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Sample records for involves localized translation

  1. Control of Cell Migration Through Mrna Localization and Local Translation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guoning; Mingle, Lisa; Van De Water, Livingston; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration plays an important role in many normal and pathological functions such as development, wound healing, immune defense and tumor metastasis. Polarized migrating cells exhibit asymmetric distribution of many cytoskeletal proteins which is believed to be critical for establishing and maintaining cell polarity and directional cell migration. To target these proteins to the site of function, cells use a variety of mechanisms such as protein transport and mRNA localization-mediated local protein synthesis. In contrast to the former which is intensively investigated and relatively well understood, the latter has been under-studied and relatively poorly understood. However, recent advances in the study of mRNA localization and local translation have demonstrated that mRNA localization and local translation are specific and effective ways for protein localization and are crucial for embryo development, neuronal function and many other cellular processes. There are excellent reviews on mRNA localization, transport and translation during development and other cellular processes. This review will focus on mRNA localization-mediated local protein biogenesis and its impact on somatic cell migration. PMID:25264217

  2. International Technical Communication: Beyond Translation, Localization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Offers a personal view of international technical communication. Discusses computer-assisted translation, machine translation, machine interpreting, and the future of international technical communication. (SR)

  3. Remote Control of Gene Function by Local Translation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hosung; Gkogkas, Christos G.; Sonenberg, Nahum; Holt, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    The subcellular position of a protein is a key determinant of its function. Mounting evidence indicates that RNA localization, where specific mRNAs are transported subcellularly and subsequently translated in response to localized signals, is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to control protein localization. On-site synthesis confers novel signaling properties to a protein and helps to maintain local proteome homeostasis. Local translation plays particularly important roles in distal neuronal compartments, and dysregulated RNA localization and translation cause defects in neuronal wiring and survival. Here, we discuss key findings in this area and possible implications of this adaptable and swift mechanism for spatial control of gene function. PMID:24679524

  4. Translationally invariant conservation laws of local Lindblad equations

    SciTech Connect

    Žnidarič, Marko; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

    2014-02-15

    We study the conditions under which one can conserve local translationally invariant operators by local translationally invariant Lindblad equations in one-dimensional rings of spin-1/2 particles. We prove that for any 1-local operator (e.g., particle density) there exist Lindblad dissipators that conserve that operator, while on the other hand we prove that among 2-local operators (e.g., energy density) only trivial ones of the Ising type can be conserved, while all the other cannot be conserved, neither locally nor globally, by any 2- or 3-local translationally invariant Lindblad equation. Our statements hold for rings of any finite length larger than some minimal length determined by the locality of Lindblad equation. These results show in particular that conservation of energy density in interacting systems is fundamentally more difficult than conservation of 1-local quantities.

  5. Global Analysis of mRNA, Translation, and Protein Localization: Local Translation Is a Key Regulator of Cell Protrusions

    PubMed Central

    Mardakheh, Faraz K.; Paul, Angela; Kümper, Sandra; Sadok, Amine; Paterson, Hugh; Mccarthy, Afshan; Yuan, Yinyin; Marshall, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Polarization of cells into a protrusive front and a retracting cell body is the hallmark of mesenchymal-like cell migration. Many mRNAs are localized to protrusions, but it is unclear to what degree mRNA localization contributes toward protrusion formation. We performed global quantitative analysis of the distributions of mRNAs, proteins, and translation rates between protrusions and the cell body by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative proteomics. Our results reveal local translation as a key determinant of protein localization to protrusions. Accordingly, inhibition of local translation destabilizes protrusions and inhibits mesenchymal-like morphology. Interestingly, many mRNAs localized to protrusions are translationally repressed. Specific cis-regulatory elements within mRNA UTRs define whether mRNAs are locally translated or repressed. Finally, RNAi screening of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) enriched in protrusions revealed trans-regulators of localized translation that are functionally important for protrusions. We propose that by deciphering the localized mRNA UTR code, these proteins regulate protrusion stability and mesenchymal-like morphology. PMID:26555054

  6. mRNA Localization and Translational Control in Drosophila Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lasko, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Localization of an mRNA species to a particular subcellular region can complement translational control mechanisms to produce a restricted spatial distribution of the protein it encodes. mRNA localization has been studied most in asymmetric cells such as budding yeast, early embryos, and neurons, but the process is likely to be more widespread. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of mRNA localization and its functions in early embryonic development, focusing on Drosophila where the relevant knowledge is most advanced. Links between mRNA localization and translational control mechanisms also are examined. PMID:22865893

  7. EMPIRE: Translating Multiculturalism into Local Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Jacqueline D.

    1993-01-01

    EMPIRE (Exemplary Multicultural Practices in Rural Schools) is a collaborative multicultural reform project involving the Rural Clearinghouse at Kansas State University and eight rural schools, two regional colleges, and state departments of education in Arizona and Washington. Each rural school is pursuing multicultural projects that are defined…

  8. Neuronal RNA granules: a link between RNA localization and stimulation-dependent translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krichevsky, A. M.; Kosik, K. S.

    2001-01-01

    RNA granules are a macromolecular structure observed in neurons, where they serve as motile units that translocate mRNAs. Isolated RNA granules are highly enriched in Staufen protein and ultrastructurally contain densely packed clusters of ribosomes. With depolarization, many mRNAs, including those involved in plasticity, rapidly shift from the RNA granule fraction to polysomes. Depolarization reorganizes granules and induces a less compact organization of their ribosomes. RNA granules are not translationally competent, as indicated by the failure to incorporate radioactive amino acids and the absence of eIF4E, 4G, and tRNAs. We concluded that RNA granules are a local storage compartment for mRNAs under translational arrest but are poised for release to actively translated pools. Local release of mRNAs and ribosomes from granules may serve as a macromolecular mechanism linking RNA localization to translation and synaptic plasticity.

  9. Emergent General Relativity and Local Translation Symmetry in Tensor Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasakura, Naoki

    2009-12-01

    The tensor model is discussed as theory of dynamical fuzzy spaces and as a way to formulate gravity on fuzzy spaces. From numerical analyses, it is shown that the low-lying long-wavelength fluctuation spectra around Gaussian background solutions in the tensor model are in agreement with the geometric fluctuations on flat spaces in the general relativity. It is also shown that part of the orthogonal symmetry of the tensor model spontaneously broken by the backgrounds correspond to the local translation symmetry of the general relativity. Thus the tensor model can provide an interesting model of simultaneous emergence of space and the general relativity including the local translation symmetry.

  10. Coupled local translation and degradation regulate growth cone collapse

    PubMed Central

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Colak, Dilek; Hengst, Ulrich; Liu, Yaobin; Xu, Guoqiang; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2015-01-01

    Local translation mediates axonal responses to Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) and other guidance cues. However, only a subset of the axonal proteome is locally synthesized, while most proteins are trafficked from the soma. The reason why only specific proteins are locally synthesized is unknown. Here we show that local protein synthesis and degradation are linked events in growth cones. We find that growth cones exhibit high levels of ubiquitination and that local signaling pathways trigger the ubiquitination and degradation of RhoA, a mediator of Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. Inhibition of RhoA degradation is sufficient to remove the protein-synthesis requirement for Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. In addition to RhoA, we find that locally translated proteins are the main targets of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in growth cones. Thus, local protein degradation is a major feature of growth cones and creates a requirement for local translation to replenish proteins needed to maintain growth cone responses. PMID:25901863

  11. Involvement of imported tRNA in intramitochondrial translation. [Tetrahymena

    SciTech Connect

    Suyama, Y.

    1981-01-01

    These studies show that only 10 out of 36 mitochondrial tRNAs hybridize to mtDNA. Consistent with previous observations, Arg, Ile, Lys, Val tRNAs must be imported cytoplasmic tRNAs, since these tRNAs do not hybridize to mtDNA. The evident indicates that these imported tRNAs in Tetrahymena mitochondria are not contaminating cytoplasmic tRNAs in our mitochondrial preparations. The conclusion that they function in intramitochondrial translation is based on the demonstration that all the native and imported tRNAs are associated with the functinal mitochondrial 80S monosome as well as with carefully washed 55S subunits. As expected if they function in translation, all these tRNAs on the ribosomes should become acylated when mitochondria are engaged in protein synthesis. From the codon recognition patterns determined previously, it is quite probable that Tetrahymena mitochondrial translation system differs from mammalian and fungal mitochondrial systems. The mechanisms for transporting tRNA into mitochondria is not known. However, it was proposed earlier that the corresponding tRNA synthetase may act as transport protein.

  12. Systemic involvement in localized scleroderma/morphea.

    PubMed

    Gorkiewicz-Petkow, Anna; Kalinska-Bienias, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Localized scleroderma (LoSc), also known as morphea, is a rare fibrosing disorder of the skin and underlying tissues. Sclerosis is mainly limited to the skin, but subcutaneous tissue, fascia, and underlying muscles and bone may also be involved. In some cases, systemic manifestation with visceral abnormalities may occur. Several publications have focused on significant aspects of LoSc: genetics, immunity, epidemiology, scoring systems, and unification of classifications. Clinical studies featuring large cohorts with the disease published by various international study groups have been of great value in furthering the diagnostic and therapeutic management of LoSc. PMID:26321403

  13. Acquisition of Character Translation Rules for Supporting SNOMED CT Localizations.

    PubMed

    Miñarro-Giménez, Jose Antonio; Hellrich, Johannes; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Translating huge medical terminologies like SNOMED CT is costly and time consuming. We present a methodology that acquires substring substitution rules for single words, based on the known similarity between medical words and their translations, due to their common Latin / Greek origin. Character translation rules are automatically acquired from pairs of English words and their automated translations to German. Using a training set with single words extracted from SNOMED CT as input we obtained a list of 268 translation rules. The evaluation of these rules improved the translation of 60% of words compared to Google Translate and 55% of translated words that exactly match the right translations. On a subset of words where machine translation had failed, our method improves translation in 56% of cases, with 27% exactly matching the gold standard. PMID:25991218

  14. Translational Research Involving Oxidative Stress and Diseases of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Robert A.; Towner, Rheal A.; He, Ting; Hensley, Kenneth; Maples, Kirk R.

    2011-01-01

    There is ample mounting evidence that reactive oxidant species are exacerbated in inflammatory processes, many pathological conditions and underlying processes of chronic age-related diseases. Therefore there is increased expectation that therapeutics can be developed which act in some fashion to suppress reactive oxidant species and ameliorate the condition. This has turned out to be more difficult than at first expected. Developing therapeutics for indications where reactive oxidant species is an important consideration presents some unique challenges. We discuss important questions including whether reactive oxidant species should be a therapeutic target and the need to recognize the fact that an antioxidant in a defined chemical system may be a poor antioxidant operationally in a biological system and the importance of considering the fact that reactive oxidant species may accompany the disease or pathological system rather than being a causative factor. We also discuss the value of having preclinical models to determine if the processes which are important in causing the disease under study is critically dependent on reactive oxidant species events and if the therapeutic under consideration quells these processes. In addition we discuss measures of success that must be met in commercial research and development in preclinical and clinical trials and discuss as examples our translational research effort in developing nitrones for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke and as anti-cancer agents. PMID:21549833

  15. Localized Pemphigus Vegetans without Mucosal Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Jain, VK; Jindal, N; Imchen, S

    2014-01-01

    Pemphigus vegetans is a rare variant of pemphigus vulgaris. A 62-year-old woman presented with erythematous moist vegetative plaque on the left breast and left groin. There was no mucosal involvement. Histopathological and direct immunofluorescence findings were suggestive of pemphigus vegetans. She showed excellent response to oral steroids. Literature is scarcely available on the limited involvement with pemphigus vegetans without mucosal involvement. PMID:24700958

  16. Codon Usage Influences the Local Rate of Translation Elongation to Regulate Co-translational Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chien-Hung; Dang, Yunkun; Zhou, Zhipeng; Wu, Cheng; Zhao, Fangzhou; Sachs, Matthew S; Liu, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Codon usage bias is a universal feature of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes and has been proposed to regulate translation efficiency, accuracy, and protein folding based on the assumption that codon usage affects translation dynamics. The roles of codon usage in translation, however, are not clear and have been challenged by recent ribosome profiling studies. Here we used a Neurospora cell-free translation system to directly monitor the velocity of mRNA translation. We demonstrated that the preferred codons enhance the rate of translation elongation, whereas non-optimal codons slow elongation. Codon usage also controls ribosome traffic on mRNA. These conclusions were supported by ribosome profiling results in vitro and in vivo with template mRNAs designed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, we demonstrate that codon usage regulates protein function by affecting co-translational protein folding. These results resolve a long-standing fundamental question and suggest the existence of a codon usage code for protein folding. PMID:26321254

  17. Localized mRNA translation and protein association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir

    2014-08-01

    Recent direct observations of localization of mRNAs and proteins both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells can be related to slowdown of diffusion of these species due to macromolecular crowding and their ability to aggregate and form immobile or slowly mobile complexes. Here, a generic kinetic model describing both these factors is presented and comprehensively analyzed. Although the model is non-linear, an accurate self-consistent analytical solution of the corresponding reaction-diffusion equation has been constructed, the types of localized protein distributions have been explicitly shown, and the predicted kinetic regimes of gene expression have been classified.

  18. Found in translation: Decoding local understandings of genetics and heredity in a Yup'ik Eskimo community.

    PubMed

    West, Kathleen M; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Hopper, Kim J; Mohatt, Gerald V; Boyer, Bert B

    2013-01-01

    The Center for Alaska Native Health Research is a community-based participatory research center that conducts studies involving genetic research with Yup'ik Eskimo community members in Southwest Alaska, where Yup'ik remains the first language for most residents. Cultural equivalents are needed to communicate results of these studies among all partners and members of the participating communities, since many scientific terms have no direct translation in Yup'ik. To inform that effort, we examined local understandings of genetics and heredity in one community. Here, we report results from back-translated Yup'ik interviews, and identify working genetic concepts shared by participants from interviews and focus groups. We suggest issues involved in, and some potential steps toward, developing a concise, scientifically accurate and culturally relevant term for "genetics" and other health concepts. PMID:23832886

  19. Insights into the roles of local translation from the axonal transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Much of our knowledge on the roles of intra-axonal translation derives from the characterization of a small number of individual mRNAs that were found to be localized in axons. However, two recent studies, using large-scale approaches to provide a more comprehensive characterization of the axonal transcriptome, have led to the discovery of thousands of axonal mRNAs. The apparent abundance of mRNAs in axons raises the possibility that local translation has many more functions than previously thought. Here, we review the recent studies that have profiled axonal mRNAs and discuss how the identification of axonal transcripts might point to unappreciated roles for local translation in axons. PMID:22773949

  20. Gene overexpression as a tool for identifying new trans-acting factors involved in translation termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Namy, Olivier; Hatin, Isabelle; Stahl, Guillaume; Liu, Hongmei; Barnay, Stephanie; Bidou, Laure; Rousset, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    In eukaryotes, translation termination is dependent on the availability of both release factors, eRF1 and eRF3; however, the precise mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. In particular, the fact that the phenotype of release factor mutants is pleiotropic could imply that other factors and interactions are involved in translation termination. To identify unknown elements involved in this process, we performed a genetic screen using a reporter strain in which a leaky stop codon is inserted in the lacZ reporter gene, attempting to isolate factors modifying termination efficiency when overexpressed. Twelve suppressors and 11 antisuppressors, increasing or decreasing termination readthrough, respectively, were identified and analyzed for three secondary phenotypes often associated with translation mutations: thermosensitivity, G418 sensitivity, and sensitivity to osmotic pressure. Interestingly, among these candidates, we identified two genes, SSO1 and STU2, involved in protein transport and spindle pole body formation, respectively, suggesting puzzling connections with the translation termination process. PMID:12072456

  1. Netrin-1 induces local translation of down syndrome cell adhesion molecule in axonal growth cones.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shruti; Welshhans, Kristy

    2016-07-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) plays an important role in many neurodevelopmental processes such as axon guidance, dendrite arborization, and synapse formation. DSCAM is located in the Down syndrome trisomic region of human chromosome 21 and may contribute to the Down syndrome brain phenotype, which includes a reduction in the formation of long-distance connectivity. The local translation of a select group of mRNA transcripts within growth cones is necessary for the formation of appropriate neuronal connectivity. Interestingly, we have found that Dscam mRNA is localized to growth cones of mouse hippocampal neurons, and is dynamically regulated in response to the axon guidance molecule, netrin-1. Furthermore, netrin-1 stimulation results in an increase in locally translated DSCAM protein in growth cones. Deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), a netrin-1 receptor, is required for the netrin-1-induced increase in Dscam mRNA local translation. We also find that two RNA-binding proteins-fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB)-colocalize with Dscam mRNA in growth cones, suggesting their regulation of Dscam mRNA localization and translation. Finally, overexpression of DSCAM in mouse cortical neurons results in a severe stunting of axon outgrowth and branching, suggesting that an increase in DSCAM protein results in a structural change having functional consequences. Taken together, these results suggest that netrin-1-induced local translation of Dscam mRNA during embryonic development may be an important mechanism to regulate axon growth and guidance in the developing nervous system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 799-816, 2016. PMID:26518186

  2. Drosophila melanogaster LRPPRC2 is involved in coordination of mitochondrial translation

    PubMed Central

    Baggio, Francesca; Bratic, Ana; Mourier, Arnaud; Kauppila, Timo E.S.; Tain, Luke S.; Kukat, Christian; Habermann, Bianca; Partridge, Linda; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Members of the pentatricopeptide repeat domain (PPR) protein family bind RNA and are important for post-transcriptional control of organelle gene expression in unicellular eukaryotes, metazoans and plants. They also have a role in human pathology, as mutations in the leucine-rich PPR-containing (LRPPRC) gene cause severe neurodegeneration. We have previously shown that the mammalian LRPPRC protein and its Drosophila melanogaster homolog DmLRPPRC1 (also known as bicoid stability factor) are necessary for mitochondrial translation by controlling stability and polyadenylation of mRNAs. We here report characterization of DmLRPPRC2, a second fruit fly homolog of LRPPRC, and show that it has a predominant mitochondrial localization and interacts with a stem-loop interacting RNA binding protein (DmSLIRP2). Ubiquitous downregulation of DmLrpprc2 expression causes respiratory chain dysfunction, developmental delay and shortened lifespan. Unexpectedly, decreased DmLRPPRC2 expression does not globally affect steady-state levels or polyadenylation of mitochondrial transcripts. However, some mitochondrial transcripts abnormally associate with the mitochondrial ribosomes and some products are dramatically overproduced and other ones decreased, which, in turn, results in severe deficiency of respiratory chain complexes. The function of DmLRPPRC2 thus seems to be to ensure that mitochondrial transcripts are presented to the mitochondrial ribosomes in an orderly fashion to avoid poorly coordinated translation. PMID:25428350

  3. Drosophila melanogaster LRPPRC2 is involved in coordination of mitochondrial translation.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Francesca; Bratic, Ana; Mourier, Arnaud; Kauppila, Timo E S; Tain, Luke S; Kukat, Christian; Habermann, Bianca; Partridge, Linda; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-12-16

    Members of the pentatricopeptide repeat domain (PPR) protein family bind RNA and are important for post-transcriptional control of organelle gene expression in unicellular eukaryotes, metazoans and plants. They also have a role in human pathology, as mutations in the leucine-rich PPR-containing (LRPPRC) gene cause severe neurodegeneration. We have previously shown that the mammalian LRPPRC protein and its Drosophila melanogaster homolog DmLRPPRC1 (also known as bicoid stability factor) are necessary for mitochondrial translation by controlling stability and polyadenylation of mRNAs. We here report characterization of DmLRPPRC2, a second fruit fly homolog of LRPPRC, and show that it has a predominant mitochondrial localization and interacts with a stem-loop interacting RNA binding protein (DmSLIRP2). Ubiquitous downregulation of DmLrpprc2 expression causes respiratory chain dysfunction, developmental delay and shortened lifespan. Unexpectedly, decreased DmLRPPRC2 expression does not globally affect steady-state levels or polyadenylation of mitochondrial transcripts. However, some mitochondrial transcripts abnormally associate with the mitochondrial ribosomes and some products are dramatically overproduced and other ones decreased, which, in turn, results in severe deficiency of respiratory chain complexes. The function of DmLRPPRC2 thus seems to be to ensure that mitochondrial transcripts are presented to the mitochondrial ribosomes in an orderly fashion to avoid poorly coordinated translation. PMID:25428350

  4. Function and ribosomal localization of aIF6, a translational regulator shared by archaea and eukarya

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Dario; Marzi, Stefano; Mancone, Carmine; Alonzi, Tonino; la Teana, Anna; Londei, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The translation factor IF6 is shared by the Archaea and the Eukarya, but is not found in Bacteria. The properties of eukaryal IF6 (eIF6) have been extensively studied, but remain somewhat elusive. eIF6 behaves as a ribosome-anti-association factor and is involved in miRNA-mediated gene silencing; however, it also seems to participate in ribosome synthesis and export. Here we have determined the function and ribosomal localization of the archaeal (Sulfolobus solfataricus) IF6 homologue (aIF6). We find that aIF6 binds specifically to the 50S ribosomal subunits, hindering the formation of 70S ribosomes and strongly inhibiting translation. aIF6 is uniformly expressed along the cell cycle, but it is upregulated following both cold- and heat shock. The aIF6 ribosomal binding site lies in the middle of the 30-S interacting surface of the 50S subunit, including a number of critical RNA and protein determinants involved in subunit association. The data suggest that the IF6 protein evolved in the archaeal–eukaryal lineage to modulate translational efficiency under unfavourable environmental conditions, perhaps acquiring additional functions during eukaryotic evolution. PMID:19036786

  5. Isolation of mRNAs associated with yeast mitochondria to study mechanisms of localized translation.

    PubMed

    Lesnik, Chen; Arava, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    Most of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus and need to be imported into the organelle. Import may occur while the protein is synthesized near the mitochondria. Support for this possibility is derived from recent studies, in which many mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins were shown to be localized to the mitochondria vicinity. Together with earlier demonstrations of ribosomes' association with the outer membrane, these results suggest a localized translation process. Such localized translation may improve import efficiency, provide unique regulation sites and minimize cases of ectopic expression. Diverse methods have been used to characterize the factors and elements that mediate localized translation. Standard among these is subcellular fractionation by differential centrifugation. This protocol has the advantage of isolation of mRNAs, ribosomes and proteins in a single procedure. These can then be characterized by various molecular and biochemical methods. Furthermore, transcriptomics and proteomics methods can be applied to the resulting material, thereby allow genome-wide insights. The utilization of yeast as a model organism for such studies has the advantages of speed, costs and simplicity. Furthermore, the advanced genetic tools and available deletion strains facilitate verification of candidate factors. PMID:24686138

  6. Involvement of Arabidopsis RACK1 in Protein Translation and Its Regulation by Abscisic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jianjun; Wang, Shucai; Valerius, Oliver; Hall, Hardy; Zeng, Qingning; Li, Jian-Feng; Weston, David; Ellis, Brian; Chen, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that RACK1 functions as a negative regulator of ABA responses in Arabidopsis, but the molecular mechanism of the action of RACK1 in these processes remains elusive. Global gene expression profiling revealed that approximately 40% of the genes affected by ABA treatment were affected in a similar manner by the rack1 mutation, supporting the view that RACK1 is an important regulator of ABA responses. On the other hand, co-expression analysis revealed that >80% of the genes co-expressed with RACK1 encode ribosome proteins, implying a close relationship between RACK1 s function and the ribosome complex. These results implied that the regulatory role for RACK1 in ABA responses may be partially due to its putative function in protein translation, which is one of the major cellular processes that mammalian and yeast RACK1 is involved in. Consistently, all three Arabidopsis RACK1 homologous genes, namely RACK1A, RACK1B and RACK1C, complemented the growth defects of the S. cerevisiae cpc2/rack1 mutant. In addition, RACK1 physically interacts with Arabidopsis Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 6 (eIF6), whose mammalian homologue is a key regulator of 80S ribosome assembly. Moreover, rack1 mutants displayed hypersensitivity to anisomycin, an inhibitor of protein translation, and displayed characteristics of impaired 80S functional ribosome assembly and 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis in a ribosome profiling assay. Gene expression analysis revealed that ABA inhibits the expression of both RACK1 and eIF6. Taken together, these results suggest that RACK1 may be required for normal production of 60S and 80S ribosomes and that its action in these processes may be regulated by ABA.

  7. Cell specific post-translational processing of pikachurin, a protein involved in retinal synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jianzhong; Townes-Anderson, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Pikachurin is a recently identified, highly conserved, extracellular matrix-like protein. Murine pikachurin has 1,017 amino acids (~110 kDa), can bind to α-dystroglycan, and has been found to localize mainly in the synaptic cleft of photoreceptor ribbon synapses. Its knockout selectively disrupts synaptogenesis between photoreceptor and bipolar cells. To further characterize this synaptic protein, we used an antibody raised against the N-terminal of murine pikachurin on Western blots of mammalian and amphibian retinas and found, unexpectedly, that a low weight ~60-kDa band was the predominant signal for endogenous pikachurin. This band was predicted to be an N-terminal product of post-translational cleavage of pikachurin. A similar sized protein was also detected in human Y79 retinoblastoma cells, a cell line with characteristics of photoreceptor cells. In Y79 cells, endogenous pikachurin immunofluorescence was found on the cell surface of living cells. The expression of the N-fragment was not significantly affected by dystroglycan overexpression in spite of the biochemical evidence for pikachurin-α-dystroglycan binding. The presence of a corresponding endogenous C-fragment was not determined because of the lack of a suitable antibody. However, a protein of ~65 kDa was detected in Y79 cells expressing recombinant pikachurin with a C-terminal tag. In contrast, in QBI-HEK 293A cells, whose endogenous pikachurin protein level is negligible, recombinant pikachurin did not appear to be cleaved. Instead pikachurin was found either intact or as dimers. Finally, whole and N- and C-fragments of recombinant pikachurin were present in the conditioned media of Y79 cells indicating the secretion of pikachurin. The site of cleavage, however, was not conclusively determined. Our data suggest the existence of post-translational cleavage of pikachurin protein as well as the extracellular localization of cleaved protein specifically by retinal cells. The functions of the

  8. Making myelin basic protein -from mRNA transport to localized translation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christina; Bauer, Nina M; Schäfer, Isabelle; White, Robin

    2013-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS) of most vertebrates, oligodendrocytes enwrap neuronal axons with extensions of their plasma membrane to form the myelin sheath. Several proteins are characteristically found in myelin of which myelin basic protein (MBP) is the second most abundant one after proteolipid protein. The lack of functional MBP in rodents results in a severe hypomyelinated phenotype in the CNS demonstrating its importance for myelin synthesis. Mbp mRNA is transported from the nucleus to the plasma membrane and is translated locally at the axon-glial contact site. Axonal properties such as diameter or electrical activity influence the degree of myelination. As oligodendrocytes can myelinate many axonal segments with varying properties, localized MBP translation represents an important part of a rapid and axon-tailored synthesis machinery. MBP's ability to compact cellular membranes may be problematic for the integrity of intracellular membranous organelles and can also explain why MBP is transported in oligodendrocytes in the form of an mRNA rather than as a protein. Here we review the recent findings regarding intracellular transport and signaling mechanisms leading to localized translation of Mbp mRNA in oligodendrocytes. More detailed insights into the MBP synthesis pathway are important for a better understanding of the myelination process and may foster the development of remyelination therapies for demyelinating diseases. PMID:24098271

  9. novPTMenzy: a database for enzymes involved in novel post-translational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Khater, Shradha; Mohanty, Debasisa

    2015-01-01

    With the recent discoveries of novel post-translational modifications (PTMs) which play important roles in signaling and biosynthetic pathways, identification of such PTM catalyzing enzymes by genome mining has been an area of major interest. Unlike well-known PTMs like phosphorylation, glycosylation, SUMOylation, no bioinformatics resources are available for enzymes associated with novel and unusual PTMs. Therefore, we have developed the novPTMenzy database which catalogs information on the sequence, structure, active site and genomic neighborhood of experimentally characterized enzymes involved in five novel PTMs, namely AMPylation, Eliminylation, Sulfation, Hydroxylation and Deamidation. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the sequence and structural features of these known PTM catalyzing enzymes, we have created Hidden Markov Model profiles for the identification of similar PTM catalyzing enzymatic domains in genomic sequences. We have also created predictive rules for grouping them into functional subfamilies and deciphering their mechanistic details by structure-based analysis of their active site pockets. These analytical modules have been made available as user friendly search interfaces of novPTMenzy database. It also has a specialized analysis interface for some PTMs like AMPylation and Eliminylation. The novPTMenzy database is a unique resource that can aid in discovery of unusual PTM catalyzing enzymes in newly sequenced genomes. Database URL: http://www.nii.ac.in/novptmenzy.html PMID:25931459

  10. Developing a civic intelligence: local involvement in HIA

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Eva; Williams, Gareth

    2004-02-01

    Public involvement and participation in policy development and implementation is becoming an increasingly prominent feature of social life. However, as politics and policy become ever more concerned with 'evidence,' the relationship between 'expert evidence' and political judgements and decisions becomes ever more complicated. For this reason, public participation increasingly has to mean inclusion in arguments about information, evidence and knowledge as much as it means straightforward involvement in decision making. Such involvement can involve critical questioning of a kind that can challenge and sometimes debunk experts' claims to privileged understanding. One practical arena in which knowledge-based policy and politics is being expressed is in health impact assessment (HIA). This paper describes a health impact assessment of housing options in a former mining village in South Wales in order to illustrate the contributions that local people can make to both evidence and decision making. This case study exemplifies an emerging civic intelligence that challenges a traditional demarcation between different forms of expertise and creates public spaces that provide the basis for new opportunities of democratic renewal.

  11. Translators and Translation: 1974 Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caille, Pierre-Francois

    1974-01-01

    An international survey of conditions and practices involving translators deals with the following points: (1) change in the legal status and material situation of translators since 1968; (2) translators' associations; (3) translators' training, and (4) encouraging translation of contemporary works. (CK)

  12. Nonrigid motion correction in 3D using autofocusing with localized linear translations.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Joseph Y; Alley, Marcus T; Cunningham, Charles H; Vasanawala, Shreyas S; Pauly, John M; Lustig, Michael

    2012-12-01

    MR scans are sensitive to motion effects due to the scan duration. To properly suppress artifacts from nonrigid body motion, complex models with elements such as translation, rotation, shear, and scaling have been incorporated into the reconstruction pipeline. However, these techniques are computationally intensive and difficult to implement for online reconstruction. On a sufficiently small spatial scale, the different types of motion can be well approximated as simple linear translations. This formulation allows for a practical autofocusing algorithm that locally minimizes a given motion metric--more specifically, the proposed localized gradient-entropy metric. To reduce the vast search space for an optimal solution, possible motion paths are limited to the motion measured from multichannel navigator data. The novel navigation strategy is based on the so-called "Butterfly" navigators, which are modifications of the spin-warp sequence that provides intrinsic translational motion information with negligible overhead. With a 32-channel abdominal coil, sufficient number of motion measurements were found to approximate possible linear motion paths for every image voxel. The correction scheme was applied to free-breathing abdominal patient studies. In these scans, a reduction in artifacts from complex, nonrigid motion was observed. PMID:22307933

  13. Software issues involved in code translation of C to Ada programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooi, Robert; Giarratano, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    It is often thought that translation of one programming language to another is a simple solution that can be used to extend the software life span or in rehosting software to another environment. The possible problems are examined as are the advantages and disadvantages of direct machine or human code translation versus that of redesign and rewrite of the software. The translation of the expert system language called C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) which is written in C, to Ada, will be used as a case study of the problems that are encountered.

  14. Tetracaine, a local anesthetic, preferentially induces translational inhibition with processing body formation rather than phosphorylation of eIF2α in yeast.

    PubMed

    Araki, Tomoyuki; Toh-e, Akio; Kikuchi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Chihiro K; Hachiya, Takushi; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro; Uesono, Yukifumi

    2015-02-01

    It is unclear whether local anesthetics, such as tetracaine, and antipsychotics, such as phenothiazines, act on lipids or proteins. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, these drugs inhibit growth, translation initiation, and actin polarization, and induce cell lysis at high concentrations. These activities are likely due to the cationic amphiphilic structure common to these agents. Although drug-induced translational inhibition is conserved in mammalian cells, other mechanisms, including the phosphorylation of eIF2α, a eukaryotic translational initiation factor, remain poorly understood. At a concentration of 10 mM, tetracaine rapidly inhibited translation initiation and lysed cells, whereas, at 2.5 mM, it slowly induced inhibition without lysis. The pat1 disruptant defective in mRNA decapping and the xrn1 disruptant defective in 5'-3' exoribonuclease were partially resistant to translational inhibition by tetracaine at each concentration, but the gcn2 disruptant defective in the eIF2α kinase was not. Phosphorylation of eIF2α was induced by 10 mM but not by 2.5 mM tetracaine, whereas processing bodies (P-bodies) were formed at 2.5 mM in Pat1-dependent and -independent manners. Therefore, administration of tetracaine inhibits translation initiation with P-body formation at both concentrations but acts via the Gcn2-eIF2α system only at the higher concentration. Because other local anesthetics and phenothiazines induced Pat1-dependent P-body formation, the mechanisms involved in translational inhibition by these cationic amphiphiles are similar. These results suggest that this dose-dependent biphasic translational inhibition by tetracaine results from an increase in membrane proteins that are indirectly inhibited by nonspecific interactions of cationic amphiphiles with membrane lipids. PMID:25119673

  15. Local slowdown of translation by nonoptimal codons promotes nascent-chain recognition by SRP in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pechmann, Sebastian; Chartron, Justin W; Frydman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The genetic code allows most amino acids a choice of optimal and nonoptimal codons. We report that synonymous codon choice is tuned to promote interaction of nascent polypeptides with the signal recognition particle (SRP), which assists in protein translocation across membranes. Cotranslational recognition by the SRP in vivo is enhanced when mRNAs contain nonoptimal codon clusters 35–40 codons downstream of the SRP-binding site, the distance that spans the ribosomal polypeptide exit tunnel. A local translation slowdown upon ribosomal exit of SRP-binding elements in mRNAs containing these nonoptimal codon clusters is supported experimentally by ribosome profiling analyses in yeast. Modulation of local elongation rates through codon choice appears to kinetically enhance recognition by ribosome-associated factors. We propose that cotranslational regulation of nascent-chain fate may be a general constraint shaping codon usage in the genome. PMID:25420103

  16. Local slowdown of translation by nonoptimal codons promotes nascent-chain recognition by SRP in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pechmann, Sebastian; Chartron, Justin W; Frydman, Judith

    2014-12-01

    The genetic code allows most amino acids a choice of optimal and nonoptimal codons. We report that synonymous codon choice is tuned to promote interaction of nascent polypeptides with the signal recognition particle (SRP), which assists in protein translocation across membranes. Cotranslational recognition by the SRP in vivo is enhanced when mRNAs contain nonoptimal codon clusters 35-40 codons downstream of the SRP-binding site, the distance that spans the ribosomal polypeptide exit tunnel. A local translation slowdown upon ribosomal exit of SRP-binding elements in mRNAs containing these nonoptimal codon clusters is supported experimentally by ribosome profiling analyses in yeast. Modulation of local elongation rates through codon choice appears to kinetically enhance recognition by ribosome-associated factors. We propose that cotranslational regulation of nascent-chain fate may be a general constraint shaping codon usage in the genome. PMID:25420103

  17. Dynamics of many-body localization in a translation-invariant quantum glass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Horssen, Merlijn; Levi, Emanuele; Garrahan, Juan P.

    2015-09-01

    We study the real-time dynamics of a translationally invariant quantum spin chain, based on the East kinetically constrained glass model, in search for evidence of many-body localization in the absence of disorder. Numerical simulations indicate a change, controlled by a coupling parameter, from a regime of fast relaxation-corresponding to thermalization-to a regime of very slow relaxation. This slowly relaxing regime is characterized by dynamical features usually associated with nonergodicity and many-body localization (MBL): memory of initial conditions, logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy, and nonexponential decay of time correlators. We show that slow relaxation is a consequence of sensitivity to spatial fluctuations in the initial state. While numerical results and physical considerations indicate that relaxation time scales grow markedly with size, our finite size results are consistent both with an MBL transition, expected to only occur in disordered systems, and with a pronounced quasi-MBL crossover.

  18. Measuring both Rotational and Translational Ground-Motions from Explosions and Local Earthquakes in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B.; Lee, W.; Lin, C.; Liu, C.; Shin, T.; Teng, T.; Wu, C.

    2008-12-01

    Since rotational motions can "contaminate" translational ground-motion measurements due to the induced perturbation of the Earth's gravitational field, we started a program to measure rotational ground motions near Hualien (Taiwan) in December, 2000. However, no useful data were obtained after 3 years, until a rotational sensor of much higher sensitivity was deployed at the HGSD station in eastern Taiwan in December, 2004. Rotational and translational seismograms were obtained from several hundred local earthquakes. As noted by several authors before, we found a linear relationship between peak rotational rate (PRR in mrad/s) and peak ground acceleration (PGA in m/s2) from local earthquakes in Taiwan: PRR = 0.002 + 1.301 PGA, with a correlation coefficient of 0.988. Taking advantage of two large explosions of the TAIGER Active Seismic Experiment, we deployed 13 accelerometers and 8 rotational sensors within 600 m from the N3 shot points and obtained some interesting results, which will be presented by Langston et al. in this Session. In December, 2007, we began an instrument array deployment along the Meishan fault in southwestern Taiwan, where a major earthquake occurred in 1906 with surface rupture of more than 12 km long. The deployed instruments are: (1) a 32-element seismic array in free-field, (2) a 32-element accelerometer array in a building, (3) a six-channel unit with a low-gain broadband seismometer and an accelerometer, and (4) two six-channel units with an accelerometer and an external rotational senor. We have 8 rotational sensors now deployed in Taiwan and seven new rotational sensors are scheduled for deployment soon in a program to assess the effect of ground rotation on traditional measurements of translational strong ground motions.

  19. Trusted Translation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  20. Local translation and retrograde axonal transport of CREB regulates IL-6-induced nociceptive plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of genes by cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is essential for the maintenance of long-term memory. Moreover, retrograde axonal trafficking of CREB in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical for the survival of developing primary sensory neurons. We have previously demonstrated that hindpaw injection of interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming that is prevented by the local injection of protein synthesis inhibitors. However, proteins that are locally synthesized that might lead to this effect have not been identified. We hypothesized that retrograde axonal trafficking of nascently synthesized CREB might link local, activity-dependent translation to nociceptive plasticity. To test this hypothesis, we determined if IL-6 enhances the expression of CREB and if it subsequently undergoes retrograde axonal transport. IL-6 treatment of sensory neurons in vitro caused an increase in CREB protein and in vivo treatment evoked an increase in CREB in the sciatic nerve consistent with retrograde transport. Importantly, co-injection of IL-6 with the methionine analogue azido-homoalanine (AHA), to assess nascently synthesized proteins, revealed an increase in CREB containing AHA in the sciatic nerve 2 hrs post injection, indicating retrograde transport of nascently synthesized CREB. Behaviorally, blockade of retrograde transport by disruption of microtubules or inhibition of dynein or intrathecal injection of cAMP response element (CRE) consensus sequence DNA oligonucleotides, which act as decoys for CREB DNA binding, prevented the development of IL-6-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming. Consistent with previous studies in inflammatory models, intraplantar IL-6 enhanced the expression of BDNF in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This effect was blocked by inhibition of retrograde axonal transport and by intrathecal CRE oligonucleotides. Collectively, these findings

  1. Spastin subcellular localization is regulated through usage of different translation start sites and active export from the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Claudiani, Pamela; Riano, Elena; Errico, Alessia; Andolfi, Gennaro; Rugarli, Elena I. . E-mail: rugarli@tigem.it

    2005-10-01

    Most cases of autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia are linked to mutations in SPG4 encoding spastin, a protein involved in microtubule dynamics and membrane trafficking. In pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex and in immortalized motor neurons, spastin is localized to the synaptic terminals and growth cones. However, in other neurons and in proliferating cells spastin is prevalently nuclear. The mechanisms that determine targeting of spastin to the nucleus or the cytoplasm are unknown. We show here that the SPG4 mRNA is able to direct synthesis of two spastin isoforms, 68 and 60 kDa, respectively, through usage of two different translational start sites. Both isoforms are imported into the nucleus, but the 68-kDa isoform contains two nuclear export signals that efficiently drive export to the cytoplasm. Nuclear export is leptomycin-B sensitive. The cytoplasmic 68-kDa spastin isoform is more abundant in the brain and the spinal cord than in other tissues. Our data indicate that spastin function is modulated through usage of alternative translational start sites and active nuclear import and export, and open new perspectives for the pathogenesis of hereditary spastic paraplegia.

  2. SMN regulates axonal local translation via miR-183/mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Min Jeong; Niederst, Emily D.; Wertz, Mary H.; Gonçalves, Inês do Carmo G.; Akten, Bikem; Dover, Katarzyna Z.; Peters, Miriam; Riessland, Markus; Neveu, Pierre; Wirth, Brunhilde; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Sardi, S. Pablo; Monani, Umrao R.; Passini, Marco A.; Sahin, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Reduced expression of SMN protein causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a neurodegenerative disorder leading to motor neuron dysfunction and loss. However, the molecular mechanisms by which SMN regulates neuronal dysfunction are not fully understood. Here, we report that reduced SMN protein level alters miRNA expression and distribution in neurons. In particular, miR-183 levels are increased in neurites of SMN-deficient neurons. We demonstrate that miR-183 regulates translation of mTor via direct binding to its 3′ UTR. Interestingly, local axonal translation of mTor is reduced in SMN-deficient neurons, and this can be recovered by miR-183 inhibition. Finally, inhibition of miR-183 expression in the spinal cord of an SMA mouse model prolongs survival and improves motor function of Smn-mutant mice. Together, these observations suggest that axonal miRNAs and the mTOR pathway are previously unidentified molecular mechanisms contributing to SMA pathology. PMID:25055867

  3. The Rice Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3 Subunit f (OseIF3f) Is Involved in Microgametogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Deng, Zhuyun; Gong, Chunyan; Wang, Tai

    2016-01-01

    Microgametogenesis is the post-meiotic pollen developmental phase when unicellular microspores develop into mature tricellular pollen. In rice, microgametogenesis can influence grain yields to a great degree because pollen abortion occurs more easily during microgametogenesis than during other stages of pollen development. However, our knowledge of the genes involved in microgametogenesis in rice remains limited. Due to the dependence of pollen development on the regulatory mechanisms of protein expression, we identified the encoding gene of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit f in Oryza sativa (OseIF3f). Immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry confirmed that OseIF3f was a subunit of rice eIF3, which consisted of at least 12 subunits including eIF3a, eIF3b, eIF3c, eIF3d, eIF3e, eIF3f, eIF3g, eIF3h, eIF3i, eIF3k, eIF3l, and eIF3m. OseIF3f showed high mRNA levels in immature florets and is highly abundant in developing anthers. Subcellular localization analysis showed that OseIF3f was localized to the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum in rice root cells. We further analyzed the biological function of OseIF3f using the double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) approach. The OseIF3f-RNAi lines grew normally at the vegetative stage but displayed a large reduction in seed production and pollen viability, which is associated with the down-regulation of OseIF3f. Further cytological observations of pollen development revealed that the OseIF3f-RNAi lines showed no obvious abnormalities at the male meiotic stage and the unicellular microspore stage. However, compared to the wild-type, OseIF3f-RNAi lines contained a higher percentage of arrested unicellular pollen at the bicellular stage and a higher percentage of arrested unicellular and bicellular pollen, and aborted pollen at the tricellular stage. These results indicate that OseIF3f plays a role in microgametogenesis. PMID:27200010

  4. Pathogenesis mediated by proviral host factors involved in translation and replication of plant positive-strand RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kiwamu; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2016-04-01

    Viral pathogenesis comes from complex interactions between viruses and hosts. All the processes of viral infection, including translation of viral factors and replication of viral genomes, define viral pathogenesis; therefore, molecular insights into the mechanisms underlying viral replication strategies unambiguously pave the way for our comprehensive understanding of viral pathogenesis and disease outcome, as well as for developing new antiviral strategies against plant virus disease. Recent studies of plant positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses have advanced our understanding of co-opted host factors and their roles in viral translation and replication. It is becoming clear that plant (+)RNA viruses harness host factors involved in membrane trafficking and lipid metabolism to establish the viral replication complex (VRC). In this review, we aim to discuss the contribution of co-opted host factors in translation and genome replication of plant (+)RNA viruses mainly focusing on those involved in the biogenesis of the VRC, which may act as a central hub in almost all the processes of viral infection as well as viral pathogenesis. PMID:26651023

  5. 5 S Rrna Is Involved in Fidelity of Translational Reading Frame

    PubMed Central

    Dinman, J. D.; Wickner, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal mutants (maintenance of frame = mof) in which the efficiency of -1 ribosomal frame-shifting is increased can be isolated using constructs in which lacZ expression is dependent upon a -1 shift of reading frame. We isolate a new mof mutation, mof9, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and show that it is complemented by both single and multi-copy 5 S rDNA clones. Two independent insertion mutations in the rDNA locus (rDNA::LEU2 and rDNA::URA3) also display the Mof(-) phenotype and are also complemented by single and multi-copy 5 S rDNA clones. Mutant 5 S rRNAs expressed from a plasmid as 20-50% of total 5 S rRNA in a wild-type host also induced the Mof(-) phenotype. The increase in frameshifting is greatest when the lacZ reporter gene is expressed on a high copy, episomal vector. No differences were found in 5 S rRNA copy number or electrophoretic mobilities in mof9 strains. Both mof9 and rDNA::LEU2 increase the efficiency of +1 frameshifting as well but have no effect on readthrough of UAG or UAA termination codons, indicating that not all translational specificity is affected. These data suggest a role for 5 S rRNA in the maintenance of frame in translation. PMID:8536994

  6. Phycobiliprotein biosynthesis in cyanobacteria: structure and function of enzymes involved in post-translational modification.

    PubMed

    Schluchter, Wendy M; Shen, Gaozhong; Alvey, Richard M; Biswas, Avijit; Saunée, Nicolle A; Williams, Shervonda R; Mille, Crystal A; Bryant, Donald A

    2010-01-01

    Cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins are brilliantly colored due to the presence of covalently attached chromophores called bilins, linear tetrapyrroles derived from heme. For most phycobiliproteins, these post-translational modifications are catalyzed by enzymes called bilin lyases; these enzymes ensure that the appropriate bilins are attached to the correct cysteine residues with the proper stereochemistry on each phycobiliprotein subunit. Phycobiliproteins also contain a unique, post-translational modification, the methylation of a conserved asparagine (Asn) present at beta-72, which occurs on the beta-subunits of all phycobiliproteins. We have identified and characterized several new families of bilin lyases, which are responsible for attaching PCB to phycobiliproteins as well as the Asn methyl transferase for beta-subunits in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. All of the enzymes responsible for synthesis of holo-phycobiliproteins are now known for this cyanobacterium, and a brief discussion of each enzyme family and its role in the biosynthesis of phycobiliproteins is presented here. In addition, the first structure of a bilin lyase has recently been solved (PDB ID: 3BDR). This structure shows that the bilin lyases are most similar to the lipocalin protein structural family, which also includes the bilin-binding protein found in some butterflies. PMID:20532743

  7. Mini-review: Making scent of the presence and local translation of odorant receptor mRNAs in olfactory axons

    PubMed Central

    Dubacq, Caroline; Fouquet, Coralie; Trembleau, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Rodents contain in their genome more than 1,000 functional odorant receptor genes, which are specifically expressed by the olfactory sensory neurons projecting from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb. Strong evidence for the presence and local translation of odorant receptor mRNAs in the axon of olfactory sensory neurons was obtained, but no function has been assigned to these axonal mRNAs yet. The aim of this review is to discuss the evidence for the presence and local translation of odorant receptor mRNAs in olfactory sensory axons, and to speculate on their possible function in the wiring of the mouse olfactory sensory projections. PMID:23959692

  8. Local translational diffusion rates of membranous Na+,K(+)-ATPase measured by saturation transfer ESR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Esmann, M; Marsh, D

    1992-01-01

    Diffusion-controlled Heisenberg spin exchange between spin-labeled Na+,K(+)-ATPase [ATP phosphohydrolase (Na+/K(+)-transporting), EC 3.6.1.37] proteins has been studied by saturation transfer ESR spectroscopy in reconstituted membranes. Na+,K(+)-ATPase from the salt gland of Squalus acanthias was solubilized in a polyoxyethylene ether detergent, octa(ethylene glycol) dodecyl monoether. Part of the solubilized enzyme was covalently spin-labeled with a nitroxide derivative of indanedione and recombined with various proportions of the unlabeled enzyme while the native lipid/protein ratio was maintained. Purified membranes were then reconstituted from the various samples by precipitation with divalent ions. The reciprocal integrated intensities of the saturation transfer ESR spectra were found to increase linearly with the fraction of protein that was spin-labeled, and the gradient of the concentration dependence increased with increasing temperature over the range 4 degrees-25 degrees C. Comparison with theoretical analyses of the effects of weak Heisenberg spin exchange [Marsh, D. & Horváth, L. I. (1992) J. Magn. Reson. 97, 13-26] suggests that the effects on the saturation transfer ESR intensity are attributable to short-range diffusional collisions between the spin-labeled protein molecules. The effective value of the local translational diffusion coefficient is 1.8-2.9 microns2.s-1 at 15 degrees C, depending on the diffusion model used, which is much larger than the values obtained for the long-range diffusion coefficient in cells by photobleaching techniques. The temperature dependence of the translational diffusion is larger than expected but correlates with the anomalous temperature dependence of the rotational diffusion observed in the same system. PMID:1323847

  9. Translating for Linguistic Minorities in Northern Ireland: A Look at Translation Policy in the Judiciary, Healthcare, and Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Europe as a multilingual continent hosts three main types of languages: dominant languages, autochthonous minority languages, and new minority languages. From a policy standpoint, planning for speakers of these languages and their needs become a complex matter in which many actors with different interests are involved. Of the many issues which…

  10. Central Localization of Plasticity Involved in Appetitive Conditioning in "Lymnaea"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straub, Volko A.; Styles, Benjamin J.; Ireland, Julie S.; O'Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    Learning to associate a conditioned (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) results in changes in the processing of CS information. Here, we address directly the question whether chemical appetitive conditioning of "Lymnaea" feeding behavior involves changes in the peripheral and/or central processing of the CS by using extracellular recording…

  11. LOCAL TRANSLATION. Comment on "Principles of ER cotranslational translocation revealed by proximity-specific ribosome profiling".

    PubMed

    Reid, David W; Nicchitta, Christopher V

    2015-06-12

    Jan et al. (Research Articles, 7 November 2014, p. 716) propose that ribosomes translating secretome messenger RNAs (mRNAs) traffic from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) upon emergence of the signal peptide and return to the cytosol after termination. An accounting of controls demonstrates that mRNAs initiate translation on ER-bound ribosomes and that ribosomes are retained on the ER through many cycles of translation. PMID:26068841

  12. Involvement of Local Lamellipodia in Endothelial Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Breslin, Jerome W.; Zhang, Xun E.; Worthylake, Rebecca A.; Souza-Smith, Flavia M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently we observed that endothelial cells cultured in tightly confluent monolayers display frequent local lamellipodia, and that thrombin, an agent that increases endothelial permeability, reduces lamellipodia protrusions. This led us to test the hypothesis that local lamellipodia contribute to endothelial barrier function. Movements of subcellular structures containing GFP-actin or VE-cadherin-GFP expressed in endothelial cells were recorded using time-lapse microscopy. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) served as an index of endothelial barrier function. Changes in both lamellipodia dynamics and TER were assessed during baseline and after cells were treated with either the barrier-disrupting agent thrombin, or the barrier-stabilizing agent sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). The myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin was used to selectively block lamellipodia formation, and was used to test their role in the barrier function of endothelial cell monolayers and isolated, perfused rat mesenteric venules. Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation was assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Rac1 and RhoA activation were evaluated using G-LISA assays. The role of Rac1 was tested with the specific inhibitor NSC23766 or by expressing wild-type or dominant negative GFP-Rac1. The results show that thrombin rapidly decreased both TER and the lamellipodia protrusion frequency. S1P rapidly increased TER in association with increased protrusion frequency. Blebbistatin nearly abolished local lamellipodia protrusions while cortical actin fibers and stress fibers remained intact. Blebbistatin also significantly decreased TER of cultured endothelial cells and increased permeability of isolated rat mesenteric venules. Both thrombin and S1P increased MLC phosphorylation and activation of RhoA. However, thrombin and S1P had differential impacts on Rac1, correlating with the changes in TER and lamellipodia protrusion frequency. Overexpression of Rac1 elevated, while NSC23766 and

  13. Involvement of local lamellipodia in endothelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Jerome W; Zhang, Xun E; Worthylake, Rebecca A; Souza-Smith, Flavia M

    2015-01-01

    Recently we observed that endothelial cells cultured in tightly confluent monolayers display frequent local lamellipodia, and that thrombin, an agent that increases endothelial permeability, reduces lamellipodia protrusions. This led us to test the hypothesis that local lamellipodia contribute to endothelial barrier function. Movements of subcellular structures containing GFP-actin or VE-cadherin-GFP expressed in endothelial cells were recorded using time-lapse microscopy. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) served as an index of endothelial barrier function. Changes in both lamellipodia dynamics and TER were assessed during baseline and after cells were treated with either the barrier-disrupting agent thrombin, or the barrier-stabilizing agent sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). The myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin was used to selectively block lamellipodia formation, and was used to test their role in the barrier function of endothelial cell monolayers and isolated, perfused rat mesenteric venules. Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation was assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Rac1 and RhoA activation were evaluated using G-LISA assays. The role of Rac1 was tested with the specific inhibitor NSC23766 or by expressing wild-type or dominant negative GFP-Rac1. The results show that thrombin rapidly decreased both TER and the lamellipodia protrusion frequency. S1P rapidly increased TER in association with increased protrusion frequency. Blebbistatin nearly abolished local lamellipodia protrusions while cortical actin fibers and stress fibers remained intact. Blebbistatin also significantly decreased TER of cultured endothelial cells and increased permeability of isolated rat mesenteric venules. Both thrombin and S1P increased MLC phosphorylation and activation of RhoA. However, thrombin and S1P had differential impacts on Rac1, correlating with the changes in TER and lamellipodia protrusion frequency. Overexpression of Rac1 elevated, while NSC23766 and

  14. Flutter of wings involving a locally distributed flexible control surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari-Jovin, S.; Firouz-Abadi, R. D.; Roshanian, J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper undertakes to facilitate appraisal of aeroelastic interaction of a locally distributed, flap-type control surface with aircraft wings operating in a subsonic potential flow field. The extended Hamilton's principle serves as a framework to ascertain the Euler-Lagrange equations for coupled bending-torsional-flap vibration. An analytical solution to this boundary-value problem is then accomplished by assumed modes and the extended Galerkin's method. The developed aeroelastic model considers both the inherent flexibility of the control surface displaced on the wing and the inertial coupling between these two flexible bodies. The structural deformations also obey the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, along with the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic constitutive law. Meanwhile, the unsteady thin-airfoil and strip theories are the tools of producing the three-dimensional airloads. The origin of aerodynamic instability undergoes analysis in light of the oscillatory loads as well as the loads owing to arbitrary motions. After successful verification of the model, a systematic flutter survey was conducted on the theoretical effects of various control surface parameters. The results obtained demonstrate that the flapping modes and parameters of the control surface can significantly impact the flutter characteristics of the wings, which leads to a series of pertinent conclusions.

  15. Protein-protein interactions involving voltage-gated sodium channels: Post-translational regulation, intracellular trafficking and functional expression.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dongmin; Okuse, Kenji; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2009-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), classically known to play a central role in excitability and signalling in nerves and muscles, have also been found to be expressed in a range of 'non-excitable' cells, including lymphocytes, fibroblasts and endothelia. VGSC abnormalities are associated with various diseases including epilepsy, long-QT syndrome 3, Brugada syndrome, sudden infant death syndrome and, more recently, various human cancers. Given their pivotal role in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, regulation of functional VGSC expression has been the subject of intense study. An emerging theme is post-translational regulation and macro-molecular complexing by protein-protein interactions and intracellular trafficking, leading to changes in functional VGSC expression in plasma membrane. This partially involves endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation and ubiquitin-proteasome system. Several proteins have been shown to associate with VGSCs. Here, we review the interactions involving VGSCs and the following proteins: p11, ankyrin, syntrophin, beta-subunit of VGSC, papin, ERM and Nedd4 proteins. Protein kinases A and C, as well as Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent kinase II that have also been shown to regulate intracellular trafficking of VGSCs by changing the balance of externalization vs. internalization, and an effort is made to separate these effects from the short-term phosphorylation of mature proteins in plasma membrane. Two further modulatory mechanisms are reciprocal interactions with the cytoskeleton and, late-stage, activity-dependent regulation. Thus, the review gives an updated account of the range of post-translational molecular mechanisms regulating functional VGSC expression. However, many details of VGSC subtype-specific regulation and pathophysiological aspects remain unknown and these are highlighted throughout for completeness. PMID:19401147

  16. Student Involvement in Wellness Policies: A Study of Pennsylvania Local Education Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jomaa, Lamis H.; McDonnell, Elaine; Weirich, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl; Jensen, Leif; Probart, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Explore student-involvement goals in local wellness policies (LWPs) of local education agencies (LEAs) in Pennsylvania (PA) and investigate associations with LEA characteristics. Design: An observational study that helped examine student-involvement goals. Setting: Public PA LEAs. Participants: LWPs submitted by 539 PA public LEAs. Main…

  17. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN FRANCE AND JAPAN ON LOCAL GOVERNMENTS' INVOLVEMENT IN NUCLEAR SAFETY GOVERNANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Shin-Etsu; Shiroyama, Hideaki

    This paper shows a comparative analysis between France and Japan on the way of the local governments' involvement in nuclear safety governance through some interviews. In France, a law came into force that requires related local governments to establish "Commision Locale d'Information" (CLI), which means the local governments officially involve in nuclear regulatory activity. Meanwhile, in Japan, related local governments substantially involve in the operation of nuclear facilities through the "safety agreements" in spite of the lack of legal authority. As a result of comparative analysis, we can point out some institutional input from French cases as follows: to clarify the local governments' roles in the nuclear regulation system, to establish the official channels of communication among nuclear utilities, national regulatory authorities and local governments, and to stipulate explicitly the transparency as a purpose of safety regulation.

  18. Decentering Translation in the Classroom: An Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, Adriana

    1994-01-01

    Argues that students in classrooms operate in an artificial situation when the teacher is the target audience. Describes a teaching experiment in which students assessed and avidly discussed the success of translations involving cultural features adapted to local audiences. (SR)

  19. 36 CFR 219.14 - Involvement of State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... local governments. 219.14 Section 219.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.14 Involvement of State and local governments. The responsible...

  20. A Temporal Locality-Aware Page-Mapped Flash Translation Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngjae; Gupta, Aayush; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan

    2013-01-01

    The poor performance of random writes has been a cause of major concern which needs to be addressed to better utilize the potential of flash in enterprise-scale environments. We examine one of the important causes of this poor performance: the design of the flash translation layer (FTL) which performs the virtual-to-physical address translations and hides the erase-before-write characteristics of flash. We propose a complete paradigm shift in the design of the core FTL engine from the existing techniques with our Demand-Based Flash Translation Layer (DFTL) which selectively caches page- level address mappings. Our experimental evaluation using FlashSim with realistic enterprise-scale workloads endorses the utility of DFTL in enterprise-scale storage systems by demonstrating: 1) improved performance, 2) reduced garbage collection overhead and 3) better overload behavior compared with hybrid FTL schemes which are the most popular implementation methods. For example, a predominantly random-write dominant I/O trace from an OLTP application running at a large financial institution shows a 78% improvement in average response time (due to a 3-fold reduction in operations of the garbage collector), compared with the hybrid FTL scheme. Even for the well-known read-dominant TPC-H benchmark, for which DFTL introduces additional overheads, we improve system response time by 56%. Moreover, interestingly, when write-back cache on DFTL-based SSD is enabled, DFTL even outperforms the page-based FTL scheme, improving their response time by 72% in Financial trace.

  1. OCT-based approach to local relaxations discrimination from translational relaxation motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Lev A.; Matveyev, Alexandr L.; Gubarkova, Ekaterina V.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Sirotkina, Marina A.; Kiseleva, Elena B.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Vitkin, Alex; Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.

    2016-04-01

    Multimodal optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging tool for tissue state characterization. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an approach to mapping mechanical properties of tissue based on OCT. One of challenging problems in OCE is elimination of the influence of residual local tissue relaxation that complicates obtaining information on elastic properties of the tissue. Alternatively, parameters of local relaxation itself can be used as an additional informative characteristic for distinguishing the tissue in normal and pathological states over the OCT image area. Here we briefly present an OCT-based approach to evaluation of local relaxation processes in the tissue bulk after sudden unloading of its initial pre-compression. For extracting the local relaxation rate we evaluate temporal dependence of local strains that are mapped using our recently developed hybrid phase resolved/displacement-tracking (HPRDT) approach. This approach allows one to subtract the contribution of global displacements of scatterers in OCT scans and separate the temporal evolution of local strains. Using a sample excised from of a coronary arteria, we demonstrate that the observed relaxation of local strains can be reasonably fitted by an exponential law, which opens the possibility to characterize the tissue by a single relaxation time. The estimated local relaxation times are assumed to be related to local biologically-relevant processes inside the tissue, such as diffusion, leaking/draining of the fluids, local folding/unfolding of the fibers, etc. In general, studies of evolution of such features can provide new metrics for biologically-relevant changes in tissue, e.g., in the problems of treatment monitoring.

  2. TDP-43 binds and transports G-quadruplex-containing mRNAs into neurites for local translation.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Akira; Kimura, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Yuto; Watanabe, Sumiko; Ishihama, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Growth and differentiation of the neurites depends on long-distance transport of a specific set of mRNAs to restricted area and their local translation. Here, we found that a TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa in size (TDP-43) plays an essential role in intracellular transport of mRNA. For identification of target RNAs recognized by TDP-43, we purified TDP-43 in soluble dimer form and subjected to in vitro systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) screening. All the TDP-43-bound RNAs were found to contain G-quadruplex (G4). Using a double-fluorescent probe system, G4-containing RNAs were found to be transported, together with TDP-43, into the distal neurites. Two lines of evidence indicated that loss of function of TDP-43 results in the neurodegenerative disorder: (i) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked mutant TDP-43M337V lacks the activity of binding and transport of G4-containing mRNAs; and (ii) RNA containing G4-forming GGGGCC repeat expansion from the ALS-linked C9orf72 gene absorbs TDP-43, thereby reducing the intracellular pool of functional TDP-43. Taken together, we propose that TDP-43 within neurons plays an essential role of mRNA transport into distal neurites for local translation, and thus, dysfunctions of TDP-43 cause neural diseases such as ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. PMID:26915990

  3. Identification of novel non-canonical RNA-binding sites in Gemin5 involved in internal initiation of translation

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Piñeiro, David; Gordon, James M. B.; Ramajo, Jorge; Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Macias, Maria J.; Martinez-Salas, Encarnación

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA)-binding proteins are key players of gene expression control. We have shown that Gemin5 interacts with internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements and modulates initiation of translation. However, little is known about the RNA-binding sites of this protein. Here we show that the C-terminal region of Gemin5 bears two non-canonical bipartite RNA-binding sites, encompassing amino acids 1297–1412 (RBS1) and 1383–1508 (RBS2). While RBS1 exhibits greater affinity for RNA than RBS2, it does not affect IRES-dependent translation in G5-depleted cells. In solution, the RBS1 three-dimensional structure behaves as an ensemble of flexible conformations rather than having a defined tertiary structure. However, expression of the polypeptide G51383–1508, bearing the low RNA-binding affinity RBS2, repressed IRES-dependent translation. A comparison of the RNA-binding capacity and translation control properties of constructs expressed in mammalian cells to that of the Gemin5 proteolysis products observed in infected cells reveals that non-repressive products accumulated during infection while the repressor polypeptide is not stable. Taken together, our results define the low affinity RNA-binding site as the minimal element of the protein being able to repress internal initiation of translation. PMID:24598255

  4. Translation of waves along quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature two-dimensional local induction approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2015-09-01

    In a recent paper, we give a study of the purely rotational motion of general stationary states in the two-dimensional local induction approximation (2D-LIA) governing superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit [B. Svistunov, "Superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit," Phys. Rev. B 52, 3647 (1995)]. Such results demonstrated that variety of stationary configurations are possible from vortex filaments exhibiting purely rotational motion in addition to commonly discussed configurations such as helical or planar states. However, the filaments (or, more properly, waves along these filaments) can also exhibit translational motion along the axis of orientation. In contrast to the study on vortex configurations for purely rotational stationary states, the present paper considers non-stationary states which exhibit a combination of rotation and translational motions. These solutions can essentially be described as waves or disturbances which ride along straight vortex filament lines. As expected from our previous work, there are a number of types of structures that can be obtained under the 2D-LIA. We focus on non-stationary states, as stationary states exhibiting translation will essentially take the form of solutions studied in [R. A. Van Gorder, "General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation," Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)], with the difference being translation along the reference axis, so that qualitative appearance of the solution geometry will be the same (even if there are quantitative differences). We discuss a wide variety of general properties of these non-stationary solutions and derive cases in which they reduce to known stationary states. We obtain various routes to Kelvin waves along vortex filaments and demonstrate that if the phase and amplitude of a disturbance both propagate with the same wave speed, then Kelvin waves will result. We also consider the self

  5. Translation of waves along quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature two-dimensional local induction approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2015-09-15

    In a recent paper, we give a study of the purely rotational motion of general stationary states in the two-dimensional local induction approximation (2D-LIA) governing superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit [B. Svistunov, “Superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3647 (1995)]. Such results demonstrated that variety of stationary configurations are possible from vortex filaments exhibiting purely rotational motion in addition to commonly discussed configurations such as helical or planar states. However, the filaments (or, more properly, waves along these filaments) can also exhibit translational motion along the axis of orientation. In contrast to the study on vortex configurations for purely rotational stationary states, the present paper considers non-stationary states which exhibit a combination of rotation and translational motions. These solutions can essentially be described as waves or disturbances which ride along straight vortex filament lines. As expected from our previous work, there are a number of types of structures that can be obtained under the 2D-LIA. We focus on non-stationary states, as stationary states exhibiting translation will essentially take the form of solutions studied in [R. A. Van Gorder, “General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation,” Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)], with the difference being translation along the reference axis, so that qualitative appearance of the solution geometry will be the same (even if there are quantitative differences). We discuss a wide variety of general properties of these non-stationary solutions and derive cases in which they reduce to known stationary states. We obtain various routes to Kelvin waves along vortex filaments and demonstrate that if the phase and amplitude of a disturbance both propagate with the same wave speed, then Kelvin waves will result. We also consider the self

  6. Translating Globalization and Democratization into Local Policy: Educational Reform in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-11-01

    The past two decades have witnessed three important international trends: an increase in the number of democratic states; economic globalization; and educational reforms in light of the challenges of the new millennium. A great deal of research has addressed educational change in relation to either globalization or democratization, but little has been said about the complex interactions among all three processes. In view of recent educational reforms in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the present contribution examines the local nature of education policy in a globalized age. It challenges those globalization theories which minimize the role of the state and exaggerate the power of globalization over local factors. In particular, it explores how the governments of these two Chinese societies have employed democratization to generate and legitimate reform proposals and have used economic globalization to justify educational reforms. The study concludes by discussing the complex interrelations of these processes, including tensions between global and local concerns in educational reform.

  7. Translation of poliovirus RNA: role of an essential cis-acting oligopyrimidine element within the 5' nontranslated region and involvement of a cellular 57-kilodalton protein.

    PubMed Central

    Pestova, T V; Hellen, C U; Wimmer, E

    1991-01-01

    Translation of poliovirus RNA is initiated by cap-independent internal entry of ribosomes into the 5' nontranslated region. This process is dependent on elements within the 5' nontranslated region (the internal ribosomal entry site) and may involve novel translation factors. Systematic mutation of a conserved oligopyrimidine tract has revealed a cis-acting element that is essential for translation in vitro. The function of this element is related to its position relative to other cis-acting domains. This element is part of a more complex structure that interacts with several cellular factors, but changes in protein binding after mutation of this element were not detected in a UV cross-linking assay. A 57-kDa protein from the ribosomal salt wash fraction of HeLa cells was identified that binds upstream of the oligopyrimidine tract. Translation of poliovirus mRNA in vitro was strongly and specifically inhibited by competition with the p57-binding domain (nucleotides 260 to 488) of the 5' nontranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus, indicating a probable role for p57 in poliovirus translation. p57 is likely to be identical to the ribosome-associated factor that binds to and is necessary for the function of the internal ribosomal entry site of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA. Images PMID:1656091

  8. The role of agency goals and local context in Great Lakes water resources public involvement programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landre, Betsy Kiernan; Knuth, Barbara A.

    1993-03-01

    As complex social phenomena, public involvement processes are influenced by contextual factors. This study examined agency goals for public involvement and assessed the importance of local context in remedial action planning, a community-based water resources program aimed at the cleanup of the 42 most polluted locations in the Great Lakes Basin. Agency goals for public involvement in remedial action plans (RAPs) were agency-oriented and focused on public acceptance of the plan, support for implementation, and positive agency-public relations. Corresponding to these goals, citizen advisory committees were created in 75% of the RAP sites as a primary means for public input into the planning process. Factors that influenced the implementation of public involvement programs in remedial action planning included public orientation toward the remediation issue, local economic conditions, the interaction of diverse interests in the process, agency and process credibility, experience of local leadership, and jurisdictional complexity. A formative assessment of “community readiness” appeared critical to appropriate public involvement program design. Careful program design may also include citizen education and training components, thoughtful management of ongoing agency-public relations and conflict among disparate interests in the process, overcoming logistical difficulties that threaten program continuity, using local expertise and communication channels, and circumventing interjurisdictional complexities.

  9. Global Frameworks, Local Contingencies: Policy Translations and Education Development in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukhopadhyay, Rahul; Sriprakash, Arathi

    2011-01-01

    Policies and programmes pursuing the universalisation of elementary education (UEE) in developing nations have been influenced by a set of complex forces in international, state, and local arenas. This paper explores how a large-scale standardised assessment programme shaped by international and market-oriented discourses has been differently…

  10. 36 CFR 219.14 - Involvement of State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Involvement of State and local governments. 219.14 Section 219.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning...

  11. Commercial Complexity and Local and Global Involvement in Programs: Effects on Viewer Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberman, Heiko; Thorson, Esther

    A study investigated the effects of local (momentary) and global (whole program) involvement in program context and the effects of message complexity on the retention of television commercials. Sixteen commercials, categorized as simple video/simple audio through complex video/complex audio were edited into two globally high- and two globally…

  12. Adolescent Peer Relations and Socioemotional Development in Latin America: Translating International Theory into Local Research.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from these considerations to review research on adolescents' peer relations in Latin America from a socioemotional perspective. First, approaches to adolescence are discussed, with a main focus on attachment and identity theories, based on a bioecological framework. Then, a review of research in Latin America on friendships, school climate, and intergroup relations is presented. The discussion addresses the tension between theories and evidence generated in developed societies and highlights the particularities of Latin American youth, stressing the need for collecting local data. PMID:27254826

  13. Response of rotation-translation blocked proteins using Langevin dynamics on a locally harmonic landscape.

    PubMed

    Manson, Anthony C; Coalson, Rob D

    2012-10-11

    Langevin dynamics is used to compute the time evolution of the nonequilibrium motion of the atomic coordinates of a protein in response to ligand dissociation. The protein potential energy surface (PES) is approximated by a harmonic basin about the minimum of the unliganded state. Upon ligand dissociation, the protein undergoes relaxation from the bound to the unbound state. A coarse graining scheme based on rotation translation blocks (RTB) is applied to the relaxation of the two domain iron transport protein, ferric binding protein. This scheme provides a natural and efficient way to freeze out the small amplitude, high frequency motions within each rigid fragment, thereby allowing for the number of dynamical degrees of freedom to be reduced. The results obtained from all flexible atom (constraint free) dynamics are compared to those obtained using RTB-Langevin dynamics. To assess the impact of the assumed rigid fragment clustering on the temporal relaxation dynamics of the protein molecule, three distinct rigid block decompositions were generated and their responses compared. Each of the decompositions was a variant of the one-block-per-residue grouping, with their force and friction matrices being derived from their fully flexible counterpart. Monitoring the time evolution of the distance separating a selected pair of amino acids, the response curves of the blocked decompositions were similar in shape to each other and to the control system in which all atomic degrees of freedom are fully independent. The similar shape of the blocked responses showed that the variations in grouping had only a minor impact on the kinematics. Compared with the all atom responses, however, the blocked responses were faster as a result of the instantaneous transmission of force throughout each rigid block. This occurred because rigid blocking does not permit any intrablock deformation that could store or divert energy. It was found, however, that this accelerated response could be

  14. Local therapies for inflammatory eye disease in translation: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite their side-effects and the advent of systemic immunosuppressives and biologics, the use of corticosteroids remains in the management of patients with uveitis, particularly when inflammation is associated with systemic disease or when bilateral ocular disease is present. The use of topical corticosteroids as local therapy for anterior uveitis is well-established, but periocular injections of corticosteroid can also be used to control mild or moderate intraocular inflammation. More recently, intraocular corticosteroids such as triamcinolone and steroid-loaded vitreal inserts and implants have been found to be effective, including in refractory cases. Additional benefits are noted when ocular inflammation is unilateral or asymmetric, when local therapy may preclude the need to increase the systemic medication. Implants in particular have gained prominence with evidence of efficacy including both dexamethasone and fluocinolone loaded devices. However, an appealing avenue of research lies in the development of non-corticosteroid drugs in order to avoid the side-effects that limit the appeal of injected corticosteroids. Several existing drugs are being assessed, including anti-VEGF compounds such as ranibizumab and bevacizumab, anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha antibodies such as infliximab, as well as older cytotoxic medications such as methotrexate and cyclosporine, with varying degrees of success. Intravitreal sirolimus is currently undergoing phase 3 trials in uveitis and other inflammatory pathways have also been proposed as suitable therapeutic targets. Furthermore, the advent of biotechnology is seeing advances in generation of new therapeutic molecules such as high affinity binding peptides or modified high affinity or bivalent single chain Fab fragments, offering higher specificity and possibility of topical delivery. PMID:23914773

  15. Association of Maternal mRNA and Phosphorylated EIF4EBP1 Variants With the Spindle in Mouse Oocytes: Localized Translational Control Supporting Female Meiosis in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Romasko, Edward J.; Amarnath, Dasari; Midic, Uros; Latham, Keith E.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to other species, localized maternal mRNAs are not believed to be prominent features of mammalian oocytes. We find by cDNA microarray analysis enrichment for maternal mRNAs encoding spindle and other proteins on the mouse oocyte metaphase II (MII) spindle. We also find that the key translational regulator, EIF4EBP1, undergoes a dynamic and complex spatially regulated pattern of phosphorylation at sites that regulate its association with EIF4E and its ability to repress translation. These phosphorylation variants appear at different positions along the spindle at different stages of meiosis. These results indicate that dynamic spatially restricted patterns of EIF4EBP1 phosphorylation may promote localized mRNA translation to support spindle formation, maintenance, function, and other nearby processes. Regulated EIF4EBP1 phosphorylation at the spindle may help coordinate spindle formation with progression through the cell cycle. The discovery that EIF4EBP1 may be part of an overall mechanism that integrates and couples cell cycle progression to mRNA translation and subsequent spindle formation and function may be relevant to understanding mechanisms leading to diminished oocyte quality, and potential means of avoiding such defects. The localization of maternal mRNAs at the spindle is evolutionarily conserved between mammals and other vertebrates and is also seen in mitotic cells, indicating that EIF4EBP1 control of localized mRNA translation is likely key to correct segregation of genetic material across cell types. PMID:23852387

  16. Lost in Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  17. Subcellular Localization of Enzymes Involved in Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus1

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Vincenzo; Cutler, Adrian J.

    1987-01-01

    The subcellular localization of enzymes involved in indole alkaloid biosynthesis in leaves of Catharanthus roseus has been investigated. Tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase which together produce strictosidine, the first indole alkaloid of this pathway, are both cytoplasmic enzymes. S-Adenosyl-l-methionine: 16-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxytabersonine-N-methyltransferase which catalyses the third to last step in vindoline biosynthesis could be localized in the chloroplasts of Catharanthus leaves and is specifically associated with thylakoids. Acetyl-coenzyme-A-deacetylvindoline-O-acetyltransferase which catalyses the last step in vindoline biosynthesis could also be localized in the cytoplasm. The participation of the chloroplast in this pathway suggests that indole alkaloid intermediates enter and exit this compartment during the biosynthesis of vindoline. PMID:16665811

  18. Localized Translation of gurken/TGF-α mRNA during Axis Specification Is Controlled by Access to Orb/CPEB on Processing Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Alexander; Parton, Richard M.; Rabouille, Catherine; Weil, Timothy T.; Davis, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    Summary In Drosophila oocytes, gurken/TGF-α mRNA is essential for establishing the future embryonic axes. gurken remains translationally silent during transport from its point of synthesis in nurse cells to its final destination in the oocyte, where it associates with the edge of processing bodies. Here we show that, in nurse cells, gurken is kept translationally silent by the lack of sufficient Orb/CPEB, its translational activator. Processing bodies in nurse cells have a similar protein complement and ultrastructure to those in the oocyte, but they markedly less Orb and do not associate with gurken mRNA. Ectopic expression of Orb in nurse cells at levels similar to the wild-type oocyte dorso-anterior corner at mid-oogenesis is sufficient to cause gurken mRNA to associate with processing bodies and translate prematurely. We propose that controlling the spatial distribution of translational activators is a fundamental mechanism for regulating localized translation. PMID:26947065

  19. Cell Type–Specific Localization of Transcripts Encoding Nine Consecutive Enzymes Involved in Protoberberine Alkaloid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Samanani, Nailish; Park, Sang-Un; Facchini, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular clones encoding nine consecutive biosynthetic enzymes that catalyze the conversion of l-dopa to the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-canadine were isolated from meadow rue (Thalictrum flavum ssp glaucum). The predicted proteins showed extensive sequence identity with corresponding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of related benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in other species, such as opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). RNA gel blot hybridization analysis showed that gene transcripts for each enzyme were most abundant in rhizomes but were also detected at lower levels in roots and other organs. In situ RNA hybridization analysis revealed the cell type–specific expression of protoberberine alkaloid biosynthetic genes in roots and rhizomes. In roots, gene transcripts for all nine enzymes were localized to immature endodermis, pericycle, and, in some cases, adjacent cortical cells. In rhizomes, gene transcripts encoding all nine enzymes were restricted to the protoderm of leaf primordia. The localization of biosynthetic gene transcripts was in contrast with the tissue-specific accumulation of protoberberine alkaloids. In roots, protoberberine alkaloids were restricted to mature endodermal cells upon the initiation of secondary growth and were distributed throughout the pith and cortex in rhizomes. Thus, the cell type–specific localization of protoberberine alkaloid biosynthesis and accumulation are temporally and spatially separated in T. flavum roots and rhizomes, respectively. Despite the close phylogeny between corresponding biosynthetic enzymes, distinct and different cell types are involved in the biosynthesis and accumulation of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in T. flavum and P. somniferum. Our results suggest that the evolution of alkaloid metabolism involves not only the recruitment of new biosynthetic enzymes, but also the migration of established pathways between cell types. PMID:15722473

  20. Local Area Disadvantage and Gambling Involvement and Disorder: Evidence for Gene-Environment Correlation and Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Deutsch, Arielle R.; Statham, Dixie B.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that local area characteristics (such as disadvantage and gambling outlet density) and genetic risk factors are associated with gambling involvement and disordered gambling. These two lines of research were brought together in the present study by examining the extent to which genetic contributions to individual differences in gambling involvement and disorder contributed to being exposed to, and were also accentuated by, local area disadvantage. Participants were members of the national community-based Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview in which the past-year frequency of gambling and symptoms of disordered gambling were assessed. Indicators of local area disadvantage were based on census data matched to the participants' postal codes. Univariate biometric model-fitting revealed that exposure to area disadvantage was partially explained by genetic factors. Bivariate biometric model-fitting was conducted to examine the evidence for gene-environment interaction while accounting for gene-environment correlation. These analyses demonstrated that: (a) a small portion of the genetic propensity to gamble was explained by moving to or remaining in a disadvantaged area, and (b) the remaining genetic and unique environmental variation in the frequency of participating in electronic machine gambling (among men and women) and symptoms of disordered gambling (among women) was greater in more disadvantaged localities. As the gambling industry continues to grow, it will be important to take into account the multiple contexts in which problematic gambling behavior can emerge -- from genes to geography -- as well as the ways in which such contexts may interact with each other. PMID:26147321

  1. Sorting Motifs Involved in the Trafficking and Localization of the PIN1 Auxin Efflux Carrier.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Andrés, Gloria; Soriano-Ortega, Esther; Gao, Caiji; Bernabé-Orts, Joan Miquel; Narasimhan, Madhumitha; Müller, Anna Ophelia; Tejos, Ricardo; Jiang, Liwen; Friml, Jiří; Aniento, Fernando; Marcote, María Jesús

    2016-07-01

    In contrast with the wealth of recent reports about the function of μ-adaptins and clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes, there is very little information about the motifs that determine the sorting of membrane proteins within clathrin-coated vesicles in plants. Here, we investigated putative sorting signals in the large cytosolic loop of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) auxin transporter, which are involved in binding μ-adaptins and thus in PIN1 trafficking and localization. We found that Phe-165 and Tyr-280, Tyr-328, and Tyr-394 are involved in the binding of different μ-adaptins in vitro. However, only Phe-165, which binds μA(μ2)- and μD(μ3)-adaptin, was found to be essential for PIN1 trafficking and localization in vivo. The PIN1:GFP-F165A mutant showed reduced endocytosis but also localized to intracellular structures containing several layers of membranes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers, suggesting that they correspond to ER or ER-derived membranes. While PIN1:GFP localized normally in a μA (μ2)-adaptin mutant, it accumulated in big intracellular structures containing LysoTracker in a μD (μ3)-adaptin mutant, consistent with previous results obtained with mutants of other subunits of the AP-3 complex. Our data suggest that Phe-165, through the binding of μA (μ2)- and μD (μ3)-adaptin, is important for PIN1 endocytosis and for PIN1 trafficking along the secretory pathway, respectively. PMID:27208248

  2. How Localized are Language Brain Areas? A Review of Brodmann Areas Involvement in Oral Language.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-02-01

    The interest in understanding how language is "localized" in the brain has existed for centuries. Departing from seven meta-analytic studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging activity during the performance of different language activities, it is proposed here that there are two different language networks in the brain: first, a language reception/understanding system, including a "core Wernicke's area" involved in word recognition (BA21, BA22, BA41, and BA42), and a fringe or peripheral area ("extended Wernicke's area:" BA20, BA37, BA38, BA39, and BA40) involved in language associations (associating words with other information); second, a language production system ("Broca's complex:" BA44, BA45, and also BA46, BA47, partially BA6-mainly its mesial supplementary motor area-and extending toward the basal ganglia and the thalamus). This paper additionally proposes that the insula (BA13) plays a certain coordinating role in interconnecting these two brain language systems. PMID:26663825

  3. MeCP2 post-translational modifications: a mechanism to control its involvement in synaptic plasticity and homeostasis?

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Elisa; Pavesi, Giulio; Barbiero, Isabella; Bergo, Anna; Chandola, Chetan; Nawaz, Mohammad S.; Rusconi, Laura; Stefanelli, Gilda; Strollo, Marta; Valente, Maria M.; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Although Rett syndrome (RTT) represents one of the most frequent forms of severe intellectual disability in females worldwide, we still have an inadequate knowledge of the many roles played by MeCP2 (whose mutations are responsible for most cases of RTT) and their relevance for RTT pathobiology. Several studies support a role of MeCP2 in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and homeostasis. At the molecular level, MeCP2 is described as a repressor capable of inhibiting gene transcription through chromatin compaction. Indeed, it interacts with several chromatin remodeling factors, such as HDAC-containing complexes and ATRX. Other studies have inferred that MeCP2 functions also as an activator; a role in regulating mRNA splicing and in modulating protein synthesis has also been proposed. Further, MeCP2 avidly binds both 5-methyl- and 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine. Recent evidence suggests that it is the highly disorganized structure of MeCP2, together with its post-translational modifications (PTMs) that generate and regulate this functional versatility. Indeed, several reports have demonstrated that differential phosphorylation of MeCP2 is a key mechanism by which the methyl binding protein modulates its affinity for its partners, gene expression and cellular adaptations to stimuli and neuronal plasticity. As logic consequence, generation of phospho-defective Mecp2 knock-in mice has permitted associating alterations in neuronal morphology, circuit formation, and mouse behavioral phenotypes with specific phosphorylation events. MeCP2 undergoes various other PTMs, including acetylation, ubiquitination and sumoylation, whose functional roles remain largely unexplored. These results, together with the genome-wide distribution of MeCP2 and its capability to substitute histone H1, recall the complex regulation of histones and suggest the relevance of quickly gaining a deeper comprehension of MeCP2 PTMs, the respective writers and readers and the consequent functional outcomes

  4. Preoperative indications for extended pancreatectomy for locally advanced pancreas cancer involving the portal vein.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, O; Ohigashi, H; Imaoka, S; Furukawa, H; Sasaki, Y; Fujita, M; Kuroda, C; Iwanaga, T

    1992-01-01

    This retrospective study attempted to determine the indications for extended pancreatectomy for locally advanced carcinoma of the pancreas, in terms of postoperative prognosis. An extended pancreatectomy with portal vein or superior mesenteric vein (PV/SMV) resection and regional lymphadenectomy was performed in 35 of 50 consecutive cancers that extended into the retroperitoneal spaces and involved the PV or SMV. Among the many background factors in the 35 resected specimens, the degree of PV/SMV invasion by the cancer was most closely associated with prognosis, despite resection of all involved PV/SMV. This factor generally correlated with the preoperative findings on the portal phase of superior mesenteric arteriograph. In 17 selected patients in whom PV/SMV invasion had been angiographically both semicircular or less and 1.2 cm (1.4 cm on the film) or less in length, the 3-year survival rate was 59%. This survival rate was significantly higher than the 29% 3-year survival rate in all 35 patients (p less than 0.05). Conversely, among the 18 patients in whom invasion was angiographically either beyond semicircular or more than 1.2 cm (1.4 cm on the film) in length, there were no 1.5-year survivors, and this result was even worse than that of 15 nonresectable cases. Based on postoperative survival, the degrees of PV/SMV invasion on preoperative angiography (narrowing pattern and length) are good indicators for aggressive pancreatectomy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Images FIG. 2. PMID:1543394

  5. Localized periodontal defect associated with unusual furcation involvement on a mandibular incisor.

    PubMed

    Kwon, TaeHyun; Intini, Giuseppe; Kim, David M; Levin, Liran

    2013-10-01

    A localized periodontal defect associated with an unusual furcation on a mandibular central incisor and its treatment sequences are presented. A 54-year-old woman presented with a persistent localized periodontal defect, which was not responsive to nonsurgical periodontal therapy. An exploratory surgery revealed complete through and through furcation involvement on the right mandibular central incisor, resulting in a three-walled infrabony defect. Following thorough mechanical debridement and root planing, the infrabony aspect of the defect was grafted with freeze-dried bone allograft combined with the recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB. The flaps were positioned to enable patient's home care and professional dental cleaning. Follow-up examination revealed uneventful healing and resolution of the infrabony periodontal defect. Clinicians should be aware of this unusual condition and consider it as a potential etiology when dealing with a persistent localized periodontal defect in the mandibular anterior sextant, which may not respond to the conventional nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Eliminating the active disease as well as enabling careful maintenance and oral hygiene may prevent further deterioration and result in a stable long-term outcome preserving the compromised tooth. PMID:23878844

  6. Identification of novel residues involved in nuclear localization of a baculovirus polyhedrin protein.

    PubMed

    Katsuma, S; Deng, D X; Zhou, C L; Iwanaga, M; Noguchi, Y; Kobayashi, M; Maeda, S

    2000-10-01

    A baculovirus polyhedrin protein has proven to possess a nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence and a domain required for supramolecular assembly. Here we investigated five Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) mutants that did not produce polyhedra. Two of five mutants were generated during routine baculoviral expression vector screening, and three were isolated by treatment with the mutagen 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Marker rescue mapping and nucleotide sequence analysis showed that mutations in the polyhedrin gene caused the altered phenotype of these mutants. Biochemical fractionation indicated that cells infected with these mutants exhibited polyhedrin protein in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Electron microscopic observation revealed that polyhedrin produced by these mutants ocurred in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, but did not form a crystalline lattice. Despite the incompleteness of polyhedrin nuclear localization, the NLSs of the five mutants were unchanged, although some of the mutations occurred within residues just outside of the domain reported to be required for polyhedron assembly (4). This result suggests that (a) the polyhedrin NLS directs polyhedrin to the nucleus, but the efficiency of this localization is regulated by regions other than the NLS (probably, polyhedrin conformation and its association with the nucleus are also involved), and (b) formation of a crystalline lattice may also be determined by several domains within polyhedrin. PMID:11129641

  7. For "Translation and Theories"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Lili

    2009-01-01

    Translation studies stem from comparative literature and contrastive analysis. It involves the transfer of messages between two different language systems and cultures, and Munday (2001, p.1) notes that translation "by its nature" "is multilingual and also interdisciplinary". Translation subjects are the texts in various…

  8. Local stress and heat flux in atomistic systems involving three-body forces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youping

    2006-02-01

    Local densities of fundamental physical quantities, including stress and heat flux fields, are formulated for atomistic systems involving three-body forces. The obtained formulas are calculable within an atomistic simulation, in consistent with the conservation equations of thermodynamics of continuum, and can be applied to systems with general two- and three-body interaction forces. It is hoped that this work may correct some misuse of inappropriate formulas of stress and heat flux in the literature, may clarify the definition of site energy of many-body potentials, and may serve as an analytical link between an atomistic model and a continuum theory. Physical meanings of the obtained formulas, their relation with virial theorem and heat theorem, and the applicability are discussed. PMID:16468857

  9. Knowledge translation strategies to improve the use of evidence in public health decision making in local government: intervention design and implementation plan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge translation strategies are an approach to increase the use of evidence within policy and practice decision-making contexts. In clinical and health service contexts, knowledge translation strategies have focused on individual behavior change, however the multi-system context of public health requires a multi-level, multi-strategy approach. This paper describes the design of and implementation plan for a knowledge translation intervention for public health decision making in local government. Methods Four preliminary research studies contributed findings to the design of the intervention: a systematic review of knowledge translation intervention effectiveness research, a scoping study of knowledge translation perspectives and relevant theory literature, a survey of the local government public health workforce, and a study of the use of evidence-informed decision-making for public health in local government. A logic model was then developed to represent the putative pathways between intervention inputs, processes, and outcomes operating between individual-, organizational-, and system-level strategies. This formed the basis of the intervention plan. Results The systematic and scoping reviews identified that effective and promising strategies to increase access to research evidence require an integrated intervention of skill development, access to a knowledge broker, resources and tools for evidence-informed decision making, and networking for information sharing. Interviews and survey analysis suggested that the intervention needs to operate at individual and organizational levels, comprising workforce development, access to evidence, and regular contact with a knowledge broker to increase access to intervention evidence; develop skills in appraisal and integration of evidence; strengthen networks; and explore organizational factors to build organizational cultures receptive to embedding evidence in practice. The logic model incorporated these

  10. Tsunami Early Warning System in Italy and involvement of local communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    performance of the tsunami predictors. The role of the local communities in defining the strategies in case of uncertain data is essential: only involvement of such communities since the beginning of the planning and implementation phase of the TEWS as well as in the definition of a decision making matrix can ensure appropriate response in case of emergency, and most importantly, the acceptance of the system in the long run. The efforts to implement the Tsunami Warning System in Italy should take into proper account the above mentioned aspects. Involvement of local communities should be primarily realized through the involvement of the local components of the Civil Protection Agency that is responsible for the implementation of the system over the Italian territory. A pilot project is being conducted in cooperation between the Civil Protection Service of Sicily and the University of Bologna (UNIBO) that contemplates the empowering of the local sea-level monitoring system (TSUNET) and specific vulnerability and risk analyses, also exploiting results of national and European research projects (e.g. TRANSFER and SCHEMA) where UNIBO had a primary role.

  11. 20 CFR 670.800 - How do Job Corps centers and service providers become involved in their local communities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INVESTMENT ACT Community Connections § 670.800 How do Job Corps centers and service providers become involved... Community Liaison designated by the director of the center to establish relationships with local and distant employers, applicable One-Stop centers and local boards, and members of the community according...

  12. 20 CFR 670.800 - How do Job Corps centers and service providers become involved in their local communities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INVESTMENT ACT Community Connections § 670.800 How do Job Corps centers and service providers become involved... Community Liaison designated by the director of the center to establish relationships with local and distant employers, applicable One-Stop centers and local boards, and members of the community according...

  13. Subcellular localization of glycosidases and glycosyltransferases involved in the processing of N-linked oligosaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, A.; Johnson, K.D.; Szumilo, T.; Elbein, A.D.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1987-11-01

    Using isopycnic sucrose gradients, we have ascertained the subcellular location of several enzymes involved in the processing of the N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins in developing cotyledons of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. All are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi complex as determined by co-sedimentation with the ER marker, NADH-cytochrome c reductase, or the Golgi marker, glucan synthase I. Glucosidase activity, which removes glucose residues from Glc/sub 3/Man/sub 9/(GlcNAc)/sub 2/, was found exclusively in the ER. All other processing enzymes, which act subsequent to the glucose trimming steps, are associates with Golgi. These include mannosidase I (removes 1-2 mannose residues from Man/sub 6-9/(GlcNAc)/sub 2/), mannosidase II (removes mannose residues from GlcNAcMan/sub 5/(GlcNAc)/sub 2/), and fucosyltransferase (transfers a fucose residue to the Asn-linked GlcNAc of appropriate glycans). The authors have previously reported the localization of two other glycan modifying enzymes (GlcNAc-transferase and xylosyltranferase activities) in the Golgi complex. Attempts at subfractionation of the Golgi fraction on shallow sucrose gradients yielded similar patterns of distribution for all the Golgi processing enzymes. Subfractionation on Percoll gradients resulted in two peaks of the Golgi marker enzyme inosine diphosphatase, whereas the glycan processing enzymes were all enriched in the peak of lower density. These results do not lend support to the hypothesis that N-linked oligosaccharide processing enzymes are associated with Golgi cisternae of different densities.

  14. MicroRNA-513 Regulates B7-H1 Translation and Is Involved in IFN-γ-Induced B7-H1 Expression in Cholangiocytes1,2

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ai-Yu; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Guoku; Li, Xiaoqing; Splinter, Patrick L.; O’Hara, Steven P.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.; Soukup, Garrett A.; Dong, Haidong; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Biliary epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) respond to proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ and actively participate in the regulation of biliary inflammatory response in the liver. B7-H1 (also known as CD274 or PD-L1) is a member of the B7 costimu-latory molecules and plays a critical immunoregulatory role in cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we show that resting human cholangiocytes in culture express B7-H1 mRNA, but not B7-H1 protein. IFN-γ induces B7-H1 protein expression and alters the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile in cholangiocytes. Of those IFN-γ-down-regulated miRNAs, we identified microRNA-513 (miR-513) with complementarity to the 3′-untranslated region of B7-H1 mRNA. Targeting of the B7-H1 3′-untranslated region by miR-513 results in translational repression. Transfection of cholangiocytes with an antisense oligonucleotide to miR-513 induces B7-H1 protein expression. Additionally, transfection of miR-513 precursor decreases IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 protein expression and consequently influences B7-H1-associated apoptotic cell death in cocultured Jurkat cells. Thus, miR-513 regulates B7-H1 translation and is involved in IFN-γ-induced B7-H1 expression in human cholangiocytes, suggesting a role for miRNA-mediated gene silencing in the regulation of cholangiocyte response to IFN-γ. PMID:19155478

  15. Accumulation of cynaropicrin in globe artichoke and localization of enzymes involved in its biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Eljounaidi, K; Comino, C; Moglia, A; Cankar, K; Genre, A; Hehn, A; Bourgaud, F; Beekwilder, J; Lanteri, S

    2015-10-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) belongs to the Asteraceae family, in which one of the most biologically significant class of secondary metabolites are sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). In globe artichoke the principal STL is the cynaropicrin, which contributes to approximately 80% of its characteristic bitter taste. Cynaropicrin content was assessed in globe artichoke tissues and was observed to accumulate in leaves of different developmental stages. In the receptacle, a progressive decrease was observed during inflorescence development, while the STL could not be detected in the inflorescence bracts. Almost undetectable amounts were found in the roots and inflorescence stems at the commercial stage. Cynaropicrin content was found to correlate with expression of genes encoding CcGAS, CcGAO and CcCOS, which are involved in the STL biosynthesis. A more detailed study of leaf material revealed that cynaropicrin predominantly accumulates in the trichomes, and not in the apoplastic cavity fluids. Analysis of the promoter regions of CcGAO and CcCOS revealed the presence of L1-box motifs, which confers trichome-specific expression in Arabidopsis, suggesting that cynaropicrin is not only stored but also synthesized in trichomes. A transient expression of GFP fusion proteins was performed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants: the CcGAS fluorescence signal was located in the cytoplasm while the CcGAO and CcCOS localized to the endoplasmatic reticulum. PMID:26398797

  16. Subcellular localization of yeast Sec14 homologues and their involvement in regulation of phospholipid turnover.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, Martina; Oskolkova, Olga V; Holic, Roman; Brezná, Barbara; Pichler, Harald; Zágorsek, Milos; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Paltauf, Fritz; Daum, Günther; Griac, Peter

    2003-08-01

    Sec14p of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in protein secretion and regulation of lipid synthesis and turnover in vivo, but acts as a phosphatidylinositol-phosphatidylcholine transfer protein in vitro. In this work, the five homologues of Sec14p, Sfh1p-Sfh5p, were subjected to biochemical and cell biological analysis to get a better view of their physiological role. We show that overexpression of SFH2 and SFH4 suppressed the sec14 growth defect in a more and SFH1 in a less efficient way, whereas overexpression of SFH3 and SFH5 did not complement sec14. Using C-terminal yEGFP fusions, Sfh2p, Sfh4p and Sfh5p are mainly localized to the cytosol and microsomes similar to Sec14p. Sfh1p was detected in the nucleus and Sfh3p in lipid particles and in microsomes. In contrast to Sec14p, which inhibits phospholipase D1 (Pld1p), overproduction of Sfh2p and Sfh4p resulted in the activation of Pld1p-mediated phosphatidylcholine turnover. Interestingly, Sec14p and the two homologues Sfh2p and Sfh4p downregulate phospholipase B1 (Plb1p)-mediated turnover of phosphatidylcholine in vivo. In summary, Sfh2p and Sfh4p are the Sec14p homologues with the most pronounced functional similarity to Sec14p, whereas the other Sfh proteins appear to be functionally less related to Sec14p. PMID:12869188

  17. Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Reduces Local Recurrence Rates in Patients With Microscopically Involved Circumferential Resection Margins After Resection of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Alberda, Wijnand J.; Verhoef, Cornelis; Nuyttens, Joost J.; Meerten, Esther van; Rothbarth, Joost; Wilt, Johannes H.W. de; Burger, Jacobus W.A.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is advocated by some for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who have involved or narrow circumferential resection margins (CRM) after rectal surgery. This study evaluates the potentially beneficial effect of IORT on local control. Methods and Materials: All surgically treated patients with LARC treated in a tertiary referral center between 1996 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The outcome in patients treated with IORT with a clear but narrow CRM (≤2 mm) or a microscopically involved CRM was compared with the outcome in patients who were not treated with IORT. Results: A total of 409 patients underwent resection of LARC, and 95 patients (23%) had a CRM ≤ 2 mm. Four patients were excluded from further analysis because of a macroscopically involved resection margin. In 43 patients with clear but narrow CRMs, there was no difference in the cumulative 5-year local recurrence-free survival of patients treated with (n=21) or without (n=22) IORT (70% vs 79%, P=.63). In 48 patients with a microscopically involved CRM, there was a significant difference in the cumulative 5-year local recurrence-free survival in favor of the patients treated with IORT (n=31) compared with patients treated without IORT (n=17) (84 vs 41%, P=.01). Multivariable analysis confirmed that IORT was independently associated with a decreased local recurrence rate (hazard ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.86). There was no significant difference in complication rate of patients treated with or without IORT (65% vs 52%, P=.18) Conclusion: The current study suggests that IORT reduces local recurrence rates in patients with LARC with a microscopically involved CRM.

  18. A novel post-translational modification involving bromination of tryptophan. Identification of the residue, L-6-bromotryptophan, in peptides from Conus imperialis and Conus radiatus venom.

    PubMed

    Craig, A G; Jimenez, E C; Dykert, J; Nielsen, D B; Gulyas, J; Abogadie, F C; Porter, J; Rivier, J E; Cruz, L J; Olivera, B M; McIntosh, J M

    1997-02-21

    We report a novel post-translational modification involving halogenation of tryptophan in peptides recovered from the venom of carnivorous marine cone snails (Conus). The residue, L-6-bromotryptophan, was identified in the sequence of a heptapeptide, isolated from Conus imperialis, a worm-hunting cone. This peptide does not elicit gross behavioral symptoms when injected centrally or peripherally in mice. L-6-Bromotryptophan was also identified in a 33-amino acid peptide from Conus radiatus; this peptide has been shown to induce a sleep-like state in mice of all ages and is referred to as bromosleeper peptide. The sequences of the two peptides and were determined using a combination of mass spectrometry, amino acid, and chemical sequence analyses, where Pca = pyroglutamic acid, Hyp = hydroxyproline, Gla = gamma-carboxyglutamate, and Trp* = L-6-bromotryptophan. The precise structure and stereochemistry of the modified residue were determined as L-6-bromotryptophan by synthesis, co-elution, and enzymatic hydrolysis experiments. To our knowledge this is the first documentation of tryptophan residues in peptides/proteins being modified in a eukaryotic system and the first report of halogenation of tryptophan in vivo. PMID:9030520

  19. Cis and trans-acting elements involved in the activation of Arabidopsis thaliana A1 gene encoding the translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Curie, C; Liboz, T; Bardet, C; Gander, E; Médale, C; Axelos, M; Lescure, B

    1991-03-25

    In A. thaliana the translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha is encoded by a small multigenic family of four members (A1-A4). The A1 gene promoter has been dissected and examined in a transient expression system using the GUS reporter gene. Deletion analysis has shown that several elements are involved in the activation process. One cis-acting domain, the TEF 1 box, has been accurately mapped 100 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. This domain is the target for trans-acting factors identified in nuclear extracts prepared from A. thaliana. Homologies are found between the TEF 1 box and sequences present at the same location within the A2, A3 and A4 promoters. This observation, together with those obtained from gel retardation assays performed using DNA fragments from the A4 promoter, suggest that the activation process mediated by the TEF 1 element is conserved among the A. thaliana EF-1 alpha genes. Analysis of nearly full length cDNA clones has shown that in addition to a single intron located within the coding region, the A1 gene contains a second intron located within the 5' non coding region. Such an intron is also present within the A2, A3 and A4 genes. This 5' intervening sequence appears to be essential to obtain a maximum GUS activity driven by the A1 gene promoter. PMID:1840652

  20. Cis and trans-acting elements involved in the activation of Arabidopsis thaliana A1 gene encoding the translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Curie, C; Liboz, T; Bardet, C; Gander, E; Médale, C; Axelos, M; Lescure, B

    1991-01-01

    In A. thaliana the translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha is encoded by a small multigenic family of four members (A1-A4). The A1 gene promoter has been dissected and examined in a transient expression system using the GUS reporter gene. Deletion analysis has shown that several elements are involved in the activation process. One cis-acting domain, the TEF 1 box, has been accurately mapped 100 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. This domain is the target for trans-acting factors identified in nuclear extracts prepared from A. thaliana. Homologies are found between the TEF 1 box and sequences present at the same location within the A2, A3 and A4 promoters. This observation, together with those obtained from gel retardation assays performed using DNA fragments from the A4 promoter, suggest that the activation process mediated by the TEF 1 element is conserved among the A. thaliana EF-1 alpha genes. Analysis of nearly full length cDNA clones has shown that in addition to a single intron located within the coding region, the A1 gene contains a second intron located within the 5' non coding region. Such an intron is also present within the A2, A3 and A4 genes. This 5' intervening sequence appears to be essential to obtain a maximum GUS activity driven by the A1 gene promoter. Images PMID:1840652

  1. Importance of Post-Translational Modifications for Functionality of a Chloroplast-Localized Carbonic Anhydrase (CAH1) in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Burén, Stefan; Ortega-Villasante, Cristina; Blanco-Rivero, Amaya; Martínez-Bernardini, Andrea; Shutova, Tatiana; Shevela, Dmitriy; Messinger, Johannes; Bako, Laszlo; Villarejo, Arsenio; Samuelsson, Göran

    2011-01-01

    Background The Arabidopsis CAH1 alpha-type carbonic anhydrase is one of the few plant proteins known to be targeted to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway. CAH1 is post-translationally modified at several residues by the attachment of N-glycans, resulting in a mature protein harbouring complex-type glycans. The reason of why trafficking through this non-canonical pathway is beneficial for certain chloroplast resident proteins is not yet known. Therefore, to elucidate the significance of glycosylation in trafficking and the effect of glycosylation on the stability and function of the protein, epitope-labelled wild type and mutated versions of CAH1 were expressed in plant cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Transient expression of mutant CAH1 with disrupted glycosylation sites showed that the protein harbours four, or in certain cases five, N-glycans. While the wild type protein trafficked through the secretory pathway to the chloroplast, the non-glycosylated protein formed aggregates and associated with the ER chaperone BiP, indicating that glycosylation of CAH1 facilitates folding and ER-export. Using cysteine mutants we also assessed the role of disulphide bridge formation in the folding and stability of CAH1. We found that a disulphide bridge between cysteines at positions 27 and 191 in the mature protein was required for correct folding of the protein. Using a mass spectrometric approach we were able to measure the enzymatic activity of CAH1 protein. Under circumstances where protein N-glycosylation is blocked in vivo, the activity of CAH1 is completely inhibited. Conclusions/Significance We show for the first time the importance of post-translational modifications such as N-glycosylation and intramolecular disulphide bridge formation in folding and trafficking of a protein from the secretory pathway to the chloroplast in higher plants. Requirements for these post-translational modifications for a fully functional native protein explain the need for

  2. A Local, Interactive Network of 3′ RNA Elements Supports Translation and Replication of Turnip Crinkle Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xuefeng; Shi, Kerong

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) was previously identified as forming a highly interactive structure with a ribosome-binding tRNA-shaped structure (TSS) acting as a scaffold and undergoing a widespread conformational shift upon binding to RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Tertiary interactions in the region were explored by identifying two highly detrimental mutations within and adjacent to a hairpin H4 upstream of the TSS that reduce translation in vivo and cause identical structural changes in the loop of the 3′ terminal hairpin Pr. Second-site changes that compensate for defects in translation/accumulation and reverse the structural differences in the Pr loop were found in the Pr stem, as well as in a specific stem within the TSS and within the capsid protein (CP) coding region, suggesting that the second-site changes were correcting a conformational defect and not restoring specific base pairing. The RdRp-mediated conformational shift extended upstream through this CP open reading frame (ORF) region after bypassing much of an intervening, largely unstructured region, supporting a connection between 3′ elements and coding region elements. These data suggest that the Pr loop, TSS, and H4 are central elements in the regulation of translation and replication in TCV and allow for development of an RNA interactome that maps the higher-order structure of a postulated RNA domain within the 3′ region of a plus-strand RNA virus. PMID:22345459

  3. Unique Translation Initiation at the Second AUG Codon Determines Mitochondrial Localization of the Phage-Type RNA Polymerases in the Moss Physcomitrella patens1

    PubMed Central

    Kabeya, Yukihiro; Sato, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens contains two genes encoding phage-type RNA polymerases (PpRPOT1 and PpRPOT2). Each of the PpRPOT1 and PpRPOT2 transcripts possesses two in-frame AUG codons at the 5′ terminus that could act as a translational initiation site. Observation of transient and stable Physcomitrella transformants expressing the 5′ terminus of each PpRPOT cDNA fused with the green fluorescent protein gene suggested that both PpRPOT1 and PpRPOT2 are not translated from the first (upstream) AUG codon in the natural context but translated from the second (downstream) one, and that these enzymes are targeted only to mitochondria, although they are potentially targeted to plastids when translation is forced to start from the first AUG codon. The influence of the 5′-upstream sequence on the translation efficiency of the two AUG codons in PpRPOT1 and PpRPOT2 was quantitatively assessed using a β-glucuronidase reporter. The results further supported that the second AUG codon is the sole translation initiation site in Physcomitrella cells. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) RPOT homolog AtRpoT;2 that possesses two initiation AUG codons in its transcripts, as do the RPOTs of P. patens, has been regarded as a dually targeted protein. When the localization of AtRpoT;2 was tested using green fluorescent protein in a similar way, AtRpoT;2 was also observed only in mitochondria in many Arabidopsis tissues. These results suggest that, despite the presence of two in-frame AUGs at the 5′ termini of RPOTs in Physcomitrella and Arabidopsis, the second AUG is specifically recognized as the initiation site in these organisms, resulting in expression of a protein that is targeted to mitochondria. This finding may change the current framework of thinking about the transcription machinery of plastids in land plants. PMID:15834007

  4. SiteSeek: Post-translational modification analysis using adaptive locality-effective kernel methods and new profiles

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Paul D; Ho, Yung Shwen; Zhou, Bing Bing; Zomaya, Albert Y

    2008-01-01

    Background Post-translational modifications have a substantial influence on the structure and functions of protein. Post-translational phosphorylation is one of the most common modification that occur in intracellular proteins. Accurate prediction of protein phosphorylation sites is of great importance for the understanding of diverse cellular signalling processes in both the human body and in animals. In this study, we propose a new machine learning based protein phosphorylation site predictor, SiteSeek. SiteSeek is trained using a novel compact evolutionary and hydrophobicity profile to detect possible protein phosphorylation sites for a target sequence. The newly proposed method proves to be more accurate and exhibits a much stable predictive performance than currently existing phosphorylation site predictors. Results The performance of the proposed model was compared to nine existing different machine learning models and four widely known phosphorylation site predictors with the newly proposed PS-Benchmark_1 dataset to contrast their accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient. SiteSeek showed better predictive performance with 86.6% accuracy, 83.8% sensitivity, 92.5% specificity and 0.77 correlation-coefficient on the four main kinase families (CDK, CK2, PKA, and PKC). Conclusion Our newly proposed methods used in SiteSeek were shown to be useful for the identification of protein phosphorylation sites as it performed much better than widely known predictors on the newly built PS-Benchmark_1 dataset. PMID:18541042

  5. Fiducial-Based Translational Localization Accuracy of Electromagnetic Tracking System and On-Board Kilovoltage Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Santanam, Lakshmi Malinowski, Kathleen; Hubenshmidt, James; Dimmer, Steve; Mayse, Martin L.; Bradley, Jeffrey; Chaudhari, Amir; Lechleiter, Kirsten; Goddu, Sree Krishna Murty; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Mutic, Sasa; Low, Daniel A.; Parikh, Parag

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: The Calypso medical four-dimensional localization system uses AC electromagnetics, which do not require ionizing radiation, for accurate, real-time tumor tracking. This investigation compared the static and dynamic tracking accuracy of this system to that of an on-board imaging kilovoltage X-ray system for concurrent use of the two systems. Methods and Materials: The localization accuracies of a kilovoltage imaging system and a continuous electromagnetic tracking system were compared. Using an in-house developed four-dimensional stage, quality-assurance fixture containing three radiofrequency transponders was positioned at a series of static locations and then moved through the ellipsoidal and nonuniform continuous paths. The transponder positions were tracked concurrently by the Calypso system. For static localization, the transponders were localized using portal images and digitally reconstructed radiographs by commercial matching software. For dynamic localization, the transponders were fluoroscopically imaged, and their positions were determined retrospectively using custom-written image processing programs. The localization data sets were synchronized with and compared to the known quality assurance fixture positions. The experiment was repeated to retrospectively track three transponders implanted in a canine lung. Results: The root mean square error of the on-board imaging and Calypso systems was 0.1 cm and 0.0 cm, respectively, for static localization, 0.22 mm and 0.33 mm for dynamic phantom positioning, and 0.42 mm for the canine study. Conclusion: The results showed that both localization systems provide submillimeter accuracy. The Calypso and on-board imaging tracking systems offer distinct sets of advantages and, given their compatibility, patients could benefit from the complementary nature of the two systems when used concurrently.

  6. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  7. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  8. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  9. Rural Schooling in Georgia: The Experiences of a Minority Community Service Organization Involved in Local School Decision-Making Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Cynthia Louise Altman

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study was a descriptive case study of a minority community service organization whose members were actively involved in local school decision-making and activities in a rural Northeast Georgia community. Rural schools face unique challenges in light of current educational trends. To address the challenges, rural schools must…

  10. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  11. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval. (a) 40 CFR 1501.2(d) requires... of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions, the Committee staff shall consult as required with... requires an environmental assessment as set forth in 40 CFR 1501.4. (c) To facilitate compliance with...

  12. Some free boundary problems involving non-local diffusion and aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, José Antonio; Vázquez, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the study of evolution processes involving degenerate parabolic equations which may exhibit free boundaries. The equations we have selected follow two recent trends in diffusion theory: considering anomalous diffusion with long-range effects, which leads to fractional operators or other operators involving kernels with large tails; and the combination of diffusion and aggregation effects, leading to delicate long-term equilibria whose description is still incipient. PMID:26261360

  13. 22 CFR 92.78 - Translating documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Service are not authorized to translate documents or to certify to the correctness of translations... of a translation; to take an acknowledgment of the preparation of a translation; and to authenticate the seal and signature of a local official affixed to a translation. Separate fees should be...

  14. 22 CFR 92.78 - Translating documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Service are not authorized to translate documents or to certify to the correctness of translations... of a translation; to take an acknowledgment of the preparation of a translation; and to authenticate the seal and signature of a local official affixed to a translation. Separate fees should be...

  15. Cell Therapy for Parkinson's Disease: A Translational Approach to Assess the Role of Local and Systemic Immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Aron Badin, R; Vadori, M; Vanhove, B; Nerriere-Daguin, V; Naveilhan, P; Neveu, I; Jan, C; Lévèque, X; Venturi, E; Mermillod, P; Van Camp, N; Dollé, F; Guillermier, M; Denaro, L; Manara, R; Citton, V; Simioni, P; Zampieri, P; D'avella, D; Rubello, D; Fante, F; Boldrin, M; De Benedictis, G M; Cavicchioli, L; Sgarabotto, D; Plebani, M; Stefani, A L; Brachet, P; Blancho, G; Soulillou, J P; Hantraye, P; Cozzi, E

    2016-07-01

    Neural transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases; however, many patients receiving intracerebral fetal allografts exhibit signs of immunization to donor antigens that could compromise the graft. In this context, we intracerebrally transplanted mesencephalic pig xenografts into primates to identify a suitable strategy to enable long-term cell survival, maturation, and differentiation. Parkinsonian primates received WT or CTLA4-Ig transgenic porcine xenografts and different durations of peripheral immunosuppression to test whether systemic plus graft-mediated local immunosuppression might avoid rejection. A striking recovery of spontaneous locomotion was observed in primates receiving systemic plus local immunosuppression for 6 mo. Recovery was associated with restoration of dopaminergic activity detected both by positron emission tomography imaging and histological examination. Local infiltration by T cells and CD80/86+ microglial cells expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxigenase were observed only in CTLA4-Ig recipients. Results suggest that in this primate neurotransplantation model, peripheral immunosuppression is indispensable to achieve the long-term survival of porcine neuronal xenografts that is required to study the beneficial immunomodulatory effect of local blockade of T cell costimulation. PMID:26749114

  16. Bone involvement in young patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: efficacy of chemotherapy without local radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Haddy, T B; Keenan, A M; Jaffe, E S; Magrath, I T

    1988-10-01

    Of 95 young non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients entered consecutively on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Protocol 7704, 26 (27.4%) had involvement of one or more bones. The mean age of these 26 patients was 16.6 years, and the male to female ratio was 3.3:1. Tumor histology included undifferentiated Burkitt's lymphoma in 12, undifferentiated non-Burkitt's lymphoma in two, undifferentiated, unspecified lymphoma in one, diffuse large cell lymphoma in three, and lymphoblastic lymphoma in eight patients. Most had extensive disease; two patients had isolated bone lesions, one had lesions of two bones without involvement of other tissues, and 23 had either multiple bone lesions or single bone lesions with involvement of other tissues. Eight of the 26 patients had bone marrow involvement. Of a subgroup of 12 patients with jaw disease, 11 had undifferentiated lymphoma and one had diffuse large cell lymphoma. Only one had primary a jaw tumor, with two quadrants of the jaw involved. All 26 patients were treated with chemotherapy; only two received radiotherapy initially for bone lesions. Predicted survival of the 26 patients at 5 years is 53.2%. The 12 patients who remain disease free have a mean survival of 62.1 months (range, 22 to 100 months). Our results call into question the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of bone lesions in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:3167201

  17. Michigan Wetlands: Yours To Protect. A Citizen's Guide to Local Involvement in Wetland Protection. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikiel, Wilfred

    This guidebook is designed to assist concerned Michigan citizens, local governments, conservation organizations, landowners, and others in their efforts to initiate wetlands protection activities. Chapter 1 focuses on wetland functions, values, losses, and the urgent need to protect wetland resources. Chapter 2 discusses wetland identification and…

  18. Translational Meta-analytical Methods to Localize the Regulatory Patterns of Neurological Disorders in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sochat, Vanessa; David, Maude; Wall, Dennis P

    2015-01-01

    The task of mapping neurological disorders in the human brain must be informed by multiple measurements of an individual’s phenotype - neuroimaging, genomics, and behavior. We developed a novel meta-analytical approach to integrate disparate resources and generated transcriptional maps of neurological disorders in the human brain yielding a purely computational procedure to pinpoint the brain location of transcribed genes likely to be involved in either onset or maintenance of the neurological condition. PMID:26958307

  19. Biochemical localization of a protein involved in Gluconacetobacter hansenii cellulose synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Prashanti R; Catchmark, Jeffrey M; Brown, Nicole Robitaille; Tien, Ming

    2011-02-08

    Using subcellular fractionation and Western blot methods, we have shown that AcsD, one of the proteins encoded by the Acetobacter cellulose synthase (acs) operon, is localized in the periplasmic region of the cell. AcsD protein was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using histidine tag affinity methods. The purified protein was used to obtain rabbit polyclonal antibodies. The purity of the subcellular fractions was assessed by marker enzyme assays.

  20. Aminopropyltransferases Involved in Polyamine Biosynthesis Localize Preferentially in the Nucleus of Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belda-Palazón, Borja; Ruiz, Leticia; Martí, Esmeralda; Tárraga, Susana; Tiburcio, Antonio F.; Culiáñez, Francisco; Farràs, Rosa; Carrasco, Pedro; Ferrando, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Plant aminopropyltransferases consist of a group of enzymes that transfer aminopropyl groups derived from decarboxylated S-adenosyl-methionine (dcAdoMet or dcSAM) to propylamine acceptors to produce polyamines, ubiquitous metabolites with positive charge at physiological pH. Spermidine synthase (SPDS) uses putrescine as amino acceptor to form spermidine, whereas spermine synthase (SPMS) and thermospermine synthase (TSPMS) use spermidine as acceptor to synthesize the isomers spermine and thermospermine respectively. In previous work it was shown that both SPDS1 and SPDS2 can physically interact with SPMS although no data concerning the subcellular localization was reported. Here we study the subcellular localization of these enzymes and their protein dimer complexes with gateway-based Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) binary vectors. In addition, we have characterized the molecular weight of the enzyme complexes by gel filtration chromatography with in vitro assembled recombinant enzymes and with endogenous plant protein extracts. Our data suggest that aminopropyltransferases display a dual subcellular localization both in the cytosol and nuclear enriched fractions, and they assemble preferably as dimers. The BiFC transient expression data suggest that aminopropyltransferase heterodimer complexes take place preferentially inside the nucleus. PMID:23056524

  1. CCL5-mediated T-cell chemotaxis involves the initiation of mRNA translation through mTOR/4E-BP1

    PubMed Central

    Murooka, Thomas T.; Rahbar, Ramtin; Platanias, Leonidas C.

    2008-01-01

    The multistep, coordinated process of T-cell chemotaxis requires chemokines, and their chemokine receptors, to invoke signaling events to direct cell migration. Here, we examined the role for CCL5-mediated initiation of mRNA translation in CD4+ T-cell chemotaxis. Using rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, our data show the importance of mTOR in CCL5-mediated T-cell migration. Cycloheximide, but not actinomycin D, significantly reduced chemotaxis, suggesting a possible role for mRNA translation in T-cell migration. CCL5 induced phosphorylation/activation of mTOR, p70 S6K1, and ribosomal protein S6. In addition, CCL5 induced PI-3′K–, phospholipase D (PLD)–, and mTOR-dependent phosphorylation and deactivation of the transcriptional repressor 4E-BP1, which resulted in its dissociation from the eukaryotic initiation factor-4E (eIF4E). Subsequently, eIF4E associated with scaffold protein eIF4G, forming the eIF4F translation initiation complex. Indeed, CCL5 initiated active translation of mRNA, shown by the increased presence of high-molecular-weight polysomes that were significantly reduced by rapamycin treatment. Notably, CCL5 induced protein translation of cyclin D1 and MMP-9, known mediators of migration. Taken together, we describe a novel mechanism by which CCL5 influences translation of rapamycin-sensitive mRNAs and “primes” CD4+ T cells for efficient chemotaxis. PMID:18337562

  2. Immunocytochemical localization of short-chain family reductases involved in menthol biosynthesis in peppermint.

    PubMed

    Turner, Glenn W; Davis, Edward M; Croteau, Rodney B

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of the p-menthane monoterpenes in peppermint occurs in the secretory cells of the peltate glandular trichomes and results in the accumulation of primarily menthone and menthol. cDNAs and recombinant enzymes are well characterized for eight of the nine enzymatic steps leading from the 5-carbon precursors to menthol, and subcellular localization of several key enzymes suggests a complex network of substrate and product movement is required during oil biosynthesis. In addition, studies concerning the regulation of oil biosynthesis have demonstrated a temporal partition of the pathway into an early, biosynthetic program that results in the accumulation of menthone and a later, oil maturation program that leads to menthone reduction and concomitant menthol accumulation. The menthone reductase responsible for the ultimate pathway reduction step, menthone-menthol reductase (MMR), has been characterized and found to share significant sequence similarity with its counterpart reductase, a menthone-neomenthol reductase, which catalyzes a minor enzymatic reaction associated with oil maturation. Further, the menthone reductases share significant sequence similarity with the temporally separate and mechanistically different isopiperitenone reductase (IPR). Here we present immunocytochemical localizations for these reductases using a polyclonal antibody raised against menthone-menthol reductase. The polyclonal antibody used for this study showed little specificity between these three reductases, but by using it for immunostaining of tissues of different ages we were able to provisionally separate staining of an early biosynthetic enzyme, IPR, found in young, immature leaves from that of the oil maturation enzyme, MMR, found in older, mature leaves. Both reductases were localized to the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of the secretory cells of peltate glandular trichomes, and were absent from all other cell types examined. PMID:22170164

  3. Tele-Autonomous control involving contact. Final Report Thesis; [object localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Lejun; Volz, Richard A.; Conway, Lynn; Walker, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Object localization and its application in tele-autonomous systems are studied. Two object localization algorithms are presented together with the methods of extracting several important types of object features. The first algorithm is based on line-segment to line-segment matching. Line range sensors are used to extract line-segment features from an object. The extracted features are matched to corresponding model features to compute the location of the object. The inputs of the second algorithm are not limited only to the line features. Featured points (point to point matching) and featured unit direction vectors (vector to vector matching) can also be used as the inputs of the algorithm, and there is no upper limit on the number of the features inputed. The algorithm will allow the use of redundant features to find a better solution. The algorithm uses dual number quaternions to represent the position and orientation of an object and uses the least squares optimization method to find an optimal solution for the object's location. The advantage of using this representation is that the method solves for the location estimation by minimizing a single cost function associated with the sum of the orientation and position errors and thus has a better performance on the estimation, both in accuracy and speed, than that of other similar algorithms. The difficulties when the operator is controlling a remote robot to perform manipulation tasks are also discussed. The main problems facing the operator are time delays on the signal transmission and the uncertainties of the remote environment. How object localization techniques can be used together with other techniques such as predictor display and time desynchronization to help to overcome these difficulties are then discussed.

  4. The Measurement of Translation Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)

  5. Differential Subplastidial Localization and Turnover of Enzymes Involved in Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Perello, Catalina; Llamas, Ernesto; Burlat, Vincent; Ortiz-Alcaide, Miriam; Phillips, Michael A.; Pulido, Pablo; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Plastidial isoprenoids are a diverse group of metabolites with roles in photosynthesis, growth regulation, and interaction with the environment. The methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway produces the metabolic precursors of all types of plastidial isoprenoids. Proteomics studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that all the enzymes of the MEP pathway are localized in the plastid stroma. However, immunoblot analysis of chloroplast subfractions showed that the first two enzymes of the pathway, deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and reductoisomerase (DXR), can also be found in non-stromal fractions. Both transient and stable expression of GFP-tagged DXS and DXR proteins confirmed the presence of the fusion proteins in distinct subplastidial compartments. In particular, DXR-GFP was found to accumulate in relatively large vesicles that could eventually be released from chloroplasts, presumably to be degraded by an autophagy-independent process. Together, we propose that protein-specific mechanisms control the localization and turnover of the first two enzymes of the MEP pathway in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. PMID:26919668

  6. Involvement of the Electrophilic Isothiocyanate Sulforaphane in Arabidopsis Local Defense Responses1

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Mats X.; Nilsson, Anders K.; Johansson, Oskar N.; Boztaş, Gülin; Adolfsson, Lisa E.; Pinosa, Francesco; Petit, Christel Garcia; Aronsson, Henrik; Mackey, David; Tör, Mahmut; Hamberg, Mats; Ellerström, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Plants defend themselves against microbial pathogens through a range of highly sophisticated and integrated molecular systems. Recognition of pathogen-secreted effector proteins often triggers the hypersensitive response (HR), a complex multicellular defense reaction where programmed cell death of cells surrounding the primary site of infection is a prominent feature. Even though the HR was described almost a century ago, cell-to-cell factors acting at the local level generating the full defense reaction have remained obscure. In this study, we sought to identify diffusible molecules produced during the HR that could induce cell death in naive tissue. We found that 4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate (sulforaphane) is released by Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf tissue undergoing the HR and that this compound induces cell death as well as primes defense in naive tissue. Two different mutants impaired in the pathogen-induced accumulation of sulforaphane displayed attenuated programmed cell death upon bacterial and oomycete effector recognition as well as decreased resistance to several isolates of the plant pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Treatment with sulforaphane provided protection against a virulent H. arabidopsidis isolate. Glucosinolate breakdown products are recognized as antifeeding compounds toward insects and recently also as intracellular signaling and bacteriostatic molecules in Arabidopsis. The data presented here indicate that these compounds also trigger local defense responses in Arabidopsis tissue. PMID:25371552

  7. CyDiv, a Conserved and Novel Filamentous Cyanobacterial Cell Division Protein Involved in Septum Localization

    PubMed Central

    Mandakovic, Dinka; Trigo, Carla; Andrade, Derly; Riquelme, Brenda; Gómez-Lillo, Gabriela; Soto-Liebe, Katia; Díez, Beatriz; Vásquez, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria has been studied mostly in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, model organisms for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. However, cell division in filamentous cyanobacteria is poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel protein, named CyDiv (Cyanobacterial Division), encoded by the all2320 gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that CyDiv plays a key role during cell division. CyDiv has been previously described only as an exclusive and conserved hypothetical protein in filamentous cyanobacteria. Using polyclonal antibodies against CyDiv, we showed that it localizes at different positions depending on cell division timing: poles, septum, in both daughter cells, but also in only one of the daughter cells. The partial deletion of CyDiv gene generates partial defects in cell division, including severe membrane instability and anomalous septum localization during late division. The inability to complete knock out CyDiv strains suggests that it is an essential gene. In silico structural protein analyses and our experimental results suggest that CyDiv is an FtsB/DivIC-like protein, and could therefore, be part of an essential late divisome complex in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PMID:26903973

  8. Definition of regions in human c-myc that are involved in transformation and nuclear localization.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, J; de Lange, T; Ramsay, G; Jakobovits, E; Bishop, J M; Varmus, H; Lee, W

    1987-01-01

    To study the relationship between the primary structure of the c-myc protein and some of its functional properties, we made in-frame insertion and deletion mutants of the normal human c-myc coding domain that was expressed from a retroviral promoter-enhancer. We assessed the effects of these mutations on the ability of c-myc protein to cotransform normal rat embryo cells with a mutant ras gene, induce foci in a Rat-1-derived cell line (Rat-1a), and localize in nuclei. Using the cotransformation assay, we found two regions of the protein (amino acids 105 to 143 and 321 to 439) where integrity was critical: one region (amino acids 1 to 104) that tolerated insertion and small deletion mutations, but not large deletions, and another region (amino acids 144) to 320) that was largely dispensable. Comparison with regions that were important for transformation of Rat-1a cells revealed that some are essential for both activities, but others are important for only one or the other, suggesting that the two assays require different properties of the c-myc protein. Deletion of each of three regions of the c-myc protein (amino acids 106 to 143, 320 to 368, and 370 to 412) resulted in partial cytoplasmic localization, as determined by immunofluorescence or immunoprecipitation following subcellular fractionation. Some abnormally located proteins retained transforming activity; most proteins lacking transforming activity appeared to be normally located. Images PMID:3299053

  9. Differential Subplastidial Localization and Turnover of Enzymes Involved in Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Perello, Catalina; Llamas, Ernesto; Burlat, Vincent; Ortiz-Alcaide, Miriam; Phillips, Michael A; Pulido, Pablo; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Plastidial isoprenoids are a diverse group of metabolites with roles in photosynthesis, growth regulation, and interaction with the environment. The methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway produces the metabolic precursors of all types of plastidial isoprenoids. Proteomics studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that all the enzymes of the MEP pathway are localized in the plastid stroma. However, immunoblot analysis of chloroplast subfractions showed that the first two enzymes of the pathway, deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and reductoisomerase (DXR), can also be found in non-stromal fractions. Both transient and stable expression of GFP-tagged DXS and DXR proteins confirmed the presence of the fusion proteins in distinct subplastidial compartments. In particular, DXR-GFP was found to accumulate in relatively large vesicles that could eventually be released from chloroplasts, presumably to be degraded by an autophagy-independent process. Together, we propose that protein-specific mechanisms control the localization and turnover of the first two enzymes of the MEP pathway in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. PMID:26919668

  10. [Physico-chemical signals involved in host localization and in the induction of mosquito bites].

    PubMed

    Torres-Estrada, José Luis; Rodríguez, Mario H

    2003-01-01

    Disease vector female mosquitoes respond to physic-chemical signals to localize vertebrate hosts for blood meals. Zoophylic mosquitoes preferentially respond to CO2 and octenol released in the breath and bodily fluids, while anthropophylic mosquitoes respond to lactic acid and a variety of sweat compounds. These compounds are modified by saprophytic microorganisms in the skin sebaceous glands. Other factors present in human dwellings contribute to the integration of microsystems with characteristic odors that have different attraction for mosquitoes, explaining the focalization of malaria transmission in few households in endemic areas. The identification of the chemical attractants and their molecular receptors could be used to complement new methods to attract mosquitoes to traps during epidemiological surveys, to increase their contact with insecticides in control interventions, and for genetic manipulation to divert mosquito bites towards other animal populations. The English version of this paper is available at:http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html. PMID:14974294

  11. Carbohydrate binding activity in human spermatozoa: localization, specificity, and involvement in sperm-egg fusion.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, A; D'Andrea, G; Cordeschi, G; Properzi, G; Giammatteo, M; De Stefano, C; Romano, R; Francavilla, F; Francavilla, S

    1998-06-01

    Sperm carbohydrate binding activity is involved in gamete recognition. We identified a human sperm protein extracted under reducing conditions, and with a molecular mass of 65 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and which binds D-mannose coupled to albumin (DMA) in presence of cations and a neutral pH. Epifluorescence microscopy showed that fluorescein-DMA binds to dead or permeabilized sperm heads. The DMA-binding activity of human sperm heads was highly specific for a polysaccharide structure containing charged sugar residues. After capacitation, or induction of the acrosome reaction using solubilized zonae pellucidae, fluorescein-DMA was bound respectively to 10.3% (+/- 3.5%) and to 37.6% (+/- 2.1%) of viable sperm heads. The sequential analysis of viable spermatozoa for fluorescein-DMA binding and for rhodamine-Pisum sativum agglutinin binding, showed that DMA-binding sites are present in viable acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Three dimensional analysis of fluorescence and ultrastructural studies showed that DMA-binding sites are mostly restricted to the sub-acrosomal space of the equatorial segment. Incubation of spermatozoa and zona-free hamster eggs in the presence of DMA was associated with a dose-dependent significant reduction in the number of spermatozoa bound to the oolemma, compared with a control, and to a dose-dependent inhibition of oocyte penetration. This effect was highly specific for DMA, suggesting that DMA-binding sites in human spermatozoa are involved in sperm-egg fusion. PMID:9665337

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteins Involved in Mycolic Acid Synthesis and Transport Localize Dynamically to the Old Growing Pole and Septum

    PubMed Central

    Cantaloube, Sylvain; Bonne, Mélanie; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Laval, Françoise; Daffé, Mamadou; Zerbib, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism that controls space-time coordination of elongation and division of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is critical for fighting the tubercle bacillus. Most of the numerous enzymes involved in the synthesis of Mycolic acid - Arabinogalactan-Peptidoglycan complex (MAPc) in the cell wall are essential in vivo. Using a dynamic approach, we localized Mtb enzymes belonging to the fatty acid synthase-II (FAS-II) complexes and involved in mycolic acid (MA) biosynthesis in a mycobacterial model of Mtb: M. smegmatis. Results also showed that the MA transporter MmpL3 was present in the mycobacterial envelope and was specifically and dynamically accumulated at the poles and septa during bacterial growth. This localization was due to its C-terminal domain. Moreover, the FAS-II enzymes were co-localized at the poles and septum with Wag31, the protein responsible for the polar localization of mycobacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The dynamic localization of FAS-II and of the MA transporter with Wag31, at the old-growing poles and at the septum suggests that the main components of the mycomembrane may potentially be synthesized at these precise foci. This finding highlights a major difference between mycobacteria and other rod-shaped bacteria studied to date. Based on the already known polar activities of envelope biosynthesis in mycobacteria, we propose the existence of complex polar machinery devoted to the biogenesis of the entire envelope. As a result, the mycobacterial pole would represent the Achilles' heel of the bacillus at all its growing stages. PMID:24817274

  13. TnphoA and TnphoA' elements for making and switching fusions for study of transcription, translation, and cell surface localization.

    PubMed Central

    Wilmes-Riesenberg, M R; Wanner, B L

    1992-01-01

    We describe a set of elements based on the transposon TnphoA for making transcriptional fusions to the lacZ gene and for making translational fusions to the phoA or lacZ structural gene. Each element can be switched, one for another, by homologous recombination, thereby allowing testing for transcription, translation, or cell surface localization determinants at the same site within a gene. We describe three kinds of elements for making each fusion type. Two kinds are transposition proficient (Tnp+): one encodes kanamycin resistance, and the other encodes tetracycline resistance. The third kind is transposition defective (Tnp-) and encodes kanamycin resistance. In addition, we describe one Tnp- element that has no reporter gene and encodes chloramphenicol resistance; this element is used primarily as a tool to aid in switching fusions. Switching is efficient because each element has in common 254 bp of DNA at the phoA end and 187 bp (or more) of DNA at the IS50R end of TnphoA, and switching is straightforward because individual elements encode different drug resistances. Thus, switched recombinants can be selected as drug-resistant transductants, and they can be recognized as ones that have lost the parental drug resistance and fusion phenotype. Further, switching Tnp+ elements to Tnp- elements reduces problems due to transposition that can arise in P1 crosses or cloning experiments. Some TnphoA and TnphoA' elements cause polar mutations, while others provide an outward promoter for downstream transcription. This feature is especially useful in the determination of operon structures. Strategies for the use of TnphoA and TnphoA' elements in gene analysis are also described. PMID:1378054

  14. Identification of cis- and trans-acting factors involved in the localization of MALAT-1 noncoding RNA to nuclear speckles

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Ryu; Tano, Keiko; Mizuno, Rie; Nakamura, Yo; Ijiri, Kenichi; Rakwal, Randeep; Shibato, Junko; Masuo, Yoshinori; Mayeda, Akila; Hirose, Tetsuro; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    MALAT-1 noncoding RNA is localized to nuclear speckles despite its mRNA-like characteristics. Here, we report the identification of several key factors that promote the localization of MALAT-1 to nuclear speckles and also provide evidence that MALAT-1 is involved in the regulation of gene expression. Heterokaryon assays revealed that MALAT-1 does not shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. RNAi-mediated repression of the nuclear speckle proteins, RNPS1, SRm160, or IBP160, which are well-known mRNA processing factors, resulted in the diffusion of MALAT-1 to the nucleoplasm. We demonstrated that MALAT-1 contains two distinct elements directing transcripts to nuclear speckles, which were also capable of binding to RNPS1 in vitro. Depletion of MALAT-1 represses the expression of several genes. Taken together, our results suggest that RNPS1, SRm160, and IBP160 contribute to the localization of MALAT-1 to nuclear speckles, where MALAT-1 could be involved in regulating gene expression. PMID:22355166

  15. Non-stereotactic method involving combination of ultrasound-guided wire localization and vacuum-assisted breast biopsy for microcalcification

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Park, Ho Yong; Jung, Jin Hyang; Kim, Wan Wook; Hwang, Seung Ook; Kwon, Taek Ju; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Stereotactic breast biopsy is a standard intervention for evaluation of “microcalcification-only” lesions. However, an expensive stereotactic device and radiologic expertise are necessary for this procedure. We herein report a non-stereotactic technique involving the combination of wire localization and vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) under ultrasound (US) guidance. Methods Twenty-two consecutive patients with category 3 or 4a microcalcification only as shown by mammography underwent the above-mentioned non-stereotactic combination method involving US-guided wire localization and VABB. The location of the microcalcification was measured by manual stereotaxis, and the microcalcification was confirmed by specimen mammography after the procedure. Results The mean number ± standard deviation of removed cores and calcified cores was 28.4±13.4 and 2.2±0.9, respectively. In one case, the procedure was repeated 3 times. The histologic diagnoses were fibrocystic change (n=14), fibroadenoma (n=4), sclerosing adenosis (n=1), usual ductal hyperplasia (n=2), and atypical ductal hyperplasia (n=1). Conclusions “Microcalcification-only” breast lesions can be easily evaluated with the combination of non-stereotactic US-guided wire localization and VABB. This would be an effective diagnostic technique for breast lesion which reveals only microcalcification. PMID:27294037

  16. Identifying domains of EFHC1 involved in ciliary localization, ciliogenesis, and the regulation of Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Shi, Jianli; Winey, Mark; Klymkowsky, Michael W

    2016-03-15

    EFHC1 encodes a ciliary protein that has been linked to Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy. In ectodermal explants, derived from Xenopus laevis embryos, the morpholino-mediated down-regulation of EFHC1b inhibited multiciliated cell formation. In those ciliated cells that did form, axoneme but not basal body formation was inhibited. EFHC1b morphant embryos displayed defects in central nervous system (CNS) and neural crest patterning that were rescued by a EFHC1b-GFP chimera. EFHC1b-GFP localized to ciliary axonemes in epidermal, gastrocoele roof plate, and neural tube cells. In X. laevis there is a link between Wnt signaling and multiciliated cell formation. While down-regulation of EFHC1b led to a ~2-fold increase in the activity of the β-catenin/Wnt-responsive TOPFLASH reporter, EFHC1b-GFP did not inhibit β-catenin activation of TOPFLASH. Wnt8a RNA levels were increased in EFHC1b morphant ectodermal explants and intact embryos, analyzed prior to the on-set of ciliogenesis. Rescue of the EFHC1b MO's ciliary axonemal phenotypes required the entire protein; in contrast, the EFHC1b morpholino's Wnt8a, CNS, and neural crest phenotypes were rescued by a truncated form of EFHC1b. The EFHC1b morpholino's Wnt8a phenotype was also rescued by the injection of RNAs encoding secreted Wnt inhibitors, suggesting that these phenotypes are due to effects on Wnt signaling, rather than the loss of cilia, an observation of potential relevance to understanding EFHC1's role in human neural development. PMID:26783883

  17. 40 CFR 310.9 - If more than one local agency or government is involved, can each receive up to $25,000?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If more than one local agency or government is involved, can each receive up to $25,000? 310.9 Section 310.9 Protection of Environment... Reimbursed? § 310.9 If more than one local agency or government is involved, can each receive up to...

  18. Highly effective local control and palliation of mantle cell lymphoma with involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbluth, Benjamin D. . E-mail: rosenblb@mskcc.org; Yahalom, Joachim

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: Although radiosensitivity of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has been demonstrated in vitro, radiotherapy is rarely employed in treatment of MCL. We studied clinical responses of MCL patients treated with involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) predominantly for local control and/or palliation. Methods and Materials: A total of 21 consecutive patients (38 sites) treated with IFRT for MCL were retrospectively analyzed. Median age was 68. Seventeen patients had Stage IV/relapsed disease, 1 had Stage II, and 3 had Stage I disease. Most patients received prior chemotherapy, with an average of two combinations per patient. Mean number of sites treated per patient was two. Mean total dose was 30 Gy. Results: Mean follow-up was 13 months. Overall local response rate was 100%. Complete response was obtained in 64% of the sites and partial response in 36%. Average time to response was 20 days. Twenty-eight sites had a response before radiation therapy was complete. Of 16 sites associated with pre-IFRT pain or discomfort, 15 exhibited post-IFRT relief. Thirteen sites (34%) exhibited local progression, with a median time to progression of 10 months, and an average response duration of 9 months. Five patients experienced Grade II radiation-related toxicity. No Grade III toxicity was reported. Twelve-month overall survival for patients receiving IFRT was 55%. Conclusions: Radiotherapy provided effective and lasting local responses in MCL patients and was associated with minimal toxicity. Radiation doses required for most lesions were relatively low and responses were noticed early in the course of treatment. Radiation therapy should be considered early in the course of relapsing, refractory, or localized MCL.

  19. Prion protein localizes at the ciliary base during neural and cardiovascular development, and its depletion affects α-tubulin post-translational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Halliez, Sophie; Martin-Lannerée, Séverine; Passet, Bruno; Hernandez-Rapp, Julia; Castille, Johan; Urien, Céline; Chat, Sophie; Laude, Hubert; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Mouillet-Richard, Sophie; Béringue, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Although conversion of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrPC) into a misfolded isoform is the underlying cause of prion diseases, understanding PrPC physiological functions has remained challenging. PrPC depletion or overexpression alters the proliferation and differentiation properties of various types of stem and progenitor cells in vitro by unknown mechanisms. Such involvement remains uncertain in vivo in the absence of any drastic phenotype of mice lacking PrPC. Here, we report PrPC enrichment at the base of the primary cilium in stem and progenitor cells from the central nervous system and cardiovascular system of developing mouse embryos. PrPC depletion in a neuroepithelial cell line dramatically altered key cilium-dependent processes, such as Sonic hedgehog signalling and α-tubulin post-translational modifications. These processes were also affected over a limited time window in PrPC–ablated embryos. Thus, our study reveals PrPC as a potential actor in the developmental regulation of microtubule dynamics and ciliary functions. PMID:26679898

  20. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  1. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    DOEpatents

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  2. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  3. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.; Crawford, D.W.

    1982-03-09

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  4. Localization of the enzymes involved in the photoevolution of H sub 2 from acetate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Willeford, K.O.; Gibbs, M. )

    1989-07-01

    The localization of a series of enzymes involved in the anaerobic photodissimilation of acetate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii F-60 adapted to a hydrogen metabolism was determined through the enzymatic analyses of the chloroplastic, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial fractions obtained with a cellular fractionation procedure that incorporated cell wall removal by treatment with autolysine, digestion of the plasmalemma with the detergent digitonin, and fractionation by differential centrifugation on a Percoll step gradient. The sequence of events leading to the photoevolution of H{sub 2} from acetate includes the conversion of acetate into succinate via the extraplastidic glyoxylate cycle, the oxidation of succinate to fumarate by chloroplastic succinate dehydrogenase, and the oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate in the chloroplast by NAD dependent malate dehydrogenase. The level of potential activity for the enzymes assayed were sufficient to accommodate the observed rate of the photoanaerobic dissimilation of acetate and the photoevolution of H{sub 2}.

  5. An Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized RRL protein mediates abscisic acid signal transduction through mitochondrial retrograde regulation involving ABI4

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xuan; Li, Juanjuan; Liu, Jianping; Liu, Kede

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling have been studied for many years; however, how mitochondria-localized proteins play roles in ABA signalling remains unclear. Here an Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRL (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH-LIKE) was shown to function in ABA signalling. A previous study had revealed that the Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRG (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH) is required for cell division in the root meristem. RRL shares 54% and 57% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, with RRG; nevertheless, RRL shows a different function in Arabidopsis. In this study, disruption of RRL decreased ABA sensitivity whereas overexpression of RRL increased ABA sensitivity during seed germination and seedling growth. High expression levels of RRL were found in germinating seeds and developing seedlings, as revealed by β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining of ProRRL–GUS transgenic lines. The analyses of the structure and function of mitochondria in the knockout rrl mutant showed that the disruption of RRL causes extensively internally vacuolated mitochondria and reduced ABA-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of alternative oxidase (AOX) in the alternative respiratory pathway is increased by mitochondrial retrograde regulation to regain ROS levels when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is impaired. The APETALA2 (AP2)-type transcription factor ABI4 is a regulator of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE1a (AOX1a) in mitochondrial retrograde signalling. This study showed that ABA-induced AOX1a and ABI4 expression was inhibited in the rrl mutant, suggesting that RRL is probably involved in ABI4-mediated mitochondrial retrograde signalling. Furthermore, the results revealed that ABI4 is a downstream regulatory factor in RRL-mediated ABA signalling in seed germination and seedling growth. PMID:26163700

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Flax Seeds from the Chernobyl Area Suggests Involvement of Stress, Signaling, and Transcription/Translation in Response to Ionizing Radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) on April 26, 1986 is the most serious nuclear disaster in human history. However, while the area proximal to the CNPP remains substantially contaminated with long-lived radioisotopes including 90Sr and 137Cs, the local ecosystem has been able...

  7. Translational regulation of NeuroD1 expression by FMRP: involvement in glutamatergic neuronal differentiation of cultured rat primary neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Ji-Woon; Kim, Ki Chan; Han, So Min; Go, Hyo Sang; Seo, Jung Eun; Choi, Chang Soon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Song, Mi-Ryoung

    2014-03-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is encoded by Fmr1 gene in which mutation is known to cause fragile X syndrome characterized by mental impairment and other psychiatric symptoms similar to autism spectrum disorders. FMRP plays important roles in cellular mRNA biology such as transport, stability, and translation as an RNA-binding protein. In the present study, we identified potential role of FMRP in the neural differentiation, using cortical neural progenitor cells from Sprague-Dawley rat. We newly found NeuroD1, an essential regulator of glutamatergic neuronal differentiation, as a new mRNA target interacting with FMRP in co-immunoprecipitation experiments. We also identified FMRP as a regulator of neuronal differentiation by modulating NeuroD1 expression. Down-regulation of FMRP by siRNA also increased NeuroD1 expression along with increased pre- and post-synaptic development of glutamatergic neuron, as evidenced by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. On the contrary, cells harboring FMRP over-expression construct showed decreased NeuroD1 expression. Treatment of cultured neural precursor cells with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid known as an inducer of hyper-glutamatergic neuronal differentiation, down-regulated the expression of FMRP, and induced NeuroD1 expression. Our study suggests that modulation of FMRP expression regulates neuronal differentiation by interaction with its binding target mRNA, and provides an example of the gene and environmental interaction regulating glutamatergic neuronal differentiation. PMID:24338128

  8. The processed isoform of the translation termination factor eRF3 localizes to the nucleus to interact with the ARF tumor suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Yoshifumi; Kumagai, Naomichi; Hosoda, Nao; Hoshino, Shin-ichi

    2014-03-14

    Highlights: • So far, eRF3 has been thought to function exclusively in the cytoplasm. • eRF3 is a nucleo-cutoplasmic shuttling protein. • eRF3 has a leptomycin-sensitive nuclear export signal (NES). • Removal of NES by proteolytic cleavage allows eRF3 to translocate to the nucleus. • The processed eRF3 (p-eRF3) interacts with a nuclear tumor suppressor ARF. - Abstract: The eukaryotic releasing factor eRF3 is a multifunctional protein that plays pivotal roles in translation termination as well as the initiation of mRNA decay. eRF3 also functions in the regulation of apoptosis; eRF3 is cleaved at Ala73 by an as yet unidentified protease into processed isoform of eRF3 (p-eRF3), which interacts with the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). The binding of p-eRF3 with IAPs leads to the release of active caspases from IAPs, which promotes apoptosis. Although full-length eRF3 is localized exclusively in the cytoplasm, p-eRF3 localizes in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm. We here focused on the role of p-eRF3 in the nucleus. We identified leptomycin-sensitive nuclear export signal (NES) at amino acid residues 61–71 immediately upstream of the cleavage site Ala73. Thus, the proteolytic cleavage of eRF3 into p-eRF3 leads to release an amino-terminal fragment containing NES to allow the relocalization of eRF3 into the nucleus. Consistent with this, p-eRF3 more strongly interacted with the nuclear ARF tumor suppressor than full-length eRF3. These results suggest that while p-eRF3 interacts with IAPs to promote apoptosis in the cytoplasm, p-eRF3 also has some roles in regulating cell death in the nucleus.

  9. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 regulates the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via pathways involving reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong-Rong; Lv, Ya-Su; Tang, Yue-Xiao; Wang, Yan-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Xiao-Xiao; Xie, Shang-Zhi; Cai, Ying; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Ning

    2016-04-26

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF5A2) has been identified as a critical gene in tumor metastasis. Research has suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as signaling molecules in cancer cell proliferation and migration. However, the mechanisms linking eIF5A2 and ROS are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects of ROS on the eIF5A2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration in six hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Western hybridization, siRNA transfection, transwell migration assays, wound-healing assays, and immunofluorescence analysis were used. The protein levels of eIF5A2 in tumor and adjacent tissue samples from 90 HCC patients with detailed clinical, pathological, and clinical follow-up data were evaluated. Overexpression of eIF5A2 was found in cancerous tissues compared with adjacent tissues. We found that eIF5A2 overexpression in HCC was associated with reduced overall survival. Knockdown of eIF5A2 and intracellular reduction of ROS significantly suppressed the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells. Interestingly, N1-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane (GC7) suppressed the intracellular ROS levels. After blocking the EMT, administration of GC7 or N-acetyl-L-cysteine did not reduce cell migration further. Based on the experimental data, we concluded that inhibition of eIF5A2 alters progression of the EMT to decrease the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells via ROS-related pathways. PMID:27028999

  10. Biogenesis of mitochondria in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) curds subjected to temperature stress and recovery involves regulation of the complexome, respiratory chain activity, organellar translation and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Rurek, Michal; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2015-01-01

    The biogenesis of the cauliflower curd mitochondrial proteome was investigated under cold, heat and the recovery. For the first time, two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis was used to study the plant mitochondrial complexome in heat and heat recovery. Particularly, changes in the complex I and complex III subunits and import proteins, and the partial disintegration of matrix complexes were observed. The presence of unassembled subunits of ATP synthase was accompanied by impairment in mitochondrial translation of its subunit. In cold and heat, the transcription profiles of mitochondrial genes were uncorrelated. The in-gel activities of respiratory complexes were particularly affected after stress recovery. Despite a general stability of respiratory chain complexes in heat, functional studies showed that their activity and the ATP synthesis yield were affected. Contrary to cold stress, heat stress resulted in a reduced efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation likely due to changes in alternative oxidase (AOX) activity. Stress and stress recovery differently modulated the protein level and activity of AOX. Heat stress induced an increase in AOX activity and protein level, and AOX1a and AOX1d transcript level, while heat recovery reversed the AOX protein and activity changes. Conversely, cold stress led to a decrease in AOX activity (and protein level), which was reversed after cold recovery. Thus, cauliflower AOX is only induced by heat stress. In heat, contrary to the AOX activity, the activity of rotenone-insensitive internal NADH dehydrogenase was diminished. The relevance of various steps of plant mitochondrial biogenesis to temperature stress response and recovery is discussed. PMID:25617518

  11. Bringing the Community into the Process: Issues and Promising Practices for Involving Parents & Business in Local Smart Start Partnerships. UNC Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Mary; Noblit, George

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under age 6 and their families. The aim of the program is ensuring that all children enter school healthy and ready to learn. This study examined parent and business involvement in local Smart Start…

  12. Increasing the reach: Involving local Muslim religious teachers in a behavioral intervention to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Celone, Mike; Person, Bobbie; Ali, Said M; Lyimo, Jameelat H; Mohammed, Ulfat A; Khamis, Alippo N; Mohammed, Yussra S; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Rollinson, David; Knopp, Stefanie

    2016-11-01

    In Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, Madrassa schools are influential institutions, where children and adults can learn about the interpretation of the Koran. We aimed to explore the involvement of Madrassa teachers for behavior change interventions in a randomized operational research trial designed to investigate the impact of multiple approaches to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis transmission from Zanzibar. Madrassa teachers performing in the 30 communities of the behavior change study arm were trained in new interactive and participatory teaching methods by the local behavioral team and provided with schistosomiasis-teaching tools for teaching about transmission and prevention in their Madrassa. In July 2014, in a qualitative research study, we conducted 25 semi-structured interviews with Madrassa teachers to find out how they perceived their involvement in interventions against schistosomiasis. In 2014, 5926 among the 8497 registered Madrassa students in 30 communities on Unguja and Pemba islands received health education and participated in interactive behavior change exercises about schistosomiasis. Madrassa teachers reported that they valued their inclusion in the study and the opportunity to educate their students about schistosomiasis transmission, prevention, and treatment. They also perceived personal and community benefits as a result of their training and strongly supported the inclusion of additional Madrassa teachers in future intervention activities. Madrassa teachers are influential in the Zanzibari society, and hence are important change agents within our community-level behavioral intervention. They might constitute an untapped resource that can help to expand and increase acceptance of and participation in schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical disease control activities in African Muslim communities. PMID:27498244

  13. The reinforcing effects of ethanol within the nucleus accumbens shell involve activation of local GABA and serotonin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zheng-Ming; Ingraham, Cynthia M.; Rodd, Zachary A.; McBride, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is reinforcing within the nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Ethanol can potentiate the function of the GABAA, GABAB, and 5-HT3 receptors. Therefore, the current study tested the hypothesis that activation of these receptors would be involved in the reinforcing effects of ethanol in the NACsh. An intracranial self-administration (ICSA) procedure was used to assess the reinforcing effects of ethanol in the NACsh of alcohol preferring (P) rats. The ICSA consisted of 7 sessions: 4 sessions to establish 150 mg% ethanol self-infusion into the NACsh; sessions 5 and 6 with co-infusion of ethanol plus one concentration of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (10 or 100 µM), the GABAB antagonist SCH 50911 (50, 75 or 100 µM), or the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist zacopride (10 or 100 µM); and session 7 with 150 mg% ethanol alone. All groups self-infused ethanol into the NACsh and readily discriminated the active from inactive lever during the acquisition sessions. Co-infusion of 100 µM, but not 10 µM, bicuculline or zacopride significantly decreased active responses during sessions 5 and 6. Co-infusion of 75 µM, but not 50 or 100 µM, SCH 50911 significantly attenuated responses for ethanol. Overall, the results suggest that the reinforcing effects of ethanol in the NACsh may be modulated by activation of local GABAA, GABAB and 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:25922425

  14. Local thermodynamic equilibrium and related metrological issues involving collisional-radiative model in laser-induced aluminum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travaillé, G.; Peyrusse, O.; Bousquet, B.; Canioni, L.; Pierres, K. Michel-Le; Roy, S.

    2009-10-01

    We present a collisional-radiative approach of the theoretical analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasmas. This model, which relies on an optimized effective potential atomic structure code, was used to simulate a pure aluminum plasma. The description of aluminum involved a set of 220 atomic levels representative of three different stages of ionization (Al 0, Al + and Al ++). The calculations were carried for stationary plasmas, with input parameters ( ne and Te) ranging respectively between 10 13-18 cm - 3 and 0.3-2 eV. A comparison of our atomic data with some existing databases is made. The code was mainly developed to address the validity of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) assumption. For usual LIBS plasma parameters, we did not reveal a sizeable discrepancy of the radiative equilibrium of the plasma towards LTE. For cases where LTE was firmly believed to stand, the Boltzmann plot outputs of this code were used to check the physical accuracy of the Boltzmann temperature, as it is currently exploited in several calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) studies. In this paper, a deviation ranging between 10 and 30% of the measured Boltzmann temperature to the real excitation temperature is reported. This may be due to the huge dispersion induced on the line emissivities, on which the Boltzmann plots are based to extract this parameter. Consequences of this fact on the CF-LIBS procedure are discussed and further insights to be considered for the future are introduced.

  15. Staging "Swissness": Inter- and Intracultural Theatre Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jane

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the choice to translate plays from "Hochdeutsch" (the standard form of the German language) into local dialect in German-speaking Switzerland. It first looks at the creative process of translating for the amateur stage and then at the reasons behind the choice to translate. It argues that this choice reflects a desire to…

  16. Collaborative Translations: Designing Bilingual Instructional Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Christopher S.; Puzio, Kelly; Jiménez, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the role of collaboration and multilingual literacy as 21st-century skills, the authors used design research methods to present, analyze, and refine a strategic reading approach for bilingual students. The collaborative translation strategy involves reading an academic text, translating key passages, and evaluating these translations.…

  17. Implementation of Parent Child Interaction Therapy Within Foster Care: An Attempt to Translate an Evidence-Based Program Within a Local Child Welfare Agency

    PubMed Central

    Topitzes, James; Mersky, Joshua P.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative adaptation of an evidence-based intervention – Parent Child Interaction Therapy or PCIT – to foster parent training services. The authors faced multiple problems that commonly plague translational child welfare research as they developed, implemented and tested their model. The paper discusses how the authors addressed these problems when: 1) specifying the child welfare context in which the intervention model was implemented and tested, choosing an intervention model that responded to child welfare service needs, and tailoring the model for a child welfare context; 2) securing external funding and initiating sustainability plans for model uptake; and 3) forging a university-community partnership to overcome logistical and ethical obstacles. Concluding with a summary of promising preliminary study results, a description of future plans to replicate and spread the model, and a distillation of project lessons, the paper suggests that child welfare translational research with PCIT is very promising. PMID:25729340

  18. Quantifying the Impact of Participation in Local Tobacco Control Groups on the Psychological Empowerment of Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Debra J.; Crankshaw, Erik; Nimsch, Christian; Hinnant, Laurie W.; Hund, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    A core component of Legacy's Statewide Youth Movement Against Tobacco Use is the ability of state and local initiatives to empower youth to effect change in their communities. The authors' conceptual framework proposes that youth empowerment is an outcome of the process by which youths become active participants in local efforts. Youths are…

  19. Synaptic Plasticity and Translation Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is…

  20. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulations at 40 CFR 1501.2(d) require agencies to provide for early involvement in actions which, while...) To implement the requirements of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions FSA shall: (1... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and...

  1. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regulations at 40 CFR 1501.2(d) require agencies to provide for early involvement in actions which, while...) To implement the requirements of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions FSA shall: (1... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and...

  2. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulations at 40 CFR 1501.2(d) require agencies to provide for early involvement in actions which, while...) To implement the requirements of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions FSA shall: (1... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and...

  3. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Early involvement in... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in...

  4. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Early involvement in... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in...

  5. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Early involvement in... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in...

  6. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations at 40 CFR 1501.2(d) require agencies to provide for early involvement in actions which, while...) To implement the requirements of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions FSA shall: (1... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and...

  7. 7 CFR 799.7 - Early involvement in private and state and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulations at 40 CFR 1501.2(d) require agencies to provide for early involvement in actions which, while...) To implement the requirements of 40 CFR 1501.2(d) with respect to these actions FSA shall: (1... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Early involvement in private and state and...

  8. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Early involvement in... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in...

  9. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Early involvement in... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in...

  10. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams. PMID:20187952

  11. 40 CFR 310.9 - If more than one local agency or government is involved, can each receive up to $25,000?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If more than one local agency or government is involved, can each receive up to $25,000? 310.9 Section 310.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW...

  12. 40 CFR 310.9 - If more than one local agency or government is involved, can each receive up to $25,000?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If more than one local agency or government is involved, can each receive up to $25,000? 310.9 Section 310.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW...

  13. Apparatus Translates Crossed-Laser-Beam Probe Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.; South, Bruce W.; Exton, Reginald J.

    1994-01-01

    Optomechanical apparatus translates probe volume of crossed-beam laser velocimeter or similar instrument while maintaining optical alignment of beams. Measures velocity, pressure, and temperature of flowing gas at several locations. Repeated tedious realignments no longer necessary. Designed to accommodate stimulated-Raman-gain spectrometer for noninvasive measurement of local conditions in flowing gas in supersonic wind tunnel. Applicable to other techniques like coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy involving use of laser beams crossed at small angles (10 degrees or less).

  14. Russian Translation.

    PubMed

    O'dette, R E

    1957-03-29

    This discussion has described the status of the large United States program for translation from the Russian. A partial description of what is being done or planned, and by whom, has been provided as a guide for those who wish to follow the subject further. The urge to pass on useful information has necessarily restricted the space which might also have been profitably devoted to the philosophic aspects of the problem. Although it is not said with any sense of pride in achievement-because much more remains to be done than has been done-it would seem fair to describe the current national translation activity, including all contributions to it, as a phenomenon. Phenomena in scientific communication are not common: a full appreciation of their significance requires more analysis than results from a simple listing of their outward characteristics. But a few observations might be made in conclusion. Most United States scientists probably feel that, as a nation, we are and should be world leaders in science, even though this feeling is neither nurtured nor expressed in a spirit of violent competition. If this assumption is allowed, the point which seems to remain is that the United States will not retain its position casually. Our scientists expect to maintain an awareness of the scientific achievements and failures of the other nations of the world. But we must especially become more aware of the advances of Soviet science, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The evidence points toward this last conclusion, regardless of whether one is concerned with the production of ideas or things, increase in man's knowledge of himself and his environment, conflict between idealisms, or simply the national security. PMID:17836422

  15. Why social science matters in river management: involvement of local stakeholders in monitoring the effects of room for the river measures in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbrugge, Laura; van den Born, Riyan

    2015-04-01

    The Netherlands is a densely populated delta region with a long tradition in flood protection and river management. In response to climate change, adaptive measures are implemented to create more room for the river (and thus increasing water discharge capacity) while at the same time maintaining the multifunctional use of the river system. These functions include for example navigation, water supply, housing and spatial quality, nature development and recreation. The incorporation of social aspects in water management is vital for the development and implementation of sustainable solutions in environmental planning. Active stakeholder involvement has major benefits in terms of trust, public support, social learning and creative decision making. In practice, however, stakeholder involvement is often confined to one-way communication (e.g. information on websites and public hearings) instead of establishing a dialogue with the relevant local stakeholders. Moreover, stakeholders are often involved too late. Our study focusses on stakeholder perceptions and the opportunities for stakeholder participation and collaboration in river management. One way to actively involve stakeholders and invest in a dialogue is through participatory monitoring, i.e. to involve local stakeholders in collecting, analyzing and evaluating monitoring data. Currently, a pilot engineering intervention (2013-2015) is carried out in the Waal river, i.e. the main Rhine branch in The Netherlands. This intervention comprises the substitution of traditional groynes by a 10 km longitudinal dam and will change the appearance of the fluvial landscape dramatically. An interdisciplinary team of scientists, government representatives and other public and private parties is involved in monitoring the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic effects of the longitudinal dam with the aim to develop and improve models, guidelines and tools for integrative river management. This also provides unique

  16. Alfalfa Mob1-like proteins are involved in cell proliferation and are localized in the cell division plane during cytokinesis

    SciTech Connect

    Citterio, Sandra; Piatti, Simonetta; Albertini, Emidio; Aina, Roberta; Varotto, Serena; Barcaccia, Gianni . E-mail: gianni.barcaccia@unipd.it

    2006-04-15

    Mps-one-binder (Mob) proteins play a crucial role in yeast cytokinesis. After cloning two Mob1-like genes, MsMob1-A and MsMob1-B from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) we show that, although they are constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and pods, their transcripts and proteins are mostly produced in actively proliferating tissues. A polyclonal antibody specifically raised against MsMob1 proteins was used for immunolocalization studies in synchronized root tip cells. The subcellular localization of MsMob1-like proteins is demonstrated to be cell cycle-regulated. Cytoplasmic localization is faint and diffused during G{sub 1} and S. It becomes concentrated in punctuate and fibrillar structures in G{sub 2} as well as M phase. At the stage of cytokinesis, the protein is found at the emerging cell plate marking the progressive formation of the septum. Mob1 proteins partially co-localize with microtubules structures functionally related to the spindles and important for cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells. The MsMob1 expression cannot rescue the lethality of the yeast mob1 mutant, suggesting that interaction of Mob1 proteins with their effectors may be species-specific. Localization of Mob1 proteins in the inner layer of the root cap indicates an additional function for this class of proteins in plants, which is likely related to the onset of programmed cell death.

  17. NuMA localization, stability, and function in spindle orientation involve 4.1 and Cdk1 interactions

    PubMed Central

    Seldin, Lindsey; Poulson, Nicholas D.; Foote, Henry P.; Lechler, Terry

    2013-01-01

    The epidermis is a multilayered epithelium that requires asymmetric divisions for stratification. A conserved cortical protein complex, including LGN, nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA), and dynein/dynactin, plays a key role in establishing proper spindle orientation during asymmetric divisions. The requirements for the cortical recruitment of these proteins, however, remain unclear. In this work, we show that NuMA is required to recruit dynactin to the cell cortex of keratinocytes. NuMA's cortical recruitment requires LGN; however, LGN interactions are not sufficient for this localization. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we find that the 4.1-binding domain of NuMA is important for stabilizing its interaction with the cell cortex. This is functionally important, as loss of 4.1/NuMA interaction results in spindle orientation defects, using two distinct assays. Furthermore, we observe an increase in cortical NuMA localization as cells enter anaphase. Inhibition of Cdk1 or mutation of a single residue in NuMA mimics this effect. NuMA's anaphase localization is independent of LGN and 4.1 interactions, revealing two distinct mechanisms responsible for NuMA cortical recruitment at different stages of mitosis. This work highlights the complexity of NuMA localization and reveals the importance of NuMA cortical stability for productive force generation during spindle orientation. PMID:24109598

  18. The role of multidetector CT in local staging and evaluation of retroperitoneal surgical margin involvement in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Elibol, Funda Dinç; Obuz, Funda; Sökmen, Selman; Terzi, Cem; Canda, Aras Emre; Sağol, Özgül; Sarıoğlu, Sülen

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate preoperative T and N staging and retroperitoneal surgical margin (RSM) involvement in colon cancer using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). METHODS In this retrospective study, preoperative MDCTs of 141 patients with colon adenocarcinoma were evaluated in terms of T and N staging and retroperitoneal surgical margin involvement by two observers. Results were compared with histopathology. RESULTS In determining extramural invasion, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of MDCT were 81%, 50%, 95%, 26%, and 81% for observer 1 and 87%, 75%, 97%, 27%, and 84% for observer 2, respectively. Moderate interobserver agreement was observed (κ=0.425). In determining T stage of the tumor, accuracy of MDCT was 55% for observer 1 and 51% for observer 2. In the detection of lymph node metastasis, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of MDCT were 84%, 46%, 60%, 74% and 64% for observer 1 and 84%, 56%, 65%, 78%, and 70% for observer 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was substantial (κ=0.650). RSM was involved in six cases (4.7%). When only retroperitoneal colon segments were considered, 1.6% of subjects demonstrated RSM involvement. Four of the six RSM-positive tumors were located on sigmoid colon and one tumor was on transverse colon and caecum. Considering all colon tumors, in the detection of RSM involvement, sensitivity and specificity of MDCT were 33% and 81% for observer 1 and 50% and 80% for observer 2. Interobserver agreement was moderate (κ=0.518). CONCLUSION MDCT is a promising technique with moderate interobserver agreement in detection of extramural invasion, lymph node metastases, and RSM involvement in colon carcinomas. PMID:26611110

  19. Knowledge in motion: The cultural politics of modern science translations in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Elshakry, Marwa S

    2008-12-01

    This essay looks at the problem of the global circulation of modem scientific knowledge by looking at science translations in modern Arabic. In the commercial centers of the late Ottoman Empire, emerging transnational networks lay behind the development of new communities of knowledge, many of which sought to break with old linguistic and literary norms to redefine the basis of their authority. Far from acting as neutral purveyors of "universal truths," scientific translations thus served as key instruments in this ongoing process of sociopolitical and epistemological transformation and mediation. Fierce debates over translators' linguistic strategies and choices involved deliberations over the character of language and the nature of "science" itself. They were also crucially shaped by such geopolitical factors as the rise of European imperialism and anticolonial nationalism in the region. The essay concludes by arguing for the need for greater attention to the local factors involved in the translation of scientific concepts across borders. PMID:19334518

  20. Increasing Business and Parental Involvement in Grades 4-7 by Forming Partnerships between School and Local Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinson, Kay S.

    This paper describes a practicum designed to increase parent and business involvement in the educational experiences of students in grades 4-7 at a rural school in the southeastern United States. Teacher surveys and other data indicated that the students had very little experience or understanding of the business world in which they eventually…

  1. Of Texts AND Translations And Rhizomes: Postcolonial Anxieties and Deracinations and Knowledge Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2006-01-01

    This article uncovers some problems involved in culling and translating non-western texts--written in other languages, at particular times, for specific audiences, and rooted in particular local milieus--before assembling them into academic arguments in English in the west. Based on my longterm, evolving endeavour regarding English- and…

  2. ORP5/ORP8 localize to endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contacts and are involved in mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Galmes, Romain; Houcine, Audrey; van Vliet, Alexander R; Agostinis, Patrizia; Jackson, Catherine L; Giordano, Francesca

    2016-06-01

    The oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related proteins ORP5 and ORP8 have been shown recently to transport phosphatidylserine (PS) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane (PM) at ER-PM contact sites. PS is also transferred from the ER to mitochondria where it acts as precursor for mitochondrial PE synthesis. Here, we show that, in addition to ER-PM contact sites, ORP5 and ORP8 are also localized to ER-mitochondria contacts and interact with the outer mitochondrial membrane protein PTPIP51. A functional lipid transfer (ORD) domain was required for this localization. Interestingly, ORP5 and ORP8 depletion leads to defects in mitochondria morphology and respiratory function. PMID:27113756

  3. The Translated Dowling Polynomials and Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Mangontarum, Mahid M.; Macodi-Ringia, Amila P.; Abdulcarim, Normalah S.

    2014-01-01

    More properties for the translated Whitney numbers of the second kind such as horizontal generating function, explicit formula, and exponential generating function are proposed. Using the translated Whitney numbers of the second kind, we will define the translated Dowling polynomials and numbers. Basic properties such as exponential generating functions and explicit formula for the translated Dowling polynomials and numbers are obtained. Convexity, integral representation, and other interesting identities are also investigated and presented. We show that the properties obtained are generalizations of some of the known results involving the classical Bell polynomials and numbers. Lastly, we established the Hankel transform of the translated Dowling numbers.

  4. The outer membrane localization of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MsrA/B is involved in survival against reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Skaar, Eric P.; Tobiason, Deborah M.; Quick, J.; Judd, Ralph C.; Weissbach, Herbert; Etienne, Frantzy; Brot, Nathan; Seifert, H. Steven

    2002-01-01

    The PilB protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been reported to be involved in the regulation of pilin gene transcription, but it also possesses significant homology to the peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase family of enzymes, specifically MsrA and MsrB from Escherichia coli. MsrA and MsrB in E. coli are able to reduce methionine sulfoxide residues in proteins to methionines. In addition, the gonococcal PilB protein encodes for both MsrA and MsrB activity associated with the repair of oxidative damage to proteins. In this work, we demonstrate that the PilB protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is not involved in pilus expression. Additionally, we show that wild-type N. gonorrhoeae produces two forms of this polypeptide, one of which contains a signal sequence and is secreted from the bacterial cytoplasm to the outer membrane; the other lacks a signal sequence and is cytoplasmic. Furthermore, we show that the secreted form of the PilB protein is involved in survival in the presence of oxidative damage. PMID:12096194

  5. Stakeholders and public involvement for flood protection: traditional river management organisations for a better consideration of local knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utz, Stephan; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to understand how traditional, highly participatory, local organisations for flood protection have been institutionalised into current river management policy, and to what extent this has impacted on wider participatory processes of producing knowledge. Traditionally, flood protection strategies have been based upon scientific knowledge but have often ignored the capacities of local actors to contribute to the development of the policy. Thus, there may be a gap between scientists, stakeholders and the public that favours controversies and leads to opposition to flood protection projects. In order to reduce this gap and to increase incorporation of local knowledge, participatory processes are set up. They are considered as allowing the integration of all the actors concerned by flood risks to discuss their positions and to develop alternative solutions. This is a particularly important goal in the Swiss political system where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project. In order to support implementation of participatory processes, federal funding includes a special grant to cover the additional costs due to these actions. It is considered that, since its introduction in 2008, this grant certainly furthered participatory processes for flood protection projects and fostered water management policy implementation. However, the implication of stakeholders and public in decision-making processes is much well-established than modern river management often assumes. In some regions, flood protection tasks have been traditionally assumed by local organisations such as dyke corporations (DCs). These comprise land and property owners who are DC members and have to participate in flood protection

  6. Informing Women on Menopause and Hormone Therapy: Know the Menopause a Multidisciplinary Project Involving Local Healthcare System

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Serena; Satolli, Roberto; Colombo, Cinzia; Senatore, Sabrina; Cotichini, Rodolfo; Da Cas, Roberto; Spila Alegiani, Stefania; Mosconi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Hormone therapy (HT) in the menopause is still a tricky question among healthcare providers, women and mass media. Informing women about hormone replacement therapy was a Consensus Conference (CC) organized in 2008: the project Know the Menopause has been launched to shift out the results to women and healthcare providers and to assess the impact of the cc’s statement. Methods And Findings: The project, aimed at women aged 45-60 years, was developed in four Italian Regions: Lombardy, Tuscany, Lazio, Sicily, each with one Local Health Unit (LHU) as “intervention” and one as “control”. Activities performed were: survey on the press; training courses for health professionals; educational materials for target populations; survey aimed at women, general practitioners (GPs), and gynaecologists; data analysis on HT drugs’ prescription. Local activities were: training courses; public meetings; dissemination on mass media. About 3,700 health professionals were contacted and 1,800 participated in the project. About 146,500 printed leaflets on menopause were distributed to facilitate the dialogue among women and health care professionals. Training courses and educational cascade-process activities: participation ranged 25- 72% of GPs, 17-71% of gynaecologists, 14-78% of pharmacists, 34-85% of midwives. Survey: 1,281 women interviewed. More than 90% believed menopause was a normal phase in life. More than half did not receive information about menopause and therapies. HT prescription analysis: prevalence fell from 6% to 4% in five years. No differences in time trends before-after the intervention. Major limitations are: organizational difficulties met by LHU, too short time for some local activities. Conclusions A huge amount of information was spread through health professionals and women. The issue of menopause was also used to discuss women’s wellbeing. This project offered an opportunity to launch a multidisciplinary, multimodal approach to

  7. Greek medical papyri from the Fayum village of Tebtunis: patient involvement in a local health-care system?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Ann Ellis

    2005-01-01

    The Greek papyri of medical content from Tebtunis are conspicuous for their quantity and quality, when compared with neighbouring villages. By isolating another feature in which Tebtunis is also unique--namely, in the relatively large number of those of privileged status who maintained residences and left important documents in the village, it would appear that these outsiders were instrumental in interesting the local priests in sophisticated Greek medicine and in bringing medical texts into the village. Tebtunis may thus provide an ancient example of patients influencing the health care available to them and their families when resident in the village. PMID:17144084

  8. [Systemic approach to ecologic safety at objects with radiation jeopardy, involved into localization of low and medium radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Veselov, E I

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with specifying systemic approach to ecologic safety of objects with radiation jeopardy. The authors presented stages of work and algorithm of decisions on preserving reliability of storage for radiation jeopardy waste. Findings are that providing ecologic safety can cover 3 approaches: complete exemption of radiation jeopardy waste, removal of more dangerous waste from present buildings and increasing reliability of prolonged localization of radiation jeopardy waste at the initial place. The systemic approach presented could be realized at various radiation jeopardy objects. PMID:21774123

  9. Expression of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Human Kidney and in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Maria R; Rocca, Bruno J; Barone, Aurora; Onorati, Monica; Mundo, Lucia; Crivelli, Filippo; Di Nuovo, Franca; De Falco, Giulia; del Vecchio, Maria T; Tripodi, Sergio A; Tosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein is a multifaceted protein involved in several physiological and biological functions. Its expression in normal kidney and in renal carcinomas, once corroborated by functional data, may add elements to elucidate renal physiology and carcinogenesis. In this study, translationally controlled tumor protein expression was evaluated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and its localization was examined by immunohistochemistry on 84 nephrectomies for cancer. In normal kidney protein expression was found in the cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubular cells, in cells of the thick segment of the loop of Henle, and in urothelial cells of the pelvis. It was also detectable in cells of renal carcinoma with different pattern of localization (membranous and cytoplasmic) depending on tumor histotype. Our data may suggest an involvement of translationally controlled tumor protein in normal physiology and carcinogenesis. However, functional in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to verify this hypothesis. PMID:26425551

  10. Expression of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Human Kidney and in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Maria R.; Rocca, Bruno J.; Barone, Aurora; Onorati, Monica; Mundo, Lucia; Crivelli, Filippo; Di Nuovo, Franca; De Falco, Giulia; del Vecchio, Maria T.; Tripodi, Sergio A.; Tosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein is a multifaceted protein involved in several physiological and biological functions. Its expression in normal kidney and in renal carcinomas, once corroborated by functional data, may add elements to elucidate renal physiology and carcinogenesis. In this study, translationally controlled tumor protein expression was evaluated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and its localization was examined by immunohistochemistry on 84 nephrectomies for cancer. In normal kidney protein expression was found in the cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubular cells, in cells of the thick segment of the loop of Henle, and in urothelial cells of the pelvis. It was also detectable in cells of renal carcinoma with different pattern of localization (membranous and cytoplasmic) depending on tumor histotype. Our data may suggest an involvement of translationally controlled tumor protein in normal physiology and carcinogenesis. However, functional in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to verify this hypothesis. PMID:26425551

  11. Identification of Ourmiavirus 30K movement protein amino acid residues involved in symptomatology, viral movement, subcellular localization and tubule formation.

    PubMed

    Margaria, Paolo; Anderson, Charles T; Turina, Massimo; Rosa, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Several plant viruses encode movement proteins (MPs) classified in the 30K superfamily. Despite a great functional diversity, alignment analysis of MP sequences belonging to the 30K superfamily revealed the presence of a central core region, including amino acids potentially critical for MP structure and functionality. We performed alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the Ourmia melon virus (OuMV) MP, and studied the effects of amino acid substitutions on MP properties and virus infection. We identified five OuMV mutants that were impaired in systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana, and two mutants showing necrosis and pronounced mosaic symptoms, respectively, in N. benthamiana. Green fluorescent protein fusion constructs (GFP:MP) of movement-defective MP alleles failed to localize in distinct foci at the cell wall, whereas a GFP fusion with wild-type MP (GFP:MPwt) mainly co-localized with plasmodesmata and accumulated at the periphery of epidermal cells. The movement-defective mutants also failed to produce tubular protrusions in protoplasts isolated from infected leaves, suggesting a link between tubule formation and the ability of OuMV to move. In addition to providing data to support the importance of specific amino acids for OuMV MP functionality, we predict that these conserved residues might be critical for the correct folding and/or function of the MP of other viral species in the 30K superfamily. PMID:26637973

  12. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  13. Can Computer Translation Replace Human Translation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schairer, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates three commercial computer-based language translation programs' translation of a university social sciences telephone survey from English to Spanish. The three programs, "Spanish Scholar,""Spanish Assistant," and "Spanish Amigo," were rated as unacceptable in their quality of translations by native and near-native Spanish speakers. (nine…

  14. Leveraging The Affordable Care Act To Enroll Justice-Involved Populations In Medicaid: State And Local Efforts.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Sachini N; Huskamp, Haiden A; Riedel, Lauren E; McGinty, Emma E; Webster, Daniel; Toone, Robert E; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act provides an unprecedented opportunity to enroll criminal justice-involved populations in health insurance, particularly Medicaid. As a result, many state and county corrections departments have launched programs that incorporate Medicaid enrollment in discharge planning. Our study characterizes the national landscape of programs enrolling criminal justice-involved populations in Medicaid as of January 2015. We provide an overview of sixty-four programs operating in jails, prisons, or community probation and parole systems that enroll individuals during detention, incarceration, and the release process. We describe the variation among the programs in terms of settings, personnel, timing of eligibility screening, and target populations. Seventy-seven percent of the programs are located in jails, and 56 percent use personnel from public health or social service agencies. We describe four practices that have facilitated the Medicaid enrollment process: suspending instead of terminating Medicaid benefits upon incarceration, presuming that an individual is eligible for Medicaid before the process is completed, allowing enrollment during incarceration, and accepting alternative forms of identification for enrollment. The criminal justice system is a complex one that requires a variety of approaches to enroll individuals in Medicaid. Future research should examine how these approaches influence health and criminal justice outcomes. PMID:26643624

  15. Leveraging The Affordable Care Act To Enroll Justice-Involved Populations In Medicaid: State And Local Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Bandara, Sachini N.; Huskamp, Haiden A.; Riedel, Lauren E.; McGinty, Emma E.; Webster, Daniel; Toone, Robert E.; Barry, Colleen L.

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act provides an unprecedented opportunity to enroll criminal justice–involved populations in health insurance, particularly Medicaid. As a result, many state and county corrections departments have launched programs that incorporate Medicaid enrollment in discharge planning. Our study characterizes the national landscape of programs enrolling criminal justice–involved populations in Medicaid as of January 2015. We provide an overview of sixty-four programs operating in jails, prisons, or community probation and parole systems that enroll individuals during detention, incarceration, and the release process. We describe the variation among the programs in terms of settings, personnel, timing of eligibility screening, and target populations. Seventy-seven percent of the programs are located in jails, and 56 percent use personnel from public health or social service agencies. We describe four practices that have facilitated the Medicaid enrollment process: suspending instead of terminating Medicaid benefits upon incarceration, presuming that an individual is eligible for Medicaid before the process is completed, allowing enrollment during incarceration, and accepting alternative forms of identification for enrollment. The criminal justice system is a complex one that requires a variety of approaches to enroll individuals in Medicaid. Future research should examine how these approaches influence health and criminal justice outcomes. PMID:26643624

  16. Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 subcellular localization and a role in cell adhesion involving focal adhesion kinase and paxillin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Yiqian; Wadham, Carol; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Keane, Fiona M; Gorrell, Mark D

    2015-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) is a ubiquitously expressed member of the DPP4 gene and protease family. Deciphering the biological functions of DPP9 and its roles in pathogenesis has implicated DPP9 in tumor biology, the immune response, apoptosis, intracellular epidermal growth factor-dependent signaling and cell adhesion and migration. We investigated the intracellular distribution of DPP9 chimeric fluorescent proteins and consequent functions of DPP9. We showed that while some DPP9 is associated with mitochondria, the strongest co-localization was with microtubules. Under steady state conditions, DPP9 was not seen at the plasma membrane, but upon stimulation with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or epidermal growth factor, some DPP9 re-distributed towards the ruffling membrane. DPP9 was seen at the leading edge of the migrating cell and co-localized with the focal adhesion proteins, integrin-β1 and talin. DPP9 gene silencing and treatment with a DPP8/DPP9 specific inhibitor both reduced cell adhesion and migration. Expression of integrin-β1 and talin was decreased in DPP9-deficient and DPP9-enzyme-inactive cells. There was a concomitant decrease in the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin, indicating that DPP9 knockdown or enzyme inhibition suppressed the associated adhesion signaling pathway, causing impaired cell movement. These novel findings provide mechanistic insights into the regulatory role of DPP9 in cell movement, and may thus implicate DPP9 in tissue and tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:25486458

  17. Eukaryotic class 1 translation termination factor eRF1--the NMR structure and dynamics of the middle domain involved in triggering ribosome-dependent peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena V; Kolosov, Peter M; Birdsall, Berry; Kelly, Geoff; Pastore, Annalisa; Kisselev, Lev L; Polshakov, Vladimir I

    2007-08-01

    The eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor is a three-domain protein involved in the termination of translation, the final stage of polypeptide biosynthesis. In attempts to understand the roles of the middle domain of the eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor in the transduction of the termination signal from the small to the large ribosomal subunit and in peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis, its high-resolution NMR structure has been obtained. The overall fold and the structure of the beta-strand core of the protein in solution are similar to those found in the crystal. However, the orientation of the functionally critical GGQ loop and neighboring alpha-helices has genuine and noticeable differences in solution and in the crystal. Backbone amide protons of most of the residues in the GGQ loop undergo fast exchange with water. However, in the AGQ mutant, where functional activity is abolished, a significant reduction in the exchange rate of the amide protons has been observed without a noticeable change in the loop conformation, providing evidence for the GGQ loop interaction with water molecule(s) that may serve as a substrate for the hydrolytic cleavage of the peptidyl-tRNA in the ribosome. The protein backbone dynamics, studied using 15N relaxation experiments, showed that the GGQ loop is the most flexible part of the middle domain. The conformational flexibility of the GGQ and 215-223 loops, which are situated at opposite ends of the longest alpha-helix, could be a determinant of the functional activity of the eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor, with that helix acting as the trigger to transmit the signals from one loop to the other. PMID:17651434

  18. The histamine H1 receptor is not involved in local control of mammary blood flow in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Madsen, T G; Trout, D R; Cieslar, S R L; Purdie, N G; Nielsen, M O; Cant, J P

    2008-06-01

    Low concentrations of the essential amino acid histidine in circulation have been shown to increase mammary blood flow and it has been suggested that this effect is mediated by histamine. The hypotheses tested in this experiment were that interstitial histamine concentrations in the mammary gland are related to arterial His concentrations and that mammary blood flow is reduced by extracellular histamine via H(1) receptors. The hypotheses were tested by infusing saline or chlorpheniramine, a blocker of the H(1) histamine receptor, into the arterial supply of the mammary glands of lactating cows infused with 44 g/h of amino acid mixtures with or without His for 10 h. Infusates were administered in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement within a 4 x 4 Latin square to 4 multiparous Holstein cows in mid lactation. Exclusion of His from the infusate decreased protein content in milk from the infused udder half from 3.98 to 3.77%, and increased arterial alpha-aminonitrogen concentration from 3.2 to 3.4 mM. Neither the decreased arterial His concentration nor the H(1) blocker affected plasma flow to the infused udder half. We conclude that histamine is not involved in the regulation of mammary blood flow. The H(1) blocker decreased milk production in the infused udder half from 4.6 to 3.5 kg without affecting protein, fat, and lactose percentages, suggesting an inhibition of milk ejection. Cows on chlorpheniramine ate less feed during the infusion than saline-infused cows, which resulted in lower arterial concentrations and mammary uptakes of acetate. The efficiency of plasma triacylglycerol uptake across the mammary glands was decreased by chlorpheniramine but net uptake of long-chain fatty acids was not affected. The mechanism by which an amino acid deficiency influences mammary blood flow does not involve histamine signaling through the H(1) receptor and remains unidentified. PMID:18487669

  19. Localization of the central rhythm generator involved in spontaneous consummatory licking in rats: functional ablation and electrical brain stimulation studies.

    PubMed Central

    Brozek, G; Zhuravin, I A; Megirian, D; Bures, J

    1996-01-01

    Localization of the central rhythm generator (CRG) of spontaneous consummatory licking was studied in freely moving rats by microinjection of tetrodotoxin (TTX) into the pontine reticular formation. Maximum suppression of spontaneous water consumption was elicited by TTX (1 ng) blockade of the oral part of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRG), whereas TTX injections into more caudal or rostral locations caused significantly weaker disruption of drinking. To verify the assumption that TTX blocked the proper CRG of licking rather than some relay in its output, spontaneously drinking thirsty rats were intracranially stimulated via electrodes chronically implanted into the oral part of the NRG. Lick-synchronized stimulation (a 100-ms train of 0.1-ms-wide rectangular pulses at 100 Hz and 25-150 microA) applied during continuous licking (after eight regular consecutive licks) caused a phase shift of licks emitted after stimulus delivery. The results suggest that the stimulation has reset the CRG of licking without changing its frequency. The reset-inducing threshold current was lowest during the tongue retraction and highest during the tongue protrusion period of the lick cycle. It is concluded that the CRG of licking is located in the oral part of NRG. PMID:8622936

  20. Histological characteristics of the myometrium in the postpartum hemorrhage of unknown etiology: a possible involvement of local immune reactions.

    PubMed

    Farhana, Mustari; Tamura, Naoaki; Mukai, Mari; Ikuma, Kotomi; Koumura, Yukiko; Furuta, Naomi; Yaguchi, Chizuko; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kazunao; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological characteristics of the myometrium obtained in postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) of unknown etiology secondary to uterine atony. These characteristics were selected from among registered cases of clinically suspected amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) and classified as PPH of unknown etiology because of no obvious cause of PPH at Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, a registration center for clinical AFE in Japan. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on myometrium using anti-mast cell tryptase, anti-neutrophil elastase, anti-CD68, anti-CD88, anti-CD3, and anti-ZnCP-1 antibodies. Massive infiltrations of inflammatory cells with mast cell degranulation within the myometrium secondary to complement activation were observed in PPH of unknown etiology (n=34), but not in control pregnant women (n=15) or after delivery in women without PPH (n=18). The concomitant immunohistochemical detection of meconium in myometrium suggests that amniotic fluids or fetal materials are one of the candidates for inducing maternal local immune activation in the PPH of unknown etiology. Postpartum acute myometritis in the absence of an infective etiology may be a histological characteristic of PPH of unknown etiology. PMID:26048052

  1. CT-Guided Wire Localization for Involved Axillary Lymph Nodes After Neo-adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Initially Node-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Long; Miyake, Kanae K; Dirbas, Frederick M; Kothary, Nishita; Horst, Kathleen C; Lipson, Jafi A; Carpenter, Catherine; Thompson, Atalie C; Ikeda, Debra M

    2016-07-01

    Resection of biopsy-proven involved axillary lymph nodes (iALNs) is important to reduce the false-negative rates of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with initially node-positive breast cancer. Preoperative wire localization for iALNs marked with clips placed during biopsy is a technique that may help the removal of iALNs after NAC. However, ultrasound (US)-guided localization is often difficult because the clips cannot always be reliably visible on US. Computed tomography (CT)-guided wire localization can be used; however, to date there have been no reports on CT-guided wire localization for iALNs. The aim of this study was to describe a series of patients who received CT-guided wire localization for iALN removal after NAC and to evaluate the feasibility of this technique. We retrospectively analyzed five women with initially node-positive breast cancer (age, 41-52 years) who were scheduled for SLN biopsy after NAC and received preoperative CT-guided wire localization for iALNs. CT visualized all the clips that were not identified on post-NAC US. The wire tip was deployed beyond or at the target, with the shortest distance between the wire and the index clip ranging from 0 to 2.5 mm. The total procedure time was 21-38 minutes with good patient tolerance and no complications. In four of five cases, CT wire localization aided in identification and resection of iALNs that were not identified with lymphatic mapping. Residual nodal disease was confirmed in two cases: both had residual disease in wire-localized lymph nodes in addition to SLNs. Although further studies with more cases are required, our results suggest that CT-guided wire localization for iALNs is a feasible technique that facilitates identification and removal of the iALNs as part of SLN biopsy after NAC in situations where US localization is unsuccessful. PMID:27061012

  2. Expression, cellular localization, and involvement of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes in the regulation of ram sperm capacitation.

    PubMed

    Luna, C; Serrano, E; Domingo, J; Casao, A; Pérez-Pé, R; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T

    2016-08-01

    Spermatozoa require substantially more ATP than other cells, not only for sustaining sperm motility but also for regulating protein phosphorylation during capacitation. In this study, we have reported for the first time the presence of the two key enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in ovine spermatozoa by indirect immunofluorescence, Western blotting, in-gel activity, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. We found that the activity of both enzymes significantly increased after in vitro capacitation in the presence of high-cAMP levels, with a concomitant increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation and in the proportion of sperm-capacitated pattern assessed by the chlortetracycline staining. These results suggest that PPP is related with the progress of capacitation and that a relationship between calcium compartmentalization, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and PPP seems to exist. This is the first report that shows a connection between the PPP, cAMP/PKA signaling pathways and sperm capacitation. These findings can be of high-biological importance to improve our knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms involved in the acquisition of mammalian sperm functional competence and, ultimately, fertility. PMID:27063053

  3. Functional adaptation of long bone extremities involves the localized ``tuning'' of the cortical bone composition; evidence from Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Kevin; Kerns, Jemma G.; Birch, Helen L.; Gikas, Panagiotis D.; Parker, Anthony W.; Matousek, Pavel; Goodship, Allen E.

    2014-11-01

    In long bones, the functional adaptation of shape and structure occurs along the whole length of the organ. This study explores the hypothesis that adaptation of bone composition is also site-specific and that the mineral-to-collagen ratio of bone (and, thus, its mechanical properties) varies along the organ's length. Raman spectroscopy was used to map the chemical composition of long bones along their entire length in fine spatial resolution (1 mm), and then biochemical analysis was used to measure the mineral, collagen, water, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan content where site-specific differences were seen. The results show that the mineral-to-collagen ratio of the bone material in human tibiae varies by <5% along the mid-shaft but decreases by >10% toward the flared extremities of the bone. Comparisons with long bones from other large animals (horses, sheep, and deer) gave similar results with bone material composition changing across tens of centimeters. The composition of the bone apatite also varied with the phosphate-to-carbonate ratio decreasing toward the ends of the tibia. The data highlight the complexity of adaptive changes and raise interesting questions about the biochemical control mechanisms involved. In addition to their biological interest, the data provide timely information to researchers developing Raman spectroscopy as a noninvasive tool for measuring bone composition in vivo (particularly with regard to sampling and measurement protocol).

  4. Involvement of two genetic lineages of Sarcoptes scabiei mites in a local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makouloutou, Patrice; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Takeuchi, Masahiko; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sato, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Similar to wild mammals on the continents, mange caused by the mange mite, Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) is spreading in wild mammals in most of Japan. We collected crusted or alopetic skin from 120 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), three raccoons (Procyon lotor), six Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), one Japanese marten (Martes melampus), one stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris), four wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax), and one Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), mainly in an area where mangy wild animals have been increasingly noted in the past 4 yr. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of the ribosomal RNA gene and the partial 16S and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-1) genes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were characterized in these skin samples. The ITS2 sequencing (404 base pairs [bp]) identified the causative mite for mangy skin lesions of 128 animals as S. scabiei, regardless of host origin. The cat mite (Notoedres cati) was the cause in one raccoon dog and one raccoon. Most mites had almost identical ITS2 nucleotide sequences to those recorded in a variety of mammals worldwide. Partial 16S and cox-1 fragments of mtDNA amplified and sequenced successfully (331 bp and 410 bp, respectively) showed an identical nucleotide sequence except for one site (C vs. T) for the former and four sites (G, C, C, C vs. A, T, T, T, respectively) for the latter fragment. These substitutions were always synchronized, with the two mitochondrial DNA haplotypes (i.e., C/GCCC and T/ATTT) appearing to separately colonize in geographic units. The T/ATTT haplotype fell into a clade where animal-derived mites worldwide dominated, whereas the C/GCCC haplotype formed a geographic branch unique to Japanese isolates. These results suggest that heterologous populations of monospecific S. scabiei are expanding their populations and distributions regardless of host species in an apparently local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan. PMID

  5. Modulation of efficiency of translation termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Nizhnikov, Anton A; Antonets, Kirill S; Inge-Vechtomov, Sergey G; Derkatch, Irina L

    2014-01-01

    Nonsense suppression is a readthrough of premature termination codons. It typically occurs either due to the recognition of stop codons by tRNAs with mutant anticodons, or due to a decrease in the fidelity of translation termination. In the latter case, suppressors usually promote the readthrough of different types of nonsense codons and are thus called omnipotent nonsense suppressors. Omnipotent nonsense suppressors were identified in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 1960s, and most of subsequent studies were performed in this model organism. Initially, omnipotent suppressors were localized by genetic analysis to different protein- and RNA-encoding genes, mostly the components of translational machinery. Later, nonsense suppression was found to be caused not only by genomic mutations, but also by epigenetic elements, prions. Prions are self-perpetuating protein conformations usually manifested by infectious protein aggregates. Modulation of translational accuracy by prions reflects changes in the activity of their structural proteins involved in different aspects of protein synthesis. Overall, nonsense suppression can be seen as a “phenotypic mirror” of events affecting the accuracy of the translational machine. However, the range of proteins participating in the modulation of translation termination fidelity is not fully elucidated. Recently, the list has been expanded significantly by findings that revealed a number of weak genetic and epigenetic nonsense suppressors, the effect of which can be detected only in specific genetic backgrounds. This review summarizes the data on the nonsense suppressors decreasing the fidelity of translation termination in S. cerevisiae, and discusses the functional significance of the modulation of translational accuracy. PMID:25486049

  6. Literature in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

    An examination of literature in translation is vital to literary interpretation and, ultimately, essential to mutual understanding among peoples from different cultures. Teaching translations requires consideration of linguistic, social, and temporal areas. Translations require alterations in language since languages never translate precisely from…

  7. Uncovering Genes and Ploidy Involved in the High Diversity in Root Hair Density, Length and Response to Local Scarce Phosphate in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Stetter, Markus G.; Schmid, Karl; Ludewig, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Plant root hairs increase the root surface to enhance the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile nutrients, such as the essential nutrient phosphorus, from the soil. Here, root hair traits and the response to scarce local phosphorus concentration were studied in 166 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana using split plates. Root hair density and length were correlated, but highly variable among accessions. Surprisingly, the well-known increase in root hair density under low phosphorus was mostly restricted to genotypes that had less and shorter root hairs under P sufficient conditions. By contrast, several accessions with dense and long root hairs even had lower hair density or shorter hairs in local scarce phosphorus. Furthermore, accessions with whole-genome duplications developed more dense but phosphorus-insensitive root hairs. The impact of genome duplication on root hair density was confirmed by comparing tetraploid accessions with their diploid ancestors. Genome-wide association mapping identified candidate genes potentially involved in root hair responses tp scarce local phosphate. Knock-out mutants in identified candidate genes (CYR1, At1g32360 and RLP48) were isolated and differences in root hair traits in the mutants were confirmed. The large diversity in root hair traits among accessions and the diverse response when local phosphorus is scarce is a rich resource for further functional analyses. PMID:25781967

  8. The translational regulator Cup controls NMJ presynaptic terminal morphology.

    PubMed

    Menon, Kaushiki P; Carrillo, Robert A; Zinn, Kai

    2015-07-01

    During oogenesis and early embryonic development in Drosophila, translation of proteins from maternally deposited mRNAs is tightly controlled. We and others have previously shown that translational regulatory proteins that function during oogenesis also have essential roles in the nervous system. Here we examine the role of Cup in neuromuscular system development. Maternal Cup controls translation of localized mRNAs encoding the Oskar and Nanos proteins and binds to the general translation initiation factor eIF4E. In this paper, we show that zygotic Cup protein is localized to presynaptic terminals at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). cup mutant NMJs have strong phenotypes characterized by the presence of small clustered boutons called satellite boutons. They also exhibit an increase in the frequency of spontaneous glutamate release events (mEPSPs). Reduction of eIF4E expression synergizes with partial loss of Cup expression to produce satellite bouton phenotypes. The presence of satellite boutons is often associated with increases in retrograde bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, and we show that synaptic BMP signaling is elevated in cup mutants. cup genetically interacts with two genes, EndoA and Dap160, that encode proteins involved in endocytosis that are also neuronal modulators of the BMP pathway. Endophilin protein, encoded by the EndoA gene, is downregulated in a cup mutant. Our results are consistent with a model in which Cup and eIF4E work together to ensure efficient localization and translation of endocytosis proteins in motor neurons and control the strength of the retrograde BMP signal. PMID:26102195

  9. Research on the application of satellite remote sensing to local, state, regional and national programs involved with resource management and environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, B. G.

    1974-01-01

    A program designed to involve state, regional and local agency personnel in the application of remote sensing is reported. During this period fifteen applications projects were initiated in support of twenty-five separate state, county and municipal agencies or entities. Eight of the projects were completed with positive results which aided the agencies involved. These results included information which contributed to decisions on: (1) selection of a route for a scenic parkway, (2) policy development on open land use, (3) policy related to urban development, (4) a major reservoir project by a governor's staff, (5) control tactics and damage assessment during flooding conditions on the Kansas and Missouri rivers, and (6) initiating a program of habitat inventory by remote sensing by the Kansas Forestry, Fish and Game Commission.

  10. Training Tools for Translators and Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qinai, Jamal

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reviews the traditional methodologies of translator training and proposes an eclectic multi-componential approach that involves a set of interdisciplinary skills with the ultimate objective of meeting market demand. Courses on translation for specific purposes (TSP) and think-aloud protocols (TAP) along with self-monitoring and…

  11. Translation and Advertising: Going Global. Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguinot, Candace; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the identity-forming power of translation in advertising copy. In the marketing of goods and services across cultural boundaries, an understanding of culture and semiotics that goes well beyond both language and design is involved. Translators must understand marketing, the legal jurisdictions of their market, how cultural differences…

  12. Lost in Translation: The Power of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Sandy; Fitzsimons, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines some philosophical aspects of translation as a metaphor for education--a metaphor that avoids the closure of final definitions, in favour of an ongoing and tentative process of interpretation and revision. Translation, it is argued, is a complex process involving language, within and among cultures, and in the exercise of power.…

  13. Translation-coupling systems

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  14. Translation-coupling systems

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  15. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    PubMed

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus

  16. Inhibitors of oxygen sensing prolyl hydroxylases regulate nuclear localization of the transcription factors Smad2 and YAP/TAZ involved in CTGF synthesis.

    PubMed

    Preisser, Felix; Giehl, Klaudia; Rehm, Margot; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2016-08-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of oxygen sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs) has been shown to preserve renal structure and function in various models of kidney disease. Since transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1) is one of the major mediators of kidney injury, we investigated if inhibition of PHDs with subsequent stabilization of hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIF) might interfere with TGFβ-1 signaling with special emphasis on its target gene connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Overnight incubation of human renal tubular cells, primary cells and cell lines, with the PDH inhibitor DMOG increased Smad3 expression, but barely affected Smad2. Both Smads were translocated into the nucleus upon activation of the cells with TGFβ-1. Interestingly, Smad3 nuclear localization was enhanced upon pretreatment of the cells with DMOG for several hours, whereas nuclear Smad2 was reduced. This differential localization was independent of Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Reduced nuclear Smad2 correlated with impaired CTGF secretion in DMOG-treated cells and transient downregulation of Smad2 interfered with TGFβ-1-induced CTGF synthesis. Furthermore, YAP was confirmed as indispensable transcription factor involved in CTGF synthesis. Nuclear localization of YAP and TAZ was reduced in DMOG-treated cells. Our data thus provide evidence for DMOG-mediated reduction of CTGF expression by regulating the nuclear localization of the transcription factors Smad2, YAP and TAZ. Prolonged inhibition of PHDs was necessary to achieve alterations in cellular localization suggesting an indirect HIF-mediated effect. This mechanism might be extended to other transcription factors and target genes, and may thus represent a novel mechanism of negative regulation of gene expression by PHD inhibition. PMID:27155083

  17. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  18. The μ Subunit of Arabidopsis Adaptor Protein-2 Is Involved in Effector-Triggered Immunity Mediated by Membrane-Localized Resistance Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Hillmer, Rachel; Yamaoka, Shohei; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2016-05-01

    Endocytosis has been suggested to be important in the cellular processes of plant immune responses. However, our understanding of its role during effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is still limited. We have previously shown that plant endocytosis, especially clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the plasma membrane, is mediated by the adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) complex and that loss of the μ subunit of AP-2 (AP2M) affects plant growth and floral organ development. Here, we report that AP2M is required for full-strength ETI mediated by the disease resistance (R) genes RPM1 and RPS2 in Arabidopsis. Reduced ETI was observed in an ap2m mutant plant, measured by growth of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 strains carrying the corresponding effector genes avrRpm1 or avrRpt2 and by hypersensitive cell death response and defense gene expression triggered by these strains. In contrast, RPS4-mediated ETI and its associated immune responses were not affected by the ap2m mutation. While RPM1 and RPS2 are localized to the plasma membrane, RPS4 is localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Our results suggest that AP2M is involved in ETI mediated by plasma membrane-localized R proteins, possibly by mediating endocytosis of the immune receptor complex components from the plasma membrane. PMID:26828402

  19. Rice OsVAMP714, a membrane-trafficking protein localized to the chloroplast and vacuolar membrane, is involved in resistance to rice blast disease.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Shoji; Hayashi, Nagao; Kawagoe, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Susumu; Inoue, Haruhiko; Mori, Masaki; Nishizawa, Yoko; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Matsui, Minami; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Membrane trafficking plays pivotal roles in many cellular processes including plant immunity. Here, we report the characterization of OsVAMP714, an intracellular SNARE protein, focusing on its role in resistance to rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Disease resistance tests using OsVAMP714 knockdown and overexpressing rice plants demonstrated the involvement of OsVAMP714 in blast resistance. The overexpression of OsVAMP7111, whose product is highly homologous to OsVAMP714, did not enhance blast resistance to rice, implying a potential specificity of OsVAMP714 to blast resistance. OsVAMP714 was localized to the chloroplast in mesophyll cells and to the cellular periphery in epidermal cells of transgenic rice plant leaves. We showed that chloroplast localization is critical for the normal OsVAMP714 functioning in blast resistance by analyzing the rice plants overexpressing OsVAMP714 mutants whose products did not localize in the chloroplast. We also found that OsVAMP714 was located in the vacuolar membrane surrounding the invasive hyphae of M. oryzae. Furthermore, we showed that OsVAMP714 overexpression promotes leaf sheath elongation and that the first 19 amino acids, which are highly conserved between animal and plant VAMP7 proteins, are crucial for normal rice plant growths. Our studies imply that the OsVAMP714-mediated trafficking pathway plays an important role in rice blast resistance as well as in the vegetative growth of rice. PMID:26879413

  20. Translation between representation languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  1. Cotranslational Coat Protein-Mediated Inhibition of Potyviral RNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    Besong-Ndika, Jane; Ivanov, Konstantin I.; Hafrèn, Anders; Michon, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Potato virus A (PVA) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus and a member of the family Potyviridae. The PVA coat protein (CP) has an intrinsic capacity to self-assemble into filamentous virus-like particles, but the mechanism responsible for the initiation of viral RNA encapsidation in vivo remains unclear. Apart from virion assembly, PVA CP is also involved in the inhibition of viral RNA translation. In this study, we show that CP inhibits PVA RNA translation in a dose-dependent manner, through a mechanism involving the CP-encoding region. Analysis of this region, however, failed to identify any RNA secondary structure(s) preferentially recognized by CP, suggesting that the inhibition depends on CP-CP rather than CP-RNA interactions. In agreement with this possibility, insertion of an in-frame stop codon upstream of the CP sequence led to a marked decrease in the inhibition of viral RNA translation. Based on these results, we propose a model in which the cotranslational interactions between excess CP accumulating in trans and CP translated from viral RNA in cis are required to initiate the translational repression. This model suggests a mechanism for how viral RNA can be sequestered from translation and specifically selected for encapsidation at the late stages of viral infection. IMPORTANCE The main functions of the CP during potyvirus infection are to protect viral RNA from degradation and to transport it locally, systemically, and from host to host. Although virion assembly is a key step in the potyviral infectious cycle, little is known about how it is initiated and how viral RNA is selected for encapsidation. The results presented here suggest that CP-CP rather than CP-RNA interactions are predominantly involved in the sequestration of viral RNA away from translation. We propose that the cotranslational nature of these interactions may represent a mechanism for the selection of viral RNA for encapsidation. A better understanding of the

  2. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  3. Toward Balance in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Nancy A.

    A study compared translations of biblical passages into different languages in Papua New Guinea. The study looked for evidence of balance between literal and free interpretation in translation style in the gospel of Mark, which is narrative and didactic material, in 12 languages, and the mainly hortatory genre in translations of 4 epistles:…

  4. Intratumoral hu14.18-IL-2 (IC) induces local and systemic antitumor effects that involve both activated T and NK cells as well as enhanced IC retention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Richard K; Kalogriopoulos, Nicholas A; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L; Ranheim, Erik A; Seo, Songwon; Kim, Kyungmann; Alderson, Kory L; Gan, Jacek; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Gillies, Stephen D; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Sondel, Paul M

    2012-09-01

    hu14.18-IL-2 (IC) is an immunocytokine consisting of human IL-2 linked to hu14.18 mAb, which recognizes the GD2 disialoganglioside. Phase 2 clinical trials of i.v. hu14.18-IL-2 (i.v.-IC) in neuroblastoma and melanoma are underway and have already demonstrated activity in neuroblastoma. We showed previously that intratumoral hu14.18-IL-2 (IT-IC) results in enhanced antitumor activity in mouse models compared with i.v.-IC. The studies presented in this article were designed to determine the mechanisms involved in this enhanced activity and to support the future clinical testing of intratumoral administration of immunocytokines. Improved survival and inhibition of growth of both local and distant tumors were observed in A/J mice bearing s.c. NXS2 neuroblastomas treated with IT-IC compared with those treated with i.v.-IC or control mice. The local and systemic antitumor effects of IT-IC were inhibited by depletion of NK cells or T cells. IT-IC resulted in increased NKG2D receptors on intratumoral NKG2A/C/E⁺ NKp46⁺ NK cells and NKG2A/C/E⁺ CD8⁺ T cells compared with control mice or mice treated with i.v.-IC. NKG2D levels were augmented more in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes compared with splenocytes, supporting the localized nature of the intratumoral changes induced by IT-IC treatment. Prolonged retention of IC at the tumor site was seen with IT-IC compared with i.v.-IC. Overall, IT-IC resulted in increased numbers of activated T and NK cells within tumors, better IC retention in the tumor, enhanced inhibition of tumor growth, and improved survival compared with i.v.-IC. PMID:22844125

  5. A Golgi and tonoplast localized S-acyl transferase is involved in cell expansion, cell division, vascular patterning and fertility in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Baoxiu; Doughty, James; Hooley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    S-acylation of eukaryotic proteins is the reversible attachment of palmitic or stearic acid to cysteine residues, catalysed by protein S-acyl transferases that share an Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) motif. Previous evidence suggests that in Arabidopsis S-acylation is involved in the control of cell size, polarity and the growth of pollen tubes and root hairs. Using a combination of yeast genetics, biochemistry, cell biology and loss of function genetics the roles of a member of the protein S-acyl transferase PAT family, AtPAT10 (At3g51390), have been explored. In keeping with its role as a PAT, AtPAT10 auto-S-acylates, and partially complements the yeast akr1 PAT mutant, and this requires Cys192 of the DHHC motif. In Arabidopsis AtPAT10 is localized in the Golgi stack, trans-Golgi network/early endosome and tonoplast. Loss-of-function mutants have a pleiotropic phenotype involving cell expansion and division, vascular patterning, and fertility that is rescued by wild-type AtPAT10 but not by catalytically inactive AtPAT10C192A. This supports the hypothesis that AtPAT10 is functionally independent of the other Arabidopsis PATs. Our findings demonstrate a growing importance of protein S-acylation in plants, and reveal a Golgi and tonoplast located S-acylation mechanism that affects a range of events during growth and development in Arabidopsis. PMID:23795888

  6. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  7. Mitochondrial unfolded protein response controls matrix pre-RNA processing and translation.

    PubMed

    Münch, Christian; Harper, J Wade

    2016-06-30

    The mitochondrial matrix is unique in that it must integrate the folding and assembly of proteins derived from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) senses matrix protein misfolding and induces a program of nuclear gene expression, including mitochondrial chaperonins, to promote mitochondrial proteostasis. While misfolded mitochondrial-matrix-localized ornithine transcarbamylase induces chaperonin expression, our understanding of mammalian UPRmt is rudimentary, reflecting a lack of acute triggers for UPRmt activation. This limitation has prevented analysis of the cellular responses to matrix protein misfolding and the effects of UPRmt on mitochondrial translation to control protein folding loads. Here we combine pharmacological inhibitors of matrix-localized HSP90/TRAP1 (ref. 8) or LON protease, which promote chaperonin expression, with global transcriptional and proteomic analysis to reveal an extensive and acute response of human cells to UPRmt. This response encompasses widespread induction of nuclear genes, including matrix-localized proteins involved in folding, pre-RNA processing and translation. Functional studies revealed rapid but reversible translation inhibition in mitochondria occurring concurrently with defects in pre-RNA processing caused by transcriptional repression and LON-dependent turnover of the mitochondrial pre-RNA processing nuclease MRPP3 (ref. 10). This study reveals that acute mitochondrial protein folding stress activates both increased chaperone availability within the matrix and reduced matrix-localized protein synthesis through translational inhibition, and provides a framework for further dissection of mammalian UPRmt. PMID:27350246

  8. Causality and momentum conservation from relative locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Bianco, Stefano; Brighenti, Francesco; Buonocore, Riccardo Junior

    2015-04-01

    Theories involving curved momentum space, which recently became a topic of interest in the quantum-gravity literature, can, in general, violate many apparently robust aspects of our current description of the laws of physics, including relativistic invariance, locality, causality, and global momentum conservation. Here, we explore some aspects of the pathologies arising in generic theories involving curved momentum space for what concerns causality and momentum conservation. However, we also report results suggesting that when momentum space is maximally symmetric, and the theory is formulated relativistically, most notably including translational invariance with the associated relativity of spacetime locality, momentum is globally conserved and there is no violation of causality.

  9. PARAQUAT RESISTANT1, a Golgi-Localized Putative Transporter Protein, Is Involved in Intracellular Transport of Paraquat1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianyong; Mu, Jinye; Bai, Jiaoteng; Fu, Fuyou; Zou, Tingting; An, Fengying; Zhang, Jian; Jing, Hongwei; Wang, Qing; Li, Zhen; Yang, Shuhua; Zuo, Jianru

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides worldwide. In green plants, paraquat targets the chloroplast by transferring electrons from photosystem I to molecular oxygen to generate toxic reactive oxygen species, which efficiently induce membrane damage and cell death. A number of paraquat-resistant biotypes of weeds and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants have been identified. The herbicide resistance in Arabidopsis is partly attributed to a reduced uptake of paraquat through plasma membrane-localized transporters. However, the biochemical mechanism of paraquat resistance remains poorly understood. Here, we report the identification and characterization of an Arabidopsis paraquat resistant1 (par1) mutant that shows strong resistance to the herbicide without detectable developmental abnormalities. PAR1 encodes a putative l-type amino acid transporter protein localized to the Golgi apparatus. Compared with the wild-type plants, the par1 mutant plants show similar efficiency of paraquat uptake, suggesting that PAR1 is not directly responsible for the intercellular uptake of paraquat. However, the par1 mutation caused a reduction in the accumulation of paraquat in the chloroplast, suggesting that PAR1 is involved in the intracellular transport of paraquat into the chloroplast. We identified a PAR1-like gene, OsPAR1, in rice (Oryza sativa). Whereas the overexpression of OsPAR1 resulted in hypersensitivity to paraquat, the knockdown of its expression using RNA interference conferred paraquat resistance on the transgenic rice plants. These findings reveal a unique mechanism by which paraquat is actively transported into the chloroplast and also provide a practical approach for genetic manipulations of paraquat resistance in crops. PMID:23471133

  10. Twice-Weekly Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer With Low-Risk Nodal Involvement: Toxicity and Outcome From a Dose Escalation Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zilli, Thomas; Jorcano, Sandra; Rouzaud, Michel; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Nouet, Philippe; Toscas, Jose Ignacio; Casanova, Nathalie; Wang, Hui; Escude, Lluis; Molla, Meritxell; Linero, Dolors; Weber, Damien C.; Miralbell, Raymond

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and preliminary outcome of patients with localized prostate cancer treated with twice-weekly hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 82 prostate cancer patients with a nodal involvement risk {<=}20% (Roach index) have been treated to the prostate with or without seminal vesicles with 56 Gy (4 Gy/fraction twice weekly) and an overall treatment time of 6.5 weeks. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading system. Median follow-up was 48 months (range, 9-67 months). Results: All patients completed the treatment without interruptions. No patient presented with Grade {>=}3 acute GU or GI toxicity. Of the patients, 4% presented with Grade 2 GU or GI persistent acute toxicity 6 weeks after treatment completion. The estimated 4-year probability of Grade {>=}2 late GU and GI toxicity-free survival were 94.2% {+-} 2.9% and 96.1% {+-} 2.2%, respectively. One patient presented with Grade 3 GI and another patient with Grade 4 GU late toxicity, which were transitory in both cases. The 4-year actuarial biochemical relapse-free survival was 91.3% {+-} 5.9%, 76.4% {+-} 8.8%, and 77.5% {+-} 8.9% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. Conclusions: In patients with localized prostate cancer, acute and late toxicity were minimal after dose-escalation administering twice-weekly 4 Gy to a total dose of 56 Gy, with IMRT. Further prospective trials are warranted to further assess the best fractionation schemes for these patients.

  11. Shank3 is localized in axons and presynaptic specializations of developing hippocampal neurons and involved in the modulation of NMDA receptor levels at axon terminals.

    PubMed

    Halbedl, Sonja; Schoen, Michael; Feiler, Marisa S; Boeckers, Tobias M; Schmeisser, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Autism-related Shank1, Shank2, and Shank3 are major postsynaptic scaffold proteins of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. A few studies, however, have already indicated that within a neuron, the presence of Shank family members is not limited to the postsynaptic density. By separating axons from dendrites of developing hippocampal neurons in microfluidic chambers, we show that RNA of all three Shank family members is present within axons. Immunostaining confirms these findings as all three Shanks are indeed found within separated axons and further co-localize with well-known proteins of the presynaptic specialization in axon terminals. Therefore, Shank proteins might not only serve as postsynaptic scaffold proteins, but also play a crucial role during axonal outgrowth and presynaptic development and function. This is supported by our findings that shRNA-mediated knockdown of Shank3 results in up-regulation of the NMDA receptor subunit GluN1 in axon terminals. Taken together, our findings will have major implications for the future analysis of neuronal Shank biology in both health and disease. Shank1, Shank2, and Shank3 are major postsynaptic scaffold proteins of excitatory glutamatergic synapses strongly related to several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, a few studies have already implicated a functional role of the Shanks beyond the postsynaptic density (PSD). We here show that all three Shanks are localized in both axons and pre-synaptic specializiations of developing hippocampal neurons in culture. We further provide evidence that Shank3 is involved in the modulation of NMDA receptor levels at axon terminals. Taken together, our study will open up novel avenues for the future analysis of neuronal Shank biology in both health and disease. PMID:26725465

  12. Identification and lateral membrane localization of cyclin M3, likely to be involved in renal Mg2+ handling in seawater fish

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Zinia; Hayashi, Naoko; Inoue, Hana; Umezawa, Takahiro; Kimura, Yuuri; Doi, Hiroyuki; Romero, Michael F.; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2014-01-01

    The kidney of marine teleosts is the major site of Mg2+ excretion and produces urine with a high Mg2+ concentration. However, the transporters involved in Mg2+ excretion are poorly understood. The cyclin M (Cnnm; also known as ancient conserved domain protein) family comprises membrane proteins homologous to the bacterial Mg2+ and Co2+ efflux protein, CorC. To understand the molecular mechanism of Mg2+ homeostasis in marine teleosts, we analyzed the expression of the Cnnm family genes in the seawater (SW) pufferfish, torafugu (Takifugu rubripes), and the closely related euryhaline species, mefugu (Takifugu obscurus). Database mining and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Takifugu genome contains six members of the Cnnm family: two orthologs of Cnnm1, one of Cnnm2, one of Cnnm3, and two of Cnnm4. RT-PCR analyses indicated that Cnnm2, Cnnm3, and Cnnm4a are expressed in the kidney, whereas other members are mainly expressed in the brain. Renal expression of Cnnm3 was upregulated in SW mefugu, whereas renal expression of Cnnm2 was upregulated in freshwater (FW) mefugu. No significant difference was observed in renal expression of Cnnm4a between SW and FW mefugu. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses of the SW mefugu kidney revealed that Cnnm3 is expressed in the proximal tubule, and its product localizes to the lateral membrane. When Cnnm3 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, whole cellular Mg2+ content and free intracellular Mg2+ activity significantly decreased. These results suggest that Cnnm3 is involved in body fluid Mg2+ homeostasis in marine teleosts. PMID:24965791

  13. The cancerous translation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Craig R; Ruggero, Davide

    2011-08-01

    Deregulations in translational control are critical features of cancer initiation and progression. Activation of key oncogenic pathways promotes rapid and dramatic translational reprogramming, not simply by increasing overall protein synthesis, but also by modulating specific mRNA networks that promote cellular transformation. Additionally, ribosomopathies caused by mutations in ribosome components alter translational regulation leading to specific pathological features, including cancer susceptibility. Exciting advances in our understanding of translational control in cancer have illuminated a striking specificity innate to the translational apparatus. Characterizing this specificity will provide novel insights into how cells normally utilize translational control to modulate gene expression, how it is deregulated in cancer, and how these processes can be targeted to develop new cancer therapies. PMID:21543223

  14. Details of out-field regional recurrence after involved-field irradiation with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Yu, Jinming; Li, Minghuan; Zhu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns of out-field regional recurrence after involved-field irradiation (IFI) in definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (LA-ESCC) and identify the possible risk factors. Patients and methods Eighty patients with LA-ESCC who received CCRT with IFI between January 2003 and January 2009 at the Shandong Cancer Hospital were recruited and analyzed. Imaging scans demonstrating first sites of failure were compared with original computed tomography-based radiation treatment plans, and failure patterns were defined as in-field, outfield regional (failures in initially uninvolved regional nodes), and distant failures. Results After a median follow-up time of 52.6 months, 24 patients had evidence of out-field regional failure, 43 patients had evidence of in-field failure, and 33 patients had the evidence of distant failure. Multivariate analysis revealed that out-field regional failure was associated with clinical tumor status (T4 vs T1–3, odds ratio [OR] =6.547, P=0.002), tumor length (>8 cm vs ≤8 cm, OR =4.130, P=0.036), response to CCRT (complete response vs no complete response, OR =2.646, P=0.035), and in-field failure (no in-field failure vs in-field failure, OR =1.32, P=0.016). Survival analyses indicated that, compared to in-field failure or distant failure alone group, out-field regional failure alone group tended to have longer overall (P=0.006) and progression-free survival (P=0.164). Conclusion Our data suggested that the predominant failure pattern after IFI was not out-field regional failure, which also did not influence survival significantly, and that out-field regional failure did not shorten the time to disease recurrence, which also did not influence survival significantly. In addition, out-field regional failure was likely to appear later than in-field and distant failures. The relatively advanced local disease followed by poor

  15. The Arabidopsis SKU6/SPIRAL1 Gene Encodes a Plus End–Localized Microtubule-Interacting Protein Involved in Directional Cell ExpansionW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sedbrook, John C.; Ehrhardt, David W.; Fisher, Sarah E.; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Somerville, Chris R.

    2004-01-01

    The sku6-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibits altered patterns of root and organ growth. sku6 roots, etiolated hypocotyls, and leaf petioles exhibit right-handed axial twisting, and root growth on inclined agar media is strongly right skewed. The touch-dependent sku6 root skewing phenotype is suppressed by the antimicrotubule drugs propyzamide and oryzalin, and right skewing is exacerbated by cold treatment. Cloning revealed that sku6-1 is allelic to spiral1-1 (spr1-1). However, modifiers in the Columbia (Col) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotype backgrounds mask noncomplementation in sku6-1 (Col)/spr1-1 (Ler) F1 plants. The SPR1 gene encodes a plant-specific 12-kD protein that is ubiquitously expressed and belongs to a six-member gene family in Arabidopsis. An SPR1:green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion expressed in transgenic seedlings localized to microtubules within the cortical array, preprophase band, phragmoplast, and mitotic spindle. SPR1:GFP was concentrated at the growing ends of cortical microtubules and was dependent on polymer growth state; the microtubule-related fluorescence dissipated upon polymer shortening. The protein has a repeated motif at both ends, separated by a predicted rod-like domain, suggesting that it may act as an intermolecular linker. These observations suggest that SPR1 is involved in microtubule polymerization dynamics and/or guidance, which in turn influences touch-induced directional cell expansion and axial twisting. PMID:15155883

  16. The Putative Arabidopsis Homolog of Yeast Vps52p Is Required for Pollen Tube Elongation, Localizes to Golgi, and Might Be Involved in Vesicle Trafficking1

    PubMed Central

    Lobstein, Eglantine; Guyon, Anouchka; Férault, Madina; Twell, David; Pelletier, Georges; Bonhomme, Sandrine

    2004-01-01

    The screening of the Versailles collection of Arabidopsis T-DNA transformants allowed us to identify several male gametophytic mutants, including poky pollen tube (pok). The pok mutant, which could only be isolated as a hemizygous line, exhibits very short pollen tubes, explaining the male-specific transmission defect observed in this line. We show that the POK gene is duplicated in the Arabidopsis genome and that the predicted POK protein sequence is highly conserved from lower to higher eukaryotes. The putative POK homolog in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), referred to as Vps52p/SAC2, has been shown to be located at the late Golgi and to function in a complex with other proteins, Vps53p, Vps54p, and Vps51p. This complex is involved in retrograde trafficking of vesicles between the early endosomal compartment and the trans-Golgi network. We present the expression patterns of the POK gene and its duplicate P2 in Arabidopsis, and of the putative Arabidopsis homologs of VPS53 and VPS54 of yeast. We show that a POK::GFP fusion protein localizes to Golgi in plant cells, supporting the possibility of a conserved function for Vps52p and POK proteins. These results, together with the expression pattern of the POK::GUS fusion and the lack of plants homozygous for the pok mutation, suggest a more general role for POK in polar growth beyond the pollen tube elongation process. PMID:15235115

  17. Fusel Alcohols Regulate Translation Initiation by Inhibiting eIF2B to Reduce Ternary Complex in a Mechanism That May Involve Altering the Integrity and Dynamics of the eIF2B Body

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Eleanor J.; Campbell, Susan G.; Griffiths, Christian D.; Reid, Peter J.; Slaven, John W.; Harrison, Richard J.; Sims, Paul F.G.; Pavitt, Graham D.; Delneri, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of eIF2-GDP to the GTP-bound form constitutes a core essential, regulated step in eukaryotic translation. This reaction is mediated by eIF2B, a heteropentameric factor with important links to human disease. eIF2 in the GTP-bound form binds to methionyl initiator tRNA to form a ternary complex, and the levels of this ternary complex can be a critical determinant of the rate of protein synthesis. Here we show that eIF2B serves as the target for translation inhibition by various fusel alcohols in yeast. Fusel alcohols are endpoint metabolites from amino acid catabolism, which signal nitrogen scarcity. We show that the inhibition of eIF2B leads to reduced ternary complex levels and that different eIF2B subunit mutants alter fusel alcohol sensitivity. A DNA tiling array strategy was developed that overcame difficulties in the identification of these mutants where the phenotypic distinctions were too subtle for classical complementation cloning. Fusel alcohols also lead to eIF2α dephosphorylation in a Sit4p-dependent manner. In yeast, eIF2B occupies a large cytoplasmic body where guanine nucleotide exchange on eIF2 can occur and be regulated. Fusel alcohols impact on both the movement and dynamics of this 2B body. Overall, these results confirm that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eIF2B, is targeted by fusel alcohols. Moreover, they highlight a potential connection between the movement or integrity of the 2B body and eIF2B regulation. PMID:20444979

  18. Genetic Analysis of Chloroplast Translation

    SciTech Connect

    Barkan, Alice

    2005-08-15

    The assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus requires the concerted action of hundreds of genes distributed between the two physically separate genomes in the nucleus and chloroplast. Nuclear genes coordinate this process by controlling the expression of chloroplast genes in response to developmental and environmental cues. However, few regulatory factors have been identified. We used mutant phenotypes to identify nuclear genes in maize that modulate chloroplast translation, a key control point in chloroplast gene expression. This project focused on the nuclear gene crp1, required for the translation of two chloroplast mRNAs. CRP1 is related to fungal proteins involved in the translation of mitochondrial mRNAs, and is the founding member of a large gene family in plants, with {approx}450 members. Members of the CRP1 family are defined by a repeated 35 amino acid motif called a ''PPR'' motif. The PPR motif is closely related to the TPR motif, which mediates protein-protein interactions. We and others have speculated that PPR tracts adopt a structure similar to that of TPR tracts, but with a substrate binding surface adapted to bind RNA instead of protein. To understand how CRP1 influences the translation of specific chloroplast mRNAs, we sought proteins that interact with CRP1, and identified the RNAs associated with CRP1 in vivo. We showed that CRP1 is associated in vivo with the mRNAs whose translation it activates. To explore the functions of PPR proteins more generally, we sought mutations in other PPR-encoding genes: mutations in the maize PPR2 and PPR4 were shown to disrupt chloroplast ribosome biogenesis and chloroplast trans-splicing, respectively. These and other results suggest that the nuclear-encoded PPR family plays a major role in modulating the expression of the chloroplast genome in higher plants.

  19. CPEB: a life in translation.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel D

    2007-06-01

    Nearly two decades ago, Xenopus oocytes were found to contain mRNAs harboring a small sequence in their 3' untranslated regions that control cytoplasmic polyadenylation and translational activation during development. This cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE) is the binding platform for CPE-binding protein (CPEB), which promotes polyadenylation-induced translation. Since then, the biochemistry and biology of CPEB has grown rather substantially: mechanistically, CPEB nucleates a complex of factors that regulates poly(A) elongation through, of all things, a deadenylating enzyme; biologically, CPEB mediates many processes including germ-cell development, cell division and cellular senescence, and synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These observations underscore the growing complexities of CPEB involvement in cell function. PMID:17481902

  20. Kinetic modelling of mitochondrial translation.

    PubMed

    Korla, Kalyani; Mitra, Chanchal K

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein coding genes, all being part of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. The process of translation of these protein coding mRNAs in mitochondrial matrix is a good miniature model of translation in cytoplasm. In this work, we have simulated three phases of mitochondrial translation viz. initiation, elongation and termination (including ribosome recycling). The kinetic equations for these phases have been deduced based on the information available in literature. Various factors involved in the process have been included explicitly. Kinetic simulation was done using Octave, open source software. Scripts were written individually for each phase. Initiation begins with mitoribosome, mRNA, fMet-tRNA and initiation factors. The final product of the initiation script, the initiation complex, was introduced as the start point in the successive step, i.e. elongation. Elongation is a particular extensive process where the various aminoacyl-tRNAs already present in the matrix check for matching with the triplet codon in A-site of mitoribosome. This script consists of two parts: one with the time behaviour of the factors involved in the molecular process (using ordinary differential equation solver) and the other including the reading of triplet codon on the mRNA and incorporating the corresponding aminoacyl-tRNA, and then at each step elongating the peptide chain (using loops and conditions). The peptide chain thus formed in the elongation step (in the loops and conditions segment) was released in the termination step. This was followed by mitoribosome recycling where the mitoribosome reached the native state and was ready for the next cycle of translation. PMID:24028553

  1. Timing of translation in cross-language qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members. PMID:25189538

  2. Universal Semantics in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  3. Text Coherence in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  4. Idioms and Back Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  5. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  6. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  7. Translation as (Global) Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  8. Plurality in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farahzad, Farzaneh

    This paper discusses factors contributing to differing translations of the same source text, arguing that translation occurs on a continuum rather than having absolute criteria and procedures. Issues examined include the formal properties of the text, the text's "invariant core of meaning," stability in the semantic elements of the text, the text…

  9. Science Explorers Translation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Dolores

    This paper describes a pilot project of Los Alamos National Laboratory (New Mexico) to translate a science education curriculum for junior and senior high school students into Navajo. The project consisted of translating a video, a teacher's guide, and an interactive multimedia product on the 1993 hantavirus outbreak in the Four Corners area…

  10. Genetic variability of transcript abundance in pig peri-mortem skeletal muscle: eQTL localized genes involved in stress response, cell death, muscle disorders and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetics of transcript-level variation is an exciting field that has recently given rise to many studies. Genetical genomics studies have mainly focused on cell lines, blood cells or adipose tissues, from human clinical samples or mice inbred lines. Few eQTL studies have focused on animal tissues sampled from outbred populations to reflect natural genetic variation of gene expression levels in animals. In this work, we analyzed gene expression in a whole tissue, pig skeletal muscle sampled from individuals from a half sib F2 family shortly after slaughtering. Results QTL detection on transcriptome measurements was performed on a family structured population. The analysis identified 335 eQTLs affecting the expression of 272 transcripts. The ontologic annotation of these eQTLs revealed an over-representation of genes encoding proteins involved in processes that are expected to be induced during muscle development and metabolism, cell morphology, assembly and organization and also in stress response and apoptosis. A gene functional network approach was used to evidence existing biological relationships between all the genes whose expression levels are influenced by eQTLs. eQTLs localization revealed a significant clustered organization of about half the genes located on segments of chromosome 1, 2, 10, 13, 16, and 18. Finally, the combined expression and genetic approaches pointed to putative cis-drivers of gene expression programs in skeletal muscle as COQ4 (SSC1), LOC100513192 (SSC18) where both the gene transcription unit and the eQTL affecting its expression level were shown to be localized in the same genomic region. This suggests cis-causing genetic polymorphims affecting gene expression levels, with (e.g. COQ4) or without (e.g. LOC100513192) potential pleiotropic effects that affect the expression of other genes (cluster of trans-eQTLs). Conclusion Genetic analysis of transcription levels revealed dependence among molecular phenotypes as being