, and the degree to which such codes can be ...

  7. Determination of problematic ICD-9-CM subcategories for further study of coding performance: Delphi method.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaoming; Bell, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we report on a qualitative method known as the Delphi method, used in the first part of a research study for improving the accuracy and reliability of ICD-9-CM coding. A panel of independent coding experts interacted methodically to determine that the three criteria to identify a problematic ICD-9-CM subcategory for further study were cost, volume, and level of coding confusion caused. The Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) 2007 fiscal year data set as well as suggestions from the experts were used to identify coding subcategories based on cost and volume data. Next, the panelists performed two rounds of independent ranking before identifying Excisional Debridement as the subcategory that causes the most confusion among coders. As a result, they recommended it for further study aimed at improving coding accuracy and variation. This framework can be adopted at different levels for similar studies in need of a schema for determining problematic subcategories of code sets. PMID:21796264

  8. Anisotropic mesh adaptation: towards user-independent, mesh-independent and solver-independent CFD. Part III. Unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dompierre, Julien; Vallet, Marie-Gabrielle; Bourgault, Yves; Fortin, Michel; Habashi, Wagdi G.

    2002-07-01

    The present paper is the third article in a three-part series on anisotropic mesh adaptation and its application to two- and three-dimensional, structured and unstructured meshes. This third paper concerns the application of the full adaptation methodology to 2-D unstructured meshes, including all four mesh modification strategies presented in Part I, i.e. refinement/coarsening, edge swapping and node movement. The mesh adaptation procedure is validated through a careful monitoring of a single adaptation step and of the solution-adaptation loop. Independence from the initial mesh and from the flow solver is illustrated. The efficiency of the overall methodology is investigated on relevant laminar and turbulent flow benchmarks. Copyright

  9. On decoding of multi-level MPSK modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Gupta, Alok Kumar

    1990-01-01

    The decoding problem of multi-level block modulation codes is investigated. The hardware design of soft-decision Viterbi decoder for some short length 8-PSK block modulation codes is presented. An effective way to reduce the hardware complexity of the decoder by reducing the branch metric and path metric, using a non-uniform floating-point to integer mapping scheme, is proposed and discussed. The simulation results of the design are presented. The multi-stage decoding (MSD) of multi-level modulation codes is also investigated. The cases of soft-decision and hard-decision MSD are considered and their performance are evaluated for several codes of different lengths and different minimum squared Euclidean distances. It is shown that the soft-decision MSD reduces the decoding complexity drastically and it is suboptimum. The hard-decision MSD further simplifies the decoding while still maintaining a reasonable coding gain over the uncoded system, if the component codes are chosen properly. Finally, some basic 3-level 8-PSK modulation codes using BCH codes as component codes are constructed and their coding gains are found for hard decision multistage decoding.

  10. Medical Coding Classification by Leveraging Inter-Code Relationships

    E-print Network

    Dy, Jennifer G.

    available dataset containing clinical free text and their associated medical codes showed that our proposed Keywords Medical data mining, multi-label classification, medical coding, large margin, classification, L1Medical Coding Classification by Leveraging Inter-Code Relationships Yan Yan ECE Department

  11. Laplacian Sparse Coding, Hypergraph Laplacian Sparse Coding, and Applications

    E-print Network

    Tsang Wai Hung "Ivor"

    coding to feature quantization in Bag-of-Words image representation, and it outperforms sparse coding and achieves good performance in solving the image classification problem. The Hypergraph Laplacian sparse preservation. Index Terms--Laplacian sparse coding, hypergraph Laplacian sparse coding, image classification

  12. An improved far field drag calculation method for nonlinear CFD codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirbaugh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    An improved method to calculate drag based on far field conditions is presented and demonstrated. The method is illustrated using two CFD codes, PARC and CFL3D, and examining their ability to preserve lift and drag coefficients along grid line defined integration paths. The flow fields were generated by solving the Euler equations for a NACA 0012 airfoil at a free stream Mach number of 0.8 and angle of attack of 1.25 degrees. In comparison to force coefficients obtained by surface pressure integration, neither code acceptably preserved both force coefficients throughout the near and far fields. An investigation into the relationship between numerical prediction error and calculated force coefficients revealed a direct connection between solution mass conservation error and force coefficients error. A method to correct the predicted force coefficients based on integrated mass conservation error is described and demonstrated. The corrected force coefficients for both codes are shown to be more accurate than the uncorrected values. The correction method is applicable to both two and three dimensions and is independent of the algorithm used to generate the flow field.

  13. Video multicast based multiple description coding and multi-paths in wireless ad hoc networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamah S. Badarneh; Michel Kadoch; Ahmed K. Elhakeem

    2009-01-01

    Multiple description coding (MDC) has been proposed as a source coding technique that is robust to channel errors for video transmission. MDC generates multiple independent bit-streams, where the multiple bit-streams are referred to as multiple descriptions (MD). Furthermore, it enables a useful reproduction of the signal when any description is received correctly. This paper proposes a new multicast heuristic algorithm,

  14. An adaptive rate allocation to source-channel coding for Internet video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae Cheol Kwonl; Jae-kyoon Kim

    2002-01-01

    A practical method of adaptive rate allocation to source and channel codings for an independent loss channel is proposed for Internet video. It is based on the observations that the values of residual loss probabilities at the optimal code rates for different packet loss probabilities are closely clustered to the average residual loss probability for a transmission frame size n

  15. Video compression using lapped transforms for motion estimation compensation and coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Young; Nick G. Kingsbury

    1993-01-01

    Many conventional video coding schemes, such as the CCITT H.261 recommendation, are based on the independent processing of nonoverlapping image blocks. An important disadvantage with this approach is that blocking artifacts may be visible in the decoded frames. We propose a coding scheme based entirely on the processing of overlapping, windowed data blocks, thus eliminating blocking effects. Motion estimation and,

  16. Video compression using lapped transforms for motion estimation\\/compensation and coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Young; Nick G. Kingsbury

    1992-01-01

    Many conventional video coding schemes, such as the CCITT H.261 recommendation, are based on the independent processing of non-overlapping image blocks. An important disadvantage with this approach is that blocking artifacts may be visible in the decoded frames. In this paper, we propose a coding scheme based entirely on the processing of overlapping, windowed data blocks, thus eliminating blocking effects.

  17. Application of the MELCOR code to design basis PWR large dry containment analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse Phillips; Allen Notafrancesco; Jack Lee Tills

    2009-01-01

    The MELCOR computer code has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories under USNRC sponsorship to provide capability for independently auditing analyses submitted by reactor manufactures and utilities. MELCOR is a fully integrated code (encompassing the reactor coolant system and the containment building) that models the progression of postulated accidents in light water reactor power plants. To assess the adequacy of

  18. Extended lapped transform in image coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo L. De Queiroz; K. Raghunath Rao

    1995-01-01

    A modulated lapped transform with extended overlap (ELT) is investigated in image coding with the objective of verifying its potential to replace the discrete cosine transform (DCT) in specific applications. Some of the criteria utilized for the performance comparison are reconstructed image quality (both objective and subjective), reduction of blocking artifacts, robustness against transmission errors, and filtering (for scalability). Also,

  19. Explorations into the Nature of Environmental Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Linda

    1974-01-01

    Outlines how classification systems or codes, operating in a variety of contexts, regulate the interaction between man and the built environment. Views the ritual forms of the built environment as transmitters of culture. Suggests that this framework might provide a new starting point for investigations into the built environment in use and the…

  20. Deep Learning using Robust Interdependent Codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo Larochelle; Dumitru Erhan; Pascal Vincent

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a simple yet eective method to introduce inhibitory and excitatory in- teractions between units in the layers of a deep neural network classifier. The method is based on the greedy layer-wise procedure of deep learning algorithms and extends the denoising autoencoder (Vincent et al., 2008) by adding asymmetric lateral connections be- tween its hidden coding units, in ...

  1. Lossless predictive coding of color graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yovanof, Gregory S.; Sullivan, James R.

    1992-05-01

    General purpose image compression algorithms do not fully exploit the redundancy of color graphical images because the statistics of graphics differ substantially from those of other types of images, such as natural scenes or medical images. This paper reports the results of a study of lossless predictive coding techniques specifically optimized for the compression of computer generated color graphics. In order to determine the most suitable color representation space for coding purposes the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) transform was calculated for a set of test images and its energy compaction ability was compared with those of other color spaces, e.g., the RGB, or the YUV signal spaces. The KL transform completely decorrelates the input color data for a given image and provides a lower bound on the color entropy. Based on the color statistics measured on a corpus of test images a set of optimal spatial predictive coders were designed. These schemes process each component channel independently. The prediction error signal was compressed by both lossless textual substitutional codes and statistical codes to achieve distortionless reproduction. The performance of the developed schemes is compared with that of the lossless function of the JPEG standard.

  2. TACO: a finite element heat transfer code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E. Jr.

    1980-02-01

    TACO is a two-dimensional implicit finite element code for heat transfer analysis. It can perform both linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady state problems. Either plane or axisymmetric geometries can be analyzed. TACO has the capability to handle time or temperature dependent material properties and materials may be either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent loadings and boundary conditions are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additionally, TACO has some specialized features such as internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance), bulk nodes, enclosure radiation with view factor calculations, and chemical reactive kinetics. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A bandwidth and profile minimization option is also available in the code. Graphical representation of data generated by TACO is provided by a companion post-processor named POSTACO. The theory on which TACO is based is outlined, the capabilities of the code are explained, the input data required to perform an analysis with TACO are described. Some simple examples are provided to illustrate the use of the code.

  3. High-Fidelity Coding with Correlated Neurons

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Rava Azeredo; Berry, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive correlations in the activity of neurons are widely observed in the brain. Previous studies have shown these correlations to be detrimental to the fidelity of population codes, or at best marginally favorable compared to independent codes. Here, we show that positive correlations can enhance coding performance by astronomical factors. Specifically, the probability of discrimination error can be suppressed by many orders of magnitude. Likewise, the number of stimuli encoded—the capacity—can be enhanced more than tenfold. These effects do not necessitate unrealistic correlation values, and can occur for populations with a few tens of neurons. We further show that both effects benefit from heterogeneity commonly seen in population activity. Error suppression and capacity enhancement rest upon a pattern of correlation. Tuning of one or several effective parameters can yield a limit of perfect coding: the corresponding pattern of positive correlation leads to a ‘lock-in’ of response probabilities that eliminates variability in the subspace relevant for stimulus discrimination. We discuss the nature of this pattern and we suggest experimental tests to identify it. PMID:25412463

  4. Preliminary Results for Coded Aperture Plasma Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haw, Magnus; Bellan, Paul

    2014-10-01

    A 1D coded aperture camera has been developed as a prototype for a high speed, wavelength-independent, plasma imaging diagnostic. Images are obtained via a coded or masked aperture that modulates incoming light to produce an invertible linear transform of the image on a detector. The system requires no lenses or mirrors and can be thought of as a multiplexed pinhole camera (with comparable resolution and greater signal than a single pinhole). The inexpensive custom-built system has a 13 × 1cm field of view, a vertical spatial resolution of 2 mm, and a temporal resolution of 1 ?s. Visible light images of the Caltech MHD-driven jet experiment agree with simultaneous images obtained with a conventional camera. For the simple jet geometry, the system can also extract depth information from single images. Further work will revolve around improving shielding and acquiring X-ray and EUV scintillators for imaging in those wavelengths. Supported by DOE, NSF.

  5. Good quantum error-correcting codes exist

    SciTech Connect

    Calderbank, A.R.; Shor, P.W. [AT& T Research, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)] [AT& T Research, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A quantum error-correcting code is defined to be a unitary mapping (encoding) of {ital k} qubits (two-state quantum systems) into a subspace of the quantum state space of {ital n} qubits such that if any {ital t} of the qubits undergo arbitrary decoherence, not necessarily independently, the resulting {ital n} qubits can be used to faithfully reconstruct the original quantum state of the {ital k} encoded qubits. Quantum error-correcting codes are shown to exist with asymptotic rate {ital k}/{ital n}=1{minus}2{ital H}{sub 2}(2{ital t}/{ital n}) where {ital H}{sub 2}({ital p}) is the binary entropy function {minus}{ital p}log{sub 2}{ital p}{minus}(1{minus}{ital p})log{sub 2}(1{minus}{ital p}). Upper bounds on this asymptotic rate are given. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Systematic redundant residue number system codes: analytical upper bound and iterative decoding performance over AWGN and Rayleigh channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tong-hooi Liew; Lie-liang Yang; Lajos Hanzo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract, The novel family of redundant residue number system (RRNS) codes is studied. RRNS codes constitute max-imum-minimum distance block codes, exhibiting identical distance properties to Reed-Solomon codes. Binary to RRNS symbol-mapping methods are proposed, in order to implement both systematic and nonsystematic RRNS codes. Furthermore, the upper-bound performance of systematic RRNS codes is inves-tigated, when maximum-likelihood (ML) soft decoding is

  7. Multiphysics Code Demonstrated for Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Melis, Matthew E.

    1998-01-01

    The utility of multidisciplinary analysis tools for aeropropulsion applications is being investigated at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The goal of this project is to apply Spectrum, a multiphysics code developed by Centric Engineering Systems, Inc., to simulate multidisciplinary effects in turbomachinery components. Many engineering problems today involve detailed computer analyses to predict the thermal, aerodynamic, and structural response of a mechanical system as it undergoes service loading. Analysis of aerospace structures generally requires attention in all three disciplinary areas to adequately predict component service behavior, and in many cases, the results from one discipline substantially affect the outcome of the other two. There are numerous computer codes currently available in the engineering community to perform such analyses in each of these disciplines. Many of these codes are developed and used in-house by a given organization, and many are commercially available. However, few, if any, of these codes are designed specifically for multidisciplinary analyses. The Spectrum code has been developed for performing fully coupled fluid, thermal, and structural analyses on a mechanical system with a single simulation that accounts for all simultaneous interactions, thus eliminating the requirement for running a large number of sequential, separate, disciplinary analyses. The Spectrum code has a true multiphysics analysis capability, which improves analysis efficiency as well as accuracy. Centric Engineering, Inc., working with a team of Lewis and AlliedSignal Engines engineers, has been evaluating Spectrum for a variety of propulsion applications including disk quenching, drum cavity flow, aeromechanical simulations, and a centrifugal compressor flow simulation.

  8. Picture independent quantum action principle

    SciTech Connect

    Mantke, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Schwinger action principle for quantum mechanics is extended into a picture independent form. This displays the quantum connection. Time variations are formulated as variations of a time variable and included into the kinematical variations. Kets and bras represent experimental operations. Experimental operations at different times cannot be identified. The ket and the bra spaces are fiber bundles over time. The same applies to the classical configuration space. For the classical action principle the action can be varied by changing the path or the classical variables. The latter variation of classical functions corresponds to kinematical variations of quantum variables. The picture independent formulation represents time evolution by a connection. A standard experiment is represented by a ket, a connection and a bra. For particular start and end times of experiments, the action and the contraction into a transition amplitude are elements of a new tensor space of quantum correspondents of path functionals. The classical correspondent of the transition amplitude is the probability for a specified state to evolve along a particular path segment. The elements of the dual tensor space represent standard experiments or superpositions thereof. The kinematical variations of the quantum variables are commuting numbers. Variations that include the effect of Poincare or gauge transformations have different commutator properties. The Schwinger action principle is derived from the Feynman path integral formulation. The limitations from the time-energy uncertainty relation might be accommodated by superposing experiments that differ in their start- and end-times. In its picture independent form the action principle can be applied to all superpositions of standard experiments. This may involve superpositions of different connections. The extension of the superposition principle to connections allows representation of a quantum field by a part of the connection.

  9. Mass-independent isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Buchachenko, Anatoly L

    2013-02-28

    Three fundamental properties of atomic nuclei-mass, spin (and related magnetic moment), and volume-are the source of isotope effects. The mostly deserved and popular, with almost hundred-year history, is the mass-dependent isotope effect. The first mass-independent isotope effect which chemically discriminates isotopes by their nuclear spins and nuclear magnetic moments rather than by their masses was detected in 1976. It was named as the magnetic isotope effect because it is controlled by magnetic interaction, i.e., electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling in the paramagnetic species, the reaction intermediates. The effect follows from the universal physical property of chemical reactions to conserve angular momentum (spin) of electrons and nuclei. It is now detected for oxygen, silicon, sulfur, germanium, tin, mercury, magnesium, calcium, zinc, and uranium in a great variety of chemical and biochemical reactions including those of medical and ecological importance. Another mass-independent isotope effect was detected in 1983 as a deviation of isotopic distribution in reaction products from that which would be expected from the mass-dependent isotope effect. On the physical basis, it is in fact a mass-dependent effect, but it surprisingly results in isotope fractionation which is incompatible with that predicted by traditional mass-dependent effects. It is supposed to be a function of dynamic parameters of reaction and energy relaxation in excited states of products. The third, nuclear volume mass-independent isotope effect is detected in the high-resolution atomic and molecular spectra and in the extraction processes, but there are no unambiguous indications of its importance as an isotope fractionation factor in chemical reactions. PMID:23301791

  10. Mass independent textures and symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, C. S. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 2T8 and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2006-12-01

    A mass-independent texture is a set of linear relations of the fermion mass-matrix elements which imposes no constraint on the fermionic masses nor the Majorana phases. Magic and 2-3 symmetries are examples. We discuss the general construction and the properties of these textures, as well as their relation to the quark and neutrino mixing matrices. Such a texture may be regarded as a symmetry, whose unitary generators of the symmetry group can be explicitly constructed. In particular, the symmetries connected with the tribimaximal neutrino mixing matrix are discussed, together with the physical consequence of breaking one symmetry but preserving another.

  11. Curvature independence of statistical entropy

    E-print Network

    Judy Kupferman

    2014-07-20

    We examine the statistical number of states, from which statistical entropy can be derived, and we show that it is an explicit function of the metric and thus observer dependent. We find a constraint on a transformation of the metric that preserves the number of states but does not preserve curvature. In showing exactly how curvature independence arises in the conventional definition of statistical entropy, we gain a precise understanding of the direction in which it needs to be redefined in the treatment of black hole entropy.

  12. Diversity Coding: Using Error Control For Self-Healing in Communication Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ender Ayanoglu; I Chin-lin; Richard D. Gitlin; J. E. Mazo

    1990-01-01

    An error-control-based approach, called diversity coding, that provides nearly instantaneous self-healing digital communication networks is presented. This is achieved by constructing an error-correcting code across logically independent channels and by treating link failures within the framework of an erasure channel model. Diversity coding is more efficient than previous approaches to self-healing communication networks since it is nearly instantaneous, is transparent

  13. Sensitivity and uncertainty studies of the CRAC2 computer code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Kocher; R. C. Ward; G. G. Killough; D. E. Jr. Dunning; B. B. Hicks; R. P. Jr. Hosker; J. Y. Ku; K. S. Rao

    1985-01-01

    This report presents a study of the sensitivity of early fatalities, early injuries, latent cancer fatalities, and economic costs for hypothetical nuclear reactor accidents as predicted by the CRAC2 computer code (CRAC = Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) to uncertainties in selected models and parameters used in the code. The sources of uncertainty that were investigated in the CRAC2 sensitivity

  14. Speech coding using a method of discrete energy separation (DESA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert K Whitman; Delores M. Etter

    1996-01-01

    The use of the Discrete Energy Separation Algorithm (DESA), developed by Kaiser, Quatieri, and Maragos (1993) to code speech signals is investigated. We show that the DESA-demodulated signals can be coded and decoded using a combination of polynomial and sinusoidal approximations. We discuss how the data is subband filtered. Then how each subband is processed to encode and decode the

  15. On optimizing low SNR wireless networks using network coding

    E-print Network

    Médard, Muriel

    On optimizing low SNR wireless networks using network coding Mohit Thakur Institute networks with low SNR is investigated. While the capacity in the limit of disappearing SNR per degree in low SNR wireless network with given node locations that use network coding over flows. The model we

  16. Perfect Space-Time Block Codes and Ultra-Wideband

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kei Hao

    cannot be used in UWB systems, however it was shown that ST codes designed for flat fading channels still provide at least the some advantage even in the presence of frequency-selective fading channels (4). With the objective to give an answer or opinion whether the perfect codes can be used in UWB systems, we proceed as follow. We investigate the

  17. IGB grid: User's manual (A turbomachinery grid generation code)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, T. A.; Hoffman, G.

    1992-01-01

    A grid generation code called IGB is presented for use in computational investigations of turbomachinery flowfields. It contains a combination of algebraic and elliptic techniques coded for use on an interactive graphics workstation. The instructions for use and a test case are included.

  18. L-arginine independent macrophage tumor cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Klostergaard, J.; Leroux, M.E. (Univ. of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA))

    1989-12-29

    We have investigated the role of L-arginine in macrophage tumor cytotoxicity in coculture. L929, EMT-6, MCA-26, and P815 targets were all susceptible to cytolysis by activated macrophages when cocultured in medium containing L-arginine. When cocultured in arginine-free medium, these targets displayed comparable or even higher levels of lysis. L1210 targets were lytically resistant under either condition. However, 59Fe release from this target did reflect strong dependence on the presence of arginine. The structural analogue, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, was an effective inhibitor of iron-release from L1210 targets cocultured with activated macrophages, whereas it had minimal inhibitory effects on release of 51Cr from cocultured L929 cells. These results suggest that the L-arginine requiring cytotoxic pathway of activated macrophage is independent of major effector mechanisms involved in tumor cell lysis.

  19. Rotationally invariant multilevel block codes 

    E-print Network

    Kulandaivelu, Anita

    1993-01-01

    to implement and take less time for decoding. The multilevel coding scheme allows ease and flexibility in the design of codes, and simplifies the construction of rotationally invariant codes. Non-binary codes are in particular very well suited to construction...

  20. Quick response codes and libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Walsh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explain the nature of quick response (QR) codes and their possible applications in libraries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Existing uses, applications, and functionality of QR codes are looked at, before turning to the limited existing use of QR codes in libraries. The author then suggests many different ways QR codes could be used in our libraries.

  1. Error coding simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-01-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  2. Bar code scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravman, Richard

    1990-05-01

    Good afternoon. And thanks, Gary very much again for giving ne a chance to come and spend some time with you. Again, ray name is Richard Bravman, vice president of marketing with Symbol Technologies. For those of you who may not be familiar with the bar coding market, I'll give just a brief word on Symbol. Symbol is today, we find our selves the leader in that business. Our original activity in bar coding went all the way back to the business of creating the film images that are the genesis point for the placement of bar codes on all the consumer items. That was what we did back in mid l970s, moved through several stages, in 1980, we made a significant breakthrough inventing the first laser based bar code scanning device that was portable enough that you could hold it in your hand. That development proved to be the engine of some very significant growth over the last eight or nine years. During the period of the last six years, we've had our compound average growth for our company at something in the range of 80% or so. So we've been fortunate enough to have seen some real growth. Today our businesses included bar code scanning, and as a result of an acquisition we did last year, portable data capture devices, which are handheld computers that are specifically used for remote data capture.

  3. Programmable polarization-independent spectral phase compensation and pulse shaping by use of a

    E-print Network

    Purdue University

    codes: 060.2330, 320.5540, 070.2580. 1. Introduction Fourier transform pulse shapers1 are widely applied in the patent lit- erature10 but prior to this work was not tested exper- imentally. Fourier-transform pulseProgrammable polarization-independent spectral phase compensation and pulse shaping by use

  4. ]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

  5. Independent EEG sources are dipolar.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Arnaud; Palmer, Jason; Onton, Julie; Oostenveld, Robert; Makeig, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) and blind source separation (BSS) methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG) and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI) in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR) effected by each decomposition, and decomposition 'dipolarity' defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA); best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison). PMID:22355308

  6. Independent EEG Sources Are Dipolar

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Arnaud; Palmer, Jason; Onton, Julie; Oostenveld, Robert; Makeig, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) and blind source separation (BSS) methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG) and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI) in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR) effected by each decomposition, and decomposition ‘dipolarity’ defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA); best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison). PMID:22355308

  7. Assessing Student Engagement: HSSSE Pilot Study with Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    NAIS and the NAIS Commission on Accreditation recently launched a three-year pilot study on the use of the High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE) among independent schools. HSSSE, administered by Indiana University, is a survey designed to investigate the attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of high school students about their work. This…

  8. New York City's Wealth of Historically Black Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Gail

    1992-01-01

    Describes the work of the Toussaint Institute, a nonprofit organization that places African-American male students in about 53 African-American independent schools in New York City. The institute investigates the schools, places and monitors students, and helps schools become local and national resources. Advantages of these schools are described.…

  9. Detection of breast cancer using independent component analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fadi Abu-Amara; Ikhlas Abdel-Qader

    2007-01-01

    Screening mammograms remain the best method to protect women from breast cancer. To increase the value of this modality and reduce the strain on the radiologists; automation of detection is a necessity. In this paper we investigate combining principal component analysis (PCA) with independent component analysis (ICA) to identify regions of suspicious (ROS) from digitized mammographic films. The experimental results

  10. Independent Senior Women Who Travel Internationally: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Nine independent women over age 55 who traveled internationally were investigated through a qualitative case study. The purpose of the study was to explore the women's attitudes, actions, and motivations during and after their international travel experiences. The adult, aging, experiential, and transformational theories of researchers such as…

  11. PDD Symptoms in ADHD, an Independent Familial Trait?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijmeijer, J. S.; Hoekstra, P. J.; Minderaa, R. B.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Altink, M. E.; Buschgens, C. J. M.; Fliers, E. A.; Rommelse, N. N. J.; Sergeant, J. A.; Hartman, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether subtle PDD symptoms in the context of ADHD are transmitted in families independent of ADHD, and whether PDD symptom familiality is influenced by gender and age. The sample consisted of 256 sibling pairs with at least one child with ADHD and 147 healthy controls, aged 5-19 years. Children who…

  12. Bayes Formula Tree Diagrams Weighing the Odds Independence Conditional Probability and Independence

    E-print Network

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    Bayes Formula Tree Diagrams Weighing the Odds Independence Topic 6 Conditional Probability and Independence Bayes Formula and Independence 1 / 16 #12;Bayes Formula Tree Diagrams Weighing the Odds Independence Outline Bayes Formula Tree Diagrams Weighing the Odds Independence 2 / 16 #12;Bayes Formula Tree

  13. International Code Assessment and Applications Program: Summary of code assessment studies concerning RELAP5/MOD2, RELAP5/MOD3, and TRAC-B. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Members of the International Code Assessment Program (ICAP) have assessed the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) advanced thermal-hydraulic codes over the past few years in a concerted effort to identify deficiencies, to define user guidelines, and to determine the state of each code. The results of sixty-two code assessment reviews, conducted at INEL, are summarized. Code deficiencies are discussed and user recommended nodalizations investigated during the course of conducting the assessment studies and reviews are listed. All the work that is summarized was done using the RELAP5/MOD2, RELAP5/MOD3, and TRAC-B codes.

  14. Modulation and coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, P. G.; Clark, A. P.

    1984-12-01

    Analog FDM/FM and digital TDM/PCM/PSK modulation schemes are compared. In both single access and multiple access cases, FDM/FM is superior, thereby lessening interest in the use of a transmultiplexer to convert existing FDM voice traffic. In SCPC systems, though FM has been employed, digital modulation schemes appear to offer considerable advantages due to their ability to use both bandwidth compression techniques and error detection and correction (EDC) coding. QPSK has been widely used, and its performance compares well with other digital carrier schemes when suitably band-limited. The use of EDC coding in satellites effectively compensates for low transmitter powers, so that coding gains in the 2-7 range are envisioned. TDMA can efficiently combine a wide range of different traffics and services. The ultimate degree of voice, data and video integration is noted to be obtainable from a packet-switched satellite system.

  15. MHD Generation Code

    E-print Network

    Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a MHD code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  16. Code for America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How might we bring local governments together to make better cities? Why not try Code for America? This compelling organization works to "help residents and governments harness technology to solve community problems." Its work is supported by a range of organizations, including Google, the Kauffman Foundation, and ESRI. The site contains a number of topical sections, including Governments, Citizens, and Apps. The Governments area contains links to the ten cities that are utilizing the services of Code For America to create ambitious projects designed to connect citizens to their government. Projects have included work in Oakland and Honolulu where citizen codes rewrote these cities' websites in one day each. Both Free Apps and Paid Apps can be found here and highlight a variety of compelling new projects, such as Adopt-A-Hydrant and the Jail Population Management Dashboard.

  17. Probability Investigations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This webpage contains probability investigations in the form of word problems. The investigations are located on the left hand side of the page on the navigation bar: the links are "Recommended Investigations" and "Additional Investigations". Within each investigation there are additional links to external resources that can be used to solve or illustrate the problem.

  18. Curvature analysis approach to shape coding using B-splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaletelj, Janez; Tasic, Jurij F.

    2000-12-01

    This work presents an algorithm for efficient shape coding using cubic B-splines. In the framework of object-based layered coding of image sequences, shape information is essential for content-based access to video objects, and its efficient encoding needs to be investigated. We present a rate and distortion controlled algorithm for vide object shape approximation by variable number of cubic B-spline segments and motion compensated inter-frame coding of B-spline control points. Rate-distortion efficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared to MPEG-4 context arithmetic encoding and two stage motion compensated chain coding.

  19. The Code Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Code Project is an online repository of free tutorials, source code, and articles about a wide variety of programming languages. Sections devoted to C++, HTML, DirectX, and .NET are among the resources available on the site. Discussion forums and message boards are excellent places for developers to get quick answers to their questions from other members of the community (this requires a short registration). Featured articles and industry news keep the site up-to-date. There are some advertisements on the site, but they do not detract from the content.

  20. Free2Code

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website contains a wide variety of computer related tutorials ranging from specific programming languages and operating systems to computer networking and Web development. Submitted by members of the Free2Code community, the tutorials vary in style and can be general introductions to a broad topic or they can focus on a particular aspect of an application. Some popular tutorials that fall into the former category include Number Systems, PHP and MySQL, and an Introduction to Flash MX Design. A code archive is also available to help programmers with common problems.

  1. Securing mobile code.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements on this method as well as demonstrating its implementation for various algorithms. We also examine cryptographic techniques to achieve obfuscation including encrypted functions and offer a new application to digital signature algorithms. To better understand the lack of security proofs for obfuscation techniques, we examine in detail general theoretical models of obfuscation. We explain the need for formal models in order to obtain provable security and the progress made in this direction thus far. Finally we tackle the problem of verifying remote execution. We introduce some methods of verifying remote exponentiation computations and some insight into generic computation checking.

  2. Parabrachial coding of sapid sucrose: Relevance to reward and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hajnal, Andras; Norgren, Ralph; Kovacs, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cumulative evidence in rats suggests that the pontine parabrachial nucleus (PBN) is necessary for assigning hedonic value to taste stimuli. In a series of studies, our laboratory has investigated the parabrachial coding of sapid sucrose in normal and obese rats. First, using chronic microdialysis, we demonstrated that sucrose intake increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, an effect that is dependent on oral stimulation and on concentration. The dopamine response was independent of the thalamocortical gustatory system, but was blunted substantially by lesions of the PBN. Similar lesions of the PBN but not the thalamic taste relay diminished cFos activation by sucrose ingestion in the nucleus accumbens. Recent single neuron recording studies demonstrated that processing of sucrose-evoked activity in the PBN is altered in the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats that develop obesity due to chronic overeating and express increased avidity to sweet. Compared with lean controls, taste neurons in OLETF rats had reduced overall sensitivity to sucrose and altered concentration responses: decreased responses to lower and augmented responses to higher concentrations. The decreased sensitivity to sucrose was specific to NaCl-best neurons that also responded to sucrose, but the concentration effects were carried by the sucrose-specific neurons. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that the PBN enables taste stimuli to engage the reward system and, in doing so, influences food intake and body weight regulation. Obesity, in turn, may further alter the gustatory code via forebrain connections to the taste relays or hormonal changes consequent to weight gain. PMID:19686159

  3. ESA Intermediate Experimental Vehicle. Independent Aerothermodynamic Characterization and Aerodatabase Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufolo, G.; Di Benedetto, S.; Walpot, L.; Roncioni, P.; Marini, M.

    2011-08-01

    In the frame of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) project, the European Space Agency (ESA) is coordinating a series of technical assistance activities aimed at verifying and supporting the IXV industrial design and development process. The technical assistance is operated with the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), by means of the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA), and the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) under the super visioning and coordination of ESA IXV team. One of the purposes of the activity is to develop an independent capability for the assessment and verification of the industrial results with respect to the aerothermodynamic characterization of the IXV vehicle. To this aim CIRA is developing and independent AeroThermodynamics DataBase (ATDB), intended as a tool generating in output the time histories of local quantities (heat flux, pressure, skin friction) for each point of the IXV vehicle and for each trajectory (in a pre-defined envelope), together with an uncertainties model. The reference Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions needed for the development of the tool have been provided by ESA- STEC (with the CFD code LORE) and CIRA (with the CFD code H3NS).

  4. Development of the SANMHD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercik, D. J.; Fisher, G. H.

    2002-12-01

    The connection between the generation of magnetic field by dynamo processes in stellar interiors and the signatures of magnetic activity observed in stellar atmospheres is not well understood. This is especially true in fully convective stars such as M/L dwarfs and T Tauri stars, where the observed solid body rotation precludes the generation of field by velocity shear mechanisms common to many mean field dynamo theories. These stars show a high level of magnetic activity so that an alternate mechanism, such as a small scale turbulent dynamo, is responsible for the generation of the magnetic field in the stellar interior. To model the interaction between turbulent convection and magnetic field deep in the interior of stars, it is necessary to consider a gravitationally stratified atmosphere in a spherical geometry. It it not yet feasible with current computing resources to run fully compressible, global, spherical MHD simulations; however, it is possible to simulate models based on the anelastic approximation to the fully compressible MHD equations. The anelastic approximation only treats density perturbations in the buoyancy force, permitting larger simulation timesteps by filtering out acoustic waves. We report on the development of a 3-d spherical anelastic MHD code, ``SANMHD''. The design of SANMHD is to be portable across multiple architectures ranging from PC workstations to massively parallel supercomputers. The code is also highly modular to facilitate the investigation of a variety physical scenarios. The code spectrally decomposes physical variables in the polar and azimuthal directions while using finite differencing schemes in the radial direction; this allows stellar interior models to be used as a background reference state. SANMHD uses an ideal equation of state and includes rotation and a radiative heat flux.

  5. Watershed Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Investigating local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. Investigation activities promote learning in an investigations interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…

  6. Investigator Resources

    Cancer.gov

    A Handbook for Clinical Investigators Conducting Therapeutic Clinical Trials Supported by CTEP, DCTD, NCI. The 2014 version 1.2 of the Investigator’s Handbook is a bookmarked PDF file available for download.

  7. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  8. Coding and scheduling optimization over packet erasure broadcast channels

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Weifei

    2012-01-01

    Throughput and per-packet delay can present strong trade-offs that are important in the cases of delay sensitive applications. In this thesis, we investigate such trade-offs using a random linear network coding scheme for ...

  9. Independent Lens Online Shorts Festival

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since its creation a few years ago, the Independent Lens series has worked with various filmmakers and producers to create thoughtful portraits. These portraits have included subjects such as the life of Billy Strayhorn, people living with dystonia, and the world of Ethiopian coffee growers. Recently, they also embarked on yet another ambitious project: an online shorts festival. Visitors to this site can partake of all ten of these films at their leisure. Included are a film that explores a Parisian secret from 1951, a meditation of growing old, and an artist who created a monument out of mud, old paint, and adobe. After viewing the films, visitors are also welcome to leave their comments in the "Talkback" section, submit a film or find out more about the members of the jury for this online film festival.

  10. Independent positioning of magnetic nanomotors.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Pranay; Chopra, Vaishali; Ghosh, Ambarish

    2015-05-26

    There is considerable interest in powering and maneuvering nanostructures remotely in fluidic media using noninvasive fuel-free methods, for which small homogeneous magnetic fields are ideally suited. Current strategies include helical propulsion of chiral nanostructures, cilia-like motion of flexible filaments, and surface assisted translation of asymmetric colloidal doublets and magnetic nanorods, in all of which the individual structures are moved in a particular direction that is completely tied to the characteristics of the driving fields. As we show in this paper, when we use appropriate magnetic field configurations and actuation time scales, it is possible to maneuver geometrically identical nanostructures in different directions, and subsequently position them at arbitrary locations with respect to each other. The method reported here requires proximity of the nanomotors to a solid surface, and could be useful in applications that require remote and independent control over individual components in microfluidic environments. PMID:25824608

  11. Independent Lens: A Lion's Trail

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The road to creating a popular song can take decades and often includes a number of incarnations before the listening public finally becomes interested. Such is the complex and at times painful story of the song "Mbube" (which is perhaps best known in the United States by the version titled "The Lion Sleeps Tonight"), which was first recorded by Solomon Linda and the Evening Birds in 1939 in South Africa. This compelling website, designed to complement an Independent Lens/PBS documentary, provides substantive background into the stories of the people associated with this song, and its rather nuanced history during the past seven decades. On the site, visitors can learn about the filmmakers, the song itself, and also provide their own feedback on the controversy surrounding the song and the documentary itself.

  12. GYOTO: a new general relativistic ray-tracing code

    E-print Network

    Frederic H. Vincent; Thibaut Paumard; Eric Gourgoulhon; Guy Perrin

    2011-09-22

    GYOTO, a general relativistic ray-tracing code, is presented. It aims at computing images of astronomical bodies in the vicinity of compact objects, as well as trajectories of massive bodies in relativistic environments. This code is capable of integrating the null and timelike geodesic equations not only in the Kerr metric, but also in any metric computed numerically within the 3+1 formalism of general relativity. Simulated images and spectra have been computed for a variety of astronomical targets, such as a moving star or a toroidal accretion structure. The underlying code is open source and freely available. It is user-friendly, quickly handled and very modular so that extensions are easy to integrate. Custom analytical metrics and astronomical targets can be implemented in C++ plug-in extensions independent from the main code.

  13. Probable relationship between partitions of the set of codons and the origin of the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Dino G; Gallardo, Mauricio O; Osorio, Manuel I

    2014-03-01

    Here we study the distribution of randomly generated partitions of the set of amino acid-coding codons. Some results are an application from a previous work, about the Stirling numbers of the second kind and triplet codes, both to the cases of triplet codes having four stop codons, as in mammalian mitochondrial genetic code, and hypothetical doublet codes. Extending previous results, in this work it is found that the most probable number of blocks of synonymous codons, in a genetic code, is similar to the number of amino acids when there are four stop codons, as well as it could be for a primigenious doublet code. Also it is studied the integer partitions associated to patterns of synonymous codons and it is shown, for the canonical code, that the standard deviation inside an integer partition is one of the most probable. We think that, in some early epoch, the genetic code might have had a maximum of the disorder or entropy, independent of the assignment between codons and amino acids, reaching a state similar to "code freeze" proposed by Francis Crick. In later stages, maybe deterministic rules have reassigned codons to amino acids, forming the natural codes, such as the canonical code, but keeping the numerical features describing the set partitions and the integer partitions, like a "fossil numbers"; both kinds of partitions about the set of amino acid-coding codons. PMID:24495914

  14. Locally covariant charged fields and background independence

    E-print Network

    Jochen Zahn

    2014-10-28

    We discuss gauge background independence at the example of the charged Dirac field. We show that a perturbative version of background independence, termed perturbative agreement by Hollands and Wald, can be fulfilled, and discuss some of its consequences.

  15. Matroid Valuation on Independent Sets Kazuo Murotay

    E-print Network

    Murota, Kazuo

    * Matroid Valuation on Independent Sets and Wenzel introduced the concept of valuated matroid in terms of a quantitative extension of the basis of valuat* *ed matroids in terms of a function defined on the family of the independent s* *ets

  16. A Formal Model of Auditor Independence Risk

    E-print Network

    Turner, Jerry L.; Mock, Theodore J.; Srivastava, Rajendra P.

    2002-01-01

    Although the published literature on auditor independence is extensive, an accepted comprehensive theory, framework or model of auditor independence risk does not exist. This paper develops a formal model of auditor ...

  17. Trellis coded modulation to improve dirty paper trellis watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chin Kiong; Doërr, Gwenaël; Cox, Ingemar

    2007-02-01

    Lattice codes and quantization-based techniques have received considerable attention as a method of digital watermarking with side information. However, these algorithms are also recognized to be highly sensitive to common signal processing primitives such as valuemetric scaling, e.g. changes in volume of a song, or re-quantization, e.g. JPEG compression. Hence, it is reasonable to investigate alternative codes which may offer the potential for superior performance. In previous work, we designed a new class of codes, called dirty paper trellis codes (DPTC), which are by construction immune to valuemetric scaling. Although DPTC have shown themselves to be resistant to certain classes attacks, the trellises were generated randomly, thus leading to suboptimal codes. In this paper, Ungerboeck's work on trellis coded modulation (TCM) is exploited to significantly improve the performance of the DPTC. Experimental results show that the resulting trellises significantly outperform the original design.

  18. Neural Coding for Effective Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Successful neurological rehabilitation depends on accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and quantitative evaluation. Neural coding, a technology for interpretation of functional and structural information of the nervous system, has contributed to the advancements in neuroimaging, brain-machine interface (BMI), and design of training devices for rehabilitation purposes. In this review, we summarized the latest breakthroughs in neuroimaging from microscale to macroscale levels with potential diagnostic applications for rehabilitation. We also reviewed the achievements in electrocorticography (ECoG) coding with both animal models and human beings for BMI design, electromyography (EMG) interpretation for interaction with external robotic systems, and robot-assisted quantitative evaluation on the progress of rehabilitation programs. Future rehabilitation would be more home-based, automatic, and self-served by patients. Further investigations and breakthroughs are mainly needed in aspects of improving the computational efficiency in neuroimaging and multichannel ECoG by selection of localized neuroinformatics, validation of the effectiveness in BMI guided rehabilitation programs, and simplification of the system operation in training devices. PMID:25258708

  19. Monte Carlo code comparison of dose delivery prediction for microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFelici, M.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Spiga, J.; Hanson, A. L.; Felici, R.; Ferrero, C.; Tartari, A.; Gambaccini, M.; Keyriläinen, J.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Randaccio, P.; Bravin, A.

    2008-02-01

    Preclinical Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) research programs are carried out at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and at a few other synchrotron facilities. MRT needs an accurate evaluation of the doses delivered to biological tissues for carrying out pre-clinical studies. This point is crucial for determining the effect induced by changing any of the physical irradiation parameters. The doses of interest in MRT are normally calculated using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. A few MC packages have been used in the last decade for MRT dose evaluations in independent studies. The aim of this investigation is to provide a preliminary basis to perform a systematic comparison of the dose results obtained, under identical irradiation conditions and for the same scoring geometries with the following five MC codes: EGS4, PENELOPE, GEANT4, EGSnrc, and MCNPX. Dose profiles have been calculated in an in-depth region of cylindrical phantoms made of water or PMMA. Beams in both cylindrical and planar geometry have been considered. This comparison shows an overall agreement among the different codes although minor differences occur, which need further investigations.

  20. Code Optimization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    MAGEE,GLEN I.

    2000-08-03

    Computers transfer data in a number of different ways. Whether through a serial port, a parallel port, over a modem, over an ethernet cable, or internally from a hard disk to memory, some data will be lost. To compensate for that loss, numerous error detection and correction algorithms have been developed. One of the most common error correction codes is the Reed-Solomon code, which is a special subset of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) linear cyclic block codes. In the AURA project, an unmanned aircraft sends the data it collects back to earth so it can be analyzed during flight and possible flight modifications made. To counter possible data corruption during transmission, the data is encoded using a multi-block Reed-Solomon implementation with a possibly shortened final block. In order to maximize the amount of data transmitted, it was necessary to reduce the computation time of a Reed-Solomon encoding to three percent of the processor's time. To achieve such a reduction, many code optimization techniques were employed. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the processing time of a Reed-Solomon encoding and the insight into modern optimization techniques gained from the experience.

  1. Instrucitonal Method Code** Description

    E-print Network

    Karsai, Istvan

    video and audio, and public broadcast across television. 04 Instructional Media ATP, VTP This code are generally considered group instruction either for lecture, discussion group, and/or other traditional instructional medium. Physical education activities, science laboratory, and remedial secitons should

  2. Differential pulse code modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, C. F. (inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) encoding and decoding method is described along with an apparatus which is capable of transmission with minimum bandwidth. The apparatus is not affected by data transition density, requires no direct current (DC) response of the transmission link, and suffers from minimal ambiguity in resolution of the digital data.

  3. CFD code evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.; Kim, Y. M.; Hallit, R.

    1988-01-01

    The task carried out under this research grant covers research on accuracy and efficiency of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) stategies, error estimates for convective terms, and antidiffusion. These basic studies are considered important in evaluating available CFD codes which will be the main activities for the next year.

  4. George Washington's Secret Code

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Park Service

    2011-08-20

    In this online interactive, learners decipher codes used by George Washington to safeguard messages during the American Revolution. Learners use a key to decode an excerpt from "Rules of Civility & Decent Behaviour in Company and Conversation," which Washington copied as a writing exercise when he was a teenager and historians believed influenced the development of his character.

  5. Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC)is a state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model that can be used to simulate aquatic systems in one, two, and three dimensions. It has evolved over the past two decades to become one of the most widely used and technically defensible hydrodyn...

  6. Introduction to Algebraic Codes

    E-print Network

    Therefore [c1c2c3] must be one of the row vectors of the matrix H, and thus the computer ... The principles of self-correcting in Hamming codes are valid today, and .... The system of equations (1) in the introduction defines a subspace C in Fn ...... On the other hand, there are at most pm solutions of the above equation in ?.

  7. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is an annually revised codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The CFR is divided into 50 titles which represent broad areas subje...

  8. Ovary Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Ovary C569 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 17 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen sent to pathology from surgical event

  9. Decode de Code

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, users must decode a scientific quote that has been encoded by the computer. The computer will generate an "alphabet" (either random or rotated) and then substitute every letter of the real quote with the computer generated alphabet's letter. To decode the code, you must look for patterns of letters and then substitute guesses for the real letters.

  10. Code Games for Kids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This interactive game for children promotes pattern recognition by identifying the missing numbers in a pattern displayed on a safe lock. Players drag number tiles into the gaps and if successful unlock the safe and move onto a different challenge. There are two practice rounds and then ten codes to crack.

  11. Testis Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Testis C620–C 629 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 12 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen sent to pathology from surgical

  12. Cooperation diversity through coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd E. Hunter; Aria Nosratinia

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new user cooperation scheme for wireless communications in which we combine cooperation with existing channel coding methods. Simulation results show a significant improvement in the BER for both users, even when the channel between them is poor, or when they have significantly different channel qualities to the base station.

  13. Independent Evaluation: Insights from Public Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abigail B.; Klerman, Jacob Alex

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maintaining the independence of contract government program evaluation presents significant contracting challenges. The ideal outcome for an agency is often both the impression of an independent evaluation "and" a glowing report. In this, independent evaluation is like financial statement audits: firm management wants both a public…

  14. Learning Dilemmas in Undergraduate Student Independent Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Maria; Åse, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Essay-writing is generally viewed as the primary learning activity to foster independence and analytical thinking. In this article, we show that independent research projects do not necessarily lead to critical thinking. University-level education on conducting independent projects can, in several respects, counteract enhanced analytical skills.…

  15. Independent component extraction methods in biosignal processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bigan; M. Woolfson

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses methods for independent source identification within multiple channels electroencephalographical (EEG) signals recordings. The focus is to compare the independent component analysis (ICA) technique to a novel proposed method for individual components separation - the phase space method (PSM). Methods are suitable to be used for any multi-lead signal especially within biomedical signals processing area where independence is

  16. Obituary: Arthur Dodd Code (1923-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marché, Jordan D., II

    2009-12-01

    Former AAS president Arthur Dodd Code, age 85, passed away at Meriter Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin on 11 March 2009, from complications involving a long-standing pulmonary condition. Code was born in Brooklyn, New York on 13 August 1923, as the only child of former Canadian businessman Lorne Arthur Code and Jesse (Dodd) Code. An experienced ham radio operator, he entered the University of Chicago in 1940, but then enlisted in the U.S. Navy (1943-45) and was later stationed as an instructor at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. During the war, he gained extensive practical experience with the design and construction of technical equipment that served him well in years ahead. Concurrently, he took physics courses at George Washington University (some under the tutelage of George Gamow). In 1945, he was admitted to the graduate school of the University of Chicago, without having received his formal bachelor's degree. In 1950, he was awarded his Ph.D. for a theoretical study of radiative transfer in O- and B-type stars, directed by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. hired onto the faculty of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1951-56). He then accepted a tenured appointment at the California Institute of Technology and the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (1956-58). But following the launch of Sputnik, Code returned to Wisconsin in 1958 as full professor of astronomy, director of the Washburn Observatory, and department chairman so that he could more readily pursue his interest in space astronomy. That same year, he was chosen a member of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (created during the International Geophysical Year) and shortly became one of five principal investigators of the original NASA Space Science Working Group. In a cogent 1960 essay, Code argued that astrophysical investigations, when conducted from beyond the Earth's atmosphere, "cannot fail to have a tremendous impact on the future course of stellar astronomy," a prediction strongly borne out in the decades that followed. In 1959, Code founded the Space Astronomy Laboratory (SAL) within the UW Department of Astronomy. Early photometric and spectrographic equipment was test-flown aboard NASA's X-15 rocket plane and Aerobee sounding rockets. Along with other SAL personnel, including Theodore E. Houck, Robert C. Bless, and John F. McNall, Code (as principal investigator) was responsible for the design of the Wisconsin Experiment Package (WEP) as one of two suites of instruments to be flown aboard the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO), which represented a milestone in the advent of space astronomy. With its seven reflecting telescopes feeding five filter photometers and two scanning spectrometers, WEP permitted the first extended observations in the UV portion of the spectrum. After the complete failure of the OAO-1 spacecraft (launched in 1966), OAO-2 was successfully launched on 7 December 1968 and gathered data on over a thousand celestial objects during the next 50 months, including stars, nebulae, galaxies, planets, and comets. These results appeared in a series of more than 40 research papers, chiefly in the Ap.J., along with the 1972 monograph, The Scientific Results from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-2), edited by Code. Between the OAO launches, other SAL colleagues of Code developed the Wisconsin Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (or APT), the first computer-controlled (or "robotic") telescope. Driven by a PDP-8 mini-computer, it routinely collected atmospheric extinction data. Code was also chosen principal investigator for the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (or WUPPE). This used a UV-sensitive polarimeter designed by Kenneth Nordsieck that was flown twice aboard the space shuttles in 1990 and 1995. Among other findings, WUPPE observations demonstrated that interstellar dust does not appreciably change the direction of polarization of starlight, thereby supporting its possible composition as graphite. Code was the recipie

  17. Axially symmetric pseudo-Newtonian hydrodynamics code

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jinho; Choptuik, Matthew William; Lee, Hyung Mok

    2012-01-01

    We develop a numerical hydrodynamics code using a pseudo-Newtonian formulation that uses the weak field approximation for the geometry, and a generalized source term for the Poisson equation that takes into account relativistic effects. The code was designed to treat moderately relativistic systems such as rapidly rotating neutron stars. The hydrodynamic equations are solved using a finite volume method with High Resolution Shock Capturing (HRSC) techniques. We implement several different slope limiters for second order reconstruction schemes and also investigate higher order reconstructions. We use the method of lines (MoL) to convert the mixed spatial-time partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that depend only on time. These ODEs are solved using 2nd and 3rd order Runge-Kutta methods. The Poisson equation for the gravitational potential is solved with a multigrid method. In order to confirm the validity of our code, we carry out four different tests including one and two...

  18. QRAC-the-Code: a comprehension monitoring strategy for middle school social studies textbooks.

    PubMed

    Berkeley, Sheri; Riccomini, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Requirements for reading and ascertaining information from text increase as students advance through the educational system, especially in content-rich classes; hence, monitoring comprehension is especially important. However, this is a particularly challenging skill for many students who struggle with reading comprehension, including students with learning disabilities. A randomized pre-post experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a comprehension monitoring strategy (QRAC-the-Code) for improving the reading comprehension of 323 students in grades 6 and 7 in inclusive social studies classes. Findings indicated that both general education students and students with learning disabilities who were taught a simple comprehension monitoring strategy improved their comprehension of textbook content compared to students who read independently and noted important points. In addition, students in the comprehension monitoring condition reported using more reading strategies after the intervention. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21757682

  19. Mean-based neural coding of voices.

    PubMed

    Andics, Attila; McQueen, James M; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2013-10-01

    The social significance of recognizing the person who talks to us is obvious, but the neural mechanisms that mediate talker identification are unclear. Regions along the bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) of the human brain are selective for voices, and they are sensitive to rapid voice changes. Although it has been proposed that voice recognition is supported by prototype-centered voice representations, the involvement of these category-selective cortical regions in the neural coding of such "mean voices" has not previously been demonstrated. Using fMRI in combination with a voice identity learning paradigm, we show that voice-selective regions are involved in the mean-based coding of voice identities. Voice typicality is encoded on a supra-individual level in the right STS along a stimulus-dependent, identity-independent (i.e., voice-acoustic) dimension, and on an intra-individual level in the right IFC along a stimulus-independent, identity-dependent (i.e., voice identity) dimension. Voice recognition therefore entails at least two anatomically separable stages, each characterized by neural mechanisms that reference the central tendencies of voice categories. PMID:23664949

  20. Fire investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gomberg

    1982-01-01

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed

  1. Optimization of Coded Aperture Radioscintigraphy for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Idoine, John D.; Gioux, Sylvain; Accorsi, Roberto; Slochower, David R.; Lanza, Richard C.; Frangioni, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Radioscintigraphic imaging during sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping could potentially improve localization; however, parallel-hole collimators have certain limitations. In this study, we explored the use of coded aperture (CA) collimators. Procedures Equations were derived for the six major dependent variables of CA collimators (i.e., masks) as a function of the ten major independent variables, and an optimized mask was fabricated. After validation, dual-modality CA and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence SLN mapping was performed in pigs. Results Mask optimization required the judicious balance of competing dependent variables, resulting in sensitivity of 0.35%, XY resolution of 2.0 mm, and Z resolution of 4.2 mm at an 11.5 cm FOV. Findings in pigs suggested that NIR fluorescence imaging and CA radioscintigraphy could be complementary, but present difficult technical challenges. Conclusions This study lays the foundation for using CA collimation for SLN mapping, and also exposes several problems that require further investigation. PMID:21567254

  2. Design of proximity detecting codes

    E-print Network

    Perisetty, Srinivas

    1997-01-01

    DETECTION AND PROPERTIES A. Characterization of t-PD Codes[17] B. Anomalous Behavior of t-PD Codes C. Relation between t-PD and Other Unordered Codes 1. t-EC-AUED Codes . 2. Unordered Single Error Correcting Codes 3. Dual-Rail Codes IV A BOUND FOR T... issue of IEEE %anssctions on Information Theory assumed that the bus is all-0 before the sender begins transmitting a codeword. Thus, any word received by the receiver is covered [6j by the transmitted codeword. The occurrence of transmission errors...

  3. Noiseless coding for the magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji

    1987-01-01

    Future unmanned space missions will continue to seek a full understanding of magnetic fields throughout the solar system. Severely constrained data rates during certain portions of these missions could limit the possible science return. This publication investigates the application of universal noiseless coding techniques to more efficiently represent magnetometer data without any loss in data integrity. Performance results indicated that compression factors of 2:1 to 6:1 can be expected. Feasibility for general deep space application was demonstrated by implementing a microprocessor breadboard coder/decoder using the Intel 8086 processor. The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission will incorporate these techniques in a buffer feedback, rate-controlled configuration. The characteristics of this system are discussed.

  4. Speeding Up Cosmological Boltzmann Codes

    E-print Network

    Michael Doran

    2005-09-05

    We introduce a novel strategy for cosmological Boltzmann codes leading to an increase in speed by a factor of \\sim 30 for small scale Fourier modes. We (re-)investigate the tight coupling approximation and obtain analytic formulae reaching up to the octupoles of photon intensity and polarization. This leads to accurate results reaching optimal precision, while still being simple. Damping rapid oscillations of small scale modes at later times, we simplify the integration of cosmological perturbations. We obtain analytic expressions for the photon density contrast and velocity as well as an estimate of the quadrupole from after last scattering until today. These analytic formulae hold well during re-ionization and are in fact negligible for realistic cosmological scenarios. However, they do extend the validity of our approach to models with very large optical depth to the last scattering surface.

  5. The best bits in an iris code.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J

    2009-06-01

    Iris biometric systems apply filters to iris images to extract information about iris texture. Daugman's approach maps the filter output to a binary iris code. The fractional Hamming distance between two iris codes is computed and decisions about the identity of a person are based on the computed distance. The fractional Hamming distance weights all bits in an iris code equally. However, not all the bits in an iris code are equally useful. Our research is the first to present experiments documenting that some bits are more consistent than others. Different regions of the iris are compared to evaluate their relative consistency, and contrary to some previous research, we find that the middle bands of the iris are more consistent than the inner bands. The inconsistent-bit phenomenon is evident across genders and different filter types. Possible causes of inconsistencies, such as segmentation, alignment issues, and different filters are investigated. The inconsistencies are largely due to the coarse quantization of the phase response. Masking iris code bits corresponding to complex filter responses near the axes of the complex plane improves the separation between the match and nonmatch Hamming distance distributions. PMID:19372603

  6. DANTSYS: A diffusion accelerated neutral particle transport code system

    SciTech Connect

    Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.; Brinkley, F.W.; Marr, D.R.; O`Dell, R.D.; Walters, W.F.

    1995-06-01

    The DANTSYS code package includes the following transport codes: ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, TWOHEX, and THREEDANT. The DANTSYS code package is a modular computer program package designed to solve the time-independent, multigroup discrete ordinates form of the boltzmann transport equation in several different geometries. The modular construction of the package separates the input processing, the transport equation solving, and the post processing (or edit) functions into distinct code modules: the Input Module, one or more Solver Modules, and the Edit Module, respectively. The Input and Edit Modules are very general in nature and are common to all the Solver Modules. The ONEDANT Solver Module contains a one-dimensional (slab, cylinder, and sphere), time-independent transport equation solver using the standard diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. Also included in the package are solver Modules named TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, THREEDANT, and TWOHEX. The TWODANT Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation using the diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. The authors have also introduced an adaptive weighted diamond differencing (AWDD) method for the spatial and angular discretization into TWODANT as an option. The TWOHEX Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation on an equilateral triangle spatial mesh. The THREEDANT Solver Module solves the time independent, three-dimensional transport equation for XYZ and RZ{Theta} symmetries using both diamond differencing with set-to-zero fixup and the AWDD method. The TWODANT/GQ Solver Module solves the 2-D transport equation in XY and RZ symmetries using a spatial mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals. The spatial differencing method is based upon the diamond differencing method with set-to-zero fixup with changes to accommodate the generalized spatial meshing.

  7. IEAB Independent Economic Analysis Board

    E-print Network

    and Conclusions Introduction The purpose of this task was to investigate operations and maintenance (O&M) costs if it could be used to develop cost benchmarking information based on an equation or a standard cost per acre, their objectives, and local conditions that affect activities and their expected costs. For typical questions about

  8. Instrument independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Fu, Henry L.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2011-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a fiber optic probe is a powerful tool for quantitative tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. Significant systematic errors can arise in the measured reflectance spectra and thus in the derived tissue physiological and morphological parameters due to real-time instrument fluctuations. We demonstrate a novel fiber optic probe with real-time, self-calibration capability that can be used for UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in biological tissue in clinical settings. The probe is tested in a number of synthetic liquid phantoms over a wide range of tissue optical properties for significant variations in source intensity fluctuations caused by instrument warm up and day-to-day drift. While the accuracy for extraction of absorber concentrations is comparable to that achieved with the traditional calibration (with a reflectance standard), the accuracy for extraction of reduced scattering coefficients is significantly improved with the self-calibration probe compared to traditional calibration. This technology could be used to achieve instrument-independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo and obviate the need for instrument warm up and post?premeasurement calibration, thus saving up to an hour of precious clinical time. PMID:21280897

  9. Preprototype independent air revitalization subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The performance and maturity of a preprototype, three-person capacity, automatically controlled and monitored, self-contained independent air revitalization subsystem were evaluated. The subsystem maintains the cabin partial pressure of oxygen at 22 kPa (3.2 psia) and that of carbon dioxide at 400 Pa (3 mm Hg) over a wide range of cabin air relative humidity conditions. Consumption of water vapor by the water vapor electrolysis module also provides partial humidity control of the cabin environment. During operation, the average carbon dioxide removal efficiency at baseline conditions remained constant throughout the test at 84%. The average electrochemical depolarized concentrator cell voltage at the end of the parametric/endurance test was 0.41 V, representing a very slowly decreasing average cell voltage. The average water vapor electrolysis cell voltage increased only at a rate of 20 mu/h from the initial level of 1.67 V to the final level of 1.69 V at conclusion of the testing.

  10. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion light years from Earth. These results do not rely on the traditional distance ladder. Bonamente and his colleagues find the Hubble constant to be 77 kilometers per second per megaparsec (a megaparsec is equal to 3.26 million light years), with an uncertainty of about 15%. This result agrees with the values determined using other techniques. The Hubble constant had previously been found to be 72, give or take 8, kilometers per second per megaparsec based on Hubble Space Telescope observations. The new Chandra result is important because it offers the independent confirmation that scientists have been seeking and fixes the age of the Universe between 12 and 14 billion years. Chandra X-ray Image of CL J1226.9+3332 Chandra X-ray Image of CL J1226.9+3332 "These new results are entirely independent of all previous methods of measuring the Hubble constant," said team member Marshall Joy also of MSFC. The astronomers used a phenomenon known as the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, where photons in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) interact with electrons in the hot gas that pervades the enormous galaxy clusters. The photons acquire energy from this interaction, which distorts the signal from the microwave background in the direction of the clusters. The magnitude of this distortion depends on the density and temperature of the hot electrons and the physical size of the cluster. Using radio telescopes to measure the distortion of the microwave background and Chandra to measure the properties of the hot gas, the physical size of the cluster can be determined. From this physical size and a simple measurement of the angle subtended by the cluster, the rules of geometry can be used to derive its distance. The Hubble constant is determined by dividing previously measured cluster speeds by these newly derived distances. Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 1689 Chandra X-ray Image of Abell 1689 This project was championed by Chandra's telescope mirror designer, Leon Van Speybroeck, who passed away in 2002. The foundation was laid when team members John Carlstrom

  11. Model Independent Direct Detection Analyses

    E-print Network

    A. Liam Fitzpatrick; Wick Haxton; Emanuel Katz; Nicholas Lubbers; Yiming Xu

    2012-11-12

    Following the construction of the general effective theory for dark matter direct detection in 1203.3542, we perform an analysis of the experimental constraints on the full parameter space of elastically scattering dark matter. We review the prescription for calculating event rates in the general effective theory and discuss the sensitivity of various experiments to additional nuclear responses beyond the spin-independent (SI) and spin-dependent (SD) couplings: an angular-momentum-dependent (LD) and spin-and-angular-momentum-dependent (LSD) response, as well as a distinction between transverse and longitudinal spin-dependent responses. We consider the effect of interference between different operators and in particular look at directions in parameter space where such cancellations lead to holes in the sensitivity of individual experiments. We explore the complementarity of different experiments by looking at the improvement of bounds when experiments are combined. Finally, our scan through parameter space shows that within the assumptions on models and on the experiments' sensitivity that we make, no elastically scattering dark matter explanation of DAMA is consistent with all other experiments at 90%, though we find points in parameter space that are ruled out only by about a factor of 2 in the cross-section.

  12. Unbiasedness of simultaneous independent measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Zinan; Li, Zhengbin

    2012-08-01

    We manage to get the true parameter value out of biased data without any zero calibration, a result which has not been reported to our knowledge. In order to obtain the true value of a given physical quantity out of biased noises, a general model and an algorithm based on simultaneous independent measurements are demonstrated. A decision function is constructed using variable measuring vectors. A nonlinear estimator is provided using linear combinations of differential statistics of initial observations. Repeated gyroscope experiments targeting the Earth's local rotation velocity are implemented to validate the algorithm and the estimator. Experimental results show that the true rotation velocity is obtained even if initial observations are either positively or negatively biased. Therefore, it is possible to get the true value of a physical quantity using simultaneous multi-dimensional measurements, no matter whether systematic biases exist or not. This reveals a phenomenon that physical observations, even though obscured by time-varying biases and noises, have an intrinsic true-value feature which has not been made use of in current theories and applications.

  13. Compression of parametric surfaces for efficient 3D model coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santa-Cruz, Diego; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2002-01-01

    In the field of compression, the type of 3D models traditionally considered is that of polygonal meshes, for which several efficient compression techniques have been proposed in the recent years. Nowadays, an increasing proportion of 3D models are created by a synthesis or modeling process, instead of captured from the real world. Such models are most often given as parametric surfaces, which have several advantages over polygonal meshes, such as resolution independence and a more compact representation. This paper proposes a method to code parametric surfaces, given as Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). The coding scheme consists in coding the NURBS parameters (knots and control points) using a predictive scheme, coupled with uniform quantization and entropy coding. The multiplicity of knots is preserved by decomposing the knot vectors in a break vector (the values) and a multiplicity map. The rate-distortion of the proposed scheme is evaluated and compared against compressed triangular meshes. The results show that a considerable compression ratio is achievable under visually lossless conditions, that outperforms by far triangular meshes. In addition of having a better rate-distortion performance, the coding scheme enables the efficient transmission of synthesized 3D models retaining their resolution independence.

  14. Slepian-Wolf Coding for Nonuniform Sources Using Turbo Codes

    E-print Network

    Li, Tiffany Jing

    Slepian-Wolf Coding for Nonuniform Sources Using Turbo Codes Jing Li (Tiffany), Zhenyu Tu and Rick source Slepian-Wolf coding problem [1]. This paper studies the case when sources are i) problem, also known as the Slepian-Wolf problem, is an interesting problem that has close connections

  15. Space time coded code division multiplexing on SC140 DSP 

    E-print Network

    Menon, Murali P

    2001-01-01

    is implemented on StarCore's SC140 fixed-point DSP core. The very large instruction word architecture of the SC140 is utilized to efficiently implement space-time coded code-division multiplexing system. The goal is to evaluate the suitability of space-time coded...

  16. Multifractal analysis of managed and independent float exchange rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoši?, Darko; Stoši?, Dusan; Stoši?, Tatijana; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-06-01

    We investigate multifractal properties of daily price changes in currency rates using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We analyze managed and independent floating currency rates in eight countries, and determine the changes in multifractal spectrum when transitioning between the two regimes. We find that after the transition from managed to independent float regime the changes in multifractal spectrum (position of maximum and width) indicate an increase in market efficiency. The observed changes are more pronounced for developed countries that have a well established trading market. After shuffling the series, we find that the multifractality is due to both probability density function and long term correlations for managed float regime, while for independent float regime multifractality is in most cases caused by broad probability density function.

  17. ALEGRA -- code validation: Experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Konrad, C.H.; Mosher, D.A.; Reinhart, W.D; Duggins, B.D.; Rodeman, R.; Trucano, T.G.; Summers, R.M.; Peery, J.S.

    1998-03-16

    In this study, the authors are providing an experimental test bed for validating features of the ALEGRA code over a broad range of strain rates with overlapping diagnostics that encompass the multiple responses. A unique feature of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Grid for Research Applications (ALEGRA) code is that it allows simultaneous computational treatment, within one code, of a wide range of strain-rates varying from hydrodynamic to structural conditions. This range encompasses strain rates characteristic of shock-wave propagation (10{sup 7}/s) and those characteristic of structural response (10{sup 2}/s). Most previous code validation experimental studies, however, have been restricted to simulating or investigating a single strain-rate regime. What is new and different in this investigation is that the authors have performed well-instrumented experiments which capture features relevant to both hydrodynamic and structural response in a single experiment. Aluminum was chosen for use in this study because it is a well characterized material--its EOS and constitutive material properties are well defined over a wide range of loading rates. The current experiments span strain rate regimes of over 10{sup 7}/s to less than 10{sup 2}/s in a single experiment. The input conditions are extremely well defined. Velocity interferometers are used to record the high strain-rate response, while low strain rate data were collected using strain gauges.

  18. CAFE: A New Relativistic MHD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; Cruz-Osorio, A.; Guzmán, F. S.

    2015-06-01

    We introduce CAFE, a new independent code designed to solve the equations of relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) in three dimensions. We present the standard tests for an RMHD code and for the relativistic hydrodynamics regime because we have not reported them before. The tests include the one-dimensional Riemann problems related to blast waves, head-on collisions of streams, and states with transverse velocities, with and without magnetic field, which is aligned or transverse, constant or discontinuous across the initial discontinuity. Among the two-dimensional (2D) and 3D tests without magnetic field, we include the 2D Riemann problem, a one-dimensional shock tube along a diagonal, the high-speed Emery wind tunnel, the Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability, a set of jets, and a 3D spherical blast wave, whereas in the presence of a magnetic field we show the magnetic rotor, the cylindrical explosion, a case of Kelvin–Helmholtz instability, and a 3D magnetic field advection loop. The code uses high-resolution shock-capturing methods, and we present the error analysis for a combination that uses the Harten, Lax, van Leer, and Einfeldt (HLLE) flux formula combined with a linear, piecewise parabolic method and fifth-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstructors. We use the flux-constrained transport and the divergence cleaning methods to control the divergence-free magnetic field constraint.

  19. CAFE: A New Relativistic MHD Code

    E-print Network

    F. D. Lora-Clavijo; A. Cruz-Osorio; F. S. Guzman

    2015-05-12

    We introduce CAFE, a new independent code designed to solve the equations of Relativistic ideal Magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) in 3D. We present the standard tests for a RMHD code and for the Relativistic Hydrodynamics (RHD) regime since we have not reported them before. The tests include the 1D Riemann problems related to blast waves, head-on collision of streams and states with transverse velocities, with and without magnetic field, which is aligned or transverse, constant or discontinuous across the initial discontinuity. Among the 2D and 3D tests, without magnetic field we include the 2D Riemann problem, a one dimensional shock tube along a diagonal, the high speed Emery wind tunnel, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, a set of jets and a 3D spherical blast wave, whereas in the presence of a magnetic field we show the magnetic rotor, the cylindrical explosion, a case of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and a 3D magnetic field advection loop. The code uses High Resolution Shock Capturing methods and we present the error analysis for a combination that uses the HLLE flux formula combined with linear, PPM and fifth order WENO reconstructors. We use the flux-CT and the divergence cleaning methods to control the divergence free magnetic field constraint.

  20. Independent evolution of neurotoxin and flagellar genetic loci in proteolytic Clostridium botulinum

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Andrew T; Paul, Catherine J; Mason, David R; Twine, Susan M; Alston, Mark J; Logan, Susan M; Austin, John W; Peck, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Background Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum is the causative agent of botulism, a severe neuroparalytic illness. Given the severity of botulism, surprisingly little is known of the population structure, biology, phylogeny or evolution of C. botulinum. The recent determination of the genome sequence of C. botulinum has allowed comparative genomic indexing using a DNA microarray. Results Whole genome microarray analysis revealed that 63% of the coding sequences (CDSs) present in reference strain ATCC 3502 were common to all 61 widely-representative strains of proteolytic C. botulinum and the closely related C. sporogenes tested. This indicates a relatively stable genome. There was, however, evidence for recombination and genetic exchange, in particular within the neurotoxin gene and cluster (including transfer of neurotoxin genes to C. sporogenes), and the flagellar glycosylation island (FGI). These two loci appear to have evolved independently from each other, and from the remainder of the genetic complement. A number of strains were atypical; for example, while 10 out of 14 strains that formed type A1 toxin gave almost identical profiles in whole genome, neurotoxin cluster and FGI analyses, the other four strains showed divergent properties. Furthermore, a new neurotoxin sub-type (A5) has been discovered in strains from heroin-associated wound botulism cases. For the first time, differences in glycosylation profiles of the flagella could be linked to differences in the gene content of the FGI. Conclusion Proteolytic C. botulinum has a stable genome backbone containing specific regions of genetic heterogeneity. These include the neurotoxin gene cluster and the FGI, each having evolved independently of each other and the remainder of the genetic complement. Analysis of these genetic components provides a high degree of discrimination of strains of proteolytic C. botulinum, and is suitable for clinical and forensic investigations of botulism outbreaks. PMID:19298644

  1. Genetic approach for dynamic OVSF code allocation in 3G wireless networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Karakoç; Adnan Kavak

    2009-01-01

    Orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) codes provide variable data rate transmissions for different bandwidth requirements in 3G WCDMA networks. In order to effectively utilize limited OVSF resources, many works in the literature have focused on dynamic code assignment (DCA) schemes. This paper investigates genetic algorithm (GA) based approach for dynamic OVSF code assignment in WCDMA networks. Different from existing conventional

  2. INFORMATION THEORETIC ASPECTS OF CODED RANDOM DIRECT-SEQUENCE SPREAD-SPECTRUM

    E-print Network

    Verdú, Sergio

    INFORMATION THEORETIC ASPECTS OF CODED RANDOM DIRECT-SEQUENCE SPREAD-SPECTRUM Sergio Verdzi Dept of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) random direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) are investigated implications due to fading are also addressed. 1. INTRODUCTION Coded direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum (DSSS

  3. Decoding of Canonical Hu man Codes with Look-Up Tables

    E-print Network

    Eckmiller, Rolf

    Decoding of Canonical Hu man Codes with Look-Up Tables Yakov Nekritch Abstract We describe an e cientalgorithmfor decoding canonical Hu - man codes with look-up tables. Furthermore, a connection be- tween the probability of a symbol and the length of its codeword in a Hu man code is investigated. We design a method

  4. Predictive Coding for Efficient Host-Device Communication in a Pneumatic Force-Feedback Display

    E-print Network

    Borst, Christoph Walter

    @cacs.louisiana.edu Abstract We investigate predictive coding for reducing the amount of data communicated between a hapticPredictive Coding for Efficient Host-Device Communication in a Pneumatic Force-Feedback Display controller and a host. This allows increased update rate, which potentially improves quality even if coding

  5. QRishing: The Susceptibility of Smartphone Users to QR Code Phishing Attacks

    E-print Network

    Tague, Patrick

    QRishing: The Susceptibility of Smartphone Users to QR Code Phishing Attacks Timothy Vidas investigated the viability of QR- code-initiated phishing attacks, or QRishing, by conducting two exper- iments application of QR codes for phishing. Over our four-week study, our disingenuous flyers were scanned by 225

  6. Code Clone Analysis Environment for Software Maintenance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiki Higo; Toshihiro Kamiya; Shinji Kusumoto; Katsuro Inoue

    Recently, code clone has been regarded as one of factors that make software maintenance more dicult. A code clone is a code fragment in a source code that is identical or similar to another. For example, if we modify a code fragment which has code clones, it is necessary to consider whether we have to modify each of its code

  7. Experimental investigation on the origin of the genetic code.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxinger, C.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1971-01-01

    A simple model of interacting complex systems of species is tested to assess the binding behavior of monomeric nucleic acid and protein components during evolution. Nine representative amino acids are immobilized by the formation of an amide linkage on a prepared chromatographic support. Selective binding of ribonucleoside 5-phosphates in these amino acids is achieved under standardized conditions, and a site-binding model is derived to characterize the binding. It is shown that the binding behavior of the reactants during nucleic acid-protein interactions depends on the nature of the base and the amino acid. The results of the study are assessed as useful for the interpretation of more complex nucleic acid-protein systems and of their role in the evolution of the cell.

  8. Investigation of Navier-Stokes code verification and design optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajkumar Vaidyanathan

    2004-01-01

    With rapid progress made in employing computational techniques for various complex Navier-Stokes fluid flow problems, design optimization problems traditionally based on empirical formulations and experiments are now being addressed with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). To be able to carry out an effective CFD-based optimization study, it is essential that the uncertainty and appropriate confidence limits of the

  9. On lossless coding for HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wen; Jiang, Minqiang; Yu, Haoping

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we first review the lossless coding mode in the version 1 of the HEVC standard that has recently finalized. We then provide a performance comparison between the lossless coding mode in the HEVC and MPEG-AVC/H.264 standards and show that the HEVC lossless coding has limited coding efficiency. To improve the performance of the lossless coding mode, several new coding tools that were contributed to JCT-VC but not adopted in version 1 of HEVC standard are introduced. In particular, we discuss sample based intra prediction and coding of residual coefficients in more detail. At the end, we briefly address a new class of coding tools, i.e., a dictionary-based coder, that is efficient in encoding screen content including graphics and text.

  10. Arithmetic coding for data compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian H. witten; Radford M. Neal; John Gerald Cleary

    1987-01-01

    The state of the art in data compression is arithmetic coding, not the better-known Huffman method. Arithmetic coding gives greater compression, is faster for adaptive models, and clearly separates the model from the channel encoding.

  11. CTI Correction Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Richard; Stoughton, Chris; Leauthaud, Alexie; Rhodes, Jason; Koekemoer, Anton; Ellis, Richard; Shaghoulian, Edgar

    2013-07-01

    Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) due to radiation damage above the Earth's atmosphere creates spurious trailing in images from Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) imaging detectors. Radiation damage also creates unrelated warm pixels, which can be used to measure CTI. This code provides pixel-based correction for CTI and has proven effective in Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys raw images, successfully reducing the CTI trails by a factor of ~30 everywhere in the CCD and at all flux levels. The core is written in java for speed, and a front-end user interface is provided in IDL. The code operates on raw data by returning individual electrons to pixels from which they were unintentionally dragged during readout. Correction takes about 25 minutes per ACS exposure, but is trivially parallelisable to multiple processors.

  12. Reeds computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjork, C.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

  13. VAC: Versatile Advection Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gábor; Keppens, Rony

    2012-07-01

    The Versatile Advection Code (VAC) is a freely available general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulation software that works in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions on Cartesian and logically Cartesian grids. VAC runs on any Unix/Linux system with a Fortran 90 (or 77) compiler and Perl interpreter. VAC can run on parallel machines using either the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library or a High Performance Fortran (HPF) compiler.

  14. Color-coded Continents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    C. Scotese

    Paleogeographic reconstructions for time periods within 620 million years to present are featured on this site. These global paleogeographic maps are viewed by scrolling down the page and are arranged in order of increasing age beginning with the present. Landmasses are color-coded to illustrate the movement of plates through time. The site also discusses how the maps are constructed and what lines of evidence are most commonly used, and includes several links to additional information.

  15. High-Tech or Low-Tech? Comparing Self-Monitoring Systems to Increase Task Independence for Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily C.; Savage, Melissa; Meyer, Nancy K.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa; Hunley, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Independence is the ultimate goal for students with disabilities, including secondary students with autism. One avenue targeted for increasing independence and decreasing prompt-dependency is through self-monitoring. In this study, investigators sought to determine whether a difference exists in levels of task independence when three students with…

  16. Bar coded retroreflective target

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    2000-01-25

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  17. MELCOR computer code manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  18. On quantum codes obtained from cyclic codes over A2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dertli, Abdullah; Cengellenmis, Yasemin; Eren, Senol

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, quantum codes from cyclic codes over A2 = F2 + uF2 + vF2 + uvF2, u2 = u, v2 = v, uv = vu, for arbitrary length n have been constructed. It is shown that if C is self orthogonal over A2, then so is ?(C), where ? is a Gray map. A necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over A2 that contains its dual has also been given. Finally, the parameters of quantum error correcting codes are obtained from cyclic codes over A2.

  19. Coded modulation with Low Density Parity Check codes

    E-print Network

    Narayanaswami, Ravi

    2001-01-01

    for the particular modulation format in this thesis. C. Decoding LDPC Codes with Coded Modulation In coded modulation, the estimate of a bit is improved with a better estimate of the other bits in the symbol. In other words the channel a bit in the symbol sees... fast 29 since the problem becomes one dimensional. B. LDPC Codes for Coded Modulation 1. Density Evolution with BICM Due to the modulation format different bits in the symbol have diff'erent LLRs coming from the channel. Some bits are better...

  20. CRN Investigators

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Home Contact Us Search CRN Investigators Executive Committee Members Steering Committee Members Executive Committee Members Lawrence H. Kushi, ScD Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California CRN Principal Investigator,

  1. Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline

    E-print Network

    #12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, Georgia August development · Charge from BPTCS to B31 Standards Committee for Hydrogen Piping/Pipeline code development · B31.12 Status & Structure · Hydrogen Pipeline issues · Research Needs · Where Do We Go From Here? #12;4 Code

  2. Towards universal code generator generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Richards; Edward K. Walters II; J. Eliot B. Moss; Trek S. Palmer; Charles C. Weems

    2008-01-01

    One of the most difficult tasks a compiler writer faces is the construction of the code generator. The code generator is that part of the compiler that translates compiler intermediate representation (IR) into instructions for a target machine. Unfortunately, implementing a code generator \\

  3. Stochastic Decoding of Turbo Codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quang Trung Dong; Matthieu Arzel; Christophe Jégo; Warren J. Gross

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic computation is a technique in which operations on probabilities are performed on random bit streams. Stochastic decoding of forward error-correction (FEC) codes is inspired by this technique. This paper extends the application of the stochastic decoding approach to the families of convolutional codes and turbo codes. It demonstrates that stochastic computation is a promising solution to improve the data

  4. Ptolemy Coding Style Christopher Brooks

    E-print Network

    Ptolemy Coding Style Christopher Brooks Edward A. Lee Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences;Ptolemy Coding Style Christopher Brooks1 , Edward A. Lee1 , 1 {cxh,eal}@eecs.berkeley.edu, 1 University to the academic community. This document describes the coding style used in Ptolemy II, a package with 550K lines

  5. Deep Coding Network Yuanqing Lin

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Tong

    , so that learning a fairly big number of codebooks can still be fast. 2 Sparse Coding and NonlinearDeep Coding Network Yuanqing Lin Tong Zhang Shenghuo Zhu Kai Yu NEC Laboratories America in a hierarchical multiple-layer manner. Empirically, it is shown that the deep coding approach yields improved

  6. Wavefront coding with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbana, Temitope E.; Soloviev, Oleg; Bezzubik, Vitalii; Patlan, Vsevolod; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb

    2015-03-01

    We have implemented an extended depth of field optical system by wavefront coding with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror. This approach provides a versatile extension to standard wavefront coding based on fixed phase mask. First experimental results validate the feasibility of the use of adaptive optics for variable depth wavefront coding in imaging optical systems.

  7. Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

  8. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  9. Design of proximity detecting codes 

    E-print Network

    Perisetty, Srinivas

    1997-01-01

    delay insensitive, codes like unordered codes have been proposed. Although these codes are delay insensitive, the receiver still has to wait for all the 1s in the transmitted data to be received before sending an acknowledge signal to the sender. A new...

  10. Coding changes could affect benchmarking.

    PubMed

    2006-08-01

    CMS intends to move to a severity-adjusted system for DRGs; number of codes may double. ICD-10 will allow for more specific codes, which could affect benchmark data. Understanding the new codes and data will be critical to uncovering opportunities for improvement. PMID:16925073

  11. Quantum stabilizer codes and beyond

    E-print Network

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep Kiran

    2008-10-10

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 II BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 A. Quantum Computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. Qubits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. Quantum Gates... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 2. Encoding Subsystem Codes by Standard Form Method . . 150 3. Encoding Subsystem Codes by Conjugation Method . . . . 156 E. Syndrome Measurement for Nonbinary Fq-linear Codes . . . . 164 F. Conclusions...

  12. Six-digit coding method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinan Qiao; Yizheng Qiao; Sanzheng Qiao

    1990-01-01

    The Six-Digit Coding Method (SDCM) is a new coding method for Chinese characters. It is based on the structural analysis of Chinese characters. We recently developed this method and have successfully used it to code 11,100 characters, including the simplified, traditional, and variant forms found in Xin Hua Dictionary [7]. This article illustrates the basic principes, features, and some viewpoints

  13. Correlation approach to identify coding regions in DNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ossadnik, S. M.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, it was observed that noncoding regions of DNA sequences possess long-range power-law correlations, whereas coding regions typically display only short-range correlations. We develop an algorithm based on this finding that enables investigators to perform a statistical analysis on long DNA sequences to locate possible coding regions. The algorithm is particularly successful in predicting the location of lengthy coding regions. For example, for the complete genome of yeast chromosome III (315,344 nucleotides), at least 82% of the predictions correspond to putative coding regions; the algorithm correctly identified all coding regions larger than 3000 nucleotides, 92% of coding regions between 2000 and 3000 nucleotides long, and 79% of coding regions between 1000 and 2000 nucleotides. The predictive ability of this new algorithm supports the claim that there is a fundamental difference in the correlation property between coding and noncoding sequences. This algorithm, which is not species-dependent, can be implemented with other techniques for rapidly and accurately locating relatively long coding regions in genomic sequences.

  14. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3{sup t} times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  15. Low Density Parity Check Codes: Bandwidth Efficient Channel Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Wai; Lin, Shu; Maki, Gary; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes provide near-Shannon Capacity performance for NASA Missions. These codes have high coding rates R=0.82 and 0.875 with moderate code lengths, n=4096 and 8176. Their decoders have inherently parallel structures which allows for high-speed implementation. Two codes based on Euclidean Geometry (EG) were selected for flight ASIC implementation. These codes are cyclic and quasi-cyclic in nature and therefore have a simple encoder structure. This results in power and size benefits. These codes also have a large minimum distance as much as d,,, = 65 giving them powerful error correcting capabilities and error floors less than lo- BER. This paper will present development of the LDPC flight encoder and decoder, its applications and status.

  16. Prehospital Volume Therapy as an Independent Risk Factor after Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Matthias; Lefering, Rolf; Touma, Alexander; Schoeneberg, Carsten; Keitel, Judith; Lendemans, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prehospital volume therapy remains widely used after trauma, while evidence regarding its disadvantages is growing. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the volume administered in a prehospital setting as an independent risk factor for mortality. Material and Methods. Patients who met the following criteria were analyzed retrospectively: Injury Severity Score = 16, primary admission (between 2002 and 2010), and age = 16 years. The following data had to be available: volume administered (including packed red cells), blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Scale, therapeutic measures, and laboratory results. Following a univariate analysis, independent risk factors for mortality after trauma were investigated using a multivariate regression analysis. Results. A collective of 7,641 patients met the inclusion criteria, showing that increasing volumes administered in a prehospital setting were an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio: 1.34). This tendency was even more pronounced in patients without severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) (odds ratio: 2.71), while the opposite tendency was observed in patients with TBI. Conclusions. Prehospital volume therapy in patients without severe TBI represents an independent risk factor for mortality. In such cases, respiratory and circulatory conditions should be stabilized during permissive hypotension, and patient transfer should not be delayed. PMID:25949995

  17. On the binary weight distribution of some Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.

    1985-01-01

    Consider an (n,k) linear code with symbols from GF(2 sup M). If each code symbol is represented by a m-tuple over GF(2) using certain basis for GF(2 sup M), a binary (nm,km) linear code is obtained. The weight distribution of a binary linear code obtained in this manner is investigated. Weight enumerators for binary linear codes obtained from Reed-Solomon codes over GF(2 sup M) generated by polynomials, (X-alpha), (X-l)(X-alpha), (X-alpha)(X-alpha squared) and (X-l)(X-alpha)(X-alpha squared) and their extended codes are presented, where alpha is a primitive element of GF(2 sup M). Binary codes derived from Reed-Solomon codes are often used for correcting multiple bursts of errors.

  18. Selection of Early-Occurring Mutations Dictates Hormone-Independent Progression in Mouse Mammary Tumor Lines?

    PubMed Central

    Gattelli, Albana; Zimberlin, María N.; Meiss, Roberto P.; Castilla, Lucio H.; Kordon, Edith C.

    2006-01-01

    Mice harboring three mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) variants develop pregnancy-dependent (PD) tumors that progress to pregnancy-independent (PI) behavior through successive passages. Herein, we identified 10 predominant insertions in PI transplants from 8 independent tumor lines. These mutations were also detected in small cell populations in the early PD passages. In addition, we identified a new viral insertion upstream of the gene Rspo3, which is overexpressed in three of the eight independent tumor lines and codes for a protein very similar to the recently described protein encoded by Int7. This study suggests that during progression towards hormone independence, clonal expansion of cells with specific mutations might be more relevant than the occurrence of new MMTV insertions. PMID:16971449

  19. 2014-15 Child Support Paid Verification Worksheet V3-Independent Student Page 1 of 1 20142015 Child Support Paid Verification Worksheet

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    2014-15 Child Support Paid Verification Worksheet V3-Independent Student Page 1 of 1 2014­2015 Child Support Paid Verification Worksheet V3-Independent Student Your 2014­2015 Free Application Student's Date of Birth Student's Phone Number (include area code) Student's Email Address B. Child

  20. 2014-15 Child Support Paid Verification Worksheet V3-Independent Student Page 1 of 1 20142015 Child Support Paid Verification Worksheet

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    2014-15 Child Support Paid Verification Worksheet V3-Independent Student Page 1 of 1 2014­2015 Child Support Paid Verification Worksheet V3 - Independent Student Your 2014­2015 Free Application Student's Date of Birth Student's Phone Number (include area code) Student's Email Address B. Child