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Sample records for involucrata dc seeds

  1. Solenostemon monostachyus, Ipomoea involucrata and Carica papaya seed oil versus Glutathione, or Vernonia amygdalina: Methanolic extracts of novel plants for the management of sickle cell anemia disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease caused by an individual inheriting an allele for sickle cell hemoglobin from both parents and is associated with unusually large numbers of immature blood cells, containing many long, thin, crescent-shaped erythrocytes. It is a disease prevalent throughout many populations. The use of medicinal plants and nutrition in managing SCD is gaining increasing attention. Methods The antisickling effects of Solenostemon monostachyus (SolMon), Carica papaya seed oil (Cari-oil) and Ipomoea involucrata (Ipocrata) in male (HbSSM) and female (HbSSF) human sickle cell blood was examined in vitro and compared with controls, or cells treated with glutathione or an antisickling plant (Vernonia amygdalina; VerMyg). Results Levels of sickle blood cells were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all the plant-extract treated SCD patients’ blood compared with that of untreated SCD patients. RBCs in SolMon, Ipocrata, and Cari-oil treated samples were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg-treated samples. The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all plant extract-treated HbSSM samples compared with controls. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by SolMon treatment in HbSSF compared with VerMyg. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition exhibited by SolMon was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with that of VerMyg in HbSSF blood. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition in SolMon and Ipocrata were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg in HbSSM blood. All plant extracts significantly reduced (P < 0.05) lactate dehydrogenase activity in both HbSSM and HbSSF-treated blood. Catalase activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in HbSSF blood treated with Ipocrata compared with glutathione. Cari-oil treated HbSSM and HbSSF blood had significantly increased (P < 0.05) peroxidase activity compared with controls. Conclusions Methanolic extracts from S

  2. Study of DC and AC electric field effect on Pisum sativum seeds growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Bahar; Jaleh, Sojoodi; Yasaman, Yasaie

    2014-07-01

    In this research the effect of electric field on two groups of wet and dry Pisum sativum seeds growth was studied. To generate the required electric field a parallel-plate capacitor with round copper plates of 30 cm diameter was used. The experiments were performed once in fixed exposure duration of 8 min in variable DC electric field of 0.25-1.5 kV/m. The other experiments were performed in variable fields of 50-125 kV/m in fixed exposure duration of 8 min, in two groups of AC and DC electric fields. The experiments were repeated three times. In each experiment 10 seeds were used and there was a sham exposed group for comparison, too. After application of electric field, the seeds were kept for six days in the same growth chamber with the temperature of 25 ± 1 °C and 12 h light/12 h darkness. On the 6th day length of stems and height of roots were measured. After doing statistical analysis, in low intensities of DC electric field, the highest significant increase of mean growth (The average of stem length and the height of roots) was seen in 1.5 kV/m in wet seeds. In high intensities of DC and AC electric fields, the highest significant increase of mean growth was seen in AC electric field of 100 kV/m in wet seeds.

  3. Reduction of breakdown threshold by metal nanoparticle seeding in a DC microdischarge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Jordan; Abboud, Jacques; Zhang, Zhili; Adams, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    Significant reduction of the breakdown threshold in a DC microdischarge via seeding metal nanoparticles has been demonstrated. Compared to standard Paschen curves in dry air, reductions in the breakdown voltage of 5% to 25% were obtained for PD values (the product of pressure and electrode gap distance) ranging from 20 to 40 Torr-cm by seeding aluminum and iron nanoparticles with mean sizes of 75 nm and 80 nm, respectively. No secondary energy source was required to achieve this breakdown threshold reduction. From high-speed chemiluminescence imaging of the discharge evolution, breakdown was shown to be initiated at reduced voltages. Following breakdown, the increase in temperature ignited some of the nanoparticles near the cathode. Results suggest that possible charging of the nanoparticles within the gap may reduce the effective transient distance, leading to the threshold reduction.

  4. Antifatigue and Antioxidant Activity of Alcoholic Extract from Saussurea involucrata

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jang-Chang; Kao, Jung-Yie; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Liao, Chien-Fu; Huang, Chi-Hung; Fan, Ling-Ling; Way, Tzong-Der

    2011-01-01

    Fatigue is a noticeable and highly prevalent symptom in tense, industriously, and economically affluent modern society. Therefore, new antifatigue agents to smooth the fatigue feature are an energetic topic. The total ethanol extract (ESI) of Saussurea involucrata Kar et Kir., known as Tian-Shan snow lotus, was evaluated for antifatigue activity in ICR mice with mice forced swimming test and the determination of the contents of blood lactic acid and serum urea nitrogen. ESI (0.05, 0.15, 0.25 g/kg) was administered orally to mice for 4 weeks. The average swimming times to exhaustion of the ESI-treated ICR mice (0.15, 0.25 g/kg) were prolonged by 132% and 180% (p<0.001) with a lessening of fatigue compared with that of the control group. Analysis of biochemical parameters showed that levels of serum urea nitrogen and blood lactic acid of experimental groups were also decreased significantly (p<0.001) compared with that of the control group. The antioxidant activity of ESI was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay and the hydrogen peroxide-induced luminol chemiluminescence assay and the results indicated that ESI exerts DPPH scavenging ability and reducing power. These results provide scientific evidence that S. involucrata may have been potential as an antifatigue agent. PMID:24716107

  5. Study of effect of AC and DC magnetic fields on growth of Pisum sativum seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar, Mahmood; Yasaie Mehrjardi, Yasaman; Sojoodi, Jaleh; Bayani, Hosien; Kazem Salem, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    This paper concentrates on the effect of the AC and DC magnetic fields on plant growth. The effect of AC magnetic field with intensities of 2.25, 1.66 and 1.49 mT and DC magnetic field with intensities of 3.6, 2.41 and 2.05 mT in exposure durations of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 min on two groups of dry and wet Pisum sativum seedlings was studied. In each experiment 10 seeds were used; the experiments were repeated three times for each group and there was a sham exposed group for comparison purposes. The light cycle was 12 h light/12 h darkness and the temperature was 25 ± 1° C. The index of growth is considered to be the root and stem elongation on the sixth day. It was observed that AC magnetic field has a positive effect on the growth in all durations and intensities. Moreover, it is highlighted that during the experiments, the mean growth of dry seedlings significantly increased by a factor of 11 in AC magnetic field with the lowest intensity of 1.49 mT (p < 0.05). It was also shown that AC magnetic fields had a more positive effect on the growth of plants in comparison to DC magnetic fields.

  6. Metabolic Engineering of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway Enhances the Antioxidant Capacity of Saussurea involucrata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chonghui; Han, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Qiao; Zhao, Dexiu; Hua, Xuejun; Pang, Yongzhen

    2013-01-01

    The rare wild species of snow lotus Saussurea involucrata is a commonly used medicinal herb with great pharmacological value for human health, resulting from its uniquely high level of phenylpropanoid compound production. To gain information on the phenylpropanid biosynthetic pathway genes in this critically important medicinal plant, global transcriptome sequencing was performed. It revealed that the phenylpropanoid pathway genes were well represented in S. involucrata. In addition, we introduced two key phenylpropanoid pathway inducing transcription factors (PAP1 and Lc) into this medicinal plant. Transgenic S. involucrata co-expressing PAP1 and Lc exhibited purple pigments due to a massive accumulation of anthocyanins. The over-expression of PAP1 and Lc largely activated most of the phenylpropanoid pathway genes, and increased accumulation of several phenylpropanoid compounds significantly, including chlorogenic acid, syringin, cyanrine and rutin. Both ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid) and FRAP (ferric reducing anti-oxidant power) assays revealed that the antioxidant capacity of transgenic S. involucrata lines was greatly enhanced over controls. In addition to providing a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, our results potentially enable an alternation of bioactive compound production in S. involucrata through metabolic engineering. PMID:23976949

  7. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with the alpine plant Saussurea involucrata.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ya-li; Zhang, Fu-sheng; Chen, Juan; Cui, Jin-long; Xing, Yong-mei; Li, Xiang-dong; Guo, Shun-xing

    2010-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are rich in species diversity and may play an important role in the fitness of their host plants. This study investigated the diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi obtained from Saussurea involucrata KAR. et KIR. A total of 49 endophytic fungi were isolated from S. involucrata and identified using morphological and molecular techniques. Extracts of fermentation broth from the 49 fungi were tested for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms using the agar diffusion method. Forty-eight out of the 49 endophytic fungi were identified and grouped into 14 taxa. Cylindrocarpon sp. was the dominant species isolated from S. involucrata, followed by Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp. Among the 49 endophytic fungi, 9 root isolates having darkly pigmented, septate hyphae were identified as dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungus, and 12 fungi inhibited at least one test microorganism. Moreover, 5 strains showed a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity and 4 strains displayed strong inhibition (+++) against pathogenic fungi. The results indicate that endophytic fungi isolated from S. involucrata are diverse in species and a potential source of antimicrobial agents. PMID:20686222

  8. A new phenolic constituent and a cyanogenic glycoside from Balanophora involucrata (Balanophoraceae).

    PubMed

    She, Gai-Mei; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren

    2013-06-01

    Balanophora involucrata HOOK.f. & THOMSON (Balanophoraceae) is a parasite plant often growing on the roots of leguminous plants. The whole herb has been used medicinally for the treatment of irregular menstruation, cough, hemoptysis, traumatic injury and bleeding, dizziness and gastralgia in Yunnan Province, China. The 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay on the 60% aq. acetone extract of the fresh whole plant of B. involucrata showed considerable radical-scavenging activity (SC₅₀ 15.3 μg/ml). Further purification on the extract led to the isolation of one new phenolic glycoside, sieboldin-3'-ketocarboxylic acid (1), and one new cyanogenic glycoside, proacacipetalin 6'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with 26 known compounds including three 4"-O-galloyl and 2",3"-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) derivatives of dihydrochalcone glucosides, seven hydrolyzable tannins, and alkane glycosides. The cyanogenic compound isolated from the Balanophoraceae family for the first time might be a signal molecule between B. involucrata and its hosts. The free-radical-scavenging activity of the isolated compounds was also examined by DPPH assay. PMID:23776023

  9. Antioxidative activity in the pericarp and seed of Japanese pepper (Xanthoxylum piperitum DC).

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, E; Matsui, M; Kubota, K; Kobayashi, A

    2000-10-01

    The antioxidative activity of the dried pericarp and seed of Japanese pepper was studied. The ethyl acetate extract from the pericarp and the methanol extract from the seed showed strong antioxidative activity against linoleic acid by the ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. Japanese pepper contained 3.9 and 2.9 mg/100 g of dry weight (dw) of tocopherols in the pericarp and seed, respectively, alpha-Toc in the former constituting 82% of total tocopherol and gamma-Toc in the latter constituting 96%. Arbutin and magnoflorine were isolated as antioxidants and their chemical structures determined by instrumental analyses. The contents of arbutin evaluated as the trifluoroacetate derivative by GC-MS were 35 and 3.0 mg/100 g of dw in the pericarp and seed, respectively. Magnoflorine was present only in the seed, and not in the pericarp. Both arbutin and magnoflorine exhibited antioxidative activity against linoleic acid and radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH radical. PMID:11052757

  10. Preparation of bioactive peptides with high angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity from winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.] seed.

    PubMed

    Wan Mohtar, Wan Abd Al-Qadr Imad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Muhamad, Sharifah Kharidah Syed; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-12-01

    Winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.] seed is a potential underexploited source of vegetable protein due to its high protein content. In the present work, undefatted and defatted winged bean seed hydrolysates, designated as UWBSH and DWBSH, respectively were produced separately by four proteolytic enzymes namely Flavourzyme, Alcalase, Bromelain, and Papain using pH-stat method in a batch reactor. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out over a period of 0.5 to 5 h. UWBSH and DWBSH produced were tested for their ACE inhibitory activity in relation to the hydrolysis time and degree of hydrolysis (DH). Maximum ACE inhibitory activity, both for UWBSH and DWBSH, were observed during 3 to 5 h of hydrolysis. Both, UWBSH (DH 91.84 %), and DWSBH (DH 18.72 %), produced by Papain at 5 h hydrolysis, exhibited exceptionally high ACE inhibitory activity with IC50 value 0.064 and 0.249 mg mL(-1), respectively. Besides, papain-produced UWBSH and DWBSH were further fractionated into three fractions based on molecular weight (UWBSH-I, <10 kDa; UWBSH-II, <5 kDa; UWBSH-III, <2 kDa) and (DWBSH-I, <10 kDa; DWBSH-II, <5 kDa; DWBSH-III, <2 kDa). UWBSH-III revealed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 0.003 mg mL(-1)) compared with DWBSH-III (IC50 0.130 mg mL(-1)). The results of the present investigation revealed that winged bean seed hydrolysates can be explored as a potential source of ACE inhibitory peptides suggesting their uses for physiological benefits as well as for other functional food applications. PMID:25477632

  11. Live imaging of developmental processes in a living meristem of Davidia involucrata (Nyssaceae).

    PubMed

    Jerominek, Markus; Bull-Hereñu, Kester; Arndt, Melanie; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2014-01-01

    Morphogenesis in plants is usually reconstructed by scanning electron microscopy and histology of meristematic structures. These techniques are destructive and require many samples to obtain a consecutive series of states. Unfortunately, using this methodology the absolute timing of growth and complete relative initiation of organs remain obscure. To overcome this limitation, an in vivo observational method based on Epi-Illumination Light Microscopy (ELM) was developed and tested with a male inflorescence meristem (floral unit) of the handkerchief tree Davidia involucrata Baill. (Nyssaceae). We asked whether the most basal flowers of this floral unit arise in a basipetal sequence or, alternatively, are delayed in their development. The growing meristem was observed for 30 days, the longest live observation of a meristem achieved to date. The sequence of primordium initiation indicates a later initiation of the most basal flowers and not earlier or simultaneously as SEM images could suggest. D. involucrata exemplarily shows that live-ELM gives new insights into developmental processes of plants. In addition to morphogenetic questions such as the transition from vegetative to reproductive meristems or the absolute timing of ontogenetic processes, this method may also help to quantify cellular growth processes in the context of molecular physiology and developmental genetics studies. PMID:25431576

  12. Live imaging of developmental processes in a living meristem of Davidia involucrata (Nyssaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Jerominek, Markus; Bull-Hereñu, Kester; Arndt, Melanie; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2014-01-01

    Morphogenesis in plants is usually reconstructed by scanning electron microscopy and histology of meristematic structures. These techniques are destructive and require many samples to obtain a consecutive series of states. Unfortunately, using this methodology the absolute timing of growth and complete relative initiation of organs remain obscure. To overcome this limitation, an in vivo observational method based on Epi-Illumination Light Microscopy (ELM) was developed and tested with a male inflorescence meristem (floral unit) of the handkerchief tree Davidia involucrata Baill. (Nyssaceae). We asked whether the most basal flowers of this floral unit arise in a basipetal sequence or, alternatively, are delayed in their development. The growing meristem was observed for 30 days, the longest live observation of a meristem achieved to date. The sequence of primordium initiation indicates a later initiation of the most basal flowers and not earlier or simultaneously as SEM images could suggest. D. involucrata exemplarily shows that live-ELM gives new insights into developmental processes of plants. In addition to morphogenetic questions such as the transition from vegetative to reproductive meristems or the absolute timing of ontogenetic processes, this method may also help to quantify cellular growth processes in the context of molecular physiology and developmental genetics studies. PMID:25431576

  13. Nutritional and chemical evaluation of raw seeds of Canavalia gladiata (Jacq) DC. and C. ensiformis DC: the under utilized food and fodder crops in India.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, N; Janardhanan, K

    1992-10-01

    In India, the seeds of Canavalia gladiata and C. ensiformis have traditionally been eaten by the aborigines, but they are less popular among the civilized people. The data on the chemical composition and nutritional quality of these seeds are not readily available. The proximate composition, mineral composition, the contents of total (true) proteins, seed protein fractions, profile of seed protein amino acids and certain antinutritional factors were analysed and reported in the present study. The seeds of C. ensiformis contain more crude protein, crude lipid and minerals like Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe and Mn than does C. gladiata. Both albumins and globulins together constitute the major bulk of seed proteins. In both the species of Canavalia investigated, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, isoleucine + leucine, tyrosine + phenylalanine and lysine are the major amino acids of seed proteins. The presence of certain antinutritional factors (total free phenols, tannins, lectins, L-DOPA, trypsin inhibitor activity) is also reported for both species of Canavalia. PMID:1438077

  14. Three new ring-A modified ursane triterpenes from Davidia involucrata.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qing-Wei; Ouyang, Ming-An; Gao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three new ursane triterpenes, 3α,19α-dihydroxy-2-nor-urs-12-en-23,28-dioic acid-23-methyl ester (1), 19α,23-dihydroxy-3-oxo-2-nor-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), and 2,3-seco-3-methoxy-3,19α,23-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-2-al-28-oic acid (3), were isolated from the MeOH extract of the branch barks of Davidia involucrata, together with six known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by means of various spectroscopic analyses. The isolated triterpenes provide important evolutionary and chemotaxonomic knowledge about the monotypic genus Davidia. Five of the identified compounds showed moderate cytotoxicities against the cell proliferation of SGC-7901, MCF-7, and BEL-7404 with IC50 range from 7.26 to 47.41 μM. PMID:24747647

  15. Plant-based hydrocarbon esters from Tragia involucrata possess antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Sethi, Gautam; Chow, Vincent T K; Stiles, Bradley G

    2013-04-01

    Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrocarbon esters obtained from Tragia involucrata were evaluated by disk-diffusion (250 µg/ml), and broth-dilution (500-7.8 µg/ml), methods against bacteria. Among the compounds, shellsol showed the most potent activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW), Aeromonas hydrophila, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Interestingly, vinyl hexylether was active against food-spoilage bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Proteus vulgaris), 2, 4-methyl hexane also exerted antimicrobial activity against K. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, B. pseudomallei, Alcaligens viscolactis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 2-methylnonane and 2, 6-dimethyl heptane showed only weak activity. For example, shellsol showed bacteriostatic effect (MIC of 7.8 µg/ml) against A. hydrophila, vinyl hexylether (MIC of 15.6 µg/ml) against P. mirabilis, and 2, 4-methyl hexane (MIC of 31.25 µg/ml) on B. pseudomallei. Cytotoxic effects of compounds were assayed in human skin and monkey kidney cells (62.5-2000 µg/ml) by an XTT assay. The vinyl hexylether, 2, 4-dimethyl hexane and shellsol did not show any toxicity up to 1000 µg/ml concentrations. The 2-methylnonane and 2, 6-dimethyl heptane induced morphological changes (e.g. cell disintegration and lysis) of both cell types at a 2000 µg/ml. The vinyl hexylether, 2, 4-dimethyl hexane and shellsol were devoid of toxic effects; however, 2-methylnonane induced weight loss and severe necrosis as evidenced by histopathological and serum biochemical analysis in rats. Interestingly, shellsol showed the maximum inhibition of carrageenan-induced, paw oedema in rats. In conclusion, findings of this study clearly indicate that biologically active hydrocarbon esters, such as shellsol, vinyl hexylether, and 2, 4-dimethyl hexane isolated from T. involucrata, may effectively control the growth of certain food-borne and food

  16. Purification of antibacterial agents from Tragia involucrata--a popular tribal medicine for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Houghton, Peter; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2006-08-11

    Tragia involucrata has been widely used in traditional systems of medicine for a variety of diseases. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial properties of nine different compounds including vinyl hexylether, shellsol, 2,4-dimethyl hexane, 2-methylnonane and 2,6-dimethyl heptane were isolated from the leaf of Tragia involucrata studied against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus using the disc-diffusion method at 50 microg/ml concentrations. The compound vinyl hexylether showed a broad spectrum of activity. The highest activity was found in shellsol (50 microg/ml) against Proteusvulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for the effective compounds (MICs 2.5-40 microg/ml), shellsol and vinyl hexylether showed inhibitory action at the lowest dilution (10 microg/ml) than 2-methylnanone. Shellsol inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus very effectively than the other compounds. These compounds showed bactericidal effects against all the tested bacteria (MBC, 12.25 microg/ml). However, the compound shellsol showed effective killing of wound causing bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). So, the study was focused on the constituent to evaluate wound healing in rat model. Rats that received 50 microg/kg, b.w. of shellsol showed complete healing after 24 days. Histological examination revealed an increase in the fibroblast, neovascularization, granulation and thickness of scar tissue after the treatment of shellsol as compared to control. The topical application of shellsol did not cause any toxic response on rat skin. Thus, the antibacterial properties of the constituents give some scientific basis to its usage in traditional medicine. PMID:16600546

  17. Allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata DC. ex Kurz on Eleusine indica (L.) gaertn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halimshah, Syamimi; Ismail B., S.; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata on the growth of E. indica through aqueous extract and debris (incorporated into the soil) experiment. Three concentrations of leaf and seed aqueous extract (16.7, 33.3 and 66.7 g/L) and debris (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/500 g soil) of M. bracteata were used in the experiment. Complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications was applied in this experiment which was conducted twice. Results demonstrated that the leaf and seed extracts of M. bracteata exhibited higher suppression effect on the growth and germination of E. indica as the concentration increased. The leaf and seed extracts significantly reduced all measured parameters at all concentrations except for the shoot length and germination of E. indica by seed extract at 16.7 g/L which recorded insignificant reduction by 40.5% and 4% respectively. The leaf and seed debris significantly reduced the root length of E. indica at all treatments. Seed debris also showed significant reduction on the germination at all treatments and other seedling growth parameters (shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight) at 2.5 and 10.0 g/500 g soil. Meanwhile, the leaf debris demonstrated stimulation effect on the seedling growth parameters. As a whole, the leaf showed higher suppression effect in aqueous extract experiment while the seed recorded higher suppression effect in the debris experiment. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the type of inhibition mechanism involved in both experiments.

  18. Cloning and characterization of a novel dehydrin gene, SiDhn2, from Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Honglin; Zhang, Linhua; Liu, Chao; He, Li; Wang, Aiying; Liu, Hai-Liang; Zhu, Jian-Bo

    2014-04-01

    Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir. is a hardy dicotyledonous plant capable of tolerating severe abiotic stress conditions. In a previous study, we created a cDNA library to determine what factors are associated with the cold acclimation response in S. involucrata. From this, a full-length cDNA of a dehydrin-like gene (SiDhn2) was obtained by RT-PCR. The SiDhn2 gene was characterized in this study. The full-length SiDhn2 cDNA comprised 693 bp containing an open reading frame of 345 bp specifying a protein of 115 amino acids. An alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that SiDhn2 shared 55 % identity with two Brassica dehydrins. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to transform RD29A:SiDhn2 and 35S:SiDhn2 constructs into tobacco to investigate the germination and resistance to freezing and drought stress of transgenic plants. The RD29A:SiDhn2 transgenic plants showed greater resistance to freezing and drought stress than 35S:SiDhn2 transgenic plants or the wild-type. This study demonstrates that SiDhn2 confers cold hardiness and drought resistance, and may be a candidate resistance gene for genetic improvement of crops to increase stress resistance. PMID:24337866

  19. Winged bean [Psophorcarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC] seeds as an underutilised plant source of bifunctional proteolysate and biopeptides.

    PubMed

    Yea, Chay Shyan; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Bakar, Jamilah; Muhammad, Kharidah; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-05-01

    Hypertension is one of the major causes of cardiovascular-related diseases, which is highly associated with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and oxidative stress. In this study, winged bean seed (WBS), a potential source of protein, was utilised for the production of bifunctional proteolysate and biopeptides with ACE inhibitory and antioxidative properties. An enzymatic approach was applied, coupled with pretreatment of shaking and centrifuging techniques to remove endogenous ACE inhibitors prior to proteolysis. ACE inhibition reached its highest activity, 78.5%, after 12 h proteolysis while antioxidative activities, determined using assays involving DPPH˙ radical scavenging activity and metal ion-chelating activity, reached peaks of 65.0% and 65.7% at 8 h and 14 h, respectively. The said bioactivities were proposed to share some common structural requirements among peptides. A two-dimensional approach was employed for characterisation of effective peptides based on hydrophobicity, using RP-HPLC, and isoelectric property, using isoelectric focusing technique. Results revealed that acidic and basic peptides with partially higher hydrophobicity provided higher ACE inhibition activity than did neutral peptides. Finally, by using Q-TOF mass spectrometry, two peptide sequences (YPNQKV and FDIRA) with ACE inhibitory and antioxidative activities were successfully matched with a database. This study indicates that the WBS proteolysate can be a potential bifunctional food ingredient as the identified biopeptides demonstrated both ACE inhibitory and antioxidative activities in vitro. PMID:24658538

  20. Rutin, a Flavonoid and Principal Component of Saussurea Involucrata, Attenuates Physical Fatigue in a Forced Swimming Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Su, Kang-Yi; Yu, Chao Yuan; Chen, Yue-Wen; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Chen, Chun-Ting; Wu, Hsueh-Fu; Chen, Yi-Lin Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antifatigue effects of rutin, a flavonoid extracted from the ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata. Mice were subjected to a weight-loaded forced swim test (WFST) on alternate days for 3 wk. Rutin was administered orally to the mice for 7 days in dosages of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight, and several biomarkers of physical fatigue were evaluated: swimming time, change in body weight, lipid peroxidation, lactic acid (LA), glycogen, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). On Day 7, the rutin-treated mice had a 3-fold longer exhaustive swimming time than the control mice, as well as significantly reduced blood LA concentrations. The 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight rutin-supplemented groups displayed 11.2%, 22.5%, and 37.7% reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, respectively, in brain and muscle tissues compared with the control exercised group. Our results indicated that the administration of rutin protected the mice against the depletion of SOD and GPx activities significantly. Following 7 days of rutin treatment, we sacrificed the mice and analyzed their soleus muscle and brain for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator (PGC-1α) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) mRNA expression. We observed that rutin treatment increased PGC-1α and SIRT1 mRNA and protein expression. The changes in these markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were associated with increased maximal endurance capacity. The application of 2D gel electrophoresis to analyze the rutin-responsive protein profiles in the WFST mouse brain further revealed the upregulation of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein 1, myelin basic protein, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) alpha, and TPI, indicating that rutin might inhibit anxiety through the upregulation of the expression of anxiety-associated proteins. Western blot analysis of MAPK expression further confirmed the antianxiety effects

  1. Milliwatt dc/dc Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    Compact dc/dc inverter uses single integrated-circuit package containing six inverter gates that generate and amplify 100-kHz square-wave switching signal. Square-wave switching inverts 10-volt local power to isolated voltage at another desired level. Relatively high operating frequency reduces size of filter capacitors required, resulting in small package unit.

  2. Simplified dc to dc converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, R. P. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A dc to dc converter which can start with a shorted output and which regulates output voltage and current is described. Voltage controlled switches directed current through the primary of a transformer the secondary of which includes virtual reactance. The switching frequency of the switches is appropriately varied to increase the voltage drop across the virtual reactance in the secondary winding to which there is connected a low impedance load. A starting circuit suitable for voltage switching devices is provided.

  3. DC to DC battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F.L.; Terrill, L.R.

    1987-01-20

    A DC to DC battery charger is described for a vehicle comprising: adapter plug means for making electrical connections to a first battery through a cigarette lighter socket in the vehicle; means of making electrical connections to a second battery to be charged; a DC to AC converter and an AC to DC rectifier for elevating the voltage from the first battery to a voltage above that of the second battery; integrated circuit means for generating a pulse width modulated current as a function for the charged condition of the second battery; transistor switch means supplied with the pulse width modulated current for developing a charging voltage; a choke coil and a capacitor serially connected to the transistor switch means; and a diode connected across the choke coil and the capacitor whereby the capacitor is charged during pulses of current from the transistor switch means through the choke coil. The choke coil reverses polarity at the termination of the pulses of current and continues to charge the battery through the diode. The DC rectified voltage is controlled by the integrated circuit means for regulating current through the choke coil.

  4. Adaptable DC offset correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  5. High-Efficiency dc/dc Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J.

    1982-01-01

    High-efficiency dc/dc converter has been developed that provides commonly used voltages of plus or minus 12 Volts from an unregulated dc source of from 14 to 40 Volts. Unique features of converter are its high efficiency at low power level and ability to provide output either larger or smaller than input voltage.

  6. Seed Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initiation of seed germination is a critical decision for plants. It is important for seed populations under natural conditions to spread the timing of germination of individual seeds to maximize the probability of species survival. Therefore, seeds have evolved the multiple layers of mechanisms tha...

  7. DC/DC Converter Stability Testing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents study results on hybrid DC/DC converter stability testing methods. An input impedance measurement method and a gain/phase margin measurement method were evaluated to be effective to determine front-end oscillation and feedback loop oscillation. In particular, certain channel power levels of converter input noises have been found to have high degree correlation with the gain/phase margins. It becomes a potential new method to evaluate stability levels of all type of DC/DC converters by utilizing the spectral analysis on converter input noises.

  8. Reports on the Brown Cases: 18 Years Later. Unresolved Racial Problems in Topeka; D.C.: Getting Together After Strife; Massive White Flight in Summerton; Dual Schools in Prince Edward County; Delaware: Seeds of Violence Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Reports what has happened to education in the five school districts involved in the consolidated Brown case - Topeka, Kan., Washington, D.C., Summerton, S. C., Prince Edward County, Va., and Wilmington, Del. - since the Supreme Court ruling in 1954. (RJ)

  9. Carbonhydrate Content and Root Growth in Seeds Germinated Under Salt Stress: Implications for Seed Conditioning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars and sugar alcohols have well documented roles in salt tolerance in whole plants and maturing seeds. Less is known, however, about possible effects of these compounds during germination. Seeds from mannitol-accumulating salt-tolerant celery [Apium graveloens L. var. dulce (P. Mill.) DC], non...

  10. Seed proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cel...

  11. DC source assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  12. Radiation effects on DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Dexin; Attia, John O.; Kankam, Mark D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    DC-DC switching converters are circuits that can be used to convert a DC voltage of one value to another by switching action. They are increasing being used in space systems. Most of the popular DC-DC switching converters utilize power MOSFETs. However power MOSFETs, when subjected to radiation, are susceptible to degradation of device characteristics or catastrophic failure. This work focuses on the effects of total ionizing dose on converter performance. Four fundamental switching converters (buck converter, buck-boost converter, cuk converter, and flyback converter) were built using Harris IRF250 power MOSFETs. These converters were designed for converting an input of 60 volts to an output of about 12 volts with a switching frequency of 100 kHz. The four converters were irradiated with a Co-60 gamma source at dose rate of 217 rad/min. The performances of the four converters were examined during the exposure to the radiation. The experimental results show that the output voltage of the converters increases as total dose increases. However, the increases of the output voltage were different for the four different converters, with the buck converter and cuk converter the highest and the flyback converter the lowest. We observed significant increases in output voltage for cuk converter at a total dose of 24 krad (si).

  13. DC-to-DC switching converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuk, Slobodan M. (Inventor); Middlebrook, Robert D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A dc-to-dc converter having nonpulsating input and output current uses two inductances, one in series with the input source, the other in series with the output load. An electrical energy transferring device with storage, namely storage capacitance, is used with suitable switching means between the inductances to DC level conversion. For isolation between the source and load, the capacitance may be divided into two capacitors coupled by a transformer, and for reducing ripple, the inductances may be coupled. With proper design of the coupling between the inductances, the current ripple can be reduced to zero at either the input or the output, or the reduction achievable in that way may be divided between the input and output.

  14. Radiation Effects on DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, De-Xin; AbdulMazid, M. D.; Attia, John O.; Kankam, Mark D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this work, several DC-DC converters were designed and built. The converters are Buck Buck-Boost, Cuk, Flyback, and full-bridge zero-voltage switched. The total ionizing dose radiation and single event effects on the converters were investigated. The experimental results for the TID effects tests show that the voltages of the Buck Buck-Boost, Cuk, and Flyback converters increase as total dose increased when using power MOSFET IRF250 as a switching transistor. The change in output voltage with total dose is highest for the Buck converter and the lowest for Flyback converter. The trend of increase in output voltages with total dose in the present work agrees with those of the literature. The trends of the experimental results also agree with those obtained from PSPICE simulation. For the full-bridge zero-voltage switch converter, it was observed that the dc-dc converter with IRF250 power MOSFET did not show a significant change of output voltage with total dose. In addition, for the dc-dc converter with FSF254R4 radiation-hardened power MOSFET, the output voltage did not change significantly with total dose. The experimental results were confirmed by PSPICE simulation that showed that FB-ZVS converter with IRF250 power MOSFET's was not affected with the increase in total ionizing dose. Single Event Effects (SEE) radiation tests were performed on FB-ZVS converters. It was observed that the FB-ZVS converter with the IRF250 power MOSFET, when the device was irradiated with Krypton ion with ion-energy of 150 MeV and LET of 41.3 MeV-square cm/mg, the output voltage increased with the increase in fluence. However, for Krypton with ion-energy of 600 MeV and LET of 33.65 MeV-square cm/mg, and two out of four transistors of the converter were permanently damaged. The dc-dc converter with FSF254R4 radiation hardened power MOSFET's did not show significant change at the output voltage with fluence while being irradiated by Krypton with ion energy of 1.20 GeV and LET of 25

  15. Multilevel DC link inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  16. Radiation-Tolerant DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skutt, Glenn; Sable, Dan; Leslie, Leonard; Graham, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses power converters suitable for space use that meet the DSCC MIL-PRF-38534 Appendix G radiation hardness level P classification. A method for qualifying commercially produced electronic parts for DC-DC converters per the Defense Supply Center Columbus (DSCC) radiation hardened assurance requirements was developed. Development and compliance testing of standard hybrid converters suitable for space use were completed for missions with total dose radiation requirements of up to 30 kRad. This innovation provides the same overall performance as standard hybrid converters, but includes assurance of radiation- tolerant design through components and design compliance testing. This availability of design-certified radiation-tolerant converters can significantly reduce total cost and delivery time for power converters for space applications that fit the appropriate DSCC classification (30 kRad).

  17. Forback DC-to-DC converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukemire, Alan T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A pulse-width modulated DC-to-DC power converter including a first inductor, i.e. a transformer or an equivalent fixed inductor equal to the inductance of the secondary winding of the transformer, coupled across a source of DC input voltage via a transistor switch which is rendered alternately conductive (ON) and nonconductive (OFF) in accordance with a signal from a feedback control circuit is described. A first capacitor capacitively couples one side of the first inductor to a second inductor which is connected to a second capacitor which is coupled to the other side of the first inductor. A circuit load shunts the second capacitor. A semiconductor diode is additionally coupled from a common circuit connection between the first capacitor and the second inductor to the other side of the first inductor. A current sense transformer generating a current feedback signal for the switch control circuit is directly coupled in series with the other side of the first inductor so that the first capacitor, the second inductor and the current sense transformer are connected in series through the first inductor. The inductance values of the first and second inductors, moreover, are made identical. Such a converter topology results in a simultaneous voltsecond balance in the first inductance and ampere-second balance in the current sense transformer.

  18. Forback DC-to-DC converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukemire, Alan T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pulse-width modulated DC-to-DC power converter including a first inductor, i.e. a transformer or an equivalent fixed inductor equal to the inductance of the secondary winding of the transformer, coupled across a source of DC input voltage via a transistor switch which is rendered alternately conductive (ON) and nonconductive (OFF) in accordance with a signal from a feedback control circuit is described. A first capacitor capacitively couples one side of the first inductor to a second inductor which is connected to a second capacitor which is coupled to the other side of the first inductor. A circuit load shunts the second capacitor. A semiconductor diode is additionally coupled from a common circuit connection between the first capacitor and the second inductor to the other side of the first inductor. A current sense transformer generating a current feedback signal for the switch control circuit is directly coupled in series with the other side of the first inductor so that the first capacitor, the second inductor and the current sense transformer are connected in series through the first inductor. The inductance values of the first and second inductors, moreover, are made identical. Such a converter topology results in a simultaneous voltsecond balance in the first inductance and ampere-second balance in the current sense transformer.

  19. Intelligent dc-dc Converter Technology Developed and Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and the Cleveland State University have developed a digitally controlled dc-dc converter to research the benefits of flexible, digital control on power electronics and systems. Initial research and testing has shown that conventional dc-dc converters can benefit from improved performance by using digital-signal processors and nonlinear control algorithms.

  20. RISK D/C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    RISK D/C is a prototype program which attempts to do program risk modeling for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) architectures proposed in the Synthesis Group Report. Risk assessment is made with respect to risk events, their probabilities, and the severities of potential results. The program allows risk mitigation strategies to be proposed for an exploration program architecture and to be ranked with respect to their effectiveness. RISK D/C allows for the fact that risk assessment in early planning phases is subjective. Although specific to the SEI in its present form, RISK D/C can be used as a framework for developing a risk assessment program for other specific uses. RISK D/C is organized into files, or stacks, of information, including the architecture, the hazard, and the risk event stacks. Although predefined, all stacks can be upgraded by a user. The architecture stack contains information concerning the general program alternatives, which are subsequently broken down into waypoints, missions, and mission phases. The hazard stack includes any background condition which could result in a risk event. A risk event is anything unfavorable that could happen during the course of a specific point within an architecture, and the risk event stack provides the probabilities, consequences, severities, and any mitigation strategies which could be used to reduce the risk of the event, and how much the risk is reduced. RISK D/C was developed for Macintosh series computers. It requires HyperCard 2.0 or later, as well as 2Mb of RAM and System 6.0.8 or later. A Macintosh II series computer is recommended due to speed concerns. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. RISK D/C was developed in 1991 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Macintosh and HyperCard are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

  1. DC Breakdown Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Calatroni, S.; Descoeudres, A.; Levinsen, Y.; Taborelli, M.; Wuensch, W.

    2009-01-22

    In the context of the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) project investigations of DC breakdown in ultra high vacuum are carried out in parallel with high power RF tests. From the point of view of saturation breakdown field the best material tested so far is stainless steel, followed by titanium. Copper shows a four times weaker breakdown field than stainless steel. The results indicate clearly that the breakdown events are initiated by field emission current and that the breakdown field is limited by the cathode. In analogy to RF, the breakdown probability has been measured in DC and the data show similar behaviour as a function of electric field.

  2. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  3. DC arc weld starter

    DOEpatents

    Campiotti, Richard H.; Hopwood, James E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  4. DYLOS DC110

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dylos DC1100 air quality monitor measures particulate matter (PM) to provide a continuous assessment of indoor air quality. The unit counts particles in two size ranges: large and small. According to the manufacturer, large particles have diameters between 2.5 and 10 micromet...

  5. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  6. DC-DC powering for the CMS pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, Lutz; Fleck, Martin; Friedrichs, Marcel; Hensch, Richard; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David; Sammet, Jan; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC-DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC-DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R&D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to 24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC-DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC-DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  7. Regulated dc-to-dc converter features low power drain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornwall, J.

    1968-01-01

    A regulated dc-to-dc converter requires negligible standby power for the operation of critical electronic equipment. The main operating circuitry consumes power intermittently according to load conditions, rather than constantly.

  8. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  9. DC current monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canter, Stanley (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A non-intrusive DC current monitor is presented which emulates the theoretical operation of an AC transformer. A conductor, carrying the current to be measured, acts as the primary of a DC current transformer. This current is passed through the center of a secondary coil, and core positioned thereabout, and produces a magnetic flux which induces a current in the secondary proportional to the current flowing in the primary. Means are provided to periodically reset the transformer core such that the measurement inaccuracies associated with core saturation are obviated. A reset current is caused to periodically flow through the secondary coil which produces a magnetic flux oppositely polarized to the flux created by the current in the primary, thus allowing ongoing measurements to be made.

  10. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  11. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  12. What Are Chia Seeds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men For Women For Seniors What Are Chia Seeds? Published February 05, 2014 Print Email When you ... number of research participants. How to Eat Chia Seeds Chia seeds can be eaten raw or prepared ...

  13. Analysis of self-oscillating dc-to-dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, P.

    1974-01-01

    The basic operational characteristics of dc-to-dc converters are analyzed along with the basic physical characteristics of power converters. A simple class of dc-to-dc power converters are chosen which could satisfy any set of operating requirements, and three different controlling methods in this class are described in detail. Necessary conditions for the stability of these converters are measured through analog computer simulation whose curves are related to other operational characteristics, such as ripple and regulation. Further research is suggested for the solution of absolute stability and efficient physical design of this class of power converters.

  14. High performance dc-dc conversion with voltage multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrigill, W. T.; Myers, I. T.

    1974-01-01

    The voltage multipliers using capacitors and diodes first developed by Cockcroft and Walton in 1932 were reexamined in terms of state of the art fast switching transistors and diodes, and high energy density capacitors. Because of component improvements, the voltage multiplier, used without a transformer, now appears superior in weight to systems now in use for dc-dc conversion. An experimental 100-watt 1000-volt dc-dc converter operating at 100 kHz was built, with a component weight of about 1 kg/kW. Calculated and measured values of output voltage and efficiency agreed within experimental error.

  15. Multiple high voltage output DC-to-DC power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, Donald L. (Inventor); Farber, Bertrand F. (Inventor); Gehm, Hartmut K. (Inventor); Goldin, Daniel S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a multiple output DC-to-DC converter. The DC input power is filtered and passed through a chopper preregulator. The chopper output is then passed through a current source inverter controlled by a squarewave generator. The resultant AC is passed through the primary winding of a transformer, with high voltages induced in a plurality of secondary windings. The high voltage secondary outputs are each solid-state rectified for passage to individual output loads. Multiple feedback loops control the operation of the chopper preregulator, one being responsive to the current through the primary winding and another responsive to the DC voltage level at a selected output.

  16. Improved DC Gun Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

    2009-05-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

  17. A DC Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Starr, Stanley O.

    2013-01-01

    A component level dc transformer is described in which no alternating currents or voltages are present. It operates by combining features of a homopolar motor and a homopolar generator, both de devices, such that the output voltage of a de power supply can be stepped up (or down) with a corresponding step down (or up) in current. The basic theory for this device is developed, performance predictions are made, and the results from a small prototype are presented. Based on demonstrated technology in the literature, this de transformer should be scalable to low megawatt levels, but it is more suited to high current than high voltage applications. Significant development would be required before it could achieve the kilovolt levels needed for de power transmission.

  18. A Plasma-Based DC-DC Electrical Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Richard; Finn, John

    2013-10-01

    Previous work has indicated that it may be possible to make DC-DC electrical transformers using plasmas. The mechanism is an MHD electromagnetic relaxation process induced by helical electrodes. This process is now being tested on the Bismark device at Tibbar Technologies.

  19. Dc-To-Dc Converter Uses Reverse Conduction Of MOSFET's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Robert P.; Gott, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    In modified high-power, phase-controlled, full-bridge, pulse-width-modulated dc-to-dc converters, switching devices power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's). Decreases dissipation of power during switching by eliminating approximately 0.7-V forward voltage drop in anti-parallel diodes. Energy-conversion efficiency increased.

  20. Efficient Design in a DC to DC Converter Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruemmer, Joel E.; Williams, Fitch R.; Schmitz, Gregory V.

    2002-01-01

    Space Flight hardware requires high power conversion efficiencies due to limited power availability and weight penalties of cooling systems. The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU) power converter is no exception. This paper explores the design methods and tradeoffs that were utilized to accomplish high efficiency in the DDCU. An isolating DC to DC converter was selected for the ISS power system because of requirements for separate primary and secondary grounds and for a well-regulated secondary output voltage derived from a widely varying input voltage. A flyback-current-fed push-pull topology or improved Weinberg circuit was chosen for this converter because of its potential for high efficiency and reliability. To enhance efficiency, a non-dissipative snubber circuit for the very-low-Rds-on Field Effect Transistors (FETs) was utilized, redistributing the energy that could be wasted during the switching cycle of the power FETs. A unique, low-impedance connection system was utilized to improve contact resistance over a bolted connection. For improved consistency in performance and to lower internal wiring inductance and losses a planar bus system is employed. All of these choices contributed to the design of a 6.25 KW regulated dc to dc converter that is 95 percent efficient. The methodology used in the design of this DC to DC Converter Unit may be directly applicable to other systems that require a conservative approach to efficient power conversion and distribution.

  1. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  2. 76 FR 13926 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-8-11, DC-8-12, DC-8-21, DC-8-31, DC-8-32...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... required by AD 2008-25-05, Amendment 39-15763 (73 FR 78936, December 24, 2008), for Principal Structural... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will not have a significant economic...-8-21, DC-8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC-8-41, DC-8-42, DC-8-43, DC-8-51, DC-8-52, DC-8-53,......

  3. Seed health and vigor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The health of lentil and chickpea seed greatly impacts the quality of the crop stand and yield. Healthy seed has a high germination rate, is whole (free of cracks or other damage), is free from foreign matter including weed seed and has limited seedborne pathogens. The health of the seed often dep...

  4. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  5. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  6. Piezometer completion report for borehold cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.L.; Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Veatch, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the design and installation of multi-level piezometers at borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22. The network of borehole cluster sites will provide facilities for multi-level water-level monitoring across the RRL for piezometer baseline monitoring and for large-scale hydraulic stress testing. These groundwater-monitoring facilities were installed between August 1983 and March 1984. Three series of piezometer nests (A-, C- and D-series) were installed in nine hydrogeologic units (monitoring horizons) within the Columbia River Basalt Group at each borehole cluster site. In addition to the piezometer facilities, a B-series pumping well was installed at borehole cluster sites DC-20 and DC-22. The A-series piezometer nest monitors the basal Ringold sediments and the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed. The C-series piezometer nests monitors the six deepest horizons, which are in increasing depth, the Priest Rapids interflow. 21 refs., 6 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    PubMed

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  8. Lessons learned, DC-XA

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Delta Clipper-Experimental A (DC-XA) program was conceived and specifically developed to provide a low cost reusable flight vehicle testbed for demonstrating performance and operability testing of advanced technologies required for the development of next generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). The three primary program objectives addressed were: To integrate a variety of advanced launch vehicle technology components into the DC-XA flight vehicle testbed. Demonstrate performance, operability, and supportability of Advanced Launch Technologies (ALT) components through ground and flight testing of the DC-XA. Demonstrate rapid prototyping of hardware and software in a combined government, industry cooperative effort. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Compact dc link

    SciTech Connect

    Flairty, C. )

    1991-10-01

    The EPRI Compact Substation Project (a HVDC Converter Station) was developed, designed, and constructed per EPRI Agreement RP213. In December 1983, the converter station operated at its rating (100 MW power transmission and 300 kV dc bias plus 100 kV operating voltage). From January to May 1984, the converter station operated at various power transmission levels. Operation was intermittent due to a randomly occurring voltage breakdown. The voltage breakdown was isolated to the steel tanks containing the thyristor valves in an SF{sub 6} environment. The type of insulators stressed within the valve tanks were: (1) the epoxy cone shape insulators providing an interface to the bus entering the valve tank; (2) epoxy fiberglass hydraulic columns for the flow of the R113 refrigerant to and from the thyristor valves; and (3) the epoxy fiberglass support columns supporting the thyristor valves from the floor of the valve tank. The cause of the randomly occurring breakdown was investigated and determined to be the epoxy fiberglass support columns. The random dielectric breakdowns were due to excessive voltage gradients existing at the epoxy fiberglass support columns. This probably was caused by the misplacement of an internal insert within the column with respect to an external shield on the column. The cost and time to retrofit the support columns outweighed the benefits expected from resuming the project. Consequently, work was terminated and the equipment disassembled. Examination of the epoxy fiberglass support columns revealed several arcing tracks along the inside surface confirming the earlier hypothesis. 53 figs., 32 tabs.

  10. Digital Control Technologies for Modular DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Kascak, Peter E.; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon

    2002-01-01

    Recent trends in aerospace Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems focus on using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as standard building blocks. This move to more modular designs has been driven by a desire to reduce costs and development times, but is also due to the impressive power density and efficiency numbers achieved by today's commercial DC-DC converters. However, the PMAD designer quickly learns of the hidden "costs" of using COTS converters. The most significant cost is the required addition of external input filters to meet strict electromagnetic interference (MIAMI) requirements for space systems. In fact, the high power density numbers achieved by the commercial manufacturers are greatly due to the lack of necessary input filters included in the COTS module. The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently pursuing a digital control technology that addresses this problem with modular DC-DC converters. This paper presents the digital control technologies that have been developed to greatly reduce the input filter requirements for paralleled, modular DC-DC converters. Initial test result show that the input filter's inductor size was reduced by 75 percent, and the capacitor size was reduced by 94 percent while maintaining the same power quality specifications.

  11. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  12. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  13. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  14. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  15. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  16. Seed Proteomics"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...

  17. Going to Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a unit on seeds designed to introduce students to their scientific and nutritional uses. Unit activities are easily done, employ a variety of process skills, and can be used at various grade levels. Suggests field trips to gather seeds, seed sprouting, and making cookies out of various whole grains. (JM)

  18. Needs of Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  19. Pasture seed banks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our surveys of northeastern pastures, we found the equivalent of more than 8 million seeds per acre in the surface soil (the top four inches) from the seed bank study. These seeds came from 58 species of plants. The annual forbs (all broadleaf plants with the exception of legumes and trees) domin...

  20. Preservation of recalcitrant seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recalcitrant and intermediate seeds are not included in seed banks because of misperceptions that these efforts would be futile. Between 20 and 25% of the Earth’s angiosperm species are estimated to produce recalcitrant or intermediate seeds. These species are more prevalent in the tropics and sub...

  1. Seed Development and Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  2. 75 FR 36298 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC-8-41...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ...-09-04, Amendment 39-15484 (73 FR 21523, April 22, 2008), for all Model DC-8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... removing Amendment 39-15484 (73 FR 21523, April 22, 2008) and adding the following new AD:...

  3. Low dose failures of hardened DC-DC power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, J.; Yui, C.; Rax, B. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weideman, M.; Schrick, P.; Swift, G. M.; Johnston, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Box-level total dose testing of the FOG (Fiber Optic Gyro) by IXSEA at ESA's GammabeamFacility were abruptly terminated at 8krad (Si) due to catastrophic failure (complete shutdown). This was unexpected because all components within the gyro were supposedly radiation tolerant. Further testing showed that the components responsible for the failure were two DC-DC converters, manufactured by Interpoint, that stopped regulating shortly before shutdown. This paper summarizes diagnostic test results for the converters to determine the underlying cause of the unexpected failure at low levels of radiation.

  4. Commercial Of-The Shelf DC/DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denzinger, W.; Baumel, S.

    2011-10-01

    A commercial of-the-shelf (COTS) DC/DC converter for the supply of digital electronics on board of spacecraft has been developed with special emphasis on: *Low cost Readily available *Easy manufacturing *No use of ITAR listed EEE parts like rad-hard mosfets *Minimum number of rad-hard digital and analog IC's *Design tolerance against SEE by appropriate filtering The study was supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) under the contract number 21729/08/NL7LvH.

  5. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOEpatents

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  6. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOEpatents

    Druce, Robert L.; Kirbie, Hugh C.; Newton, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current.

  7. Spacelab ready for transport to Washington, DC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Spacelab is wrapped and ready for transport to the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. Spacelab was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the Space Shuttle program and first flew on STS-9 in November 1983. Its final flight was the STS-90 Neurolab mission in April 1998. A sister module will travel home and be placed on display in Europe. The Spacelab concept of modular experiment racks in a pressurized shirt-sleeve environment made it highly user-friendly and accessible. Numerous experiments conceived by hundreds of scientists on the ground were conducted by flight crews in orbit. Spacelab modules served as on-orbit homes for everything from squirrel monkeys to plant seeds. They supported astronomical as well as Earth observations, for servicing the Hubble Space Telescope and for research preparatory to the International Space Station. One of the greatest benefits afforded by the Spacelab missions was the opportunity to fly a mission more than once, with the second or third flight building on the experiences and data gathered from its predecessors.

  8. Piezometer completion report for borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20, and DC-22

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.L.; Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Veatch, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the design and installation of multi-level piezometers at borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22. The network of borehole cluster sites will provide facilities for multi-level water-level monitoring across the RRL for piezometer baseline monitoring and for large-scale hydraulic stress testing. These groundwater-monitoring facilities were installed between August 1983 and March 1984. Three series of piezometer nests (A-, C- and D-series) were installed in nine hydrogeologic units (monitoring horizons) within the Columbia River Basalt Group at each borehole cluster site. In addition to the piezometer facilities, a B-series pumping well was installed at borehole cluster sites DC-20 and DC-22. The A-series piezometer nest monitors the basal Ringold sediments and the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed. The C-series piezometer nests monitors the six deepest horizons, which are in increasing depth, the Priest Rapids interflow, Sentinel Gap flow top, Ginkgo flow top, Rocky Coulee flow top, Cohassett flow top and Umtanum flow top. The D-series piezometer monitors the Mabton interbed. The B-series pumping well was completed in the Priest Rapids interflow. 21 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. DC coupled Doppler radar physiological monitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in Doppler radar systems for physiological monitoring is a large DC offset in baseband outputs. Typically, AC coupling is used to eliminate this DC offset. Since the physiological signals of interest include frequency content near DC, it is not desirable to simply use AC coupling on the radar outputs. While AC coupling effectively removes DC offset, it also introduces a large time delay and distortion. This paper presents the first DC coupled IQ demodulator printed circuit board (PCB) design and measurements. The DC coupling is achieved by using a mixer with high LO to RF port isolation, resulting in a very low radar DC offset on the order of mV. The DC coupled signals from the PCB radar system were successfully detected with significant LNA gain without saturation. Compared to the AC coupled results, the DC coupled results show great advantages of less signal distortion and more accurate rate estimation. PMID:22254704

  10. Switching coordination of distributed dc-dc converters for highly efficient photovoltaic power plants

    DOEpatents

    Agamy, Mohammed; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2014-09-09

    A distributed photovoltaic (PV) power plant includes a plurality of distributed dc-dc converters. The dc-dc converters are configured to switch in coordination with one another such that at least one dc-dc converter transfers power to a common dc-bus based upon the total system power available from one or more corresponding strings of PV modules. Due to the coordinated switching of the dc-dc converters, each dc-dc converter transferring power to the common dc-bus continues to operate within its optimal efficiency range as well as to optimize the maximum power point tracking in order to increase the energy yield of the PV power plant.

  11. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scruggs, S. J.; Putman, P. T.; Zhou, Y. X.; Fang, H.; Salama, K.

    2006-07-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local Tc suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown.

  12. Experiments with a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  13. D.C. Fights Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes a 30-233 "Youth Awareness Program" in Washington, DC, to help students recognize the responsibilities of citizenship. Police collaborate with schools in providing classroom visits, field trips, and instructional materials aimed at specific areas of concern for adolescents, such as alcohol, drugs, smoking, sexuality, juvenile justice, and…

  14. DC-Powered Jumping Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Farhang, Amiri

    2016-01-01

    The classroom jumping ring demonstration is nearly always performed using alternating current (AC), in which the ring jumps or flies off the extended iron core when the switch is closed. The ring jumps higher when cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2). We have performed experiments using DC to power the solenoid and find similarities and significant…

  15. Designing dc Inductors With Airgaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    Optimal parameters obtained designing near saturation point. New iterative procedure aids design of dc inductors with airgaps in cores. For given core area and length, technique gives design having specified inductance and peak flux density in core, using minimum required copper weight. Executed rapidly on programmable, hand-held calculator. Applications include lightweight inductors for aircraft electronics.

  16. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. PMID:26184996

  17. DC to DC power converters and methods of controlling the same

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Todorovic, Maja Harfman; Agamy, Mohammed

    2012-12-11

    A power generation system configured to provide direct current (DC) power to a DC link is described. The system includes a first power generation unit configured to output DC power. The system also includes a first DC to DC converter comprising an input section and an output section. The output section of the first DC to DC converter is coupled in series with the first power generation unit. The first DC to DC converter is configured to process a first portion of the DC power output by the first power generation unit and to provide an unprocessed second portion of the DC power output of the first power generation unit to the output section.

  18. Mesoscopic electronics beyond DC transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Carlo, Leonardo

    Since the inception of mesoscopic electronics in the 1980's, direct current (dc) measurements have underpinned experiments in quantum transport. Novel techniques complementing dc transport are becoming paramount to new developments in mesoscopic electronics, particularly as the road is paved toward quantum information processing. This thesis describes seven experiments on GaAs/AlGaAs and graphene nanostructures unified by experimental techniques going beyond traditional dc transport. Firstly, dc current induced by microwave radiation applied to an open chaotic quantum dot is investigated. Asymmetry of mesoscopic fluctuations of induced current in perpendicular magnetic field is established as a tool for separating the quantum photovoltaic effect from classical rectification. A differential charge sensing technique is next developed using integrated quantum point contacts to resolve the spatial distribution of charge inside a double quantum clot. An accurate method for determining interdot tunnel coupling and electron temperature using charge sensing is demonstrated. A two-channel system for detecting current noise in mesoscopic conductors is developed, enabling four experiments where shot noise probes transmission properties not available in dc transport and Johnson noise serves as an electron thermometer. Suppressed shot noise is observed in quantum point contacts at zero parallel magnetic field, associated with the 0.7 structure in conductance. This suppression evolves with increasing field into the shot-noise signature of spin-lifted mode degeneracy. Quantitative agreement is found with a phenomenological model for density-dependent mode splitting. Shot noise measurements of multi-lead quantum-dot structures in the Coulomb blockade regime distill the mechanisms by which Coulomb interaction and quantum indistinguishability correlate electron flow. Gate-controlled sign reversal of noise cross correlation in two capacitively-coupled dots is observed, and shown to

  19. Dilation and Curettage (D&C)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Home For Patients Search FAQs Dilation and ... FAQ062, February 2016 PDF Format Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Special Procedures What is dilation and curettage ( ...

  20. A quick SEED tutorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A number of different government-funded seismic data centers offer free open-access data (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), and Data Management System), which can be freely downloaded and shared among different members of the community (Lay, 2009). To efficiently share data, it is important that different data providers follow a common format. The Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data (SEED) provides one such format for storing seismic and other geophysical data. The SEED format is widely used in earthquake seismology; however, SEED and its structure can be difficult for many first-time users (ourselves included). Below is a quick tutorial that outlines the basic structure of SEED format. This write-up is in no way intended to replace the comprehensive SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), and instead of going into the details of any specific part of the SEED format we refer the reader to the manual for additional details. The goal of this write-up is to succinctly explain the basic structure of SEED format as well as the associated jargon, as most commonly used now, in a colloquial way so that novice users of SEED can become more familiar with the format and its application quickly. Our goal is to give the reader the necessary background so that when problems or questions about SEED format arise they will have some understanding of where they should look for more details or from where the problem might be stemming. As a secondary goal, we hope to help the reader become familiar with the SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), which contains detailed information about all aspects of the SEED format.

  1. DC-Powered Jumping Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Amiri, Farhang

    2016-02-01

    The classroom jumping ring demonstration is nearly always performed using alternating current (AC), in which the ring jumps or flies off the extended iron core when the switch is closed. The ring jumps higher when cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2). We have performed experiments using DC to power the solenoid and find similarities and significant differences from the AC case. In particular, the ring does not fly off the core but rises a short distance and then falls back. If the ring jumps high enough, the rising and the falling motion of the ring does not follow simple vertical motion of a projectile. This indicates that there are additional forces on the ring in each part of its motion. Four possible stages of the motion of the ring with DC are identified, which result from the ring current changing directions during the jump in response to a changing magnetic flux through the moving ring.

  2. dc-free coset codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Robert H.; Herro, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    A class of block coset codes with disparity and run-length constraints are studied. They are particularly well suited for high-speed optical fiber links and similar channels, where dc-free pulse formats, channel error control, and low-complexity encoder-decoder implementations are required. The codes are derived by partitioning linear block codes. The encoder and decoder structures are the same as those of linear block codes with only slight modifications. A special class of dc-free coset block codes are derived from BCH codes with specified bounds on minimum distance, disparity, and run length. The codes have low disparity levels (a small running digital sum) and good error-correcting capabilities.

  3. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  4. Ecological benefits of dc power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Kutuzova, N. B.

    2011-05-15

    The environmental effects of dc overhead transmission lines are examined. The major effects of ac and dc transmission lines are compared. Dc lines have advantages compared to ac lines in terms of electrical safety for people under the lines, biological effects, corona losses, and clearance width.

  5. Washington: A DC Circuit Tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2010-12-01

    I explore the history of physics in Washington, D.C., and its environs through a tour of notable sites and personalities. Highlights include visits to the Smithsonian and Carnegie Institutions, stops at the Einstein Memorial, George Washington University, the University of Maryland, and the American Center for Physics, and biographical sketches of physicists Joseph Henry, George Gamow, Edward Teller, and others who worked in the District of Columbia.

  6. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY…

  7. Advanced DC/DC Converters towards higher Volumetric Efficiencies for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette; Shue, Jack; Liu, David; Wang, Bright; Shaw, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. NASA mission outlook. 2. Issues with DC/DC converter for space. 3. Statement of newly initiated engineering activities for DC/DC converter. 4. Overview of prototyping work with novel materials. 5. Results of cryogenic testing.

  8. Full wave dc-to-dc converter using energy storage transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. T.; Wilson, T. G.

    1969-01-01

    Full wave dc-to-dc converter, for an ion thrustor, uses energy storage transformers to provide a method of dc-to-dc conversion and regulation. The converter has a high degree of physical simplicity, is lightweight and has high efficiency.

  9. 76 FR 68745 - DC Energy, LLC; DC Energy Mid-Atlantic, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission DC Energy, LLC; DC Energy Mid-Atlantic, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206 (2011), DC Energy, LLC (DC Energy)...

  10. [Quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-yue; Zhu, Zai-biao; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-lin

    2015-02-01

    In order to establish the quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds, thirty-one batches of P. suffruticosa seeds from different provenances were selected. The seed rooting rate, seed germination rate, seed purity, seed viability, 1,000-seed weight and moisture content were determined and analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. Seed rooting rate, seed germination rate and seed purity were selected as the main index for classification, while 1,000-seed weight, seed viability and moisture content could be used as important references. The seed quality grading of P. suffruticosa was set as three grades. The seed quality of each grade should meet following requirements: For the first grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 80%, seed germination rate ≥ 80%, seed purity ≥ 90%, seed viability ≥ 80%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 250 g, moisture content, ≤ 10. For the second grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 50%, seed germination rate ≥ 60%, seed purity ≥ 70%, seed viability ≥ 75%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 225 g, moisture content ≤ 10. For the third grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 20%, seed germination rate ≥ 45%, seed purity ≥ 60%, seed viability ≥ 45%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 205 g, moisture content ≤ 10. The quality classification criteria of P. suffruticosa seeds have been initially established. PMID:26137680

  11. Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs

    SciTech Connect

    W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

    2002-06-01

    Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

  12. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Peanut Seed and Seed Coat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. In a peanut, within the hull and encasing the cotyledon is the seed coat, which is commonly referred to within the peanut industry as the skin. The seed coat is a distinct plant structure critical for seed deve...

  14. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  15. Seeds in Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Willard K.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the seed dispersal mechanisms of six different plants: big-leaf maple, pincushion tree, tree of heaven, squirting cucumber, digger pine, and bull thistle. Elaborate color and black-and-white drawings illustrate the text. (MA)

  16. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  17. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dekker; 2005:309–325. Grape. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on June ... Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on June ...

  18. Single event AC - DC electrospraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachewicz, U.; Dijksman, J. F.; Marijnissen, J. C. M.

    2008-12-01

    Electrospraying is an innovative method to deposit very small amounts of, for example, biofluids (far less than 1 p1) that include DNA or protein molecules. An electric potential is applied between a nozzle filled with liquid and a counter electrode placed at 1-2 millimeter distance from the nozzle. In our set-up we use an AC field superposed on a DC field to control the droplet generation process. Our approach is to create single events of electrospraying triggered by one single AC pulse. During this pulse, the equilibrium meniscus (determined by surface tension, static pressure and the DC field) of the liquid changes rapidly into a cone and subsequently into a jet formed at the cone apex. Next, the jet breaks-up into fine droplets and the spraying stops. The meniscus returns to its equilibrium shape again. So far we obtained a stable and reproducible single event process for ethanol and ethylene glycol with water using glass pipettes. The results will be used to generate droplets on demand in a controlled way and deposit them on a pre-defined place on the substrate.

  19. Block clustering based on difference of convex functions (DC) programming and DC algorithms.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoai Minh; Le Thi, Hoai An; Dinh, Tao Pham; Huynh, Van Ngai

    2013-10-01

    We investigate difference of convex functions (DC) programming and the DC algorithm (DCA) to solve the block clustering problem in the continuous framework, which traditionally requires solving a hard combinatorial optimization problem. DC reformulation techniques and exact penalty in DC programming are developed to build an appropriate equivalent DC program of the block clustering problem. They lead to an elegant and explicit DCA scheme for the resulting DC program. Computational experiments show the robustness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm and its superiority over standard algorithms such as two-mode K-means, two-mode fuzzy clustering, and block classification EM. PMID:23777526

  20. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions. PMID:27507473

  1. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    DOEpatents

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  2. Optimum Design of CMOS DC-DC Converter for Mobile Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Yasushi; Edo, Masaharu; Denta, Toshio; Kawashima, Tetsuya; Ninomiya, Tamotsu

    In recent years, low output power CMOS DC-DC converters which integrate power stage MOSFETs and a PWM controller using CMOS process have been used in many mobile applications. In this paper, we propose the calculation method of CMOS DC-DC converter efficiency and report optimum design of CMOS DC-DC converter based on this method. By this method, converter efficiencies are directly calculated from converter specifications, dimensions of power stage MOSFET and device parameters. Therefore, this method can be used for optimization of CMOS DC-DC converter design, such as dimensions of power stage MOSFET and switching frequency. The efficiency calculated by the proposed method agrees well with the experimental results.

  3. Development of a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Fimmers, C.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Rittich, D.; Sammet, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2014-01-01

    A novel powering scheme based on the DC-DC conversion technique will be exploited to power the CMS Phase-1 pixel detector. DC-DC buck converters for the CMS pixel project have been developed, based on the AMIS5 ASIC designed by CERN. The powering system of the Phase-1 pixel detector is described and the performance of the converter prototypes is detailed, including power efficiency, stability of the output voltage, shielding, and thermal management. Results from a test of the magnetic field tolerance of the DC-DC converters are reported. System tests with pixel modules using many components of the future pixel barrel system are summarized. Finally first impressions from a pre-series of 200 DC-DC converters are presented.

  4. Effect of Antioxidants on DC Tree and Grounded DC Tree in XLPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanami, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Isao; Sekii, Yasuo; Saito, Mitsugu; Sugi, Kazuyuki

    To study the effects of antioxidants on the initiation of the DC tree and the grounded DC tree, experiments were conducted using XLPE specimens containing phenolic and sulfur type antioxidants. Experimental results showed that sulfur type antioxidants in XLPE have the effect of increasing inception voltages of both the DC tree and the grounded DC tree. Based on results of those experiments, the mechanism of increase in the inception voltage of the DC tree and the grounded DC tree by antioxidants was examined along with the mechanism of polarity effects on those trees. Results showed a promotional effect of charge injection from a needle electrode by antioxidants, which are responsible for the increased inception voltages of the DC tree. Charge trapping by antioxidants explains the increase of inception voltages of the grounded DC tree.

  5. DC-10 winglet flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of a flight evaluation of winglets on a DC-10 Series 10 aircraft are presented. For sensitive areas of comparison, effects of winglets were determined back to back with and without winglets. Basic and reduced span winglet configurations were tested. After initial encounter with low speed buffet, a number of acceptable configurations were developed. For maximum drag reduction at both cruise and low speeds, lower winglets were required, having leading edge devices on upper and lower winglets for the latter regime. The cruise benefits were enhanced by adding outboard aileron droop to the reduced span winglet aircraft. Winglets had no significant impact on stall speeds, high speed buffet boundary, and stability and control characteristics. Flutter test results agreed with predictions and ground vibration data. Flight loads measurement also agreed with predictions.

  6. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  7. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, Thomas F.

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  8. Seeds in space experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  9. Seed Transmission of Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E.; Galperin, Mariana; Ploch, Sebastian; Runge, Fabian; Thines, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing devastating foliar disease in species of the Cucurbitaceae family, was never reported in seeds or transmitted by seeds. We now show that P. cubensis occurs in fruits and seeds of downy mildew-infected plants but not in fruits or seeds of healthy plants. About 6.7% of the fruits collected during 2012–2014 have developed downy mildew when homogenized and inoculated onto detached leaves and 0.9% of the seeds collected developed downy mildew when grown to the seedling stage. This is the first report showing that P. cubensis has become seed-transmitted in cucurbits. Species-specific PCR assays showed that P. cubensis occurs in ovaries, fruit seed cavity and seed embryos of cucurbits. We propose that international trade of fruits or seeds of cucurbits might be associated with the recent global change in the population structure of P. cubensis. PMID:25329308

  10. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Division fabricated three seed separators utilizing pressure gradients to move and separate wheat seeds. These separators are called minnow buckets and use air, water, or a combination of both to generate the pressure gradient. Electrostatic fields were employed in the seed separator constructed by the Electrical Division. This separator operates by forcing a temporary electric dipole on the wheat seeds and using charged electrodes to attract and move the seeds. Seed delivery to the hydroponic growth tray is accomplished by the seed cassette. The cassette is compatible with all the seed separators, and it consists of a plastic tube threaded with millipore filter paper. During planting operations, the seeds are placed in an empty cassette. The loaded cassette is then placed in the growth tray and nutrient solution provided. The solution wets the filter paper and capillary action draws the nutrients up to feed the seeds. These seeding systems were tested and showed encouraging results. Seeds were effectively separated and the cassette can support the growth of wheat plants. Problems remaining to be investigated include improving the success of delivering the seeds to the cassette and providing adequate spacing between seeds for the electric separator.

  11. Safety evaluation of Simarouba glauca seed fat.

    PubMed

    Rout, P K; Rao, Y R; Jena, K S; Sahoo, D; Ali, Shakir

    2014-07-01

    Simarouba glauca DC is a tree of the family Simaroubaceae, which grows well up to 1,000 m above sea level in all types of well-drained soils (pH 5.5 to 8.0) and in places with 250 to 2,500 mm annual rainfall. The seed oil has been extracted both by mechanical expelling and solvent extraction. The fatty acid composition and iodine value of the oil indicate that it possesses saturated (40.8-42.6%), monounsaturated (52.9-55.0%), and polyunsaturated (2.5-3.4%) fatty acid in ratios close to that of palm oil. These characteristics are suitable for its use as edible oil. Acute oral toxicity and safety evaluation in a 13-week feeding trial on albino rats showed that the oil is comparable to groundnut oil in all the parameters. PMID:24966429

  12. Dual wound dc brush motor gearhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, Barrie W.

    1986-01-01

    The design requirements, the design, development tests and problems, the qualification and life test and the findings of the strip examination of a dual wound DC brushed motor gearhead are described. It is the only space qualified dual wound dc brushed motor gearhead in Europe.

  13. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  14. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

    1994-05-31

    A magnetic field controller is described for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a Hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

  15. Close-Range Gunfire around DC Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieler, Sam; La Vigne, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This report examines the incidence of gunfire as measured by gunshot detection technology using data from the 2011-2012 school year. It finds that a disproportionate volume of gunfire happened near a small share of DC schools. About half of DC schools covered by gunshot detection sensors are in close proximity to gunfire, and four schools were…

  16. The dc power circuits: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A compilation of reports concerning power circuits is presented for the dissemination of aerospace information to the general public as part of the NASA Technology Utilization Program. The descriptions for the electronic circuits are grouped as follows: dc power supplies, power converters, current-voltage power supply regulators, overload protection circuits, and dc constant current power supplies.

  17. ALA 2010: Where to Eat in DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As host to visitors and transplants from around the world, Washington, DC, benefits from the constant infusion of different cultures. Although most neighborhoods lack a unified culinary flavor, make no mistake: DC is a city of distinctive areas, each with its own style, ensuring that hungry American Library Association (ALA) 2010 conference…

  18. DC-based magnetic field controller

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.; Morgan, John P,.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

  19. Modeling of DC spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, F. C.

    1995-01-01

    Future spacecraft power systems must be capable of supplying power to various loads. This delivery of power may necessitate the use of high-voltage, high-power dc distribution systems to transmit power from the source to the loads. Using state-of-the-art power conditioning electronics such as dc-dc converters, complex series and parallel configurations may be required at the interface between the source and the distribution system and between the loads and the distribution system. This research will use state-variables to model and simulate a dc spacecraft power system. Each component of the dc power system will be treated as a multiport network, and a state model will be written with the port voltages as the inputs. The state model of a component will be solved independently from the other components using its state transition matrix. A state-space averaging method is developed first in general for any dc-dc switching converter, and then demonstrated in detail for the particular case of the boost power stage. General equations for both steady-state (dc) and dynamic effects (ac) are obtained, from which important transfer functions are derived and applied to a special case of the boost power stage.

  20. A dc Penning surface-plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.; Geisik, C.; Schmitt, D.R.; Schneider, J.D.; Stelzer, J.E.

    1993-09-01

    After developing a pulsed-8X source for H{sup {minus}} beams, we are now testing a cooled, dc version. The design dc power density on the cathode surface is 900 W/cm{sup 2}, much higher than achieved in any previously-reported Penning surface-plasma source (SPS). The source is designed to accommodate dc arc power levels up to 30 kW by cooling the electrode surfaces with pressurized, hot water. After striking the arc using a 600-V pulser, a 350-V dc power supply is switched in to sustain the 100-V discharge. Now our tests are concentrating on arc pulse lengths {le}1 s. Ultimately, the discharge will be operated dc. The source is described and the initial arc test results are presented.

  1. The biochemical composition and nutritional potential of the tribal pulse, Mucuna monosperma DC. ex Wight.

    PubMed

    Arulmozhi, M; Janardhanan, K

    1992-01-01

    Two germplasms of the tribal pulse, Mucuna monosperma Dc. ex Wight, viz., Thirunelly Reserve Forest, Wynaad District (Kerala) and Siruvani Reserve Forest, Coimbatore District (Tamilnadu), were analysed for proximate composition, total (true) seed proteins, seed protein fractionation, amino acid composition, fatty acids, minerals and anti-nutritional factors. Crude proteins, crude lipids, ash and nitrogen free extractives constituted 23.10%, 4.36%, 3.80%, 61.74%, respectively, in Tamilnadu germplasm; whereas, in Kerala germplasm they constituted 20.13%, 8.99%, 3.60% and 61.69%, respectively. The calorific values of 100 g dry matter of seed material are 408.19 KCal (Kerala) and 378.60 KCal (Tamilnadu) germplasms. Essential amino acids like methionine, cystine, threonine and valine were found to be limiting in the seed proteins of both the germplasms. The fatty acids like lauric acid and palmitic acid are found to be common in both the germplasm seed samples, while linoleic and oleic acids in Kerala germplasm and stearic acid in Tamilnadu germplasm are present. The Tamilnadu germplasm seems to be a rich source of sodium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron; whereas the Kerala germplasm seems to be a rich source of phosphorus. Antinutritional substances like total free phenols, tannins, L-DOPA, trypsin inhibitor activity and phytohaemagglutinating activity also were investigated. PMID:1546054

  2. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  3. Multiple seeds sensitivity using a single seed with threshold.

    PubMed

    Egidi, Lavinia; Manzini, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Spaced seeds are a fundamental tool for similarity search in biosequences. The best sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs are obtained using many seeds simultaneously: This is known as the multiple seed approach. Unfortunately, spaced seeds use a large amount of memory and the available RAM is a practical limit to the number of seeds one can use simultaneously. Inspired by some recent results on lossless seeds, we revisit the approach of using a single spaced seed and considering two regions homologous if the seed hits in at least t sufficiently close positions. We show that by choosing the locations of the don't care symbols in the seed using quadratic residues modulo a prime number, we derive single seeds that when used with a threshold t > 1 have competitive sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs, indeed close to the best multiple seeds known in the literature. In addition, the choice of the threshold t can be adjusted to modify sensitivity and selectivity a posteriori, thus enabling a more accurate search in the specific instance at issue. The seeds we propose also exhibit robustness and allow flexibility in usage. PMID:25747382

  4. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  5. A High Voltage Ratio and Low Ripple Interleaved DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters. PMID:23365536

  6. A high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved DC-DC converter for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters. PMID:23365536

  7. DC/DC Power Converter for Super-Capacitor Supplied by Electric Power Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubert, T.; Mindl, P.

    The aim of the article is design of DC/DC converter and discussing of problematic supply using electric power splitter. The electric power splitter with AC/DC converter is source for the DC/DC converter, which is dedicated for charging and discharging of hybrid car drive super-capacitor energy storage. The electric power splitter is synchronous machine with two rotating parts. First rotor contains permanent magnet and the second rotor contains three-phase windings. The amplitude of output voltage depends on difference between first and second rotor speed. The main role of the DC/DC converter is to optimize energy content in super-capacitor storage used to acceleration and deceleration driving period of the passenger car with hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive system using electric power splitter.

  8. Physical View of Cloud Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribus, Myron

    1970-01-01

    Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

  9. Lessons learned: DC-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmeyer, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    The DC-X was conceived and developed specifically to lay the ground work for significantly lowering the cost of space operations. The system design was based on an initial set of program goals and a finite, limited set of resources. The goal in its simplest terms was to demonstrate vertical landing after rotation of the vehicle from a nose-first to an engines-first altitude. Finite resources actually drove the selection of a robust design to reduce fabrication and preflight testing costs. The result was a system with a large amount of flexibility which allowed expansion of the test goals as the system, and test program, evolved. The use of the vehicle flight computer interfacing with the ground control system for flight crew training was also not an initial concept. However, by defining an architecture for the system control modes which allowed additions and modifications as learning progressed, the 6 DOF codes used for flight controls software development were transported to the operating system to be used in a simulated flight mode. Flight data reduction was also greatly improved as the program progressed, and the data needs and presentation were refined. The software, avionics hardware, and the FOCC system development proceeded ahead of the vehicle, primarily because most of the hardware elements were existing at the outset of the program. The Built-in-Test (BIT) for avionics and propulsion systems were adequate. Particularly the flight readiness system which verified the vehicle health after engine start and before throttle-up for flight.

  10. The SEED Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  11. COFFEE SEED PHYSIOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are more than 70 species of Coffea (Rubiaceae), but only C. arabica and C. canephora are used commercially. Better understanding of seed physiology within Coffea will facilitate the incorporation of genetic traits for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses from wild relatives into commerci...

  12. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  13. SEED Software Annotations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethke, Dee; And Others

    This document provides a composite index of the first five sets of software annotations produced by Project SEED. The software has been indexed by title, subject area, and grade level, and it covers sets of annotations distributed in September 1986, April 1987, September 1987, November 1987, and February 1988. The date column in the index…

  14. The National SEED Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Cathy L.

    1991-01-01

    The National SEED (Seeking Educational Equity and Diversity) project on Inclusive Curriculum provides K-12 teachers an opportunity for renewal and consideration of gender-inclusive and multicultural curricula. Seminars, led from multiple perspectives, immerse participants in recent scholarship on inclusive education and model teaching strategies…

  15. The Seeds of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Herman J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses "Seeds of Change," a Columbian quincentenary exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution. Describes the rapid transformation of the Americas after contact with the Europeans. Reports that the exhibit explores the destruction of the native population by disease, war, slavery, the ongoing decimation of the rain forest, and the transformation…

  16. Seeds: A Celebration of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Bob

    The Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) Project offered science classes at the 5-12 and college levels the opportunity to conduct experiments involving tomato seeds that had been space-exposed over long periods of time. SEEDS kits were complete packages obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for…

  17. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... small as poppy seeds. They come from a plant in the mint family. Chia seeds are considered to be a "super food" by many, delivering several important nutrients in just a few calories. You can eat this nutty-flavored seed in many ways.

  18. Corridors cause differential seed predation.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.

    2005-06-01

    Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

  19. High sensitivity ancilla assisted nanoscale DC magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yixiang; Ajoy, Ashok; Marseglia, Luca; Saha, Kasturi; Cappellaro, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Sensing slowly varying magnetic fields are particularly relevant to many real world scenarios, where the signals of interest are DC or close to static. Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are a versatile platform for such DC magnetometry on nanometer length scales. Using NV centers, the standard technique for measuring DC magnetic fields is via the Ramsey protocol, where sensitivities can approach better than 1 μ T/vHz, but are limited by the sensor fast dephasing time T2*. In this work we instead present a method of sensing DC magnetic fields that is intrinsically limited by the much longer T2 coherence time. The method exploits a strongly-coupled ancillary nuclear spin to achieve high DC field sensitivities potentially exceeding that of the Ramsey method. In addition, through this method we sense the perpendicular component of the DC magnetic field, which in conjunction with the parallel component sensed by the Ramsey method provides a valuable tool for vector DC magnetometry at the nanoscale.

  20. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  1. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  2. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  3. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  4. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  5. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  6. DC-Compensated Current Transformer †

    PubMed Central

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  7. DC isolation and protection system and circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Charles A. (Inventor); Kellogg, Gary V. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A precision analog electronic circuit that is capable of sending accurate signals to an external device that has hostile electric characteristics, including the presence of very large common mode voltages. The circuit is also capable of surviving applications of normal mode overvoltages of up to 120 VAC/VDC for unlimited periods of time without damage or degradation. First, the circuit isolates the DC signal output from the computer. Means are then provided for amplifying the isolated DC signal. Further means are provided for stabilizing and protecting the isolating and amplifying means, and the isolated and amplified DC signal which is output to the external device, against overvoltages and overcurrents.

  8. Robust DC/DC converter control for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Xiong; Yu, Duck-Hyun; Chen, Shi-An; Kim, Young-Bae

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates a robust controller in regulating the pulse width modulation (PWM) of a DC/DC converter for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) application. A significant variation in the output voltage of a PEMFC depends on the power requirement and prevents a PEMFC from directly connecting to a subsequent power bus. DC/DC converters are utilized to step-up or step-down voltage to match the subsequent power bus voltage. In this study, a full dynamic model, which includes a PEMFC and boost and buck DC/DC converters, is developed under MATLAB/Simulink environment for control. A robust PWM duty ratio control for the converters is designed using time delay control (TDC). This control enables state variables to accurately follow the dynamics of a reference model using time-delayed information of plant input and output information within a few sampling periods. To prove the superiority of the TDC performance, traditional proportional-integral control (PIC) and model predictive control (MPC) are designed and implemented, and the simulation results are compared. The efficacies of TDC for the PEMFC-fed PWM DC/DC converters are validated through experimental test results using a 100 W PEMFC as well as boost and buck DC/DC converters.

  9. High power density dc/dc converter: Selection of converter topology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.

    1990-01-01

    The work involved in the identification and selection of a suitable converter topology is described. Three new dc/dc converter topologies are proposed: Phase-Shifted Single Active Bridge DC/DC Converter; Single Phase Dual Active Bridges DC/DC Converter; and Three Phase Dual Active Bridges DC/DC Converter (Topology C). The salient features of these topologies are: (1) All are minimal in structure, i.e., each consists of an input and output bridge, input and output filter and a transformer, all components essential for a high power dc/dc conversion process; (2) All devices of both the bridges can operate under near zero-voltage conditions, making possible a reduction of device switching losses and hence, an increase in switching frequency; (3) All circuits operate at a constant frequency, thus simplifying the task of the magnetic and filter elements; (4) Since, the leakage inductance of the transformer is used as the main current transfer element, problems associated with the diode reverse recovery are eliminated. Also, this mode of operation allows easy paralleling of multiple modules for extending the power capacity of the system; (5) All circuits are least sensitive to parasitic impedances, infact the parasitics are efficently utilized; and (6) The soft switching transitions, result in low electromagnetic interference. A detailed analysis of each topology was carried out. Based on the analysis, the various device and component ratings for each topology operating at an optimum point, and under the given specifications, are tabulated and discussed.

  10. Novel bidirectional DC-DC converters based on the three-state switching cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Júnior, José Carlos; Robles Balestero, Juan Paulo; Lessa Tofoli, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that there is an increasing demand for bidirectional DC-DC converters for applications that range from renewable energy sources to electric vehicles. Within this context, this work proposes novel DC-DC converter topologies that use the three-state switching cell (3SSC), whose well-known advantages over conventional existing structures are ability to operate at high current levels, while current sharing is maintained by a high frequency transformer; reduction of cost and dimensions of magnetics; improved distribution of losses, with consequent increase of global efficiency and reduction of cost associated to the need of semiconductors with lower current ratings. Three distinct topologies can be derived from the 3SSC: one DC-DC converter with reversible current characteristic able to operate in the first and second quadrants; one DC-DC converter with reversible voltage characteristic able to operate in the first and third quadrants and one DC-DC converter with reversible current and voltage characteristics able to operate in four quadrants. Only the topology with bidirectional current characteristic is analysed in detail in terms of the operating stages in both nonoverlapping and overlapping modes, while the design procedure of the power stage elements is obtained. In order to validate the theoretical assumptions, an experimental prototype is also implemented, so that relevant issues can be properly discussed.

  11. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  12. Crop protection by seed coating.

    PubMed

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  13. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  14. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  15. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  16. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  17. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  18. Development of a fuzzy logic controller for dc/dc converters: Design, computer simulation, and experimental evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    So, W.C.; Tse, C.K.; Lee, Y.S.

    1996-01-01

    The design of a fuzzy logic controller for dc/dc converters is described in this paper. A brief review of fuzzy logic and its application to control is first given. Then, the derivation of a fuzzy control algorithm for regulating dc/dc converters is described in detail. The proposed fuzzy control is evaluated by computer simulations as well as experimental measurements of the closed-loop performance of simple dc/dc converters in respect of load regulation and line regulation.

  19. Variable load automatically tests dc power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, H. C., Jr.; Sullivan, R. M.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously variable load automatically tests dc power supplies over an extended current range. External meters monitor current and voltage, and multipliers at the outputs facilitate plotting the power curve of the unit.

  20. DC-8 Takeoff in Kiruna, Sweden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of...

  1. dc power system for deuteron accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Creek, K.O.; Liska, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility dc power system provides excitation current for all linac and High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) quadrupole and bending magnets, excitation for horizontal and vertical beam steering, and current-bypass shunts.

  2. Tester periodically registers dc amplifier characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cree, D.; Wenzel, G. E.

    1966-01-01

    Motor-driven switcher-recorder periodically registers the zero drift and gain drift signals of a dc amplifier subjected to changes in environment. A time coding method is used since several measurements are shared on a single recorder trace.

  3. Test Results of Selected Commercial DC/DC Converters under Cryogenic Temperatures - A Digest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    DC/DC converters are widely used in space power systems in the areas of power management and distribution, signal conditioning, and motor control. Design of DC/DC converters to survive cryogenic temperatures will improve the power system performance, simplify design, and reduce development and launch costs. In this work, the performance of nine COTS modular, low-tomedium power DC/DC converters was investigated under cryogenic temperatures. The converters were evaluated in terms of their output regulation, efficiency, and input and output currents. At a given temperature, these properties were obtained at various input voltages and at different load levels. A summary on the performance of the tested converters was given. More comprehensive testing and in-depth analysis of performance under long-term exposure to extreme temperatures are deemed necessary to establish the suitability of these and other devices for use in the harsh environment of space exploration missions.

  4. Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.

  5. Nonlinear Phenomena and Resonant Parametric Perturbation Control in QR-ZCS Buck DC-DC Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Fei-Hu; Liu, Feng-Shao; Hsieh, Hui-Chang

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the chaotic phenomena and to control in current-mode controlled quasi-resonant zero-current-switching (QR-ZCS) DC-DC buck converters, and to present control of chaos by resonant parametric perturbation control methods. First of all, MATLAB/SIMULINK is used to derive a mathematical model for QR-ZCS DC-DC buck converters, and to simulate the converters to observe the waveform of output voltages, inductance currents and phase-plane portraits from the period-doubling bifurcation to chaos by changing the load resistances. Secondly, using resonant parametric perturbation control in QR-ZCS buck DC-DC converters, the simulation results of the chaotic converter form chaos state turn into stable state period 1, and improve ripple amplitudes of converters under the chaos, to verify the validity of the proposes method.

  6. Critical conditions of saddle-node bifurcations in switching DC-DC converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chung-Chieh

    2013-08-01

    Although existence of multiple periodic orbits in some DC-DC converters have been known for decades, linking the multiple periodic orbits with the saddle-node bifurcation (SNB) is rarely reported. The SNB occurs in popular DC-DC converters, but it is generally reported as a strange instability. Recently, design-oriented instability critical conditions are of great interest. In this article, average, sampled-data and harmonic balance analyses are applied and they lead to equivalent results. Many new critical conditions are derived. They facilitate future research on the instability associated with multiple periodic orbits, sudden voltage jumps or disappearances of periodic orbits observed in DC-DC converters. The effects of various converter parameters on the instability can be readily seen from the derived critical conditions. New Nyquist-like plots are also proposed to predict or prevent the occurrence of the instability.

  7. Advanced DC/DC Converters Towards Higher Volumetric Efficiencies For Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry; Shue, Jack; Liu, David; Wang, Bright; Plante, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    A new emphasis on planetary exploration by NASA drives the need for small, high power DC/DC converters which are functionally modular. NASA GSFC and other government space organizations are supporting technology development in the DC/DC converter area to both meet new needs and to promote more sources of supply. New technologies which enable miniaturization such as embedded passive technologies and thermal management using high thermal conductivity materials are features of the new designs. Construction of some simple DC/DC converter core circuits using embedded components was found to be successful for increasing volumetric efficiency to 37 W/inch. The embedded passives were also able to perform satisfactorily in this application in cryogenic temperatures.

  8. The DC-DC conversion power system of the CMS Phase-1 pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Schmitz, St.; Wlochal, M.

    2015-01-01

    The pixel detector of the CMS experiment will be exchanged during the year-end technical stop in 2016/2017, as part of the experiment's Phase-1 upgrade. The new device will feature approximately twice the number of readout channels, and consequently the power consumption will be doubled. By moving to a DC-DC conversion powering scheme, it is possible to power the new pixel detector with the existing power supplies and cable plant. The power system of the Phase-1 pixel detector is described and the performance of the new components, including DC-DC converters, DC-DC converter motherboards and various power distribution boards, is detailed. The outcome of system tests in terms of electrical behaviour, thermal management and pixel module performance is discussed.

  9. Modelling and Simulation of Digital Compensation Technique for dc-dc Converter by Pole Placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenbagalakshmi, R.; Sree Renga Raja, T.

    2015-09-01

    A thorough and effective analysis of the dc-dc converters is carried out in order to achieve the system stability and to improve the dynamic performance. A small signal modelling based on state space averaging technique for dc-dc converters is carried out. A digital state feedback gain matrix is derived by pole placement technique in order to achieve the stability of a completely controllable system. A prediction observer for the dc-dc converters is designed and a dynamic compensation (observer plus control law) is provided using separation principle. The output is very much improved with zero output voltage ripples, zero peak overshoot, and much lesser settling time in the range of ms and with higher overall efficiency (>90 %).

  10. DC-8 MTP calibration for SOLVE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) was the only instrument making temperature measurements at and below flight level on the DC-8 during the SOLVE-2 campaign. Many years of careful comparison of MTP measurements with radiosondes near the DC-8 flight track have shown that the flight level temperature can be determined to an accuracy of 0.2K relative to radiosondes.

  11. Ethylene-, light-, and prechill-enhanced germination of Echinacea angustifolia seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Feghahati, S.M.J.; Reese, R.N. . Dept. of Biology and Microbiology)

    1994-07-01

    Echinacea angustifolia DC., the common coneflower of the western Great Plains, is difficult to propagate by achenes due to inherent seed dormancy. The effects of light and prechilling on seed germination were examined, alone and combined with scarification (mechanical, acid) and ethylene (ethephon) treatments. The results showed that a 2-week prechill treatment combined with ethephon and continuous light, followed by a 2-week germination period in light (16 hours per day) at 25 C, could induce >95% seed germination in E. angustifolia. This was a significantly higher percentage of germination over a shorter period of time than any other method examined or previously described. This treatment also synchronized germination, with most viable seeds germinating in <1 week after being placed at 25 C in the light. Chemical name used: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).

  12. Antioxidant Properties of Seeds from Lines of Artichoke, Cultivated Cardoon and Wild Cardoon.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Temperini, Andrea; Azzini, Elena; Venneria, Eugenia; Lucarini, Massimo; Finotti, Enrico; Maiani, Gianluca; Crinò, Paola; Saccardo, Francesco; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus L.), the cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC.) and the wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris L.) are species widely distributed in the Mediterranean area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of seeds from lines of artichoke and cultivated and wild cardoon in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) evaluations. Both artichoke and cardoon seeds are a good source of antioxidants. Among artichoke seeds, hydrolysable polyphenols contribution to antioxidant properties ranged from 41% to 78% for FRAP values and from 17% to 37% for TEAC values. No difference between cultivated and wild cardoon in antioxidant properties are reported. Our results could provide information about the potential industrial use and application of artichoke and/or cardoon seeds. PMID:26787623

  13. Empty Seeds Are Not Always Bad: Simultaneous Effect of Seed Emptiness and Masting on Animal Seed Predation

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  14. ASTER Washington, D.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The White House, the Jefferson Memorial, and the Washington Monument with its shadow are all visible in this image of Washington, D.C. With its 15-meter spatial resolution, ASTER can see individual buildings. Taken on June 1, 2000, this image covers an area 14 kilometers (8.5 miles) wide and 13.7 kilometers (8.2 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of visible and near infrared bands displays vegetation in red and water in dark grays. The Potomac River flows from the middle left to the bottom center. The large red area west of the river is Arlington National Cemetery.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands

  15. Seed thioredoxin h.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki; Shahpiri, Azar; Buchanan, Bob B; Henriksen, Anette; Svensson, Birte

    2016-08-01

    Thioredoxins are nearly ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of biochemical pathways in various biological systems, and also implicated in numerous biotechnological applications. Plants uniquely synthesize an array of thioredoxins targeted to different cell compartments, for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses on occurrence, reaction mechanisms, specificity, target protein identification, three-dimensional structure and various applications. The aim is to provide a general background as well as an update covering the most recent findings. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. PMID:26876537

  16. The application of standardized control and interface circuits to three dc to dc power converters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Y.; Biess, J. J.; Schoenfeld, A. D.; Lalli, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    Standardized control and interface circuits were applied to the three most commonly used dc to dc converters: the buck-boost converter, the series-switching buck regulator, and the pulse-modulated parallel inverter. The two-loop ASDTIC regulation control concept was implemented by using a common analog control signal processor and a novel digital control signal processor. This resulted in control circuit standardization and superior static and dynamic performance of the three dc-to-dc converters. Power components stress control, through active peak current limiting and recovery of switching losses, was applied to enhance reliability and converter efficiency.

  17. Model predictive control of bidirectional isolated DC-DC converter for energy conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akter, Parvez; Uddin, Muslem; Mekhilef, Saad; Tan, Nadia Mei Lin; Akagi, Hirofumi

    2015-08-01

    Model predictive control (MPC) is a powerful and emerging control algorithm in the field of power converters and energy conversion systems. This paper proposes a model predictive algorithm to control the power flow between the high-voltage and low-voltage DC buses of a bidirectional isolated full-bridge DC-DC converter. The predictive control algorithm utilises the discrete nature of the power converters and predicts the future nature of the system, which are compared with the references to calculate the cost function. The switching state that minimises the cost function is selected for firing the converter in the next sampling time period. The proposed MPC bidirectional DC-DC converter is simulated with MATLAB/Simulink and further verified with a 2.5 kW experimental configuration. Both the simulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed MPC algorithm of the DC-DC converter reduces reactive power by avoiding the phase shift between primary and secondary sides of the high-frequency transformer and allow power transfer with unity power factor. Finally, an efficiency comparison is performed between the MPC and dual-phase-shift-based pulse-width modulation controlled DC-DC converter which ensures the effectiveness of the MPC controller.

  18. Analysis of high voltage step-up nonisolated DC-DC boost converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alisson Alencar Freitas, Antônio; Lessa Tofoli, Fernando; Junior, Edilson Mineiro Sá; Daher, Sergio; Antunes, Fernando Luiz Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    A high voltage step-up nonisolated DC-DC converter based on coupled inductors suitable to photovoltaic (PV) systems applications is proposed in this paper. Considering that numerous approaches exist to extend the voltage conversion ratio of DC-DC converters that do not use transformers, a detailed comparison is also presented among the proposed converter and other popular topologies such as the conventional boost converter and the quadratic boost converter. The qualitative analysis of the coupled-inductor-based topology is developed so that a design procedure can be obtained, from which an experimental prototype is implemented to validate the theoretical assumptions.

  19. Analysis of a class of pulse modulated dc-to-dc power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, P.

    1975-01-01

    The basic operational characteristics of dc-to-dc converters are analyzed. The basic physical characteristics of power converters are identified. A simple class of dc-to-dc power converters is chosen which could satisfy any set of operating requirements. Three different controlling methods in this class are described in detail. Necessary conditions for the stability of these converters are measured through analog computer simulation. These curves are related to other operational characteristics, such as ripple and regulation. Finally, further research is suggested for the solution of the physical design of absolutely stable, reliable, and efficient power converters of this class.

  20. Efficiency and Regulation of Commercial Low Power DC/DC Converter Modules at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Gerber, Scott; Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    DC/DC converters that are capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures are anticipated to play an important role in the power systems of future NASA deep space missions. Design of these converters to survive cryogenic temperatures will improve the power system performance, and reduce development and launch costs. At the NASA Glenn Research Center Low Temperature Electronics Laboratory, several commercial off-the-shelf dc/dc converter modules were evaluated for their low temperature performance. Various parameters were investigated as a function of temperature, in the range of 20 C to -190 C. Data pertaining to the efficiency and voltage regulation of the tested converters is presented and discussed.

  1. High power density dc/dc converter: Component selection and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.

    1989-01-01

    Further work pertaining to design considerations for the new high power, high frequency dc/dc converters is discussed. The goal of the project is the development of high power, high power density dc/dc converters at power levels in the multi-kilowatt to megawatt range for aerospace applications. The prototype converter is rated for 50 kW at a switching frequency of 50 kHz, with an input voltage of 200 Vdc and an output of 2000 Vdc. The overall power density must be in the vicinity of 0.2 to 0.3 kg/kW.

  2. Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of Arabidopsis in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2014-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. PMID:25317938

  3. Seed-to-Seed-to-Seed Growth and Development of Arabidopsis in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce M.; Busse, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. Key Words: Arabidopsis—Branch—Inflorescence—Microgravity—Morphology—Seed—Space. Astrobiology 14, 866–875. PMID:25317938

  4. Computer simulations of triboelectrification of particles and their trajectories in DC electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puliyala, Srivathsa Kumar Reddy

    This study aims to gain a fundamental understanding of the physics of triboelectri- cal charging of solid particles and the separation of the charged particles under an exter- nal DC electric field by computer simulations. A condenser model is used to implement charging mechanism and a soft sphere model is used to account for the Hertzian contact mechanics. The governing nondimensional parameters of the problem are identified and a parametric study is performed to investigate their effects on the charging efficiency and separation. The study finds relevance in a host of technologically important processes, such as recycling of plastic wastes, seed cleaning in agricultural industry and separation of coal from impurities in mining.

  5. Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride - Technology and piezoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeckel, C.; Kaufmann, C.; Hahn, R.; Schulze, R.; Billep, D.; Gessner, T.

    2014-07-01

    Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films are prepared on several seed layers and at different sputtering conditions. The piezoelectric c-axis (002) orientation of the AlN is analyzed with X-ray diffraction method. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d31 is determined with a Laser-Doppler-Vibrometer at cantilevers and membranes by analytical calculations and finite element method. Additionally, thin film AlN on bulk silicon is used to characterize the longitudinal piezoelectric charge coefficient d33.

  6. Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride – Technology and piezoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckel, C. Kaufmann, C.; Hahn, R.; Schulze, R.; Billep, D.; Gessner, T.

    2014-07-21

    Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films are prepared on several seed layers and at different sputtering conditions. The piezoelectric c-axis (002) orientation of the AlN is analyzed with X-ray diffraction method. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 31} is determined with a Laser-Doppler-Vibrometer at cantilevers and membranes by analytical calculations and finite element method. Additionally, thin film AlN on bulk silicon is used to characterize the longitudinal piezoelectric charge coefficient d{sub 33}.

  7. S-SEED Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-11-21

    This code simulates the transient response of two self-electrooptic-effect devices (SEEDs) connected in series to form an S-SEED pair as used in all-optical high-speed switching. Both optical beam propagation and carrier motion is assumed to be normal to the epi plane, so the code is inherently 1D in nature. For each SEED, an optical input in W/cm**2 is specified as a function of time (usually a step function input). The signal is absorbed during amore » double pass through the intrinsic region, with a spatially-dependent absorption coefficient that is dependent on the transient local electric field. This absorption generates electron-hole pairs that then contribute to the device current, and a transient optical output is predicted. Carriers in the semiconductor layers are generated through thermal excitation or optical absorption, move under the action of diffusion and self-consistent electric fields updated at each time step by a 1D Poisson solver, and recombine at density-dependent rates. The different epi layers are independently specified by position, thickness, doping type and density, and thus space charge effects and junction capacitance are included automatically.« less

  8. Sunflower seed allergy.

    PubMed

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients' IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient's anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  9. Improved DC Gun Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sah, R.; Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Surles-Law, K. E.L.

    2010-05-23

    Many user fa­cil­i­ties such as syn­chrotron ra­di­a­tion light sources and free elec­tron lasers re­quire ac­cel­er­at­ing struc­tures that sup­port elec­tric fields of 10-100 MV/m, es­pe­cial­ly at the start of the ac­cel­er­a­tor chain where ce­ram­ic in­su­la­tors are used for very high gra­di­ent DC guns. These in­su­la­tors are dif­fi­cult to man­u­fac­ture, re­quire long com­mis­sion­ing times, and often ex­hib­it poor re­li­a­bil­i­ty. Two tech­ni­cal ap­proach­es to solv­ing this prob­lem will be in­ves­ti­gat­ed. First­ly, in­vert­ed ce­ram­ics offer so­lu­tions for re­duced gra­di­ents be­tween the elec­trodes and ground. An in­vert­ed de­sign will be pre­sent­ed for 350 kV, with max­i­mum gra­di­ents in the range of 5-10 MV/m. Sec­ond­ly, novel ce­ram­ic man­u­fac­tur­ing pro­cess­es will be stud­ied, in order to pro­tect triple junc­tion lo­ca­tions from emis­sion, by ap­ply­ing a coat­ing with a bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty. The pro­cess­es for cre­at­ing this coat­ing will be op­ti­mized to pro­vide pro­tec­tion as well as be used to coat a ce­ram­ic with an ap­pro­pri­ate gra­di­ent in bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty from the vac­u­um side to the air side of an HV stand­off ce­ram­ic cylin­der. Ex­am­ple in­su­la­tor de­signs are being com­put­er mod­elled, and in­su­la­tor sam­ples are being man­u­fac­tured and test­ed

  10. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed

  11. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape. PMID:18780144

  12. The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Evan C; Wright, S Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram to break than the largest seeds. Investment in mechanical defence traits varied widely but independently of the toughness-mass allometry. Instead, a physical scaling relationship confers a toughness advantage on small seeds independent of selection on defence traits and without a direct cost. This scaling relationship may contribute to seed size diversity by decreasing fitness differences among large and small seeds. Allometric scaling of toughness reconciles predictions and conflicting empirical relationships between seed size and predation. PMID:27324185

  13. Computer-aided analysis and simulation of switched dc-dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Yu, Y.

    1978-01-01

    State space techniques are employed to derive an equivalent nonlinear recurrent time-domain model that describes the switched dc-dc converter behavior exactly. This model is employed effectively to analyze both large signal behavior by propagating the recurrence equation and matching boundary conditions through digital computation and small signal behavior by linearizing it about the equilibrium state.

  14. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... aircraft is equipped with an operating automatic altitude reporting transponder; (4) Before operating an aircraft in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ, the pilot obtains and transmits a discrete transponder code from Air Traffic Control, and the aircraft's transponder continues to transmit the assigned code...

  15. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... aircraft is equipped with an operating automatic altitude reporting transponder; (4) Before operating an aircraft in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ, the pilot obtains and transmits a discrete transponder code from Air Traffic Control, and the aircraft's transponder continues to transmit the assigned code...

  16. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... aircraft is equipped with an operating automatic altitude reporting transponder; (4) Before operating an aircraft in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ, the pilot obtains and transmits a discrete transponder code from Air Traffic Control, and the aircraft's transponder continues to transmit the assigned code...

  17. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... aircraft is equipped with an operating automatic altitude reporting transponder; (4) Before operating an aircraft in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ, the pilot obtains and transmits a discrete transponder code from Air Traffic Control, and the aircraft's transponder continues to transmit the assigned code...

  18. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... aircraft is equipped with an operating automatic altitude reporting transponder; (4) Before operating an aircraft in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ, the pilot obtains and transmits a discrete transponder code from Air Traffic Control, and the aircraft's transponder continues to transmit the assigned code...

  19. Modelling, Simulation and Construction of a DC/DC Boost Power Converter: A School Experimental System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva-Ortigoza, R.; Silva-Ortigoza, G.; Hernandez-Guzman, V. M.; Saldana-Gonzalez, G.; Marcelino-Aranda, M.; Marciano-Melchor, M.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a dc/dc boost power converter as a didactic prototype intended to support courses on electric circuit analysis experimentally. The corresponding mathematical model is obtained, the converter is designed and an experimental setup is described, constructed and tested. Simplicity of construction as well as low cost of components renders…

  20. Regulation of a lightweight high efficiency capacitator diode voltage multiplier dc-dc converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrigill, W. T., Jr.; Myers, I. T.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the regulation of a capacitor diode voltage multiplier dc-dc converter has been developed which has only minor penalties in weight and efficiency. An auxiliary inductor is used, which only handles a fraction of the total power, to control the output voltage through a pulse width modulation method in a buck boost circuit.

  1. A DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Fleck, M.; Friedrichs, M.; Hensch, R.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Sammet, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2013-02-01

    The CMS pixel detector was designed for a nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of 1ṡ1034 cm-2s-1. During Phase-1 of the LHC upgrade, the instantaneous luminosity will be increased to about twice this value. To preserve the excellent performance of the pixel detector despite the increase in particle rates and track densities, the CMS Collaboration foresees the exchange of its pixel detector in the shutdown 2016/2017. The new pixel detector will be improved in many respects, and will comprise twice the number of readout channels. A powering scheme based on DC-DC conversion will be adopted, which will enable the provision of the required power with the present cable plant. The powering scheme of the CMS pixel detector will be described, and the performance of prototype DC-DC buck converters will be presented, including power efficiency, system tests with DC-DC converters and pixel modules, thermal management, reliability at low temperature, and studies of potential frequency locking between DC-DC converters.

  2. Regulation of a lightweight high efficiency capacitor diode voltage multiplier dc-dc converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrigill, W. T., Jr.; Myers, I. T.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the regulation of a capacitor diode voltage multiplier dc-dc converter has been developed which has only minor penalties in weight and efficiency. An auxiliary inductor is used, which only handles a fraction of the total power, to control the output voltage through a pulse width modulation method in a buck boost circuit.

  3. Single Event Burnout in DC-DC Converters for the LHC Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Claudio H. Rivetta et al.

    2001-09-24

    High voltage transistors in DC-DC converters are prone to catastrophic Single Event Burnout in the LHC radiation environment. This paper presents a systematic methodology to analyze single event effects sensitivity in converters and proposes solutions based on de-rating input voltage and output current or voltage.

  4. Seed dispersal into wetlands: Techniques and results for a restored tidal freshwater marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, K.P.; Baldwin, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Although seed dispersal is assumed to be a major factor determining plant community development in restored wetlands, little research exists on density and species richness of seed available through dispersal in these systems. We measured composition and seed dispersal rates at a restored tidal freshwater marsh in Washington, DC, USA by collecting seed dispersing through water and wind. Seed dispersal by water was measured using two methods of seed collection: (1) stationary traps composed of coconut fiber mat along an elevation gradient bracketing the tidal range and (2) a floating surface trawl net attached to a boat. To estimate wind dispersal rates, we collected seed from stationary traps composed of coconut fiber mat positioned above marsh vegetation. We also collected a small number of samples of debris deposited along high tide lines (drift lines) and feces of Canada Goose to explore their seed content. We used the seedling emergence method to determine seed density in all samples, which involved placing the fiber mats or sample material on top of potting soil in a greenhouse misting room and enumerating emerging seedlings. Seedlings from a total of 125 plant species emerged during this study (including 82 in river trawls, 89 in stationary water traps, 21 in drift lines, 39 in wind traps, and 10 in goose feces). The most abundant taxa included Bidens frondosa, Boehmeria cylindrica, Cyperus spp., Eclipta prostrata, and Ludwigia palustris. Total seedling density was significantly greater for the stationary water traps (212 + 30.6 seeds/m2/month) than the equal-sized stationary wind traps (18 + 6.0 seeds/m(2)/month). Lower-bound estimates of total species richness based on the non-parametric Chao 2 asymptotic estimators were greater for seeds in water (106 + 1.4 for stationary water traps and 104 + 5.5 for trawl samples) than for wind (54 + 6.4). Our results indicate that water is the primary source of seeds dispersing to the site and that a species-rich pool

  5. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  6. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  7. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  8. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  9. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  10. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  11. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  12. Seed mucilage from Ipomoea dasysperma.

    PubMed

    Singh, V; Pandey, M; Srivastava, A; Srivastava, V

    2007-04-01

    A non-ionic water-soluble galactomannan, having galactose and mannose in 1:6 molar ratio, was isolated from endosperm of the seeds of Ipomoea dasysperma. The seed mucilage was found to have a structure having a linear chain of beta (1-->4) linked mannopyranosyl units with D-galactose side chains attached through alpha (1-->6) linkage to the main chain. I. dasysperma seed gum possesses non-ionic characteristics of commercial seed gums and has potential to be used in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:17346904

  13. New Experimental Data in DC745U

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse; Cady, Carl; Densmore, Crystal

    2012-06-18

    The objectives of this project are: (1) study the molecular and mechanical properties of DC745U - (a) DC745U is a silicone elastomer used in several weapons systems, (b) depending on their chemistry and formulation, polymers can be susceptible to damage and failures due to weak chemical linkages and physical interactions, (c) inefficient production processes can generate heterogeneities throughout the material that can contribute negatively to the overall performance and lifetime of the polyer, (d) aging, long-term thermal and radioactive conditions, and mechanical strains can affect the materials network structure and contribute to the degradation of the production; (2) characterization of DC745U materials cured under different conditions to determine possible differences to the polymer structure; and (3) this work is relevant to mission-critical programs and for supporting programmatic work for weapon research.

  14. Ramp technique for dc partial discharge testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    The partial discharge (PD) data presently obtained by means of a stepwise ramp technique, for the cases of high voltage (HV) components and such resin-packaged HV devices as the Space Telescope's Faint Object Camera, is acquired separately on part-way ramps to rated voltage and on the intermediate voltage plateaus. For test specimens intended for dc service, this ramp method yields more data on insulation integrity than quiescent dc measurements, especially in the case of specimens of high resistivity which causes the discharge frequency to be deceptively low at constant dc voltage. During upward ramping the voltage distribution is capacitive, and the PD behavior resembles that of an ac test. Many more pulses are obtained in the voids without the heat otherwise generated by the application of 60-Hz ac. PD histograms are presented for various materials, with and without intentional defects.

  15. Seed-cotton Cleaning Effects on Seed Coat Fragments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing problems in textile mills have been linked to seed coat fragments (SCF), so cotton ginning facilities should take steps to prevent them from forming. The objective of this experiment was to determine if the use of seed-cotton cleaners prior to the extractor-feeder/gin stand caused increa...

  16. Seed to Seed, The Secret Life of Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a book review of "Seed to Seed, The Secret Life of Plants", by Nicholas Harberd. The book is a diary of ruminations/introspections about plant development and about the main research topic of Nick Harberd’s laboratory. His intended audience is initially nonscientists; many of the explanation...

  17. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  18. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  19. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  20. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  1. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  2. Three phase full wave dc motor decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A three phase decoder for dc motors is disclosed which employs an extremely simple six transistor circuit to derive six properly phased output signals for fullwave operation of dc motors. Six decoding transistors are coupled at their base-emitter junctions across a resistor network arranged in a delta configuration. Each point of the delta configuration is coupled to one of three position sensors which sense the rotational position of the motor. A second embodiment of the invention is disclosed in which photo-optical isolators are used in place of the decoding transistors.

  3. DC conductivity of magnetised holographic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Griffin, Tom; Melgar, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We consider general black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory that are holographically dual to conformal field theories at finite charge density with nonvanishing magnetic fields and local magnetisation currents, which generically break translation invariance explicitly. We show that the thermoelectric DC conductivity of the field theory can be obtained by solving a system of generalised Stokes equations on the black hole horizon. For various examples, including Q-lattices and one-dimensional lattices, we solve the Stokes equations explicitly and obtain expressions for the DC conductivity in terms of the solution at the black hole horizon.

  4. A guide to forest seed handling

    SciTech Connect

    Willan, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This guide to forest seed handling focuses on seed quality, i.e., the physiological viability and vigor of the seeds. Seed and fruit development, germination, and dormancy and the fundamentals of planning seed collections are covered. The guide includes discussions on seed collection of fallen fruits or seeds from the forest floor from the crowns of felled trees, and from standing trees with access from the ground and with other means of access. Also considered are precautions to be followed during fruit and seed handling between collection and processing. The different stages in seed processing are detailed, including extraction, depulping, drying, tumbling and threshing, dewinging, cleaning, grading, and mixing. Factors affecting seed longevity in storage and the choice of storage methods are reviewed. Different forms of seed pretreatment and seed testing methods are described.

  5. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    PubMed Central

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after cold-wet storage, and scarification. We also tested the light requirement for germination in some species. Germination behavior was characterized using the final germination percentage and the mean germination time. Considering the effects of the pretreatments, a refined classification of the prevailing dormancy types was constructed based on the results of our pretreatments. Only two out of the 28 species that we evaluated had predominantly non-dormant seeds. Physiological dormancy was prevalent in 20 species, with deep physiological dormancy being the most abundant, followed by non-deep and intermediate physiological dormancy. Seeds of four species with underdeveloped embryos were assigned to the morphophysiologial dormancy class. An impermeable seed coat was identified in two species, with no additional physiological germination block. We defined these species as having physical dormancy. Light promoted the germination of seeds without storage in all but one species with physiological dormancy. In species with physical dormancy, light responses were of minor importance. We discuss our new classification in the context of former germination studies and draw implications for the timing of germination in the field. PMID:24415831

  6. Training for Certification: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing specifically on the treatment of seeds with pesticides, this publication is meant to prepare one to take the written examination for Environmental Protection Agency Seed Treatment certification.…

  7. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    Activities for the Fall Semester, 1987 focused on investigating the mechanical/electrical properties of wheat seeds and forming various Seed Planting System (SPS) concepts based on those properties. The Electrical Division of the design group was formed to devise an SPS using electrostatic charge fields for seeding operations. Experiments concerning seed separation using electrical induction (rearranging of the charges within the seed) were conducted with promising results. The seeds, when exposed to the high voltage and low current field produced by a Van de Graff generator, were observed to move back and forth between two electrodes. An SPS concept has been developed based on this phenomena, and will be developed throughout the Spring Semester, 1988. The Mechanical Division centered on SPS concepts involving valves, pumps, and fluids to separate and deliver seeds. An SPS idea utilizing the pressure difference caused by air as it rushes out of holes drilled in the wall of a closed container has been formulated and will be considered for future development. Also, a system of seed separation and delivery employing a combination of centrifugal force, friction, and air flow was considered.

  8. Differential predation of forage seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent field experiments we observed that the main invertebrate seed predators of overseeded tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) or Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) seed in unimproved pastures were harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex sp.) and common field crickets (Gryllus sp.) To determ...

  9. Chapter 3: Seed and Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is one of the most important factors in sugarbeet production. Seed selection is one of the most important decisions a grower can make. Without a uniform plant population of a sugarbeet variety adapted to the growing region, the producer will have difficulty achieving economical crop production....

  10. OPTIMIZING FERTILITY FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed corn production is a high input and high management endeavor that yields a high value product. Most seed production fields are managed as a unit in terms of cultivars, so timing of field operations follows the same scale. However, some producers are finding that spatial variability in soil prop...

  11. MAINE MUSSEL SEED CONSERVATION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEED shows point locations of Maine mussel seed conservation areas at 1:24,000 scale. Data for this coverage were screen digitized on a 1:24000 scale base using descriptions contained in Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) rules. Coastal arcs from Maine Office of GIS 1:24...

  12. Morphological Analysis of Rubus Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Rubus exhibits morphological diversity and a wide range of reproductive systems and habitats. We examined seed coat ultrastructural morphology of seed accessions of 10 subgenera preserved at the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Reposito...

  13. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  14. Physical properties of psyllium seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, R.; Kalbasi-Ashtari, A.; Gharibzahedi, S.

    2012-02-01

    Physical properties ie dimensions, volume, surface area, sphericity, true density, porosity, angle of repose, terminal velocity, static and dynamic friction coefficients on plywood, stainless steel, glass and galvanized iron sheet, force required for initiating seed rupture in horizontal and vertical orientations of psyllium seed at a moisture content of 7.2% (w.b.)were determined.

  15. Genebanking seeds from natural populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional storage protocols have been developed to preserve genetic diversity of seeds of crops in genebanks. These same principles have been applied to preserve seeds from wild populations. While most principles for conventional storage protocols are applicable to a broad range of wild species...

  16. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  17. Seed dormancy in Mexican teosinte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy in wild Zea species may affect fitness and relate to ecological adaptation. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the variation in seed germination of the wild species of the genus Zea that currently grow in Mexico, and to relate this variation to their ecological zon...

  18. Ripening events in seeded watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeded watermelons generally start color development in the locule (seed cavity), with color progressing to the center of the fruit during the ripening process. Soluble solids content (SSR) is thought to be highest at the blossom end. In large-fruited watermelon where only a portion of the fruit is...

  19. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwan, Y. M.; Leow, W. Z.; Irwanto, M.; M, Fareq; Hassan, S. I. S.; Safwati, I.; Amelia, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer.

  20. Regulated high efficiency, lightweight capacitor-diode multiplier dc to dc converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrigill, W. T., Jr.; Myers, I. T. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A voltage multiplier having a capacitor-diode voltage multiplying network is disclosed which is fed with voltage pulses from a dc source through a first switching means. Pulses of a second polarity are also supplied through a second switching means to the input of the capacitor-diode voltage multiplier from a second dc source whose voltage is adjustable to change the voltage of the pulses of second polarity. The switching means are alternately rendered conducting by signals from a control circuit. The second dc source may be controlled by a voltage comparator which compares the output voltage of the capacitor-diode voltage multiplier to the reference source.

  1. DC birdscape: a program for monitoring neotropical migrant birds in Washington, DC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Hadidian, J.; Swarth, C.; Droege, S.; Handly, P.; Diddan, G.; Huff, J.

    2000-01-01

    Urban and suburban habitats often contain a variety of Neotropical migratory birds, but are poorly sampled by programs such as the North American Breeding Bird Survey. DC Birdscape was developed to inventory and monitor birds in Washington, D.C. Birds were surveyed using a systematic sample of point counts during 1993-1995. Results indicate that species richness of Neotropical migratory birds varied among land-use categories, and that maximum species richness occurred in parkland habitats. Although DC Birdscape has provided relevant information on bird distribution and species richness, it is unclear whether the information is of sufficient management interest to support its continuation as a long-term monitoring program.

  2. New Logic Circuit with DC Parametric Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Masanori; Kaneda, Hisayoshi

    1982-12-01

    It is shown that dc parametric excitation is possible in a circuit named JUDO, which is composed of two resistively-connected Josephson junctions. Simulation study proves that the circuit has large gain and properties suitable for the construction of small, high-speed logic circuits.

  3. Gravity Compensation Technique Uses Small dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollow, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Small dc servomotor powered by simple constant-current source and with suitable gearing used to cancel effect of gravity upon load. Lead-screw positioning system has load counterbalanced by small supplementary motor powered by constant current source. Motor lighter and more compact alternative to counterbalance. Used in variety of mechanical systems where load positioned or accelerated in vertical plane.

  4. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The NASA DC-8 in a right bank over the rugged Sierra Nevada Mountains. The former airliner is a 'dash-72' model and has a range of 5,500 miles. The craft can stay airborne for 12 hours and has an operational speed range between 300 and 500 knots. The research flights are made at between 500 and 41,000 feet. The aircraft can carry up to 30,000 lbs of research/science payload equipment installed in 15 mission-definable spaces. In this photo, the aircraft is shown in flight from below, with the DC-8 silhouetted against a blue sky. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  5. Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.

    1987-01-01

    Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.

  6. dc discharge cell for laser optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    A dc electrical discharge cell for laser optogalvanic spectroscopy has been designed and tested. Signal optimization is achieved through the use of adjustable electrode positions and an orthogonal geometry between the probe laser and the discharge axis. Results are presented for visible dye laser and infrared diode laser studies of selected neutral, radical, and ion species.

  7. Halbach array DC motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.; Post, R.F.

    1998-01-06

    A new configuration of DC motor/generator is based on a Halbach array of permanent magnets. This motor does not use ferrous materials so that the only losses are winding losses and losses due to bearings and windage. An ``inside-out`` design is used as compared to a conventional motor/generator design. The rotating portion, i.e., the rotor, is on the outside of the machine. The stationary portion, i.e., the stator, is formed by the inside of the machine. The rotor contains an array of permanent magnets that provide a uniform field. The windings of the motor are placed in or on the stator. The stator windings are then ``switched`` or ``commutated`` to provide a DC motor/generator much the same as in a conventional DC motor. The commutation can be performed by mechanical means using brushes or by electronic means using switching circuits. The invention is useful in electric vehicles and adjustable speed DC drives. 17 figs.

  8. Halbach array DC motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.; Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    A new configuration of DC motor/generator is based on a Halbach array of permanent magnets. This motor does not use ferrous materials so that the only losses are winding losses and losses due to bearings and windage. An "inside-out" design is used as compared to a conventional motor/generator design. The rotating portion, i.e., the rotor, is on the outside of the machine. The stationary portion, i.e., the stator, is formed by the inside of the machine. The rotor contains an array of permanent magnets that provide a uniform field. The windings of the motor are placed in or on the stator. The stator windings are then "switched" or "commutated" to provide a DC motor/generator much the same as in a conventional DC motor. The commutation can be performed by mechanical means using brushes or by electronic means using switching circuits. The invention is useful in electric vehicles and adjustable speed DC drives.

  9. Manufacturing development of DC-10 advanced rudder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1979-01-01

    The design, manufacture, and ground test activities during development of production methods for an advanced composite rudder for the DC-10 transport aircraft are described. The advanced composite aft rudder is satisfactory for airline service and a cost saving in a full production manufacturing mode is anticipated.

  10. Electrical Anomalies Observed During DC3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Dolan, Brenda; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William; Lindsey, Daniel T.; Lyons, Walt

    2013-01-01

    The primary scientific goals of DC3 involved improving our understanding of the chemical impacts of thunderstorms and their anvils. However, the Colorado domain provided opportunities to study other interesting phenomena, including the potential impacts of smoke ingestion on convection and thunderstorms, electrification processes in smoke plumes and pyrocumulonimbus clouds, and the production of sprites by unconventional thunderstorm.

  11. A dc magnetic field distribution transducer (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.

    1991-04-01

    A new way of measuring magnetic field distribution is proposed, based on the change of the response of a magnetostrictive delay line (MDL) to varying dc magnetic field. The principal idea runs as follows: an array of wires Ci, transmitting pulsed current Ie, crosses at 45° an array of MDL Lj. The resulting pulsed field at the crossing points Pij excites an acoustic pulses in the lines, detected by short coils placed close to one end, in terms of voltage Voij. If a dc magnetic field Hdc is applied at the point Pij, the acoustic pulse and hence Voij change. Experimental results are given, showing the dependence of V0 on the applied dc field under various values of Ie for the case of a 1 mm wide Metglas 2605SC MDL. The function of Vom vs Hdc under various values of Ie is also given, where Vom is the maximum value of the absolute positive and negative peaks of V0. The first derivative of this function equals zero for two values of Hdc, corresponding to approximately equal positive and negative peaks of V0. So, having divided this function in 4 parts, comparison of these two peaks and experimental data are used to find the orientation and magnitude of the dc field on the MDL axis. It was also found that V0, corresponding to an Hdc applied at an angle v to the MDL equals the response of a dc field having a magnitude Hdc cos(v) and applied along the length of the line. So, by having another array of delay lines L'i identical but orthogonal to the previous MDL array Lj and crossing in 45° the conducting wires array Ci, we can keep the same number of crossing points. Hence, measurements from two delay lines Li and L'i corresponding to Pij, give a 2-d vector of the dc magnetic field applied at this point. The uniformity and the resolution of such a transducer can be improved by using the recently developed FeSiB wires after stress annealing. Future work is to be done to increase the frequency and the range of the measurable dc field.

  12. Seed biology and in vitro seed germination of Cypripedium.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Songjun; Zhang, Yu; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Jianxia; Duan, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Cypripedium orchids have high horticultural value. The populations of most species are very geographically restricted and they are becoming increasingly rare due to the destruction of native habitats and illegal collection. Reduction of the commercial value through large-scale propagation in vitro is a preferable option to reduce pressure from illegal collection. Cypripedium species are commercially propagated via seed germination in vitro. This review focuses on in vitro seed germination and provides an in-depth analysis of the seed biology of this genus. PMID:24191720

  13. A Nonlinear Digital Control Solution for a DC/DC Power Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Minshao

    2002-01-01

    A digital Nonlinear Proportional-Integral-Derivative (NPID) control algorithm was proposed to control a 1-kW, PWM, DC/DC, switching power converter. The NPID methodology is introduced and a practical hardware control solution is obtained. The design of the controller was completed using Matlab (trademark) Simulink, while the hardware-in-the-loop testing was performed using both the dSPACE (trademark) rapid prototyping system, and a stand-alone Texas Instruments (trademark) Digital Signal Processor (DSP)-based system. The final Nonlinear digital control algorithm was implemented and tested using the ED408043-1 Westinghouse DC-DC switching power converter. The NPID test results are discussed and compared to the results of a standard Proportional-Integral (PI) controller.

  14. Adaptive output voltage tracking controller for uncertain DC/DC boost converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung-Seoup; Kim, Seok-Kyoon; Park, Jin-Hyuk; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a cascade output voltage control strategy for an uncertain DC/DC boost converter adopting an adaptive current controller in its inner loop. Considering the non-linearity, load uncertainties and parameter uncertainties of the converter, the proposed controller is designed following the conventional cascade voltage controller design method. The proposed method makes the following three contributions. First, a coordinate transformation is introduced for the inner loop, enabling avoidance of the singularity problem caused by the estimates of uncertain parameters. Second, a slight modification to the adaptation law is performed to guarantee closed-loop stability in the presence of the time-varying component of the load current. Third, the outer-loop controller is devised such that its performance can be adjusted without any parameter information. The closed-loop performance is demonstrated through simulations and experiments using the DSP28335 with a 3 kW DC/DC boost converter.

  15. Improvement of burst-mode control of piezoelectric transformer based DC/DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasic, Dejan; Liu, Yuan-Ping; Schwander, Denis; Costa, François; Wu, Wen-Jong

    2013-05-01

    Burst-mode operation is adopted sometimes in piezoelectric transformer based converters for two major purposes: (1) to achieve voltage regulation in DC/DC converters and (2) to achieve dimming control in backlight inverters. Burst-mode control enables the converter to operate at a constant switching frequency as well as to maintain good efficiency at light load conditions. However, in practice, the piezoelectric transformer cannot instantly stop vibrating in the burst-mode due to its high quality factor. The delay in the output voltage change resulting from this behavior influences the accuracy of the regulation. This paper proposes a control strategy to make the piezoelectric transformer stop more quickly so as to enhance the accuracy of burst-mode control. The proposed method only modifies the control signal of the burst-mode driving circuit. The proposed control strategy is verified by experiments in a step-down 9 W DC/DC converter.

  16. Chaos, bifurcation and intermittent phenomena in DC-DC converters under resonant parametric perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deivasundari, P.; Geetha, R.; Uma, G.; Murali, K.

    2013-07-01

    DC-DC converters act as a black box to study various bifurcations. In the present study, the influence of external periodic interference signal in the input of DC-DC voltage-mode controlled buck converter has been considered. It is found that the presence of sinusoidal or saw-tooth interference signal whose frequency is comparable with the switching frequency of the converter or its rational multiples manifests as remerging chaotic band attractors (or Feigenbaum trees) and intermittent chaos. However, the presence of sinusoidal interference signal having irrational frequency ratios with the switching frequency of the converter leads to quasi-periodic route to chaos. The study was carried out both theoretically and experimentally.

  17. DC-DC power converter research for Orbiter/Station power exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsani, M.

    1993-01-01

    This project was to produce innovative DC-DC power converter concepts which are appropriate for the power exchange between the Orbiter and the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The new converters must interface three regulated power buses on SSF, which are at different voltages, with three fuel cell power buses on the Orbiter which can be at different voltages and should be tracked independently. Power exchange is to be bi-directional between the SSF and the Orbiter. The new converters must satisfy the above operational requirements with better weight, volume, efficiency, and reliability than is available from the present conventional technology. Two families of zero current DC-DC converters were developed and successfully adapted to this application. Most of the converters developed are new and are presented.

  18. SUBCONTRACT REPORT: DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell and Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, Laura D; Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and fabricate a 5kW dc-dc converter with a baseline 14V output capability for fuel cell and hybrid vehicles. The major objectives for this dc-dc converter technology are to meet: Higher efficiency (92%); High coolant temperature,e capability (105 C); High reliability (15 Years/150,000miles); Smaller volume (5L); Lower weight (6kg); and Lower cost ($75/kW). The key technical challenge for these converters is the 105 C coolant temperatures. The power switches and magnetics must be designed to sustain these operating temperatures reliably, without a large cost/mass/volume penalty.

  19. Cryogenic Evaluation of an Advanced DC/DC Converter Module for Deep Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Gerber, Scott S.; Patterson, Richard

    2003-01-01

    DC/DC converters are widely used in power management, conditioning, and control of space power systems. Deep space applications require electronics that withstand cryogenic temperature and meet a stringent radiation tolerance. In this work, the performance of an advanced, radiation-hardened (rad-hard) commercial DC/DC converter module was investigated at cryogenic temperatures. The converter was investigated in terms of its steady state and dynamic operations. The output voltage regulation, efficiency, terminal current ripple characteristics, and output voltage response to load changes were determined in the temperature range of 20 to -140 C. These parameters were obtained at various load levels and at different input voltages. The experimental procedures along with the results obtained on the investigated converter are presented and discussed.

  20. Compact Low Cost Hybrid DC/DC Converter Controller For Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, Gian Franco; Contissa, Alessandro; Mantegazza, Massimiliano

    2011-10-01

    The need for low cost, space qualified (ESA requirements), compact DC/DC converters is becoming increasingly important both for commercial market and programs controlled by space administration. Market is also showing request for large scale production. To face market needs, the design of low power multi- output DC/DC converters can be based on small and low mass hybrid controllers for better mechanical optimization. Moreover, this approach, maintaining robust performances against harsh space environment, allows taking the advantages typical of recurrent design: high reliability and reduction of cost. Also, using the hybrid controller allows designers to focus just on power transformer and filters, reducing the time necessary to complete the design. This paper shall provide description of the standard Thales Alenia Space hybrid controller in its two variants: 40V-760V (HYLPSC03RAD) and 20.5V-43V (HYLPSC04RAD) bus voltage.

  1. Brassinosteroid functions in Arabidopsis seed development

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen-Bo; Lin, Wen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Seed development of flowering plant is a complicated process controlled by a signal network. Double fertilization generates 2 zygotic products (embryo and endosperm). Embryo gives rise to a daughter plant while endosperm provides nutrients for embryo during embryogenesis and germination. Seed coat differentiates from maternally derived integument and encloses embryo and endosperm. Seed size/mass and number comprise final seed yield, and seed shape also contributes to seed development and weight. Seed size is coordinated by communication among endosperm, embryo, and integument. Seed number determination is more complex to investigate and shows differencies between monocot and eudicot. Total seed number depends on sillique number and seed number per sillique in Arabidopsis. Seed comes from fertilized ovule, hence the ovule number per flower determines the maximal seed number per sillique. Early studies reported that engineering BR levels increased the yield of ovule and seed; however the molecular mechanism of BR regulation in seed development still remained unclear. Our recent studies demonstrated that BR regulated seed size, shape, and number by transcriptionally modulating specific seed developmental pathways. This review summarizes roles of BR in Arabidopsis seed development and gives clues for future application of BR in agricultural production. PMID:24270689

  2. Efficiency and weight of voltage multiplier type ultra lightweight dc-dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrigill, W. T., Jr.; Myers, I. T.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical and experimental study was made of a capacitor-diode voltage multiplier without a transformer which offers the possibility of high efficiency with light weight. The dc-dc conversion efficiencies of about 94 percent were achieved at output powers of 150 watts at 1000 volts using 8x multiplication. A detailed identification of losses was made, including forward drop losses in component, switching losses, reverse junction capacitance charging losses, and charging losses in the main ladder capacitors.

  3. High performance dc-dc conversion with voltage multipliers. [using transformerless capacitor diode circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrigill, W. T., Jr.; Myers, I. T.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental 100W 1000V dc-dc converter using a capacitor diode voltage multipler (CDVM) with a nominal frequency of 100 kHz is studied. A component weight of about 1 kg/kW was obtained. Design equations for current, output -ripple and -power, efficiency and output voltage are derived. Agreement between experimental results and calculations is fairly good except for ripple.

  4. Linearized stability analysis and design of a flyback dc-dc boost regulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wester, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Analytic expressions for the small-signal power-stage describing functions of a switched dc-dc boost regulator are derived from an approximate continuous circuit model which is developed by a time-averaging technique. Closed-loop stability is attained through the design of frequency compensation of the loop gain. Open- and closed-loop regulator output impedances are derived from the linearized models for the given configuration. The analysis and design are compared with and confirmed by breadboard measurements.

  5. A Three-Phase Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia; Tang, Lixin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a three-phase soft-switching, bidirectional dc-dc converter for high-power automotive applications. The converter employs dual three-phase active bridges and operates with a novel asymmetrical but fixed duty cycle for the top and bottom switches of each phase leg. Simulation and experimental data on a 6-kW prototype are included to verify the novel operating and power flow control principles.

  6. Materials Testing on the DC-X and DC-XA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dane; Carroll, Carol; Marschall, Jochen; Pallix, Joan

    1997-01-01

    Flight testing of thermal protection materials has been carried out over a two year period on the base heat shield of the Delta Clipper (DC-X and DC-XA), as well on a body flap. The purpose was to use the vehicle as a test bed for materials and more efficient repair or maintenance processes which would be potentially useful for application on new entry vehicles (i.e., X-33, RLV, planetary probes), as well as on the existing space shuttle orbiters. Panels containing Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and/or structural materials were constructed either at NASA Ames Research Center or at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) and attached between two of the four thrusters in the base heat shield of the DC-X or DC-XA. Three different panels were flown on DC-X flights 6, 7, and 8. A total of 7 panels were flown on DC-XA flights 1, 2, and 3. The panels constructed at Ames contained a variety of ceramic TPS including flexible blankets, tiles with high emissivity coatings, lightweight ceramic ablators and other ceramic composites. The MDS test panels consisted primarily of a variety of metallic composites. This report focuses on the ceramic TPS test results.

  7. DC-DC Type High-Frequency Link DC for Improved Power Quality of Cascaded Multilevel Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadikin, Muhammad; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    Multilevel inverters are emerging as a new breed of power converter options for power system applications. Recent advances in power switching devices enabled the suitability of multilevel inverters for high voltage and high power applications because they are connecting several devices in series without the need of component matching. Usually, a transformerless battery energy storage system, based on a cascaded multilevel inverter, is used as a measure for voltage and frequency deviations. System can be reduced in size, weight, and cost of energy storage system. High-frequency link circuit topology is advantageous in realizing compact and light-weight power converters for uninterruptible power supply systems, new energy systems using photovoltaic-cells, fuel-cells and so on. This paper presents a DC-DC type high-frequency link DC (HFLDC) cascaded multilevel inverter. Each converter cell is implemented a control strategy for two H-bridge inverters that are controlled with the same multicarrier pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. The proposed cascaded multilevel inverter generates lower voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) in comparison with conventional cascaded multilevel inverter. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of the proposed cascaded multilevel inverter.

  8. Static DC to DC Power Conditioning-Active Ripple Filter, 1 MHZ DC to DC Conversion, and Nonlinear Analysis. Ph.D. Thesis; [voltage regulation and conversion circuitry for spacecraft power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, W. A., III

    1973-01-01

    Dc to dc static power conditioning systems on unmanned spacecraft have as their inputs highly fluctuating dc voltages which they condition to regulated dc voltages. These input voltages may be less than or greater than the desired regulated voltages. The design of two circuits which address specific problems in the design of these power conditioning systems and a nonlinear analysis of one of the circuits are discussed. The first circuit design is for a nondissipative active ripple filter which uses an operational amplifier to amplify and cancel the sensed ripple voltage. A dc to dc converter operating at a switching frequency of 1 MHz is the second circuit discussed. A nonlinear analysis of the type of dc to dc converter utilized in designing the 1 MHz converter is included.

  9. Brushless dc motor uses electron beam switching tube as commutator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P.

    1965-01-01

    Electron beam switching tube eliminates physical contact between rotor and stator in brushless dc motor. The tube and associated circuitry control the output of a dc source to sequentially energize the motor stator windings.

  10. An Optically Controllable Transformation-dc Illusion Device.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Luo, Chen Yang; Ge, Shuo; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-08-19

    The concept of multifunctional transformation-dc devices is proposed and verified experimentally. The functions of dc metamaterials can be remotely altered by illuminating with visible light. If the light-induced dc illusion effect is activated, the electrostatic behavior of the original object is perceived as multiple equivalent objects with different pre-designed geometries. The experimental verification of the functional device makes it possible to control sophisticated transformation-dc devices with external light illumination. PMID:26177597

  11. Dendritic Cell (DC) Vaccine in Mouse Lung Cancer Minimal Residual Model; Comparison of Monocyte-derived DC vs. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Derived-DC.

    PubMed

    Baek, Soyoung; Lee, Seog Jae; Kim, Myoung Joo; Lee, Hyunah

    2012-12-01

    The anti-tumor effect of monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) vaccine was studied in lung cancer model with feasible but weak Ag-specific immune response and incomplete blocking of tumor growth. To overcome this limitation, the hematopoietic stem cell-derived DC (SDC) was cultured and the anti-tumor effect of MoDC & SDC was compared in mouse lung cancer minimal residual model (MRD). Therapeutic DCs were cultured from either CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells with GM-CSF, SCF and IL-4 for 14 days (SDC) or monocytes with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 7 days (MoDC). DCs were injected twice by one week interval into the peritoneum of mice that are inoculated with Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells (LLC) one day before the DC injection. Anti-tumor responses and the immune modulation were observed 3 weeks after the final DC injection. CD11c expression, IL-12 and TGF-β secretion were higher in SDC but CCR7 expression, IFN-γ and IL-10 secretion were higher in MoDC. The proportion of CD11c(+)CD8a(+) cells was similar in both DC cultures. Although both DC reduced the tumor burden, histological anti-tumor effect and the frequencies of IFN-γ secreting CD8(+) T cells were higher in SDC treated group than in MoDC. Conclusively, although both MoDC and SDC can induce the anti-tumor immunity, SDC may be better module as anti-tumor vaccine than MoDC in mouse lung cancer. PMID:23396889

  12. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  13. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  14. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  15. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  16. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any...

  17. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  18. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  19. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  20. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  1. 7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., are to be counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided for legumes, okra... percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14 days when germinating at 15..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  2. INTESPECIIC DIFFERENCES IN GRASS SEED IMBIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seeds from 12 grass species were studied relative to mode of wetting and time of exposure to water to document interspecific differences in imbibition characteristics. Imbibition causes seeds to become wet, and wet seeds are more detectable to consumers than dry seeds. Thus, ge...

  3. Flowering, Capsule and Seed Characteristics in Cuphea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We modeled the flowering and capsule set dynamics, quantified the level of variation in seed characteristics, elucidated the inter-relationships among seed and capsule physical dimensions, and quantified their impact on single seed weight as the main determinant of seed yield in the indeterminate, p...

  4. Materials used for Seed Storage Containers: Response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient seed storage is a shared concern among the growing number of seed banks established for crop improvement or ex situ conservation. Container properties greatly affect seed interactions with the environment and the overall cost and success of seed banking operations. Several material proper...

  5. Evaluation of Lettuce Genotypes for Seed Thermotolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28oC. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedli...

  6. 46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seed cake. 148.310 Section 148.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.310 Seed cake. (a) This part does not apply to solvent-extracted rape seed meal, pellets, soya bean meal, cotton seed meal, or sunflower...

  7. 46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seed cake. 148.310 Section 148.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.310 Seed cake. (a) This part does not apply to solvent-extracted rape seed meal, pellets, soya bean meal, cotton seed meal, or sunflower...

  8. 46 CFR 148.310 - Seed cake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seed cake. 148.310 Section 148.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.310 Seed cake. (a) This part does not apply to solvent-extracted rape seed meal, pellets, soya bean meal, cotton seed meal, or sunflower...

  9. Unconventional dc Transport in Rashba Electron Gases.

    PubMed

    Brosco, Valentina; Benfatto, Lara; Cappelluti, Emmanuele; Grimaldi, Claudio

    2016-04-22

    We discuss the transport properties of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We show that in the high-density regime where the Fermi energy overcomes the energy associated with spin-orbit coupling, dc transport is accurately described by a standard Drude's law, due to a nontrivial compensation between the suppression of backscattering and the relativistic correction to the quasiparticle velocity. On the contrary, when the system enters the opposite dominant spin-orbit regime, Drude's paradigm breaks down and the dc conductivity becomes strongly sensitive to the spin-orbit coupling strength, providing a suitable tool to test the entanglement between spin and charge degrees of freedom in these systems. PMID:27152815

  10. Unconventional dc Transport in Rashba Electron Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosco, Valentina; Benfatto, Lara; Cappelluti, Emmanuele; Grimaldi, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the transport properties of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We show that in the high-density regime where the Fermi energy overcomes the energy associated with spin-orbit coupling, dc transport is accurately described by a standard Drude's law, due to a nontrivial compensation between the suppression of backscattering and the relativistic correction to the quasiparticle velocity. On the contrary, when the system enters the opposite dominant spin-orbit regime, Drude's paradigm breaks down and the dc conductivity becomes strongly sensitive to the spin-orbit coupling strength, providing a suitable tool to test the entanglement between spin and charge degrees of freedom in these systems.

  11. DC motor speed control using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Heng-Ming; Wang, Junli; Kaveh, Ashenayi

    1990-08-01

    This paper presents a scheme that uses a feedforward neural network for the learning and generalization of the dynamic characteristics for the starting of a dc motor. The goal is to build an intelligent motor starter which has a versatility equivalent to that possessed by a human operator. To attain a fast and safe starting from stall for a dc motor a maximum armature current should be maintained during the starting period. This can be achieved by properly adjusting the armature voltage. The network is trained to learn the inverse dynamics of the motor starting characteristics and outputs a proper armature voltage. Simulation was performed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the model. This study also addresses the network performance as a function of the number of hidden units and the number of training samples. 1.

  12. The Fiscal Impact of the D.C. Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan L.; Michos, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In August 2004 the first ever federally funded school voucher program began in Washington, D.C. Eligible students could attend a private school of their choice in the District of Columbia. Each participant received up to $7,500 for school tuition, fees, and transportation. In addition, the D.C. Public School System (DCPS) and D.C. charter school…

  13. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over Mt. Whitney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The DC-8 banking over the jagged peak of Mount Whitney on a February 25, 1998 flight. The DC-8 and a pair of ER-2 aircraft are operated by the Airborne Science program at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. NASA, other governmental agencies, academia, and scientific and technical organizations employ the DC-8 for a variety of experiments.

  14. Inheritance of seed color in Capsicum.

    PubMed

    Zewdie, Y; Bosland, P W

    2003-01-01

    The mode of seed color inheritance in Capsicum was studied via an interspecific hybridization between C. pubescens Ruiz and Pav. (black seed color) and C. eximium Hunz. (yellow seed color). Black seed color was dominant over yellow seed color. The F(2) segregation pattern showed continuous variation. The generation means analysis indicated the presence of a significant effect of additive [d], dominance [h], and additive x additive [i] interaction for seed color inheritance. The estimate for a minimum number of effective factors (genes) involved in seed color inheritance was approximately 3. PMID:12920108

  15. Spectroscopic observations of ASASSN-14dc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.-W.; Jerkstrand, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Inserra, C.; Bruce, A.; Lawrence, A.

    2014-06-01

    We report that a spectrogram of ASASSN-14dc (Holoien et al. ATel#6267) was obtained on Jun. 27.20 UT with the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope + ISIS double armed spectograph with the R300B (0.86Angs per pix) and R158R (1.8 Angs per pix) gratings.The combined spectrum covers 3300 to 9990 Ang at a resolution (for 1 arcsec slit) about 1000 to 1300. ...

  16. NASA's DC-8 With Rain Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In a joint venture between NASA and Japan's NASDA, scientists have been using satellites, airplanes, and boats to measure rain physics in and under thunderstorms over open water. This Quick Time movie shows NASA's DC-8 jet with the instruments like the airborne rain mapping radar, i.e., the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) and a lightening imaging sensor. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  17. dc: a live Webcast control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tai-Ping; Wu, David; Mayer-Patel, Ketan D.; Rowe, Lawrence A.

    2000-12-01

    Live Internet streaming media programs, called webcasts, can adopt techniques developed by television to obtain higher quality. We have developed a general webcast production model composed of three stages (i.e., sources, broadcast, and transmission) and a tool, called the Director's Console (dc), to control live webcasts. The tool is one component of a distributed service architecture, which adapts to varying physical infrastructure and broadcast configurations.

  18. Electrostatic quadrupole DC accelerators for BNCT applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.W.; Anderson, O.A.; Reginato, L.L.; Vella, M.C.; Yu, S.S.

    1994-04-01

    A dc electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator is capable of producing a 2.5 MeV, 100 mA proton beam for the purpose of generating neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The ESQ accelerator is better than the conventional aperture column in high beam current application due to the presence of stronger transverse field for beam focusing and for suppressing secondary electrons. The major challenge in this type of accelerator is in developing the proper power supply system.

  19. Circuit Regulates Speed Of dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Charles; Padden, Robin; Brown, Floyd A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Driving circuit regulates speed of small dc permanent-magnet motor in tape recorder. Two nested feedback loops maintain speed within 1 percent of constant value. Inner loop provides coarse regulation, while outer loop removes most of variation in speed that remains in the presence of regulation by the inner loop. Compares speed of motor with commanded speed and adjusts current supplied to motor accordingly.

  20. Engine bleed air reduction in DC-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    An 0.8 percent fuel savings was achieved by a reduction in engine bleed air through the use of cabin air recirculation. The recirculation system was evaluated in revenue service on a DC-10. The cabin remained comfortable with reductions in cabin fresh air (engine bleed air) as much as 50 percent. Flight test verified the predicted fuel saving of 0.8 percent.

  1. DC CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH GRADIENT MULTILAYER INSULATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Caporaso, G J; Sampayan, S E; Sanders, D M; Krogh, M L

    2005-05-26

    We have developed a novel insulator concept that involves the use of alternating layers of conductors and insulators with periods less than 1 mm. We have demonstrated that these structures perform 2 to 5 times better than conventional insulators in long pulse, short pulse, and alternating polarity applications. We present new testing results showing exceptional behavior at DC, with gradients in excess of 110kV/cm in vacuum.

  2. Seeding for pervasively overlapping communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Conrad; Reid, Fergal; McDaid, Aaron; Hurley, Neil

    2011-06-01

    In some social and biological networks, the majority of nodes belong to multiple communities. It has recently been shown that a number of the algorithms specifically designed to detect overlapping communities do not perform well in such highly overlapping settings. Here, we consider one class of these algorithms, those which optimize a local fitness measure, typically by using a greedy heuristic to expand a seed into a community. We perform synthetic benchmarks which indicate that an appropriate seeding strategy becomes more important as the extent of community overlap increases. We find that distinct cliques provide the best seeds. We find further support for this seeding strategy with benchmarks on a Facebook network and the yeast interactome.

  3. Biotechnology of oil seed crops

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.T.

    1985-02-01

    A general summary of possibilities and limitation application of biotechnology processes to processing and/or production of fats and oils is presented. Enzymatic processes, cloning of premium perennial oil crops and genetic manipulation of oil seed compositions are discussed.

  4. Synthetic clonal reproduction through seeds.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Mohan P A; Jolivet, Sylvie; Ravi, Maruthachalam; Pereira, Lucie; Davda, Jayeshkumar N; Cromer, Laurence; Wang, Lili; Nogué, Fabien; Chan, Simon W L; Siddiqi, Imran; Mercier, Raphaël

    2011-02-18

    Cloning through seeds has potential revolutionary applications in agriculture, because it would allow vigorous hybrids to be propagated indefinitely. However, asexual seed formation or apomixis, avoiding meiosis and fertilization, is not found in the major food crops. To develop de novo synthesis of apomixis, we crossed Arabidopsis MiMe and dyad mutants that produce diploid clonal gametes to a strain whose chromosomes are engineered to be eliminated after fertilization. Up to 34% of the progeny were clones of their parent, demonstrating the conversion of clonal female or male gametes into seeds. We also show that first-generation cloned plants can be cloned again. Clonal reproduction through seeds can therefore be achieved in a sexual plant by manipulating two to four conserved genes. PMID:21330535

  5. DC Electric Fields at the Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, H. E.; Escoubet, C. P.; Masson, A.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand the transfer of energy, momentum and mass through the magnetopause one needs to know several plasma and field parameters including the DC electric field which is known to be challenging to measure in tenuous plasma regions, e.g. in the inner side of the magnetopause where the density drops below 1/cc. However, each of the Cluster spacecraft carries five different experiments that can provide information about DC electric fields, i.e. double probe antenna (EFW) and electron drift meter (EDI) as well as electron and ion spectrometers (PEACE, CIS-HIA, CIS-CODIF). Each technique is very different and has its own strengths and limitations. Therefore it is important to compare all available measurements before making a judgement on DC electric field variation at the magnetopause; note that only very rarely all five measurements are available at the same time. Although the full-resolution observations in the Cluster archive are calibrated, they can still contain various errors. However, when two experiments show the same field, it is quite likely that this is the right field because the different measurements are based on so complimentary techniques and the field varies so much when the spacecraft moves from the magnetosheath through the magnetopause into the magnetosphere, or vice versa. In this presentation we present several cases of the magnetopause crossings and how the different measurements agree and disagree around the magnetopause region.

  6. A general theory of DC electromagnetic launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Thomas G.; Timpson, Erik J.

    2015-08-01

    The non-linear, transient operation of DC electromagnetic launchers (EMLs) complicates their theoretical understanding and prevents scaling studies and performance comparisons without the aid of detailed numerical models. This paper presents a general theory for DC electromagnetic launchers that has simplified these tasks by identifying critical EML parameters and relationships affecting the EML's voltage, current, and power scaling, as well as its performance and energy conversion efficiency. EML parameters and relationships discussed in this paper include the specific force, the operating mode, the launcher constant, the launcher characteristic velocity, the contact characteristic velocity, the energy conversion efficiency, and the kinetic power and voltage-current scaling relationship. The concepts of the ideal EML, same-scale comparisons, and EML impedance are discussed. This paper defines conditions needed for the EML to operate in the steady-state. A comparison of the general theory with experimental results of several different types of DC (i.e., non-induction) electromagnetic launchers ranging from medium velocity (100's m/s) to high velocity (1000's m/s) is performed. There is good agreement between the general theory and the experimental results.

  7. Ac-dc converter firing error detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, O.L.

    1996-07-15

    Each of the twelve Booster Main Magnet Power Supply modules consist of two three-phase, full-wave rectifier bridges in series to provide a 560 VDC maximum output. The harmonic contents of the twelve-pulse ac-dc converter output are multiples of the 60 Hz ac power input, with a predominant 720 Hz signal greater than 14 dB in magnitude above the closest harmonic components at maximum output. The 720 Hz harmonic is typically greater than 20 dB below the 500 VDC output signal under normal operation. Extracting specific harmonics from the rectifier output signal of a 6, 12, or 24 pulse ac-dc converter allows the detection of SCR firing angle errors or complete misfires. A bandpass filter provides the input signal to a frequency-to-voltage converter. Comparing the output of the frequency-to-voltage converter to a reference voltage level provides an indication of the magnitude of the harmonics in the ac-dc converter output signal.

  8. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's DC-8 Airborne Science platform shown against a background of a dark blue sky on February 20, 1998. The aircraft is shown from the right rear, slightly above its plane, with the right wing in the foreground and the left wing and horizontal tail in the background. The former airliner is a 'dash-72' model and has a range of 5,400 miles. The craft can stay airborne for 12 hours and has an operational speed range between 300 and 500 knots. The research flights are made at between 500 and 41,000 feet. The aircraft can carry up to 30,000 lbs of research/science payload equipment installed in 15 mission-definable spaces. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  9. Development of a smart DC grid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma'rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become `smart'. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  10. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  11. Performance of 22.4-kW nonlaminated-frame dc series motor with chopper controller. [a dc to dc voltage converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwab, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Performance data obtained through experimental testing of a 22.4 kW traction motor using two types of excitation are presented. Ripple free dc from a motor-generator set for baseline data and pulse width modulated dc as supplied by a battery pack and chopper controller were used for excitation. For the same average values of input voltage and current, the motor power output was independent of the type of excitation. However, at the same speeds, the motor efficiency at low power output (corresponding to low duty cycle of the controller) was 5 to 10 percentage points lower on chopped dc than on ripple free dc. The chopped dc locked-rotor torque was approximately 1 to 3 percent greater than the ripple free dc torque for the same average current.

  12. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  13. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui; Mu, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  14. New topology for DC/DC bidirectional converter for hybrid systems in renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Juan Carlos; Ortega, Manuel; Jurado, Francisco

    2015-03-01

    This article presents a new isolated DC/DC bidirectional converter with soft switching, using a transformer with two voltage taps and two full bridges with insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), one on each side of the transformer to be integrated in hybrid systems of renewable energy. A large voltage conversion ratio can be achieved using this converter, in buck and booster modes. Also medium and high DC power can be converted with a good efficiency. Analysis and switching techniques have been reported. To verify the principle of operation, a laboratory prototype of 10 kW has been performed. Experimental results are presented, operating in boost mode. The switching algorithm used has been modelled in MATLAB-Simulink to generate C code. This code has been implemented in a DSP F2812, which has been used to build the prototype.

  15. Pre-dispersal predation effect on seed packaging strategies and seed viability.

    PubMed

    DeSoto, Lucía; Tutor, David; Torices, Rubén; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Nabais, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    An increased understanding of intraspecific seed packaging (i.e. seed size/number strategy) variation across different environments may improve current knowledge of the ecological forces that drive seed evolution in plants. In particular, pre-dispersal seed predation may influence seed packaging strategies, triggering a reduction of the resources allocated to undamaged seeds within the preyed fruits. Assessing plant reactions to pre-dispersal seed predation is crucial to a better understanding of predation effects, but the response of plants to arthropod attacks remains unexplored. We have assessed the effect of cone predation on the size and viability of undamaged seeds in populations of Juniperus thurifera with contrasting seed packaging strategies, namely, North African populations with single-large-seeded cones and South European populations with multi-small-seeded cones. Our results show that the incidence of predation was lower on the single-large-seeded African cones than on the multi-small-seeded European ones. Seeds from non-preyed cones were also larger and had a higher germination success than uneaten seeds from preyed cones, but only in populations with multi-seeded cones and in cones attacked by Trisetacus sp., suggesting a differential plastic response to predation. It is possible that pre-dispersal seed predation has been a strong selective pressure in European populations with high cone predation rates, being a process which maintains multi-small-seeded cones and empty seeds as a strategy to save some seeds from predation. Conversely, pre-dispersal predation might not have a strong effect in the African populations with single-large-seeded cones characterized by seed germination and filling rates higher than those in the European populations. Our results indicate that differences in pre-dispersal seed predators and predation levels may affect both selection on and intraspecific variation in seed packaging. PMID:26400794

  16. State trajectories used to observe and control dc-to-dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, W. W., III; Wilson, T. G.

    1976-01-01

    State-plane analysis techniques are employed to study the voltage stepup energy-storage dc-to-dc converter. Within this framework, an example converter operating under the influence of a constant on-time and a constant frequency controller is examined. Qualitative insight gained through this approach is used to develop a conceptual free-running control law for the voltage stepup converter which can achieve steady-state operation in one on/off cycle of control. Digital computer simulation data are presented to illustrate and verify the theoretical discussions presented.

  17. CMOS-Compatible SOI MESFETS for Radiation-Hardened DC-to-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Trevor; Lepkowski, William; Wilk, Seth

    2013-01-01

    A radiation-tolerant transistor switch has been developed that can operate between 196 and +150 C for DC-to-DC power conversion applications. A prototype buck regulator component was demonstrated to be performing well after a total ionizing dose of 300 krad(Si). The prototype buck converters showed good efficiencies at ultra-high switching speeds in the range of 1 to 10 MHz. Such high switching frequency will enable smaller, lighter buck converters to be developed as part of the next project. Switching regulators are widely used in commercial applications including portable consumer electronics.

  18. Programmed pulsewidth modulated waveforms for electromagnetic interference mitigation in dc-dc converters

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, A.C.; Sanders, S.R.

    1993-10-01

    The regular switching action of a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) circuit generates conducted and radiated electro-magnetic interference (EMI), and may also generate acoustical disturbances. Programmed pulsewidth modulation techniques have been applied suing various methods to control harmonics inherent in switched power circuits. In this paper, a method to generate an optimal programmed switching waveform for a dc-dc converter is presented. This switching waveform is optimized to reduce the amplitude of harmonic peaks in the EMI generated by the converter. Experimental results, a brief discussion of sensitivity, and a practical implementation of a circuit to generate the PWM waveform are given.

  19. A High Power Density DC-DC Converter for Distributed PV Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Agamy, Mohammed S; Chi, Song; Elasser, Ahmed; Harfman-Todorovic, Maja; Jiang, Yan; Mueller, Frank; Tao, Fengfeng

    2012-06-01

    In order to maximize solar energy harvesting capabilities, power converters have to be designed for high efficiency and good MPPT and voltage/current performance. When many converters are used in distributed systems, power density also becomes an important factor as it allows for simpler system integration. In this paper a high power density string dc-dc converter suitable for distributed medium to large scale PV installation is presented. A simple partial power processing topology, implemented with all silicon carbide devices provides high efficiency as well as high power density. A 3.5kW, 100kHz converter is designed and tested to verify the proposed methods.

  20. DC-DC Converter Topology Assessment for Large Scale Distributed Photovoltaic Plant Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Agamy, Mohammed S; Harfman-Todorovic, Maja; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan A; Steigerwald, Robert L; Jiang, Yan; Essakiappan, Somasundaram

    2011-07-01

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) plant architectures are emerging as a replacement for the classical central inverter based systems. However, power converters of smaller ratings may have a negative impact on system efficiency, reliability and cost. Therefore, it is necessary to design converters with very high efficiency and simpler topologies in order not to offset the benefits gained by using distributed PV systems. In this paper an evaluation of the selection criteria for dc-dc converters for distributed PV systems is performed; this evaluation includes efficiency, simplicity of design, reliability and cost. Based on this evaluation, recommendations can be made as to which class of converters is best fit for this application.

  1. Multiple output zero-current switching switched-capacitor bidirectional dc-dc converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuang-Shung; Ko, Yi-Pin; Chi, Chien-An

    2010-08-01

    The proposed circuit is a multiple output quasi-resonant (QR) zero-current switching (ZCS) switched-capacitor (SC) converter with a bidirectional power flow control conversion scheme. The principles of the proposed multiple output QR ZCS SC bidirectional dc-dc converter are described using a detailed circuit model for analysis. Simulation and experimental results are carried out to verify the validity and the soft switching performance of the proposed converter. The maximum efficiency achievable is about 94 and 92% for the forward and reverse power flow control schemes, respectively. The output voltage can be regulated by changing the switching frequency for the designed compensated closed-loop controller.

  2. Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P

    2015-01-11

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers rely on DC high voltage photoguns with internal field gradients as high as 10 to 15 MV/m. These high gradients often lead to field emission which poses serious problems for the photocathode used to generate the electron beam and the ceramic insulators used to bias the photocathode at high voltage. Ceramic insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic causing a buildup of charge and eventual puncture, and also because large diameter ceramics are difficult to braze reliably. The lifetimes of photo cathodes inside high current DC guns exhibiting field emission are limited to less than a hundred hours. Reducing the surface gradients on the metals reduces the field emission, which serves to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum condition. A novel gun design with gradients around 5 MV/m and operating at 350 kV, a major improvement over existing designs, was proposed that allows for the in-situ replacement of photo cathodes in axially symmetric designs using inverted ceramics. In this project, the existing JLAB CEBAF asymmetric gun design with an inverted ceramic support was modeled and the beam dynamics characterized. An improved structure was designed that reduces the surface gradients and improves the beam optics. To minimize the surface gradients, a number of electrostatic gun designs were studied to determine the optimum configuration of the critical electrodes within the gun structure. Coating experiments were carried out to create a charge dissipative coating for cylindrical ceramics. The phase II proposal, which was not granted, included the design and fabrication of an axially symmetric DC Gun with an inverted ceramic that would operate with less than 5 MV/m at 350 kV and would be designed with an in-situ replaceable photo-cathode.

  3. Advances in DC photocathode electron guns

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce M. Dunham; P. Heartmann; Reza Kazimi; Hongxiu Liu; B. M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; Charles K. Sinclair

    1998-07-01

    At Jefferson Lab, a DC photoemission gun using GaAs and GaAs-like cathodes provides a source of polarized electrons for the main accelerator. The gun is required to produce high average current with long operational lifetimes and high system throughout. Recent work has shown that careful control of the parameters affecting cathode lifetime lead to dramatic improvements in source operation. These conditions include vacuum and the related effect of ion backbombardment, and precise control of all of the electrons emitted from the cathode. In this paper, the authors will review recent results and discuss implications for future photocathode guns.

  4. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi; Deb, A. K.; Rajan, Rehim N.; Kishore, N. K.

    2016-08-01

    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  5. Tunable graphene dc superconducting quantum interference device.

    PubMed

    Girit, Caglar; Bouchiat, V; Naaman, O; Zhang, Y; Crommie, M F; Zettl, A; Siddiqi, I

    2009-01-01

    Graphene exhibits unique electrical properties on account of its reduced dimensionality and "relativistic" band structure. When contacted with two superconducting electrodes, graphene can support Cooper pair transport, resulting in the well-known Josephson effect. We report here the fabrication and operation of a two junction dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) formed by a single graphene sheet contacted with aluminum/palladium electrodes in the geometry of a loop. The supercurrent in this device can be modulated not only via an electrostatic gate but also by an applied magnetic fielda potentially powerful probe of electronic transport in graphene and an ultrasensitive platform for nanomagnetometry. PMID:19090696

  6. Fun D.C. Jobs for Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Clark Cully

    2009-09-30

    Physicists make valuable contributions in a wide variety of careers, including those in Washington. Many national challenges, including energy, innovation, and security, create a demand for technically-competent individuals across government. Clark will discuss some of the many programs in D.C. designed to attract the best and brightest minds, from grad-students to professors, from short-term assignments to whole new careers. These are great opportunities to use your expertise and enrich your knowledge of the broader scientific enterprise, all while serving society.

  7. Laser Phase Errors in Seeded FELs

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention from the promise of transform-limited pulses in the soft X-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.

  8. Detection algorithm for multiple rice seeds images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, F.; Ying, Y. B.

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a digital image analysis algorithm for detection of multiple rice seeds images. The rice seeds used for this study involved a hybrid rice seed variety. Images of multiple rice seeds were acquired with a machine vision system for quality inspection of bulk rice seeds, which is designed to inspect rice seeds on a rotating disk with a CCD camera. Combining morphological operations and parallel processing gave improvements in accuracy, and a reduction in computation time. Using image features selected based on classification ability; a highly acceptable defects classification was achieved when the algorithm was implemented for all the samples to test the adaptability.

  9. Smoke signals and seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Mark T; Nelson, David C

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein MAX2 has been discovered in four separate genetic screens, indicating that it has roles in leaf senescence, seedling photosensitivity, shoot outgrowth and seed germination. Both strigolactones and karrikins can regulate A. thaliana seed germination and seedling photomorphogenesis in a MAX2-dependent manner, but only strigolactones inhibit shoot branching. How MAX2 mediates specific responses to both classes of structurally-related signals, and the origin of its dual role remains unknown. The moss Physcomitrella patens utilizes strigolactones and MAX2 orthologs are present across the land plants, suggesting that this signaling system could have an ancient origin. The seed of parasitic Orobanchaceae species germinate preferentially in response to strigolactones over karrikins, and putative Orobanchaceae MAX2 orthologs form a sub-clade distinct from those of other dicots. These observations suggest that lineage-specific evolution of MAX2 may have given rise to specialized responses to these signaling molecules. PMID:22019642

  10. Experimental study of a bidirectional DC-DC converter for the DC link voltage control and the regenerative braking in PM motor drives devoted to electrical vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Caricchi, F.; Crescimbini, F.; Noia, G.; Pirolo, D.

    1994-12-31

    The use of a bidirectional DC-DC converter operating in the DC link of CRPWM-inverter-fed motor drives devoted to electric vehicles (EVs) application allows a suitable control of both motoring and regenerative braking operations, and it can contribute to a significant increase of the motor drive overall efficiency. This paper deals with the experimental study of a bidirectional DC-DC converter prototype which has been designed for application in small-size EVs propelled by axial-flux PM motor drives. The paper discusses the converter modes of operation and reports the experimental results taken from a converter prototype which has been constructed using an IGBTs power module rated 600 V, 50 A. 2 refs.

  11. Bifurcation Analysis of a DC-DC Bidirectional Power Converter Operating with Constant Power Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiano, Rony; Pagano, Daniel J.; Benadero, Luis; Ponce, Enrique

    Direct current (DC) microgrids (MGs) are an emergent option to satisfy new demands for power quality and integration of renewable resources in electrical distribution systems. This work addresses the large-signal stability analysis of a DC-DC bidirectional converter (DBC) connected to a storage device in an islanding MG. This converter is responsible for controlling the balance of power (load demand and generation) under constant power loads (CPLs). In order to control the DC bus voltage through a DBC, we propose a robust sliding mode control (SMC) based on a washout filter. Dynamical systems techniques are exploited to assess the quality of this switching control strategy. In this sense, a bifurcation analysis is performed to study the nonlinear stability of a reduced model of this system. The appearance of different bifurcations when load parameters and control gains are changed is studied in detail. In the specific case of Teixeira Singularity (TS) bifurcation, some experimental results are provided, confirming the mathematical predictions. Both a deeper insight in the dynamic behavior of the controlled system and valuable design criteria are obtained.

  12. Architectures and Control of Submodule Integrated DC-DC Converters for Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Olalla, C; Clement, D; Rodriguez, M; Maksimovic, D

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes photovoltaic (PV) module architectures with parallel-connected submodule-integrated dc-dc converters (subMICs) that improve efficiency of energy capture in the presence of partial shading or other mismatch conditions. The subMICs are bidirectional isolated dc-dc converters capable of injecting or subtracting currents to balance the module substring voltages. When no mismatches are present, the subMICs are simply shut down, resulting in zero insertion losses. It is shown that the objective of minimum subMIC power processing can be solved as a linear programming problem. A simple close-to-optimal distributed control approach is presented that allows autonomous subMIC control without the need for a central controller or any communication among the subMICs. Furthermore, the proposed control approach is well suited for an isolated-port architecture, which yields additional practical advantages including reduced subMIC power and voltage ratings. The architectures and the control approach are validated by simulations and experimental results using three bidirectional flyback subMICs attached to a standard 180-W, 72-cell PV module, yielding greater than 98% module-level power processing efficiency for a mismatch less than 25%.

  13. Light weight, high power, high voltage dc/dc converter technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, Robert; Myers, Ira; Baumann, Eric

    1990-01-01

    Power-conditioning weight reductions by orders of magnitude will be required to enable the megawatt-power-level space systems envisioned by the Strategic Defense Initiative, the Air Force, and NASA. An interagency program has been initiated to develop an 0.1-kg/kW dc/dc converter technology base for these future space applications. Three contractors are in the first phase of a competitive program to develop a megawatt dc/dc converter. Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center are investigating innovative converter topology control. Three different converter subsystems based on square wave, resonant, and super-resonant topologies are being designed. The components required for the converter designs cover a wide array of technologies. Two different switches, one semiconductor and the other gas, are under development. Issues related to thermal management and material reliability for inductors, transformers, and capacitors are being investigated in order to maximize power density. A brief description of each of the concepts proposed to meet the goals of this program is presented.

  14. Analysis of DC magnetron sputtered beryllium films

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C.W.; Hsieh, E.J.; Lindsey, E.F.; Pierce, E.L.; Norberg, J.C.

    1988-10-01

    We are evaluating techniques that alter the columnar grain structure in sputtered beryllium films on fused silica substrates. The films are formed by DC magnetron sputtering, and the columnar structure, which is characteristic of this and most other deposition techniques, is highly detrimental to the tensile strength of the films. Attempts to modify the columnar structure by using RF-biased sputtering combined with nitrogen pulsing have been successful, and this paper describes the analyses of these films. Sputtered beryllium films are quite brittle, and the columnar structure in particular tends to form a distinct intergranular fracture; therefore, the grain structure was analyzed in fractured specimens using the high-resolution capability of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a field emission gun (FESEM). Ion microanalysis using secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was conducted on some specimens to determining relative contamination levels introduced by nitrogen pulsing. The capability to perform quantitative SIMS analyses using ion-implanted specimens as standards also is being developed. This work confirms that the structure of DC magnetron sputtered beryllium can be improved significantly with combined nitrogen pulsing and RF-biased sputtering. 8 refs.

  15. CT, MR, and ultrasound image artifacts from prostate brachytherapy seed implants: The impact of seed size

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Andrew K. H.; Basran, Parminder S.; Thomas, Steven D.; Wells, Derek

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of brachytherapy seed size on the quality of x-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) images and seed localization through comparison of the 6711 and 9011 {sup 125}I sources. Methods: For CT images, an acrylic phantom mimicking a clinical implantation plan and embedded with low contrast regions of interest (ROIs) was designed for both the 0.774 mm diameter 6711 (standard) and the 0.508 mm diameter 9011 (thin) seed models (Oncura, Inc., and GE Healthcare, Arlington Heights, IL). Image quality metrics were assessed using the standard deviation of ROIs between the seeds and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) within the low contrast ROIs. For US images, water phantoms with both single and multiseed arrangements were constructed for both seed sizes. For MR images, both seeds were implanted into a porcine gel and imaged with pelvic imaging protocols. The standard deviation of ROIs and CNR values were used as metrics of artifact quantification. Seed localization within the CT images was assessed using the automated seed finder in a commercial brachytherapy treatment planning system. The number of erroneous seed placements and the average and maximum error in seed placements were recorded as metrics of the localization accuracy. Results: With the thin seeds, CT image noise was reduced from 48.5 {+-} 0.2 to 32.0 {+-} 0.2 HU and CNR improved by a median value of 74% when compared with the standard seeds. Ultrasound image noise was measured at 50.3 {+-} 17.1 dB for the thin seed images and 50.0 {+-} 19.8 dB for the standard seed images, and artifacts directly behind the seeds were smaller and less prominent with the thin seed model. For MR images, CNR of the standard seeds reduced on average 17% when using the thin seeds for all different imaging sequences and seed orientations, but these differences are not appreciable. Automated seed localization required an average ({+-}SD) of 7.0 {+-} 3.5 manual

  16. SEEDS: A Celebration of Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Bob

    1991-01-01

    The major goal of the project of Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) was to stimulate interest in science through the active involvement of all participants. Youthful investigators utilized the basic and integrated science process skills as they conducted the research necessary to complete the data reports used in the compilation of this document. Participants described many unique activities designed to promote critical thinking and problem solving. Seeds made a significant impact toward enhancing the teaching, learning, and enjoyment of science for students worldwide.

  17. SEEDS Moving Group Status Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    I will summarize the current status of the SEEDS Moving Group category and describe the importance of this sub-sample for the entire SEEDS survey. This presentation will include analysis of the sensitivity for the Moving Groups with general a comparison to other the other sub-categories. I will discuss the future impact of the Subaru SCExAO system for these targets and the advantage of using a specialized integral field spectrograph. Finally, I will present the impact of a pupil grid mask in order to produce fiducial spots in the focal plane that can be used for both photometry and astrometry.

  18. Seed composition, seedling emergence and early seeding vigour of red kidney bean seed produced at elevated temperature and Carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding effects of temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) on seed quality is important under present and future climates. The objective was to determine the effects of elevated growth temperature and CO2 during seed-filling of parent plants on seed composition and ensuing seedling emergence and ...

  19. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Emilio; Martín, José Javier; Saadaoui, Ezzeddine

    2016-01-01

    Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index). The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc.) provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds. PMID:27190684

  20. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, Emilio; Martín, José Javier; Saadaoui, Ezzeddine

    2016-01-01

    Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index). The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc.) provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds. PMID:27190684

  1. Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Gusmini, G; Wehner, T C; Jarret, R L

    2004-01-01

    An unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. The origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in Nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. Egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. We studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded Charleston Gray and Calhoun Gray with two plant introduction accessions, PI 490383w and PI 560006, having the egusi seed type. We found that the egusi seed type is controlled by a single recessive gene, and the symbol eg was assigned. PMID:15220396

  2. Simulation of the dc Plasma in Carbon Nanotube Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hash, David; Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A model for the dc plasma used in carbon nanotube growth is presented, and one-dimensional simulations of an acetylene/ammonia/argon system are performed. The effect of dc bias is illustrated by examining electron temperature, electron and ion densities, and neutral densities. Introducing a tungsten filament in the dc plasma, as in hot filament chemical vapor deposition with plasma assistance, shows negligible influence on the system characteristics.

  3. Handling System for Iridium-192 Seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, W.; Wodicka, D.

    1973-01-01

    A complete system is proposed for safe handling of iridium-192 seeds used to internally irradiate malignant growths. A vibratory hopper feeds the seeds onto a transport system for deposit in a magazine or storage area. A circular magazine consisting of segmented plastic tubing with holes in the walls to accommodate the seeds seems feasible. The magazine is indexed to stop and release a seed for calibration and deposition.

  4. Gopherus agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Non-native seed dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, J.R.; Loughran, Caleb L.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Sahara Mustard (Brassica tournefortii) is a non-native, highly invasive weed species of southwestern U.S. deserts. Sahara Mustard is a hardy species, which flourishes under many conditions including drought and in both disturbed and undisturbed habitats (West and Nabhan 2002. In B. Tellman [ed.], Invasive Plants: Their Occurrence and Possible Impact on the Central Gulf Coast of Sonora and the Midriff Islands in the Sea of Cortes, pp. 91–111. University of Arizona Press, Tucson). Because of this species’ ability to thrive in these habitats, B. tournefortii has been able to propagate throughout the southwestern United States establishing itself in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah. Unfortunately, naturally disturbed areas created by native species, such as the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), within these deserts could have facilitated the propagation of B. tournefortii. (Lovich 1998. In R. G. Westbrooks [ed.], Invasive Plants, Changing the Landscape of America: Fact Book, p. 77. Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds [FICMNEW], Washington, DC). However, Desert Tortoises have never been directly observed dispersing Sahara Mustard seeds. Here we present observations of two Desert Tortoises dispersing Sahara Mustard seeds at the interface between the Mojave and Sonoran deserts in California.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

  6. Occurrence of trends of weed seed and pathogen contaminants in bentgrass seed lots in Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all of the bentgrass seed grown in the United States is produced in Oregon. However, little is known about the occurrence of weed seed or pathogen propagule contaminants in bentgrass seed lots. This study was conducted to assess the diversity and frequency of occurrence of weed seeds, ergot (...

  7. Human DC-SIGN Binds Specific Human Milk Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Alexander J.; Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Duska-McEwen, Geralyn; Buck, Rachael H.; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Human milk glycans (HMGs) are prebiotics, pathogen receptor decoys, and regulators of host physiology and immune responses. Mechanistically, human lectins (glycan-binding proteins, hGBPs) expressed by dendritic cells (DC) are of major interest, as these cells directly contact HMGs. To explore such interactions, we screened many C-type lectins and Siglecs expressed by DC for glycan binding on microarrays presenting over 200 HMGs. Unexpectedly, DC-SIGN showed robust binding to many HMGs, whereas other C-type lectins failed to bind, and Siglecs-5 and -9 showed weak binding to a few glycans. By contrast, most hGBPs bound to multiple glycans on other microarrays lacking HMGs. An α-linked fucose residue was characteristic of HMGs bound by DC-SIGN. Binding of DC-SIGN to the simple HMGs 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) and 3-fucosyllactose (3-FL) was confirmed by flow cytometry to beads conjugated with 2′-FL or 3-FL, as well as the ability of the free glycans to inhibit DC-SIGN binding. 2′-FL had an IC50 of ~1 mM for DC-SIGN, which is within the physiological concentration of 2′-FL in human milk. These results demonstrate that DC-SIGN among the many hGBPs expressed by DC binds to α-fucosylated HMGs, and suggest that such interactions may be important in influencing immune responses in the developing infant. PMID:26976925

  8. NASA DC-8 Airborne Scanning Lidar Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Norman B.; Uthe, Edward E.; Kaiser, Robert D.; Tucker, Michael A.; Baloun, James E.; Gorordo, Javier G.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA DC-8 aircraft is used to support a variety of in-situ and remote sensors for conducting environmental measurements over global regions. As part of the atmospheric effects of aviation program (AEAP) the DC-8 is scheduled to conduct atmospheric aerosol and gas chemistry and radiation measurements of subsonic aircraft contrails and cirrus clouds. A scanning lidar system is being developed for installation on the DC-8 to support and extend the domain of the AEAP measurements. Design and objectives of the DC-8 scanning lidar are presented.

  9. NASA DC-8 airborne scanning LIDAR sensor development

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, N.B.; Uthe, E.E.; Kaiser, R.D.

    1996-11-01

    The NASA DC-8 aircraft is used to support a variety of in-situ and remote sensors for conducting environmental measurements over global regions. As part of the atmospheric effects of aviation program (AEAP) the DC-8 is scheduled to conduct atmospheric aerosol and gas chemistry and radiation measurements of subsonic aircraft contrails and cirrus clouds. A scanning lidar system is being developed for installation on the DC-8 to support and extend the domain of the AEAP measurements. Design and objectives of the DC-8 scanning lidar are presented. 4 figs.

  10. Noise Amplification in HGHG Seeding

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    An essential element of seeded FEL based on high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) or echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) is an undulator-modulator, in which interaction with a laser beam modulates the beam energy. We study how the interaction of electrons in this undulator-modulator changes the noise properties of the beam.

  11. The Seed Is the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Since humanities arise from a specific place and from the people of that place, this article will focus on Peacemaker's revolutionary teachings about the seed of law. Long before the people from across the ocean arrived here on Turtle Island (North America) there was much warfare happening. According to John Mohawk (2001, para. 1), an Iroquoian…

  12. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

  13. SEED BIOLOGY OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seed of Medicago truncatula have morphological features typical of dicotyledons, and are borne in a spine-covered spiral pod. The cotyledons are rich in protein (35-45%), the major storage molecule. They accumulate approximately 10% lipids and only traces of starch. The most abundant proteins a...

  14. Seed microRNA Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulatory molecules that play critical roles in gene expression. The biological functions of miRNAs are important for developmental processes in plants and animals. Little is known about the functions of miRNAs in seeds. To gain a better understand-ing of the regulation o...

  15. A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds.

    PubMed

    Kucherov, Gregory; Noé, Laurent; Roytberg, Mikhail

    2006-04-01

    We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem--a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model--that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subset seeds can be efficiently designed using our approach, and can then be used in similarity search producing better results than ordinary spaced seeds. PMID:16819802

  16. A unifying framework for seed sensitivity and its application to subset seeds

    PubMed Central

    Kucherov, Gregory; Noé, Laurent; Roytberg, Mihkail

    2006-01-01

    We propose a general approach to compute the seed sensitivity, that can be applied to different definitions of seeds. It treats separately three components of the seed sensitivity problem – a set of target alignments, an associated probability distribution, and a seed model – that are specified by distinct finite automata. The approach is then applied to a new concept of subset seeds for which we propose an efficient automaton construction. Experimental results confirm that sensitive subset seeds can be efficiently designed using our approach, and can then be used in similarity search producing better results than ordinary spaced seeds. PMID:16819802

  17. Weed Research in Alfalfa Seed Production 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in alfalfa seed production is important to produce high quality and high yield of alfalfa seed. Herbicides were tested on a commercial field of alfalfa seed in central Washington in 2007. Flumioxzin slightly injured alfalfa when applied at 0.125 and 0.25 lb ai/a. to dormant alfalfa in M...

  18. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  19. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  20. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  1. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  2. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  3. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  4. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  5. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  6. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified...

  7. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes...

  8. Cryopreservation of orthodox and recalcitrant seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter in Plant Cell Culture, Development and Biotechnology describes student laboratory exercises for cryopreservation of plant seeds in liquid nitrogen. It includes two exercises involving step by step protocols for use with the two major types of seeds. A standard technique for small seed...

  9. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., if any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21...

  10. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30...

  11. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30...

  12. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30...

  13. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30...

  14. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., if any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21...

  15. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., if any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21...

  16. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., if any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21...

  17. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., if any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21...

  18. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30...

  19. Predation of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) can be a productive and high-quality cool-season forage, but is considered a weed in some pastures. Italian ryegrass does not form a persistent seed bank and needs to produce sufficient seed annually for effective re-establishment. Before the re-seeding ...

  20. Staying Alive: Molecular Aspects of Seed Longevity.

    PubMed

    Sano, Naoto; Rajjou, Loïc; North, Helen M; Debeaujon, Isabelle; Marion-Poll, Annie; Seo, Mitsunori

    2016-04-01

    Mature seeds are an ultimate physiological status that enables plants to endure extreme conditions such as high and low temperature, freezing and desiccation. Seed longevity, the period over which seed remains viable, is an important trait not only for plant adaptation to changing environments, but also, for example, for agriculture and conservation of biodiversity. Reduction of seed longevity is often associated with oxidation of cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Seeds possess two main strategies to combat these stressful conditions: protection and repair. The protective mechanism includes the formation of glassy cytoplasm to reduce cellular metabolic activities and the production of antioxidants that prevent accumulation of oxidized macromolecules during seed storage. The repair system removes damage accumulated in DNA, RNA and proteins upon seed imbibition through enzymes such as DNA glycosylase and methionine sulfoxide reductase. In addition to longevity, dormancy is also an important adaptive trait that contributes to seed lifespan. Studies in Arabidopsis have shown that the seed-specific transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) plays a central role in ABA-mediated seed dormancy and longevity. Seed longevity largely relies on the viability of embryos. Nevertheless, characterization of mutants with altered seed coat structure and constituents has demonstrated that although the maternally derived cell layers surrounding the embryos are dead, they have a significant impact on longevity. PMID:26637538

  1. Resistance to Phomopsis Seed Decay in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) of soybean is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen, Phomopsis longicolla T.W. Hobbs along with other Phomopsis and Diaporthe spp. This disease causes poor seed quality and suppresses yield in most soybean-growing countries. Infected soybean seeds can be symptomless, but...

  2. Rapid cycling with true potato seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid generation cycling via true seed production can increase the efficiency of potato breeding programs and genetics studies. This study was carried out to determine the fruit ripening and seed treatment conditions needed for generating true potato seed (TPS) with a high germination rate in a shor...

  3. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  4. Genetics of seed transmission Soybean mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is an aphid- and seed-transmitted member of the Potyviridae that infects soybean plants and, in years when virus infections are widespread, can cause significant reductions in the quantity and quality of seed harvested. Because seed-borne infections are the primary sources...

  5. ASIC and FPGA based DPWM architectures for single-phase and single-output DC-DC converter: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chander, Subhash; Agarwal, Pramod; Gupta, Indra

    2013-12-01

    Pulse width modulation (PWM) has been widely used in power converter control. This paper presents a review of architectures of the Digital Pulse Width Modulators (DPWM) targeting digital control of switching DC-DC converters. An attempt is made to review the reported architectures with emphasis on the ASIC and FPGA implementations in single phase and single-output DC-DC converters. Recent architectures using FPGA's advanced resources for achieving the resolution higher than classical methods have also been discussed. The merits and demerits of different architectures, and their relative comparative performance, are also presented. The Authors intention is to uncover the groundwork and the related references through this review for the benefit of readers and researchers targeting different DPWM architectures for the DC-DC converters.

  6. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as...

  7. 7 CFR 201.24a - Inoculated seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inoculated seed. 201.24a Section 201.24a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24a Inoculated seed. Seed claimed to be inoculated shall...

  8. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as...

  9. 7 CFR 201.24a - Inoculated seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inoculated seed. 201.24a Section 201.24a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24a Inoculated seed. Seed claimed to be inoculated shall...

  10. 7 CFR 201.24a - Inoculated seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inoculated seed. 201.24a Section 201.24a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24a Inoculated seed. Seed claimed to be inoculated shall...

  11. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as...

  12. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as...

  13. 7 CFR 201.24a - Inoculated seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inoculated seed. 201.24a Section 201.24a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24a Inoculated seed. Seed claimed to be inoculated shall...

  14. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as...

  15. 7 CFR 201.24a - Inoculated seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inoculated seed. 201.24a Section 201.24a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24a Inoculated seed. Seed claimed to be inoculated shall...

  16. Dissipative Cryogenic Filters with Zero DC Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Bluhm, Hendrik; Moler, Kathryn A.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept

    2008-04-22

    The authors designed, implemented and tested cryogenic RF filters with zero DC resistance, based on wires with a superconducting core inside a resistive sheath. The superconducting core allows low frequency currents to pass with negligible dissipation. Signals above the cutoff frequency are dissipated in the resistive part due to their small skin depth. The filters consist of twisted wire pairs shielded with copper tape. Above approximately 1 GHz, the attenuation is exponential in {radical}{omega}, as typical for skin depth based RF filters. By using additional capacitors of 10 nF per line, an attenuation of at least 45 dB above 10 MHz can be obtained. Thus, one single filter stage kept at mixing chamber temperature in a dilution refrigerator is sufficient to attenuate room temperature black body radiation to levels corresponding to 10 mK above about 10 MHz.

  17. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  18. Particle Formation In A DC Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Michau, A.; Lombardi, G.; Delacqua, L. Colina; Redolfi, M.; Bonnin, X.; Hassouni, K.; Arnas, C.

    2011-11-29

    We developed a model for the nucleation, growth and transport of carbonaceous dust particles in a non-reactive gas dc discharge where the carbon source is provided by cathode sputtering. In a first part, we considered only the initial phase of the discharge when the dust charge density remains small with respect to the electron density. We found that an electric field reversal at the entrance of the negative glow region promotes trapping of negatively charged clusters and dust particles, confining them for long times in the plasma and favoring molecular growth. An essential ingredient for this process is electron attachment, which negatively charges the initially neutral clusters. We also showed that the field reversal mechanism can operate to trap negative clusters and particles under both electropositive and strongly electronegative plasma.

  19. Artificial Intelligent Controller for a DC Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavari, Hadi; Ranjbar Noiey, Abolzafl; Minagar, Sara

    The Speed and position control of DC motors is addressed in this paper. An optimal intelligent control scheme is proposed for the system. Preliminary a PID controller is designed using Genetic Algorithms (GA). The proposed controller is implemented by using optimal integral state feedback control with GA and Kalman filter. In the proposed scheme, performance depends on choosing weighting matrices Q and R in the cost function, and accordingly GA is used to find these proper weighting matrices. In order to reduce the control performance degradation due to system parameters variation, a Kalman filter is gained. The performance of the proposed technique (ISF) is compared with PID controller. Computer simulation validates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme even in presence of uncertainties.

  20. Ion Velocimetry In Magnetized DC Sheaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Christopher; Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Cappelli, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Particle dynamics near the magnetic cusps in cusped field plasma thrusters are still not well understood; characterizing the ion velocity distribution functions in these regions can help thruster designs maximize electron trapping and minimize erosion of the channel wall. To that end, a robust argon ion velocity sensor is developed using a three-level laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. The 3d4F7 / 2 --> 4p4D5/ 2 0 ArII transition at 668.61 nm is pumped with a 25 mW tunable external cavity diode laser, and fluorescence down to the 4s4P3 / 2 state at 442.72 nm is collected with phase-sensitive detection. The Doppler shift in the acquired signal peak, compared to a stationary reference, gives the ion velocity component parallel to the exciting laser. We demonstrate this LIF scheme by obtaining the argon ion velocity profile through a magnetized DC sheath. The LIF measurement is used to validate a new optogalvanic velocimetry technique in which two lasers (chopped at different frequencies) intersect one another at 90° in the measurement volume. Using a lock-in amplifier, changes observed in the DC discharge current at the sum and difference of the two chopping frequencies may be related back to the mean ion velocity at that point. The authors acknowledge support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). CY acknowledges support from the DOE NNSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.

  1. High-Voltage 1-kW dc/dc Converter Developed for Low-Temperature Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, Lewis developed and demonstrated a high-voltage, 1-kW dc/dc converter that operates from room temperature to -184 C. A power supply designed for use in a NASA ion beam propulsion system was utilized as a starting point for the design of a low- (wide-) temperature dc/dc converter. For safety, we decided to halve the output voltage and power level, so the converter was designed for an 80-Vdc input and a 550-Vdc output at 1 kW.

  2. Myrmecochory and short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus: Ant species and seed characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bas, J. M.; Oliveras, J.; Gómez, C.

    2009-05-01

    Benefits conferred on plants in ant-mediated seed dispersal mutualisms (myrmecochory) depend on the fate of transported seeds. We studied the effects of elaiosome presence, seed size and seed treatment (with and without passage through a bird's digestive tract) on short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus. In our study, we define short-term seed, or initial, seed fate, as the location where ants release the seeds after ant contact with it. The elaiosomes had the most influence on short-term fate, i.e. whether or not seeds were transported to the nest. The workers usually transported big seeds more often than small ones, but small ants did not transport large seeds. Effect of seed size on transport depended on the ant species and on the treatment of the seed (manual extraction simulating a direct fall from the parent plant vs. bird deposition corresponding to preliminary primary dispersal). Probability of removal of elaiosome-bearing seeds to the nest by Aphaenogaster senilis increased with increasing seed weight.

  3. The three-level ZVS-PWM dc-to-dc converter

    SciTech Connect

    Pinheiro, J.R.; Barbi, I.

    1993-10-01

    A new high frequency dc-to-dc converter for high voltage and high power is introduced in this paper, which features zero-voltage-switching, operation at constant frequency, regulation by pulsewidth modulation, and low rms current stress upon power switches. Its greatest attribute, in comparison with the full-bridge (FB-ZVS-PWM) converter, is that the voltage across the switches is half of the input voltage. This property is achieved due to the employment of a three-level leg in place of the conventional two-switch leg. Operation, analysis, design procedure and example, and simulation are presented. A prototype operating at 100 kHz, rated at 600 V input voltage, and 1.5 kW output power and 25 A output current has been fabricated and successfully tested in the laboratory.

  4. Low Temperature Performance of High Power Density DC/DC Converter Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Hammond, Ahmad; Gerber, Scott; Patterson, Richard L.; Overton, Eric

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, two second-generation high power density DC/DC converter modules have been evaluated at low operating temperatures. The power rating of one converter (Module 1) was specified at 150 W with an input voltage range of 36 to 75 V and output voltage of 12 V. The other converter (Module 2) was specified at 100 W with the same input voltage range and an output voltage of 3.3 V. The converter modules were evaluated in terms of their performance as a function of operating temperature in the range of 25 to -140 C. The experimental procedures along with the experimental data obtained are presented and discussed in this paper.

  5. SSP Technology Investigation of a High-Voltage DC-DC Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, J. A.; Grady, W. M.; George, Patrick J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish the feasibility of a high-voltage DC-DC converter based on a rod-array triggered vacuum switch (RATVS) for the Space Solar Power system. The RATVS has many advantages over silicon and silicon-carbide devices. The RATVS is attractive for this application because it is a high-voltage device that has already been demonstrated at currents in excess of the requirement for an SSP device and at much higher per-device voltages than existing or near-term solid state switching devices. The RATVS packs a much higher specific power rating than any solid-state device and it is likely to be more tolerant of its surroundings in space. In addition, pursuit of an RATVS-based system would provide NASA with a nearer-term and less expensive power converter option for the SSP.

  6. A Compact, Soft-Switching DC-DC Converter for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert; Redilla, Jack; Ayyanar, Raja

    2003-01-01

    A hybrid, soft-switching, DC-DC converter has been developed with superior soft switching characteristics, high efficiency, and low electro-magnetic interference. This hybrid topology is comprised of an uncontrolled bridge operating at full pulse-width, and a controlled section operating as a conventional phase modulated converter. The unique topology is able to maintain zero voltage switching down to no load operating conditions. A breadboard prototype was developed and tested to demonstrate the benefits of the topology. Improvements were then made to reduce the size of passive components and increase efficiency in preparation for packaging. A packaged prototype was then designed and built, and several innovative packaging techniques are presented. Performance test data is presented that reveals deficiencies in the design of the power transformer. A simple redesign of the transformer windings eliminated the deficiency. Future plans to improve the converter and packaging design are presented along with several conclusions.

  7. Performance of a spacecraft DC-DC converter breadboard modified for low temperature operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Scott S.; Stell, Chris; Patterson, Richard; Ray, Biswajit

    1996-01-01

    A 1OW 3OV/5.OV push-pull dc-dc converter breadboard, designed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a +50 C to +5 C operating range for the Cassini space probe, was characterized for lower operating temperatures. The breadboard converter which failed to operate for temperatures below -125 C was then modified to operate at temperatures approaching that of liquid nitrogen (LN2). Associated with this low operating temperature range (greater than -196 C) was a variety of performance problems such as significant change in output voltage, converter switching instability, and failure to restart at temperatures below -154 C. An investigation into these problems yielded additional modifications to the converter which improved low temperature performance even further.

  8. High efficiency interleaved bi-directional ZVS DC-DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafarullah Khan, M.; Mohsin Naveed, M.; Akbar Hussain, D. M.

    2013-06-01

    A high efficiency interleaved bi-directional ZVS DC-DC converter is presented in this paper. This converter can be operated in both buck and boost mode. CoolMOS is used as a power device to achieve low conduction losses and fast turn off. The value of inductance is selected such that the CoolMOS drain-to-source voltage always falls to zero before it turns on and ZVS is achieved. Multiphase interleaved inductors are used to achieve high power and low ripple currents. Converter is operated at 50kHz and MATLAB Simulink simulation is performed. 6kW prototype converter is implemented in buck mode and simulation results are verified.

  9. Analysis of Discontinuity Induced Bifurcations in a Dual Input DC-DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaouris, Damian; Banerjee, Soumitro; Mandal, Kuntal; Al-Hindawi, Mohammed M.; Abusorrah, Abdullah; Al-Turki, Yusuf; El Aroudi, Abdelali

    DC-DC power converters with multiple inputs and a single output are used in numerous applications where multiple sources, e.g. two or more renewable energy sources and/or a battery, feed a single load. In this work, a classical boost converter topology with two input branches connected to two different sources is chosen, with each branch independently being controlled by a separate peak current mode controller. We demonstrate for the first time that even though this converter is similar to other well known topologies that have been studied before, it exhibits many complex nonlinear behaviors that are not found in any other standard PWM controlled power converter. The system undergoes period incrementing cascade as a parameter is varied, with discontinuous hard transitions between consecutive periodicities. We show that the system can be described by a discontinuous map, which explains the observed bifurcation phenomena. The results have been experimentally validated.

  10. The 25 kW resonant dc/dc power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of processing 25-kW of power with a single, transistorized, series resonant converter stage was demonstrated by the successful design, development, fabrication, and testing of such a device which employs four Westinghouse D7ST transistors in a full-bridge configuration and operates from a 250-to-350 Vdc input bus. The unit has an overall worst-case efficiency of 93.5% at its full rated output of 1000 V and 25 A dc. A solid-state dc input circuit breaker and output-transient-current limiters are included in and integrated into the design. Full circuit details of the converter are presented along with the test data.

  11. A comparative pharmacognostical profile of Desmodium gangeticum DC. and Desmodium laxiflorum DC.

    PubMed

    Vaghela, Bhavesh D; Patel, Bhupesh R; Pandya, Preeti N

    2012-10-01

    Shaliparni is one of the Laghupanchamoola ingredients. Desmodium gangeticum DC. is an accepted source of Shaliparni as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopoea of India (API). Desmodium laxiflorum DC. is the drug commonly used instead of D. gangeticum in the Saurashtra region. The study is an attempt to compare the above said two species on the basis of their pharmacognostical profiles. The macroscopy and microscopy of roots of both plants were studied as per standard procedures. Root powders of both Desmodium species used in the experimental study to ascertain its Rasa by dilution method. Both the species show the same Rasa and Anurasa i.e., Madhura and Kashaya and almost same morphological and microscopical characters like prismatic crystals, starch grains etc. Hence it is concluded that D. laxiflorum may be considered as a substitute for D. gangeticum on the basis of present pharmacognostical study. PMID:23723675

  12. DC-DC converters in 0.35μm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelis, S.; Allongue, B.; Blanchot, G.; Faccio, F.; Fuentes, C.; Orlandi, S.; Saggini, S.; Cengarle, S.; Ongaro, F.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the upgrade of the LHC experiments, we are developing custom DC/DC converters for a more efficient power distribution scheme. A new prototype have been integrated in ASICs in the selected 0.35μm commercial high voltage technology that has been successfully tested for all radiation effects: TID, displacement damage and Single Event Burnout. This converter has been optimized for high efficiency and improved radiation tolerance. Amongst the new features the most relevant are the presence of internal linear regulators, protection circuits with a state-machine and a new pinout for a modified assembly in package in order to reduce conductive losses. This paper illustrates the design of the prototype followed by functional and radiation tests.

  13. Construction of a dc-dc transformer - A model of transitory behavior under load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louail, G.

    A numerical model is presented for the construction of high performance dc-dc transformers for industrial applications, taking into account a variety of control techniques. Control logic to minimize fluctuations during load dumping intervals are defined. Problems linked to the demagnetization of the core are investigated and solutions are proposed. Attention is given to the selection of a commutator for a given application of a transformer, and functional characteristics of bipolar and MOS transistors are described. The principles are applied to the construction of a prototype second order transformer which is amenable to modular use. Finally, two methods of numerical modeling are presented: the first with simplified hypotheses for use with a hand calculator, and the second more rigourous, using discretized equations in a static regime. It is shown that a sudden power surge is the most critical phase for a power commutator. Progressively loading logic is devised, and the fabrication of 150 A commutators is indicated

  14. Low-temperature operation of a Buck DC/DC converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Biswajit; Gerber, Scott S.; Patterson, Richard L.; Myers, Ira T.

    1995-01-01

    Low-temperature (77 K) operation of a 42/28 V, 175 W, 50 kHz PWM Buck DC/DC converter designed with commercially available components is reported. Overall, the converter losses decreased at 77 K compared to room temperature operation. A full-load efficiency of 97 percent was recorded at liquid-nitrogen temperature, compared to 95.8 percent at room temperature. Power MOSFET operation improved significantly where as the output rectifier operation deteriorated at low-temperature. The performance of the output filter inductor and capacitor did not change significantly at 77 K compared to room temperature performance. It is possible to achieve high-density and high efficiency power conversion at low-temperatures due to improved electronic, electrical and thermal properties of materials.

  15. Self-seeding ring optical parametric oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Arlee V.; Armstrong, Darrell J.

    2005-12-27

    An optical parametric oscillator apparatus utilizing self-seeding with an external nanosecond-duration pump source to generate a seed pulse resulting in increased conversion efficiency. An optical parametric oscillator with a ring configuration are combined with a pump that injection seeds the optical parametric oscillator with a nanosecond duration, mJ pulse in the reverse direction as the main pulse. A retroreflecting means outside the cavity injects the seed pulse back into the cavity in the direction of the main pulse to seed the main pulse, resulting in higher conversion efficiency.

  16. Multiphase High-Frequency Isolated DC-DC Converter for Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, S. P.; Agarwal, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Industrial applications such as welding, plasma cutting, and surface hardening require a large DC current at low voltage. In such applications, the rating of power supply varies from few kilowatts to hundreds of kilowatts. The power supply employs in such applications particularly in arc welding process is expected to operate from open-circuit (no-load) to short-circuit (when the electrode sticks to the workpiece for a short span of time) quickly. In this paper, high-frequency isolated multiphase DC-DC converter is proposed which is well suited for aforementioned applications. Based on mathematical analysis, a simulation study with 5 kW, 5 V/1,000 A proposed model is carried out using Simulink block set and Sim Power System tool box and its performances are evaluated under symmetrical control methods. To verify the simulation results, scaled prototype model of rating 1.5 V/100 A is developed and tested with aforementioned control method under different operating conditions. In comparison with conventional welding power supply employed in many industries, the performance of proposed converter is improved significantly in terms of size and weight, efficiency and dynamic response.

  17. Developments on DC/DC converters for the LHC experiment upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, C.; Alderighi, M.; Baccaro, S.; Busatto, G.; Citterio, M.; Cova, P.; Delmonte, N.; De Luca, V.; Fiore, S.; Gerardin, S.; Ghisolfi, E.; Giuliani, F.; Iannuzzo, F.; Lanza, A.; Latorre, S.; Lazzaroni, M.; Meneghesso, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Rampazzo, F.; Riva, M.; Sanseverino, A.; Silvestri, R.; Spiazzi, G.; Velardi, F.; Zanoni, E.

    2014-02-01

    Prototypes of DC/DC power and Point of Load (PoL) converters were designed and built with the aim of satisfying the foreseen working parameters of the High Luminosity (HL) LHC experiments, using both Silicon (Si) MOSFETs and/or more recent devices substantiated of better power performance, like Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) transistors. Optimization of their design, based on the comparison between the simulated and measured thermal, electrical and mechanical performance, is in progress, and many improvements with respect to the previous versions are under implementation. We discuss in this paper the results of the last modifications. In addition, many tens of discrete component samples, chosen among the devices commercially available in the three different technologies (Si, SiC and GaN), were electrically characterized and tested under γ-rays, neutron, proton and heavy ion radiation, also using a combined run method. We have also planned to test some commercial DC/DCs under the extreme conditions of radiation and magnetic field expected in the upgrades of the LHC experiments. Here we show the first results on few samples.

  18. Design of piezoelectric transformer for DC/DC converter with stochastic optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasic, Dejan; Vido, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    Piezoelectric transformers were adopted in recent year due to their many inherent advantages such as safety, no EMI problem, low housing profile, and high power density, etc. The characteristics of the piezoelectric transformers are well known when the load impedance is a pure resistor. However, when piezoelectric transformers are used in AC/DC or DC/DC converters, there are non-linear electronic circuits connected before and after the transformer. Consequently, the output load is variable and due to the output capacitance of the transformer the optimal working point change. This paper starts from modeling a piezoelectric transformer connected to a full wave rectifier in order to discuss the design constraints and configuration of the transformer. The optimization method adopted here use the MOPSO algorithm (Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization). We start with the formulation of the objective function and constraints; then the results give different sizes of the transformer and the characteristics. In other word, this method is looking for a best size of the transformer for optimal efficiency condition that is suitable for variable load. Furthermore, the size and the efficiency are found to be a trade-off. This paper proposes the completed design procedure to find the minimum size of PT in need. The completed design procedure is discussed by a given specification. The PT derived from the proposed design procedure can guarantee both good efficiency and enough range for load variation.

  19. Performance of a Voltage Step-Up/Step-Down Transformerless DC/DC Converter: Analytical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suskis, P.; Rankis, I.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present an analytical model for a voltage step-up/step-down DC/DC converter without transformers. The proposed topology is a combination of classic buck and boost converters in one single circuit but with differing operational principles. The converter is developed for a wind power autonomous supply system equipped with a hydrogen electrolytic tank and a fuel cell for energy stabilization. The main power source of the hydrogen-based autonomous supply system is energized by a synchronous generator operating on permanent magnets and equipped with a diode bridge. The input voltage of the converter in this case varies in the range 0-700 V, while its output DC voltage must be 540 V according to the demand of other parts of the system. To maintain the rated voltage, a special electrical load regulation is introduced. The calculations of the converter, the generator (equipped with a diode bridge) as element of the power system supply joint, and the load replaced by resistance are verified with PSIM software.

  20. Development of a Novel Bi-Directional Isolated Multiple-Input DC-DC Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.

    2005-10-24

    There is vital need for a compact, lightweight, and efficient energy-storage system that is both affordable and has an acceptable cycle life for the large-scale production of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Most of the current research employs a battery-storage unit (BU) combined with a fuel cell (FC) stack in order to achieve the operating voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. A system block diagram is shown in Fig.1.1. In such a conventional arrangement, the battery is sized to deliver the difference between the energy required by the traction drive and the energy supplied by the FC system. Energy requirements can increase depending on the drive cycle over which the vehicle is expected to operate. Peak-power transients result in an increase of losses and elevated temperatures which result in a decrease in the lifetime of the battery. This research will propose a novel two-input direct current (dc) dc to dc converter to interface an additional energy-storage element, an ultracapacitor (UC), which is shown in Fig.1.2. It will assist the battery during transients to reduce the peak-power requirements of the battery.

  1. [Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin

    2014-11-01

    In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method. PMID:25775790

  2. Proteome Analysis of Poplar Seed Vigor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Wei-Qing; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Seed vigor is a complex property that determines the seed's potential for rapid uniform emergence and subsequent growth. However, the mechanism for change in seed vigor is poorly understood. The seeds of poplar (Populus × Canadensis Moench), which are short-lived, were stored at 30 °C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity for different periods of time (0-90 days) to obtain different vigor seeds (from 95 to 0% germination). With decreasing seed vigor, the temperature range of seed germination became narrower; the respiration rate of the seeds decreased markedly, while the relative electrolyte leakage increased markedly, both levelling off after 45 days. A total of 81 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (≥ 1.5-fold, P < 0.05) when comparing the proteomes among seeds with different vigor. Of the identified 65 proteins, most belonged to the groups involved in metabolism (23%), protein synthesis and destination (22%), energy (18%), cell defense and rescue (17%), and storage protein (15%). These proteins accounted for 95% of all the identified proteins. During seed aging, 53 and 6 identified proteins consistently increased and decreased in abundance, respectively, and they were associated with metabolism (22%), protein synthesis and destination (22%), energy (19%), cell defense and rescue (19%), storage proteins (15%), and cell growth and structure (3%). These data show that the decrease in seed vigor (aging) is an energy-dependent process, which requires protein synthesis and degradation as well as cellular defense and rescue. PMID:26172265

  3. Generalized provisional seed zones for native plants.

    PubMed

    Bower, Andrew D; St Clair, J Bradley; Erickson, Vicky

    2014-07-01

    Deploying well-adapted and ecologically appropriate plant materials is a core component of successful restoration projects. We have developed generalized provisional seed zones that can be applied to any plant species in the United States to help guide seed movement. These seed zones are based on the intersection of high-resolution climatic data for winter minimum temperature and aridity (as measured by annual heat : moisture index), each classified into discrete bands. This results in the delineation of 64 provisional seed zones for the continental United States. These zones represent areas of relative climatic similarity, and movement of seed within these zones should help to minimize maladaptation. Superimposing Omernik's level III ecoregions over these seed zones distinguishes areas that are similar climatically yet different ecologically. A quantitative comparison of provisional seed zones with level III ecoregions and provisional seed zones within ecoregions for three species showed that provisional seed zone within ecoregion often explained the greatest proportion of variation in a suite of traits potentially related to plant fitness. These provisional seed zones can be considered a starting point for guidelines for seed transfer, and should be utilized in conjunction with appropriate species-specific information as well as local knowledge of microsite differences. PMID:25154085

  4. Determination of oil in sunflower seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Kochlar, S.P.; Rossell, J.B.

    1987-06-01

    Oil content measurement in sunflower seeds on an ''as is'' basis by current official methods is often associated with poor reproducibility. This study shows that the main factor contributing to this poor agreement is the particle size to which seeds are ground. This invariably influences the homogeneity of the bulk ground sample from which subsequent subsamples are taken. It is therefore suggested that oil content determinations on sunflower seeds should be carried out on seed samples that have been evenly and finely ground, to a particle size not greater than 2.0 mm, in a mechanical mill such as the Ultra-Centrifugal mill. Other factors investigated were seed composition (free husk, empty husk, crude fiber and seed meats) and structural differences in the seeds by light microscopy. (Refs. 16).

  5. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. Patients and Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenient sampling, in a dermatology clinic in Ardabil, Iran. They were randomly allocated into two trial arms. Those in the control group were asked to stop eating sunflower seeds if they did before. In the intervention group, they consumed 25 g sunflower-containing food daily for seven days. The primary outcome of interest was 10% increase/decrease in the baseline acne severity index (ASI), sustained to the end of the follow-up period on day 14. Results: The mean ASI did not change significantly through the study period in the control group, but it increased in the sunflower group from 62 at the baseline to 86.8 after two weeks (P < 0.001). The ASI mean change was 24.8 in the sunflower group compared to 4.9 in the control group (P < 0.001). The global acne grading score (GAGS) did not significantly change in any of the groups and the difference in the change of GAGS was not significant between the groups (2.4 in the sunflower group versus 1.6 in the control group). Twenty two subjects (88%) in the sunflower group versus 9 (36%) in the control group had at least 10% increment in ASI throughout the follow-up period (P < 0.001). The relative risk of developing the primary outcome in taking the sunflower seed intervention was 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4 - 4.2). The observed risk difference was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.29 - 0.75). Conclusions: Sunflower seed intake appears to aggravate acne vulgaris; however, further evidence is needed to ban sunflower seed intake in patients with acne. Considering the

  6. Dynamic microscopic theory of fusion using DC-TDHF

    SciTech Connect

    Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.; Keser, R.; Maruhn, J. A.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2012-10-20

    The density-constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock (DC-TDHF) theory is a fully microscopic approach for calculating heavy-ion interaction potentials and fusion cross sections below and above the fusion barrier. We discuss recent applications of DC-TDHF method to fusion of light and heavy systems.

  7. Interior of elevator house, Block 11, Otis DC exciter (240 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of elevator house, Block 11, Otis DC exciter (240 volts, 1200 rpm), Otis DC Generator (280 volts, 1200 rpm), and control panel, view looking west. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  8. Read-out electronics for DC squid magnetic measurements

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-01-01

    Read-out electronics for DC SQUID sensor systems, the read-out electronics incorporating low Johnson noise radio-frequency flux-locked loop circuitry and digital signal processing algorithms in order to improve upon the prior art by a factor of at least ten, thereby alleviating problems caused by magnetic interference when operating DC SQUID sensor systems in magnetically unshielded environments.

  9. Integrated-Circuit Controller For Brushless dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Dong Tuan

    1994-01-01

    Generic circuit performs commutation-logic and power-switching functions for control of brushless dc motor. Controller includes commutation-logic and associated control circuitry, power supply, and inverters containing power transistors. Major advantages of controller are size, weight, and power consumption can be made less than other brushless-dc-motor controllers.

  10. Community Organizing for School Reform, Washington, DC: A Recovering Plantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Anne T.

    Because the District of Columbia (DC) is a federal district, its governance is peculiar. The DC public school system is plagued by poor management, internal strife, unstable leadership, low student achievement, shrinking enrollment, and declining community confidence. During the 1960s, Mayor Barry and the civil rights-home rule movement brought…

  11. The Proving Grounds: School "Rheeform" in Washington, D.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingerson, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Washington, D.C., is leading the transformation of urban public education across the country--at least according to "Time" magazine, which featured D.C. Schools Chancellor Michelle Rhee on its cover, wearing black and holding a broom. But there is nothing remarkably visionary going on in Washington. The model of school reform that is being…

  12. Historical Material Analysis of DC745U Pressure Pads

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse

    2012-07-30

    As part of the Enhance Surveillance mission, it is the goal to provide suitable lifetime assessment of stockpile materials. This report is an accumulation of historical publication on the DC745U material and their findings. It is the intention that the B61 LEP program uses this collection of data to further develop their understanding and potential areas of study. DC745U is a commercially available silicone elastomer consisting of dimethyl, methyl-phenyl, and methyl-vinyl siloxane repeat units. Originally, this material was manufactured by Dow Corning as Silastic{reg_sign} DC745U at their manufacturing facility in Kendallville, IN. Recently, Dow Corning shifted this material to the Xiameter{reg_sign} brand product line. Currently, DC745U is available through Xiameter{reg_sign} or Dow Corning's distributor R. D. Abbott Company. DC745U is cured using 0.5 wt% vinyl-specific peroxide curing agent known as Luperox 101 or Varox DBPH-50. This silicone elastomer is used in numerous parts, including two major components (outer pressure pads and aft cap support) in the W80 and as pressure pads on the B61. DC745U is a proprietary formulation, thus Dow Corning provides limited information on its composition and properties. Based on past experience with Dow Corning, DC745U is at risk of formulation changes without notification to the costumer. A formulation change for DC745U may have a significant impact because the network structure is a key variable in determining material properties. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of historical DC745U studies and identify gaps that need to be addressed in future work. Some of the previous studies include the following: 1. Spectroscopic characterization of raw gum stock. 2. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical studies on cured DC745U. 3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and solvent swelling studies on DC745U with different crosslink densities. 4. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on thermally aged

  13. Novel Multiple DC-Inputs Direct Electric-Power Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kantaro; Takahashi, Kouji; Okushima, Keiji; Tani, Kazuhiko

    A new multiple dc-inputs direct electric-power converter (D-EPC) has been developed. It is placed between multiple dc power sources and an ac motor, thereby eliminating the need for a dc/dc converter that is generally used in conventional converter/inverter systems. D-PEC can improve the efficiency of a motor drive system with a more compact size. Its power distribution control is carried out by allotting voltage ratios to each of the two different dc power sources on a time average basis. A new pulse width modulation (PWM) generation technique to drive the switching devices in D-EPC has also been developed. Tests have verified that the three-phase ac motor can be operated by controlling the power distribution between the two power sources.

  14. Recovering DC coefficients in block-based DCT.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takeyuki; Safavi-Naini, Reihaneh; Ogunbona, Philip

    2006-11-01

    It is a common approach for JPEG and MPEG encryption systems to provide higher protection for dc coefficients and less protection for ac coefficients. Some authors have employed a cryptographic encryption algorithm for the dc coefficients and left the ac coefficients to techniques based on random permutation lists which are known to be weak against known-plaintext and chosen-ciphertext attacks. In this paper we show that in block-based DCT, it is possible to recover dc coefficients from ac coefficients with reasonable image quality and show the insecurity of image encryption methods which rely on the encryption of dc values using a cryptoalgorithm. The method proposed in this paper combines dc recovery from ac coefficients and the fact that ac coefficients can be recovered using a chosen ciphertext attack. We demonstrate that a method proposed by Tang to encrypt and decrypt MPEG video can be completely broken. PMID:17076416

  15. Trends of DC Power Technologies and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Keiichi

    Renewable energy resources such as photovoltaic panels and wind turbines have been increasing rapidly to prevent global warming. The number of energy storage systems and many types of batteries is also growing to keep supply and demand balance in local areas. Interfaces of these facilities are direct current (DC). Most of modern electrical appliances also use DC power inside them. Therefore, DC power technologies with some features are expected to meet requirements for new electrical power systems, for example smartgrids, microgrids, and other electrical applications. In recent years, DC power applications in data centers, commercial buildings, and dwellings have been developed in Japan, the U.S. European countries, and so on. At the same time, international standardization activities had started. This paper describes trends of DC power technologies and their applications.

  16. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance. PMID:26469699

  17. Independent of plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) infection, pDC triggered by virus-infected cells mount enhanced type I IFN responses of different composition as opposed to pDC stimulated with free virus.

    PubMed

    Frenz, Theresa; Graalmann, Lukas; Detje, Claudia N; Döring, Marius; Grabski, Elena; Scheu, Stefanie; Kalinke, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    Upon treatment with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) particles, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are triggered to mount substantial type I IFN responses, whereas myeloid DC (mDC) are only minor producers. Interestingly, bone marrow-derived (BM-)mDC were more vulnerable to infection with enhanced GFP (eGFP)-expressing VSV (VSVeGFP) than BM-pDC. BM-pDC stimulated with wild-type VSV mounted TLR-dependent IFN responses that were independent of RIG-I-like helicase (RLH) signaling. In contrast, in BM-pDC the VSV variant M2 induced particularly high IFN responses triggered in a TLR- and RLH-dependent manner, whereas BM-mDC stimulation was solely RLH-dependent. Importantly, VSVeGFP treatment of BM-pDC derived from IFN-β yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) reporter mice (messenger of IFN-β) resulted in YFP(+) and eGFP(+) single-positive cells, whereas among messenger of IFN-β-BM-mDC most YFP(+) cells were also eGFP(+). This observation indicated that unlike mDC, direct virus infection was not required to trigger IFN responses of pDC. VSV-infected BM-mDC triggered BM-pDC to mount significantly higher IFN responses than free virus particles. Stimulation with infected cells enhanced the percentages of pDC subsets expressing either IFN-β(+) or IFN-α6(+) plus IFN-β(+). Irrespective of whether stimulated with free virus or infected cells, IFN induction was dependent on autophagy of pDC, whereas autophagy of the infected mDC was dispensable. Collectively, these results indicated that productive VSV infection was needed to trigger IFN responses of mDC, but not of pDC, and that IFN responses were primarily induced by virus-infected cells that stimulated pDC in a TLR-dependent manner. PMID:25070849

  18. Water binding in legume seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    The physical status of water in seeds has a pivotal role in determining the physiological reactions that can take place in the dry state. Using water sorption isotherms from cotyledon and axis tissue of five leguminous seeds, the strength of water binding and the numbers of binding sites have been estimated using van't Hoff analyses and the D'Arcy/Watt equation. These parameters of water sorption are calculated for each of the three regions of water binding and for a range of temperatures. Water sorption characteristics are reflective of the chemical composition of the biological materials as well as the temperature at which hydration takes place. Changes in the sorption characteristics with temperature and hydration level may suggest hydration-induced structural changes in cellular components.

  19. MHD seed recovery and regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-10-01

    The TRW Econoseed MHD Seed Regeneration Process is based on the reaction of calcium formate with potassium sulfate spent seed from an MHD electric power generation plant. The process was tested at bench scale, design a proof of concept (POC) test plant, plan and cost a Phase 2 project for a POC plant evaluation and prepare a conceptual design of a 300 MW (t) commercial plant. The results of the project are as follows: (1) each of the unit operations is demonstrated, and (2) the data are incorporated into a POC plant design and project cost, as well as a 300 MW (t) commercial retrofit plant design and cost estimate. Specific results are as follows: (1) calcium formate can be produced at 100 percent yield in a total retention time of less than 5 minutes, (2) utilizing the calcium formate, spent seed can quantitatively be converted to potassium formate, potassium carbonate or mixtures of these with potassium sulfate as per the commercial design without measurable loss of potassium to insolubles at a total retention time under 20 minutes and ambient pressure, (3) the solid rejects form the process meet RCRA EP Toxicity requirements for safe disposal, and (4) filtration and evaporation data, as well as reaction data cited above, show that the Econoseed technology is ready for scale up to POC plant scale. Economics forecast studies show that the total cost per unit of potassium for seed regeneration by the Econoseed Process is in the range of $0.23 to $0.27/lb, a cost which is less than half the potassium cost of $0.63/lb for purchasing new potassium carbonate.

  20. Generation of Particles and Seeding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important elements in laser velocimetry, yet the most neglected, is the small particle embedded in the flow field that scatters the light necessary to make velocity measurements. An attempt to remove the confusion in choosing a seeding method by assessing many of the techniques currently used is presented. Their characteristics and typical limitations imposed by various applications are outlined. The ramifications of these methods on measurement accuracy are addressed.

  1. User's manual: Computer-aided design programs for inductor-energy-storage dc-to-dc electronic power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed instructions on the use of two computer-aided-design programs for designing the energy storage inductor for single winding and two winding dc to dc converters are provided. Step by step procedures are given to illustrate the formatting of user input data. The procedures are illustrated by eight sample design problems which include the user input and the computer program output.

  2. A 10 kW dc-dc converter using IGBTs with active snubbers. [Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masserant, Brian J.; Shriver, Jeffrey L.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    This full bridge dc-dc converter employs zero voltage switching (ZVS) on one leg and zero current switching (ZCS) on the other. This technique produces exceptionally low IGBT switching losses through the use of an active snubber that recycles energy back to the source. Experimental results are presented for a 10 kW, 20 kHz converter.

  3. 75 FR 446 - In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain DC--DC Controllers and Products; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 7,315,190; 6,414,470; and 7,132,717; and by reason of trade...

  4. Mustard seed (Sinapis Alba Linn) attenuates imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation of BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runping; Zhou, Qiang; Wen, Chunmiao; Hu, Jian; Li, Hengjin; Zhao, Ming; Zhao, Hua

    2013-07-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with undefined etiology. All present treatments are symptomatic. The unsatisfactory outcome in the treatment of psoriasis is partially due to the poor compliance to the present therapies with more or less side-effects. As is known, drug homologous food is a popular intervention of some chronic diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. Mustard seed, consumed largely as a spice and a medicine in China, has recently been found to possess the bioactivities of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anticancer. Therefore, it was supposed that mustard seed may have effects on psoriasis, and it was preliminarily validated using a BALB/c mouse model of psoriasiform inflammation induced by the topical application of imiquimod cream (Aldara) for 6 days consecutively. It was found that the forage containing 5% mustard seed obviously attenuated imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation, but did not clear it completely, accompanied by reduced infiltrations of T cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and macrophages in lesional skin; reduced percentages of pDC and macrophages in the composition of immunocytes of spleens; reduced content of lesion nuclear factor-κB p65, plasma malondialdehyde, lesion inducible nitric oxide synthase, interferon-α, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 at mRNA and protein levels; increased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase; and increased percentage of CD4(+) T cells and increased ratio of CD4(+) /CD8(+) T cells in the composition of immunocytes of spleen. These results presented herein provide a basis for mustard seed to be used as a promising intervention for psoriasis in the future. PMID:23682616

  5. MHD seed recovery/regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task 1 calls for the design, procurement, construction, and installation of the Seed Regeneration Proof-of-Concept Facility (SRPF) that will produce tonnage quantities of recyclable potassium formate seed at a design rate of 250 lb/hr for testing in the channel at the CDIF while collecting data that will be used to upgrade the design of a 300 MW(sub t) system. Approximately 12 tons of KCOOH (dry basis) as 70-75 wt percent solution were produced. The front end of the plant (potassium sulfate reaction and solids separation/washing units) was operated for five days in March. Most of the operations were conducted at a spent seed feed rate of 250 pounds/hour. A total of 8,500 gallons of dilute KCOOH solution was generated containing approximately 2.6 tons of potassium formate (dry basis). The average KCOOH content of this solution was 7 wt percent. The design KCOOH solution concentration for the front end of the plant is 8.5 wt percent. The evaporation unit was operated for a total of six days during March. Approximately 2.5 tons of potassium formate (dry basis) were processed through the evaporator and concentrated to greater then 7 wt percent.

  6. Step-by-Step Design of an FPGA-Based Digital Compensator for DC/DC Converters Oriented to an Introductory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumel, P.; Fernandez, C.; Sanz, M.; Lazaro, A.; Barrado, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a short introductory course to introduce field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based digital control of dc/dc switching power converters is presented. Digital control based on specific hardware has been at the leading edge of low-medium power dc/dc switching converters in recent years. Besides industry's interest in this topic, from…

  7. 77 FR 55693 - D&C Red No. 6 and D&C Red No. 7; Change in Specification; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... FR 39921) and that revised the requirements for D&C Red No. 6 and D&C Red No. 7 by replacing the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 74 D&C Red No. 6 and D&C Red No. 7; Change...

  8. Nearly Unity Power-Factor of the Modular Three-Phase AC to DC Converter with Minimized DC Bus Capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunkag, Viboon; Kamnarn, Uthen

    The analysis and design of nearly unity power-factor and fast dynamic response of the modular three-phase ac to dc converter using three single-phase isolated SEPIC rectifier modules with minimized dc bus capacitor is discussed, based on power balance control technique. The averaged small-signal technique is used to obtain the inductor current compensator, thus resulting in the output impedance and audio susceptibility become zero, that is, the output voltage of the converter presented in this paper is independent of the variations of the dc load current and the utility voltage. The proposed system significantly improves the dynamic response of the converter to load steps with minimized dc bus capacitor for Distributed Power System (DPS). A 600W prototype modular three-phase ac to dc converter comprising three 200W single-phase SEPIC rectifier modules with the proposed control scheme has been designed and implemented. The proposed system is confirmed by experimental implementation.

  9. Analytical derivation of DC SQUID response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, I. I.; Klenov, N. V.; Schegolev, A. E.; Bakurskiy, S. V.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu

    2016-09-01

    We consider voltage and current response formation in DC superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with overdamped Josephson junctions in resistive and superconducting state in the context of a resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model. For simplicity we neglect the junction capacitance and the noise effect. Explicit expressions for the responses in resistive state were obtained for a SQUID which is symmetrical with respect to bias current injection point. Normalized SQUID inductance l=2{{eI}}{{c}}L/{\\hslash } (where I c is the critical current of Josephson junction, L is the SQUID inductance, e is the electron charge and ℏ is the Planck constant) was assumed to be within the range l ≤ 1, subsequently expanded up to l≈ 7 using two fitting parameters. SQUID current response in the superconducting state was considered for arbitrary value of the inductance. The impact of small technological spread of parameters relevant to low-temperature superconductor (LTS) technology was studied, using a generalization of the developed analytical approach, for the case of a small difference of critical currents and shunt resistances of the Josephson junctions, and inequality of SQUID inductive shoulders for both resistive and superconducting states. Comparison with numerical calculation results shows that developed analytical expressions can be used in practical LTS SQUIDs and SQUID-based circuits design, e.g. large serial SQIF, drastically decreasing the time of simulation.

  10. Differential Power Processing for DC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shenoy, PS; Krein, PT

    2013-04-01

    This paper introduces an approach to dc power delivery that reduces power loss by minimizing redundant energy conversion. Existing power distribution techniques tend to increase the number of cascaded conversion stages, which limits overall efficiency. Differential power processing enables independent load regulation, while processing only a small portion of the total load power. Bulk power conversion occurs once. Load voltage domains are connected in series, and differential converters act as controllable current sources to regulate intermediate nodes. This enables independent, low supply voltages, which can reduce system energy consumption, especially in digital circuits and solid-state lighting. Since differential voltage regulators process a fraction of the load power, decreased size, cost, and conversion losses are attainable. Under balanced load conditions, secondary differential converters do not process any power. This paper analyzes several differential power delivery architectures that can be applied to homogenous and heterogeneous loads at various levels: chip, board, blade, etc. A variety of operating conditions for a test system with four series voltage domains are examined in simulation and verified with experimental hardware. Results in a reference application show a 7-8% decrease in input power and 6-7 percentage points increase in overall conversion efficiency as compared to a conventional cascaded approach.

  11. Remote control of a DC discharge experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Arturo; Zwicker, A.; Wissel, S. A.; Ross, J.

    2013-10-01

    Glow discharges are an excellent tool to introduce plasmas to the general public, in part, because of their visual nature. In this poster, we present recent developments of the Remote DC Discharge Experiment. This experiment consists of a 36'' long × 3.5'' radius glass tube containing air held at pressures of approximately 30-200mTorr with a variable voltage between the ends which can be set between 0-2000V to create a glow discharge. Surrounding the tube, a set of Helmholtz coils can be controlled to demonstrate the effects of axial magnetic fields on the plasma. While the experiment is located at PPPL, a webcam displays the experiment online. The parameters (voltage, magnetic field and pressure) can be controlled remotely in real-time by opening a URL which shows the streaming video, as well as a set of Labview controls. The interface has been designed to attract users with a wide range of academic backgrounds by presenting different levels of interactivity, including the most advanced level which gives the user the possibility of empirically finding the breakdown voltage as a function of pressure and electrode separation.

  12. Counterrotating brushless dc permanent magnet motor

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.; Bailey, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    An brushless DC permanent magnet motor is provided for driving an autonomous underwater vehicle. In one embodiment, the motor comprises four substantially flat stators disposed in stacked relationship, with pairs of the stators being axially spaced and each of the stators comprising a tape-wound stator coil; and a first and second substantially flat rotors disposed between the spaced pairs of stators. Each of the rotors includes an annular array of permanent magnets embedded therein. A first shaft is connected to the first rotor and a second, concentric shaft is connected to the second rotor, and drive unit causes rotation of the two shafts in opposite directions. The second shaft comprises a hollow tube having a central bore therein in which the first shaft is disposed. Two different sets of bearings support the first and second shAfts. In another embodiment, the motor comprises two ironless stators and pairs and rotors mounted no opposite sides of the stators and driven by counterrotating shafts.

  13. Metals in downtown Washington, DC gardens.

    PubMed

    Preer, J R; Akintoye, J O; Martin, M L

    1984-02-01

    Soil samples from 95 gardens and leaf vegetables from 33 gardens in an approximately 3 km(2) area of downtown Washington, DC were analyzed for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn. The mean soil Pb was 680 μg/g with a range of 40-5300 μg/g. Soil Pb values in this sample were considerably higher than those previously found for a sample of 70 gardens distributed throughout the city. In the downtown sample, 46% of the soil Pb values were above 500 μg/g and 17% were above 1000 μg/g. Soil Pb levels were found to be higher near the house than away from the house, a pattern that was also evident, though less pronounced, for Zn and Cd. Lead-based exterior paint was identified as the most likely source of soil Pb in several cases. The mean leaf vegetable Pb was 6.4 μg/g dry weight, a small but significant difference from the mean value of 4.5 μg/g obtained from the city-wide sample of 38 gardens. PMID:24263749

  14. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  15. Ionization coefficient measurements in DC microplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovic, Ilija; Kuschel, Thomas; Winter, Joerg; Maric, Dragana; Petrovic, Zoran Lj.

    2012-10-01

    While steady state Townsend discharges may provide data for ionization coefficients those are often not as accurate as those produced in dedicated pulsed current growth experiments. In this paper we show that one may be able to measure ionization coefficients in DC microdischarges that are of excellent quality. Measurements were made for argon and argon/nitrogen mixtures with different gas flow rates. The technique based measuring the spatial profile of emission a Townsend discharge. In spite of having the drift length of only 1 mm, excellent agreement has been found between our new measurements and the data for low-pressure, larger dimension (2-4cm) discharges in argon (Jelenak et al) for the E/N in the range from 300 Td to 4000 Td, where E/N is normalized electrical field strength. Below 300 Td our measured values are larger then those by Jelenak et al. This discrepancy with previous measurements will be discussed. The influence of the gas flow-rate and nitrogen concentration on the radial discharge profile in the Townsend mode will also be presented and discussed. Jelenak et al 1993 Phys. Rev. E 47 3566

  16. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds. PMID:26926652

  17. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G.; Nyasani, Eunice K.; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A.; Markin, Vladislav S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K+ channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds. PMID:26926652

  18. Local Evolution of Seed Flotation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Rondeau-Mouro, Corinne; Macquet, Audrey; Kronholm, Ilkka; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Sallé, Christine; Poulain, Damien; Granier, Fabienne; Botran, Lucy; Loudet, Olivier; de Meaux, Juliette; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 β-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed. PMID:24625826

  19. Galactinol as marker for seed longevity.

    PubMed

    de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Willems, Leo; van Arkel, Jeroen; Dekkers, Bas J W; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Bentsink, Leónie

    2016-05-01

    Reduced seed longevity or storability is a major problem in seed storage and contributes to increased costs in crop production. Here we investigated whether seed galactinol contents could be predictive for seed storability behavior in Arabidopsis, cabbage and tomato. The analyses revealed a positive correlation between galactinol content and seed longevity in the three species tested, which indicates that this correlation is conserved in the Brassicaceae and beyond. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in tomato revealed a co-locating QTL for galactinol content and seed longevity on chromosome 2. A candidate for this QTL is the GALACTINOL SYNTHASE gene (Solyc02g084980.2.1) that is located in the QTL interval. GALACTINOL SYNTHASE is a key enzyme of the raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) pathway. To investigate the role of enzymes in the RFO pathway in more detail, we applied a reverse genetics approach using T-DNA knock-out lines in genes encoding enzymes of this pathway (GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 1, GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 2, RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE, STACHYOSE SYNTHASE and ALPHA-GALACTOSIDASE) and overexpressors of the cucumber GALACTINOL SYNTHASE 2 gene in Arabidopsis. The galactinol synthase 2 mutant and the galactinol synthase 1 galactinol synthase 2 double mutant contained the lowest seed galactinol content which coincided with lower seed longevity. These results show that galactinol content of mature dry seed can be used as a biomarker for seed longevity in Brassicaceae and tomato. PMID:26993241

  20. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote (Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye (Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  1. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  2. Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) seeds are dispersed by seed-caching rodents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vander Wall, S. B.; Esque, T.; Haines, D.; Garnett, M.; Waitman, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) is a distinctive and charismatic plant of the Mojave Desert. Although floral biology and seed production of Joshua tree and other yuccas are well understood, the fate of Joshua tree seeds has never been studied. We tested the hypothesis that Joshua tree seeds are dispersed by seed-caching rodents. We radioactively labelled Joshua tree seeds and followed their fates at five source plants in Potosi Wash, Clark County, Nevada, USA. Rodents made a mean of 30.6 caches, usually within 30 m of the base of source plants. Caches contained a mean of 5.2 seeds buried 3-30 nun deep. A variety of rodent species appears to have prepared the caches. Three of the 836 Joshua tree seeds (0.4%) cached germinated the following spring. Seed germination using rodent exclosures was nearly 15%. More than 82% of seeds in open plots were removed by granivores, and neither microsite nor supplemental water significantly affected germination. Joshua tree produces seeds in indehiscent pods or capsules, which rodents dismantle to harvest seeds. Because there is no other known means of seed dispersal, it is possible that the Joshua tree-rodent seed dispersal interaction is an obligate mutualism for the plant.

  3. Microencapsulation of chia seed oil using chia seed protein isolate-chia seed gum complex coacervates.

    PubMed

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-10-01

    Chia seed oil (CSO) microcapsules were produced by using chia seed protein isolate (CPI)-chia seed gum (CSG) complex coacervates aiming to enhance the oxidative stability of CSO. The effect of wall material composition, core-to-wall ratio and method of drying on the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) and oxidative stability (OS) was studied The microcapsules produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall material had higher MEE at equivalent payload, lower surface oil and higher OS compared to the microcapsules produced by using CSG and CPI individually. CSO microcapsules produced by using CSG as wall material had lowest MEE (67.3%) and oxidative stability index (OSI=6.6h), whereas CPI-CSG complex coacervate microcapsules had the highest MEE (93.9%) and OSI (12.3h). The MEE and OSI of microcapsules produced by using CPI as wall materials were in between those produced by using CSG and CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall materials. The CSO microcapsules produced by using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as shell matrix at core-to-wall ratio of 1:2 had 6 times longer storage life compared to that of unencapsulated CSO. The peroxide value of CSO microcapsule produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as wall material was <10meq O2/kg oil during 30 days of storage. PMID:27212219

  4. DC66843 VIEW OF THE INDEPENDENCE AVENUE CORRIDOR SPANNED BY THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DC-668-43 VIEW OF THE INDEPENDENCE AVENUE CORRIDOR SPANNED BY THE •DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BRIDGES, LOOKING WEST FROM TWELFTH STREET, SW - L'Enfant-McMillan Plan of Washington, DC, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. A general unified approach to modelling switching dc-to-dc converters in discontinuous conduction mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuk, S.; Middlebrook, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    A method for modelling switching converters in the discontinuous conduction mode is developed, whose starting point is the unified state-space representation, and whose end result is a complete linear circuit model which correctly represents all essential features, namely, the input, output, and transfer properties (static dc as well as dynamic ac small signal). While the method is generally applicable to any switching converter operating in the discontinuous conduction mode, it is extensively illustrated for the three common power stages (buck, boost, and buck-boost). The results for these converters are then easily tabulated owing to the fixed equivalent circuit topology of their canonical circuit model.

  6. High reliability DC/DC converter module for electronic boards equipped with FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, W.; Boccardi, A.; Zamantzas, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Beam Instrumentation Group at CERN is designing a new general-purpose VME carrier module utilising several PTH04T230W DC/DC converters. These off-the-shelf converters are built with unshielded inductors and need to be mounted on the printed circuit board as stand-alone components. Thus, reducing the global manageability and increasing the total cost of the carrier module. The new design aims to develop a module with better power dissipation, efficiency and reliability. In the future, it should be also possible to be directly integrated on the mainboard. For this reason, a Buck DC/DC converter has been implemented with the following main characteristics: input range from 3.0 V to 5.5 V; output range from 0.6 V to 3.3 V, settable by means of an external resistor; output current protection at 6 A; maximum output ripple ± 50 mVpp; switching frequency of 300KHz; short circuit protection; On/Off function; EMI reduction with frequency spread spectrum; soft-start function and thermal shutdown, in a 16 × 19 mm compact size. The selected buck controller is the TPS40303 integrated circuit and drives the CSD16321 power MOSFET, both from Texas Instruments. All selected components have been used at a minimum derating of 50% to reduce component stress and increase the reliability of this module. The selected inductors, i.e. Bourns SRP1055, are the main contributor for the high efficiency (95%), due to their very low equivalent series resistance. On the 4-layer PCB comprising all the components of this module, a snubber circuit, for further reduction of the output ripple due to the MOSFET ringing, can be mounted optionally. It is left as an option due to its effect on the total efficiency. The board layout has been optimized for maximum heat transfer and it can be used without active cooling. The board can maintain the maximum temperature on its surface, while at maximum current output, below 55°C at 25°C ambient temperature. An example of the electrical performance

  7. Oxidative signaling in seed germination and dormancy

    PubMed Central

    El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

    2008-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a key role in various events of seed life. In orthodox seeds, ROS are produced from embryogenesis to germination, i.e., in metabolically active cells, but also in quiescent dry tissues during after ripening and storage, owing various mechanisms depending on the seed moisture content. Although ROS have been up to now widely considered as detrimental to seeds, recent advances in plant physiology signaling pathways has lead to reconsider their role. ROS accumulation can therefore be also beneficial for seed germination and seedling growth by regulating cellular growth, ensuring a protection against pathogens or controlling the cell redox status. ROS probably also act as a positive signal in seed dormancy release. They interact with abscisic acid and gibberellins transduction pathway and are likely to control numerous transcription factors and properties of specific protein through their carbonylation. PMID:19513212

  8. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution.

    PubMed

    Salm, Rodolfo

    2005-11-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti). The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests. PMID:16532195

  9. Dynamic conductivity of ac-dc-driven graphene superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhar', E. I.; Kryuchkov, S. V.; Ionkina, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic conductivity of graphene superlattice in the presence of ac electric field and dc electric field with longitudinal and transversal components with respect to superlattice axis was calculated. In the case of strong transversal component of dc field conductivity of graphene superlattice was shown to be such as if the electrons had got the effective mass. In the case of weak transversal component of dc field conductivity was shown to change its sign if the frequency of ac field was an integer multiple of half of Bloch frequency.

  10. Homodyne readout on dc-removed coaxial holographic data storage.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shin; Ogasawara, Yasuhiro; Minabe, Jiro; Kawano, Katsunori; Hayashi, Kazuhiro

    2009-12-20

    Multiplexing characteristics of a dc-removed coaxial holographic storage system were evaluated for what is believed to be the first time. Our dc-removed coaxial system achieved 3.5 times higher raw data density than a conventional coaxial system that involved dc recording. The increase of the data density was due not only to less M/# consumption but also to the effects of signal amplification and noise reduction by use of the positive and negative images reconstructed from the same holograms. PMID:20029586

  11. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Meng, Yuedong; Yu, Xinyao; Chen, Longwei; Jiang, Yiman; Ni, Guohua; Chen, Mingzhou

    2009-04-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency.

  12. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Clematis terniflora DC. (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Mengzhu; Yang, Bingxian; Chen, Qinyi; Zhu, Wei; Ma, Ji; Tian, Jingkui

    2016-07-01

    Clematis terniflora DC. is an important medicinal plant used in the treatment of inflammatory symptoms related to respiratory and urinary systems. In this study, we found that the complete cp genome of C. terniflora DC. is 159,528 bp. The phylogenetic analysis of 32 taxa showed a strong sister relationship with Ranunculus macranthus, which also strongly supports the position of Ranunculales. The complete cp genome sequence of Clematis terniflora DC. reported here has the potential to advance population and phylogenetic studies of this medicinal plant. PMID:25865739

  13. Implementing the DC Mode in Cosmological Simulations with Supercomoving Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y; Kravtsov, Andrey V; Rudd, Douglas H

    2011-06-02

    As emphasized by previous studies, proper treatment of the density fluctuation on the fundamental scale of a cosmological simulation volume - the 'DC mode' - is critical for accurate modeling of spatial correlations on scales ~> 10% of simulation box size. We provide further illustration of the effects of the DC mode on the abundance of halos in small boxes and show that it is straightforward to incorporate this mode in cosmological codes that use the 'supercomoving' variables. The equations governing evolution of dark matter and baryons recast with these variables are particularly simple and include the expansion factor, and hence the effect of the DC mode, explicitly only in the Poisson equation.

  14. Proposed commercial service for DC graphite melter

    SciTech Connect

    Desrosiers, A.E.; Trescot, J.; Wittle, J.K.

    1995-11-01

    The volume of mixed waste continues to increase with few options for its permanent disposal other than storage on site. This mixed waste is being generated by not only the Department of Energy at government sites but by the private sector in hospitals and at electrical utility sites. Bartlett Services, Inc. proposes to offer a service to treat these materials to both reduce the volume and stabilize the radionuclides in a vitrified material. This product will be formed in the DC Graphite Arc melters developed by Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and being offered for commercial design, sale and installation by Kennedy Van Saun. The process is a high temperature procedure which pyrolytically decomposes the organic portion of the waste to form clean hydrogen and carbon monoxide and solid carbon. The inorganic portion, containing the radioactive components, melts to produce a stable glass which is resistant to environmental leaching and will remain stable until the radioactivity has decreased to a safe level. Glasses produced with surrogate materials such as cesium and cerium have been shown to pass the Product Compatibility Test (PCT). The process being proposed for this treatment utilizes a sealed melter system having the capability of melting wastes containing both metallic and inorganic materials. This process, unlike joule heated melters, is capable of operating to temperatures of 1600{degrees}C or higher. Since the system is heated electrically, oxidation is not required to create the heat. Since the system is pyrolytic, relatively small quantities of gas are produced. These gases may have beneficial uses in producing chemicals or may be used as a clean fuel.

  15. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:24432903

  16. Tachometers Derived From a Brushless DC Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    2007-01-01

    The upper part of the figure illustrates the major functional blocks of a direction-sensitive analog tachometer circuit based on the use of an unexcited two-phase brushless dc motor as a rotation transducer. The primary advantages of this circuit over many older tachometer circuits include the following: Its output inherently varies linearly with the rate of rotation of the shaft. Unlike some tachometer circuits that rely on differentiation of voltages with respect to time, this circuit relies on integration, which results in signals that are less noisy. There is no need for an additional shaft-angle sensor, nor is there any need to supply electrical excitation to a shaft-angle sensor. There is no need for mechanical brushes (which tend to act as sources of electrical noise). The underlying concept and electrical design are relatively simple. This circuit processes the back-electromagnetic force (back-emf) outputs of the two motor phases into a voltage directly proportional to the instantaneous rate (sign magnitude) of rotation of the shaft. The processing in this circuit effects a straightforward combination of mathematical operations leading to a final operation based on the well-known trigonometric identity (sin x)2 + (cos x)2 = 1 for any value of x. The principle of operation of this circuit is closely related to that of the tachometer circuit described in Tachometer Derived From Brushless Shaft-Angle Resolver (MFS-28845), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 3 (March 1995), page 39. However, the present circuit is simpler in some respects because there is no need for sinusoidal excitation of shaftangle- resolver windings.

  17. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  18. Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jimmy L.; Bouchard, Richard R.; Karpiouk, Andrei B.; Hazle, John D.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2011-01-01

    Brachytherapy seed therapy is an increasingly common way to treat prostate cancer through localized radiation. The current standard of care relies on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for imaging guidance during the seed placement procedure. As visualization of individual metallic seeds tends to be difficult or inaccurate under TRUS guidance, guide needles are generally tracked to infer seed placement. In an effort to improve seed visualization and placement accuracy, the use of photoacoustic (PA) imaging, which is highly sensitive to metallic objects in soft tissue, was investigated for this clinical application. The PA imaging properties of bare (i.e., embedded in pure gelatin) and tissue-embedded (at depths of up to 13 mm) seeds were investigated with a multi-wavelength (750 to 1090 nm) PA imaging technique. Results indicate that, much like ultrasonic (US) imaging, an angular dependence (i.e., seed orientation relative to imaging transducer) of the PA signal exists. Despite this shortcoming, however, PA imaging offers improved contrast, over US imaging, of a seed in prostate tissue if sufficient local fluence is achieved. Additionally, although the PA signal of a bare seed is greatest for lower laser wavelengths (e.g., 750 nm), the scattering that results from tissue tends to favor the use of higher wavelengths (e.g., 1064 nm, which is the primary wavelength of Nd:YAG lasers) when the seed is located in tissue. A combined PA and US imaging approach (i.e., PAUS imaging) shows strong potential to visualize both the seed and the surrounding anatomical environment of the prostate during brachytherapy seed placement procedures. PMID:21833361

  19. A study of autorotating plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Sunada, S; Ide, A; Hoshino, Y; Okamoto, M

    2015-12-01

    A leading edge vortex exists on the upper surface of an autorotating plant seed. The vortex enhances the vertical aerodynamic force acting on the seed and decreases the rate of descent. We analyzed the flight data of rotary seeds and revealed that the lift-drag ratio affects the descent factor more strongly than the vertical force coefficient. This has also been confirmed by falling tests of model rotors, which have various aspect ratios, airfoil shapes and total masses. PMID:26382230

  20. DC-SIGN; a related gene, DC-SIGNR; and CD23 form a cluster on 19p13.

    PubMed

    Soilleux, E J; Barten, R; Trowsdale, J

    2000-09-15

    DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin, expressed on a dendritic cell subset. It is able to bind ICAM3 and HIV gp120 in a calcium-dependent manner. Here we report the genomic organization of DC-SIGN and map it to chromosome 19p13 adjacent to the C-type lectin CD23 (FcepsilonRII). We also report a novel, closely linked gene, DC-SIGNR, which shows 73% identity to DC-SIGN at the nucleic acid level and a similar genomic organization. Proteins encoded by both genes have tracts of repeats of 23 aa, predicted to form a coiled coil neck region. They also possess motifs that are known to bind mannose in a calcium-dependent fashion. We show concomitant expression of the two genes in endometrium, placenta, and stimulated KG1 cells (phenotypically similar to monocyte-derived dendritic cells). The existence of a DC-SIGN-related gene calls for reinterpretation of the HIV data to consider possible DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR hetero-oligomerization. PMID:10975799