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1

Influence of Dose on Risk of Acute Urinary Retention After Iodine-125 Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the influence of dose on the risk of acute urinary retention (AUR) after iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between January 2005 and December 2008, 714 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy at our department. All patients completed four imaging studies: magnetic resonance imaging before and 4 weeks after treatment and intraoperative three-dimensional transrectal ultrasonography before and after implantation. The development of AUR was prospectively recorded. The evaluated treatment and dosimetric parameters included prostate volume, number of needles and seeds used, intra- and postoperative prostate edema, percentage of prostate volume receiving 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescribed dose to the prostate, minimal dose received by 90% of the prostate volume, and percentage of the urethra receiving 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescribed dose. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine which factors were associated with AUR. Results: Of the 714 patients, 57 (8.0%) developed AUR. On univariate analysis, the following treatment and dosimetric factors were significantly associated with AUR: International Prostate Symptom Score (odds ratio [OR], 2.07, per 10-point increase), preimplant prostate volume (OR, 1.06), postimplant prostate volume (OR, 1.04), number of needles used (OR, 1.09), and number of seeds used (OR, 1.03). On multivariate analysis, the only independent predictive factors for AUR were pretreatment prostate volume (OR, 1.05) and International Prostate Symptom Score (OR, 1.76, per 10-point increase). Patients with a pretreatment prostate volume >35 cm{sup 3} had a 10.4% risk of developing AUR compared with 5.4% for those with a prostate volume of {<=}35 cm{sup 3}. No association was found between any of the dosimetric parameters and the development of AUR. Conclusion: The radiation dose, within the range studied, did not influence the risk of AUR after iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy. Prostate volume and International Prostate Symptom Score were the most important predictors of AUR.

Roeloffzen, Ellen M.A., E-mail: E.M.A.Roeloffzen@UMCUtrecht.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Battermann, Jan J.; Deursen, Marijke J.H. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Monninkhof, Evelyn M. [Department of Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Visscher, Mareije I.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Vulpen, Marco van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-07-15

2

A Phase III Randomized Trial of the Timing of Meloxicam With Iodine-125 Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication is used to reduce prostate edema and urinary symptoms following prostate brachytherapy. We hypothesized that a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor regimen started 1 week prior to seed implant might diminish the inflammatory response, thus reducing edema, retention rates, and symptom severity. Methods and Materials: From March 2004 to February 2008, 316 men consented to an institutional review board-approved randomized study of a 4-week course of meloxicam, 7.5 mg orally twice per day, starting either on the day of implant or 1 week prior to implant. Brachytherapy was performed using iodine-125 seeds and was preplanned and performed under transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and fluoroscopic guidance. Prostate volume obtained by MR imaging at 1 month was compared to baseline prostate volume obtained by TRUS planimetry and expressed as an edema factor. The trial endpoints were prostate edema at 1 month, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire results at 1 and 3 months, and any need for catheterization. Results: Results for 300 men were analyzed. Median age was 61 (range, 45-79 years), and median TRUS prostate volume was 35.7 cc (range, 18.1-69.5 cc). Median IPSS at baseline was 5 (range, 0-24) and was 15 at 1 month, 16 at 3 months, and 10 at 6 months. Catheterization was required for 7% of patients (6.2% day 0 arm vs. 7.9% day -7 arm; p = 0.65). The median edema factor at 1 month was 1.02 (range, 0.73-1.7). 1.01 day 0 arm vs. 1.05 day -7 arm. Baseline prostate volume remained the primary predictor of postimplant urinary retention. Conclusions: Starting meloxicam 1 week prior to brachytherapy compared to starting immediately after the procedure did not reduce 1-month edema, improve IPSSs at 1 or 3 months, or reduce the need for catheterization.

Crook, Juanita, E-mail: juanita.crook@rmp.uhn.on.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Patil, Nikhilesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wallace, Kris [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Borg, Jette [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zhou, David [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ma, Clement; Pond, Greg [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2010-06-01

3

Prostate-Specific Antigen Bounce After Permanent Iodine-125 Prostate Brachytherapy-An Australian Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 'bounces' after {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy to review the relationship to biochemical control and correlate both clinical and dosimetric variables. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 194 hormone-naive patients with a follow-up of {>=}3 years. Four bounce definitions were applied: an increase of {>=}0.2 ng/mL (definition I), {>=}0.4 ng/mL (definition II), {>=}15% (definition III), and {>=}35% (definition IV) of a previous value with spontaneous return to the prebounce level or lower. Results: Using definition I, II, III, and IV, a bounce was detected in 50%, 34%, 11%, and 9% of patients, respectively. The median time to onset was 14-16 months, the duration was 12-21.5 months, and the magnitude of the increase was 0.5-2 ng/mL. A magnitude of >2 ng/mL, fulfilling the criteria for biochemical failure (BF) according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Phoenix definition, was detected in 11.3%, 16.9%, 47.6%, and 50% using definitions I, II, III, and IV, respectively; 11 patients (5.7%) had true BF. The PSA bounces occurred earlier than BF (p < 0.001). The prediction of BF remains controversial and is probably unrelated to biochemical control. The only statistically significant factor predictive of a PSA bounce was younger age (definitions I and II). Conclusion: PSA bounces are common after brachytherapy. All definitions resulted in a high number of false-positive calls for BF during the first 2 years. The definition of an increase of {>=}0.2 ng/mL should be preferred because of the lowest number of false-positive results for BF. Patients experiencing a PSA bounce during the first 2 years after brachytherapy should undergo surveillance every 3-6 months. Additional investigations are recommended for elevated postimplant PSA levels that have not corrected by 3 years of follow-up.

Zwahlen, Daniel R.; Smith, Ryan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Alfred Health and Monash University, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Andrianopoulos, Nick [Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University School of Public Health, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Matheson, Bronwyn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Alfred Health and Monash University, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Royce, Peter [Department of Urology, Alfred Health and Monash University, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Millar, Jeremy L., E-mail: jeremy.millar@med.monash.edu.a [Department of Radiation Oncology, Alfred Health and Monash University, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University School of Public Health, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

2011-01-01

4

Iodine-125 prostate seed brachytherapy in renal transplant recipients: an analysis of oncological outcomes and toxicity profile  

PubMed Central

Purpose Prostate cancer is among the most common non-cutaneous neoplasms affecting renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Available treatments including radical prostatectomy and external beam radiotherapy carry a risk of damage to the transplanted kidney, ureters, or bladder. We assessed the safety and efficacy of Iodine-125 (125I) prostate seed brachytherapy as an alternative to surgery and radiotherapy in these individuals. Material and methods We retrospectively reviewed our brachytherapy database to identify patients with a prior history of renal transplantation, who had undergone seed implantation for localized prostate cancer. Long term PSA control and treatment related toxicity, including graft dysfunction, urinary, rectal, and sexual complications, were assessed and compared with published outcomes for surgery and external beam radiotherapy. Results Of 1054 patients treated with permanent seed implantation from 2002-2012, we identified four who had a prior history of renal transplantation. Mean time from renal transplantation to prostate cancer diagnosis was 13 years. Mean follow-up after seed implantation was 44 months (range 12-60 months). All four patients remain free of PSA progression. No peri-operative complications were experienced following seed implantation, and all four patients continued to have normal graft function. Long term urinary and rectal function scores were comparable to reported outcomes for seed brachytherapy in the non-transplant population. Conclusions 125I prostate seed brachytherapy is associated with high rates of biochemical control and minimal toxicity to the renal graft in RTRs. This treatment should be considered as an alternative to surgery in managing RTRs with localized prostate cancer. PMID:24790617

Bucci, Joseph; Malouf, David

2014-01-01

5

Novel Parameter Predicting Grade 2 Rectal Bleeding After Iodine-125 Prostate Brachytherapy Combined With External Beam Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose a novel parameter predicting rectal bleeding on the basis of generalized equivalent uniform doses (gEUD) after {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy and to assess the predictive value of this parameter. Methods and Materials: To account for differences among radiation treatment modalities and fractionation schedules, rectal dose–volume histograms (DVHs) of 369 patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing combined therapy retrieved from corresponding treatment planning systems were converted to equivalent dose-based DVHs. The gEUDs for the rectum were calculated from these converted DVHs. The total gEUD (gEUD{sub sum}) was determined by a summation of the brachytherapy and external-beam radiation therapy components. Results: Thirty-eight patients (10.3%) developed grade 2+ rectal bleeding. The grade 2+ rectal bleeding rate increased as the gEUD{sub sum} increased: 2.0% (2 of 102 patients) for <70 Gy, 10.3% (15 of 145 patients) for 70-80 Gy, 15.8% (12 of 76 patients) for 80-90 Gy, and 19.6% (9 of 46 patients) for >90 Gy (P=.002). Multivariate analysis identified age (P=.024) and gEUD{sub sum} (P=.000) as risk factors for grade 2+ rectal bleeding. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate gEUD to be a potential predictive factor for grade 2+ late rectal bleeding after combined therapy for prostate cancer.

Shiraishi, Yutaka, E-mail: shiraishi@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hanada, Takashi; Ohashi, Toshio [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yorozu, Atsunori; Toya, Kazuhito [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Shiro [Department of Urology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Shigematsu, Naoyuki [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

2013-09-01

6

Iodine-125 brachytherapy for brain tumours - a review  

PubMed Central

Iodine-125 brachytherapy has been applied to brain tumours since 1979. Even though the physical and biological characteristics make these implants particularly attractive for minimal invasive treatment, the place for stereotactic brachytherapy is still poorly defined. An extensive review of the literature has been performed, especially concerning indications, results and complications. Iodine-125 seeds have been implanted in astrocytomas I-III, glioblastomas, metastases and several other tumour entities. Outcome data given in the literature are summarized. Complications are rare in carefully selected patients. All in all, for highly selected patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent primary or metastatic tumours, this method provides encouraging survival rates with relatively low complication rates and a good quality of life. PMID:22394548

2012-01-01

7

Iodine 125 interstitial irradiation for localized prostate cancer.  

PubMed Central

We present the technique, complications, and 5-year results of transperineal percutaneous template permanent interstitial iodine 125 endocurietherapy of localized prostate cancer in 85 treated patients. The 5-year outcome appears similar to that of external beam radiation therapy or radical surgery, but the iatrogenic mortality, morbidity, treatment time, and hospitalization are significantly reduced. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2319613

Kumar, P. P.; Good, R. R.; Bartone, F. F.

1990-01-01

8

Cryosurgery in combination with brachytherapy of iodine-125 seeds for pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

A major limit of cryoablation is incomplete destruction of cells in the border zone of the cryogenic lesion in which the tissue temperature is warmer than (-)20 °C. The use of iodine-125 seed implantation is likely to be complementary to cryosurgery for treatment of pancreatic cancer. The procedure of cryosurgery and iodine-125 seed implantation is performed with percutaneous approaches under guidance of ultrasound and/or CT. The number of iodine-125 seeds implanted for every patient was 34 in median. Forty-nine patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer received cryosurgery with combination of iodine-125 seed implantation. During a median follow-up of 18 months, the median of over all survival was 16.2 months. The 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-month overall survival rates were 94.9%, 63.1%, 22.8% and 9.5%, respectively. Compared with patients with cryosurgery alone, combination treatment shows higher the 6- and 12-month survival rates and longer the median survival. PMID:25083464

Xu, Kecheng; Niu, Lizhi; Mu, Feng; Hu, Yize

2013-05-01

9

Ocular Response of Choroidal Melanoma With Monosomy 3 Versus Disomy 3 After Iodine-125 Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the ocular response of choroidal melanoma with monosomy 3 vs. disomy 3 after {sup 125}I brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We evaluated patients with ciliochoroidal melanoma managed with fine needle aspiration biopsy immediately before plaque application for {sup 125}I brachytherapy between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2008. Patients with (1) cytopathologic diagnosis of melanoma, (2) melanoma chromosome 3 status identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and (3) 6 or more months of follow-up after brachytherapy were sorted by monosomy 3 vs. disomy 3 and compared by Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Among 40 ciliochoroidal melanomas (40 patients), 15 had monosomy 3 and 25 had disomy 3. Monosomy 3 melanomas had a median greatest basal diameter of 12.00 mm and a median tumor thickness of 6.69 mm before brachytherapy; at a median of 1.75 years after brachytherapy, median thickness was 3.10 mm. Median percentage decrease in tumor thickness was 48.3%. Disomy 3 melanomas had a median greatest basal diameter of 10.00 mm and median tumor thickness of 3.19 mm before brachytherapy; at a median of 2.00 years after brachytherapy, median tumor thickness was 2.37 mm. The median percentage decrease in tumor thickness was 22.7%. Monosomy 3 melanomas were statistically greater in size than disomy 3 melanomas (p < 0.001) and showed a greater decrease in tumor thickness after brachytherapy (p = 0.006). Conclusion: In this study, ciliochoroidal melanomas with monosomy 3 were significantly greater in size than disomy 3 melanoma and showed a significantly greater decrease in thickness at a median of 1.75 years after brachytherapy. The greater decrease in monosomy 3 melanoma thickness after brachytherapy is consistent with other malignancies in which more aggressive pathology has been shown to be associated with a greater initial response to radiotherapy.

Marathe, Omkar S. [David Geffen School of Medicine, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wu, Jeffrey; Lee, Steve P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yu Fei; Burgess, Barry L. [Department of Ophthalmology, The Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Leu Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Straatsma, Bradley R. [Department of Ophthalmology, The Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McCannel, Tara A., E-mail: TMcCannel@jsei.ucla.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2011-11-15

10

Dosimetric and Late Radiation Toxicity Comparison Between Iodine-125 Brachytherapy and Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Juxtapapillary Choroidal Melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the dose distributions and late radiation toxicities for {sup 125}I brachytherapy (IBT) and stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) in the treatment of juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma. Methods: Ninety-four consecutive patients with juxtapapillary melanoma were reviewed: 30 have been treated with IBT and 64 with SRT. Iodine-125 brachytherapy cases were modeled with plaque simulator software for dosimetric analysis. The SRT dosimetric data were obtained from the Radionics XKnife RT3 software. Mean doses at predetermined intraocular points were calculated. Kaplan-Meier estimates determined the actuarial rates of late toxicities, and the log–rank test compared the estimates. Results: The median follow-up was 46 months in both cohorts. The 2 cohorts were balanced with respect to pretreatment clinical and tumor characteristics. Comparisons of radiation toxicity rates between the IBT and SRT cohorts yielded actuarial rates at 50 months for cataracts of 62% and 75% (P=.1), for neovascular glaucoma 8% and 47% (P=.002), for radiation retinopathy 59% and 89% (P=.0001), and for radiation papillopathy 39% and 74% (P=.003), respectively. Dosimetric comparisons between the IBT and SRT cohorts yielded mean doses of 12.8 and 14.1 Gy (P=.56) for the lens center, 17.6 and 19.7 Gy (P=.44) for the lens posterior pole, 13.9 and 10.8 Gy (P=.30) for the ciliary body, 61.9 and 69.7 Gy (P=.03) for optic disc center, and 48.9 and 60.1 Gy (P<.0001) for retina at 5-mm distance from tumor margin, respectively. Conclusions: Late radiation-induced toxicities were greater with SRT, which is secondary to the high-dose exposure inherent to the technique as compared with IBT. When technically feasible, IBT is preferred to treat juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma.

Krema, Hatem, E-mail: htmkrm19@yahoo.com [Department of Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Heydarian, Mostafa [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Beiki-Ardakani, Akbar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Weisbrod, Daniel [Department of Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Ocular Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xu, Wei [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Laperriere, Normand J.; Sahgal, Arjun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2013-07-01

11

Prostate brachytherapy  

MedlinePLUS

Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate ... is often used for men with a small prostate cancer that is found early and is slow-growing. ...

12

Low-dose rate stereotactic iodine-125 brachytherapy for the treatment of inoperable primary and recurrent glioblastoma: single-center experience with 201 cases.  

PubMed

Treatment options for inoperable glioblastoma are limited. Low-dose-rate stereotactic iodine-125 brachytherapy (SBT) has been reported as an effective and low-risk treatment option for circumscribed low-grade gliomas and brain metastases. The present study evaluates this treatment approach for patients with inoperable glioblastoma. Between 1990 and 2012, 201 patients with histologically proven glioblastoma were treated with SBT (iodine-125 seeds; median cumulative surface dose, 60 Gy; median dose-rate, 6 cGy/h; median gross-tumor-volume, 17 ml) either as primary treatment (n = 103) or at recurrence (n = 98). In addition to SBT, 90.3 % of patients in the primary treatment group received external boost radiotherapy (median dose, 25.2 Gy). Adjuvant chemotherapy was added for 30.8 % of patients following SBT and consisted of temozolomide for the majority of cases (88.7 %). Procedure-related complications, clinical outcome, progression-free and overall survival (PFS, OS) were evaluated. Median follow-up was 9.8 months. The procedure-related mortality was zero. During follow-up, transient and permanent procedure-related morbidity was observed in 7.5 and 2.0 %, respectively. Calculated from the time of SBT, median OS and PFS rates were 10.5 and 6.2 months, with no significant differences among primary and recurrent tumors (11.1 vs.10.4 months for OS and 6.2 vs. 5.9 months for PFS). For OS, multivariate analysis revealed Karnofsky performance score, age, and adjuvant chemotherapy as independent prognostic factors (all p < 0.01). Low-dose-rate SBT is a relatively safe and potentially effective local treatment option for patients with circumscribed inoperable glioblastoma initially or at recurrence. It deserves prospective validation since it may improve the outcome for a subset of patients with inoperable GBM. PMID:25151509

Kickingereder, Philipp; Hamisch, Christina; Suchorska, Bogdana; Galldiks, Norbert; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Goldbrunner, Roland; Kocher, Martin; Treuer, Harald; Voges, Juergen; Ruge, Maximilian I

2014-12-01

13

Phase I Trial of Gross Total Resection, Permanent Iodine-125 Brachytherapy, and Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of gross total resection and permanent I-125 brachytherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: From April 1999 to May 2002, 21 patients with glioblastoma multiforme were enrolled on a Phase I protocol investigating planned gross total resection and immediate placement of permanent I-125 seeds, followed by postoperative hyperfractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gy at 100 cGy b.i.d., 5 days per week. Median age and Karnofsky performance status were 50 years (range, 32-65 years) and 90 (range, 70-100), respectively. Toxicity was assessed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: Eighteen patients completed treatment according to protocol. The median preoperative tumor volume on magnetic resonance imaging was 18.6 cm{sup 3} (range, 4.4-41.2 cm{sup 3}). The median brachytherapy dose measured 5 mm radially outward from the resection cavity was 400 Gy (range, 200-600 Gy). Ten patients underwent 12 reoperations, with 11 of 12 reoperations demonstrating necrosis without evidence of tumor. Because of high toxicity, the study was terminated early. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 57 and 114 weeks, respectively, but not significantly improved compared with historical patients treated at University of California, San Francisco, with gross total resection and radiotherapy without brachytherapy. Conclusions: Treatment with gross total resection and permanent I-125 brachytherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy as performed in this study results in high toxicity and reoperation rates, without demonstrated improvement in survival.

Chen, Allen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chang, Susan [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Pouliot, Jean; Sneed, Penny K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Prados, Michael D.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Malec, Mary K. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); McDermott, Michael W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Berger, Mitchell S. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Larson, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)], E-mail: larson@radonc17.ucsf.edu

2007-11-01

14

Long-Term Results of Brachytherapy With Temporary Iodine-125 Seeds in Children With Low-Grade Gliomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of temporary I-125 brachytherapy in 94 children and adolescents with low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Treatment was performed in progressive tumors roughly spherical in shape with a diameter of up to 5 cm, including 79 astrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ependymoma, and 5 other tumors. Location was suprasellar/chiasmal in 44, thalamic/basal ganglia in 18, hemispheric in 15, midbrain/pineal region in 13, and lower brainstem in 3. Initially, 8% of patients were free of symptoms, 47% were symptomatic but not disabled, and 30% were slightly, 6% moderately, and 3% severely disabled. Results: 5- and 10-year survival was 97% and 92%. The response to I-125 brachytherapy over the long term was estimated after a median observation period of 38.4 (range, 6.4-171.0) months. At that time, 4 patients were in complete, 27 in partial, and 18 in objective remission; 15 showed stable and 30 progressive tumors. Treatment results did not correlate with age, sex, histology, tumor size, location, or demarcation of the tumor. Secondary treatment became necessary in 36 patients, including 19 who underwent repeated I-125 brachytherapy. At final follow-up, the number of symptom-free patients had risen to 21%. Thirty-eight percent showed symptoms without functional impairment, 19% were slightly and 11% moderately disabled, and only 4% were severely disabled. Conclusions: Response rates similar to those of conventional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be anticipated with I-125 brachytherapy in tumors of the appropriate size and shape. We believe it to be a useful contribution to the treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

Korinthenberg, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.korinthenberg@uniklinik-freiburg.d [Division of Neuropaediatrics and Muscular Disorders, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Neuburger, Daniela [Division of Neuropaediatrics and Muscular Disorders, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Trippel, Michael; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido [Department of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Neurocentre, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

2011-03-15

15

American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for reporting morbidity after prostate brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To standardize the reporting of brachytherapy-related prostate morbidity to guide ongoing clinical practice and future investigations.Methods: Members of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) with expertise in prostate brachytherapy performed a literature review and, guided by their clinical experience, formulated specific recommendations for reporting on morbidity related to prostate brachytherapy.Results: The ABS recommends using validated, patient-administered health-related quality-of-life instruments for

Subir Nag; Rodney J Ellis; Gregory S Merrick; Robert Bahnson; Kent Wallner; Richard Stock

2002-01-01

16

[High dose rate prostate brachytherapy].  

PubMed

This article aims at presenting the interest of high dose rate brachytherapy in the radiation treatment of prostatic adenocarcinoma. We will discuss successively the biological and dosimetric specificity of brachytherapy for this particular cancer. Afterwards, we will review the main phase II and III studies, the therapeutic indications in the daily practice from the evidence based medicine as well as the techniques of external beam radiation therapy for the same indications. Finally, the principal avenues of development will be discussed. PMID:23578898

Nickers, P; Blanchard, P; Hannoun-Lévi, J-M; Bossi, A; Chapet, O; Guérif, S

2013-04-01

17

Dosimetry of a thyroid uptake detected in seed migration survey following a patient's iodine-125 prostate implant and in vitro measurements of intentional seed leakages  

SciTech Connect

As a quality control procedure, a post-implant seed migration survey has been accomplished on 340 prostate cancer patients since November 2001. Pulmonary seed embolization and intracardiac seed embolization have been detected. A case of thyroid uptake due to leaking iodine-125 (I-125) sources was also seized. In order to determine the dose to the thyroid, a dosimetry method was developed to link in vivo measurements and the cumulated dose to the thyroid. The calculated source leakage half-life in the case was approximately 15 days based on the measurements and the estimated cumulated dose to thyroid was 204 cGy. It is concluded that one seed was leaking. In order to verify the in vivo measurements, intentional in vitro seed leakage tests were performed. A seed was cut open and placed in a sealed glass container filled with a given volume of saline. The I-125 concentration in the saline was subsequently measured over a period of six months. Consistent in vivo and in vitro results were obtained. Recent incidents of seed leaks reported from other centers have drawn practitioners' attention to this problem. In order to make the measurements more useful, the seed leakage tests were expanded to include I-125 seeds from six other vendors. The results show that the leakage half-lives of those seeds varied from nine days to a half-year. Two seed models demonstrated least leakage. Since the measurements lasted for six months, the escape of iodine resulted from oxidation of iodide in the saline was a concern for the measurement accuracy. As a reference, another set of leakage tests were performed by adding sodium thiosulfate salt (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O) to the saline. Sodium thiosulfate is a reducing agent that prevents the conversion of iodide to iodate so as to minimize I-125 evaporation. As a result, significantly shortened leakage half-lives were observed in this group. Seed agitation was also performed and no significant deviations of the leakage rates were observed. Considering the body fluid is more complex than saline, the in vivo leakage half-life, in case a source leak is encountered, may vary significantly from what is presented in this paper due to chemical reactions. In vivo measurements thus may produce a more accurate estimation of leakage half-life and thyroid uptake dose.

Chen Qinsheng; Russell, John L. Jr.; Macklis, Roger R.; Weinhous, Martin S.; Blair, Henry F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States)

2006-07-15

18

Pretreatment Nomogram to Predict the Risk of Acute Urinary Retention After I-125 Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Acute urinary retention (AUR) after iodine-125 (I-125) prostate brachytherapy negatively influences long-term quality of life and therefore should be prevented. We aimed to develop a nomogram to preoperatively predict the risk of AUR. Methods: Using the preoperative data of 714 consecutive patients who underwent I-125 prostate brachytherapy between 2005 and 2008 at our department, we modeled the probability of AUR. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the predictive ability of a set of pretreatment predictors and the additional value of a new risk factor (the extent of prostate protrusion into the bladder). The performance of the final model was assessed with calibration and discrimination measures. Results: Of the 714 patients, 57 patients (8.0%) developed AUR after implantation. Multivariate analysis showed that the combination of prostate volume, IPSS score, neoadjuvant hormonal treatment and the extent of prostate protrusion contribute to the prediction of AUR. The discriminative value (receiver operator characteristic area, ROC) of the basic model (including prostate volume, International Prostate Symptom Score, and neoadjuvant hormonal treatment) to predict the development of AUR was 0.70. The addition of prostate protrusion significantly increased the discriminative power of the model (ROC 0.82). Calibration of this final model was good. The nomogram showed that among patients with a low sum score (<18 points), the risk of AUR was only 0%-5%. However, in patients with a high sum score (>35 points), the risk of AUR was more than 20%. Conclusion: This nomogram is a useful tool for physicians to predict the risk of AUR after I-125 prostate brachytherapy. The nomogram can aid in individualized treatment decision-making and patient counseling.

Roeloffzen, Ellen M., E-mail: e.m.a.roeloffzen@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Vulpen, Marco van; Battermann, Jan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Roermund, Joep G. van [Department of Urology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Saibishkumar, Elantholi P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Monninkhof, Evelyn M. [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-11-01

19

Preoperative treatment planning with intraoperative optimization can achieve consistent high-quality implants in prostate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Advances in brachytherapy treatment planning systems have allowed the opportunity for brachytherapy to be planned intraoperatively as well as preoperatively. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach have been the subject of extensive debate, and some contend that the intraoperative approach is vital to the delivery of optimal therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-quality permanent prostate implants can be achieved consistently using a preoperative planning approach that allows for, but does not necessitate, intraoperative optimization. To achieve this purpose, we reviewed the records of 100 men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who had been prospectively treated with brachytherapy monotherapy between 2006 and 2009 at our institution. All patients were treated with iodine-125 stranded seeds; the planned target dose was 145 Gy. Only 8 patients required adjustments to the plan on the basis of intraoperative findings. Consistency and quality were assessed by calculating the correlation coefficient between the planned and implanted amounts of radioactivity and by examining the mean values of the dosimetric parameters obtained on preoperative and 30 days postoperative treatment planning. The amount of radioactivity implanted was essentially identical to that planned (mean planned radioactivity, 41.27 U vs. mean delivered radioactivity, 41.36 U; R{sup 2} = 0.99). The mean planned and day 30 prostate V100 values were 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively. The mean planned and day 30 prostate D90 values were 186.3 and 185.1 Gy, respectively. Consistent, high-quality prostate brachytherapy treatment plans can be achieved using a preoperative planning approach, mostly without the need for intraoperative optimization. Good quality assurance measures during simulation, treatment planning, implantation, and postimplant evaluation are paramount for achieving a high level of quality and consistency.

Kudchadker, Rajat J., E-mail: rkudchad@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pugh, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Swanson, David A. [Department of Urology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bruno, Teresa L.; Bolukbasi, Yasemin; Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2012-01-01

20

The american brachytherapy society recommendations for permanent prostate brachytherapy postimplant dosimetric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this report is to establish guidelines for postimplant dosimetric analysis of permanent prostate brachytherapy.Methods: Members of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) with expertise in prostate dosimetry evaluation performed a literature review and supplemented with their clinical experience formulated guidelines for performing and analyzing postimplant dosimetry of permanent prostate brachytherapy.Results: The ABS recommends that postimplant dosimetry should

Subir Nag; William Bice; Keith DeWyngaert; Bradley Prestidge; Richard Stock; Yan Yu

2000-01-01

21

Current status of brachytherapy for prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Brachytherapy was developed to treat prostate cancer 50 years ago. Current advanced techniques using transrectal ultrasonography were established 25 years ago. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) has enabled the prostate to be viewed with improved resolution with the use of modern ultrasound machines. Moreover, the development of software that can provide images captured in real time has improved treatment outcomes. Other new radiologic imaging technologies or a combination of magnetic resonance and TRUS could be applied to brachytherapy in the future. The therapeutic value of brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer is comparable to that of radical prostatectomy in long-term follow-up. Nevertheless, widespread application of brachytherapy cannot be achieved for several reasons. The treatment outcome of brachytherapy varies according to the skill of the operator and differences in patient selection. Currently, only three radioactive isotopes are available for use in low dose rate prostate brachytherapy: I-125, Pd-103, and Cs-131; therefore, more isotopes should be developed. High dose rate brachytherapy using Ir-192 combined with external beam radiation, which is needed to verify the long-term effects, has been widely applied in high-risk patient groups. Recently, tumor-selective therapy or focal therapy using brachytherapy, which is not possible by surgical extraction, has been developed to maintain the quality of life in selected cases. However, this new application for prostate cancer treatment should be performed cautiously because we do not know the oncological outcome, and it would be an interim treatment method. This technique might evolve into a hybrid of whole-gland treatment and focal therapy. PMID:23185664

Park, Dong Soo

2012-11-01

22

The phylogeny of permanent prostate brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Permanent prostate brachytherapy has been practiced for more than a century. This review examines the influence of earlier procedures on the modern transperineal ultrasound-directed technique. A literature review was conducted to examine the origin of current clinical practice. The dimensions of the modern brachytherapy seed, the prescription dose, and implant/teletherapy sequencing are vestigial features, which may be suboptimal in the current era of low-energy photon-emitting radionuclides and computerized dose calculations. Although the modern transperineal permanent prostate implant procedure has proven to be safe and effective, it should undergo continuous re-evaluation and evolution to ensure that its potential is maximized. PMID:23878553

Aronowitz, Jesse N.

2013-01-01

23

Harmony search optimization for HDR prostate brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy, multiple catheters are inserted interstitially into the target volume. The process of treating the prostate involves calculating and determining the best dose distribution to the target and organs-at-risk by means of optimizing the time that the radioactive source dwells at specified positions within the catheters. It is the goal of this work to investigate

Aditya Panchal

2008-01-01

24

Myths and fallacies in permanent prostate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Because there are competing modalities to treat early-stage prostate cancer, the constraints or deficiencies of one modality may be erroneously applied to others. Some valid concerns arising from surgery and external beam therapy, which have been falsely transferred to brachytherapy, are constraints based on patient age, clinical and pathological parameters, patient weight, and size of prostate. Although the constraints have a valid basis in one modality, knowledge of the origin and mechanism of the constraint has provided a means to circumvent or overcome it in brachytherapy. Failures as measured by biochemical no-evidence of disease (bNED) survival may be attributed to extracapsular disease extension. Such extension often expresses itself in surrogate parameters such as a high percentage of positive biopsies, perineural invasion, or the dominant pattern in Gleason score histology. Failures due to such factors may be prevented by implanting with consistent extracapsular dosimetric margins. Some presumed limitations on prostate brachytherapy originated from data on patients implanted in the first few years the procedure was being developed. Most of the urinary morbidity and a significant part of the decrease in sexual function observed may be avoided by controlling the dosimetry along the prostatic and membranous urethra and at the penile bulb.

Butler, Wayne M.; Merrick, Gregory S

2003-09-30

25

Examination of dosimetry accuracy as a function of seed detection rate in permanent prostate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

The variation of permanent prostate brachytherapy dosimetry as a function of seed detection rates was investigated for I125 implants with seed activities commonly employed in contemporary practice. Post-implant imaging and radiation dosimetry data from nine patients who underwent PPB served as the basis of this simulation study. One-thousand random configurations of detected seeds were generated for each patient dataset using various seed detection levels from 30% to 99%. Dose parameters, including D90, were computed for each configuration and compared with the actual dosimetry data. A total of 108 000 complete sets of post-PPB dose volume statistics were computed. The results demonstrated that although the average D90 differed from the true value by less than 5% when 70% or more seeds were identified, the D90 of an individual case could deviate up to 13%. The 95% confidence interval (CI) of estimated D90 values differ by less than 5% from the actual value when 95% or more seeds are detected, or approximately a 7 Gy difference in the D90 value for a prescription dose of 144 Gy. Estimated target volume dose parameters tended to decrease with reduced seed detection rates. The most variable dose parameter was the prostate V100 in absolute scale while the urethral V100 was most variable in a relative sense. Based on this comprehensive simulation study, it is suggested that 95% or more seeds need to be localized in order to provide an accurate estimation of dose parameters for contemporary iodine 125 permanent prostate brachytherapy.

Su Yi; Davis, Brian J.; Herman, Michael G.; Manduca, Armando; Robb, Richard A. [Biomedical Imaging Resource, Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Biomathematics Resource, Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Biomedical Imaging Resource, Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

2005-09-15

26

MCNP modeling of prostate brachytherapy and organ dosimetry  

E-print Network

MCNP MODELING OF PROSTATE BRACHYTHERAPY AND ORGAN DOSIMETRY A Thesis by SUSRUT RAJANIKANT USGAONKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2003 Major Subject: Health Physics MCNP MODELING OF PROSTATE BRACHYTHERAPY AND ORGAN DOSIMETRY A Thesis by SUSRUT RAJANIKANT USGAONKER Submitted to Texas A...

Usgaonker, Susrut Rajanikant

2004-09-30

27

American brachytherapy society (ABS) recommendations for transperineal permanent brachytherapy of prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose\\/Objective: To develop and disseminate the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendations for the clinical quality assurance and guidelines of permanent transperineal prostate brachytherapy with 125I or 103Pd.Methods and Materials: The ABS formed a committee of experts in prostate brachytherapy to develop consensus guidelines through a critical analysis of published data supplemented by their clinical experience. The recommendations of the panels

Subir Nag; David Beyer; Jay Friedland; Peter Grimm; Ravinder Nath

1999-01-01

28

Salvage low-dose-rate 125I partial prostate brachytherapy after dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report outcomes on 5 patients treated with salvage partial low-dose-rate (LDR) 125-iodine (125I) permanent prostate seed brachytherapy (BT) for biopsy-proven locally persistent prostate cancer, following failure of dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Material and methods A retrospective review of the Fox Chase Cancer Center prostate cancer database identified five patients treated with salvage partial LDR 125I seed implant for locally persistent disease following dose-escalated EBRT to 76-84 Gy in 2 Gy per fraction equivalent. All patients had post-EBRT biopsies confirming unilateral locally persistent prostate cancer. Pre-treatment, EBRT and BT details, as well as post-treatment characteristics were documented and assessed. Results The median follow-up post-implant was 41 months. All five patients exhibited low acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities. Increased erectile dysfunction was noted in three patients. There were no biochemical failures following salvage LDR 125I seed BT to date, with a median post-salvage PSA of 0.4 ng/mL. Conclusions In carefully selected patients with local persistence of disease, partial LDR 125I permanent prostate seed implant appears to be a feasible option for salvage local therapy with an acceptable toxicity profile. Further study is needed to determine long-term results of this approach. PMID:25337135

Chang, Lynn

2014-01-01

29

Therapeutic implications of iodine-125 cytotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

The biological consequences of differential subcellular radionuclide accumulation within nuclear structures have important implications for the design and development of new therapeutic agents for cancer management. A growing body of experimental data demonstrates that localization of /sup 125/I within the genome results in marked cytotoxicity. Investigations of iodine-125 labeled iododeoxyuridine, DNA intercalators and tamoxifen are reviewed as representative of this new group of potential radiotherapeutic agents.

Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Adelstein, S.J.

1982-11-01

30

Therapeutic implications of iodine-125 cytotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

The biological consequences of differential subcellular radionuclide accumulation within nuclear stuctures have important implications for the design and development of new therapeutic agents for cancer management. A growing body of experimental data demonstrates that localization of /sup 125/I within the genome results in marked cytotoxicity. Investigations of iodine-125 labeled iododeoxyuridine, DNA intercalators and tamoxifen are reviewed as representative of this new group of potential radiotherapeutic agents.

Bloomer, W.D.; McLaughlin, W.H.; Adelstein, S.J.

1982-11-01

31

Interpreting a rising prostate-specific antigen after brachytherapy for prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to review the English language literature on the topic of prostate-specific antigen bounce after brachytherapy and present a summary of the current knowledge. Although ultimately prostate-specific antigen is a reliable measure of success after prostate brachytherapy, it can be very misleading in the first 3 years because of the frequency with which temporary benign rises in prostate-specific antigen occur. We have reviewed the English language literature on the topic of prostate-specific antigen bounce under the following headings: prostate neoplasms, brachytherapy, biochemical definition of prostate-specific antigen failure, "benign prostate-specific antigen bounce" and "prostate-specific antigen spike". We included brachytherapy delivered as either low dose rate or high dose rate, and either as monotherapy or as a boost combined with external beam radiotherapy. A benign self-limited rise in prostate-specific antigen after prostate brachytherapy is seen in an average of 35% of patients, but increases in frequency with younger age. In patients aged less than 55 years, it is observed in up to 68%. Other factors, such as sexual activity, dose, prostate volume and the use of high dose rate versus low dose rate have been implicated in affecting the frequency of the benign bounce. Benign increases in prostate-specific antigen are frequent after prostate brachytherapy. It is important to recognize and correctly diagnose this phenomenon in order to avoid unnecessary salvage treatment. PMID:22905916

Gaztañaga, Miren; Crook, Juanita

2013-02-01

32

Predictors of Metastatic Disease After Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify predictors of metastatic disease after brachytherapy treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: All patients who received either brachytherapy alone (implant) or brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation therapy for treatment of localized prostate cancer at The Mount Sinai Hospital between June 1990 and March 2007 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed on the following variables: risk group, Gleason score (GS), clinical T stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, post-treatment prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSA-DT), treatment type (implant vs. implant plus external beam radiation therapy), treatment era, total biological effective dose, use of androgen deprivation therapy, age at diagnosis, and race. PSA-DT was analyzed in the following ordinate groups: 0 to 90 days, 91 to 180 days, 180 to 360 days, and greater than 360 days. Results: We included 1,887 patients in this study. Metastases developed in 47 of these patients. The 10-year freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM) rate for the entire population was 95.1%. Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 2-15 years). The only two significant predictors of metastatic disease by multivariable analyses were GS and PSA-DT (p < 0.001 for both variables). Estimated 10-year FFDM rates for GS of 6 or less, GS of 7, and GS of 8 or greater were 97.9%, 94.3%, and 76.1%, respectively (p < 0.001). Estimated FFDM rates for PSA-DT of 0 to 90 days, 91 to 180 days, 181 to 360 days, and greater than 360 days were 17.5%, 67.9%, 74%, and 94.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). Estimated 10-year FFDM rates for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 98.6%, 96.2%, and 86.7%, respectively. A demographic shift to patients presenting with higher-grade disease in more recent years was observed. Conclusions: GS and post-treatment PSA-DT are both statistically significant independent predictors of metastatic disease. Patients with a high GS and/or short PSA-DT have a higher likelihood of developing metastatic disease and should be considered for systemic therapy.

Forsythe, Kevin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Burri, Ryan [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson [Department of Urology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: richard.stock@moutsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

2012-06-01

33

Intraoperative planning and evaluation of permanent prostate brachytherapy: Report of the American Brachytherapy Society1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The preplanned technique used for permanent prostate brachytherapy has limitations that may be overcome by intraoperative planning. The goal of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) project was to assess the current intraoperative planning process and explore the potential for improvement in intraoperative treatment planning (ITP). Methods and Materials: Members of the ABS with expertise in ITP performed a literature

SUBIR NAG; JAY P. CIEZKI; ROBERT CORMACK; STEPHEN DOGGETT; KEITH DEWYNGAERT; GREGORY K. EDMUNDSON; RICHARD G. STOCK; NELSON N. STONE; YAN YU; MICHAEL J. ZELEFSKY

2001-01-01

34

Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds.  

PubMed

Brachytherapy seed therapy is an increasingly common way to treat prostate cancer through localized radiation. The current standard of care relies on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for imaging guidance during the seed placement procedure. As visualization of individual metallic seeds tends to be difficult or inaccurate under TRUS guidance, guide needles are generally tracked to infer seed placement. In an effort to improve seed visualization and placement accuracy, the use of photoacoustic (PA) imaging, which is highly sensitive to metallic objects in soft tissue, was investigated for this clinical application. The PA imaging properties of bare (i.e., embedded in pure gelatin) and tissue-embedded (at depths of up to 13 mm) seeds were investigated with a multi-wavelength (750 to 1090 nm) PA imaging technique. Results indicate that, much like ultrasonic (US) imaging, an angular dependence (i.e., seed orientation relative to imaging transducer) of the PA signal exists. Despite this shortcoming, however, PA imaging offers improved contrast, over US imaging, of a seed in prostate tissue if sufficient local fluence is achieved. Additionally, although the PA signal of a bare seed is greatest for lower laser wavelengths (e.g., 750 nm), the scattering that results from tissue tends to favor the use of higher wavelengths (e.g., 1064 nm, which is the primary wavelength of Nd:YAG lasers) when the seed is located in tissue. A combined PA and US imaging approach (i.e., PAUS imaging) shows strong potential to visualize both the seed and the surrounding anatomical environment of the prostate during brachytherapy seed placement procedures. PMID:21833361

Su, Jimmy L; Bouchard, Richard R; Karpiouk, Andrei B; Hazle, John D; Emelianov, Stanislav Y

2011-08-01

35

Harmony search optimization for HDR prostate brachytherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In high dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy, multiple catheters are inserted interstitially into the target volume. The process of treating the prostate involves calculating and determining the best dose distribution to the target and organs-at-risk by means of optimizing the time that the radioactive source dwells at specified positions within the catheters. It is the goal of this work to investigate the use of a new optimization algorithm, known as Harmony Search, in order to optimize dwell times for HDR prostate brachytherapy. The new algorithm was tested on 9 different patients and also compared with the genetic algorithm. Simulations were performed to determine the optimal value of the Harmony Search parameters. Finally, multithreading of the simulation was examined to determine potential benefits. First, a simulation environment was created using the Python programming language and the wxPython graphical interface toolkit, which was necessary to run repeated optimizations. DICOM RT data from Varian BrachyVision was parsed and used to obtain patient anatomy and HDR catheter information. Once the structures were indexed, the volume of each structure was determined and compared to the original volume calculated in BrachyVision for validation. Dose was calculated using the AAPM TG-43 point source model of the GammaMed 192Ir HDR source and was validated against Varian BrachyVision. A DVH-based objective function was created and used for the optimization simulation. Harmony Search and the genetic algorithm were implemented as optimization algorithms for the simulation and were compared against each other. The optimal values for Harmony Search parameters (Harmony Memory Size [HMS], Harmony Memory Considering Rate [HMCR], and Pitch Adjusting Rate [PAR]) were also determined. Lastly, the simulation was modified to use multiple threads of execution in order to achieve faster computational times. Experimental results show that the volume calculation that was implemented in this thesis was within 2% of the values computed by Varian BrachyVision for the prostate, within 3% for the rectum and bladder and 6% for the urethra. The calculation of dose compared to BrachyVision was determined to be different by only 0.38%. Isodose curves were also generated and were found to be similar to BrachyVision. The comparison between Harmony Search and genetic algorithm showed that Harmony Search was over 4 times faster when compared over multiple data sets. The optimal Harmony Memory Size was found to be 5 or lower; the Harmony Memory Considering Rate was determined to be 0.95, and the Pitch Adjusting Rate was found to be 0.9. Ultimately, the effect of multithreading showed that as intensive computations such as optimization and dose calculation are involved, the threads of execution scale with the number of processors, achieving a speed increase proportional to the number of processor cores. In conclusion, this work showed that Harmony Search is a viable alternative to existing algorithms for use in HDR prostate brachytherapy optimization. Coupled with the optimal parameters for the algorithm and a multithreaded simulation, this combination has the capability to significantly decrease the time spent on minimizing optimization problems in the clinic that are time intensive, such as brachytherapy, IMRT and beam angle optimization.

Panchal, Aditya

36

Improved seed-based MR and CT image registration for prostate brachytherapy  

E-print Network

Prostate cancer's high incidence and high survivability motivate its treatment using tightly focused radiation therapy. Brachytherapy treatment, the implantation of radioactive seeds into the prostate, is increasing in ...

Kim, Elizabeth S. (Elizabeth Seon-wha), 1979-

2004-01-01

37

Sexual Function and the Use of Medical Devices or Drugs to Optimize Potency After Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Prospective evaluation of sexual outcomes after prostate brachytherapy with iodine-125 seeds as monotherapy at a tertiary cancer care center. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 129 men with prostate cancer with I-125 seed implants (prescribed dose, 145 Gy) without supplemental hormonal or external beam radiation therapy. Sexual function, potency, and bother were prospectively assessed at baseline and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 months using validated quality-of-life self-assessment surveys. Postimplant dosimetry values, including dose to 10% of the penile bulb (D10), D20, D33, D50, D75, D90, and penile volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100) were calculated. Results: At baseline, 56% of patients recorded having optimal erections; at 1 year, 62% of patients with baseline erectile function maintained optimal potency, 58% of whom with medically prescribed sexual aids or drugs. Variables associated with pretreatment-to-posttreatment decline in potency were time after implant (p = 0.04) and age (p = 0.01). Decline in urinary function may have been related to decline in potency. At 1 year, 69% of potent patients younger than 70 years maintained optimal potency, whereas 31% of patients older than 70 maintained optimal potency (p = 0.02). Diabetes was related to a decline in potency (p = 0.05), but neither smoking nor hypertension were. For patients with optimal potency at baseline, mean sexual bother scores had declined significantly at 1 year (p < 0.01). Sexual potency, sexual function, and sexual bother scores failed to correlate with any dosimetric variable tested. Conclusions: Erections firm enough for intercourse can be achieved at 1 year after treatment, but most men will require medical aids to optimize potency. Although younger men were better able to maintain erections firm enough for intercourse than older men, there was no correlation between potency, sexual function, or sexual bother and penile bulb dosimetry.

Whaley, J. Taylor; Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Swanson, David A. [Department of Urology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pugh, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Bruno, Teresa L. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdnaderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2012-04-01

38

[Salvage 125I brachytherapy of locally recurrent prostate cancer].  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to report a case of salvage low dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy in a patient with locally recurrent prostate cancer, four years after his first treatment with combined external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. A 61-year-old man was treated with 1x10 Gy HDR brachytherapy and a total of 60 Gy EBRT for an organ confined intermediate risk carcinoma of the prostate in 2009. The patient's tumor had been in regression with the lowest PSA level of 0.09 ng/ml, till the end of 2013. After slow but continuous elevation, his PSA level had reached 1.46 ng/ml by February 2014. Pelvis MRI and whole body acetate PET/CT showed recurrent tumor in the dorsal-right region of the prostate. Bone scan was negative. After discussing the possible salvage treatment options with the patient, he chose LDR brachytherapy. In 2014, in spinal anesthesia 21 125I "seeds" were implanted with transrectal ultrasound guidance into the prostate. The prescribed dose to the whole prostate was 100 Gy, to the volume of the recurrent tumor was 140 Gy. The patient tolerated the salvage brachytherapy well. The postimplant dosimetry was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging-computed tomography (MR-CT) fusion and appeared satisfactory. PSA level decreased from the pre-salvage value of 1.46 ng/ml to 0.42 ng/ml by one month and 0.18 ng/ml by two months after the brachytherapy. No gastrointestinal side effects appeared, the patient's urination became slightly more frequent. In selected patients, salvage LDR brachytherapy can be a good choice for curative treatment of locally recurrent prostate cancer, after primary radiation therapy. Multiparametric MRI is fundamental, acetate PET/CT can play an important role when defining the localization of the recurrent tumor. PMID:25260087

Gesztesi, László; Agoston, Péter; Major, Tibor; Gõdény, Mária; Andi, Judit; Lengyel, Zsolt; Polgár, Csaba

2014-09-26

39

Low-dose rate brachytherapy for patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We review the current evidence for the role of low-dose rate brachytherapy (PB) in patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer using a systematic review of the literature. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (from January 1996 to October 2011), the Cochrane Library, relevant guideline web-sites, and websites for meetings specific for genitourinary diseases. Results: Ten systematic reviews and 55 single-study papers met the pre-planned study selection criteria. In the end, 36 articles were abstracted and analyzed for this systematic review. There is no evidence for a difference in efficacy between PB and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), or between PB and radical prostatectomy (RP). During the 6 months to 3 years after treatment, PB was associated with less urinary incontinence and sexual impotency than RP, and RP was associated with less urinary irritation and rectal morbidity than PB. However, these differences diminished over time. PB conferred less risk of impotency and rectal morbidity in the three years after treatment than EBRT. Iodine-125 and alladium-103 did not differ with respect to biochemical relapse-free survival and patient-reported outcomes. Conclusions: PB alone is a treatment option with equal efficacy to EBRT or RP alone in patients with newly diagnosed low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer who require or choose active treatment. PMID:24381672

Rodrigues, George; Yao, Xiaomei; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Brundage, Michael; Chin, Joseph L.

2013-01-01

40

Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds with transurethral light delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel approach to photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds utilizing an existing urinary catheter for transurethral light delivery. Two canine prostates were surgically implanted with brachyther- apy seeds under transrectal ultrasound guidance. One prostate was excised shortly after euthanasia and fixed in gelatin. The second prostate was imaged in the native tissue environment shortly after euthanasia. A urinary catheter was inserted in the urethra of each prostate. A 1-mm core diameter optical fiber coupled to a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser was inserted into the urinary catheter. Light from the fiber was either directed mostly parallel to the fiber axis (i.e. end-fire fire) or mostly 90° to the fiber axis (i.e. side-fire fiber). An Ultrasonix SonixTouch scanner, transrectal ultrasound probe with curvilinear (BPC8-4) and linear (BPL9-5) arrays, and DAQ unit were utilized for synchronized laser light emission and photoacoustic signal acquisition. The implanted brachytherapy seeds were visualized at radial distances of 6-16 mm from the catheter. Multiple brachytherapy seeds were si- multaneously visualized with each array of the transrectal probe using both delay-and-sum (DAS) and short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) beamforming. This work is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds using a transurethral light delivery method.

Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Guo, Xiaoyu; Song, Danny Y.; Boctor, Emad M.

2014-03-01

41

3D TRUS Image Segmentation in Prostate Brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Brachytherapy is a minimally invasive interventional surgery used to treat prostate cancer. It is composed of three steps: dose pre-planning, implantation of radioactive seeds, and dose post-planning. In these procedures, it is crucial to determine the positions of needles and seeds, measure the volume of the prostate gland. Three-dimensional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging has been demonstrated to be a useful technique to perform such tasks. Compared to CT, MRI or X-ray imaging, US image suffers from low contrast, image speckle and shadows, making it challenging for segmentation of needles, the prostates and seeds in the 3D TRUS images. In this paper, we reviewed 3D TRUS image segmentation methods used in prostate brachytherapy including the segmentations of the needles, the prostate, as well as the seeds. Furthermore, some experimental results with agar phantom, turkey and chicken phantom, as well as the patient data are reported. PMID:17281931

Ding, Mingyue; Gardi, Lori; Wei, Zhouping; Fenster, Aaron

2005-01-01

42

Prostate brachytherapy in patients with median lobe hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Our aim was to document the technical and clinical course of prostate brachytherapy patients with radiographic evidence of median lobe hyperplasia (MLH). Eight patients with MLH were identified during our routine brachytherapy practice, representing 9% of the 87 brachytherapy patients treated during a 6-month period. No effort was made to avoid brachytherapy in patients noted to have MLH on diagnostic work-up. Cystoscopic evaluation was not routinely performed. Postimplant axial computed tomographic (CT) images of the prostate were obtained at 0.5 cm intervals. Preimplant urinary obstructive symptoms were quantified by the criteria of the American Urologic Association (AUA). Each patient was contacted during the writing of this report to update postimplant morbidity information. There was no apparent association between the degree of MLH and preimplant prostate volume or AUA score. Intraoperatively, we were able to visualize MLH by transrectal ultrasound and did not notice any particular difficulty placing sources in the MLH tissue or migration of sources out of the tissue. The prescription isodose covered from 81% to 99% of the postimplant CT-defined target volume, achieving adequate dose to the median lobe tissue in all patients. Two of the eight patients developed acute, postimplant urinary retention. The first patient required intermittent self-catheterization for 3 months and then resumed spontaneous urination. MLH does not appear to be a strong contraindication to prostate brachytherapy, and prophylactic resection of hypertrophic tissue in such patients is probably not warranted. Int. J. Cancer (Radiat. Oncol. Invest.) 90, 152-156 (2000). PMID:10900427

Wallner, K; Smathers, S; Sutlief, S; Corman, J; Ellis, W

2000-06-20

43

Comparison of Combined X-Ray Radiography and Magnetic Resonance (XMR) Imaging-Versus Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry for the Evaluation of Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy Implants  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present a method for the dosimetric analysis of permanent prostate brachytherapy implants using a combination of stereoscopic X-ray radiography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (XMR) in an XMR facility, and to compare the clinical results between XMR- and computed tomography (CT)-based dosimetry. Methods and Materials: Patients who had received nonstranded iodine-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy implants underwent XMR and CT imaging 4 weeks later. Four observers outlined the prostate gland on both sets of images. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were derived, and agreement was compared among the observers and between the modalities. Results: A total of 30 patients were evaluated. Inherent XMR registration based on prior calibration and optical tracking required a further automatic seed registration step that revealed a median root mean square registration error of 4.2 mm (range, 1.6-11.4). The observers agreed significantly more closely on prostate base and apex positions as well as outlining contours on the MR images than on those from CT. Coefficients of variation were significantly higher for observed prostate volumes, D90, and V100 parameters on CT-based dosimetry as opposed to XMR. The XMR-based dosimetry showed little agreement with that from CT for all observers, with D90 95% limits of agreement ranges of 65, 118, 79, and 73 Gy for Observers 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Conclusions: The study results showed that XMR-based dosimetry offers an alternative to other imaging modalities and registration methods with the advantages of MR-based prostate delineation and confident three-dimensional reconstruction of the implant. The XMR-derived dose-volume histograms differ from the CT-derived values and demonstrate less interobserver variability.

Acher, Peter [Division of Imaging Sciences, King's College London School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Department of Urology, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: pete_acher@hotmail.com; Rhode, Kawal [Division of Imaging Sciences, King's College London School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Morris, Stephen; Gaya, Andrew [Department of Clinical Oncology, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Miquel, Marc [Division of Imaging Sciences, King's College London School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Popert, Rick [Department of Urology, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Tham, Ivan [Department of Clinical Oncology, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Nichol, Janette [Department of Urology, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); McLeish, Kate [Division of Imaging Sciences, King's College London School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Deehan, Charles [Department of Medical Physics, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Dasgupta, Prokar; Beaney, Ronald [Department of Urology, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Keevil, Stephen F. [Division of Imaging Sciences, King's College London School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

2008-08-01

44

3D TRUS guided robot assisted prostate brachytherapy.  

PubMed

This paper describes a system for dynamic intraoperative prostate brachytherapy using 3D ultrasound guidance with robot assistance. The system consists of 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging, a robot and software for prostate segmentation, 3D dose planning, oblique needle segmentation and tracking, seed segmentation, and dynamic re-planning and verification. The needle targeting accuracy of the system was 0.79 mm +/- 0.32 mm in a phantom study. PMID:16685938

Wei, Zhouping; Ding, Mingyue; Downey, Donal; Fenster, Aaron

2005-01-01

45

142pr glass seeds for the brachytherapy of prostate cancer  

E-print Network

A beta-emitting glass seed was proposed for the brachytherapy treatment of prostate cancer. Criteria for seed design were derived and several beta-emitting nuclides were examined for suitability. 142Pr was selected as the isotope of choice. Seeds 0...

Jung, Jae Won

2007-09-17

46

The current role of imaging for prostate brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Prostate brachytherapy is a radiotherapy technique for early stage prostate cancer that uses imaging guidance to place radioactive sources directly into the prostate gland. Transrectal ultrasound is used to facilitate a template-guided transperineal approach to the prostate and permits a highly conformal method of prostate radiotherapy with doses far higher than can be achieved with other radiation techniques. Maturing data has validated this technique as an acceptable treatment option with favourable and durable biochemical outcomes. The radiologist has a major role to play in the process: patient selection, guiding source delivery and follow-up after treatment all require close collaboration with colleagues in Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics. This review emphasises the specific contribution of imaging in the context of currently reported outcomes data. PMID:17339141

Carey, Brendan; Swift, Sarah

2007-01-01

47

Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)], E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Galbreath, Robert W. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Ohio University Eastern, St. Clairsville, OH (United States); Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States)

2008-10-01

48

Monotherapeutic brachytherapy for clinically organ-confined prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1980s, permanent prostate brachytherapy has been utilized increasingly as a potentially curative treatment for patients of all ages with clinically localized prostate cancer To determine the 8-year biochemical progression-free survival rate for patients who had undergone monotherapeutic brachytherapy for clinically organ-confined prostate cancer, we conducted a study of 202 patients at Schiffler Cancer Center at Wheeling Hospital in Wheeling, W.Va. These patients had undergone brachytherapy without supplemental external beam radiation therapy or androgen deprivation therapy for clinical T1b-T2c NxM0 (2002 AJCC) prostate cancer from April 1995 through May 2001. No patient underwent seminal vesicle biopsy or pathologic lymph node staging. The median follow-up was 5.2 years. All patients underwent brachytherapy more than 3 years prior to analysis. Biochemical success was defined as a PSA < 0.4 ng/mL after a nadir. Clinical, treatment and dosimetric parameters evaluated for biochemical progression-free survival included patient age, clinical T-stage, Gleason score, pretreatment PSA, risk group, percent positive biopsies, isotope, prostate volume, brachytherapy planning volume, V100/150/200, D90, tobacco status, hypertension and diabetes. For the entire group, 8-year biochemical progression-free survival was 97.4% for Pd-103 and 93.3% for I-125. The median post-treatment PSA for the entire group was < 0.1 ng/mL. In multivariate analysis, only pretreatment PSA predicted biochemical outcome with a trend for better outcome with younger patient age and lesser percent positive biopsies. The results of our study indicate that permanent interstitial brachytherapy as a monotherapeutic approach for patients with clinically organ-confined disease results in a high probability of 8-year biochemical progression-free survival with a median PSA < 0.1 ng/mL. Generous periprostatic treatment margins with documented high quality day 0 postoperative dosimetry are mandatory for such outcomes. PMID:16296198

Merrick, Gregory S; Butler, Wayne M; Wallner, Kent E; Galbreath, Robert W; Adamovich, Edward

2005-01-01

49

Toxicity and Early Biochemical Outcomes From 125Iodine Prostate Brachytherapy in the U.K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy is increasingly available to patients with early prostate cancer in the U.K., but limited data are available about the toxicity and early results in the U.K. prostate cancer population. We describe our experience and results from prostate brachytherapy to date.Materials and methods: Two hundred and fifty-five patients were treated at St Luke’s Cancer Centre, Guildford,

A. Henderson; A. K. A. Ismail; M. Cunningham; S. Aldridge; L. Loverock; S. E. M. Langley; R. W Laing

2004-01-01

50

PSA Kinetics and PSA Bounce Following Permanent Seed Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the incidence, timing, and magnitude of the benign prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce after {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy and correlate the bounce with clinical and/or dosimetric factors. Methods and Materials: From March 1999 to August 2003, a total of 292 men received {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy without androgen deprivation or supplemental beam radiotherapy and have PSA follow-up >30 months. Implants were preplanned using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and performed under transrectal ultrasound/fluoroscopy guidance using preloaded needles. A PSA bounce is defined as an increase {>=}0.2 ng/ml with spontaneous return to prebounce level or lower. Results: Resolved PSA bounces were seen in 40% of men with follow-up >30 months. Median onset was 15 months, and median magnitude was 0.76 ng/ml. Magnitude >2 ng/ml was seen in 15%. The only clinical or dosimetric factor predictive of bounce in multivariate analysis was younger age. Median time to increasing PSA level indicative of failure was 30 months. Conclusions: Benign PSA bounces are common after {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy, especially in younger men. An increase >2 ng/ml above the nadir was seen in 15%. Magnitude of increase does not distinguish bounce from failure. Time to the start of the PSA increase can be helpful, but is not absolute. The PSA bounce does not predict subsequent failure. Caution is advised in interpreting an early increasing PSA level in the first 30 months after {sup 125}I brachytherapy in favorable-risk patients.

Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: juanita.crook@rmp.uhn.on.ca; Gillan, Caitlin B.Sc. [Department of Radiation Medicine, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yeung, Ivan Ph.D. [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Austen, Lynette; McLean, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lockwood, Gina M.Math. [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2007-10-01

51

Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response does not seem related to temporal testosterone changes.

Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, CA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

2012-01-01

52

Ejaculatory Function After Permanent {sup 125}I Prostate Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Ejaculatory function is an underreported aspect of male sexuality in men treated for prostate cancer. We conducted the first detailed analysis of ejaculatory function in patients treated with permanent {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: Of 270 sexually active men with localized prostate cancer treated with permanent {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy, 241 (89%), with a mean age of 65 years (range, 43-80), responded to a mailed questionnaire derived from the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire regarding ejaculatory function. Five aspects of ejaculatory function were examined: frequency, volume, dry ejaculation, pleasure, and pain. Results: Of the 241 sexually active men, 81.3% had conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy; however, the number of patients with rare/absent ejaculatory function was double the pretreatment number (p < .0001). The latter finding was correlated with age (p < .001) and the preimplant International Index of Erectile Function score (p < .001). However, 84.9% of patients with maintained ejaculatory function after implantation reported a reduced volume of ejaculate compared with 26.9% before (p < .001), with dry ejaculation accounting for 18.7% of these cases. After treatment, 30.3% of the patients experienced painful ejaculation compared with 12.9% before (p = .0001), and this was associated with a greater number of implanted needles (p = .021) and the existence of painful ejaculation before implantation (p < .0001). After implantation, 10% of patients who continued to be sexually active experienced no orgasm compared with only 1% before treatment. in addition, more patients experienced late/difficult or weak orgasms (p = .001). Conclusion: Most men treated with brachytherapy have conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy. However, most of these men experience a reduction in volume and a deterioration in orgasm.

Huyghe, Eric [Department of Urology and Andrology, University Hospital, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Department of Urology and Andrology, Paul Sabatier University, CHU Paule de Viguier, Toulouse (France)], E-mail: huyghe.e@chu-toulouse.fr; Delannes, Martine [Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Wagner, Fabien M. [Department of Urology and Andrology, Paul Sabatier University, CHU Paule de Viguier, Toulouse (France); Delaunay, Boris [Department of Urology and Andrology, University Hospital, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Nohra, Joe; Thoulouzan, Matthieu; Shut-Yee, J. Yeung [Department of Urology and Andrology, Paul Sabatier University, CHU Paule de Viguier, Toulouse (France); Plante, Pierre [Department of Urology and Andrology, University Hospital, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Department of Urology and Andrology, Paul Sabatier University, CHU Paule de Viguier, Toulouse (France); Soulie, Michel [Department of Urology and Andrology, University Hospital, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Thonneau, Patrick [Department of Urology and Andrology, Paul Sabatier University, CHU Paule de Viguier, Toulouse (France); Bachaud, Jean Marc [Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France)

2009-05-01

53

Prognostic Importance of Small Prostate Size in Men Receiving Definitive Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess whether small prostate size is an adverse prognostic factor in men undergoing brachytherapy in the same manner in which it seems to be for men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to June 2008, 2024 patients underwent brachytherapy by a single brachytherapist. Median follow-up was 7.4 years. The role of small prostate size ({<=}20 cm{sup 3}) as a prognostic factor for biochemical progression-free survival, cause-specific survival, and all-cause mortality was investigated. The differences in survival between men with small and larger prostates were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Results: Median prostate size for the entire cohort was 32.7 cm{sup 3}. For the 167 men with small prostates, median prostate size was 17.4 cm{sup 3}. There was no difference in biochemical progression-free survival (95.2% vs 96.2%, P=.603), cause-specific survival (97.7% vs 98.3%, P=.546), or all-cause mortality (78.0% vs 77.2%, P=.838) at 10 years for men with small prostates compared with men with larger prostates. On univariate and multivariate analysis, small prostate size was not associated with any of the primary outcome measures. Conclusion: Men with small prostates treated with brachytherapy have excellent outcomes and are at no higher risk of treatment failure than men with larger glands. High-quality implants with adequate margins seem sufficient to address the increased adverse risk factors associated with small prostate size.

Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, California (United States)] [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, California (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)] [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)] [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

2012-10-01

54

Hybrid dosimetry: Feasibility of mixing angulated and parallel needles in planning prostate brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pubic arch interference (PAI) often caused inadequate prostate coverage during transperineal brachytherapy using all parallel needles. In this paper, a hybrid implantation approach is presented in which additional angulated needles can be used to avoid PAI. This approach can be applied in prostate brachytherapy using a robotic assisted device. To examine the feasibility of this approach, volume data from three

Lei Fu; Liu Haisong; Ng Wansing; Deborah Rubens; John Strang; Edward Messing; Yu Yan

2006-01-01

55

Secondary sarcoma of bone post-prostate brachytherapy: A case report  

PubMed Central

Malignancies associated with brachytherapy for prostate cancer are largely unreported in the literature. We report a case of post-brachytherapy osteogenic sarcoma in the pelvis 6 years after permanent 125I implant for intermediate-risk prostate cancer. The patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, limb-sparing surgical resection and postoperative radiation therapy for unexpected positive margins. PMID:25024811

Ye, Allison Y.; Conway, Jessica; Peacock, Michael; Clarkson, Paul W.; Lee, Cheng-Han; Simmons, Christine; Weir, Lorna; McKenzie, Michael

2014-01-01

56

Needle displacement during HDR brachytherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We used clinical patient data to examine implant displacement between high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy fractions for prostate cancer to determine its impact on treatment delivery.Materials and Methods: We analyzed the verification films taken prior to each fraction for 96 consecutive patients treated with HDR brachytherapy boosts as part of their radiation therapy for definitive treatment of organ-confined prostate

Steven J Damore; A. M. Nisar Syed; Ajmel A Puthawala; Anil Sharma

2000-01-01

57

High-dose-rate brachytherapy as monotherapy for prostate cancer: technique, rationale and perspective  

PubMed Central

High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as monotherapy is a comparatively new brachytherapy procedure for prostate cancer. Although clinical results are not yet mature enough, it is a highly promising approach in terms of potential benefits for both radiation physics and radiobiology. In this article, we describe our technique for monotherapeutic HDR prostate brachytherapy, as well as the rationale and theoretical background, with educational intent. PMID:24790627

Suzuki, Osamu; Otani, Yuki; Yoshida, Ken; Nose, Takayuki; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

2014-01-01

58

Efficacy of sildenafil citrate in prostate brachytherapy patients with erectile dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To ascertain the efficacy of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) either before or after prostate brachytherapy by an open-label, nonrandomized study.Methods. Sixty-two patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy between March 1995 and July 1998, had ED either before or after brachytherapy, and were interested in treatment with sildenafil comprised the patient population. Clinical and treatment parameters

Gregory S Merrick; Wayne M Butler; Jonathan H Lief; Robin L Stipetich; Laurie J Abel; Anthony T Dorsey

1999-01-01

59

Primary Gleason Grade 4 Impact on Biochemical Recurrence After Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy in Japanese Patients With Low- or Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To reveal a predictive factor for biochemical recurrence (BCR) after permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) using iodine-125 seed implantation in patients with localized prostate cancer classified as low or intermediate risk based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. Methods and Materials: From January 2004 to December 2009, 414 consecutive Japanese patients with clinically localized prostate cancer classified as low or intermediate risk based on the NCCN guidelines were treated with PPB. The clinical factors including pathological data reviewed by a central pathologist and follow-up data were prospectively collected. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the factors associated with BCR. Results: Median follow-up was 36.5 months. The 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year BCR-free rates using the Phoenix definition were 98.3%, 96.0%, 91.6%, and 87.0%, respectively. On univariate analysis, the Gleason score, especially primary Gleason grade 4 in biopsy specimens, was a strong predicting factor (p < 0.0001), while age, initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, T stage, and minimal dose delivered to 90% of the prostate volume (D90) were insignificant. Multivariate analysis indicated that a primary Gleason grade 4 was the most powerful prognostic factor associated with BCR (hazard ratio = 6.576, 95% confidence interval, 2.597-16.468, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: A primary Gleason grade 4 carried a worse BCR prognosis than the primary grade 3 in patients treated with PPB. Therefore, the indication for PPB in patients with a Gleason sum of 4 + 3 deserves careful and thoughtful consideration.

Uesugi, Tatsuya [Department of Urology, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Saika, Takashi, E-mail: saika@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Edamura, Kohei; Nose, Hiroyuki; Kobuke, Makoto; Ebara, Shin; Abarzua, Fernand [Department of Urology, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Katayama, Norihisa [Department of Radiology, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Yanai, Hiroyuki [Department of Pathology, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi [Department of Urology, Okayama University, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan)

2012-02-01

60

Prostate preservation by combined external beam and HDR brachytherapy in nodal negative prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The combined external beam- and high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) of localized prostate cancer was introduced at Kiel\\u000a University in 1986. The aim of this intermediate analysis was to judge the Kiel method of localized prostate cancer radiation\\u000a treatment after ten years experience.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods  In the past ten years 174 patients with histological proven localized prostate cancer were subjected to

György Kovács; Razvan Galalae; Tillmann Loch; Hagen Bertermann; Peter Kohr; Ralf Schneider; Bernhard Kimming

1999-01-01

61

Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy in Prostate Glands <20 cm{sup 3}  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the dosimetry, treatment-related morbidity, and biochemical outcomes for brachytherapy in patients with prostate glands <20 cm{sup 3}. Methods and Materials: From November 1996 to October 2006, 104 patients with prostate glands <20 cm{sup 3} underwent brachytherapy. Multiple prostate, urethral, and rectal dosimetric parameters were evaluated. Treatment-related urinary and rectal morbidity were assessed from patient questionnaires. Cause-specific survival, biochemical progression-free survival, and overall survival were recorded. Results: The median patient age, follow up, and pre-treatment ultrasound volume was 64 years, 5.0 years and 17.6cm{sup 3}, respectively. Median day 0 dosimetry was significant for the following: V100 98.5%, D90 126.1% and R100 <0.5% of prescription dose. The mean urethral and maximum urethral doses were 119.6% and 133.8% of prescription. The median time to International Prostate Symptom Score resolution was 4 months. There were no RTOG grade III or IV rectal complications. The cause-specific survival, biochemical progression-free survival, and overall survival rates were 100%, 92.5%, and 77.8% at 9 years. For biochemically disease-free patients, the median most recent postbrachytherapy PSA value was 0.02 ng/mL. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that brachytherapy for small prostate glands is highly effective, with an acceptable morbidity profile, excellent postimplant dosimetry, acceptable treatment-related morbidity, and favorable biochemical outcomes.

Mayadev, Jyoti [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.or [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Reed, Joshua R.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Health Care System, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

2010-04-15

62

A hybrid deformable model for simulating prostate brachytherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound (US) guided prostate brachytherapy is a minimally invasive form of cancer treatment during which a needle is used to insert radioactive seeds into the prostate at pre-planned positions. Interaction with the needle can cause the prostate to deform and this can lead to inaccuracy in seed placement. Virtual reality (VR) simulation could provide a way for surgical residents to practice compensating for these deformations. To facilitate such a tool, we have developed a hybrid deformable model that combines ChainMail distance constraints with mass-spring physics to provide realistic, yet customizable deformations. Displacements generated by the model were used to warp a baseline US image to simulate an acquired US sequence. The algorithm was evaluated using a gelatin phantom with a Young's modulus approximately equal to that of the prostate (60 kPa). A 2D US movie was acquired while the phantom underwent needle insertion and inter-frame displacements were calculated using normalized cross correlation. The hybrid model was used to simulate the same needle insertion and the two sets of displacements were compared on a frame-by-frame basis. The average perpixel displacement error was 0.210 mm. A simulation rate of 100 frames per second was achieved using a 1000 element triangular mesh while warping a 300x400 pixel US image on an AMD Athlon 1.1 Ghz computer with 1 GB of RAM and an ATI Radeon 9800 Pro graphics card. These results show that this new deformable model can provide an accurate solution to the problem of simulating real-time prostate brachytherapy.

Levin, David; Fenster, Aaron; Ladak, Hanif M.

2006-03-01

63

Primary Causes of Death After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the primary causes of death in low-risk (low-risk), intermediate-risk (intermediate-risk), and high-risk (high-risk) patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 through November 2004, a total of 1,354 consecutive patients underwent prostate brachytherapy. All patients underwent brachytherapy >3 years before analysis. Of the patients, 532 (39.3%) received androgen deprivation therapy and 703 (51.9%) received supplemental radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 5.4 years. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors of cause-specific, biochemical progression-free, and overall survival. Results: The 10-year cause-specific survival was 97.0% (99.7%, 99.0%, and 90.1% for low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients). Overall survival was 76.7% (82.5%, 78.3%, and 67.6% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively). The cumulative death rate for cardiovascular disease was 11.5% (8.7%, 9.3%, and 19.8% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients). The death rate from second malignancies (nonprostate cancer) was 7.2% and was not substantially different when stratified by risk group. Death from all other causes was 6.5% for the entire cohort but 1.3%, 5.0%, and 10.8% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. In multivariate analysis, death from prostate cancer was best predicted by Gleason score and risk group, whereas death from cardiovascular disease, nonprostate cancer, and all other causes were most closely related to patient age and tobacco use. Conclusions: Although cardiovascular mortality was the predominant cause of death, prostate cancer was responsible for approximately 10% of all deaths. In particular, overall survival was poorest in the high-risk group. Although high-risk patients were most likely to die of prostate cancer, the divergence in overall survival between high-risk and lower-risk patients primarily resulted from an excess of cardiovascular deaths. Changes in lifestyle to improve cardiovascular health may improve overall survival in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer.

Bittner, Nathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)], E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M. [Schiffler Cancer Center Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Allen, Zachariah A.; Brammer, Sarah G. [Schiffler Cancer Center Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Moyad, Mark [Department of Urology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2008-10-01

64

In vivo photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted an approved canine study to investigate the in vivo feasibility of photoacoustic imaging for intraoperative updates to brachytherapy treatment plans. Brachytherapy seeds coated with black ink were inserted into the canine prostate using methods similar to a human procedure. A transperineal, interstitial, fiber optic light delivery method, coupled to a 1064 nm laser, was utilized to irradiate the prostate and the resulting acoustic waves were detected with a transrectal ultrasound probe. The fiber was inserted into a high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy needle that acted as a light-diffusing sheath, enabling radial light delivery from the tip of the fiber inside the sheath. The axis of the fiber was located at a distance of 4-9 mm from the long axis of the cylindrical seeds. Ultrasound images acquired with the transrectal probe and post-operative CT images of the implanted seeds were analyzed to confirm seed locations. In vivo limitations with insufficient light delivery within the ANSI laser safety limit (100 mJ/cm2) were overcome by utilizing a short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) beamformer, which provided average seed contrasts of 20-30 dB for energy densities ranging 8-84 mJ/cm2. The average contrast was improved by up to 20 dB with SLSC beamforming compared to conventional delay-and-sum beamforming. There was excellent agreement between photoacoustic, ultrasound, and CT images. Challenges included visualization of photoacoustic artifacts that corresponded with locations of the optical fiber and hyperechoic tissue structures.

Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Kuo, Nathanael P.; Song, Danny Y.; Kang, Jin; Boctor, Emad M.

2014-03-01

65

Analysis of serial CT scans to assess template and catheter movement in prostate HDR brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAs prostate high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy becomes more prevalent, varying amounts of catheter displacement have been noted. To investigate the constancy of catheter position and its impact on dose distribution, we analyzed serial dosimetric CT scans.

Eduard Mullokandov; Glen Gejerman

2004-01-01

66

Prostate Specific Antigen Bounce Is Related to Overall Survival in Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the association between prostate specific antigen (PSA) bounce and disease outcome after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 975 patients treated with {sup 125}I implantation monotherapy between 1992 and 2006. All patients had tumor Stage {<=}2c, Gleason score {<=}7 prostate cancer, a minimum follow-up of 2 years with at least four PSA measurements, and no biochemical failure in the first 2 years. Median follow-up was 6 years. Bounce was defined as a PSA elevation of +0.2 ng/mL with subsequent decrease to previous nadir. We used the Phoenix +2 ng/mL definition for biochemical failure. Additional endpoints were disease-specific and overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for potential confounding factors. Results: Bounce occurred in 32% of patients, with a median time to bounce of 1.6 years. More than 90% of bounces took place in the first 3 years after treatment and had disappeared within 2 years of onset. Ten-year freedom from biochemical failure, disease-specific survival, and overall survival rates were, respectively, 90%, 99%, and 88% for the bounce group and 70%, 93%, and 82% for the no-bounce group. Only 1 patient (0.3%) died of prostate cancer in the bounce group, compared with 40 patients (6.1%) in the no-bounce group. Adjusted for confounding, a 70% biochemical failure risk reduction was observed for patients experiencing a bounce (hazard ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.48). Conclusions: A PSA bounce after prostate brachytherapy is strongly related to better outcome in terms of biochemical failure, disease-specific survival, and overall survival.

Hinnen, Karel A., E-mail: KAHinnen@Gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Monninkhof, Evelyn M. [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Battermann, Jan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roermund, Joep G.H. van [Department of Urology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Vulpen, Marco van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2012-02-01

67

Temporal relationship between prostate brachytherapy and the diagnosis of colorectal cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify the location of pretreatment and posttreatment colorectal malignancies and posttreatment colorectal polyps in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer managed with brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 through July 2004, 1,351 consecutive patients underwent brachytherapy for clinical stage T1b-T3a (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 2002) prostate cancer. Supplemental external beam radiotherapy (XRT) was administered to 699 patients. The median follow-up was 4.6 years. Operative and pathology reports were reviewed for all patients with pretreatment and posttreatment colorectal cancer and posttreatment colorectal polyps. Multiple parameters were evaluated for the development of colorectal cancer or colorectal polyps. Results: Colorectal cancer was diagnosed in 23 and 25 patients before and after prostate brachytherapy, respectively. No differences were identified in the distribution of colorectal cancers either before or after treatment (3 and 4 rectal cancers in the pre- and postbrachytherapy cohorts). Thirty-five of the 48 colorectal cancers (73%) were diagnosed within 5 years of brachytherapy with a peak incidence 1 year after brachytherapy. One hundred ninety-two colorectal polyps were diagnosed after brachytherapy, 160 (83%) occurred within 4 years of brachytherapy, and only 27 (14%) were located in the rectum. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, prostate D{sub 9} (minimum percentage of the dose covering 90% of the target volume) predicted for posttreatment colorectal cancer. Rectal polyps were most closely related to patient age and percent positive biopsies, whereas sigmoid/colon polyps were best predicted by patient age, planning volume, and supplemental XRT. Conclusions: Colorectal cancer was diagnosed with equal frequency before and after brachytherapy with comparable geographic distributions. In addition, the vast majority of postbrachytherapy colorectal polyps were located beyond the confines of the rectum.

Gutman, Sarah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)]. E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Butler, Wayne M. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Ohio University Eastern, St. Clairsville, OH (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Wheeling Hospital, Department of Pathology, Wheeling, WV (United States)

2006-09-01

68

Predictors of Urinary Morbidity in Cs-131 Prostate Brachytherapy Implants  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cesium-131 is a newer radioisotope being used in prostate brachytherapy (PB). This study was conducted to determine the predictors of urinary morbidity with Cs-131 PB. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 159 patients underwent PB with Cs-131 at our institution and were followed by using Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) surveys to determine urinary morbidity over time. EPIC scores were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 and 4 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Different factors were evaluated to determine their individual effect on urinary morbidity, including patient characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment, and dosimetry. Multivariate analysis of covariance was carried out to identify baseline determinants affecting urinary morbidity. Factors contributing to the need for postoperative catheterization were also studied and reported. Results: At 2 weeks, patient age, dose to 90% of the organ (D90), bladder neck maximum dose (D{sub max}), and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) predicted for worse function. At 4 weeks, age and EBRT continued to predict for worse function. At the 3-month mark, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT predicted for worse urinary morbidity. At 6 months, better preoperative urinary function, preoperative alpha blockers, bladder neck D{sub max}, and EBRT were predictive of increased urinary problems. High bladder neck D{sub max} and poor preoperative urinary function predicted for the need for catheterization. Conclusions: The use of EBRT plus Cs-131 PB predicts for worse urinary toxicity at all time points studied. Patients should be cautioned about this. Age was a consistent predictor of worsened morbidity immediately following Cs-131 PB, while bladder D{sub max} was the only consistent dosimetric predictor. Paradoxically, patients with better preoperative urinary function had worse urinary morbidity at 3 and 6 months, consistent with recently published literature.

Smith, Ryan P., E-mail: smithrp@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Jones, Heather A.; Beriwal, Sushil; Gokhale, Abhay [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Benoit, Ronald [Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

2011-11-01

69

Prostate brachytherapy seed reconstruction using an adaptive grouping technique  

SciTech Connect

Fluoroscopy-based three-dimensional seed localization as a component of intraoperative dosimetry for prostate brachytherapy is an active area of research. A novel adaptive-grouping-based reconstruction approach is developed. This approach can recover overlapped seeds that are not detected from the fluoroscopic images. Two versions of the adaptive-grouping-based reconstruction approach are implemented and compared to an epipolar geometry-based seed reconstruction technique. Simulations based on nine patient datasets are used to validate the algorithms. A total of 2259 reconstructions is performed in which different types of error such as random noise in seed image locations and ambiguities in projection geometry are incorporated. Among those reconstructions, nine of the cases with overlapping seeds and the different types of error are performed. It is demonstrated that the adaptive-grouping-based reconstruction method is more accurate than the epipolar geometry method and allows faster reconstruction. At a random noise level of 0.6 mm, the mean distance error in reconstructed seed locations is approximately 1.0 mm for one of the relevant cases examined in detail. The best adaptive-grouping-based approach successfully recovered overlapped seeds in the majority of simulated cases (89%), with the remainder of cases generating one false positive seed. Phantom validation is also performed, and overlapped seeds are successfully recovered with all 92 seeds correctly localized and reconstructed. The mean distance error between segmented seed images and projected seeds is 0.5 mm in the phantom study.

Su Yi; Davis, Brian J.; Furutani, Keith M.; Herman, Michael G.; Robb, Richard A. [Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Biomedical Imaging Resource, Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

2007-07-15

70

Characterization of liposomes containing iodine-125-labeled radiographic contrast agents  

SciTech Connect

Multilamellar liposomes were prepared containing either iodine-125-labeled (/sup 125/I) diatrizoate or /sup 125/I labeled iotrol in their aqueous phase. The in vitro permeabilities of liposomes containing both contrast agents were measured in the presence of saline and serum at 37 degrees C. Two different phospholipid compositions were studied: phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/stearylamine (PC/C/S, 8: 1:1 molar ratio) and distearoylphosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin (DSPC/SM, 5:2 mole ratio). In saline, similar permeabilities were observed for the four phospholipid-contrast agent combinations. In serum, however, leakage of /sup 125/I activity was 2 to 3 times greater from PC/C/S liposomes than from vesicles composed of DSPC/SM. When PC/C/S liposomes that contained /sup 125/I-diatrizoate were injected into rats, the clearance half-times for /sup 125/I activity from the liver, spleen, and whole body were 4.4 hours, 4.5 hours, and 2.8 hours, respectively. Liposomes composed of DSPC/SM cleared at a significantly slower rate from the liver, spleen, and whole body with half-times of 24.0 hours, 18.4 hours, and 17.2 hours observed from these tissues, respectively.

Zalutsky, M.R.; Noska, M.A.; Seltzer, S.E.

1987-02-01

71

Distinguishing prostate-specific antigen bounces from biochemical failure after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize benign prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounces of at least 2.0 ng/mL and biochemical failure as defined by the Phoenix definition after prostate brachytherapy at our institution, and to investigate distinguishing features between three outcome groups: patients experiencing a benign PSA bounce, biochemical failure, or neither. Material and methods Five hundred and thirty consecutive men treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy with follow-up of at least 3 years were divided into outcome groups experiencing bounce, failure, or neither. A benign bounce was defined as a rise of at least 2.0 ng/mL over the pre-rise nadir followed by a decline to 0.5 ng/mL or below, without intervention. Patient and tumor characteristics, treatment variables, and PSA kinetics were analyzed between groups. Results Thirty-two (6.0%) men experienced benign bounces and 47 (8.9%) men experienced failure. Men experiencing a bounce were younger (p = 0.01), had a higher 6-month PSA level (p = 0.03), and took longer to reach a final nadir (p < 0.01). Compared to the failure group, men with bounce had a lower pre-treatment PSA level (p = 0.01) and experienced a rise of at least 2.0 ng/mL that occurred sooner after the implant (p < 0.01) with a faster PSA doubling time (p = 0.01). Only time to PSA rise independently differentiated between bounce and failure (p < 0.01), with a benign bounce not being seen after 36 months post-treatment. Prostate-specific antigen levels during a bounce reached levels as high as 12.6 ng/mL in this cohort, and in some cases took over 5 years to decline to below 0.5 ng/mL. Conclusions Although there is substantial overlap between the features of benign PSA bounces and failure, physicians may find it useful to evaluate the timing, absolute PSA level, initial response to treatment, and rate of rise when contemplating management for a PSA rise after low-dose-rate brachytherapy. PMID:25337125

Hackett, Cian; Ghosh, Sunita; Sloboda, Ron; Martell, Kevin; Lan, Lanna; Pervez, Nadeem; Pedersen, John; Yee, Don; Murtha, Albert; Amanie, John

2014-01-01

72

Reduction of radioactive seed embolization to the lung following prostate brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:Ultrasound-guided interstitial implantation of radioactive seeds is a common treatment for early stage prostate cancer.One of the risks associated with this therapy is seed embolization to the lung.This paper reports on the incidence and possible adverse effects of seed migration.Methods and Materials:Two hundred ninety consecutive patients were treated with permanent radioactive seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer between January 1 and

Elizabeth M Tapen; John C Blasko; Peter D Grimm; Haakon Ragde; Ray Luse; Stephanie Clifford; John Sylvester; Thomas W Griffin

1998-01-01

73

A gEUD-based inverse planning technique for HDR prostate brachytherapy: Feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of a new inverse planning technique based on the generalized equivalent uniform dose for image-guided high dose rate (HDR) prostate cancer brachytherapy in comparison to conventional dose-volume based optimization. Methods: The quality of 12 clinical HDR brachytherapy implants for prostate utilizing HIPO (Hybrid Inverse Planning Optimization) is compared with alternative plans, which were produced through inverse planning using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD). All the common dose-volume indices for the prostate and the organs at risk were considered together with radiobiological measures. The clinical effectiveness of the different dose distributions was investigated by comparing dose volume histogram and gEUD evaluators. Results: Our results demonstrate the feasibility of gEUD-based inverse planning in HDR brachytherapy implants for prostate. A statistically significant decrease in D{sub 10} or/and final gEUD values for the organs at risk (urethra, bladder, and rectum) was found while improving dose homogeneity or dose conformity of the target volume. Conclusions: Following the promising results of gEUD-based optimization in intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment optimization, as reported in the literature, the implementation of a similar model in HDR brachytherapy treatment plan optimization is suggested by this study. The potential of improved sparing of organs at risk was shown for various gEUD-based optimization parameter protocols, which indicates the ability of this method to adapt to the user's preferences.

Giantsoudi, D. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Baltas, D. [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, 63069 Offenbach (Germany); Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, 15701 Athens (Greece); Karabis, A. [Pi-Medical Ltd., Athens 10676 (Greece); Mavroidis, P. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas 78299 and Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, 17176 (Sweden); Zamboglou, N.; Tselis, N. [Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, 63069 Offenbach (Germany); Shi, C. [St. Vincent's Medical Center, 2800 Main Street, Bridgeport, Connecticut 06606 (United States); Papanikolaou, N. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas 78299 (United States)

2013-04-15

74

Development of a pneumatic robot for MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy and brachytherapy: New approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided prostate biopsy and brachytherapy has been introduced in order to enhance the cancer detection and treatment. For the accurate needle positioning, a number of robotic assistants have been developed. However, problems exist due to the strong magnetic field and limited workspace. Pneumatically actuated robots have shown the minimum distraction in the environment but the confined

Sang-Eun Song; Nathan Bongjoon Cho; Gregory S. Fischer; Nobuhiko Hata; Clare M. Tempany; Gabor Fichtinger; Iulian Iordachita

2010-01-01

75

New interstitial HDR brachytherapy technique for prostate cancer: CT based 3D planning after transrectal implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new interstitial HDR brachytherapy technique for the treatment of prostate cancer using CT based 3D planning after transrectal implantation of four non-parallel needles. CT based needle reconstruction, target definition, evaluation and documentation, including DVHs and 3D imaging, is a feasible, safe and well tolerated treatment concept.

Thomas Martin; Christos Kolotas; Thomas Dannenberg; Gerd Strassmann; Hans-Georg Vogt; Reinhard Heyd; Bernd Rogge; Dimos Baltas; Ralf Kurek; Ulf Tunn; Nikolaos Zamboglou

1999-01-01

76

Statins, especially atorvastatin, may improve survival following brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer.  

PubMed

This is the largest and longest clinical study to date to examine statin usage and overall patient survival following clinically localized prostate cancer. In a retrospective examination of 938 consecutive patients with early-stage prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy, 191 patients were documented to be taking statin medications. The patients taking statin medications had significantly lower prostate-specific antigen values, percent positive biopsies, and prostate volume than those patients not taking statin medications. Statin usage resulted in a nonstatistical improvement in all survival parameters with the results most pronounced for atorvastatin. Improving prostate cancer survival with statins could have important treatment implications and could potentially limit or even improve the role of supplemental therapies. A prospective trial of statin medications in conjunction with definitive local treatment for prostate cancer is recommended. PMID:16939047

Moyad, Mark A; Merrick, Gregory S; Butler, Wayne M; Wallner, Kent E; Galbreath, Robert W; Butler, Earnest G; Allen, Zachariah A; Adamovich, Edward

2006-08-01

77

A dosimetric comparison of {sup 169}Yb versus {sup 192}Ir for HDR prostate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

For the purpose of evaluating the use of {sup 169}Yb for prostate High Dose Rate brachytherapy (HDR), a hypothetical {sup 169}Yb source is assumed with the exact same design of the new microSelectron source replacing the {sup 192}Ir active core by pure {sup 169}Yb metal. Monte Carlo simulation is employed for the full dosimetric characterization of both sources and results are compared following the AAPM TG-43 dosimetric formalism. Monte Carlo calculated dosimetry results are incorporated in a commercially available treatment planning system (SWIFT{sup TM}), which features an inverse treatment planning option based on a multiobjective dose optimization engine. The quality of prostate HDR brachytherapy using the real {sup 192}Ir and hypothetical {sup 169}Yb source is compared in a comprehensive analysis of different prostate implants in terms of the multiobjective dose optimization solutions as well as treatment quality indices such as Dose Volume Histograms (DVH) and the Conformal Index (COIN). Given that scattering overcompensates for absorption in intermediate photon energies and distances in the range of interest to prostate HDR brachytherapy, {sup 169}Yb proves at least equivalent to {sup 192}Ir irrespective of prostate volume. This has to be evaluated in view of the shielding requirements for the {sup 169}Yb energies that are minimal relative to that for {sup 192}Ir.

Lymperopoulou, G.; Papagiannis, P.; Sakelliou, L.; Milickovic, N.; Giannouli, S.; Baltas, D. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach, 63069 Offenbach (Germany); Pi-Medical Ltd., Research and Development Dept., Gennimata 2 Str., 115 24, Ampelokipoi, Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach, 63069 Offenbach (Germany) and Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece)

2005-12-15

78

Long-Term Results of a Prospective, Phase II Study of Long-Term Androgen Ablation, Pelvic Radiotherapy, Brachytherapy Boost, and Adjuvant Docetaxel in Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We report the long-term results of a prospective, Phase II study of long-term androgen deprivation (AD), pelvic radiotherapy (EBRT), permanent transperineal prostate brachytherapy boost (PB), and adjuvant docetaxel in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligibility included biopsy-proven prostate adenocarcinoma with the following: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) > 20 ng/ml; or Gleason score of 7 and a PSA >10 ng/ml; or any Gleason score of 8 to 10; or stage T2b to T3 irrespective of Gleason score or PSA. Treatment consisted of 45 Gy of pelvic EBRT, followed 1 month later by PB with either iodine-125 or Pd-103. One month after PB, patients received three cycles of docetaxel chemotherapy (35 mg/m{sup 2} per week, Days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days). All patients received 2 years of AD. Biochemical failure was defined as per the Phoenix definition (PSA nadir + 2). Results: From August 2000 to March 2004, 42 patients were enrolled. The median overall and active follow-ups were 5.6 years (range, 0.9-7.8 years) and 6.3 years (range, 4-7.8 years), respectively. Grade 2 and 3 acute genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were 50.0% and 14.2%, respectively, with no Grade 4 toxicities noted. Grade 3 and 4 acute hematologic toxicities were 19% and 2.4%, respectively. Of the patients, 85.7% were able to complete the planned multimodality treatment. The 5- and 7-year actuarial freedom from biochemical failures rates were 89.6% and 86.5%, and corresponding rates for disease-free survival were 76.2% and 70.4%, respectively. The 5- and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 83.3% and 80.1%, respectively. The 5- and 7-year actuarial rates of late Grade 2 GI/GU toxicity (no Grade 3-5) was 7.7%. Conclusions: The trimodality approach of using 2 years of AD, external radiation, brachytherapy, and upfront docetaxel in high-risk prostate cancer is well tolerated, produces encouraging long-term results, and should be validated in a multi-institutional setting.

DiBiase, Steven J., E-mail: sdibiase@dvullc.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine and Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ (United States); Hussain, Arif [Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kataria, Ritesh; Amin, Pradip; Bassi, Sunakshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Dawson, Nancy [Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC (United States); Kwok, Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2011-11-01

79

Disease-specific survival following the brachytherapy management of prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine disease-specific survival (DSS) and associated predictive factors after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 1561 patients underwent brachytherapy for prostate cancer from 1990 to 2004 (median follow-up, 3.8 years). Treatment included brachytherapy alone (n = 634), brachytherapy and hormonal therapy (n = 420), and implant and external beam therapy (n = 507). Results: The DSS and overall survival rates at 10 years were 96% and 74%, respectively. Gleason score significantly impacted DSS, with 10-year rates of 98%, 91%, and 92% for scores of {<=}6, 7, and {>=}8, respectively (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that PSA status after treatment had the most significant effect on DSS. Ten-year DSS rates were 100%, 52%, and 98%, respectively for patients without PSA failure (n = 1430), failure with a doubling time (DT) {<=}10 months (n = 64), and failure with a DT >10 months (n = 67), respectively (p < 0.0001). In patients with PSA failure, DSS rates were 30%, 67%, and 98%, for those with DT {<=}6 months, >6-10 months, and >10 months, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The 10-year DSS rate supports the efficacy of brachytherapy. Patients dying with disease within 10 years after treatment harbor inherently aggressive cancer with high Gleason scores and short DT.

Stock, Richard G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY (United States) and Department of Urology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: richard.stock@msnyuhealth.org; Cesaretti, Jamie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY (United States); Department of Urology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY (United States); Department of Urology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY (United States)

2006-03-01

80

The emerging role of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as monotherapy for prostate cancer.  

PubMed

High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as monotherapy is a comparatively new brachytherapy procedure for prostate cancer. In addition to the intrinsic advantages of brachytherapy, including radiation dose concentration to the tumor and rapid dose fall-off at the surrounding normal tissue, HDR brachytherapy can yield a more homogeneous and conformal dose distribution through image-based decisions for source dwell positions and by optimization of individual source dwell times. Indication can be extended even to T3a/b or a part of T4 tumors because the applicators can be positioned at the extracapsular lesion, into the seminal vesicles, and/or into the bladder, without any risk of source migration or dropping out. Unlike external beam radiotherapy, with HDR brachytherapy inter-/intra-fraction organ motion is not problematic. However, HDR monotherapy requires patients to stay in bed for 1-4 days during hospitalization, even though the actual overall treatment time is short. Recent findings that the ?/? value for prostate cancer is less than that for the surrounding late-responding normal tissue has made hypofractionation attractive, and HDR monotherapy can maximize this advantage of hypofractionation. Research on HDR monotherapy is accelerating, with a growing number of publications reporting excellent preliminary clinical results due to the high 'biologically effective dose (BED)' of >200 Gy. Moreover, the findings obtained for HDR monotherapy as an early model of extreme hypofractionation tend to be applied to other radiotherapy techniques such as stereotactic radiotherapy. All these developments point to the emerging role of HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy for prostate cancer. PMID:23543798

Yoshioka, Yasuo; Yoshida, Ken; Yamazaki, Hideya; Nonomura, Norio; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

2013-09-01

81

Comparison of 3 different postimplant dosimetry methods following permanent {sup 125}I prostate seed brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Postimplant dosimetry (PID) after Iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) implant of the prostate should offer a reliable qualitative assessment. So far, there is no consensus regarding the optimum PID method, though the latest literature is in favor of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aims to simultaneously compare 3 PID techniques: (1) MRI-computed tomography (CT) fusion; (2) ultrasound (US)-CT fusion; and (3) manual target delineation on CT. The study comprised 10 patients with prostate cancer. CT/MR scans with urinary catheters in place for PID were done either on day 0 or day 1 postimplantation. The main parameter evaluated and compared among methods was target D90. The results show that CT-based D90s are lower than US-CT D90s (median difference,?6.85%), whereas MR-CT PID gives higher D90 than US-CT PID (median difference, 4.25%). Manual contouring on CT images tends to overestimate the prostate volume compared with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) (median difference, 23.33%), whereas on US images the target is overestimated compared with MR-based contouring (median difference, 13.25%). Although there are certain differences among the results given by various PID techniques, the differences are statistically insignificant for this small group of patients. Any dosimetric comparison between 2 PID techniques should also account for the limitations of each technique, to allow for an accurate quantification of data. Given that PID after permanent radioactive seed implant is mandatory for quality assurance, any imaging method–based PID (MR-CT, US-CT, and CT) available in a radiotherapy department can be indicative of the quality of the procedure.

Marcu, Loredana G., E-mail: loredana@marcunet.com [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Adelaide Hospital, South Australia (Australia); Faculty of Science, University of Oradea (Romania); School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Gowda, Raghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, South Australia (Australia)

2013-10-01

82

A new CT prostate segmentation for CT-based HDR brachytherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has become a popular treatment modality for localized prostate cancer. Prostate HDR treatment involves placing 10 to 20 catheters (needles) into the prostate gland, and then delivering radiation dose to the cancerous regions through these catheters. These catheters are often inserted with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance and the HDR treatment plan is based on the CT images. The main challenge for CT-based HDR planning is to accurately segment prostate volume in CT images due to the poor soft tissue contrast and additional artifacts introduced by the catheters. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel approach to segment the prostate in CT images through TRUS-CT deformable registration based on the catheter locations. In this approach, the HDR catheters are reconstructed from the intra-operative TRUS and planning CT images, and then used as landmarks for the TRUS-CT image registration. The prostate contour generated from the TRUS images captured during the ultrasound-guided HDR procedure was used to segment the prostate on the CT images through deformable registration. We conducted two studies. A prostate-phantom study demonstrated a submillimeter accuracy of our method. A pilot study of 5 prostate-cancer patients was conducted to further test its clinical feasibility. All patients had 3 gold markers implanted in the prostate that were used to evaluate the registration accuracy, as well as previous diagnostic MR images that were used as the gold standard to assess the prostate segmentation. For the 5 patients, the mean gold-marker displacement was 1.2 mm; the prostate volume difference between our approach and the MRI was 7.2%, and the Dice volume overlap was over 91%. Our proposed method could improve prostate delineation, enable accurate dose planning and delivery, and potentially enhance prostate HDR treatment outcome.

Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter; Ogunleye, Tomi; Jani, Ashesh B.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

2014-03-01

83

Source strength assay of iodine-125 seeds sealed within sterile packaging.  

PubMed

Early-stage prostate cancer is widely treated by iodine-125 (I-125) seed implantation. While quality assurance methods are in place to assure consistency in I-125 seed source strength, current methods involve the breaking of the sterilization package, raising issues concerning sterility and time limitations. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of characterizing the total source strength of I-125 seeds within a cartridge that has been sealed within a sterilization package and to evaluate the probability of detecting an out-of-calibration seed (aberrant seed). We defined a protocol to determine the ability of a well-type ionization chamber to detect aberrant I-125 seeds within a cartridge sealed in the sterilization package. A novel jig for a well-type ionization chamber was designed to accommodate the sterilization package. One seed was chosen randomly from two cartridges containing five or 15 seeds (0.544 U source strength) and was exchanged with aberrant seeds of six different source strengths. The source strength was measured at each position within the cartridge. The results indicated that the response of the well chamber was sensitive to changes in the aberrant seed position within the cartridge and the source strength of the aberrant seed. The correlation coefficient between single seed and batch assay results was high (0.998). A novel jig and a measurement method using a well ionization chamber were developed, which allowed for a batch assay characterization of the total source strength of I-125 seeds within a cartridge sealed within sterilization package. This method is simple, time-saving, and offers greater practical application. PMID:23470939

Otani, Yuki; Yamada, Takahiro; Kato, Shingo; Shikama, Naoto; Funakoshi, Kazuto; Kuroda, Isao; Numasaki, Hodaka; Nose, Takayuki; Dokiya, Takushi; Oguchi, Masahiko

2013-01-01

84

Biochemical relapse-free survival in 400 patients treated with I-125 prostate brachytherapy: the Guildford experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1200 patients had undergone I-125 prostate brachytherapy (BXT) in our centre. We present prospective outcome data for the first 400 treated patients. Data were analysed from a prospective database of 400 consecutive patients treated with permanent prostate BXT between March 1999 and December 2003. Patients were stratified into low (49%), intermediate (36%) and high (15%) risk as

J P Nobes; I G Wells; S J Khaksar; J F Money-Kyrle; R W Laing; S E M Langley

2009-01-01

85

Vibro-acoustography Imaging of Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy seeds in an excised human prostate -- Preliminary Results and Technical Feasibility  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective in this work is to investigate the feasibility of using a new imaging tool called vibro-acoustography (VA) as a means of permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) seed localization to facilitate post-implant dosimetry (PID). Methods and Materials Twelve OncoSeed (standard) and eleven EchoSeed (echogenic) dummy seeds were implanted in a human cadaver prostate. Seventeen seeds remained after radical retropubic prostatectomy. VA imaging was conducted on the prostate that was cast in a gel phantom and placed in a tank of degassed water. 2-D magnitude and phase VA image slices were obtained at different depths within the prostate showing location and orientation of the seeds. Results VA demonstrates that twelve of seventeen (71%) seeds implanted were visible in the VA image, and the remainder were obscured by intra-prostatic calcifications. Moreover, it is shown here that VA is capable of imaging and locating PPB seeds within the prostate independent of seed orientation, and the resulting images are speckle free. Conclusion The results presented in this research show that VA allows seed detection within a human prostate regardless of their orientation, as well as imaging intraprostatic calcifications. PMID:19062061

Mitri, F.G.; Davis, B.J.; Urban, M.W.; Alizad, A.; Greenleaf, J.F.; Lischer, G.H.; Wilson, T.M.; Fatemi, M.

2009-01-01

86

Seed Implant Retention Score Predicts the Risk of Prolonged Urinary Retention After Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To risk-stratify patients for urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy according to a novel seed implant retention score (SIRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 835 patients underwent transperineal prostate seed implant from March 1993 to January 2007; 197 patients had {sup 125}I and 638 patients had {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy. Four hundred ninety-four patients had supplemental external-beam radiation. The final downsized prostate volume was used for the 424 patients who had neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Retention was defined as reinsertion of a Foley catheter after the implant. Results: Retention developed in 7.4% of patients, with an average duration of 6.7 weeks. On univariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation (10% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.02), neoadjuvant hormone therapy (9.4% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02), baseline alpha-blocker use (12.5% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.008), and increased prostate volume (13.4% vs. 6.9% vs. 2.9%, >45 cm{sup 3}, 25-45 cm{sup 3}, <25 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.0008) were significantly correlated with increased rates of retention. On multivariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, baseline alpha-blocker use, and increased prostate volume were correlated with retention. A novel SIRS was modeled as the combined score of these factors, ranging from 0 to 5. There was a significant correlation between the SIRS and retention (p < 0.0001). The rates of retention were 0, 4%, 5.6%, 9%, 20.9%, and 36.4% for SIRS of 0 to 5, respectively. Conclusions: The SIRS may identify patients who are at high risk for prolonged retention after prostate brachytherapy. A prospective validation study of the SIRS is planned.

Lee, Hoon K., E-mail: Dr.Hoon@gmail.co [Regional Radiation Oncology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY (United States); Adams, Marc T. [Regional Radiation Oncology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY (United States); Shi, Qiuhu [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, New York Medical School, Valhalla, NY (United States); Basillote, Jay; LaMonica, Joanne; Miranda, Luis; Motta, Joseph [Department of Urology, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY (United States)

2010-04-15

87

Prostate-specific antigen bounce predicts for a favorable prognosis following brachytherapy: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Controversy exists whether the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce phenomenon following definitive radiation for prostate cancer has prognostic significance. Here, we perform a meta-analysis to determine the association between PSA bounce and biochemical control after brachytherapy alone. Material and methods We reviewed Medline, EMBASE, and CENTRAL citations through February 2012. Studies that recorded biochemical failure rates in bouncers and non-bouncers were included. Hazard ratios describing the impact of bounce on biochemical failure were extracted directly from the studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. A random effects model was used in cases of significant effect heterogeneity (p < 0.10 using Q test). Results The final analysis included 3011 patients over 6 studies treated with brachytherapy. Meta-analysis revealed that patients experiencing PSA bounce after brachytherapy, conferred a decreased risk of biochemical failure (random effects model HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30-0.59; p < 0.001). Conclusions Our meta-analysis determined that PSA bounce predicts for improved biochemical control following brachytherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing this effect. PMID:24474969

Bernstein, Michael B.; Ohri, Nitin; Hodge, James W.; Garg, Madhur; Bodner, William; Kalnicki, Shalom; Dicker, Adam P.

2013-01-01

88

In vivo motion and force measurement of surgical needle intervention during prostate brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present needle insertion forces and motion trajectories measured during actual brachytherapy needle insertion while implanting radioactive seeds in the prostate glands of 20 different patients. The needle motion was captured using ultrasound images and a 6 degree-of-freedom electromagnetic-based position sensor. Needle velocity was computed from the position information and the corresponding time stamps. From in vivo

Tarun Podder; Douglas Clark; Jason Sherman; Dave Fuller; Edward Messing; Deborah Rubens; John Strang; Ralph Brasacchio; Lydia Liao; Wan-Sing Ng; Yu Yan

2006-01-01

89

Dose distributions in prostate brachytherapy: comparison between Sievert and Monte Carlo methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we discuss two numerical methods for the calculation of 3D spatial dose distributions, and their application in HDR prostate brachytherapy. We include a comparison between the results obtained with the Sievert integral method and the use of tables generated by Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport in a homogeneous medium for two types of 192Ir encapsulated sources commonly used in Mexican hospitals. The application of both methods to clinical data is also presented.

Almaraz, S.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.

2003-09-01

90

Fast prostate segmentation for brachytherapy based on joint fusion of images and labels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brachytherapy as one of the treatment methods for prostate cancer takes place by implantation of radioactive seeds inside the gland. The standard of care for this treatment procedure is to acquire transrectal ultrasound images of the prostate which are segmented in order to plan the appropriate seed placement. The segmentation process is usually performed either manually or semi-automatically and is associated with subjective errors because the prostate visibility is limited in ultrasound images. The current segmentation process also limits the possibility of intra-operative delineation of the prostate to perform real-time dosimetry. In this paper, we propose a computationally inexpensive and fully automatic segmentation approach that takes advantage of previously segmented images to form a joint space of images and their segmentations. We utilize joint Independent Component Analysis method to generate a model which is further employed to produce a probability map of the target segmentation. We evaluate this approach on the transrectal ultrasound volume images of 60 patients using a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. The results are compared with the manually segmented prostate contours that were used by clinicians to plan brachytherapy procedures. We show that the proposed approach is fast with comparable accuracy and precision to those found in previous studies on TRUS segmentation.

Nouranian, Saman; Ramezani, Mahdi; Mahdavi, S. Sara; Spadinger, Ingrid; Morris, William J.; Salcudean, Septimiu E.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

2014-03-01

91

Is the Use of a Surrogate Urethra an Option in Prostate High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the accuracy and the dosimetric consequences of substituting a surrogate urethra assumed to be at the geometric center of the prostate, in place of the true urethra when using high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred prostate cancer patients treated with HDR brachytherapy constituted the study group. A pre-plan was made with the urethra visualized. The true urethra was defined, and a surrogate urethra was placed at the geometric center of the prostate. The distance between the two urethras was measured. The deviation was evaluated at the base, middle, and apex. To evaluate the dosimetric consequences for the true urethra when using a surrogate urethra, two different dose plans were made: one based on the true urethra and one based on the surrogate urethra. The dose-volume histograms for the true urethra were analyzed. Results: The deviation between the true urethra and the surrogate urethra was greatest at the base of the prostate. A statistically significant difference was seen between the dosimetric parameters for the true and the surrogate urethra when the dose plan was made using the surrogate urethra. In this situation the dose to the true urethra was increased above our defined maximum tolerance limit. Conclusions: When using dose plans made according to a surrogate urethra the dose to the true urethra might be too high to be acceptable. If the true urethra is not visualized, severe damage could easily develop in a significant number of patients.

Nilsson, Josef [Department of Medical Physics, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: josef.nilsson@karolinska.se; Kaelkner, Karl Mikael; Berg, Lars [Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Levitt, Seymour [Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Holmberg, Carina; Nilsson, Sten [Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Lundell, Marie [Department of Medical Physics, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

2008-05-01

92

Multi-atlas-based automatic 3D segmentation for prostate brachytherapy in transrectal ultrasound images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the commonly used treatment methods for early-stage prostate cancer is brachytherapy. The standard of care for planning this procedure is segmentation of contours from transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images, which closely follow the prostate boundary. This process is currently performed either manually or using semi-automatic techniques. This paper introduces a fully automatic segmentation algorithm which uses a priori knowledge of contours in a reference data set of TRUS volumes. A non-parametric deformable registration method is employed to transform the atlas prostate contours to a target image coordinates. All atlas images are sorted based on their registration results and the highest ranked registration results are selected for decision fusion. A Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation algorithm is utilized to fuse labels from registered atlases and produce a segmented target volume. In this experiment, 50 patient TRUS volumes are obtained and a leave-one-out study on TRUS volumes is reported. We also compare our results with a state-of-the-art semi-automatic prostate segmentation method that has been clinically used for planning prostate brachytherapy procedures and we show comparable accuracy and precision within clinically acceptable runtime.

Nouranian, Saman; Mahdavi, S. Sara; Spadinger, Ingrid; Morris, William J.; Salcudean, S. E.; Abolmaesumi, P.

2013-03-01

93

Acute Urinary Retention After I-125 Prostate Brachytherapy in Relation to Dose in Different Regions of the Prostate  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the influence of dose in different prostate regions, and the influence of anatomic variation on the risk of acute urinary retention (AUR) after I-125 prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: In this case-control study, dosimetry and anatomy were compared between 50 patients with AUR (cases) and 50 patients without AUR (controls). Cases and controls were randomly selected from our database. The following structures were delineated on magnetic resonance imaging: prostate, urethra, peripheral zone, transitional zone, apex, base, midprostate, lower sphincter, and bladder neck. The dosimetric parameters analyzed were D{sub 10}, D{sub 50}, D{sub 90}, V{sub 100}, V{sub 150}, and V{sub 200}. The anatomic parameters analyzed were prostate protrusion into the bladder, bladder overlap, urethra angle, and urethra-bladder angle. The delineator was blinded to the patient's AUR status. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of these factors with AUR. Results: The dose delivered to different regions of the prostate was not significantly associated with the risk of AUR. Only dose to the bladder neck was significantly associated with AUR (odds ratio 1.13 per 10 Gy; 95% CI 1.02;1.26; p = 0.023). Mean bladder neck D{sub 90} was 65 Gy in AUR cases vs. 56 Gy in controls (p = 0.016), and mean bladder neck D{sub 10} was 128 Gy vs. 107 Gy, respectively (p = 0.018). Furthermore, on univariate analysis, a larger extent of both bladder overlap and of prostate protrusion were associated with a higher risk of AUR (odds ratio 1.16; 95% CI 1.04-1.28; p = 0.005, and odds ratio 1.83; 95% CI 1.37-2.45; p < 0.001, respectively). The mean extent of prostate protrusion was 3.5 mm in AUR cases vs. 1.0 mm in controls (p < 0.001). Odds ratios did not change substantially after adjustment for potential confounders. On multivariate analysis, the extent of prostate protrusion seemed to be a stronger risk factor for AUR than bladder overlap. Conclusion: The risk of AUR is not associated with dose delivered to different regions of the prostate. However, a higher dose to the bladder neck and a larger extent of prostate protrusion into the bladder are risk factors for the development of AUR after I-125 prostate brachytherapy.

Roeloffzen, Ellen M.A., E-mail: e.m.a.roeloffzen@umcutrecht.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Monninkhof, Evelyn M. [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Battermann, Jan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Roermund, Joep G.H. van [Department of Urology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Moerland, Marinus A.; Vulpen, Marco van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-05-01

94

A systematic study of imaging uncertainties and their impact on 125I prostate brachytherapy dose evaluation.  

PubMed

In order to calculate the dose distribution delivered by a prostate brachytherapy implant, the seed positions and prostate volume are normally identified on post-implant CT images. We have systematically considered the impact of uncertainties in contouring the prostate, seed localization, and visualization of all the seeds on the calculated dose distributions, dose-volume histograms, and predicted radiobiological outcome. This study was done for a collection of 27 clinical 125I prostate brachytherapy implants, performed at the London Regional Cancer Centre during our early adoption of this technique. For these clinical dose distributions, the median D90 was 76% of the prescription dose, or 110 Gy, and the median V90 was 80%. We calculated the changes in these dosimetric indices (D90 and V90) and radiobiological outcome (SF2 TCP) as a function of contouring uncertainty, seed localization uncertainty, inability to localize all of the seeds, and binary combinations of these three. The results are presented for a range of uncertainties, which allows the possible application of these results to a variety of imaging modalities that have differing spatial resolutions. We found that both contouring uncertainties and seed localization uncertainties had a large impact on the predicted radiobiological outcome, but that seed localization uncertainties of 6 mm had the largest impact on the dosimetric indices. We also found that the variability in both the predicted radiobiological and dosimetric outcome was largest for contouring uncertainties of 4-8 mm. We conclude that accounting for contouring uncertainties is crucial in accurately deducing the DVHs for post-implant prostate brachytherapy, and hence enabling valid correlation with ultimate clinical outcome. PMID:12906208

Lindsay, Patricia E; Van Dyk, Jake; Battista, Jerry J

2003-07-01

95

Role of high dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer patients has started in the late eighties in Europe and the United States, as a boost combined with external beam radiation therapy, as an attractive method for dose escalation. The results of the first dose-escalation study performed at William Beaumont Hospital has established the safety and efficacy of this combined treatment approach. Likewise, this landmark study enabled a paradigm shift in the radiobiology of prostate cancer, demonstrating that the alpha/beta of prostate cancer was much lower than previously believed to be and therefore the sensitivity of this tumor model to higher-than-conventional doses per fraction led to a dramatic increase of hypofractionated treatment regimens, the object of significant clinical research efforts, currently under way. The excellent toxicity profile and clinical outcome of HDR boost combined treatment prompted investigators to expand HDR brachytherapy indications to low/intermediate prostate cancer patients as the sole treatment modality. The results, toxicity and a brief review of the literature for both HDR boost and HDR monotherapy will be presented. PMID:22925490

Ghilezan, M

2012-09-01

96

Impact of short course hormonal therapy on overall and cancer specific survival after permanent prostate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To review the impact of prior hormonal therapy on 10-year overall and prostate cancer specific survival after primary brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on the Arizona Oncology Services tumor registry for 2,378 consecutive permanent prostate brachytherapy cases from 1988 through 2001. Hormonal therapy was administered before the implant in 464 patients for downsizing of the prostate or at the discretion of the referring physician. All deceased patients with known clinical recurrence were considered to have died of prostate cancer, irrespective of the immediate cause of death. Risk groups were defined, with 1,135 favorable (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] < 10, Gleason < 7, Stage T1-T2a), 787 intermediate (single adverse feature), and 456 unfavorable (two or more adverse features) patients. Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival curves were generated for both overall and cause-specific survival from the time of treatment. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the impact of hormonal intervention in comparison with known risk factors of grade, PSA, and age. Results: With follow-up ranging up to 12.6 years and a median of 4.1 year, a total of 474 patients died, with 67 recorded as due to prostate cancer. Overall and cause-specific 10-year survival rates are 43% and 88%, respectively. Overall survival is 44% for the hormone naive patients, compared with 20% for the hormone-treated cohort (p = 0.02). The cancer-specific survival is 89% vs. 81% for the same groups (p = 0.133). Multivariate analysis confirms the significance of age > 70 years (p = 0.0013), Gleason score {>=} 7 (p = 0.0005), and prior hormone use (p = 0.0065) on overall survival. Conclusions: At 10 years, in prostate cancer patients receiving brachytherapy, overall survival is worse in men receiving neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, compared with hormone naive patients. This does not appear to be due to other known risk factors for survival (i.e., stage, grade, PSA, age) on multivariate analysis. The leading causes of death were cardiovascular, prostate cancer, and other cancers with no obvious discrepancy between the two groups. This finding is unexpected and requires confirmation from other centers.

Beyer, David C. [Arizona Oncology Services, Scottsdale, AZ (United States) and Foundation for Cancer Research and Education, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)]. E-mail: dbeyer@azoncology.com; McKeough, Timothy [Arizona Oncology Services, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Thomas, Theresa [Foundation for Cancer Research and Education, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

2005-04-01

97

A comprehensive review of CT-based dosimetry parameters and biochemical control in patients treated with permanent prostate brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The American Brachytherapy Society recommends that postprostate implant dosimetry be performed on all patients undergoing transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy (TIPPB) utilizing CT scan clinical target volume reconstructions. This study was undertaken to assess the recommended dosimetry parameters from a large cohort of patients undergoing TIPPB that would predict for PSA relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS).Methods and Materials: Seven hundred nineteen

Louis Potters; Yijian Cao; Emel Calugaru; Taryn Torre; Paul Fearn; Xiao-Hong Wang

2001-01-01

98

Interfraction patient motion and implant displacement in prostate high dose rate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify movement of prostate cancer patients undergoing treatment, using an in-house developed motion sensor in order to determine a relationship between patient movement and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy implant displacement. Methods: An electronic motion sensor was developed based on a three axis accelerometer. HDR brachytherapy treatment for prostate is delivered at this institution in two fractions 24 h apart and 22 patients were monitored for movement over the interval between fractions. The motion sensors functioned as inclinometers, monitoring inclination of both thighs, and the inclination and roll of the abdomen. The implanted HDR brachytherapy catheter set was assessed for displacement relative to fiducial markers in the prostate. Angle measurements and angle differences over a 2 s time base were binned, and the standard deviations of the resulting frequency distributions used as a metric for patient motion in each monitored axis. These parameters were correlated to measured catheter displacement using regression modeling. Results: The mean implant displacement was 12.6 mm in the caudal direction. A mean of 19.95 h data was recorded for the patient cohort. Patients generally moved through a limited range of angles with a mean of the exception of two patients who spent in excess of 2 h lying on their side. When tested for a relationship between movement in any of the four monitored axes and the implant displacement, none was significant. Conclusions: It is not likely that patient movement influences HDR prostate implant displacement. There may be benefits to patient comfort if nursing protocols were relaxed to allow patients greater freedom to move while the implant is in situ.

Fox, C. D.; Kron, T.; Leahy, M.; Duchesne, G.; Williams, S.; Tai, K. H.; Haworth, A.; Herschtal, A.; Foroudi, F. [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Nursing Service, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Insititute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

2011-11-15

99

Coherence-based photoacoustic imaging of brachytherapy seeds implanted in a canine prostate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualization of individual brachytherapy seed locations assists with intraoperative updates to brachytherapy treatment plans. Photoacoustic imaging is advantageous when compared to current ultrasound imaging methods, due to its superior sensitivity to metal surrounded by tissue. However, photoacoustic images suffer from poor contrast with insufficient laser fluence. A short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) beamformer was implemented to enhance these low-contrast photoacoustic signals. Photoacoustic imaging was performed with a transrectal ultrasound probe and an optical fiber surrounded by a light-diffusing sheath, placed at a distance of approximately 4-5 mm from the location of seeds implanted in an in vivo canine prostate. The average energy density through the tip of the sheath was varied from 8 to 167 mJ/cm2. When compared to a fast Fourier transform (FFT)- based reconstruction method, the mean contrast and signal-to-noise ratios were improved by up to 22 dB and a factor of 4, respectively, with the SLSC beamformer (12% of the receive aperture elements were included in the short-lag sum). Image artifacts that were spatially coherent had spatial frequency spectra that were quadrantally symmetric about the origin, while the spatial frequency spectra of the seed signals possessed diagonal symmetry. These differences were utilized to reduce artifacts by 9-14 dB after applying a bandpass filter with diagonal symmetry. Results indicate that advanced methods, such as SLSC beamforming or frequency-based filters, hold promise for intraoperative localization of prostate brachytherapy seeds

Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Song, Danny Y.; Boctor, Emad M.

2014-03-01

100

A comparison of radiation dose to the bulb of the penis in men with and without prostate brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between the radiation dose to the bulb of the penis and the development of erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy without external beam radiation therapy.Methods and Materials: Twenty-three men who developed ED after transperineal ultrasound-guided permanent prostate brachytherapy for clinical T1\\/T2 adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland were paired with 23 similar

Gregory S Merrick; Kent Wallner; Wayne M Butler; Robert W Galbreath; Jonathan H Lief; Mark L Benson

2001-01-01

101

High-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy Consistently Results in High Quality Dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We performed a dosimetry analysis to determine how well the goals for clinical target volume coverage, dose homogeneity, and normal tissue dose constraints were achieved with high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Cumulative dose-volume histograms for 208 consecutively treated HDR prostate brachytherapy implants were analyzed. Planning was based on ultrasound-guided catheter insertion and postoperative CT imaging; the contoured clinical target volume (CTV) was the prostate, a small margin, and the proximal seminal vesicles. Dosimetric parameters analyzed for the CTV were D90, V90, V100, V150, and V200. Dose to the urethra, bladder, bladder balloon, and rectum were evaluated by the dose to 0.1 cm{sup 3}, 1 cm{sup 3}, and 2 cm{sup 3} of each organ, expressed as a percentage of the prescribed dose. Analysis was stratified according to prostate size. Results: The mean prostate ultrasound volume was 38.7 {+-} 13.4 cm{sup 3} (range: 11.7-108.6 cm{sup 3}). The mean CTV was 75.1 {+-} 20.6 cm{sup 3} (range: 33.4-156.5 cm{sup 3}). The mean D90 was 109.2% {+-} 2.6% (range: 102.3%-118.4%). Ninety-three percent of observed D90 values were between 105 and 115%. The mean V90, V100, V150, and V200 were 99.9% {+-} 0.05%, 99.5% {+-} 0.8%, 25.4% {+-} 4.2%, and 7.8% {+-} 1.4%. The mean dose to 0.1 cm{sup 3}, 1 cm{sup 3}, and 2 cm{sup 3} for organs at risk were: Urethra: 107.3% {+-} 3.0%, 101.1% {+-} 14.6%, and 47.9% {+-} 34.8%; bladder wall: 79.5% {+-} 5.1%, 69.8% {+-} 4.9%, and 64.3% {+-} 5.0%; bladder balloon: 70.3% {+-} 6.8%, 59.1% {+-} 6.6%, and 52.3% {+-} 6.2%; rectum: 76.3% {+-} 2.5%, 70.2% {+-} 3.3%, and 66.3% {+-} 3.8%. There was no significant difference between D90 and V100 when stratified by prostate size. Conclusions: HDR brachytherapy allows the physician to consistently achieve complete prostate target coverage and maintain normal tissue dose constraints for organs at risk over a wide range of target volumes.

White, Evan C.; Kamrava, Mitchell R.; Demarco, John; Park, Sang-June; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kayode, Oluwatosin; Steinberg, Michael L. [California Endocurietherapy at UCLA, Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine of University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [California Endocurietherapy at UCLA, Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine of University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Demanes, D. Jeffrey, E-mail: jdemanes@mednet.ucla.edu [California Endocurietherapy at UCLA, Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine of University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2013-02-01

102

Dosimetric Impact of Interfraction Catheter Movement in High-Dose Rate Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of interfraction catheter movement on dosimetry in prostate high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients were treated with fractionated HDR brachytherapy. Implants were performed on day 1 under transrectal ultrasound guidance. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed. Inverse planning simulated annealing was used for treatment planning. The first fraction was delivered on day 1. A cone beam CT (CBCT) was performed on day 2 before the second fraction was given. A fusion of the CBCT and CT was performed using intraprostatic gold markers as landmarks. Initial prostate and urethra contours were transferred to the CBCT images. Bladder and rectum contours were drawn, and catheters were digitized on the CBCT. The planned treatment was applied to the CBCT dataset, and dosimetry was analyzed and compared to the initial dose distribution. This process was repeated after a reoptimization was performed, using the same constraints used on day 1. Results: Mean interfraction catheter displacement was 5.1 mm. When we used the initial plan on day 2, the mean prostate V100 (volume receiving 100 Gy or more) decreased from 93.8% to 76.2% (p < 0.01). Rectal V75 went from 0.75 cm{sup 3} to 1.49 cm{sup 3} (p < 0.01). A reoptimization resulted in a mean prostate V100 of 88.1%, closer to the initial plan (p = 0.05). Mean rectal V75 was also improved with a value of 0.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no significant change in bladder and urethra dose on day 2. Conclusions: A mean interfraction catheter displacement of 5.1 mm results in a significant decrease in prostate V100 and an increase in rectum dose. A reoptimization before the second treatment improves dose distribution.

Foster, William, E-mail: fosterw@radonc.ucsf.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Cunha, J. Adam M.; Hsu, I.-Chow; Weinberg, Vivan; Krishnamurthy, Devan; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

2011-05-01

103

Effect of post-implant edema on prostate brachytherapy treatment margins  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine if postimplant prostate brachytherapy treatment margins calculated on Day 0 differ substantially from those calculated on Day 30. Methods: Thirty patients with 1997 American Joint Commission on Cancer clinical stage T1-T2 prostatic carcinoma underwent prostate brachytherapy with I-125 prescribed to 144 Gy. Treatment planning methods included using loose seeds in a modified peripheral loading pattern and treatment margins (TMs) of 5-8 mm. Postimplant plain radiographs, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance scans were obtained 1-4 hours after implantation (Day 0). A second set of imaging studies was obtained at 30 days after implantation (Day 30) and similarly analyzed. Treatment margins were measured as the radial distance in millimeters from the prostate edge to the 100% isodose line. The TMs were measured and tabulated at 90{sup o} intervals around the prostate periphery at 0.6-cm intervals. Each direction was averaged to obtain the mean anterior, posterior, left, and right margins. Results: The mean overall TM increased from 2.6 mm ({+-}2.3) on Day 0 to 3.5 mm ({+-}2.4) on Day 30. The mean anterior margin increased from 1.2 mm on Day 0 to 1.8 mm on Day 30. The posterior margin increased from 1.2 mm on Day 0 to 2.8 mm on Day 30. The lateral treatment margins increased most over time, with mean right treatment margin increasing from 3.9 mm on Day 0 to 4.7 mm on Day 30. Conclusion: Treatment margins appear to be durable in the postimplant period, with a clinically insignificant increase from Day 0 to Day 30.

Reed, Daniel R. [Radiation Oncology, Arizona Oncology Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wallner, Kent [Department of Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Radiation Oncology, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Mueller, Amy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Merrick, Gregory [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States); Maki, Jeffrey [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Sutlief, Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Butler, Wayne [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States)

2005-12-01

104

Anatomy based inverse planning in HDR prostate brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to evaluate anatomy based inverse planning as implemented in PLATO BPS 14.2 for planning of HDR prostate implants. Six patients were analysed. The dose distributions were optimized using geometric optimization followed by graphical optimization (GO), anatomy based inverse planning or standard inverse optimization (SIO), tuned inverse optimization (TIO) and tuned inverse optimization followed by

Inger-Karine K. Kolkman-Deurloo; Xavier G. J. Deleye; Peter P. Jansen; Peter C. M. Koper

2004-01-01

105

Predictive Factors and Management of Rectal Bleeding Side Effects Following Prostate Cancer Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on the incidence, nature, and management of rectal toxicities following individual or combination brachytherapy following treatment for prostate cancer over a 17-year period. We also report the patient and treatment factors predisposing to acute ?grade 2 proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 2752 patients were treated for prostate cancer between October 1990 and April 2007 with either low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with androgen depletion therapy (ADT) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and were followed for a median of 5.86 years (minimum 1.0 years; maximum 19.19 years). We investigated the 10-year incidence, nature, and treatment of acute and chronic rectal toxicities following BT. Using univariate, and multivariate analyses, we determined the treatment and comorbidity factors predisposing to rectal toxicities. We also outline the most common and effective management for these toxicities. Results: Actuarial risk of ?grade 2 rectal bleeding was 6.4%, though notably only 0.9% of all patients required medical intervention to manage this toxicity. The majority of rectal bleeding episodes (72%) occurred within the first 3 years following placement of BT seeds. Of the 27 patients requiring management for their rectal bleeding, 18 underwent formalin treatment and nine underwent cauterization. Post-hoc univariate statistical analysis revealed that coronary artery disease (CAD), biologically effective dose, rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (RV100), and treatment modality predict the likelihood of grade ?2 rectal bleeding. Only CAD, treatment type, and RV100 fit a Cox regression multivariate model. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is very well tolerated and rectal bleeding toxicities are either self-resolving or effectively managed by medical intervention. Treatment planning incorporating adjuvant ADT while minimizing RV100 has yielded the best toxicity-free survival following BT.

Price, Jeremy G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.Stock@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States)

2013-08-01

106

An audit of analgesia requirements for high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy.  

PubMed

We audited the analgesic, anti-emetic and anti-spasmodic drug usage of patients undergoing high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital. With institutional ethics committee approval, we retrospectively reviewed the records of the first 45 patients undergoing high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy from January 2003 to July 2005. We collected data regarding the dose of intra- and postoperative analgesics and the anti-emetic and anti-spasmodic drugs administered for the duration of the patients' hospital stay. We converted oral oxycodone doses to parenteral morphine equivalents for the purposes of this study, dividing the oxycodone dose by three. The median age of the patients was 69 (range 55 to 80) years. All had general anaesthesia for the catheter insertion procedure. Twenty-five patients (56%) received intraoperative morphine from 5 to 12 mg (mean 9 mg). Forty-three patients (96%) received regular postoperative paracetamol (1 g qid). Thirty-six patients (80%) required additional postoperative opioid administration with an overall mean (all 45 patients included) of 14.5 mg of parenteral morphine equivalents over the entire postoperative course. Thirty-nine patients received intraoperative hyoscine butylbromide to reduce bladder spasm. Fourteen patients were administered antiemetics. These findings indicate that analgesic requirements during the period in which the prostate brachytherapy catheters remained in place were minimal in most cases. Simple analgesic regimens (regular oral paracetamol, antispasmodics as required for bladder spasm and oral/subcutaneous opioids as required) appear to have been adequate for our patients. PMID:18853591

Doyle, C A; Loadsman, J A; Hruby, G

2008-09-01

107

Definition of medical event is to be based on the total source strength for evaluation of permanent prostate brachytherapy: A report from the American Society for Radiation Oncology  

PubMed Central

Purpose The Nuclear Regulatory Commission deems it to be a medical event (ME) if the total dose delivered differs from the prescribed dose by 20% or more. A dose-based definition of ME is not appropriate for permanent prostate brachytherapy as it generates too many spurious MEs and thereby creates unnecessary apprehension in patients, and ties up regulatory bodies and the licensees in unnecessary and burdensome investigations. A more suitable definition of ME is required for permanent prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) formed a working group of experienced clinicians to review the literature, assess the validity of current regulations, and make specific recommendations about the definition of an ME in permanent prostate brachytherapy. Results The working group found that the current definition of ME in §35.3045 as “the total dose delivered differs from the prescribed dose by 20 percent or more” was not suitable for permanent prostate brachytherapy since the prostate volume (and hence the resultant calculated prostate dose) is dependent on the timing of the imaging, the imaging modality used, the observer variability in prostate contouring, the planning margins used, inadequacies of brachytherapy treatment planning systems to calculate tissue doses, and seed migration within and outside the prostate. If a dose-based definition for permanent implants is applied strictly, many properly executed implants would be improperly classified as an ME leading to a detrimental effect on brachytherapy. The working group found that a source strength-based criterion, of >20% of source strength prescribed in the post-procedure written directive being implanted outside the planning target volume is more appropriate for defining ME in permanent prostate brachytherapy. Conclusions ASTRO recommends that the definition of ME for permanent prostate brachytherapy should not be dose based but should be based upon the source strength (air-kerma strength) administered. PMID:24174998

Nag, Subir; Demanes, D. Jeffrey; Hagan, Michael; Rivard, Mark J.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Welsh, James S.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

2011-01-01

108

High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost for Prostate Cancer: Comparison of Two Different Fractionation Schemes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This is a retrospective study comparing our experience with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer, using two different fractionation schemes, 600 cGy Multiplication-Sign 3 fractions (patient group 1) and 950 cGy Multiplication-Sign 2 fractions (patient group 2). Methods and Materials: A total of 165 patients were treated for prostate cancer using external beam radiation therapy up to a dose of 45 Gy, followed by an HDR brachytherapy prostate radiation boost. Between July 1997 and Nov 1999, 64 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 600 cGy Multiplication-Sign 3 fractions; and between June 2000 and Nov 2005, 101 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 950 cGy Multiplication-Sign 2 fractions. All but 9 patients had at least one of the following risk features: pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level >10, a Gleason score {>=}7, and/or clinical stage T3 disease. Results: Median follow-up was 105 months for group 1 and 43 months for group 2. Patients in group 2 had a greater number of high-risk features than group 1 (p = 0.02). Adjusted for comparable follow-up, there was no difference in biochemical no-evidence-of-disease (bNED) rate between the two fractionation scheme approaches, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 93.5% in group 1 and 87.3% in group 2 (p = 0.19). The 5-year estimates of progression-free survival were 86% for group 1 and 83% for group 2 (p = 0.53). Among high-risk patients, there were no differences in bNED or PFS rate due to fractionation. Conclusions: Results were excellent for both groups. Adjusted for comparable follow-up, no differences were found between groups.

Kaprealian, Tania [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Biostatistics and Computational Biology Core, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Speight, Joycelyn L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Gottschalk, Alexander R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Hsu, I.-Chow, E-mail: IHsu@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States)

2012-01-01

109

Feasibility of salvage interstitial microwave thermal therapy for prostate carcinoma following failed brachytherapy: studies in a tissue equivalent phantom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal therapy is an experimental treatment to destroy solid tumours by heating them to temperatures ranging from 55 °C to 90 °C, inducing thermal coagulation and necrosis of the tumour. We are investigating the feasibility of interstitial microwave thermal therapy as a salvage treatment for prostate cancer patients with local recurrence following failed brachytherapy. Due to the electrical and thermal

Claire McCann; J Carl Kumaradas; Mark R Gertner; Sean R H Davidson; Alfred M Dolan; Michael D Sherar

2003-01-01

110

The Influence of Prostate Volume on Outcome After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Alone for Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Objective: To determine whether late genitourinary toxicity, biochemical control of prostate cancer, and dosimetric parameters in patients with large prostate glands is different from those variables in men with smaller glands after treatment with high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone (HDR-BT). Methods: From November 2003 to July 2009, 164 patients with locally advanced prostate carcinoma were sequentially enrolled and treated with 34 or 36 Gy in 4 fractions and 31.5 Gy in 3 fractions of {sup 192}Ir HDR-BT alone. The median follow-up time was 71 months. Gland size was not considered in the selection criteria for this study. Estimates of freedom from biochemical relapse (FFbR) and late morbidity, stratified by median clinical target volume (CTV), were obtained, and differences were compared. Results: The median CTV volume was 60 cc (range, 15-208 cc). Dose–volume parameters D90 and V100 (ie, minimum dose to 90% of the prostate volume and volume receiving 100% of the prescribed isodose) achieved in patients with glands ?60 cc were not significantly different from those with glands <60 cc (P?.2). Nonetheless, biochemical control in patients with larger CTV was significantly higher (91% vs 78% at 6 years; P=.004). In univariate and multivariate analysis, CTV was a significant predictor for risk of biochemical relapse. This was not at the expense of an increase in either moderate (P=.6) or severe (P=.3) late genitourinary toxicity. The use of hormonal therapy was 17% lower in the large gland group (P=.01). Conclusions: Prostate gland size does not affect dosimetric parameters in HDR-BT assessed by D90 and V100. In patients with larger glands, a significantly higher biochemical control of disease was observed, with no difference in late toxicity. This improvement cannot be attributed to differences in dosimetry. Gland size should not be considered in the selection of patients for HDR-BT.

Le, Hien, E-mail: hien.le@health.sa.gov.au; Rojas, Ana; Alonzi, Roberto; Hughes, Robert; Ostler, Peter; Lowe, Gerry; Bryant, Linda; Hoskin, Peter

2013-10-01

111

A simple technique for the generation of institution-specific nomograms for permanent prostate cancer brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Nomograms once had a vital role in prostate brachytherapy practice. Although some of their functions have been assumed by computerized dosimetry, many programs still find them useful to determine the number and strength of seeds to be ordered in advance of the implant. As it has been demonstrated that brachytherapists differ in their implant practices and preferences (in regard to seed distribution and total implanted activity), we propose a simple technique for generating institution-specific nomograms. Material and methods Using the data generated by previous implants, we demonstrate a simple technique, utilizing ubiquitous software, for generating nomograms to predict seed number, strength, and total implant activity. Results Despite wide variations in the degree of post-implant swelling (+12% to +56%), nine of the first ten implants using the generated nomogram have met all target dose parameters. Conclusions It is appropriate for each institution to develop nomograms specific to their prostate brachytherapy technique and constraints. Nomograms can estimate the number and strength of seeds to be ordered, and may partially compensate for the effects of implant-induced swelling. PMID:25337132

Lafata, Kyle J.; Bushe, Harry

2014-01-01

112

CT-guided brachytherapy of prostate cancer: reduction of effective dose from X-ray examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most effective and informative diagnostic method. Though the number of CT scans among all radiographic procedures in the USA and European countries is 11% and 4% respectively, CT makes the highest contribution to the collective effective dose from all radiographic procedures, it is 67% in the USA and 40% in European countries [1-5]. Therefore it is necessary to understand the significance of dose value from CT imaging to a patient . Though CT dose from multiple scans and potential risk is of great concern in pediatric patients, this applies to adults as well. In this connection it is very important to develop optimal approaches to dose reduction and optimization of CT examination. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its publications recommends radiologists to be aware that often CT image quality is higher than it is necessary for diagnostic confidence[6], and there is a potential to reduce the dose which patient gets from CT examination [7]. In recent years many procedures, such as minimally invasive surgery, biopsy, brachytherapy and different types of ablation are carried out under guidance of computed tomography [6;7], and during a procedures multiple CT scans focusing on a specific anatomic region are performed. At the Clinics of MRRC different types of treatment for patients with prostate cancer are used, incuding conformal CT-guided brachytherapy, implantation of microsources of I into the gland under guidance of spiral CT [8]. So, the purpose of the study is to choose optimal method to reduce radiation dose from CT during CT-guided prostate brachytherapy and to obtain the image of desired quality.

Sanin, Dmitriy B.; Biryukov, Vitaliy A.; Rusetskiy, Sergey S.; Sviridov, Pavel V.; Volodina, Tatiana V.

2014-03-01

113

Predictive Factors for Acute and Late Urinary Toxicity After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy: Long-Term Outcome in 712 Consecutive Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To describe the frequency of acute and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) urinary toxicity, associated predictive factors, and resolution of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) in 712 consecutive prostate brachytherapy patients. Methods and Materials: Patients underwent implantation between 1998 and 2003 (median follow-up, 57 months). The IPSS and RTOG toxicity data were prospectively collected. The patient, treatment, and implant factors were examined for an association with urinary toxicity. The time to IPSS resolution was examined using Kaplan-Meier curves, and multivariate modeling of IPSS resolution was done using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with urinary toxicity. Results: The IPSS returned to baseline at a median of 12.6 months. On multivariate analysis, patients with a high baseline IPSS had a quicker resolution of their IPSS. Higher prostate D90 (dose covering 90% of the prostate), maximal postimplant IPSS, and urinary retention slowed the IPSS resolution time. The rate of the actuarial 5-year late urinary (>12 months) RTOG Grade 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 32%, 36%, 24%, 6.2%, and 0.1%, respectively. At 7 years, the prevalence of RTOG Grade 0-1 was 92.5%. Patients with a larger prostate volume, greater number of needles, greater baseline IPSS, and use of hormonal therapy had more acute toxicity. On multivariate analysis, the significant predictors for late greater than or equal to RTOG toxicity 2 were a greater baseline IPSS, maximal postimplant IPSS, presence of acute toxicity, and higher prostate V150 (volume of the prostate covered by 150% of the dose). More recently implanted patients had less acute urinary toxicity and patients given hormonal therapy had less late urinary toxicity (all p < 0.02). Conclusion: Most urinary symptoms resolved within 12 months after prostate brachytherapy, and significant long-term urinary toxicity was very low. Refined patient selection and greater technical experience in prostate brachytherapy were associated with less urinary toxicity.

Keyes, Mira [Vancouver Cancer Center, Vancouver, BC (Canada)], E-mail: mkeyes@bccancer.bc.ca; Miller, Stacy [Vancouver Cancer Center, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Moravan, Veronika [Population and Preventive Oncology, Vancouver Island Cancer Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Pickles, Tom; McKenzie, Michael [Vancouver Cancer Center, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Pai, Howard [Population and Preventive Oncology, Vancouver Island Cancer Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Liu, Mitchell; Kwan, Winkle; Agranovich, Alexander [Fraser Valley Cancer Centre for Southern Interior Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy Program, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Spadinger, Ingrid; Lapointe, Vincent [Vancouver Cancer Center, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Halperin, Ross [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Morris, W. James [Vancouver Cancer Center, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2009-03-15

114

Comparison of High-Dose Proton Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy in Localized Prostate Cancer: A Case-Matched Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report a case-matched analysis comparing high-dose external-beam radiation (EBRT) for prostate cancer delivered on Proton Radiation Oncology Group (PROG) 95-09, a randomized trial, with permanent prostate brachytherapy over the same era. Methods: From 1996 to 1999, 196 patients were accrued to the high-dose arm (79.2 Gray equivalent (GyE) using photons and protons) of PROG 95-09 at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Loma Linda University Medical Center. Entry criteria specified T1-2 and prostate-specific antigen {<=}15 ng/mL. When Gleason score >7 was excluded, 177 men were left for case matching. At Massachusetts General Hospital, 203 similar patients were treated by a single brachytherapist from 1997 to 2002. Minimum follow-up was 3 years. Case matching, based on T stage, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, and age resulted in 141 matches (282 patients). Median follow-up was 8.6 and 7.4 years for EBRT and brachytherapy, respectively. The primary endpoint was biochemical failure (BF). Results: Using the Phoenix definition, the 8-year BF rates were 7.7% and 16.1% for EBRT and brachytherapy, respectively (p = 0.42). A stratified analysis was performed by risk group. In the EBRT group, 113 and 28 patients were low and intermediate risk, respectively. In the brachytherapy group, 118 and 23 were. When stratified by risk group, the BF rates were similar by either technique. Conclusions: High-dose EBRT and brachytherapy result in similar BF rates for men with localized prostate cancer. Comparative quality-of-life and cost-effectiveness studies are warranted.

Coen, John J., E-mail: jcoen@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Rossi, Carl J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Grocela, Joseph A. [Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Yan, Yan [Department of Statistics, Radiation Oncology Therapy Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

2012-01-01

115

Prostate brachytherapy in patients with prostate volumes ? 50 cm 3: dosimetic analysis of implant quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Permanent implantation with 125I in patients with localized prostate cancer who have prostate volumes ? 50 cm3 is often technically difficult owing to pubic arch interference. The objective of this study was to describe dosimetry outcomes in a group of patients who were implanted using the real-time ultrasound-guided technique who had prostate volumes ? 50 cm3.Materials and Methods: A

Nelson N Stone; Richard G Stock

2000-01-01

116

A study of optimization techniques in HDR brachytherapy for the prostate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies carried out thus far are in favor of dose escalation to the prostate gland to have better local control of the disease. But optimal way of delivery of higher doses of radiation therapy to the prostate without hurting neighboring critical structures is still debatable. In this study, we proposed that real time high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy with highly efficient and effective optimization could be an alternative means of precise delivery of such higher doses. This approach of delivery eliminates the critical issues such as treatment setup uncertainties and target localization as in external beam radiation therapy. Likewise, dosimetry in HDR brachytherapy is not influenced by organ edema and potential source migration as in permanent interstitial implants. Moreover, the recent report of radiobiological parameters further strengthen the argument of using hypofractionated HDR brachytherapy for the management of prostate cancer. Firstly, we studied the essential features and requirements of real time HDR brachytherapy treatment planning system. Automating catheter reconstruction with fast editing tools, fast yet accurate dose engine, robust and fast optimization and evaluation engine are some of the essential requirements for such procedures. Moreover, in most of the cases we performed, treatment plan optimization took significant amount of time of overall procedure. So, making treatment plan optimization automatic or semi-automatic with sufficient speed and accuracy was the goal of the remaining part of the project. Secondly, we studied the role of optimization function and constraints in overall quality of optimized plan. We have studied the gradient based deterministic algorithm with dose volume histogram (DVH) and more conventional variance based objective functions for optimization. In this optimization strategy, the relative weight of particular objective in aggregate objective function signifies its importance with respect to other objectives. Based on our study, DVH based objective function performed better than traditional variance based objective function in creating a clinically acceptable plan when executed under identical conditions. Thirdly, we studied the multiobjective optimization strategy using both DVH and variance based objective functions. The optimization strategy was to create several Pareto optimal solutions by scanning the clinically relevant part of the Pareto front. This strategy was adopted to decouple optimization from decision such that user could select final solution from the pool of alternative solutions based on his/her clinical goals. The overall quality of treatment plan improved using this approach compared to traditional class solution approach. In fact, the final optimized plan selected using decision engine with DVH based objective was comparable to typical clinical plan created by an experienced physicist. Next, we studied the hybrid technique comprising both stochastic and deterministic algorithm to optimize both dwell positions and dwell times. The simulated annealing algorithm was used to find optimal catheter distribution and the DVH based algorithm was used to optimize 3D dose distribution for given catheter distribution. This unique treatment planning and optimization tool was capable of producing clinically acceptable highly reproducible treatment plans in clinically reasonable time. As this algorithm was able to create clinically acceptable plans within clinically reasonable time automatically, it is really appealing for real time procedures. Next, we studied the feasibility of multiobjective optimization using evolutionary algorithm for real time HDR brachytherapy for the prostate. The algorithm with properly tuned algorithm specific parameters was able to create clinically acceptable plans within clinically reasonable time. However, the algorithm was let to run just for limited number of generations not considered optimal, in general, for such algorithms. This was done to keep time window desirable for real time procedures. Therefore, it requires further s

Pokharel, Ghana Shyam

117

Penile necrosis requiring penectomy complicating recto-urethral fistula post prostate cancer external beam radiation and brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy is a well-recognized treatment for unfavourable risk localized prostate cancer. Radiation induced recto-urethral fistulae are known rare complications particularly from brachytherapy. We report a case of a recto-urethral fistula 7 years post-external beam radiation and I-125 brachytherapy, which was complicated by a severe polymicrobial soft tissue infection. This infection required penectomy and pelvic exenteration with diverting colostomy, Indiana pouch urinary diversion and gracilis myo-cutaneuos flap closure of the perineum. PMID:24454604

Kinahan, John; Pai, Howard; Martens, Mildred; Gray, Jason; Biberdorf, Darren; Mihailovic, Alex; McAuley, Iain

2014-01-01

118

Salvage HDR Brachytherapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Previous Definitive Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Outcomes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Evaluate efficacy and toxicity of salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) for locally recurrent prostate cancer after definitive radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 52 consecutively accrued patients undergoing salvage HDRB between 1998 and 2009 for locally recurrent prostate cancer after previous definitive RT. After pathologic confirmation of locally recurrent disease, patients received 36 Gy in 6 fractions. Twenty-four patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before salvage, and no patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Determination of biochemical failure after salvage HDRB was based on the Phoenix definition. Overall survival (OS) and bF distributions were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of biochemical control. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities, based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4), were documented. Results: Median follow-up after salvage HDRB was 59.6 months. The 5-year OS estimate was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%-97%) with median survival not yet reached. Five-year biochemical control after salvage was 51% (95% CI: 34%-66%). Median PSA nadir postsalvage was 0.1 (range: 0-7.2) reached at a median of 10.2 months after completing HDRB. As for complications, acute and late grade 3 GU toxicities were observed in only 2% and 2%, respectively. No grade 2 or higher acute GI events and 4% grade 2 GI late events were observed. On univariate analysis, disease-free interval after initial definitive RT (P=.07), percent of positive cores at the time of diagnosis (P=.08), interval from first recurrence to salvage HDRB (P=.09), and pre-HDRB prostate-specific antigen (P=.07) were each of borderline significance in predicting biochemical control after salvage HDRB. Conclusions: Prostate HDRB is an effective salvage modality with relatively few long-term toxicities. We provide potential predictors of biochemical control for prostate salvage HDRB.

Chen, Chien Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, San Diego, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, San Diego, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Urology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Urology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Roach, Mack; Nash, Marc; Gottschalk, Alexander; Chang, Albert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Hsu, I-Chow, E-mail: IHsu@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

2013-06-01

119

Conventional Versus Automated Implantation of Loose Seeds in Prostate Brachytherapy: Analysis of Dosimetric and Clinical Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To review the clinical outcome of I-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) for low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer and to compare 2 techniques of loose-seed implantation. Methods and Materials: 574 consecutive patients underwent I-125 PPB for low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer between 2000 and 2008. Two successive techniques were used: conventional implantation from 2000 to 2004 and automated implantation (Nucletron, FIRST system) from 2004 to 2008. Dosimetric and biochemical recurrence-free (bNED) survival results were reported and compared for the 2 techniques. Univariate and multivariate analysis researched independent predictors for bNED survival. Results: 419 (73%) and 155 (27%) patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk disease, respectively, were treated (median follow-up time, 69.3 months). The 60-month bNED survival rates were 95.2% and 85.7%, respectively, for patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk disease (P=.04). In univariate analysis, patients treated with automated implantation had worse bNED survival rates than did those treated with conventional implantation (P<.0001). By day 30, patients treated with automated implantation showed lower values of dose delivered to 90% of prostate volume (D90) and volume of prostate receiving 100% of prescribed dose (V100). In multivariate analysis, implantation technique, Gleason score, and V100 on day 30 were independent predictors of recurrence-free status. Grade 3 urethritis and urinary incontinence were observed in 2.6% and 1.6% of the cohort, respectively, with no significant differences between the 2 techniques. No grade 3 proctitis was observed. Conclusion: Satisfactory 60-month bNED survival rates (93.1%) and acceptable toxicity (grade 3 urethritis <3%) were achieved by loose-seed implantation. Automated implantation was associated with worse dosimetric and bNED survival outcomes.

Genebes, Caroline, E-mail: genebes.caroline@claudiusregaud.fr [Radiation Oncology Department, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Filleron, Thomas; Graff, Pierre [Radiation Oncology Department, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Jonca, Frédéric [Department of Urology, Clinique Ambroise Paré, Toulouse (France); Huyghe, Eric; Thoulouzan, Matthieu; Soulie, Michel; Malavaud, Bernard [Department of Urology and Andrology, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Aziza, Richard; Brun, Thomas; Delannes, Martine; Bachaud, Jean-Marc [Radiation Oncology Department, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France)

2013-11-15

120

Distant Metastases Following Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy for Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Recent publications have suggested high-risk patients undergoing radical prostatectomy have a lower risk of distant metastases and improved cause-specific survival (CSS) than patients receiving definitive external beam radiation therapy (XRT). To date, none of these studies has compared distant metastases and CSS in brachytherapy patients. In this study, we evaluate such parameters in a consecutive cohort of brachytherapy patients. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to June 2007, 1,840 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with brachytherapy. Risk groups were stratified according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network ( (www.nccn.org)) guidelines. Subgroups of 658, 893, and 289 patients were assigned to low, intermediate, and high-risk categories. Median follow-up was 7.2 years. Along with brachytherapy implantation, 901 (49.0%) patients received supplemental XRT, and 670 (36.4%) patients received androgen deprivation therapy (median duration, 4 months). The mode of failure (biochemical, local, or distant) was determined for each patient for whom therapy failed. Cause of death was determined for each deceased patient. Multiple parameters were evaluated for impact on outcome. Results: For the entire cohort, metastases-free survival (MFS) and CSS at 12 years were 98.1% and 98.2%, respectively. When rates were stratified by low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, the 12-year MFS was 99.8%, 98.1%, and 93.8% (p < 0.001), respectively. CSS rates were 99.8%, 98.0%, and 95.3% (p < 0.001) for low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Biochemical progression-free survival was 98.7%, 95.9% and 90.4% for low, intermediate, and high-risk patients, respectively (p < 0.001). In multivariate Cox-regression analysis, MFS was mostly closely related to Gleason score and year of treatment, whereas CSS was most closely associated with Gleason score. Conclusions: Excellent CSS and MFS rates are achievable with high-quality brachytherapy for low, intermediate, and high-risk patients. These results compare favorably to alternative treatment modalities. In particular, our MFS and CSS rates for high-risk patients appear superior to those of published radical prostatectomy series.

Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, California (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

2012-02-01

121

Intraoperative Ultrasound-Fluoroscopy Fusion can Enhance Prostate Brachytherapy Quality  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-fluoroscopy fusion-based intraoperative dosimetry system. Method and Materials: Twenty-five patients were treated for prostate cancer with Pd-103 implantation. After the execution of the treatment plan, two sets of TRUS images were collected using the longitudinal and axial transducers of a biplanar probe. Then, three fluoroscopic images were acquired at 0, -15 and +15{sup o}. The three-dimensional locations of all implanted seeds were reconstructed from fluoroscopic images. A subset of the implanted seeds was manually identified in TRUS images and used as fiducial markers to perform TRUS-fluoroscopy fusion. To improve the implant quality, additional seeds were placed if adverse isodose patterns were identified during visual inspection. If additional seeds were placed, intraoperative dosimetry was repeated. Day 0 computed tomography-based dosimetry was compared with final intraoperative dosimetry to validate dosimetry achieved in the implant suite. Results: An average of additional 4.0 seeds was implanted in 16 patients after initial intraoperative dose evaluation. Based on TRUS-fluoroscopy fusion-based dosimetry, the V100 improved from 86% to 93% (p = 0.005), whereas D90 increased from 94% to 109% (p = 0.011) with the guided additional seed implantation. No statistical difference was observed in V200 and V300 values. V100 and D90 values were 95 {+-} 4% and 120 {+-} 24%, respectively, based on the final intraoperative dosimetry evaluation, compared with 95 {+-} 4% and 122 {+-} 24%, respectively, based on Day 0 computed tomography-based dosimetry. Conclusions: Implantation of extra seeds based on TRUS-fluoroscopy fusion-based intraoperative dosimetry can improve the final V100 and D90 values with minimal increase in V200 and V300 values.

Orio, Peter F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Tutar, Ismail B. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Narayanan, Sreeram [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Arthurs, Sandra [Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Cho, Paul S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kim, Yongmin [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Merrick, Gregory [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Radiation Oncology, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA (United States)], E-mail: kent.wallner@med.va.gov

2007-09-01

122

Irradiation of localized prostatic carcinoma with a combination of high dose rate iridium-192 brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy with three target definitions and dose levels inside the prostate gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Localized prostate cancer was treated with combined external beam radiotherapy and high dose rate Ir-192 brachytherapy with the purpose of a high dose. The technical aspects of a modified treatment are described.Methods: The brachytherapy was given in two sessions preceded and succeeded by external beam radiation. The radioactive source was temporarily implanted by a remote afterloading device through six

Göran Borghede; Hans Hedelin; Sten Holmäng; Karl Axel Johansson; Göran Sernbo; Claes Mercke

1997-01-01

123

Automated seed localization for intraoperative prostate brachytherapy based on 3D line segment patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided brachytherapy is a treatment option for localized prostate cancer, in which 125I or 103Pd radioactive seeds are implanted into the prostate. In this procedure, automated seed localization is important for intra-operative evaluation of dose delivery, which permits the identification of under-dosed regions and remedial seed placement, and ensures that the entire prostate receives the prescribed dose. In this paper, we describe the development of an automated seed segmentation method for use with 3D TRUS images. It is composed of five steps: 1) 3D needle segmentation; 2) volume cropping along the detected needle; 3) non-seed structure removal based on tri-bar model projection; 4) seed candidate recognition using 3D line segment detection; and 5) localization of seed positions. Experiments with the agar and chicken phantom images demonstrated that our method could segment 93% of the seeds in the 3D TRUS images with a mean distance error of 1.0 mm in an agar phantom and 1.7 mm in a chicken phantom, both with respect to manual segmented seed positions. The false positive rate was 7% while the segmentation time on a PC computer with dual AMD Athlon 1.8GHz processor was 280 seconds.

Ding, Mingyue; Wei, Zhouping; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron

2005-04-01

124

Re-implantation after insufficient primary 125-i permanent prostate brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction We describe five patients receiving a re-implantation (RI) after post-operative dosimetry of the primary 125-I permanent prostate brachytherapy (BT) for prostate cancer revealed an insufficient dose coverage. Materials and methods Five out of 222 consecutive patients treated (from March, 2001 to August, 2012) with 125-I BT, received a RI after dosimetric verification by CT and MRI fusion four to eight weeks after implantation displayed an insufficient dose coverage. RIs were performed with 10 to 19 seeds, three to four months after primary intervention. Dosimetry after RI showed an improved and sufficient total dose coverage in all patients. Results At last follow-up (18 to 99 months, median 57 months), none of the patients had relevant implant associated side-effects. Functional outcome was comparable to patients after one-time implantation. PSA levels post intervention showed a decreasing tendency in 4 patients. One patient had a local recurrence after 12 months. Conclusion In our series, approximately 2% of the patients treated with permanent prostate BT required a RI due to insufficient dose coverage. None of the patients who underwent RI experienced complications. Our series, although only with 5 cases and limited follow-up, along with other published reports, demonstrates good tolerability. PMID:23915390

2013-01-01

125

Comparison of dose length, area, and volume histograms as quantifiers of urethral dose in prostate brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the magnitude of the differences between urethral dose-volume, dose-area, and dose-length histograms (DVH, DAH, and DLH, respectively, or DgH generically).Methods and Materials: Six consecutive iodine-125 (125I) patients and 6 consecutive palladium-103 (103Pd) patients implanted via a modified uniform planning approach were evaluated with day 0 computed tomography (CT)-based dosimetry. The urethra was identified by the presence of

Wayne M Butler; Gregory S Merrick; Anthony T Dorsey; Brenda M Hagedorn

2000-01-01

126

Mixed integer programming improves comprehensibility and plan quality in inverse optimization of prostate HDR-brachytherapy  

E-print Network

Current inverse treatment planning methods that optimize both catheter positions and dwell times in prostate HDR brachytherapy use surrogate linear or quadratic objective functions that have no direct interpretation in terms of dose-volume histogram (DVH) criteria, do not result in an optimum or have long solution times. We decrease the solution time of existing linear and quadratic dose-based programming models (LP and QP, respectively) to allow optimizing over potential catheter positions using mixed integer programming. An additional average speed-up of 75% can be obtained by stopping the solver at an early stage, without deterioration of the plan quality. For a fixed catheter configuration, the dwell time optimization model LP solves to optimality in less than 15 seconds, which confirms earlier results. We propose an iterative procedure for QP that allows to prescribe the target dose as an interval, while retaining independence between the solution time and the number of dose calculation points. This iter...

Gorissen, Bram L; Hoffmann, Aswin L

2014-01-01

127

High-dose regions versus likelihood of cure after prostate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the effect of high-dose regions on biochemical cancer control rates after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients with 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer clinical Stage T1c-T2a prostate carcinoma (Gleason grade 5-6, prostate-specific antigen level 4-10 ng/mL) were randomized to implantation with {sup 125}I (144 Gy) vs. {sup 103}Pd (125 Gy, National Institute of Standards and Technology 1999). Isotope implantation was performed by standard techniques, using a modified peripheral loading pattern. Of the 313 patients entered in the protocol, 270 were included in this analysis. The {sup 125}I source strength ranged from 0.4 to 0.89 mCi (median, 0.55 mCi), and the {sup 103}Pd source strength ranged from 1.3 to 1.6 mCi (median, 1.5 mCi). CT was performed within 4 h after implantation. The dosimetric parameters analyzed included the percentage of the postimplant prostate volume covered by the 100%, 150%, 200%, and 300% prescription dose (V{sub 100}, V{sub 150}, V{sub 200}, and V{sub 300}, respectively). The median time to the last follow-up for patients without failure was 2.7 years. Freedom from biochemical failure was defined as a serum prostate-specific antigen level of {<=}0.5 ng/mL at last follow-up. Patients were censored at last follow-up if their serum prostate-specific antigen level was still decreasing. Results: The mean V{sub 100}, V{sub 150}, V{sub 200}, and V{sub 300} value was 90% ({+-}8%), 63% ({+-}14), 35% ({+-}13%), and 14% ({+-}7%), respectively. Patients with a V{sub 100} of {>=}90% had a 3-year freedom from biochemical failure rate of 96% vs. 87% for those with a V{sub 100} of <90% (p = 0.0029). Overall, patients with more high-dose regions had a greater chance of biochemical control. However, when only patients with a V{sub 100} of {>=}90% were analyzed, no relationship was found between higher dose regions and the likelihood of cancer control. This lack of effect on biochemical control was apparent for both isotopes. Conclusion: High-dose regions do not appear to affect cancer control rates, as long as >90% of the prostate volume is covered by the prescription dose.

Wallner, Kent [Department of Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States) and Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA (United States)]. E-mail: kent.wallner@med.va.gov; Merrick, Gregory [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Sutlief, Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); True, Laurence [Department of Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Butler, Wayne [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States)

2005-05-01

128

Acute urinary morbidity after a permanent 125I implantation for localized prostate cancer.  

PubMed

We evaluated the predictive factors of acute urinary morbidity (AUM) after prostate brachytherapy. From November 2005 to January 2007, 62 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated using brachytherapy. The (125)Iodine ((125)I) seed-delivering method was a modified peripheral pattern. The prescribed dose was 144 Gy. Urinary morbidity was scored at 3 months after implantation. The clinical and treatment parameters were analysed for correlation with AUM. In particular, in this study, Du90 (the minimal dose received by 90% of the urethra), Dup90 (the minimal dose received by 90% of the proximal half of the urethra on the bladder side) and Dud90 (the minimal dose received by 90% of the distal half of the urethra on the penile side) were analysed. We found that 43 patients (69.4%) experienced acute urinary symptoms at 3 months after implantation. Of them, 40 patients had Grade 1 AUM, one patient had Grade 2 pain, and two patients had Grade 2 urinary frequency. None of the patients had ?Grade 3. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that Du90 and Dup90 were significantly correlated with AUM. In this study, Du90 and Dup90 were the most significant predictors of AUM after prostate brachytherapy. PMID:25062753

Ohga, Saiji; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Sasaki, Tomonari; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Asai, Kaori; Hirata, Hideki; Naito, Seiji; Honda, Hiroshi

2014-11-01

129

Assessment of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent perioperative infection in patients undergoing prostate brachytherapy: multicenter cohort study.  

PubMed

To propose an appropriate prophylactic antimicrobial therapy for patients undergoing brachytherapy, we evaluated the relationships between various antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) protocols and the incidence of postimplant infections in a multicenter cohort study conducted in Japan. The records of 826 patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent a transperineal (125)I brachytherapy procedure between January 2009 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Perioperative infections, including surgical site and remote infections, were recorded up to postoperative day 30. A total of 6 (0.73%) patients had a perioperative infection following seed implantation, of whom all received AMP for 1 or more days. None of the patients who received a single-dose protocol of AMP using fluoroquinolone p.o. or penicillin with a beta-lactamase inhibitor i.v. developed a perioperative infection. Statistical analysis showed that a single-dose protocol was more significantly related to a lower risk of perioperative infection as compared to the other AMP protocols examined (p = 0.045). Furthermore, our results indicated that bacteriuria and preoperative hair removal were risk factors of perioperative infection with statistical significance (p = 0.007, p = 0.004). Analysis of patient clinical parameters, including age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, diabetes mellitus, prostate volume, numbers of implanted seeds and needle punctures, operation time, and indwelling duration time of the Foley catheter, did not reveal significant differences in terms of perioperative infection. Our results indicated that a single-dose AMP protocol is sufficient to prevent perioperative infections following seed implantation. On the other hand, AMP is only one of several measures to prevent perioperative infectious complications. It is necessary to know that the patient must have no bacteriuria and that preoperative hair removal should be avoided. PMID:23645185

Taoka, Rikiya; Togo, Yoshikazu; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Kido, Masahito; Miki, Kenta; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Sugawara, Takashi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi; Nishino, Masashi; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Minori; Shigemura, Katsumi; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Wada, Koichiro; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Sho, Takehiko; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Shingo

2013-10-01

130

DNA Ploidy Measured on Archived Pretreatment Biopsy Material May Correlate With Prostate-Specific Antigen Recurrence After Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To explore whether DNA ploidy of prostate cancer cells determined from archived transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens correlates with disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven failures and 47 controls were selected from 1006 consecutive low- and intermediate-risk patients treated with prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy (July 1998-October 2003). Median follow-up was 7.5 years. Ten-year actuarial disease-free survival was 94.1%. Controls were matched using age, initial prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage, Gleason score, use of hormone therapy, and follow-up (all P nonsignificant). Seventy-eight specimens were successfully processed; 27 control and 20 failure specimens contained more than 100 tumor cells were used for the final analysis. The Feulgen-Thionin stained cytology samples from archived paraffin blocks were used to determine the DNA ploidy of each tumor by measuring integrated optical densities. Results: The samples were divided into diploid and aneuploid tumors. Aneuploid tumors were found in 16 of 20 of the failures (80%) and 8 of 27 controls (30%). Diploid DNA patients had a significantly lower rate of disease recurrence (P=.0086) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.256). On multivariable analysis, patients with aneuploid tumors had a higher prostate-specific antigen failure rate (HR 5.13). Additionally, those with “excellent” dosimetry (V100 >90%; D90 >144 Gy) had a significantly lower recurrence rate (HR 0.25). All patients with aneuploid tumors and dosimetry classified as “nonexcellent” (V100 <90%; D90 <144 Gy) (5 of 5) had disease recurrence, compared with 40% of patients with aneuploid tumors and “excellent” dosimetry (8 of 15). In contrast, dosimetry did not affect the outcome for diploid patients. Conclusions: Using core biopsy material from archived paraffin blocks, DNA ploidy correctly classified the majority of failures and nonfailures in this study. The results suggest that DNA ploidy can be used as a useful marker for aggressiveness of localized prostate cancer. A larger study will be necessary to further confirm our hypothesis.

Keyes, Mira, E-mail: mkeyes@bccancer.bc.ca [Radiation Oncology, Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy Program, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); MacAulay, Calum [Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hayes, Malcolm [Department of Pathology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Korbelik, Jagoda [Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morris, W. James [Radiation Oncology, Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy Program, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Palcic, Branko [Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

2013-08-01

131

Dosimetry accuracy as a function of seed localization uncertainty in permanent prostate brachytherapy: increased seed number correlates with less variability in prostate dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variation of permanent prostate brachytherapy dosimetry as a function of seed localization uncertainty was investigated for I-125 implants with seed activities commonly employed in contemporary practice. Post-implant imaging and radiation dosimetry data from nine patients who underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy served as the source of clinical data for this simulation study. Gaussian noise with standard deviations ranging from 0.5 to 10 mm was applied to the seed coordinates for each patient dataset and 1000 simulations were performed at each noise level. Dose parameters, including D90, were computed for each case and compared with the actual dosimetry data. A total of 81 000 complete sets of post-brachytherapy dose volume statistics were computed. The results demonstrated that less than 5% deviation of prostate D90 can be expected when the seed localization uncertainty is 2 mm, whereas a seed localization uncertainty of 10 mm yielded an average decrease in D90 of 33 Gy. The mean normalized decrement in the prostate V100 was 10% at 5 mm uncertainty. Implants with greater seed number and larger prostate volume correlated with less sensitivity of D90 and V100 to seed localization uncertainty. Estimated target volume dose parameters tended to decrease with increasing seed localization uncertainty. The bladder V100 varied more significantly both in mean and standard deviation as compared to the urethra V100. A larger number of implanted seeds also correlated to less sensitivity of the bladder V100 to seed localization uncertainty. In contrast, the deviation of urethra V100 did not correlate with the number of implanted seeds or prostate volume.

Su, Yi; Davis, Brian J.; Furutani, Keith M.; Herman, Michael G.; Robb, Richard A.

2007-06-01

132

Long-term outcome by risk factors using conformal high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) boost with or without neoadjuvant androgen suppression for localized prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe aim of this study is to analyze, during the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era, the long-term outcome of patients treated with conformal high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost to the prostate with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) when patients are stratified by risk factors for failure.

Razvan M Galalae; Alvaro Martinez; Tim Mate; Christina Mitchell; Gregory Edmundson; Nils Nuernberg; Stephen Eulau; Gary Gustafson; Michael Gribble; Gyoergy Kovács

2004-01-01

133

Maximum vs. Mono Androgen Blockade and the Risk of Recurrence in Men With Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We examined whether maximum androgen blockade (MAB) is associated with a decreased recurrence risk vs. single-agent androgen suppression (monotherapy) for men undergoing brachytherapy (BT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Data from 223 men in Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor database who received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) concurrent with BT for intermediate- or high-risk prostatic adenocarcinoma were included; 159 (71%) received MAB, and 64 (29%) monotherapy (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist or anti-androgen alone). Cox regression analysis was performed to assess whether the choice of ADT was associated with disease recurrence adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results: Men who received MAB had similar Gleason scores, T categories, and pretreatment prostate-specific antigen as those who received monotherapy. After a median follow-up of 49 months, the use of MAB was not associated with a decrease in the risk recurrence (p = 0.72), after adjusting for known prognostic factors. A higher PSA at diagnosis (p = 0.03) and younger age at diagnosis (p < 0.01) were associated with increased recurrence risk. The 3-year recurrence free survival was 76% for patients in both monotherapy and MAB groups. Conclusions: There are varied practice patterns in physicians' choice of the extent of concurrent ADT when used with brachytherapy for men with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. Given a lack of demonstrated superiority from either ADT choice, both appear to be reasonable options.

Chen, Ronald C. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: rcchen@partners.org; Sadetsky, Natalia [Department of Urology, Program in Urologic Oncology, Urology Outcomes Research Group, UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chen, M.-H. [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Carroll, Peter R. [Department of Urology, Program in Urologic Oncology, Urology Outcomes Research Group, UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); D'Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

2009-09-01

134

Catheter displacement prior to the delivery of high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this work was to report measured catheter displacement prior to the delivery of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR) in the treatment of prostate cancer. Material and methods Data from 30 prostate cancer patients treated with HDR brachytherapy were analyzed retrospectively. Eighteen transperineal hollow catheters were inserted under transrectal ultrasound guidance. Gold marker seeds were also placed transperineally into the base and apex of the prostate gland. Five treatment fractions of 7.5 Gy each were administered over 3 days. The patient underwent CT scanning prior to each treatment fraction. Catheter displacement was measured from the pre-treatment CT dataset reconstructed at 1.25 mm slice thickness. Results Most of catheters were displaced in the caudal direction. Variations of 18 catheters for each patient were small (standard deviations < 1 mm for all but one patient). Mean displacements relative to the apex marker were 6 ± 4 mm, 12 ± 6 mm, 12 ± 6 mm, 12 ± 6 mm, and 12 ± 6 mm from plan to 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th fractions, respectively. Conclusions Our results indicate that catheter positions must be confirmed and if required, adjusted, prior to every treatment fraction for the precise treatment delivery of HDR brachytherapy, and to potentially reduce over-dosage to the bulbo-membranous urethra. PMID:25097556

Kawakami, Shogo; Terazaki, Tsuyoshi; Soda, Itaru; Satoh, Takefumi; Kitano, Masashi; Kurosaka, Shinji; Sekiguchi, Akane; Komori, Shouko; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

2014-01-01

135

High dose rate brachytherapy as monotherapy for localised prostate cancer: a hypofractionated two-implant approach in 351 consecutive patients  

PubMed Central

Background To report the clinical outcome of high dose rate brachytherapy as sole treatment for clinically localised prostate cancer. Methods Between March 2004 and January 2008, a total of 351 consecutive patients with clinically localised prostate cancer were treated with transrectal ultrasound guided high dose rate brachytherapy. The prescribed dose was 38.0 Gy in four fractions (two implants of two fractions each of 9.5 Gy with an interval of 14 days between the implants) delivered to an intraoperative transrectal ultrasound real-time defined planning treatment volume. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix Consensus and toxicity evaluated using the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. Results The median follow-up time was 59.3 months. The 36 and 60 month biochemical control and metastasis-free survival rates were respectively 98%, 94% and 99%, 98%. Toxicity was scored per event with 4.8% acute Grade 3 genitourinary and no acute Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. Late Grade 3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity were respectively 3.4% and 1.4%. No instances of Grade 4 or greater acute or late adverse events were reported. Conclusions Our results confirm high dose rate brachytherapy as safe and effective monotherapy for clinically organ-confined prostate cancer. PMID:23656899

2013-01-01

136

High-dose-rate brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer: rationale and technique  

PubMed Central

High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR) is a method of conformal dose escalation to the prostate. It can be used as a local boost in combination with external beam radiotherapy, with a high degree of efficacy and low rate of long term toxicity. Data consistently reports relapse free survival rates of greater than 90% for intermediate risk patients and greater than 80% for high risk. Results are superior to those achieved with external beam radiotherapy alone. A wide range of dose and fractionation is reported, however, we have found that a single 15 Gy HDR combined with hypofractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions is well tolerated and is associated with a long term relapse-free survival of over 90%. Either CT-based or trans-rectal ultrasound-based planning may be used. The latter enables treatment delivery without having to move the patient with risk of catheter displacement. We have found it to be an efficient and quick method of treatment, allowing catheter insertion, planning, and treatment delivery to be completed in less than 90 minutes. High-dose-rate boost should be considered the treatment of choice for many men with high and intermediate risk prostate cancer. PMID:25337138

2014-01-01

137

High-dose-rate brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer: rationale and technique.  

PubMed

High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR) is a method of conformal dose escalation to the prostate. It can be used as a local boost in combination with external beam radiotherapy, with a high degree of efficacy and low rate of long term toxicity. Data consistently reports relapse free survival rates of greater than 90% for intermediate risk patients and greater than 80% for high risk. Results are superior to those achieved with external beam radiotherapy alone. A wide range of dose and fractionation is reported, however, we have found that a single 15 Gy HDR combined with hypofractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions is well tolerated and is associated with a long term relapse-free survival of over 90%. Either CT-based or trans-rectal ultrasound-based planning may be used. The latter enables treatment delivery without having to move the patient with risk of catheter displacement. We have found it to be an efficient and quick method of treatment, allowing catheter insertion, planning, and treatment delivery to be completed in less than 90 minutes. High-dose-rate boost should be considered the treatment of choice for many men with high and intermediate risk prostate cancer. PMID:25337138

Morton, Gerard C

2014-10-01

138

Comparison of Iodine-125 Seed Implantation and Pancreaticoduodenectomy in the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective: This retrospective study compared the advantages and disadvantages of iodine-125 (125I) seed implantation and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Methods: Patients with diagnosed pancreatic cancer who were treated with 125125I seed implantation (30 patients) or PD (30 patients) in our hospital were evaluated for operative time, bleeding, liver function, time to first bowel movement and normal diet, survival, and medical costs. Results: Compared with patients who underwent PD, those given 125I seed implantation had significantly shorter operative time, less bleeding, higher albumin, shorter periods to bowel movement and normal diet, lower risk of complications, and lower medical costs (P < 0.001, each). The difference of bilirubin level, time to feeding, and median survival were not significant statistically between two treatment grouops. Conclusion: For pancreatic cancer patients for whom PD is not appropriate or who refuse PD, 125I seed implantation is a good option. PMID:25013369

Liu, Kai; Ji, Bai; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Songyang; Wang, Yingchao; Liu, Yahui

2014-01-01

139

Health-Related Quality of Life up to Six Years After {sup 125}I Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after prostate brachytherapy has been extensively described in published reports but hardly any long-term data are available. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess long-term HRQOL 6 years after {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 127 patients treated with {sup 125}I brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer between December 2000 and June 2003 completed a HRQOL questionnaire at five time-points: before treatment and 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 6 years after treatment. The questionnaire included the RAND-36 generic health survey, the cancer-specific European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core questionnaire (EORTCQLQ-C30), and the tumor-specific EORTC prostate cancer module (EORTC-PR25). A change in a score of >=10 points was considered clinically relevant. Results: Overall, the HRQOL at 6 years after {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy did not significantly differ from baseline. Although a statistically significant deterioration in HRQOL at 6 years was seen for urinary symptoms, bowel symptoms, pain, physical functioning, and sexual activity (p <.01), most changes were not clinically relevant. A statistically significant improvement at 6 years was seen for mental health, emotional functioning, and insomnia (p <.01). The only clinically relevant changes were seen for emotional functioning and sexual activity. Conclusion: This is the first study presenting prospective HRQOL data up to 6 years after {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy. HRQOL scores returned to approximately baseline values at 1 year and remained stable up to 6 years after treatment. {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy did not adversely affect patients' long-term HRQOL.

Roeloffzen, Ellen M.A., E-mail: E.M.A.Roeloffzen@UMCUtrecht.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Lips, Irene M.; Gellekom, Marion P.R. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roermund, Joep van [Department of Urology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Medical Center, Houston, TX (United States); Battermann, Jan J.; Vulpen, Marco van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2010-03-15

140

Matched-pair analysis and dosimetric variations of two types of software for interstitial permanent brachytherapy for prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine whether identical dosimetric results could be achieved using different planning software for permanent interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Data from 492 patients treated with brachytherapy were used for matched-pair analysis. Interplant and Variseed were used as software for ultrasound-based treatment planning. Institution, neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, prostate volume, and source strength were used for factors to match the 2 groups. The study population comprised of 126 patients with treatment planning using Interplant software and 127 matched patients using Variseed software. Dosimetric results were compared between the 2 groups. The Variseed group showed significantly higher values for dose covering 90% of prostate volume (pD90), prostate volume covered by 150% of prescription dose (pV150), and dose covering 30% of the urethra (uD30) compared with the Interplant group. Our results showed that use of different software could lead to different dosimetric results, which might affect the clinical outcomes.

Ishiyama, Hiromichi, E-mail: hishiyam@kitasato-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nakamura, Ryuji [Department of Radiology, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Satoh, Takefumi [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Tanji, Susumu [Department of Urology, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Teh, Bin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Uemae, Mineko [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kitasato University Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Baba, Shiro [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Hayakawa, Kazushige [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

2012-04-01

141

An Eight-Year Experience of HDR Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer: Biopsy and PSA Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), the 2-year biopsy outcome and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with an inversely planned high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. Materials and methods: Data were collected from 153 patients treated between 1999 and 2006 with external beam pelvic radiation followed by an HDR Ir-192 prostate boost. These patients were given a boost of 18 to 20 Gy using inverse-planning with simulated annealing (IPSA).We reviewed and analyzed all prostate-specific antigen levels and control biopsies. Results: The median follow-up was 44 months (18-95 months). When categorized by risk of progression, 74.5% of patients presented an intermediate risk and 14.4% a high one. Prostate biopsies at 2 years posttreatment were negative in 86 of 94 patients (91.5%), whereas two biopsies were inconclusive. Biochemical control at 60 months was at 96% according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and the Phoenix consensus definitions. A PSA bounce (PSA values of 2 ng/mL or more above nadir) was observed in 15 patients of 123 (9.8%). The median time to bounce was 15.2 months (interquartile range, 11.0-17.7) and the median bounce duration 18.7 months (interquartile range, 12.1-29). The estimate of overall survival at 60 months was 97.1% (95% CI, 91.6-103%). Conclusions: Considering that inverse planned HDR brachytherapy prostate boosts led to an excellent biochemical response, with a 2-year negative biopsy rate, we recommend a conservative approach in face of a PSA bounce even though it was observed in 10% of patients.

Bachand, Francois; Martin, Andre-Guy [Departement de Radio-oncologie, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-oncologie, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Harel, Francois M.Sc. [Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Vigneault, Eric [Departement de Radio-oncologie, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l'Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)], E-mail: eric.vigneault@chuq.qc.ca

2009-03-01

142

Genitourinary Toxicity After High-Dose-Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy Combined With Hypofractionated External Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: An Analysis to Determine the Correlation Between Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters in HDR Brachytherapy and Severity of Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the severity of genitourinary (GU) toxicity in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to explore factors that might affect the severity of GU toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 Japanese men with prostate cancer underwent {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Mean (SD) dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 (0.7) Gy per fraction of HDR. After 5 fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administrated. The urethral volume receiving 1-15 Gy per fraction in HDR brachytherapy (V1-V15) and the dose to at least 5-100% of urethral volume in HDR brachytherapy (D5-D100) were compared between patients with Grade 3 toxicity and those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Prostate volume, patient age, and International Prostate Symptom Score were also compared between the two groups. Results: Of the 100 patients, 6 displayed Grade 3 acute GU toxicity, and 12 displayed Grade 3 late GU toxicity. Regarding acute GU toxicity, values of V1, V2, V3, and V4 were significantly higher in patients with Grade 3 toxicity than in those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Regarding late GU toxicity, values of D70, D80, V12, and V13 were significantly higher in patients with Grade 3 toxicity than in those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Conclusions: The severity of GU toxicity in HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT for prostate cancer was relatively high. The volume of prostatic urethra was associated with grade of acute GU toxicity, and urethral dose was associated with grade of late GU toxicity.

Ishiyama, Hiromichi [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)], E-mail: hishiyam@kitasato-u.ac.jp; Kitano, Masashi [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Satoh, Takefumi [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Kotani, Shouko [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Uemae, Mineko [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kitasato University Hospital, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Okusa, Hiroshi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Baba, Shiro [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Hayakawa, Kazushige [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

2009-09-01

143

Investigating the dosimetric and tumor control consequences of prostate seed loss and migration  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Low dose-rate brachytherapy is commonly used to treat prostate cancer. However, once implanted, the seeds are vulnerable to loss and movement. The goal of this work is to investigate the dosimetric and radiobiological effects of the types of seed loss and migration commonly seen in prostate brachytherapy. Methods: Five patients were used in this study. For each patient three treatment plans were created using Iodine-125, Palladium-103, and Cesium-131 seeds. The three seeds that were closest to the urethra were identified and modeled as the seeds lost through the urethra. The three seeds closest to the exterior of prostatic capsule were identified and modeled as those lost from the prostate periphery. The seed locations and organ contours were exported from Prowess and used by in-house software to perform the dosimetric and radiobiological evaluation. Seed loss was simulated by simultaneously removing 1, 2, or 3 seeds near the urethra 0, 2, or 4 days after the implant or removing seeds near the exterior of the prostate 14, 21, or 28 days after the implant. Results: Loss of one, two or three seeds through the urethra results in aD90 reduction of 2%, 5%, and 7% loss, respectively. Due to delayed loss of peripheral seeds, the dosimetric effects are less severe than for loss through the urethra. However, while the dose reduction is modest for multiple lost seeds, the reduction in tumor control probability was minimal. Conclusions: The goal of this work was to investigate the dosimetric and radiobiological effects of the types of seed loss and migration commonly seen in prostate brachytherapy. The results presented show that loss of multiple seeds can cause a substantial reduction ofD90 coverage. However, for the patients in this study the dose reduction was not seen to reduce tumor control probability. PMID:22755712

Knaup, Courtney; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Esquivel, Carlos; Stathakis, Sotirios; Swanson, Gregory; Baltas, Dimos; Papanikolaou, Nikos

2012-01-01

144

Mixed integer programming improves comprehensibility and plan quality in inverse optimization of prostate HDR brachytherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current inverse treatment planning methods that optimize both catheter positions and dwell times in prostate HDR brachytherapy use surrogate linear or quadratic objective functions that have no direct interpretation in terms of dose-volume histogram (DVH) criteria, do not result in an optimum or have long solution times. We decrease the solution time of the existing linear and quadratic dose-based programming models (LP and QP, respectively) to allow optimizing over potential catheter positions using mixed integer programming. An additional average speed-up of 75% can be obtained by stopping the solver at an early stage, without deterioration of the plan quality. For a fixed catheter configuration, the dwell time optimization model LP solves to optimality in less than 15 s, which confirms earlier results. We propose an iterative procedure for QP that allows us to prescribe the target dose as an interval, while retaining independence between the solution time and the number of dose calculation points. This iterative procedure is comparable in speed to the LP model and produces better plans than the non-iterative QP. We formulate a new dose-volume-based model that maximizes V100% while satisfying pre-set DVH criteria. This model optimizes both catheter positions and dwell times within a few minutes depending on prostate volume and number of catheters, optimizes dwell times within 35 s and gives better DVH statistics than dose-based models. The solutions suggest that the correlation between the objective value and the clinical plan quality is weak in the existing dose-based models.

Gorissen, Bram L.; den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, Aswin L.

2013-02-01

145

BrachyView, A novel inbody imaging system for HDR prostate brachytherapy: Design and Monte Carlo feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a form of radiation therapy for treating prostate cancer whereby a high activity radiation source is moved between predefined positions inside applicators inserted within the treatment volume. Accurate positioning of the source is essential in delivering the desired dose to the target area while avoiding radiation injury to the surrounding tissue. In this paper, HDR BrachyView, a novel inbody dosimetric imaging system for real time monitoring and verification of the radioactive seed position in HDR prostate brachytherapy treatment is introduced. The current prototype consists of a 15 Multiplication-Sign 60 mm{sup 2} silicon pixel detector with a multipinhole tungsten collimator placed 6.5 mm above the detector. Seven identical pinholes allow full imaging coverage of the entire treatment volume. The combined pinhole and pixel sensor arrangement is geometrically designed to be able to resolve the three-dimensional location of the source. The probe may be rotated to keep the whole prostate within the transverse plane. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the efficacy of the design through computer simulation, and to estimate the accuracy in resolving the source position (in detector plane and in 3D space) as part of the feasibility study for the BrachyView project.Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the GEANT4 radiation transport model, with a {sup 192}Ir source placed in different locations within a prostate phantom. A geometrically accurate model of the detector and collimator were constructed. Simulations were conducted with a single pinhole to evaluate the pinhole design and the signal to background ratio obtained. Second, a pair of adjacent pinholes were simulated to evaluate the error in calculated source location.Results: Simulation results show that accurate determination of the true source position is easily obtainable within the typical one second source dwell time. The maximum error in the estimated projection position was found to be 0.95 mm in the imaging (detector) plane, resulting in a maximum source positioning estimation error of 1.48 mm.Conclusions: HDR BrachyView is a feasible design for real-time source tracking in HDR prostate brachytherapy. It is capable of resolving the source position within a subsecond dwell time. In combination with anatomical information obtained from transrectal ultrasound imaging, HDR BrachyView adds a significant quality assurance capability to HDR brachytherapy treatment systems.

Safavi-Naeini, M.; Han, Z.; Cutajar, D.; Guatelli, S.; Petasecca, M.; Lerch, M. L. F. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Franklin, D. R. [Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Jakubek, J.; Pospisil, S. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (IEAP), Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU) (Czech Republic); Bucci, J.; Zaider, M.; Rosenfeld, A. B. [St. George Hospital Cancer Care Centre, Gray Street, Kogarah, NSW 2217 (Australia); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

2013-07-15

146

An iterative sequential mixed-integer approach to automated prostate brachytherapy treatment plan optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional treatment planning for interstitial prostate brachytherapy is generally a `trial and error' process in which improved treatment plans are generated by iteratively changing, via expert judgement, the configuration of sources within the target volume in order to achieve a satisfactory dose distribution. We have utilized linear mixed-integer programming (MIP) and the branch-and-bound method, a deterministic search algorithm, to generate treatment plans. The rapidity of dose falloff from an interstitial radioactive source requires fine sampling of the space in which dose is calculated. This leads to a large and complex model that is difficult to solve as a single 3D problem. We have therefore implemented an iterative sequential approach that optimizes pseudo-independent 2D slices to achieve a fine-grid 3D solution. Using our approach, treatment plans can be generated in 20-45 min on a 200 MHz processor. A comparison of our approach with the manual `trial and error' approach shows that the optimized plans are generally superior. The dose to the urethra and rectum is usually maintained below harmful levels without sacrificing target coverage. In the event that the dose to the urethra is undesirably high, we present a refined optimization approach that lowers urethra dose without significant loss in target coverage. An analysis of the sensitivity of the optimized plans to seed misplacement during the implantation process is also presented that indicates remarkable stability of the dose distribution in comparison with manual treatment plans.

D'Souza, W. D.; Meyer, R. R.; Thomadsen, B. R.; Ferris, M. C.

2001-02-01

147

Treatment planning for prostate brachytherapy using region of interest adjoint functions and a greedy heuristic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an efficient treatment-planning algorithm for prostate implants that is based on region of interest (ROI) adjoint functions and a greedy heuristic. For this work, we define the adjoint function for an ROI as the sensitivity of the average dose in the ROI to a unit-strength brachytherapy source at any seed position. The greedy heuristic uses a ratio of target and critical structure adjoint functions to rank seed positions according to their ability to irradiate the target ROI while sparing critical structure ROIs. This ratio is computed once for each seed position prior to the optimization process. Optimization is performed by a greedy heuristic that selects seed positions according to their ratio values. With this method, clinically acceptable treatment plans are obtained in less than 2 s. For comparison, a branch-and-bound method to solve a mixed integer-programming model took more than 50 min to arrive at a feasible solution. Both methods achieved good treatment plans, but the speedup provided by the greedy heuristic was a factor of approximately 1500. This attribute makes this algorithm suitable for intra-operative real-time treatment planning. Part of this work has been presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine in Montreal, Quebec, Canada on 17 July 2002.

Yoo, Sua; Kowalok, Michael E.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Henderson, Douglass L.

2003-12-01

148

Three-dimensional seed reconstruction from an incomplete data set for prostate brachytherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intra-operative dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy requires 3D coordinates of the implanted, radioactive seeds. Since CT is not readily available during the implant operation, projection x-rays are commonly used for intra-operative seed localization. Three x-ray projections are usually used. The requirement of the current seed reconstruction algorithms is that the seeds must be identified on all three projections. However, in practice this is often difficult to accomplish due to the problem of heavily clustered and overlapping seeds. We have developed an algorithm that permits seed reconstruction from an incomplete data set. Instead of all three projections, the new algorithm requires only one of the three projections to be complete. Furthermore, even if all three projections are incomplete, it can reconstruct 100% of the implanted seeds depending on how the undetected seeds are distributed among the projections. The method utilizes the principles of epipolar imaging geometry and pseudo-matching of the undetected seeds. The algorithm was successfully applied to a large number of clinical cases where seeds imperceptibly overlap in some projections.

Narayanan, Sreeram; Cho, Paul S.; Marks, Robert J., II

2004-08-01

149

Reliability of EUCLIDIAN: An autonomous robotic system for image-guided prostate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Recently, several robotic systems have been developed to perform accurate and consistent image-guided brachytherapy. Before introducing a new device into clinical operations, it is important to assess the reliability and mean time before failure (MTBF) of the system. In this article, the authors present the preclinical evaluation and analysis of the reliability and MTBF of an autonomous robotic system, which is developed for prostate seed implantation. Methods: The authors have considered three steps that are important in reliability growth analysis. These steps are: Identification and isolation of failures, classification of failures, and trend analysis. For any one-of-a-kind product, the reliability enhancement is accomplished through test-fix-test. The authors have used failure mode and effect analysis for collection and analysis of reliability data by identifying and categorizing the failure modes. Failures were classified according to severity. Failures that occurred during the operation of this robotic system were considered as nonhomogenous Poisson process. The failure occurrence trend was analyzed using Laplace test. For analyzing and predicting reliability growth, commonly used and widely accepted models, Duane's model and the Army Material Systems Analysis Activity, i.e., Crow's model, were applied. The MTBF was used as an important measure for assessing the system's reliability. Results: During preclinical testing, 3196 seeds (in 53 test cases) were deposited autonomously by the robot and 14 critical failures were encountered. The majority of the failures occurred during the first few cases. The distribution of failures followed Duane's postulation as well as Crow's postulation of reliability growth. The Laplace test index was -3.82 (<0), indicating a significant trend in failure data, and the failure intervals lengthened gradually. The continuous increase in the failure occurrence interval suggested a trend toward improved reliability. The MTBF was 592 seeds, which implied that several prostate seed implantation cases would be possible without encountering any critical failure. The shape parameter for the MTBF was 0.3859 (<1), suggesting a positive reliability growth of this robotic system. At 95% confidence, the reliability for deposition of 65 seeds was more than 90%. Conclusions: Analyses of failure mode strongly indicated a gradual improvement of reliability of this autonomous robotic system. High MTBF implied that several prostate seed implant cases would be possible without encountering any critical failure.

Podder, Tarun K.; Buzurovic, Ivan; Huang Ke; Showalter, Timothy; Dicker, Adam P.; Yu, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center (NCI-designated), Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States)

2011-01-15

150

High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as a Monotherapy for Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Phase II Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: There are multiple treatment options for favorable-risk prostate cancer. High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a monotherapy is appealing, but its use is still investigational. A Phase II trial was undertaken to explore the value of such treatment in low-to-intermediate risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This was a single-institution, prospective study. Eligible patients had low-risk prostate cancer features but also Gleason scores of 7 (51% of patients) and stage T2b to T2c cancer. Treatment with HDR brachytherapy with a single implant was administered over 2 days. One of four fractionation schedules was used in a dose escalation study design: 3 fractions of 10, 10.5, 11, or 11.5 Gy. Patients were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 2.0 for urinary toxicity, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scoring schema for rectal toxicity, and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaire to measure patient-reported health-related quality of life. Biochemical failure was defined as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir plus 2 ng/ml. Results: Between 2003 and 2008, 79 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 39.5 months, biochemical relapse occurred in 7 patients. Three- and 5-year actuarial biochemical control rates were 88.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78.0-96.2%) and 85.1% (95% CI, 72.5-94.5%), respectively. Acute grade 3 urinary toxicity was seen in only 1 patient. There was no instance of acute grade 3 rectal toxicity. Rates of late grade 3 rectal toxicity, dysuria, hematuria, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence were 0%, 10.3%, 1.3%, 9.0%, and 0%, respectively. No grade 4 or greater toxicity was recorded. Among the four (urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal) domains assessed with the EPIC questionnaire, only the sexual domain did not recover with time. Conclusions: HDR brachytherapy as a monotherapy for favorable-risk prostate cancer, administered using a single implant over 2 days, is feasible and has acceptable acute and late toxicities. Further follow-up is still required to better evaluate the efficacy of such treatment.

Barkati, Maroie [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Williams, Scott G., E-mail: scott.williams@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad; Tai, Keen Hun; Chander, Sarat [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Dyk, Sylvia van [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); See, Andrew [Ballarat Austin Radiation Oncology Centre, Ballarat (Australia); Duchesne, Gillian M. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

2012-04-01

151

Postoperative Nomogram Predicting the 9-Year Probability of Prostate Cancer Recurrence After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy Using Radiation Dose as a Prognostic Variable  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report a multi-institutional outcomes study on permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) to 9 years that includes postimplant dosimetry, to develop a postimplant nomogram predicting biochemical freedom from recurrence. Methods and Materials: Cox regression analysis was used to model the clinical information for 5,931 patients who underwent PPB for clinically localized prostate cancer from six centers. The model was validated against the dataset using bootstrapping. Disease progression was determined using the Phoenix definition. The biological equivalent dose was calculated from the minimum dose to 90% of the prostate volume (D90) and external-beam radiotherapy dose using an alpha/beta of 2. Results: The 9-year biochemical freedom from recurrence probability for the modeling set was 77% (95% confidence interval, 73-81%). In the model, prostate-specific antigen, Gleason sum, isotope, external beam radiation, year of treatment, and D90 were associated with recurrence (each p < 0.05), whereas clinical stage was not. The concordance index of the model was 0.710. Conclusion: A predictive model for a postimplant nomogram for prostate cancer recurrence at 9-years after PPB has been developed and validated from a large multi-institutional database. This study also demonstrates the significance of implant dosimetry for predicting outcome. Unique to predictive models, these nomograms may be used a priori to calculate a D90 that likely achieves a desired outcome with further validation. Thus, a personalized dose prescription can potentially be calculated for each patient.

Potters, Louis, E-mail: LPotters@nshs.ed [Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Roach, Mack [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Urology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Stock, Richard G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Ciezki, Jay P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Urology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Fearn, Paul A. [Department of Urology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Yu Changhong [Glickman Urological Institute and the Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Urology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kattan, Michael W. [Glickman Urological Institute and the Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2010-03-15

152

Characteristic variation of ?-fetoprotein DNA nanometer-range irradiated by iodine-125.  

PubMed

To obtain the characteristic variation of structure and functional groups of ?-fetoprotein (AFP) DNA irradiated by iodine-125((125)I), the AFP antisense oligonucleotide labeled with various radioactivity dose (125)I was mixed with the AFP DNA in a simulated polymerase chain reaction temperature condition. After the mixtures were irradiated by the (125)I from 2 to 72 hours, the mutation of the biogenic conformation and functional groups of the irradiated DNA were investigated using laser Raman spectroscopy. The shifted peak and the decreased intensity of the characteristic Raman spectra were found, which demonstrated that the structure of the phosphodiester linkage was broke, the pyridine and purine bases in DNA emerged and damaged. The model of gene conformation changed from form B to form C spectrum after the nanometer-range irradiation with (125)I from 2 to 24 hours. The damage of local pyridine and purine bases gradually increased along with the accumulation of irradiation, and the bases and ribosome were finally dissociated and stacked. PMID:23573955

Cheng, Mu-hua; Huang, Yao-xiong; Li, Jian-fang; Wu, Zheng-jie; Xie, Liang-jun

2013-04-01

153

3D conformal HDR brachytherapy and external beam irradiation combined with temporary androgen deprivation in the treatment of localized prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate treatment outcome of 3D conformal high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and external beam irradiation (EBRT) combined with temporary androgen deprivation for patients with localized prostate cancer.Patients and methods: Between January 1997 and September 1999 we treated 102 patients with stage T1–3 N0 M0 prostate cancer. Stage T1–2 was found in 71, T3 in 31 patients. Median pretreatment

Thomas Martin; Sandra Röddiger; Ralf Kurek; Thomas Dannenberg; Oliver Eckart; Christos Kolotas; Reinhard Heyd; Bernd Rogge; Dimos Baltas; Ulf Tunn; Nikolaos Zamboglou

2004-01-01

154

Comparison of Dosimetric and Biologic Effective Dose Parameters for Prostate and Urethra Using {sup 131}Cs and {sup 125}I for Prostate Permanent Implant Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the urethral and prostate absolute and biologic effective doses (BEDs) for {sup 131}Cs and {sup 125}I prostate permanent implant brachytherapy (PPI). Methods and Materials: Eight previously implanted manually planned {sup 125}I PPI patients were replanned manually with {sup 131}Cs, and re-planned using Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing. {sup 131}Cs activity and the prescribed dose (115 Gy) were determined from that recommended by IsoRay. The BED was calculated for the prostate and urethra using an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 and was also calculated for the prostate using an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 6 and a urethral {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2. The primary endpoints of this study were the prostate D{sub 90} BED (pD{sub 90}BED) and urethral D{sub 30} BED normalized to the maximal potential prostate D{sub 90} BED (nuD{sub 30}BED). Results: The manual plan comparison ({alpha}/{beta} = 2) yielded no significant difference in the prostate D{sub 90} BED (median, 192 Gy{sub 2} for both isotopes). No significant difference was observed for the nuD{sub 30}BED (median, 199 Gy{sub 2} and 202 Gy{sub 2} for {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs, respectively). For the inverse planning simulated annealing plan comparisons ({alpha}/{beta} 2), the prostate D{sub 90} BED was significantly lower with {sup 131}Cs than with {sup 125}I (median, 177 Gy{sub 2} vs. 187 Gy{sub 2}, respectively; p = 0.01). However, the nuD{sub 30}BED was significantly greater with {sup 131}Cs than with {sup 125}I (median, 192 Gy{sub 2} vs. 189 Gy{sub 2}, respectively; p = 0.01). Both the manual and the inverse planning simulated annealing plans resulted in a significantly lower prostate D{sub 90} BED (p = 0.01) and significantly greater nuD{sub 30}BED for {sup 131}Cs (p = 0.01), compared with {sup 125}I, when the prostate {alpha}/{beta} ratio was 6 and the urethral {alpha}/{beta} ratio was 2. Conclusion: This report highlights the controversy in comparing the dose to both the prostate and the organs at risk with different radionuclides.

Sahgal, Arjun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre at Sunnybrook Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Jabbari, Siavash; Chen, Josephine; Pickett, Barbie; Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [University of California, San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hsu, I-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)], E-mail: jpouliot@radonc.ucsf.edu

2008-09-01

155

Predictors of Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Elderly Men With Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Brachytherapy With or Without External Beam Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify clinical factors associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), adjusting for comorbidity, in elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy alone or in conjunction with external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 1,978 men of median age 71 (interquartile range, 66-75) years with intermediate-risk disease (Gleason score 7, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 20 ng/mL or less, tumor category T2c or less). Fine and Gray's multivariable competing risks regression was used to assess whether prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), age, treatment, year of brachytherapy, PSA level, or tumor category was associated with the risk of PCSM. Results: After a median follow-up of 3.2 (interquartile range, 1.7-5.4) years, the presence of CVD was significantly associated with a decreased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% CI 0.04-0.99; p = 0.05), whereas an increasing PSA level was significantly associated with an increased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio 1.14; 95% CI 1.02-1.27; p = 0.02). In the absence of CVD, cumulative incidence estimates of PCSM were higher (p = 0.03) in men with PSA levels above as compared with the median PSA level (7.3 ng/mL) or less; however, in the setting of CVD there was no difference (p = 0.27) in these estimates stratified by the median PSA level (6.9 ng/mL). Conclusions: In elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer, CVD status is a negative predictor of PCSM and affects the prognostic capacity of pretreatment PSA level. These observations support the potential utility of prerandomization stratification by comorbidity to more accurately assess prognostic factors and treatment effects within this population.

Nanda, Akash, E-mail: ananda@partners.or [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, M.-H. [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Dosoretz, Daniel; Salenius, Sharon; Katin, Michael; Ross, Rudi [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, FL (United States); D'Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

2010-05-01

156

Method for the simultaneous preparation of Radon-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Astatine-211, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123  

DOEpatents

A method for simultaneously preparing Radon-211, Astatine-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123 in a process that includes irradiating a fertile metal material then using a one-step chemical procedure to collect a first mixture of about equal amounts of Radon-211 and Xenon-125, and a separate second mixture of about equal amounts of Iodine-123 and Astatine-211.

Mirzadeh, Saed (East Setauket, NY); Lambrecht, Richard M. (Quogue, NY)

1987-01-01

157

Calculated organ doses using Monte Carlo simulations in a reference male phantom undergoing HDR brachytherapy applied to localized prostate carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to obtain equivalent doses in radiosensitive organs (aside from the bladder and rectum) when applying high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy to a localized prostate carcinoma using {sup 60}Co or {sup 192}Ir sources. These data are compared with results in a water phantom and with expected values in an infinite water medium. A comparison with reported values from proton therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is also provided. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations in Geant4 were performed using a voxelized phantom described in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 110, which reproduces masses and shapes from an adult reference man defined in ICRP Publication 89. Point sources of {sup 60}Co or {sup 192}Ir with photon energy spectra corresponding to those exiting their capsules were placed in the center of the prostate, and equivalent doses per clinical absorbed dose in this target organ were obtained in several radiosensitive organs. Values were corrected to account for clinical circumstances with the source located at various positions with differing dwell times throughout the prostate. This was repeated for a homogeneous water phantom. Results: For the nearest organs considered (bladder, rectum, testes, small intestine, and colon), equivalent doses given by {sup 60}Co source were smaller (8%-19%) than from {sup 192}Ir. However, as the distance increases, the more penetrating gamma rays produced by {sup 60}Co deliver higher organ equivalent doses. The overall result is that effective dose per clinical absorbed dose from a {sup 60}Co source (11.1 mSv/Gy) is lower than from a {sup 192}Ir source (13.2 mSv/Gy). On the other hand, equivalent doses were the same in the tissue and the homogeneous water phantom for those soft tissues closer to the prostate than about 30 cm. As the distance increased, the differences of photoelectric effect in water and soft tissue, and appearance of other materials such as air, bone, or lungs, produced variations between both phantoms which were at most 35% in the considered organ equivalent doses. Finally, effective doses per clinical absorbed dose from IMRT and proton therapy were comparable to those from both brachytherapy sources, with brachytherapy being advantageous over external beam radiation therapy for the furthest organs. Conclusions: A database of organ equivalent doses when applying HDR brachytherapy to the prostate with either {sup 60}Co or {sup 192}Ir is provided. According to physical considerations, {sup 192}Ir is dosimetrically advantageous over {sup 60}Co sources at large distances, but not in the closest organs. Damage to distant healthy organs per clinical absorbed dose is lower with brachytherapy than with IMRT or protons, although the overall effective dose per Gy given to the prostate seems very similar. Given that there are several possible fractionation schemes, which result in different total amounts of therapeutic absorbed dose, advantage of a radiation treatment (according to equivalent dose to healthy organs) is treatment and facility dependent.

Candela-Juan, Cristian [Radioprotection Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, Jose [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Ballester, Facundo [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

2013-03-15

158

Multi-objective optimization in radiotherapy: applications to stereotactic radiosurgery and prostate brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Treatment planning for radiation therapy is a multi-objective optimization process. Here we present a machine intelligent scheme for treatment planning based on multi-objective decision analysis (MODA) and genetic algorithm (GA) optimization. Multi-objective ranking strategies are represented in the L(p) metric under the displaced ideal model. Goal setting, protocol satisficing and fuzzy ranking of objective importance can be incorporated into the decision scheme to assimilate clinical decision making. For distance measures in the L(p) metric, a dynamic gauge function is defined based on the state energy of the decision system, which is assumed to undergo thermodynamic cooling with iteration time. The MODA scheme interacts with a robust GA engine, which adaptively evolves in the multi-modal landscape that defines the treatment plan quality. A conventionally challenging case of stereotactic radiosurgery of a brain lesion was selected for GA optimization. The resulting dose distributions are compared to human-developed plans, which are commonly regarded as clinically relevant and empirically optimal. The GA-optimized plans achieve substantially better sparing of critical normal neuroanatomy surrounding the brain lesion while respecting the preset constraints on tumor dose uniformity. In addition, machine optimization tends to produce novel treatment strategies which complements expert knowledge. The run time for producing an optimal plan is considerably shorter than the typical planning time for human experts, thus GA can also be used to aid the human treatment planning process. In prostate brachytherapy, MODA-GA was specifically applied to non-ideal conditions in which typical surgical uncertainties in seed implant positioning occur, where noisy objectives were introduced into the optimization scheme. The noisy system is found to be manageable by MODA-GA at uncertainty levels corresponding to reasonably proficient surgery teams. In contrast, noisy objectives would be very difficult to explore by human expert planners. Potential use of noisy optimization with time series analysis is being explored for error-corrective computer guidance in the operating room for prostate seed implantation. In conclusion, the combination of MODA and GA optimization offers both a solution to practical treatment planning tasks and the potential for real time applications in radiotherapy. PMID:10767615

Yu, Y; Zhang, J B; Cheng, G; Schell, M C; Okunieff, P

2000-05-01

159

A mathematical approach for evaluating the influence of dose heterogeneity on TCP for prostate cancer brachytherapy treatment.  

PubMed

The low-dose-rate brachytherapy technique has proven suitable for the management of prostate cancer. However, published data generally report the clinical outcome and the minimum peripheral dose (mPD) to the target volume and not the actual dose distribution in patients. To this end, modern guidelines recommend the use of specific dose and volume indices describing dose distribution throughout the target. The introduction of a method, based on the standard linear quadratic model and Poisson statistics, entitled the F-factor allows the TCP from different DVHs to be calculated, by using the TCP from a uniform dose distribution as the reference. The F-factor sensitivity against radiobiological parameters and influence of the DVH were evaluated. We applied the F-formula on the post-plan DVHs of 58 patients treated with (125)I permanent seed implant brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. F shows a strong correlation with dosimetric parameters already reported as significant predictors of the biochemical outcome. PMID:18723926

Strigari, L; Orlandini, L C; Andriani, I; d'Angelo, A; Stefanacci, M; Di Nallo, A M; Benassi, Marcello

2008-09-21

160

A Small Tolerance for Catheter Displacement in High-Dose Rate Prostate Brachytherapy is Necessary and Feasible  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We examined catheter displacement in patients treated with fractionated high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer and the impact this had on tumor control probability (TCP). These data were used to make conclusions on an acceptable amount of displacement. Methods and Materials: The last 20 patients treated with HDR brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer at our center in 2007 were replanned using simulated interstitial catheter displacements of 3, 6, 9, and 12 mm with originally planned dwell times. The computer-modeled dose-volume histograms for the clinical target volumes were exported and used to calculate the TCP of plans with displaced needles relative to the original plan. Actual catheter displacements were also measured before and after manual adjustment in all patients treated in 2007. Results: In the 20 patients who were replanned for caudal catheter displacements of 3, 6, 9, and 12 mm, the median relative TCP was 0.998, 0.964, 0.797, and 0.265, respectively (p < 0.01 when all medians were compared). All patients replanned with a 3-mm displacement, compared with only 75% with a 6-mm displacement, had a relative TCP greater than 0.950. In the 91 patients treated in 2007, before adjustment, 82.3% of fractions had a displacement greater than 3 mm compared with 12.2% of fractions after adjustment. Conclusions: Catheter displacement in HDR brachytherapy significantly compromises the TCP. The tolerance for these movements should be small (<=3 mm). Correcting these displacements to within acceptable limits is feasible.

Tiong, Albert, E-mail: acdtiong@hotmail.co [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Bydder, Sean [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Ebert, Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Caswell, Nikki; Waterhouse, David; Spry, Nigel; Camille, Peter; Joseph, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

2010-03-15

161

Twelve-Month Prostate-Specific Antigen Values and Perineural Invasion as Strong Independent Prognostic Variables of Long-Term Biochemical Outcome After Prostate Seed Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (ptPSA) values at 12 months and other clinical parameters predict long-term PSA relapse-free survival (PRFS) following prostate seed brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of 204 hormone-naieve patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated at St. Mary's Regional Medical Center in Reno, NV, and at Carson Tahoe Regional Medical Center in Carson City, NV, between 1998 and 2003, using I-125 or Pd-103 seed brachytherapy, were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment planning was done using a preplanned, modified peripheral loading technique. A total of 185 of 204 patients had PSA records at 12 months after implant. Variables included were age, initial pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, T stage, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group (RG), perineural invasion (PNI), external beam boost, dose, and ptPSA levels at 12 months with cutpoints at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml. Results: Median follow-up was 80 months, and median age was 69 years. The numbers of patients stratified by NCCN low, intermediate, and high RG were 110:65:10, respectively. Monotherapy and boost prescription doses were 145 Gy and 110 Gy for I-125, and 125 Gy and 100 Gy for Pd-103 seeds, respectively. The median dose (D90) was 95.4% of the prescribed dose. The 5-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml were 98.5%, 85.7%, 61.5%, and 22.2%, respectively. The 10-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1 and 1.01 to 2.00 ng/ml were 90.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, both ptPSA and PNI were significant independent predictors of PRFS. Hazard ratios (HR) for ptPSA levels at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml at 12 months were 1, 4.96, 27.57, and 65.10, respectively. PNI had an HR of 6.1 (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Presence of PNI and ptPSA values at 12 months are strong prognostic variables for long-term PRFS after definitive prostate brachytherapy seed implantation.

Ding, William, E-mail: billyding888@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Lee, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Chamberlain, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Mary's Regional Medical Center, Reno, Nevada (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Mary's Regional Medical Center, Reno, Nevada (United States); Cunningham, James [Carson Urology, Carson City, Nevada (United States)] [Carson Urology, Carson City, Nevada (United States); Yang Lixi [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Tay, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Mary's Regional Medical Center, Reno, Nevada (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Mary's Regional Medical Center, Reno, Nevada (United States)

2012-11-15

162

Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We have been treating localized prostate cancer with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at our institution. We recently reported the existence of a correlation between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral radiation dose in HDR brachytherapy by using different fractionation schema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate

Tetsuo. Akimoto; Hiroyuki Katoh; Shin-ei Noda; Kazuto Ito; Takumi Yamamoto; Bunzo Kashiwagi; Takashi Nakano

2005-01-01

163

In vitro comparative study of vibro-acoustography versus pulse-echo ultrasound in imaging permanent prostate brachytherapy seeds  

PubMed Central

Background Permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) is a common treatment for early stage prostate cancer. While the modern approach using trans-rectal ultrasound guidance has demonstrated excellent outcome, the efficacy of PPB depends on achieving complete radiation dose coverage of the prostate by obtaining a proper radiation source (seed) distribution. Currently, brachytherapy seed placement is guided by trans-rectal ultrasound imaging and fluoroscopy. A significant percentage of seeds are not detected by trans-rectal ultrasound because certain seed orientations are invisible making accurate intra-operative feedback of radiation dosimetry very difficult, if not impossible. Therefore, intra-operative correction of suboptimal seed distributions cannot easily be done with current methods. Vibro-acoustography (VA) is an imaging modality that is capable of imaging solids at any orientation, and the resulting images are speckle free. Objective and methods The purpose of this study is to compare the capabilities of VA and pulse-echo ultrasound in imaging PPB seeds at various angles and show the sensitivity of detection to seed orientation. In the VA experiment, two intersecting ultrasound beams driven at f1 = 3.00 MHz and f2 = 3.020 MHz respectively were focused on the seeds attached to a latex membrane while the amplitude of the acoustic emission produced at the difference frequency 20 kHz was detected by a low frequency hydrophone. Results Finite element simulations and results of experiments conducted under well-controlled conditions in a water tank on a series of seeds indicate that the seeds can be detected at any orientation with VA, whereas pulse-echo ultrasound is very sensitive to the seed orientation. Conclusion It is concluded that vibro-acoustography is superior to pulse-echo ultrasound for detection of PPB seeds. PMID:18538365

Mitri, F.G.; Davis, B.J.; Greenleaf, J.F.; Fatemi, M.

2010-01-01

164

MRI characterization of cobalt dichloride-N-acetyl cysteine (C4) contrast agent marker for prostate brachytherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brachytherapy, a radiotherapy technique for treating prostate cancer, involves the implantation of numerous radioactive seeds into the prostate. While the implanted seeds can be easily identified on a computed tomography image, distinguishing the prostate and surrounding soft tissues is not as straightforward. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers superior anatomical delineation, but the seeds appear as dark voids and are difficult to identify, thus creating a conundrum. Cobalt dichloride-N-acetyl-cysteine (C4) has previously been shown to be promising as an encapsulated contrast agent marker. We performed spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and spin-spin relaxation time (T2) measurements of C4 solutions with varying cobalt dichloride concentrations to determine the corresponding relaxivities, r1 and r2. These relaxation parameters were investigated at different field strengths, temperatures and orientations. T1 measurements obtained at 1.5 and 3.0 T, as well as at room and body temperature, showed that r1 is field-independent and temperature-independent. Conversely, the T2 values at 3.0 T were shorter than at 1.5 T, while the T2 values at body temperature were slightly higher than at room temperature. By examining the relaxivities with the C4 vials aligned in three different planes, we found no orientation-dependence. With these relaxation characteristics, we aim to develop pulse sequences that will enhance the C4 signal against prostatic stroma. Ultimately, the use of C4 as a positive contrast agent marker will encourage the use of MRI to obtain an accurate representation of the radiation dose delivered to the prostate and surrounding normal anatomical structures.

Lim, Tze Yee; Stafford, R. Jason; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Sankaranarayanapillai, Madhuri; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Rao, Arvind; Martirosyan, Karen S.; Frank, Steven J.

2014-05-01

165

MRI characterization of cobalt dichloride-N-acetyl cysteine (C4) contrast agent marker for prostate brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Brachytherapy, a radiotherapy technique for treating prostate cancer, involves the implantation of numerous radioactive seeds into the prostate. While the implanted seeds can be easily identified on a computed tomography image, distinguishing the prostate and surrounding soft tissues is not as straightforward. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers superior anatomical delineation, but the seeds appear as dark voids and are difficult to identify, thus creating a conundrum. Cobalt dichloride-N-acetyl-cysteine (C4) has previously been shown to be promising as an encapsulated contrast agent marker. We performed spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and spin-spin relaxation time (T2) measurements of C4 solutions with varying cobalt dichloride concentrations to determine the corresponding relaxivities, r1 and r2. These relaxation parameters were investigated at different field strengths, temperatures and orientations. T1 measurements obtained at 1.5 and 3.0 T, as well as at room and body temperature, showed that r1 is field-independent and temperature-independent. Conversely, the T2 values at 3.0 T were shorter than at 1.5 T, while the T2 values at body temperature were slightly higher than at room temperature. By examining the relaxivities with the C4 vials aligned in three different planes, we found no orientation-dependence. With these relaxation characteristics, we aim to develop pulse sequences that will enhance the C4 signal against prostatic stroma. Ultimately, the use of C4 as a positive contrast agent marker will encourage the use of MRI to obtain an accurate representation of the radiation dose delivered to the prostate and surrounding normal anatomical structures. PMID:24778352

Lim, Tze Yee; Stafford, R Jason; Kudchadker, Rajat J; Sankaranarayanapillai, Madhuri; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Rao, Arvind; Martirosyan, Karen S; Frank, Steven J

2014-05-21

166

Greater Biopsy Core Number Is Associated With Improved Biochemical Control in Patients Treated With Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Standard prostate biopsy schemes underestimate Gleason score in a significant percentage of cases. Extended biopsy improves diagnostic accuracy and provides more reliable prognostic information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that greater biopsy core number should result in improved treatment outcome through better tailoring of therapy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to May 2006, 1,613 prostate cancer patients were treated with permanent brachytherapy. Patients were divided into five groups stratified by the number of prostate biopsy cores ({<=}6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-20, and >20 cores). Biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated as a function of core number. Results: The median patient age was 66 years, and the median preimplant prostate-specific antigen was 6.5 ng/mL. The overall 10-year bPFS, CSS, and OS were 95.6%, 98.3%, and 78.6%, respectively. When bPFS was analyzed as a function of core number, the 10-year bPFS for patients with >20, 13-20, 10-12, 7-9 and {<=}6 cores was 100%, 100%, 98.3%, 95.8%, and 93.0% (p < 0.001), respectively. When evaluated by treatment era (1995-2000 vs. 2001-2006), the number of biopsy cores remained a statistically significant predictor of bPFS. On multivariate analysis, the number of biopsy cores was predictive of bPFS but did not predict for CSS or OS. Conclusion: Greater biopsy core number was associated with a statistically significant improvement in bPFS. Comprehensive regional sampling of the prostate may enhance diagnostic accuracy compared to a standard biopsy scheme, resulting in better tailoring of therapy.

Bittner, Nathan [Tacoma/Valley Radiation Oncology Centers, Tacoma, WA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.or [Schiffler Cancer Center/Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M. [Schiffler Cancer Center/Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States)

2010-11-15

167

Metformin is not associated with improved biochemical free survival or cause-specific survival in men with prostate cancer treated with permanent interstitial brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Several recent studies have suggested improved clinical outcomes in diabetic men with prostate cancer who also use metformin. We explore whether metformin use is associated with improved outcomes specifically in men undergoing prostate brachytherapy. Material and methods 2,298 consecutive patients underwent permanent interstitial brachytherapy by a single brachytherapist (GSM). The cohort included 2028 non-diabetic men, 144 men with diabetes who were not taking metformin, and 126 men with diabetes who were taking metformin. Median follow up was 8.3 years. Differences in biochemical free survival, cause specific survival, and overall survival between men taking metformin and those not taking metformin were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log rank tests. Results Fifteen year biochemical failure rate, cause specific mortality and overall mortality for non-diabetic men was 4.6%, 1.5%, 47.0%, respectively; for diabetic men taking metformin 4.8%, 2.0%, 37.2%; and for diabetic men not taking metformin was 2.8%, 0%, 72.7%, respectively. Metformin use was not predictive in multivariate analysis of biochemical failure or prostate cancer specific mortality. However, diabetic men not taking metformin had higher overall mortality than non-diabetic men. Conclusions Metformin use was not associated with improved biochemical survival or cancer specific survival in this cohort of men treated with prostate brachytherapy. PMID:25337126

Taira, Al V.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Morris, Mallory; Butler, Wayne M.; Adamovich, Edward

2014-01-01

168

A Genetically Determined Dose-Volume Histogram Predicts for Rectal Bleeding among Patients Treated With Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine whether possession of genetic alterations in the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia) gene is associated with rectal bleeding in a dose-dependent and volume-dependent manner. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight prostate cancer patients who underwent brachytherapy using either an {sup 125}I implant, a {sup 103}Pd implant, or the combination of external beam radiotherapy with a {sup 103}Pd implant and had a minimum of 1 year follow-up were screened for DNA sequence variations in the 62 coding exons of the ATM gene using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Rectal dose was reported as the volume (in cubic centimeters) of rectum receiving the brachytherapy prescription dose. The two-sided Fisher exact test was used to compare differences in proportions. Results: A significant correlation between the presence of any ATM sequence alteration and Grade 1 to 2 proctitis was obtained when the radiation dose to rectal tissue was quantified. Rectal bleeding occurred in 4 of 13 patients (31%) with a variant versus 1 of 23 (4%) without a genetic alteration for patients who had <0.7 cm{sup 3} of rectal tissue receiving the implant prescription dose (p = 0.05). Of patients in whom 0.7-1.4 cm{sup 3} of the rectum received the implant prescription, 4 of 11 (36%) with an ATM alteration exhibited Grade 1 to 2 proctitis, whereas 1 of 21 (5%) without a variant (p = 0.04) developed this radiation-induced late effect. Conclusions: The possession of genetic variants in the ATM gene is associated with the development of radiation-induced proctitis after prostate cancer radiotherapy for patients who receive the full prescription dose to either a low or a moderate volume of rectal tissue.

Cesaretti, Jamie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: jamie.cesaretti@msnyuhealth.org; Stock, Richard G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Atencio, David P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Peters, Sheila A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Peters, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Burri, Ryan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Rosenstein, Barry S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

2007-08-01

169

Pretreatment Serum Testosterone and Androgen Deprivation: Effect on Disease Recurrence and Overall Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Low testosterone has been implicated as a possible adverse prognostic factor in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. We evaluated the impact of pretreatment serum testosterone on survival after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From October 2001 to November 2004, 619 patients underwent brachytherapy and 546 had a pretreatment serum testosterone level measured. Pretreatment serum testosterone levels were assigned by the following criteria: below-normal (n = 105), low normal (n = 246), mid normal (n = 132), high normal (n = 50), and above normal (n = 13). Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Cause of death was determined for each deceased patient. Results: Six-year biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were 97.7%, 99.8%, and 89.2%. When comparing patients with low or low normal testosterone with those with average or higher testosterone, there was no significant difference in bPFS (97.6% vs. 98.4%; p = 0.72), CSS (99.8% vs. 100%; p = 0.72), or OS (88.9% vs. 90.8%; p = 0.73). Among patients with average and higher pretreatment testosterone, there was no significant difference in outcomes when comparing patients who did and did not receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). For patients with low or low normal testosterone levels, there was no significant difference in bPFS or CSS when comparing patients who did and did not receive ADT. However, there was a trend toward lower OS in patients with baseline lower testosterone levels who also received ADT (83.9% vs. 91.3%, p = 0.075). Conclusions: Low pretreatment testosterone levels alone did not affect disease recurrence or OS. Patients with baseline low testosterone who also were treated with ADT had a trend toward decreased OS.

Taira, Al V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)], E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA (United States); Allen, Zachariah A.; Lief, Jonathan H. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Wheeling Hospital, Department of Pathology, Wheeling, WV (United States)

2009-07-15

170

Incidence of Secondary Cancer Development After High-Dose Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Image-Guided Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the incidence and excess risk of second malignancy (SM) development compared with the general population after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2001, 1,310 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with EBRT (n = 897) or brachytherapy (n = 413). We compared the incidence of SMs in our patients with that of the general population extracted from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data set combined with the 2000 census data. Results: The 10-year likelihood of SM development was 25% after EBRT and 15% after brachytherapy (p = .02). The corresponding 10-year likelihood for in-field SM development in these groups was 4.9% and 1.6% (p = .24). Multivariate analysis showed that EBRT vs. brachytherapy and older age were the only significant predictors for the development of all SMs (p = .037 and p = .030), with a trend for older patients to develop a SM. The increased incidence of SM for EBRT patients was explained by the greater incidence of skin cancer outside the radiation field compared with that after brachytherapy (10.6% and 3.3%, respectively, p = .004). For the EBRT group, the 5- and 10-year mortality rate was 1.96% and 5.1% from out-of field cancer, respectively; for in-field SM, the corresponding mortality rates were 0.1% and 0.7%. Among the brachytherapy group, the 5- and 10-year mortality rate related to out-of field SM was 0.8% and 2.7%, respectively. Our observed SM rates after prostate RT were not significantly different from the cancer incidence rates in the general population. Conclusions: Using modern sophisticated treatment techniques, we report low rates of in-field bladder and rectal SM risks after prostate cancer RT. Furthermore, the likelihood of mortality secondary to a SM was unusual. The greater rate of SM observed with EBRT vs. brachytherapy was related to a small, but significantly increased, number of skin cancers in the EBRT patients compared with that of the general population.

Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: Zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Housman, Douglas M.; Pei Xin; Alicikus, Zumre; Magsanoc, Juan Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Dauer, Lawrence T.; St Germain, Jean [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya; Kollmeier, Marisa; Cox, Brett [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zhang Zhigang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-07-01

171

Dosimetric Comparison of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy as a Boost to the Prostate  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We compared the dose conformity of two radiation modalities: high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR BT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to deliver a boost to the prostate after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Ten successive patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with a single 10-Gy HDR BT boost after EBRT were investigated. Four theoretical IMRT plans were computed: (a) 32.85 Gy IMRT and (b) 26 Gy IMRT with CTV-PTV expansions, doses corresponding to the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) of one 10-Gy fraction calculated with a prostate alpha/beta ratio of respectively 1.5 and 3 Gy; and (c) 32.85 Gy IMRT and (d) 26 Gy IMRT without CTV-PTV expansions. The dose-volume histogram values converted in EQD2 with an alpha/beta ratio of 3 Gy for the organs at risk were compared. Results: The HDR BT plan delivered higher mean doses to the PTV compared with IMRT plans. In all, 33% of the rectal volume received a mean dose of 5.32 +- 0.65 Gy and 20% of bladder volume received 4.61 +- 1.24 Gy with HDR BT. In comparison, doses delivered with IMRT were respectively 13.4 +- 1.49 Gy and 10.81 +- 4 Gy, even if only 26 Gy was prescribed to the PTV with no CTV-PTV expansion (p < 0.0001). The hot spots inside the urethra were greater with HDR BT but acceptable. Conclusions: Use of HDR BT produced a more conformal plan for the boost to the prostate than IMRT even without CTV-PTV expansions.

Hermesse, Johanne, E-mail: jhermesse@chu.ulg.ac.b [Department of Radiation Oncology, Liege University Hospital, Liege (Belgium); Biver, Sylvie; Jansen, Nicolas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Liege University Hospital, Liege (Belgium); Lenaerts, Eric [Department of Medical Physics, Liege University Hospital, Liege (Belgium); Nickers, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oscar Lambret Center, Lille (France)

2010-01-15

172

Influence of administered indigenous microorganisms on uptake of (iodine-125). gamma. -globulin in vivo by intestinal segments of neonatal calves  

SciTech Connect

Ten calves less than 14 h of age (average 8.6 h) were anaesthetized, and the intestine was ligated into segments 10 cm in length at 3-cm intervals beginning 1.8 m anterior to the ileocecal junction and proceeding proximally. Seven treatments were assigned in random order to segments in three successive sections of the small intestine. Segments received 1 ml of viable bacteria of intestinal origin, autoclaved bacteria of intestinal origin, or sterile microbiological broth at zero time; then after 4 h they were injected with iodine-125 labeled ..gamma..-globulin. After an additional 1.5 h, the experiment was ended and uptake assayed. Two treatments measured anaerobic microbial growth after 4 h incubation with 1 ml of either sterile broth or live bacteria culture. Residual (iodine-125) ..gamma..-globulin was measured in segments receiving 1 ml of sterile broth or live bacteria culture with 5.5-h incubation followed by 15-s exposure to labeled ..gamma..-globulin. Uptake was lowest in segments receiving live bacteria as compared to segments receiving sterile inocula. Number of bacteria per gram of tissue was correlated negatively with uptake. Low corticosteroids in serum were associated with low uptake of ..gamma..-globulin.

James, R.E.; Polan, C.E.; Cummins, K.A.

1981-01-01

173

Influence of administered indigenous microorganisms on uptake of (Iodine-125). gamma. -globulin in vivo by intestinal segments of neonatal calves  

SciTech Connect

Ten calves less than 14 h of age (average 8.6 h) were anaesthetized, and the intestine was ligated into segments 10 cm in length at 3-cm intervals beginning 1.8 m anterior to the ileocecal junction and proceeding proximally. Seven treatments were assigned in random order to segments in three successive sections of the small intestine. Segments received 1 ml of viable bacteria of intestinal origin, autoclaved bacteria of intestinal origin, or sterile microbiological broth at zero time; then after 4 h they were injected with iodine-125 labeled ..gamma..-globulin. After an additional 1.5 h, the experiment was ended and uptake assayed. Two treatments measured anaerobic microbial growth after 4 h incubation with 1 ml of either sterile broth or live bacteria culture. Residual (iodine-125)..gamma..-globulin was measured in segments receiving 1 ml of sterile broth or live bacteria culture with 5.5-h incubation followed by 15-s exposure to labeled ..gamma..-globulin. Uptake was lowest in segments receiving live bacteria as compared to segments receiving sterile inocula. Number of bacteria per gram of tissue was correlated negatively with uptake. Low corticosteroids in serum were associated with low uptake of ..gamma..-globulin.

James, R.E.; Polan, C.E.; Cummings, K.A.

1981-01-01

174

Rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: Impact of rectal dose in high-dose-rate brachytherapy on occurrence of grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), with special emphasis on the relationship between the incidence of rectal bleeding and the rectal dose from HDR brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 100 patients who were treated by HDR brachytherapy combined with EBRT for {>=}12 months were analyzed. The fractionation schema for HDR brachytherapy was prospectively changed, and the total radiation dose for EBRT was fixed at 51 Gy. The distribution of the fractionation schema used in the patients was as follows: 5 Gy x 5 in 13 patients; 7 Gy x 3 in 19 patients; and 9 Gy x 2 in 68 patients. Results: Ten patients (10%) developed Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding. Regarding the correlation with dosimetric factors, no significant differences were found in the average percentage of the entire rectal volume receiving 30%, 50%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed radiation dose from EBRT between those with bleeding and those without. The average percentage of the entire rectal volume receiving 10%, 30%, 50%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed radiation dose from HDR brachytherapy in those who developed rectal bleeding was 77.9%, 28.6%, 9.0%, 1.5%, and 0.3%, respectively, and was 69.2%, 22.2%, 6.6%, 0.9%, and 0.4%, respectively, in those without bleeding. The differences in the percentages of the entire rectal volume receiving 10%, 30%, and 50% between those with and without bleeding were statistically significant. Conclusions: The rectal dose from HDR brachytherapy for patients with prostate cancer may have a significant impact on the incidence of Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding.

Akimoto, Tetsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)]. E-mail: takimoto@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kitamoto, Yoshizumi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Tamaki, Tomoaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Harada, Kosaku [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Shirai, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

2006-06-01

175

Feasibility of high-dose-rate brachytherapy salvage for local prostate cancer recurrence after radiotherapy: University of California-San Francisco experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of salvage high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 21 consecutively accrued patients undergoing salvage HDR brachytherapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after EBRT between November 1998 and December 2005. After pathologic confirmation of locally recurrent disease, all patients were treated with 36 Gy in six fractions using two transrectal ultrasound-guided HDR prostate implants, separated by 1 week. Eleven patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy immediately presalvage, whereas none received adjuvant hormonal therapy postsalvage. Median follow-up time from recurrence was 18.7 months (range, 6-84 months). Determination of subsequent biochemical failure after brachytherapy was based on the definition by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Results: Based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3), 18 patients reported Grade 1 to 2 genitourinary symptoms by 3 months postsalvage. Three patients developed Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Maximum observed gastrointestinal toxicity was Grade 2; all cases spontaneously resolved. The 2-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of biochemical control after recurrence was 89%. Thirteen patients have achieved a PSA nadir {<=}0.1 ng/ml, but at the time of writing this endpoint has not yet been reached for all patients. All patients are alive; however 2 have experienced biochemical failure, both with PSA nadirs {>=}1, and have subsequently been found to have distant metastases. Conclusions: Salvage HDR prostate brachytherapy appears to be feasible and effective.

Lee, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Urology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gottschalk, Alexander R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hsu, I.-Chow [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)]. E-mail: Hsu@radonc17.ucsf.edu

2007-03-15

176

A comparison of HDR brachytherapy and IMRT techniques for dose escalation in prostate cancer: A radiobiological modeling study  

SciTech Connect

A course of one to three large fractions of high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy is an attractive alternative to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for delivering boost doses to the prostate in combination with additional external beam irradiation for intermediate risk disease. The purpose of this work is to quantitatively compare single-fraction HDR boosts to biologically equivalent fractionated IMRT boosts, assuming idealized image guided delivery (igIMRT) and conventional delivery (cIMRT). For nine prostate patients, both seven-field IMRT and HDR boosts were planned. The linear-quadratic model was used to compute biologically equivalent dose prescriptions. The cIMRT plan was evaluated as a static plan and with simulated random and setup errors. The authors conclude that HDR delivery produces a therapeutic ratio which is significantly better than the conventional IMRT and comparable to or better than the igIMRT delivery. For the HDR, the rectal gBEUD analysis is strongly influenced by high dose DVH tails. A saturation BED, beyond which no further injury can occur, must be assumed. Modeling of organ motion uncertainties yields mean outcomes similar to static plan outcomes.

Fatyga, M.; Williamson, J. F.; Dogan, N.; Todor, D.; Siebers, J. V.; George, R.; Barani, I.; Hagan, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, 401 College Street, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

2009-09-15

177

Combining theoretical potential and advanced technology in high-dose rate brachytherapy boost therapy for prostate cancer.  

PubMed

External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with brachytherapy (BT) is an attractive treatment option for select patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Either low- or high-dose rate BT may be combined with EBRT ('LDR-BT boost,' 'HDR-BT boost,' respectively). HDR-BT boost has potential theoretical benefits over LDR-BT boost or external beam radiation therapy monotherapy in terms of radiobiology, radiophysics and patient convenience. Based on prospective studies in this review, freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) rates at 5 years for low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients have generally been 85-100%, 68-97%, 63-85%, respectively; late Radiotherapy and Oncology Group Grades 3 and 4 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities are seen in <8% of patients. HDR-BT boost is now a relatively well-established treatment modality for certain intermediate-risk and high-risk prostate cancer patients, though limitations exist in drawing conclusions from the currently published studies. PMID:24195459

Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Den, Robert B; Doyle, Laura A; Dicker, Adam P; Hurwitz, Mark D

2013-11-01

178

High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Treatment Evolution and Mature Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the clinical outcome of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial (IRT) brachytherapy (BRT) as sole treatment (monotherapy) for clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2009, 718 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided HDR monotherapy. Three treatment protocols were applied; 141 patients received 38.0 Gy using one implant in 4 fractions of 9.5 Gy with computed tomography-based treatment planning; 351 patients received 38.0 Gy in 4 fractions of 9.5 Gy, using 2 implants (2 weeks apart) and intraoperative TRUS real-time treatment planning; and 226 patients received 34.5 Gy, using 3 single-fraction implants of 11.5 Gy (3 weeks apart) and intraoperative TRUS real-time treatment planning. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix consensus, and toxicity was evaluated using Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. Results: The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. The 36-, 60-, and 96-month biochemical control and metastasis-free survival rates for the entire cohort were 97%, 94%, and 90% and 99%, 98%, and 97%, respectively. Toxicity was scored per event, with 5.4% acute grade 3 genitourinary and 0.2% acute grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. Late grade 3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were 3.5% and 1.6%, respectively. Two patients developed grade 4 incontinence. No other instance of grade 4 or greater acute or late toxicity was reported. Conclusion: Our results confirm IRT-HDR-BRT is safe and effective as monotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer.

Zamboglou, Nikolaos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Tselis, Nikolaos, E-mail: ntselis@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Baltas, Dimos [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Buhleier, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Martin, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Bremen (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Bremen (Germany); Milickovic, Natasa; Papaioannou, Sokratis [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Ackermann, Hanns [Institute of Biostatistics, J.W. Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany)] [Institute of Biostatistics, J.W. Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Tunn, Ulf W. [Department of Urology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)] [Department of Urology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)

2013-03-01

179

Quality of Life After Open or Robotic Prostatectomy, Cryoablation or Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Health related quality of life concerns factor prominently in prostate cancer management. We describe health related quality of life impact and recov- ery profiles of 4 commonly used operative treatments for localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Beginning in February 2000 all patients treated with open radical prostatectomy, robot assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, brachy- therapy or cryotherapy were asked to

John B. Malcolm; Michael D. Fabrizio; Bethany B. Barone; Robert W. Given; Raymond S. Lance; Donald F. Lynch; John W. Davis; Mark E. Shaves; Paul F. Schellhammer

2010-01-01

180

Oblique needle segmentation and tracking for 3D TRUS guided prostate brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm was developed in order to segment and track brachytherapy needles inserted along oblique trajectories. Three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the rigid rod simulating the needle inserted into the tissue-mimicking agar and chicken breast phantoms were obtained to test the accuracy of the algorithm under ideal conditions. Because the robot possesses high positioning and angulation accuracies, we

Zhouping Wei; Lori Gardi; Donal B. Downey; Aaron Fenster

2005-01-01

181

Prostate-Specific Antigen at 4 to 5 Years After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy Is a Strong Predictor of Disease-Free Survival  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine (1) the prognostic utility of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration at 45 to 60 months (48mPSA) after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB); (2) the predictors of 48mPSA; and (3) the prognostic utility of directional trends between PSA levels at 24, 36, and 48 months after LDR-PB. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2008, 2223 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer received LDR-PB monotherapy. A cohort of 1434 of these patients was identified with a documented 48mPSA and no evidence of disease relapse prior to the 48mPSA. In addition, a subset of this cohort (n=585) was identified with ?72 months of follow-up and documented PSA values at both 24 and 36 months after implantation. Results: Median follow-up time was 76 months. Eight-year Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 100% vs 73.4% for patients with 48mPSA ?0.2 vs those with >0.2 ng/mL; 99.1% versus 53.8% for a 48mPSA threshold of ?0.4 versus >0.4 ng/mL, respectively; and 97.3% versus 0% for a threshold of ?1.0 versus >1.0 ng/mL, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the only factor predictive of DFS was 48mPSA (P<.0001). On subset analysis (n=585), 29 patients had a PSA rise (defined as >0.2 ng/mL) between 24 and 36 months, 24 patients had a rise between 36 and 48 months, and 11 patients had rises over both intervals. Failure rates in these patients were 52%, 79%, and 100%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, initial PSA, androgen deprivation therapy, and dose to 90% of the prostate significantly correlated with 48mPSA but together accounted for only ?5% of its total variance. Conclusions: The 48mPSA after LDR-PB is highly predictive of long-term DFS. Patients with 48mPSA ?0.4 ng/mL had a <1% risk of disease relapse at 8 years, whereas all patients with 48mPSA >1.0 ng/mL relapsed. Consecutive PSA rises of >0.2 ng/mL from 24 to 36 months and from 36 to 48 months were also highly predictive of subsequent failure.

Lo, Andrea C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morris, W. James, E-mail: JMorris@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Lapointe, Vincent [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hamm, Jeremy [Department of Population Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; McKenzie, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Spadinger, Ingrid [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

2014-01-01

182

Phase II Trial of Combined High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and External Beam Radiotherapy for Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate: Preliminary Results of RTOG 0321  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the rate of late Grade 3 or greater genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) after treatment with external beam radiotherapy and prostate high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Each participating institution submitted computed tomography-based HDR brachytherapy dosimetry data electronically for credentialing and for each study patient. Patients with locally confined Stage T1c-T3b prostate cancer were eligible for the present study. All patients were treated with 45 Gy in 25 fractions using external beam radiotherapy and one HDR implant delivering 19 Gy in two fractions. All AEs were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Late GU/GI AEs were defined as those occurring >9 months from the start of the protocol treatment, in patients with {>=}18 months of potential follow-up. Results: A total of 129 patients from 14 institutions were enrolled in the present study. Of the 129 patients, 125 were eligible, and AE data were available for 112 patients at analysis. The pretreatment characteristics of the patients were as follows: Stage T1c-T2c, 91%; Stage T3a-T3b, 9%; prostate-specific antigen level {<=}10 ng/mL, 70%; prostate-specific antigen level >10 but {<=}20 ng/mL, 30%; and Gleason score 2-6, 10%; Gleason score 7, 72%; and Gleason score 8-10, 18%. At a median follow-up of 29.6 months, three acute and four late Grade 3 GU/GI AEs were reported. The estimated rate of late Grade 3-5 GU and GI AEs at 18 months was 2.56%. Conclusion: This is the first prospective, multi-institutional trial of computed tomography-based HDR brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. The technique and doses used in the present study resulted in acceptable levels of AEs.

Hsu, I-Chow, E-mail: ihsu@radonc.ucsf.ed [University of California, San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Bae, Kyounghwa [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto; Pouliot, Jean [University of California, San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Purdy, James [Image-Guided Therapy Quality Assurance Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Ibbott, Geoffrey [Radiological Physics Center, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Speight, Joycelyn [University of California, San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Vigneault, Eric [L'Hotel-Dieu De Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Ivker, Robert M.D. [Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, NJ (Israel); Sandler, Howard M.D. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2010-11-01

183

3D MR-Spectroscopic Imaging Assessment of Metabolic Activity in the Prostate During the PSA 'Bounce' Following {sup 125}Iodine Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A temporary increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values is observed in 30%-40% of men following {sup 125} I brachytherapy (BT) for prostate cancer. We present the results of a study to characterize prostate metabolic activity during the PSA 'bounce' and to correlate metabolic changes with PSA levels using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (3D-MRSI). Methods and Materials: 3D-MRSI was performed in 24 patients during the PSA bounce. Eight of these had also had a baseline 3D-MRSI scan before BT for the purpose of tumor mapping. The 3D-MRSI was repeated at 6- and 12-month intervals, and PSA levels were monitored every 3 months. Twenty-one of the patients had favorable-risk prostate cancer, and 3 had intermediate risk. Results: The choline+creatine signal intensity, although markedly reduced, was observable following BT. Diffuse activity not corresponding to original biopsy-positive sites was observed in 22 cases, and 2 cases were documented to have local recurrence. No statistically significant correlation between metabolic activity and PSA levels at each interval was found. Conclusion: Post-BT prostate 3D-MRSI shows evidence of diffuse metabolic activity unrelated to residual malignancy. This supports the benign nature of the PSA bounce and suggests an inflammatory etiology. In the situation of a rising PSA, observation of focal activity on MRI/3D-MRSI could be a useful adjunct to suggest local recurrence at an earlier interval after brachytherapy when prostate biopsies would still be unhelpful. Longer follow-up is necessary to confirm the complex relationship between metabolic activity and PSA levels.

Kirilova, Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Damyanovich, Andrei [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Crook, Juanita, E-mail: jcrook@bccancer.bc.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Jezioranski, John [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Wallace, Kris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Pintilie, Melania [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

2011-02-01

184

Whole-Pelvis Radiotherapy in Combination With Interstitial Brachytherapy: Does Coverage of the Pelvic Lymph Nodes Improve Treatment Outcome in High-Risk Prostate Cancer?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) rates among high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy and supplemental external beam radiation (EBRT) using either a mini-pelvis (MP) or a whole-pelvis (WP) field. Methods and Materials: From May 1995 to October 2005, 186 high-risk prostate cancer patients were treated with brachytherapy and EBRT with or without androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). High-risk prostate cancer was defined as a Gleason score of >=8 and/or a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of >=20 ng/ml. Results: With a median follow-up of 6.7 years, the 10-year bPFS, CSS, and OS rates for the WP vs. the MP arms were 91.7% vs. 84.4% (p = 0.126), 95.5% vs. 92.6% (p = 0.515), and 79.5% vs. 67.1% (p = 0.721), respectively. Among those patients who received ADT, the 10-year bPFS, CSS, and OS rates for the WP vs. the MP arms were 93.6% vs. 90.1% (p = 0.413), 94.2% vs. 96.0% (p = 0.927), and 73.7% vs. 70.2% (p = 0.030), respectively. Among those patients who did not receive ADT, the 10-year bPFS, CSS, and OS rates for the WP vs. the MP arms were 82.4% vs. 75.0% (p = 0.639), 100% vs. 88% (p = 0.198), and 87.5% vs. 58.8% (p = 0.030), respectively. Based on multivariate analysis, none of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, while bPFS was best predicted by ADT and percent positive biopsy results. OS was best predicted by age and percent positive biopsy results. Conclusions: For high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving brachytherapy, there is a nonsignificant trend toward improved bPFS, CSS, and OS rates when brachytherapy is given with WPRT. This trend is most apparent among ADT-naive patients, for whom a significant improvement in OS was observed.

Bittner, Nathan [Tacoma/Valley Radiation Oncology Centers, Tacoma, Washington (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@UrologicResearchInstitute.or [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, Washington (United States); Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Wheeling Hospital, Department of Pathology, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)

2010-03-15

185

Treatment planning for brachytherapy: an integer programming model, two computational approaches and experiments with permanent prostate implant planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integer linear programming model is proposed as a framework for optimizing seed placement and dose distribution in brachytherapy treatment planning. The basic model involves using 0/1 indicator variables to describe the placement or non-placement of seeds in a prespecified three-dimensional grid of potential locations. The dose delivered to each point in a discretized representation of the diseased organ and neighbouring healthy tissue can then be modelled as a linear combination of the indicator variables. A system of linear constraints is imposed to attempt to keep the dose level at each point to within specified target bounds. Since it is physically impossible to satisfy all constraints simultaneously, each constraint uses a variable to either record when the target dose level is achieved, or to record the deviation from the desired level. These additional variables are embedded into an objective function to be optimized. Variations on this model are discussed and two computational approaches - a branch-and-bound algorithm and a genetic algorithm - for finding `optimal' seed placements are described. Results of computational experiments on a collection of prostate cancer cases are reported. The results indicate that both optimization algorithms are capable of producing good solutions within 5 to 15 min, and that small variations in model parameters can have a measurable effect on the dose distribution of the resulting plans.

Lee, Eva K.; Gallagher, Richard J.; Silvern, David; Wuu, Cheng-Shie; Zaider, Marco

1999-01-01

186

Radiation dose to the internal pudendal arteries from permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy as determined by time-of-flight MR angiography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of time-of-flight magnetic resonance (MR) angiography to visualize the internal pudendal arteries (IPAs) in potent men undergoing permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy and to calculate the radiation dose received by these arteries. Methods and Materials: Prostate brachytherapy is performed at the University Health Network/Princess Margaret Hospital by use of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) preplanning and preloaded needles. All patients received {sup 125}I, with a mean seed activity of 0.32 mCi/seed (0.41 U). Postplan evaluation is performed at 1 month by magnetic resonance-computed tomography fusion. Twenty consecutive potent men had time-of-flight MR angiography as part of their postplan evaluation. Results: The mean V100 was 96.5%, and the mean D90 was171.5 Gy. The IPAs were easily visualized for 18 of the 20 men. The mean peak dose received by the IPA was 17 Gy. The highest peak dose received by any patient was 38.2 Gy, with only 1 other patient receiving a peak dose greater than 30 Gy. Eleven of 18 had a measurable portion of at least 1 IPA that received 10% of the prescribed dose (V10 = 14.5 Gy). Only 2 patients had nonzero values for V25. The distal third of the IPA received the highest dose for 16 of the 18 patients. Conclusions: The IPAs can be well visualized in the majority of potent men by use of time-of-flight MR angiography 1 month after brachytherapy. The IPAs receive a low but calculable dose from permanent-seed {sup 125}I brachytherapy. Further research is needed to determine if this outcome has any correlation with subsequent potency.

Gillan, Caitlin [Department of Radiation Medicine, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Kirilova, Anna [Department of Radiation Physics, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Landon, Angela [Department of Radiation Medicine, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Yeung, Ivan [Department of Radiation Physics, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Pond, Gregory [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada)]. E-mail: juanita.crook@rmp.uhn.on.ca

2006-07-01

187

A Phase II Study of High-Dose-Rate Afterloading Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for the Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A Phase II dose escalation study has been undertaken to evaluate high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) monotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 110 patients have been entered, all with locally advanced cancer. Three dose levels have been used; 34 Gy in four fractions, 36 Gy in four fractions, and 31.5 Gy in three fractions. These equate to 226Gy{sub 1.5}, 252Gy{sub 1.5}, and 252Gy{sub 1.5}, respectively. Thirty patients have received 34 Gy, 25 received 36 Gy, and 55 patients received 31.5 Gy. Acute and late toxicity was analyzed using the International Prostate Symptom Score, and urologic and rectal events were scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/Common Terminology Criteria scoring systems. Results: Seven patients required urethral catheterization at 2 weeks; 3 receiving 34 Gy, 1 receiving 36 Gy, and 3 receiving 31.5 Gy. Only 3 patients remained catheterized at 12 weeks. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 1 and 2 gastrointestinal toxicity at 2 weeks was seen in 61%, 68%, and 77%, respectively. Grade 3 bladder toxicity was seen in 2 patients at 6 months, 1 each from the 36 Gy and 31.5 Gy arms. One patient from the 31.5-Gy cohort reported Grade 2 bowel toxicity at 6 months. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), stratified for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and no-ADT patients ranged from 16.1-22.9 {mu}g/L and 11.1-12.5 {mu}g/L, respectively. This fell at 12 months to 0.2-0.6 {mu}g/L and 0.5-1.4 {mu}g/L, respectively. No PSA relapses have yet been seen with a median follow-up of 30 months (34 Gy), 18 months (36 Gy), and 11.8 months (31.5 Gy). Conclusions: Early results suggest an excellent biochemical response with no differences seen in acute and late toxicity between doses of 34 Gy/four fractions, 36 Gy/four fractions, or 31.5 Gy/three fractions.

Corner, Carie [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom)], E-mail: cariecorner@yahoo.com; Rojas, Ana Maria; Bryant, Linda; Ostler, Peter; Hoskin, Peter [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

2008-10-01

188

A detailed radiobiological and dosimetric analysis of biochemical outcomes in a case-control study of permanent prostate brachytherapy patients  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to determine dosimetric and radiobiological predictors of biochemical control after recalculation of prostate implant dosimetry using updated AAPM Task Group 43 (TG-43) parameters and the radiobiological parameters recommended by TG-137. All biochemical failures among patients implanted with {sup 125}I or {sup 103}Pd sources between 1994 and March 2006 were matched 2:1 with nonfailure controls. The individual matching was by risk group, radionuclide, prescribed dose, and time of implant (one match before and one after the failed patient) resulting in a median follow-up of 10.9 years. Complete dose volume histogram (DVH) data were recalculated for all 55 cases and 110 controls after updating the original source strength by the retrospectively determined ratios of TG-43. Differential DVH data were acquired in 179 increments of prostate volume versus percentage prescribed dose. At each incremental dose level i, the biologically equivalent dose BED{sub i}, equivalent uniform dose EUD{sub i}, and tumor control probability TCP{sub i} were calculated from the implant dose plus any external beam delivered to the patient. Total BED, EUD, and TCP were then derived from the incremental values for comparison with single point dosimetric quality parameters and DVH-based averages. There was no significant difference between failures and controls in terms of total BED (143 vs 142 Gy), EUD (95 vs 94 Gy), or TCP (0.87 vs 0.89). Conditional logistic regression analysis factored out the matching variables and stratified the cohort into each case and its controls, but no radiobiological parameter was predictive of biochemical failure. However, there was a significant difference between radiobiological parameters of {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd due to less complete coverage of the target volume by the former isotope. The implant BED and TCP were highly correlated with the D{sub 90} and natural prescription doses and a series of mean DVH-based doses such as the harmonic mean and expressions of the generalized EUD. In this case-control study of prostate brachytherapy biochemical failures and nonfailures, there were no radiobiological parameters derived from detailed DVH-based analysis that predicted for biochemical control. This may indicate that in our approach, implant dosimetry is at or near the limits of clinically effective dose escalation.

Butler, Wayne M.; Stewart, Renee R.; Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, 1 Medical Park, Wheeling, West Virginia 26003-6300 and Wheeling Jesuit University, 316 Washington Avenue, Wheeling, West Virginia 26003 (United States)

2009-03-15

189

Androgen Deprivation Therapy Does Not Impact Cause-Specific or Overall Survival in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Managed With Brachytherapy and Supplemental External Beam  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in high-risk prostate cancer patients undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and July 2002, 204 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score {>=}8 or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] >20 ng/mL or clinical stage {>=}T2c) underwent brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 7.0 years. The bPFS was defined by a PSA {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for the impact on survival. Results: The 10-year CSS, bPFS, and OS were 88.9%, 86.6%, and 68.6%, respectively. A statistically significant difference in bPFS was discerned between hormone naive, ADT {<=}6 months, and ADT >6 month cohorts (79.7% vs. 95.% vs. 89.9%, p = 0.032). Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) did not impact CSS or OS. For bPFS patients, the median posttreatment PSA was <0.04 ng/mL. A Cox linear regression analysis demonstrated that Gleason score was the best predictor of CSS, whereas percent positive biopsies and duration of ADT best predicted for bPFS. The OS was best predicted by Gleason score and diabetes. Thirty-eight patients have died, with 26 of the deaths from cardiovascular/pulmonary disease or second malignancy. Eleven patients have died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: The ADT improved 10-year bPFS without statistical impact on CSS or OS. Death as a result of cardiovascular/pulmonary disease and second malignancies were more than twice as common as prostate cancer deaths. Strategies to improve cardiovascular health should positively impact OS.

Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)]. E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Butler, Wayne M. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Galbreath, Robert W. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Ohio University Eastern, St. Clairsville, OH (United States); Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States); Lief, Jonathan [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)

2007-05-01

190

High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy of a Single Implant With Two Fractions Combined With External Beam Radiotherapy for Hormone-Naive Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the preliminary outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy of a single implant with two fractions and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for hormone-naive prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between March 2000 and Sept 2003, a total of 53 patients with tumor Stage T1c-T3b N0 M0 prostate cancer were treated with HDR brachytherapy boost doses (7.5 Gy/fraction) and 50-Gy EBRT during a 5.5-week period. Median follow-up was 61 months. Patients were divided into groups with localized (T1c-T2b) and advanced disease (T3a-T3b). We used the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) definition for biochemical failure. According to recommendations of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-ASTRO Phoenix Consensus Conference, biochemical failure-free control rates (BF-FCRs) at 3 years were investigated as 2 years short of the median follow-up. Results: Between April 2000 and Sept 2007, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 2.0 late Grade 2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity rates were 0% and 3.8%, respectively. Erectile preservation was 25% at 5 years. Overall survival was 88.1% and cause-specific survival was 100%. At 3 years, ASTRO BF-FCRs of the localized and advanced groups were 100% and 42%, respectively (p = 0.001). Conclusions: The HDR brachytherapy of a single implant with two fractions plus EBRT is effective in treating patients with localized hormone-naive prostate cancer, with the least genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities; however, longer median BF-FCR follow-up is required to assess these findings.

Sato, Morio [Department of Radiology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan)], E-mail: morisato@mail.wakayama-med.ac.jp; Mori, Takashi [Department of Urology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Shirai, Shintaro; Kishi, Kazushi [Department of Radiology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Inagaki, Takeshi; Hara, Isao [Department of Urology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan)

2008-11-15

191

Analysis of high–dose rate brachytherapy dose distribution resemblance in CyberKnife hypofractionated treatment plans of localized prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

The present study is to analyze the CyberKnife hypofractionated dose distribution of localized prostate cancer in terms of high–dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy equivalent doses to assess the degree of HDR brachytherapy resemblance of CyberKnife dose distribution. Thirteen randomly selected localized prostate cancer cases treated using CyberKnife with a dose regimen of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions were considered. HDR equivalent doses were calculated for 30 Gy in 3 fractions of HDR brachytherapy regimen. The D{sub 5%} of the target in the CyberKnife hypofractionation was 41.57 ± 2.41 Gy. The corresponding HDR fractionation (3 fractions) equivalent dose was 32.81 ± 1.86 Gy. The mean HDR fractionation equivalent dose, D{sub 98%}, was 27.93 ± 0.84 Gy. The V{sub 100%} of the prostate target was 95.57% ± 3.47%. The V{sub 100%} of the bladder and the rectum were 717.16 and 79.6 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Analysis of the HDR equivalent dose of CyberKnife dose distribution indicates a comparable resemblance to HDR dose distribution in the peripheral target doses (D{sub 98%} to D{sub 80%}) reported in the literature. However, there is a substantial difference observed in the core high-dose regions especially in D{sub 10%} and D{sub 5%}. The dose fall-off within the OAR is also superior in reported HDR dose distribution than the HDR equivalent doses of CyberKnife.

Sudahar, H., E-mail: h.sudahar@gmail.com [Department of Radiotherapy, Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai (India); Kurup, P.G.G.; Murali, V.; Mahadev, P. [Department of Radiotherapy, Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai (India); Velmurugan, J. [Department of Medical Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India)

2013-01-01

192

Monotherapeutic High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer: Five-Year Results of an Extreme Hypofractionation Regimen With 54 Gy in Nine Fractions  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate an extreme hypofractionation regimen with 54 Gy in nine fractions provided by high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as monotherapy for prostate cancer by reporting 5-year clinical results. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2005, 112 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with HDR brachytherapy without external beam radiotherapy. Of the 112 patients, 15 were considered low risk, 29 intermediate risk, and 68 as high risk. The prescribed dose was uniformly 54 Gy in nine fractions within 5 days. Of the 112 patients, 94 also received hormonal therapy. The median follow-up time was 5.4 years. Results: All the patients safely completed the treatment regimen. The 5-year prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure-free, local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rate was 83%, 97%, 87%, and 96%, respectively. The 5-year PSA failure-free rate for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients was 85% (95% confidence interval, 66-100%), 93% (95% confidence interval, 83-100%), and 79% (95% confidence interval, 69-89%), respectively. The significant prognostic factors for PSA failure were the initial PSA level (p = .029) and younger age (p = .019). The maximal toxicities observed were Grade 3 using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, for both acute and late toxicity (6 and 3 patients had acute and late Grade 3 toxicity, respectively). Late Grade 2 toxicity was observed in 13 patients. Conclusion: Monotherapeutic HDR brachytherapy with an extreme hypofractionation regimen of 54 Gy in nine fractions associated with hormonal therapy was feasible, and its toxicity was acceptable. The interim tumor control rate at a median 5.4 years was promising, even for patients with locally advanced disease. This dose-fractionation scheme might be referred to by other terms, such as stereotactic body radiotherapy. Studies with longer follow-up periods and from multiple institutions are needed to confirm the efficacy of this novel approach.

Yoshioka, Yasuo, E-mail: yoshioka@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.j [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Konishi, Koji; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Yamazaki, Hideya [Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Inoue, Takehiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

2011-06-01

193

Multicenter Analysis of Effect of High Biologic Effective Dose on Biochemical Failure and Survival Outcomes in Patients With Gleason Score 7-10 Prostate Cancer Treated With Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the biochemical control rates and survival for Gleason score 7-10 prostate cancer patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy as a function of the biologic effective dose (BED). Methods and Materials: Six centers provided data on 5,889 permanent prostate brachytherapy patients, of whom 1,078 had Gleason score 7 (n = 845) or Gleason score 8-10 (n = 233) prostate cancer and postimplant dosimetry results available. The median prostate-specific antigen level was 7.5 ng/mL (range, 0.4-300). The median follow-up for censored patients was 46 months (range, 5-130). Short-term hormonal therapy (median duration, 3.9 months) was used in 666 patients (61.8%) and supplemental external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in 620 (57.5%). The patients were stratified into three BED groups: <200 Gy (n = 645), 200-220 Gy (n = 199), and >220 Gy (n = 234). Biochemical freedom from failure (bFFF) was determined using the Phoenix definition. Results: The 5-year bFFF rate was 80%. The bFFF rate stratified by the three BED groups was 76.4%, 83.5%, and 88.3% (p < 0.001), respectively. Cox regression analysis revealed Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen level, use of hormonal therapy, EBRT, and BED were associated with bFFF (p < 0.001). Freedom from metastasis improved from 92% to 99% with the greatest doses. The overall survival rate at 5 years for the three BED groups for Gleason score 8-10 cancer was 86.6%, 89.4%, and 94.6%, respectively (p = 0.048). Conclusion: These data suggest that permanent prostate brachytherapy combined with EBRT and hormonal therapy yields excellent bFFF and survival results in Gleason score 7-10 patients when the delivered BEDs are >220 Gy. These doses can be achieved by a combination of 45-Gy EBRT with a minimal dose received by 90% of the target volume of 120 Gy of {sup 103}Pd or 130 Gy of {sup 125}I.

Stone, Nelson N. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: nelsonstone@optonline.net; Potters, Louis [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Ciezki, Jay P. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Roach, Mack; Shinohara, Katsuto [University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Fearn, Paul A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Kattan, Michael W. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Stock, Richard G. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

2009-02-01

194

Sexual potency following interactive ultrasound-guided brachytherapy for prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The effect of a therapeutic modality on sexual potency is often an important consideration for patients choosing a treatment for prostate cancer. We prospectively assessed patient's penile erectile function before and following interactive ultrasound-guided transperineal permanent radioactive seed implantation to determine its effect on sexual function.Methods and Materials: Eighty-nine patients underwent permanent radioactive seed implantation from June 1990 to

Richard G. Stock; Nelson N. Stone; Christopher Iannuzzi

1996-01-01

195

Implanting iodine-125 seeds into rat dorsal root ganglion for neuropathic pain: neuronal microdamage without impacting hind limb motion  

PubMed Central

The use of iodine-125 (125I) in cancer treatment has been shown to relieve patients’ pain. Considering dorsal root ganglia are critical for neural transmission between the peripheral and central nervous systems, we assumed that 125I could be implanted into rat dorsal root ganglia to provide relief for neuropathic pain. 125I seeds with different radioactivity (0, 14.8, 29.6 MBq) were implanted separately through L4–5 and L5–6 intervertebral foramen into the vicinity of the L5 dorsal root ganglion. von Frey hair results demonstrated the mechanical pain threshold was elevated after implanting 125I seeds from the high radioactivity group. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that nuclear membrane shrinkage, nucleolar margination, widespread mitochondrial swelling, partial vacuolization, lysosome increase, and partial endoplasmic reticulum dilation were visible at 1,440 hours in the low radioactivity group and at 336 hours in the high radioactivity group. Abundant nuclear membrane shrinkage, partial fuzzy nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum necrosis were observed at 1,440 hours in the high radioactivity group. No significant difference in combined behavioral scores was detected between preoperation and postoperation in the low and high radioactivity groups. These results suggested that the mechanical pain threshold was elevated after implanting 125I seeds without influencing motor functions of the hind limb, although cell injury was present.

Jiao, Ling; Zhang, Tengda; Wang, Huixing; Zhang, Wenyi; Fan, Saijun; Huo, Xiaodong; Zheng, Baosen; Ma, Wenting

2014-01-01

196

Combination external beam radiation and brachytherapy boost with androgen deprivation for treatment of intermediate-risk prostate cancer: long-term results of CALGB 99809  

PubMed Central

Background Combined transperineal prostate brachytherapy (TPPB) and external beam radiation (EBRT) is widely used for treatment of prostate cancer. Long-term efficacy and toxicity results of a multicenter Phase II trial assessing combination of EBRT and TPPB boost with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for intermediate-risk prostate cancer are presented. Methods Intermediate-risk patients per MSKCC/NCCN criteria received six months of ADT, 45 Gy EBRT to the prostate and seminal vesicles, followed by TPPB with I125(100 Gy) or Pd103(90 Gy). Toxicity was graded using NCI CTC version 2 and RTOG late radiation morbidity scoring systems. Disease free survival (DFS) was defined as time from enrollment to progression (biochemical, local, distant or prostate cancer death). In addition to the protocol definition of biochemical failure (3 consecutive PSA rises >1.0ng/ml after 18 months from treatment start), the 1997 ASTRO consensus and Phoenix definitions were also assessed in defining DFS. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate DFS and overall survival. Results 61/63 enrolled patients were eligible. Median follow-up was 73 months. Late grade 2 and 3 toxicity, excluding sexual dysfunction, occurred in 20% and 3% of patients. Six year DFS applying the protocol definition, 1997 ASTRO consensus, and Phoenix definitions was 87.1%, 75.1%, and 84.9%. 6 deaths occurred, only one was attributed to prostate cancer. 6 year overall survival was 96.1%. Conclusions In a cooperative setting, combination of EBRT and TPPB boost plus ADT resulted in excellent DFS with acceptable late toxicity for patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. PMID:22535500

Hurwitz, Mark D.; Halabi, Susan; Archer, Laura; McGinnis, Lamar S.; Kuettel, Michael R.; DiBiase, Steven J.; Small, Eric J.

2011-01-01

197

Clinical implementation of a digital tomosynthesis-based seed reconstruction algorithm for intraoperative postimplant dose evaluation in low dose rate prostate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The low dose rate brachytherapy procedure would benefit from an intraoperative postimplant dosimetry verification technique to identify possible suboptimal dose coverage and suggest a potential reimplantation. The main objective of this project is to develop an efficient, operator-free, intraoperative seed detection technique using the imaging modalities available in a low dose rate brachytherapy treatment room. Methods: This intraoperative detection allows a complete dosimetry calculation that can be performed right after an I-125 prostate seed implantation, while the patient is still under anesthesia. To accomplish this, a digital tomosynthesis-based algorithm was developed. This automatic filtered reconstruction of the 3D volume requires seven projections acquired over a total angle of 60 deg. with an isocentric imaging system. Results: A phantom study was performed to validate the technique that was used in a retrospective clinical study involving 23 patients. In the patient study, the automatic tomosynthesis-based reconstruction yielded seed detection rates of 96.7% and 2.6% false positives. The seed localization error obtained with a phantom study is 0.4{+-}0.4 mm. The average time needed for reconstruction is below 1 min. The reconstruction algorithm also provides the seed orientation with an uncertainty of 10 deg. {+-}8 deg. The seed detection algorithm presented here is reliable and was efficiently used in the clinic. Conclusions: When combined with an appropriate coregistration technique to identify the organs in the seed coordinate system, this algorithm will offer new possibilities for a next generation of clinical brachytherapy systems.

Brunet-Benkhoucha, Malik; Verhaegen, Frank; Lassalle, Stephanie; Beliveau-Nadeau, Dominic; Reniers, Brigitte; Donath, David; Taussky, Daniel; Carrier, Jean-Francois [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW Research Institute, University Medical Centre Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW Research Institute, University Medical Centre Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada) and CRCHUM, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 1560 rue Sherbrooke Est, Quebec, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada)

2009-11-15

198

There Is No Correlation Between Erectile Dysfunction and Dose to Penile Bulb and Neurovascular Bundles Following Real-Time Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We evaluated the relationship between the onset of erectile dysfunction and dose to the penile bulb and neurovascular bundles (NVBs) after real-time ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: One hundred forty-seven patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy met the following eligibility criteria: (1) treatment with {sup 125}I brachytherapy to a prescribed dose of 160 Gy with or without hormones without supplemental external beam radiation therapy, (2) identification as potent before the time of implantation based on a score of 2 or higher on the physician-assigned Mount Sinai Erectile Function Score and a score of 16 or higher on the abbreviated International Index of Erectile Function patient assessment, and (3) minimum follow-up of 12 months. Median follow-up was 25.7 months (range, 12-47 months). Results: The 3-year actuarial rate of impotence was 23% (34 of 147 patients). An additional 43% of potent patients (49 of 113 patients) were using a potency aid at last follow-up. The penile bulb volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (V{sub 100}) ranged from 0-0.05 cc (median, 0 cc), with a dose to the hottest 5% (D{sub 5}) range of 12.5-97.9 Gy (median, 40.8 Gy). There was no correlation between penile bulb D{sub 5} or V{sub 100} and postimplantation impotency on actuarial analysis. For the combined right and left NVB structures, V{sub 100} range was 0.3-5.1 cc (median, 1.8 cc), and V{sub 150} range was 0-1.5 cc (median, 0.31 cc). There was no association between NVB V{sub 100} or V{sub 150} and postimplantation impotency on actuarial analysis. Conclusion: Penile bulb doses are low after real-time ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy. We found no correlation between dose to either the penile bulb or NVBs and the development of postimplantation impotency.

Solan, Amy N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: amy.solan@mountsinai.org; Cesaretti, Jamie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Urology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Stock, Richard G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

2009-04-01

199

Needle and seed segmentation in intra-operative 3D ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy.  

PubMed

In order to guide the needle to the correct location in 3D US-guided brachytherapy, the needle is continuously tracked as it is being inserted. A pre-scan before the needle insertion and a post-scan after the needle insertion are subtracted to obtain a difference image containing the needle. The image is projected along two orthogonal directions approximately perpendicular to the needle, and the 3D needle is reconstructed from the segmented needles in the two projected images. The seeds implanted with the needle are located in the cropped volume along the needle. Thus, the seeds are segmented using a tri-bar model and 3D line segment patterns. Finally, the positions of the seeds are determined using a peak detection technique. Experiments with agar and turkey/chicken phantoms as well as patient data demonstrated that our needle segmentation technique could segment the needle in near real-time with an accuracy of 0.6 mm in position and 1.0 degrees in orientation. The true-positive rate for seed segmentation is 100% for the agar phantom and 93% for the chicken phantom. The average distance to manual seed segmentation was 1.0mm for the agar phantom and 1.7 mm for the chicken phantom. PMID:16908040

Ding, Mingyue; Wei, Zhouping; Gardi, Lori; Downey, Donal B; Fenster, Aaron

2006-12-22

200

High dose rate brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Studies of dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and low dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) have shown excellent rates of tumor control and cancer specific survival. Moreover, LDR-BT combined with EBRT (i.e. "LDR-BT boost") is hypothesized to improve local control. While phase II trials with LDR-BT boost have produced mature data of outcomes and toxicities, high dose rate (HDR)-BT has been growing in popularity as an alternative boost therapy. Boost from HDR-BT has theoretical advantages over LDR-BT, including improved cancer cell death and better dose distribution from customization of catheter dwell times, locations, and inverse dose optimization. Freedom from biochemical failure rates at five years for low-, intermediate-, high-risk, and locally advanced patients have generally been 85-100%, 80-98%, 59-96%, and 34-85%, respectively. Late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3-4 toxicities have also been encouraging with <6% of patients experiencing any toxicity. Limitations of current HDR-BT boost studies include reports of only single-institution experiences, and unrefined reports of toxicity or patient quality of life. Comparative effectiveness research will help guide clinicians in selecting the most appropriate treatment option for individual patients based on risk-stratification, expected outcomes, toxicities, quality of life, and cost. PMID:24231548

Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Doyle, Laura A; Yamoah, Kosj; Andrel, Jocelyn A; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Hurwitz, Mark D; Dicker, Adam P; Den, Robert B

2014-04-01

201

Selecting Patients for Exclusive Permanent Implant Prostate Brachytherapy: The Experience of the Paris Institut Curie/Cochin Hospital/Necker Hospital Group on 809 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze overall and relapse-free survival in a cohort of 809 patients, 34% of whom corresponded to a higher-risk group than American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) criteria. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and September 2004, 809 patients were treated with permanent loose 125 iodine seed implantation (IsoSeed Bebig, Eckert and Ziegler) by the Paris Institut Curie, Cochin Hospital, and Necker Hospital group. Of these 809 patients, 533 (65.9%) corresponded exactly to ABS criteria. Two hundred and seventy-six patients (34.1%) had a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level between 10 and 15, or a Gleason score of 7, or both (non-ABS group). Results: Overall 5-year survival was 98%, with no difference between the ABS group and the non-ABS patient subgroups (p 0.62).Five-year relapse-free survival was 97% in the ABS group; it was significantly lower (p = 0.001) in the non-ABS group but remained satisfactory at 94%. On subgroup analysis, the results appeared to be better for the subgroup of patients with PSA 10-15 than for the subgroup with a Gleason score of 7. Conclusions: Our results suggest that selected patients in the intermediate-risk group of localized prostate cancers can be safely proposed as recipients of permanent implant brachytherapy as monotherapy.

Cosset, Jean-Marc [Institut Curie, Paris (France)], E-mail: jean-marc.cosset@curie.net; Flam, Thierry [Cochin Hospital, Paris (France); Thiounn, Nicolas [Necker Hospital, Paris (France); Gomme, Stephanie; Rosenwald, Jean-Claude; Asselain, Bernard; Pontvert, Dominique; Henni, Mehdi [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Debre, Bernard [Cochin Hospital, Paris (France); Chauveinc, Laurent [Institut Curie, Paris (France)

2008-07-15

202

High-Risk Prostate Cancer With Gleason Score 8-10 and PSA Level {<=}15 ng/ mL Treated With Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: With widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, there has been an increase in men diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer defined by a Gleason score (GS) {>=}8 coupled with a relatively low PSA level. The optimal management of these patients has not been defined. Cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated in brachytherapy patients with a GS {>=}8 and a PSA level {<=}15 ng/mL with or without androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to October 2005, 174 patients with GS {>=}8 and a PSA level {<=}15 ng/mL underwent permanent interstitial brachytherapy. Of the patients, 159 (91%) received supplemental external beam radiation, and 113 (64.9%) received ADT. The median follow-up was 6.6 years. The median postimplant Day 0 minimum percentage of the dose covering 90% of the target volume was 121.1% of prescription dose. Biochemical control was defined as a PSA level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Multiple parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Ten-year outcomes for patients without and with ADT were 95.2% and 92.5%, respectively, for CSS (p = 0.562); 86.5% and 92.6%, respectively, for bPFS (p = 0.204); and 75.2% and 66.0%, respectively, for OS (p = 0.179). The median post-treatment PSA level for biochemically controlled patients was <0.02 ng/mL. Multivariate analysis failed to identify any predictors for CSS, whereas bPFS and OS were most closely related to patient age. Conclusions: Patients with GS {>=}8 and PSA level {<=}15 ng/mL have excellent bPFS and CSS after brachytherapy with supplemental external beam radiotherapy. The use of ADT did not significantly impact bPFS, CSS, or OS.

Fang, L. Christine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Murray, Brian C.; Reed, Joshua L. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Veterans Affairs Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States)

2011-11-15

203

Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Causes Fewer Side Effects than Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy When Used in Combination With Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To measure the benefits of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) when used in combination with brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with localized prostate cancer who received external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in combination with brachytherapy with at least 1 year follow-up (n = 812). Combination therapy consisted of {sup 103}Pd or {sup 125}I implant, followed by a course of EBRT. From 1993 to March 2003 521 patients were treated with 3D-CRT, and from April 2003 to March 2009 291 patients were treated with IMRT. Urinary symptoms were prospectively measured with the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire with a single quality of life (QOL) question; rectal bleeding was assessed per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Schema. The Pearson {chi}{sup 2} test was used to compare toxicities experienced by patients who were treated with either IMRT or 3D-CRT. Logistic regression analyses were also performed to rule out possible confounding factors. Results: Within the first 3 months after treatment, patients treated with 3D-CRT scored their urinary symptoms as follows: 19% mild, 44% moderate, and 37% severe; patients treated with IMRT scored their urinary symptoms as follows: 36% mild, 47% moderate, and 17% severe (p < 0.001). The 3D-CRT patients rated their QOL as follows: 35% positive, 20% neutral, and 45% negative; IMRT patients rated their QOL as follows: 51% positive, 18% neutral, and 31% negative (p < 0.001). After 1 year of follow-up there was no longer any difference in urinary morbidity between the two groups. Logistic regression confirmed the differences in International Prostate Symptom Score and QOL in the acute setting (p < 0.001 for both). Grade {>=}2 rectal bleeding was reported by 11% of 3D-CRT patients and 7% of IMRT patients (p = 0.046); logistic regression analysis also confirmed this observation (p = 0.040). Conclusions: When used in combination with brachytherapy, IMRT offers less Grade {>=}2 rectal bleeding, less acute urinary toxicities, and is associated with a higher QOL compared with 3D-CRT.

Forsythe, Kevin; Blacksburg, Seth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson [Department of Urology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: richard.stock@moutsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

2012-06-01

204

Monte Carlo investigation of I-125 interseed attenuation for standard and thinner seeds in prostate brachytherapy with phantom validation using a MOSFET  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In permanent seed implant prostate brachytherapy the actual dose delivered to the patient may be less than that calculated by TG-43U1 due to interseed attenuation (ISA) and differences between prostate tissue composition and water. In this study the magnitude of the ISA effect is assessed in a phantom and in clinical prostate postimplant cases. Results are compared for seed models 6711 and 9011 with 0.8 and 0.5 mm diameters, respectively. Methods: A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom was designed to perform ISA measurements in a simple eight-seed arrangement and at the center of an implant of 36 seeds. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and experimental measurements using a MOSFET dosimeter were used to measure dose rate and the ISA effect. MC simulations of 15 CT-based postimplant prostate treatment plans were performed to compare the clinical impact of ISA on dose to prostate, urethra, rectum, and the volume enclosed by the 100% isodose, for 6711 and 9011 seed models. Results: In the phantom, ISA reduced the dose rate at the MOSFET position by 8.6%-18.3% (6711) and 7.8%-16.7% (9011) depending on the measurement configuration. MOSFET measured dose rates agreed with MC simulation predictions within the MOSFET measurement uncertainty, which ranged from 5.5% to 7.2% depending on the measurement configuration (k= 1, for the mean of four measurements). For 15 clinical implants, the mean ISA effect for 6711 was to reduce prostate D90 by 4.2 Gy (3%), prostate V100 by 0.5 cc (1.4%), urethra D10 by 11.3 Gy (4.4%), rectal D2cc by 5.5 Gy (4.6%), and the 100% isodose volume by 2.3 cc. For the 9011 seed the mean ISA effect reduced prostate D90 by 2.2 Gy (1.6%), prostate V100 by 0.3 cc (0.7%), urethra D10 by 8.0 Gy (3.2%), rectal D2cc by 3.1 Gy (2.7%), and the 100% isodose volume by 1.2 cc. Differences between the MC simulation and TG-43U1 consensus data for the 6711 seed model had a similar impact, reducing mean prostate D90 by 6 Gy (4.2%) and V100 by 0.6 cc (1.8%). Conclusions: ISA causes the delivered dose in prostate seed implant brachytherapy to be lower than the dose calculated by TG-43U1. MC simulation of phantom seed arrangements show that dose at a point can be reduced by up to 18% and this has been validated using a MOSFET dosimeter. Clinical simulations show that ISA reduces DVH parameter values, but the reduction is less for thinner seeds.

Mason, J.; Al-Qaisieh, B.; Bownes, P. [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, St. James's Institute of Oncology, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds, LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Henry, A. [Clinical Oncology, St. James's Institute of Oncology, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds, LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Thwaites, D. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Academic Unit of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2013-03-15

205

A Pilot Study of Catheter-Based Ultrasound Hyperthermia with HDR Brachytherapy for Treatment of Locally Advanced Cancer of the Prostate and Cervix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interstitial and endocavity ultrasound devices have been developed specifically for applying hyperthermia within temporary HDR brachytherapy implants during radiation therapy. Catheter-based ultrasound applicators are capable of 3D spatial control of heating in both angle and length of the devices, with enhanced radial penetration of heating compared to other hyperthermia technologies. A pilot study of the combination of catheter based ultrasound with HDR brachytherapy for locally advanced prostate and cervical cancer has been initiated, and preliminary results of the performance and heating distributions are reported herein. The treatment delivery platform consists of a 32 channel RF amplifier and a 48 channel thermocouple monitoring system. Controlling software can monitor and regulate frequency and power to each transducer section as required during the procedure. Interstitial applicators consist of multiple transducer sections of 2-4 cm length×180 deg and 3-4 cm×360 deg. heating patterns to be inserted in specific placed 13g implant catheters. The endocavity device, designed to be inserted within a 6 mm OD plastic tandem catheter within the cervix, consists of 2-3 transducers x dual 180 or 360 deg sectors. 3D temperature based treatment planning and optimization is dovetailed to the HDR optimization based planning to best configure and position the applicators within the catheters, and to determine optimal base power levels to each transducer section. To date we have treated eight cervix implants and four prostate implants. 100% of treatments achieved a goal of >60 min duration, with therapeutic temperatures achieved in all cases. Thermal dosimetry within the hyperthermia target volume (HTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) are reported. Catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia with HDR appears feasible with therapeutic temperature coverage of the target volume within the prostate or cervix while sparing surrounding more sensitive regions.

Diederich, Chris J.; Wootton, Jeff; Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Juang, Titania; Scott, Serena; Chen, Xin; Cunha, Adam; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I. C.

2011-09-01

206

Impact of intraoperative MRI/TRUS fusion on dosimetric parameters in cT3a prostate cancer patients treated with high-dose-rate real-time brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of intraoperative MRI/TRUS fusion procedure in cT3a prostate cancer patients treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) real-time brachytherapy. Material and methods Prostate gland, dominant intraprostatic lesions (DILs), and extracapsular extension (ECE) were delineated in the pre-brachytherapy magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 9 consecutive patients. The pre-implant P-CTVUS (prostate clinical target volume) was defined as the prostate seen in the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images. The CTVMR includedthe prostate with the ECE image (ECE-CTV) as defined on the MRI. Two virtual treatment plans were performed based on the MRI/TRUS fusion images, the first one prescribing 100% of the dose to the P-PTVUS, and the second prescribing to the PTVMR. The implant parameters and dose-volume histogram (DVH) related parameters of the prostate, OARs, and ECE were compared between both plans. Results Mean radial distance of ECE was 3.6 mm (SD: 1.1). No significant differences were found between prostate V100, V150, V200, and OARs DVH-related parameters between the plans. Mean values of ECE V100, V150, and V200 were 85.9% (SD: 15.1), 18.2% (SD: 17.3), and 5.85% (SD: 7) when the doses were prescribed to the PTVUS, whereas ECE V100, V150, and V200 were 99.3% (SD: 1.2), 45.8% (SD: 22.4), and 19.6% (SD: 12.6) when doses were prescribed to PTVMR (p = 0.028, p = 0.002 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions TRUS/MRI fusion provides important information for prostate brachytherapy, allowing for better coverage and higher doses to extracapsular disease in patients with clinical stage T3a. PMID:25097555

Crook, Juanita; Casquero, Francisco; Carvajal, Claudia; Urresola, Arantxa; Canteli, Begona; Ezquerro, Ana; Hortelano, Eduardo; Cacicedo, Jon; Espinosa, Jose Maria; Perez, Fernando; Minguez, Pablo; Bilbao, Pedro

2014-01-01

207

Combination External Beam Radiation and Brachytherapy Boost With Androgen Suppression for Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: An Initial Report of CALGB 99809  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Transperineal prostate brachytherapy (TPPB) can be used with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to provide a high-dose conformal boost to the prostate. The results of a multicenter Phase II trial assessing safety of combination of EBRT and TPPB boost with androgen suppression (AST) in treatment of intermediate-risk prostate cancer are present here. Materials and Methods: Patients had intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Six months of AST was administered. EBRT to the prostate and seminal vesicles was administered to 45Gy followed by TPPB using either {sup 125}I or {sup 103}Pd to deliver an additional 100Gy or 90Gy. Toxicity was graded using the National Cancer Institute CTC version 2 and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late radiation morbidity scoring systems. Results: Sixty-three patients were enrolled. Median follow-up was 38 months. Side effects of AST including sexual dysfunction and vasomotor symptoms were commonly observed. Apart from erectile dysfunction, short-term Grade 2 and 3 toxicity was noted in 21% and 7%, primarily genitourinary related. Long-term Grade 2 and 3 toxicities were noted in 13% and 3%. Two patients had Grade 3 dysuria that resolved with longer follow-up. The most common Grade 2 long-term toxicity was urinary frequency (5%). No biochemical or clinical evidence of progression was noted for the entire cohort. Conclusions: In a cooperative group setting, combination EBRT and TPPB boost with 6 months of AST was generally well tolerated with expected genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities. Further follow-up will be required to fully assess long-term toxicity and cancer control.

Hurwitz, Mark D. [Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: mhurwitz@lroc.harvard.edu; Halabi, Susan [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ou, San-San [CALGB Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); McGinnis, Lamar S. [Southeast Cancer Control Consortium, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Keuttel, Michael R. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); DiBiase, Steven J. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Small, Eric J. [University of California at San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2008-11-01

208

Hypofractionated Boost With High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Open Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Implants for Locally Aggressive Prostate Cancer: A Sequential Dose-Escalation Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, tolerance, and preliminary outcome of an open MRI-guided prostate partial-volume high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) schedule in a group of selected patients with nonmetastatic, locally aggressive prostatic tumors. Methods and Materials: After conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal external radiotherapy to 64-64.4 Gy, 77 patients with nonmetastatic, locally aggressive (e.g., perineural invasion and/or Gleason score 8-10) prostate cancer were treated from June 2000 to August 2004, with HDR-BT using temporary open MRI-guided {sup 192}Ir implants, to escalate the dose in the boost region. Nineteen, 21, and 37 patients were sequentially treated with 2 fractions of 6 Gy, 7 Gy, and 8 Gy each, respectively. Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation was given to 62 patients for 6-24 months. Acute and late toxicity were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scoring system. Results: All 77 patients completed treatment as planned. Only 2 patients presented with Grade >=3 acute urinary toxicity. The 3-year probability of Grade >=2 late urinary and low gastrointestinal toxicity-free survival was 91.4% +- 3.4% and 94.4% +- 2.7%, respectively. Rates of 3-year biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) and disease-specific survival were 87.1% +- 4.1% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Boosting a partial volume of the prostate with hypofractionated HDR-BT for aggressive prostate cancer was feasible and showed limited long-term toxicity, which compared favorably with other dose-escalation methods in the literature. Preliminary bDFS was encouraging if one considers the negatively selected population of high-risk patients in this study.

Ares, Carmen; Popowski, Youri [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Pampallona, Sandro [Med, Services for Medical Research, Evolene (Switzerland); Nouet, Philippe; Dipasquale, Giovanna [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Bieri, Sabine; Ozsoy, Orhan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regional Hospital of Valais, Hospital of Sion (Switzerland); Rouzaud, Michel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Khan, Haleem [Institut de Radiologie Jean Violette, Geneva (Switzerland); Miralbell, Raymond, E-mail: Raymond.Miralbell@hcuge.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

2009-11-01

209

Transperineal Injection of Hyaluronic Acid in Anterior Perirectal Fat to Decrease Rectal Toxicity From Radiation Delivered With Intensity Modulated Brachytherapy or EBRT for Prostate Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Rectal toxicity remains a serious complication affecting quality of life for prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. We began an investigational trial injecting hyaluronic acid (HA) in the perirectal fat to increase the distance between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall. This is the first report using HA injection in oncology. Methods and Materials: This is a trial of external beam radiation therapy with HDR brachytherapy boosts in prostate cancer. During the two high-dose-rate (HDR) fractions, thermoluminescent dosimeter dosimeters were placed in the urethra and in the rectum. Before the second HDR fraction, 3-7 mL (mean, 6 mL) of HA was injected under transrectal ultrasound guidance in the perirectal fat to systematically create a 1.5-cm space. Urethral and rectal HDR doses were calculated and measured. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to assess the stability of the new space. Results: Twenty-seven patients enrolled in the study. No toxicity was produced from the HA or the injection. In follow-up computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the HA injection did not migrate or change in mass/shape for close to 1 year. The mean distance between rectum and prostate was 2.0 cm along the entire length of the prostate. The median measured rectal dose, when normalized to the median urethral dose, demonstrated a decrease in dose from 47.1% to 39.2% (p < 0.001) with or without injection. For an HDR boost dose of 1150 cGy, the rectum mean Dmax reduction was from 708 cGy to 507 cGy, p < 0.001, and the rectum mean Dmean drop was from 608 to 442 cGy, p < 0.001 post-HA injection. Conclusion: The new 2-cm distance derived from the HA injection significantly decreased rectal dose in HDR brachytherapy. Because of the several-month duration of stability, the same distance was maintained during the course of external beam radiation therapy.

Prada, Pedro J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: pprada@telecable.es; Fernandez, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain); Martinez, Alvaro A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Rua, Angeles de la; Gonzalez, Jose M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain); Fernandez, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain); Juan, German [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)

2007-09-01

210

Post-treatment PSA ? 0.2 ng\\/ml defines disease freedom after radiotherapy for prostate cancer using modern techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) definition of disease freedom after radiotherapy for prostate cancer is still in dispute. This report focuses on the PSA nadir achieved in men treated by modern radiotherapy techniques.Methods. From 1984 to 1994, 489 consecutive men with clinical Stage T1-T2 prostate cancer were treated by simultaneous radiation: prostate iodine-125 implant followed by external beam radiation. A

Frank A Critz; W. Hamilton Williams; Clinton T Holladay; A. Keith Levinson; James B Benton; David A Holladay; Frederick J Schnell; Leela S Maxa; Philip D Shrake

1999-01-01

211

I-125 interstitial implantation for prostate cancer. What have we learned 10 years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1975 to 1984, 120 patients were treated at Eastern Virginia Medical School with iodine-125 (I-125) interstitial implantation and pelvic lymphadenectomy as the definitive therapy for stage A2-C prostatic carcinoma. As might be expected, a higher incidence of local recurrence was seen with tumors at a more advanced stage but also with tumors of moderate and poor differentiation. Local tumor

Deborah A. Kuban; Anas M. El-Mahdi; Paul F. Schellhammer

1989-01-01

212

Prognostic Significance of 5-Year PSA Value for Predicting Prostate Cancer Recurrence After Brachytherapy Alone and Combined With Hormonal Therapy and/or External Beam Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the prognosis and outcomes of patients who remain free of biochemical failure during the first 5 years after treatment. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2002, 742 patients with prostate cancer were treated with brachytherapy alone (n = 306), brachytherapy and hormonal therapy (n = 212), or combined implantation and external beam radiotherapy (with or without hormonal therapy; n = 224). These patients were free of biochemical failure (American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology [ASTRO] definition) during the first 5 post-treatment years and had a documented 5-year prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. The median follow-up was 6.93 years. Results: The actuarial 10-year freedom from PSA failure rate was 97% using the ASTRO definition and 95% using the Phoenix definition. The median 5-year PSA level was 0.03 ng/mL (range, 0-3.6). The 5-year PSA value was {<=}0.01 in 47.7%, >0.01-0.10 in 31.1%, >0.10-0.2 in 10.2%, >0.2-0.5 in 7.82%, and >0.5 in 3.10%. The 5-year PSA value had prognostic significance, with a PSA value of {<=}0.2 ng/mL (n = 661) corresponding to a 10-year freedom from PSA failure rate of 99% with the ASTRO definition and 98% with the Phoenix definition vs. 86% (ASTRO definition) and 81% (Phoenix definition) for a PSA value {>=}0.2 ng/mL (n = 81; p < .0001). The treatment regimen had no effect on biochemical failure. None of the 742 patients in this study developed metastatic disease or died of prostate cancer. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that the prognosis for patients treated with brachytherapy and who remain biochemically free of disease for {>=}5 years is excellent and none developed metastatic disease during the first 10 years after treatment. The 5-year PSA value is prognostic, and patients with a PSA value <0.2 ng/mL are unlikely to develop subsequent biochemical relapse.

Stock, Richard G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: Richard.stock@mountsinai.org; Klein, Thomas J.; Cesaretti, Jamie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Urology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY (United States)

2009-07-01

213

Dose Constraint for Minimizing Grade 2 Rectal Bleeding Following Brachytherapy Combined With External Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Rectal Dose-Volume Histogram Analysis of 457 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the rectal tolerance to Grade 2 rectal bleeding after I-125 seed brachytherapy combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), based on the rectal dose-volume histogram. Methods and Materials: A total of 458 consecutive patients with stages T1 to T3 prostate cancer received combined modality treatment consisting of I-125 seed implantation followed by EBRT to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The prescribed doses of brachytherapy and EBRT were 100 Gy and 45 Gy in 25 fractions, respectively. The rectal dosimetric factors were analyzed for rectal volumes receiving >100 Gy and >150 Gy (R100 and R150) during brachytherapy and for rectal volumes receiving >30 Gy to 40 Gy (V30-V40) during EBRT therapy in 373 patients for whom datasets were available. The patients were followed from 21 to 72 months (median, 45 months) after the I-125 seed implantation. Results: Forty-four patients (9.7%) developed Grade 2 rectal bleeding. On multivariate analysis, age (p = 0.014), R100 (p = 0.002), and V30 (p = 0.001) were identified as risk factors for Grade 2 rectal bleeding. The rectal bleeding rate increased as the R100 increased: 5.0% (2/40 patients) for 0 ml; 7.5% (20/267 patients) for >0 to 0.5 ml; 11.0% (11/100 patients) for >0.5 to 1 ml; 17.9% (5/28 patients) for >1 to 1.5 ml; and 27.3% (6/22 patients) for >1.5 ml (p = 0.014). Grade 2 rectal bleeding developed in 6.4% (12/188) of patients with a V30 {<=}35% and in 14.1% (26/185) of patients with a V30 >35% (p = 0.02). When these dose-volume parameters were considered in combination, the Grade 2 rectal bleeding rate was 4.2% (5/120 patients) for a R100 {<=}0.5 ml and a V30 {<=}35%, whereas it was 22.4% (13/58 patients) for R100 of >0.5 ml and V30 of >35%. Conclusion: The risk of rectal bleeding was found to be significantly volume-dependent in patients with prostate cancer who received combined modality treatment. Rectal dose-volume analysis is a practical method for predicting the risk of development of Grade 2 rectal bleeding.

Shiraishi, Yutaka; Yorozu, Atsunori [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, Toshio, E-mail: ohashi@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Keio University, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Toya, Kazuhito [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Seki, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Keio University, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, Kayo; Kaneda, Tomoya [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Shiro; Nishiyama, Toru [Department of Urology, Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Hanada, Takashi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki [Department of Radiology, Keio University, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

2011-11-01

214

Anatomy-Based Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing Optimization in High-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy: Significant Dosimetric Advantage Over Other Optimization Techniques  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To perform an independent validation of an anatomy-based inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) algorithm in obtaining superior target coverage and reducing the dose to the organs at risk. Method and Materials: In a recent prostate high-dose-rate brachytherapy protocol study by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (0321), our institution treated 20 patients between June 1, 2005 and November 30, 2006. These patients had received a high-dose-rate boost dose of 19 Gy to the prostate, in addition to an external beam radiotherapy dose of 45 Gy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Three-dimensional dosimetry was obtained for the following optimization schemes in the Plato Brachytherapy Planning System, version 14.3.2, using the same dose constraints for all the patients treated during this period: anatomy-based IPSA optimization, geometric optimization, and dose point optimization. Dose-volume histograms were generated for the planning target volume and organs at risk for each optimization method, from which the volume receiving at least 75% of the dose (V{sub 75%}) for the rectum and bladder, volume receiving at least 125% of the dose (V{sub 125%}) for the urethra, and total volume receiving the reference dose (V{sub 100%}) and volume receiving 150% of the dose (V{sub 150%}) for the planning target volume were determined. The dose homogeneity index and conformal index for the planning target volume for each optimization technique were compared. Results: Despite suboptimal needle position in some implants, the IPSA algorithm was able to comply with the tight Radiation Therapy Oncology Group dose constraints for 90% of the patients in this study. In contrast, the compliance was only 30% for dose point optimization and only 5% for geometric optimization. Conclusions: Anatomy-based IPSA optimization proved to be the superior technique and also the fastest for reducing the dose to the organs at risk without compromising the target coverage.

Jacob, Dayee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, DE (United States)], E-mail: djacob@christianacare.org; Raben, Adam; Sarkar, Abhirup; Grimm, Jimm; Simpson, Larry [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, DE (United States)

2008-11-01

215

Comparison of biochemical failure rates between permanent prostate brachytherapy and radical retropubic prostatectomy as a function of posttherapy PSA nadir plus 'X'  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir?+?2 ng/mL, also known as the Phoenix definition, is the definition most commonly used to establish biochemical failure (BF) after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer management. The purpose of this study is to compare BF rates between permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) and radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) as a function of PSA nadir plus varying values of X and examine the associated implications. Methods and materials We retrospectively searched for patients who underwent PPB or RRP at our institution between 1998 and 2004. Only primary patients not receiving androgen-deprivation therapy were included in the study. Three RRP patients were matched to each PPB patient on the basis of prognostic factors. BF rates were estimated for PSA nadirs?+?different values of X. Results A total of 1,164 patients were used for analysis: 873 in the RRP group and 291 in the PPB group. Patients were equally matched by clinical stage, biopsy Gleason sum, primary Gleason grade, and pretherapy PSA value. Median follow-up was 3.1 years for RRP patients and 3.6 years in the PPB group (P =?.01). Using PSA nadir?+?0.1 ng/mL for the definition of BF, the 5-year BF rate was 16.3% for PPB patients and 13.5% for RRP patients (P =?.007), whereas at nadir?+?2 ng/mL or greater, the BF rates were less than 3% and were indistinguishable between PPB and RRP patients. Conclusions In a cohort of well-matched patients who had prostatectomy or brachytherapy, we examined BF as a function of nadir?+?X, where X was treated as a continuous variable. As X increases from 0.1 to 2.0 ng/mL, the BF curves converge, and above 2.0 ng/mL they are essentially indistinguishable. The data presented are of interest as BF definitions continue to evolve. PMID:25074478

2014-01-01

216

Delivery systems for brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Brachytherapy is described as the short distance treatment of cancer with a radioactive isotope placed on, in, or near the lesions or tumor to be treated. The main advantage of brachytherapy compared with external beam radiation (EBR) is the improved localized delivery of dose to the target volume of interest, thus normal tissue irradiation is reduced. The precise and targeted nature of brachytherapy provides a number of key benefits for the effective treatment of cancer such as efficacy, minimized risk of side effects, short treatment times, and cost-effectiveness. Brachytherapy devices have yielded promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. However, brachytherapy can only be used in localized and relatively small tumors. Although the introduction of new delivery devices allows the treatment of more complex tumor sites, with wider range of dose rate for improving treatment efficacy and reduction of side effects, a better understanding about the safety, efficacy, and accuracy of these systems is required, and further development of new techniques is warranted. Therefore, this review focuses on the delivery devices for brachytherapy and their application in prostate, breast, brain, and other tumor sites. PMID:25008970

de la Puente, Pilar; Azab, Abdel Kareem

2014-10-28

217

Single-Fraction High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Hypofractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer - Long Term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We present the long-term results of a cohort of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) treated with single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (HypoRT). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated exclusively with HDRB and HypoRT. HDRB delivered a dose of 10 Gy to the prostate surface and HypoRT consisted of 50 Gy delivered in 20 daily fractions. The first 121 consecutive patients with a minimum of 2 years posttreatment follow-up were assessed for toxicity and disease control. Results: The median follow-up was 65.2 months. No acute Grade III or higher toxicity was seen. Late Grade II gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in 9 patients (7.4%) and Grade III in 2 (1.6%). Late Grade III genitourinary toxicity was seen in 2 patients (1.6%). After a 24-month follow-up, a rebiopsy was offered to the first 58 consecutively treated patients, and 44 patients agreed with the procedure. Negative biopsies were found in 40 patients (91%). The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival rate was 90.7% (95% CI, 84.5-96.9%), with 13 patients presenting biochemical failure. Among them, 9 were diagnosed with distant metastasis. Prostate cancer-specific and overall survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 98.8% (95% CI, 96.4-100%), respectively. Conclusion: The combination of HDRB and HypoRT is well tolerated, with acceptable toxicity rates. Furthermore, results from rebiopsies revealed an encouraging rate of local control. These results confirm that the use of conformal RT techniques, adapted to specific biological tumor characteristics, have the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in intermediate-risk PC patients.

Cury, Fabio L., E-mail: fabio.cury@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Duclos, Marie [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Aprikian, Armen [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Patrocinio, Horacio [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Shenouda, George; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc; Souhami, Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

2012-03-15

218

High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and External-Beam Radiotherapy for Hormone-Naieve Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: A 7-Year Experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report clinical outcomes and early and late complications in 264 hormone-naieve patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in combination with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Between February 2000 and July 2007, 264 patients underwent HDR-BT in combination with EBRT as a treatment for their low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. The HDR-BT was performed using ultrasound-based implantation. The total HDR-BT dose was 18 Gy in 3 fractions within 24 h, with a 6-h minimum interval. The EBRT started 2 weeks after HDR-BT and was delivered in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy to 45 Gy within 5 weeks. Results: After a mean follow-up of 74.5 months, 4 patients (1.5%) showed prostate-specific antigen progression according to the American Society for Radiation Oncology definition and 8 patients (3%) according to the Phoenix definition. A biopsy-proven local recurrence was registered in 1 patient (0.4%), and clinical progression (bone metastases) was documented in 2 patients (0.7%). Seven-year actuarial freedom from biochemical failure was 97%, and 7-year disease-specific survival and overall survival were 100% and 91%, respectively. Toxicities were comparable to other series. Conclusions: Treatment with interstitial HDR-BT plus EBRT shows a low incidence of late complications and a favorable oncologic outcome after 7 years follow-up.

Aluwini, Shafak, E-mail: s.aluwini@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rooij, Peter H. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kirkels, Wim J. [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jansen, Peter P.; Praag, John O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bangma, Chris H. [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2012-08-01

219

Prostate brachytherapy - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... your normal activities after that. You can resume sexual activity when you feel comfortable. If you have a ... your activities. You will probably need to avoid sexual activity for about 2 weeks, and then use a ...

220

MIP Models and BB Strategies in Brachytherapy Treatment Optimization  

E-print Network

­Madison Abstract. Brachytherapy (brachy being derived from a Greek word meaning short) is the treatment of cancer of therapy is becoming com­ mon in the treatment of early stage prostate cancer, the most common cancer: brachytherapy, prostate cancer, branch­and­bound, optimization, inte­ ger programming, treatment planning

Meyer, Robert R.

221

Prostatitis  

PubMed Central

The laboratory diagnosis of acute bacterial prostatitis is straightforward and easily accomplished in clinical laboratories. Chronic bacterial prostatitis, and especially chronic idiopathic prostatitis (most often referred to as abacterial prostatitis), presents a real challenge to the clinician and clinical microbiologist. Clinically, the diagnosis of chronic idiopathic prostatitis is differentiated from that of acute prostatitis by a lack of prostatic inflammation and no “significant” (controversial) leukocytes or bacteria in the expressed prostatic secretions. Despite these diagnostic criteria, the etiology of chronic idiopathic prostatitis is unknown. While this review covers the entire spectrum of microbially caused acute prostatitis (including common and uncommon bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) and microbially associated chronic prostatitis, a special focus has been given to chronic idiopathic prostatitis. The idiopathic syndrome is commonly diagnosed in men but is poorly treated. Recent data convincingly suggests a possible bacterial etiology for the condition. Provocative molecular studies have been published reporting the presence of 16S rRNA bacterial sequences in prostate biopsy tissue that is negative for ordinary bacteria by routine culture in men with chronic idiopathic prostatitis. Additionally, special culture methods have indicated that difficult-to-culture coryneforms and coagulase-negative staphylococci are present in expressed prostatic secretions found to be negative by routine culture techniques. Treatment failures are not uncommon in chronic prostatitis. Literature reports suggest that antimicrobial treatment failures in chronic idiopathic prostatitis caused by organisms producing extracellular slime might result from the virulent properties of coagulase-negative staphylococci or other bacteria. While it is difficult to definitively extrapolate from animal models, antibiotic pharmokinetic studies with a murine model have suggested that treatment failures in chronic prostatitis are probably a result of the local microenvironment surrounding the persistent focal and well-protected small bacterial biofilms buried within the prostate gland. These conclusions support the molecular and culture data implicating bacteria as a cause of chronic idiopathic prostatitis. PMID:9767058

Domingue, Gerald J.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

1998-01-01

222

Acute genitourinary toxicity after high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: Second analysis to determine the correlation between the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy and the severity of acute genitourinary toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We have been treating localized prostate cancer with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at our institution. We recently reported the existence of a correlation between the severity of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity and the urethral radiation dose in HDR brachytherapy by using different fractionation schema. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the urethral dose in the development of acute GU toxicity more closely than in previous studies. For this purpose, we conducted an analysis of patients who had undergone HDR brachytherapy with a fixed fractionation schema combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Methods and Materials: Among the patients with localized prostate cancer who were treated by 192-iridium HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT at Gunma University Hospital between August 2000 and November 2004, we analyzed 67 patients who were treated by HDR brachytherapy with the fractionation schema of 9 Gy x two times combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Hypofractionated EBRT was administered at a fraction dose of 3 Gy three times weekly, and a total dose of 51 Gy was delivered to the prostate gland and seminal vesicles using the four-field technique. No elective pelvic irradiation was performed. After the completion of EBRT, all the patients additionally received transrectal ultrasonography-guided HDR brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the prostate gland with a 5-mm margin all around, and the planning was conducted based on computed tomography images. The tumor stage was T1c in 13 patients, T2 in 31 patients, and T3 in 23 patients. The Gleason score was 2-6 in 12 patients, 7 in 34 patients, and 8-10 in 21 patients. Androgen ablation was performed in all the patients. The median follow-up duration was 11 months (range 3-24 months). The toxicities were graded based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The main symptoms of acute GU toxicity were dysuria and increase in the urinary frequency or nocturia. The grade distribution of acute GU toxicity in the patients was as follows: Grade 0-1, 42 patients (63%); Grade 2-3, 25 patients (37%). The urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy was determined using the following dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters: V30 (percentage of the urethral volume receiving 30% of the prescribed radiation dose), V80, V90, V100, V110, V120, V130, and V150. In addition, the D5 (dose covering 5% of the urethral volume), D10, D20, and D50 of the urethra were also estimated. The V30-V150 values in the patients with Grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity were significantly higher than those in patients with Grade 0-1 toxicity. The D10 and D20, but not D5 and D50, values were also significantly higher in the patients with Grade 2-3 acute GU toxicity than in those with Grade 0-1 toxicity. Regarding the influence of the number of needles implanted, there was no correlation between the number of needles implanted and the severity of acute GU toxicity or the V30-V150 values and D5-D50 values. Conclusions: It was concluded that HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT is feasible for localized prostate cancer, when considered from the viewpoint of acute toxicity. However, because the urethral dose was closely associated with the grade of severity of the acute GU toxicity, the urethral dose in HDR brachytherapy must be kept low to reduce the severity of acute GU toxicity.

Akimoto, Tetsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)]. E-mail: takimoto@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Noda, Shin-ei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Ito, Kazuto [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Yamamoto, Takumi [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kashiwagi, Bunzo [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

2005-10-01

223

The Number of High-Risk Factors and the Risk of Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality After Brachytherapy: Implications for Treatment Selection  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether an increasing number of high-risk factors is associated with higher prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) among men treated with brachytherapy (BT)-based treatment, and whether supplemental therapy has an impact on this risk. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the cases of 2234 men with localized prostate cancer treated between 1991 and 2007 with low-dose rate BT monotherapy (n = 457) or BT with supplemental external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT, n = 229), androgen suppression therapy (AST, n = 424), or both (n = 1124). All men had at least one high-risk factor (prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL, biopsy Gleason score 8-10, or clinical stage {>=}T2c). Competing-risks multivariable regressions were performed to determine whether the presence of at least two high-risk factors was associated with an increased risk of PCSM, with adjustment for age, comorbidity, and the type of supplemental treatment. Results: The median follow-up time was 4.3 years. The number of men with at least two high-risk factors was highest in the group treated with BT, EBRT, and AST (21%), followed by BT plus EBRT or AST (13%), and BT alone (8%) (p{sub trend} < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) for PCSM for those with at least two high-risk factors (as compared with one) was 4.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-8.0; p < 0.001). The use of both supplemental EBRT and AST was associated with a decreased risk of PCSM (AHR 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9; p = 0.03) compared with BT alone. When the high-risk factors were analyzed separately, Gleason score 8-10 was most significantly associated with increased PCSM (AHR 6.2; 95% CI, 3.5-11.2; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Men with high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma treated with BT have decreased PCSM if they receive trimodailty therapy that includes EBRT and AST. This benefit is likely most important in men with multiple determinants of high risk.

Wattson, Daniel A., E-mail: dwattson@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Chen Minghui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Moul, Judd W. [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery and Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Moran, Brian J. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Dosoretz, Daniel E. [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Robertson, Cary N.; Polascik, Thomas J. [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery and Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Braccioforte, Michelle H. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Salenius, Sharon A. [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, FL (United States); D'Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

2012-04-01

224

4D analysis of influence of patient movement and anatomy alteration on the quality of 3D U/S-based prostate HDR brachytherapy treatment delivery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Modern HDR brachytherapy treatment for prostate cancer based on the 3D ultrasound (U/S) plays increasingly important role. The purpose of this study is to investigate possible patient movement and anatomy alteration between the clinical image set acquisition, made after the needle implantation, and the patient irradiation and their influence on the quality of treatment. Methods: The authors used 3D U/S image sets and the corresponding treatment plans based on a 4D-treatment planning procedure: plans of 25 patients are obtained right after the needle implantation (clinical plan is based on this 3D image set) and just before and after the treatment delivery. The authors notice the slight decrease of treatment quality with increase of time gap between the clinical image set acquisition and the patient irradiation. 4D analysis of dose-volume-histograms (DVHs) for prostate: CTV1 = PTV, and urethra, rectum, and bladder as organs at risk (OARs) and conformity index (COIN) is presented, demonstrating the effect of prostate, OARs, and needles displacement. Results: The authors show that in the case that the patient body movement/anatomy alteration takes place, this results in modification of DVHs and radiobiological parameters, hence the plan quality. The observed average displacement of needles (1 mm) and of prostate (0.57 mm) is quite small as compared with the average displacement noted in several other reports [A. A. Martinez et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 49(1), 61-69 (2001); S. J. Damore et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 46(5), 1205-1211 (2000); P. J. Hoskin et al., Radiotherm. Oncol. 68(3), 285-288 (2003); E. Mullokandov et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 58(4), 1063-1071 (2004)] in the literature. Conclusions: Although the decrease of quality of dosimetric and radiobiological parameters occurs, this does not cause clinically unacceptable changes to the 3D dose distribution, according to our clinical protocol.

Milickovic, Natasa; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Tselis, Nikolaos; Nikolova, Iliyana; Katsilieri, Zaira; Kefala, Vasiliki; Zamboglou, Nikolaos; Baltas, Dimos [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University (Sweden); Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Offenbach Clinic, Starkenburgring 66, 63069 Offenbach am Main, Germany and Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, 15771 Athens (Greece)

2011-09-15

225

High-dose irradiation for prostate cancer via a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost: Results of a phase I to II study  

SciTech Connect

Objective: To evaluate outcomes of intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients on a prospective dose-escalation study of pelvic external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. Methods: From November 1991 to April 2003, 197 patients were treated for intermediate- and high-risk disease features. All patients had prostate-specific antigen >10 ng/ml, Gleason score {>=}7, or clinical stage {>=}T2b, and all received pelvic EBRT (46 Gy) while receiving either two or three HDR boost treatments. HDR dose fractionation increased progressively and was divided into two dose levels. The mean prostate biologic equivalency dose was 88.2 Gy for the low-dose group and 116.8 Gy for the high-dose group ({alpha}/{beta} = 1.2). Clinical failure was either local failure or distant metastasis; clinical event-free survival (cEFS) was defined as patients who lived free of clinical failure. Results: Median follow-up was 4.9 years. The 5-year rates were as follows: biologic failure (BF), 18.6%, clinical failure (CF), 9.8%, cEFS 84.8%, cause-specific survival (CSS), 98.3%, and overall survival (OS), 92.9%. Five-year biochemical failure (68.7% vs. 86%, p < 0.001), CF (6.1% vs. 15.6%, p = 0.04), cEFS (75.5% vs. 91.7%, p = 0.003), CSS (95.4% vs. 100%, p = 0.02), and OS (86.2% vs. 97.8%, p = 0.002) were significantly better for the high-dose group. Multivariate analysis showed that high-dose group (p = 0.01, HR 0.35) and Gleason score (p = 0.01, HR 1.84) were significant variables for cEFS. Multivariate analysis showed that high-dose group (p = 0.01, HR 0.14) and age (p = 0.03, HR 1.09 per year) were significant variables for overall survival. Conclusion: There is a strong dose-response relationship for intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer patients. Improved locoregional control with higher radiation doses alone can significantly decrease biochemical and clinical failures.

Vargas, Carlos E. [Radiation Oncology Department, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Martinez, Alvaro A. [Radiation Oncology Department, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)]. E-mail: amartinez@beaumont.edu; Boike, Thomas P. [Radiation Oncology Department, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Spencer, William [Urology Department, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Goldstein, Neal [Pathology Department, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Gustafson, Gary S. [Radiation Oncology Department, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Krauss, Daniel J. [Radiation Oncology Department, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Gonzalez, Jose [Urology Department, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

2006-10-01

226

Anatomy-based inverse optimization in high-dose-rate brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: Comparison of incidence of acute genitourinary toxicity between anatomy-based inverse optimization and geometric optimization  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the advantages of anatomy-based inverse optimization (IO) in planning high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 114 patients who received HDR brachytherapy (9 Gy in two fractions) combined with hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) were analyzed. The dose distributions of HDR brachytherapy were optimized using geometric optimization (GO) in 70 patients and by anatomy-based IO in the remaining 44 patients. The correlation between the dose-volume histogram parameters, including the urethral dose and the incidence of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity, was evaluated. Results: The averaged values of the percentage of volume receiving 80-150% of the prescribed minimal peripheral dose (V{sub 8}-V{sub 15}) of the urethra generated by anatomy-based IO were significantly lower than the corresponding values generated by GO. Similarly, the averaged values of the minimal dose received by 5-50% of the target volume (D{sub 5}-D{sub 5}) obtained using anatomy-based IO were significantly lower than those obtained using GO. Regarding acute toxicity, Grade 2 or worse acute GU toxicity developed in 23% of all patients, but was significantly lower in patients for whom anatomy-based IO (16%) was used than in those for whom GO was used (37%), consistent with the reduced urethral dose (p <0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that anatomy-based IO is superior to GO for dose optimization in HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

Akimoto, Tetsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)]. E-mail: takimoto@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kitamoto, Yoshizumi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Shirai, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Shioya, Mariko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

2006-04-01

227

Advances in Brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

During the past 15 years, permanent seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer has advanced significantly in all areas, including patient selection, treatment planning, technique, and technology (eg, seeds stranded in Vicryl suture). These improvements have made transperineal seed implantation an accurate and practical treatment option for men with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk disease. Because of the evidence that the various treatment options for prostate cancer are likely to be equally successful in terms of long-term cancer control, continuing efforts focus on enhancing the quality of life of implant patients. PMID:16985869

Grimm, Peter; Sylvester, John

2004-01-01

228

Virtual HDR{sup SM} CyberKnife Treatment for Localized Prostatic Carcinoma: Dosimetry Comparison With HDR Brachytherapy and Preliminary Clinical Observations  

SciTech Connect

Background: We tested our ability to approximate the dose (38 Gy), fractionation (four fractions), and distribution of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for prostate cancer with CyberKnife (CK) stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans. We also report early clinical observations of CK SBRT treatment. Methods and Materials: Ten patients were treated with CK. For each CK SBRT plan, an HDR plan was designed using common contour sets and simulated HDR catheters. Planning target volume coverage, intraprostatic dose escalation, and urethra, rectum, and bladder exposure were compared. Results: Planning target volume coverage by the prescription dose was similar for CK SBRT and HDR plans, whereas percent of volume of interest receiving 125% of prescribed radiation dose (V125) and V150 values were higher for HDR, reflecting higher doses near HDR source dwell positions. Urethra dose comparisons were lower for CK SBRT in 9 of 10 cases, suggesting that CK SBRT may more effectively limit urethra dose. Bladder maximum point doses were higher with HDR, but bladder dose falloff beyond the maximum dose region was more rapid with HDR. Maximum rectal wall doses were similar, but CK SBRT created sharper rectal dose falloff beyond the maximum dose region. Second CK SBRT plans, constructed by equating urethra radiation dose received by point of maximum exposure of volume of interest to the HDR plan, significantly increased V125 and V150. Clinically, 4-month post-CK SBRT median prostate-specific antigen levels decreased 86% from baseline. Acute toxicity was primarily urologic and returned to baseline by 2 months. Acute rectal morbidity was minimal and transient. Conclusions: It is possible to construct CK SBRT plans that closely recapitulate HDR dosimetry and deliver the plans noninvasively.

Fuller, Donald B. [Radiosurgery Medical Group, Inc., San Diego CyberKnife Center, San Diego, CA (United States)], E-mail: dfuller@rmgmed.com; Naitoh, John [Coast Urology Medical Group, Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States); Lee, Charles; Hardy, Steven C.; Jin, Haoran [Radiosurgery Medical Group, Inc., San Diego CyberKnife Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

2008-04-01

229

Radiation Pneumonitis Caused by a Migrated Brachytherapy Seed Lodged in the Lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of radiation pneumonitis caused by a migrated seed lodged in the lung after prostate brachytherapy. A 71-year-old man underwent transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. On the day after brachytherapy, a routine postimplant chest X-ray revealed migration of one seed to the lower lobe of the left lung. After 1 month, pulmonary opacities

Noriyoshi Miura; Yoshito Kusuhara; Kousaku Numata; Akitomi Shirato; Katsuyoshi Hashine; Yoshiteru Sumiyoshi; Masaaki Kataoka; Shinsuke Takechi

2008-01-01

230

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Markers for MRI-Guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy: Novel Marker-Flange for Cervical Cancer and Marker Catheters for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present a novel marker-flange, addressing source-reconstruction uncertainties due to the artifacts of a titanium intracavitary applicator used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT); and to evaluate 7 different MRI marker agents used for interstitial prostate BT and intracavitary gynecologic HDR BT when treatment plans are guided by MRI. Methods and Materials: Seven MRI marker agents were analyzed: saline solution, Conray-60, copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}) (1.5 g/L), liquid vitamin E, fish oil, 1% agarose gel (1 g agarose powder per 100 mL distilled water), and a cobalt–chloride complex contrast (C4) (CoCl{sub 2}/glycine = 4:1). A plastic, ring-shaped marker-flange was designed and tested on both titanium and plastic applicators. Three separate phantoms were designed to test the marker-flange, interstitial catheters for prostate BT, and intracavitary catheters for gynecologic HDR BT. T1- and T2-weighted MRI were analyzed for all markers in each phantom and quantified as percentages compared with a 3% agarose gel background. The geometric accuracy of the MR signal for the marker-flange was measured using an MRI-CT fusion. Results: The CuSO{sub 4} and C4 markers on T1-weighted MRI and saline on T2-weighted MRI showed the highest signals. The marker-flange showed hyper-signals of >500% with CuSO{sub 4} and C4 on T1-weighted MRI and of >400% with saline on T2-weighted MRI on titanium applicators. On T1-weighted MRI, the MRI signal inaccuracies of marker-flanges were measured <2 mm, regardless of marker agents, and that of CuSO{sub 4} was 0.42 ± 0.14 mm. Conclusion: The use of interstitial/intracavitary markers for MRI-guided prostate/gynecologic BT was observed to be feasible, providing accurate source pathway reconstruction. The novel marker-flange can produce extremely intense, accurate signals, demonstrating its feasibility for gynecologic HDR BT.

Schindel, Joshua; Muruganandham, Manickam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Pigge, F. Christopher [Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Anderson, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Kim, Yusung, E-mail: yusung-kim@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

2013-06-01

231

Real-time catheter tracking for high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy using an electromagnetic 3D-guidance device: A preliminary performance study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In order to increase the accuracy and speed of catheter reconstruction in a high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate implant procedure, an automatic tracking system has been developed using an electromagnetic (EM) device (trakSTAR, Ascension Technology, VT). The performance of the system, including the accuracy and noise level with various tracking parameters and conditions, were investigated. Methods: A direct current (dc) EM transmitter (midrange model) and a sensor with diameter of 1.3 mm (Model 130) were used in the trakSTAR system for tracking catheter position during HDR prostate brachytherapy. Localization accuracy was assessed under both static and dynamic analyses conditions. For the static analysis, a calibration phantom was used to investigate error dependency on operating room (OR) table height (bottom vs midposition vs top), sensor position (distal tip of catheter vs connector end of catheter), direction [left-right (LR) vs anterior-posterior (AP) vs superior-inferior (SI)], sampling frequency (40 vs 80 vs 120 Hz), and interference from OR equipment (present vs absent). The mean and standard deviation of the localization offset in each direction and the corresponding error vectors were calculated. For dynamic analysis, the paths of five straight catheters were tracked to study the effects of directions, sampling frequency, and interference of EM field. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare the results in different configurations. Results: When interference was present in the static analysis, the error vectors were significantly higher at the top table position (3.3 {+-} 1.3 vs 1.8 {+-} 0.9 mm at bottom and 1.7 {+-} 1.0 mm at middle, p < 0.001), at catheter end position (3.1 {+-} 1.1 vs 1.4 {+-} 0.7 mm at the tip position, p < 0.001), and at 40 Hz sampling frequency (2.6 {+-} 1.1 vs 2.4 {+-} 1.5 mm at 80 Hz and 1.8 {+-} 1.1 at 160 Hz, p < 0.001). So did the mean offset errors in the LR direction (-1.7 {+-} 1.4 vs 0.4 {+-} 0.5 mm in AP and 0.8 {+-} 0.8 mm in SI directions, p < 0.001). The error vectors were significantly higher with surrounding interference (2.2 {+-} 1.3 mm) vs without interference (1.0 {+-} 0.7 mm, p < 0.001). An accuracy of 1.6 {+-} 0.2 mm can be reached when using optimum configuration (160 Hz at middle table position). When interference was present in the dynamic tracking, the mean tracking errors in LR direction (1.4 {+-} 0.5 mm) was significantly higher than that in AP direction (0.3 {+-} 0.2 mm, p < 0.001). So did the mean vector errors at 40 Hz (2.1 {+-} 0.2 mm vs 1.3 {+-} 0.2 mm at 80 Hz and 0.9 {+-} 0.2 mm at 160 Hz, p < 0.05). However, when interference was absent, they were comparable in the both directions and at all sampling frequencies. An accuracy of 0.9 {+-} 0.2 mm was obtained for the dynamic tracking when using optimum configuration. Conclusions: The performance of an EM tracking system depends highly on the system configuration and surrounding environment. The accuracy of EM tracking for catheter reconstruction in a prostate HDR brachytherapy procedure can be improved by reducing interference from surrounding equipment, decreasing distance from transmitter to tracking area, and choosing appropriated sampling frequency. A calibration scheme is needed to further reduce the tracking error when the interference is high.

Zhou Jun; Sebastian, Evelyn; Mangona, Victor; Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States)

2013-02-15

232

Detection of brachytherapy seeds using 3D ultrasound.  

PubMed

Imaging and detection of brachytherapy seeds using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) remains a challenge for prostate brachytherapy, mainly due to the small size of brachytherapy seeds in relatively low-quality B-mode TRUS images. In this paper, we propose a new solution for brachytherapy seed detection using 3D ultrasound. We use 3D reflected power images computed from ultrasound radio-frequency signals, instead of using conventional B-mode images. Then implanted seeds are detected in 3D local search spaces that are determined by a priori knowledge. Experimental results showed that the proposed solution works well for seed localization in the prostate phantom. PMID:19162791

Wen, Xu; Salcudean, S E

2008-01-01

233

Comparison of Intraoperatively Built Custom Linked Seeds Versus Loose Seed Gun Applicator Technique Using Real-Time Intraoperative Planning for Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report our dosimetric results using a novel push-button seed delivery system that constructs custom links of seeds intraoperatively. Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2007, 43 patients underwent implantation using a gun applicator (GA), and from 2007 to 2008, 48 patientsunderwent implantation with a novel technique allowing creation of intraoperatively built custom links of seeds (IBCL). Specific endpoint analyses were prostate D90% (pD90%), rV100% > 1.3 cc, and overall time under anesthesia. Results: Final analyses included 91 patients, 43 GA and 48 IBCL. Absolute change in pD90% ({Delta}pD90%) between intraoperative and postoperative plans was evaluated. Using GA method, the {Delta}pD90% was -8.1Gy and -12.8Gy for I-125 and Pd-103 implants, respectively. Similarly, the IBCL technique resulted in a {Delta}pD90% of -8.7Gy and -9.8Gy for I-125 and Pd-103 implants, respectively. No statistically significant difference in {Delta}pD90% was found comparing methods. The GA method had two intraoperative and 10 postoperative rV100% >1.3 cc. For IBCL, five intraoperative and eight postoperative plans had rV100% >1.3 cc. For GA, the mean time under anesthesia was 75 min and 87 min for Pd-103 and I-125 implants, respectively. For IBCL, the mean time was 86 and 98 min for Pd-103 and I-125. There was a statistical difference between the methods when comparing mean time under anesthesia. Conclusions: Dosimetrically relevant endpoints were equivalent between the two methods. Currently, time under anesthesia is longer using the IBCL technique but has decreased over time. IBCL is a straightforward brachytherapy technique that can be implemented into clinical practice as an alternative to gun applicators.

Zauls, A. Jason; Ashenafi, Michael S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Onicescu, Georgiana [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Clarke, Harry S. [Department of Urology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Marshall, David T., E-mail: marshadt@musc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

2011-11-15

234

Direct 2-Arm Comparison Shows Benefit of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost vs External Beam Radiation Therapy Alone for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients treated for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer with a single schedule of either external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) boost or EBRT alone. Methods and Materials: From 2001-2006, 344 patients received EBRT with HDRB boost for definitive treatment of intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. The prescribed EBRT dose was 46 Gy in 23 fractions, with a HDR boost of 19.5 Gy in 3 fractions. This cohort was compared to a contemporaneously treated cohort who received EBRT to 74 Gy in 37 fractions, using a matched pair analysis. Three-dimensional conformal EBRT was used. Matching was performed using a propensity score matching technique. High-risk patients constituted 41% of the matched cohorts. Five-year clinical and biochemical outcomes were analyzed. Results: Initial significant differences in prognostic indicators between the unmatched treatment cohorts were rendered negligible after matching, providing a total of 688 patients. Median biochemical follow-up was 60.5 months. The 5-year freedom from biochemical failure was 79.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.3%-85.0%) and 70.9% (95% CI, 65.4%-76.0%) for the HDRB and EBRT groups, respectively, equating to a hazard ratio of 0.59 (95% CI, 0.43-0.81, P=.0011). Interaction analyses showed no alteration in HDR efficacy when planned androgen deprivation therapy was administered (P=.95), but a strong trend toward reduced efficacy was shown compared to EBRT in high-risk cases (P=.06). Rates of grade 3 urethral stricture were 0.3% (95% CI, 0%-0.9%) and 11.8% (95% CI, 8.1%-16.5%) for EBRT and HDRB, respectively (P<.0001). No differences in clinical outcomes were observed. Conclusions: This comparison of 2 individual contemporaneously treated HDRB and EBRT approaches showed improved freedom from biochemical progression with the HDR approach. The benefit was more pronounced in intermediate- risk patients but needs to be weighed against an increased risk of urethral toxicity.

Khor, Richard [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Duchesne, Gillian [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia) [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Tai, Keen-Hun; Foroudi, Farshad; Chander, Sarat; Van Dyk, Sylvia; Garth, Margaret [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Williams, Scott, E-mail: Scott.Williams@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

2013-03-01

235

Cardiovascular Comorbidity and Mortality in Men With Prostate Cancer Treated With Brachytherapy-Based Radiation With or Without Hormonal Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and sequelae on the risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) in men treated for prostate cancer (PC). Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 5077 men with PC consecutively treated with curative intent between 1997 and 2006 at the Chicago Prostate Cancer Center. Cox and Fine and Gray's competing risks regression multivariable analyses were performed, assessing whether cardiovascular comorbidity impacted the risk of ACM and PC-specific mortality, respectively, adjusting for CAD risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, or hypertension) and sequelae (congestive heart failure or myocardial infarction), age, year and type of treatment, and known PC prognostic factors. Results: When compared with men with no comorbidity there was a significantly increased risk of ACM in men with congestive heart failure or myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.96, P<.001) and in men with diabetes mellitus (AHR 1.60, P=.03) and hypertension (AHR 1.25, P=.04). In contrast, men with hypercholesterolemia had a similar risk of ACM (AHR 0.68, P=.17) when compared with men with no comorbidity. Other factors associated with a significantly increased risk of ACM included age (AHR 1.09, P<.001), prostate-specific antigen level (AHR 1.25, P=.008), and Gleason score 8-10 disease (AHR 1.71, P=.003). Cardiovascular comorbidity did not impact the risk of PC-specific mortality. Conclusions: In addition to age and unfavorable PC prognostic factors, select CAD risk factors and sequelae are associated with an increased risk of ACM in men treated for PC. These comorbidity prognostic factors predict time courses of mortality from competing causes, which may be factored into the decision-making process when considering management options for PC in a given individual.

Nanda, Akash, E-mail: akash.nanda@orlandohealth.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, Florida (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, Florida (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut (United States)] [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut (United States); Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H. [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, Illinois (United States)] [Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, Illinois (United States); D'Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

2013-04-01

236

High-dose-rate brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy combined with long-term hormonal therapy for high-risk and very high-risk prostate cancer: outcomes after 5-year follow-up.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria-defined high-risk (HR) and very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer. Data from 178 HR (n = 96, 54%) and VHR (n = 82, 46%) prostate cancer patients who underwent (192)Ir-HDR brachytherapy and hypofractionated EBRT with long-term ADT between 2003 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After five fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent ? 6 months of neoadjuvant ADT, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months after EBRT. The median follow-up was 61 months (range, 25-94 months) from the start of radiotherapy. The 5-year biochemical non-evidence of disease, freedom from clinical failure and overall survival rates were 90.6% (HR, 97.8%; VHR, 81.9%), 95.2% (HR, 97.7%; VHR, 92.1%), and 96.9% (HR, 100%; VHR, 93.3%), respectively. The highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late genitourinary toxicities were Grade 2 in 7.3% of patients and Grade 3 in 9.6%. The highest late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 2 in 2.8% of patients and Grade 3 in 0%. Although the 5-year outcome of this tri-modality approach seems favorable, further follow-up is necessary to validate clinical and survival advantages of this intensive approach compared with the standard EBRT approach. PMID:24222312

Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Satoh, Takefumi; Kitano, Masashi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Soda, Itaru; Kurosaka, Shinji; Sekiguchi, Akane; Kimura, Masaki; Kawakami, Shogo; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hayakawa, Kazushige

2014-05-01

237

AAPM recommendations on dose prescription and reporting methods for permanent interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer: Report of Task Group 137  

SciTech Connect

During the past decade, permanent radioactive source implantation of the prostate has become the standard of care for selected prostate cancer patients, and the techniques for implantation have evolved in many different forms. Although most implants use {sup 125}I or {sup 103}Pd sources, clinical use of {sup 131}Cs sources has also recently been introduced. These sources produce different dose distributions and irradiate the tumors at different dose rates. Ultrasound was used originally to guide the planning and implantation of sources in the tumor. More recently, CT and/or MR are used routinely in many clinics for dose evaluation and planning. Several investigators reported that the tumor volumes and target volumes delineated from ultrasound, CT, and MR can vary substantially because of the inherent differences in these imaging modalities. It has also been reported that these volumes depend critically on the time of imaging after the implant. Many clinics, in particular those using intraoperative implantation, perform imaging only on the day of the implant. Because the effects of edema caused by surgical trauma can vary from one patient to another and resolve at different rates, the timing of imaging for dosimetry evaluation can have a profound effect on the dose reported (to have been delivered), i.e., for the same implant (same dose delivered), CT at different timing can yield different doses reported. Also, many different loading patterns and margins around the tumor volumes have been used, and these may lead to variations in the dose delivered. In this report, the current literature on these issues is reviewed, and the impact of these issues on the radiobiological response is estimated. The radiobiological models for the biological equivalent dose (BED) are reviewed. Starting with the BED model for acute single doses, the models for fractionated doses, continuous low-dose-rate irradiation, and both homogeneous and inhomogeneous dose distributions, as well as tumor cure probability models, are reviewed. Based on these developments in literature, the AAPM recommends guidelines for dose prescription from a physics perspective for routine patient treatment, clinical trials, and for treatment planning software developers. The authors continue to follow the current recommendations on using D{sub 90} and V{sub 100} as the primary quantities, with more specific guidelines on the use of the imaging modalities and the timing of the imaging. The AAPM recommends that the postimplant evaluation should be performed at the optimum time for specific radionuclides. In addition, they encourage the use of a radiobiological model with a specific set of parameters to facilitate relative comparisons of treatment plans reported by different institutions using different loading patterns or radionuclides.

Nath, Ravinder; Bice, William S.; Butler, Wayne M.; Chen Zhe; Meigooni, Ali S.; Narayana, Vrinda; Rivard, Mark J.; Yu Yan [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510 (United States); International Medical Physics, San Antonio, Texas 78259 (United States); Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia 26003 (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore University Hospital-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset, New York 11030 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Providence Cancer Center, Southfield, Michigan 48075 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States)

2009-11-15

238

Phase II Trial of Radiation Dose Escalation With Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Suppression in Unfavorable Prostate Cancer: Feasibility Report  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist-based androgen suppressive therapy (AST) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for high-risk (HRPC) or very-high-risk prostate cancer (VHRPC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and October 2006, 134 patients (median age, 70 years) with either National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria-defined HRPC (n = 47, 35.1%) or VHRPC (n = 87, 64.9%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 14.6 ng/mL, a median clinical stage of T2c, and a median Gleason score of 7. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (54 Gy in 30 fractions) was followed by HDR brachytherapy (19 Gy in 4 b.i.d. treatments). Androgen suppressive therapy started 0-3 months before three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and continued for 2 years. Results: One implant was repositioned with a new procedure (0.7%). Five patients (3.7%) discontinued AST at a median of 13 months (range, 6-18 months) because of disease progression (n = 1), hot flashes (n = 2), fatigue (n = 1), and impotence (n = 1). After a median follow-up of 37.4 months (range, 24-90 months), the highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late urinary toxicities were Grade 0 in 47.8%, Grade 1 in 38.1%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 6.7% of patients. Maximal late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 0 in 73.1%, Grade 1 in 16.4%, Grade 2 in 7.5%, and Grade 3 in 2.9% of patients. There were no Grade 4 or 5 events. Conclusions: Intermediate-term results show that dose escalation with HDR brachytherapy combined with long-term AST is feasible and has a toxicity profile similar to that reported by previous HDR brachytherapy studies.

Valero, Jeanette; Cambeiro, Mauricio [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Galan, Carlos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de la Rioja, Logrono (Spain); Teijeira, Mercedes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Divino Valles, Burgos (Spain); Romero, Pilar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Zudaire, Javier [Department of Urology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Aristu, Jose Javier [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain); Martinez-Monge, Rafael, E-mail: rmartinezm@unav.e [Department of Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarre, Navarre (Spain)

2010-02-01

239

Comparison of Different Fractionation Schedules Toward a Single Fraction in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Using 3-Dimensional Radiobiological Models  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of the present study was the investigation of different fractionation schemes to estimate their clinical impact. For this purpose, widely applied radiobiological models and dosimetric measures were used to associate their results with clinical findings. Methods and Materials: The dose distributions of 12 clinical high-dose-rate brachytherapy implants for prostate were evaluated in relation to different fractionation schemes. The fractionation schemes compared were: (1) 1 fraction of 20 Gy; (2) 2 fractions of 14 Gy; (3) 3 fractions of 11 Gy; and (4) 4 fractions of 9.5 Gy. The clinical effectiveness of the different fractionation schemes was estimated through the complication-free tumor control probability (P{sub +}), the biologically effective uniform dose, and the generalized equivalent uniform dose index. Results: For the different fractionation schemes, the tumor control probabilities were 98.5% in 1 × 20 Gy, 98.6% in 2 × 14 Gy, 97.5% in 3 × 11 Gy, and 97.8% in 4 × 9.5 Gy. The corresponding P{sub +} values were 88.8% in 1 × 20 Gy, 83.9% in 2 × 14 Gy, 86.0% in 3 × 11 Gy, and 82.3% in 4 × 9.5 Gy. With use of the fractionation scheme 4 × 9.5 Gy as reference, the isoeffective schemes regarding tumor control for 1, 2, and 3 fractions were 1 × 19.68 Gy, 2 × 13.75 Gy, and 3 × 11.05 Gy. The optimum fractionation schemes for 1, 2, 3, and 4 fractions were 1 × 19.16 Gy with a P{sub +} of 91.8%, 2 × 13.2 Gy with a P{sub +} of 89.6%, 3 × 10.6 Gy with a P{sub +} of 88.4%, and 4 × 9.02 Gy with a P{sub +} of 86.9%. Conclusions: Among the fractionation schemes 1 × 20 Gy, 2 × 14 Gy, 3 × 11 Gy, and 4 × 9.5 Gy, the first scheme was more effective in terms of P{sub +}. After performance of a radiobiological optimization, it was shown that a single fraction of 19.2 to 19.7 Gy (average 19.5 Gy) should produce at least the same benefit as that given by the 4 × 9.5 Gy scheme, and it should reduce the expected total complication probability by approximately 40% to 55%.

Mavroidis, Panayiotis, E-mail: mavroidis@uthscsa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Milickovic, Natasa [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Cruz, Wilbert F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Tselis, Nikolaos [Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Karabis, Andreas [Pi-Medical Ltd., Athens (Greece); Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Nikos [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Zamboglou, Nikolaos [Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Baltas, Dimos [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

2014-01-01

240

Analysis of prognostic factors in localized high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with HDR brachytherapy, hypofractionated 3D-CRT and neoadjuvant/adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (trimodality therapy).  

PubMed

Trimodality therapy consisting of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) and adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT) has been used to treat localized high-risk prostate cancer. In this study, an analysis of patients receiving the trimodality therapy was performed to identify prognostic factors of biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS). Between May 2005 and November 2008, 123 high-risk prostate cancer patients (D'Amico classification) were treated with NHT prior to HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Among these patients, 121 had completed AHT. The patients were assigned by time to be treated with a low-dose or high-dose arm of HDR brachytherapy with subsequent hypofractionated 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Multivariate analysis was used to determine prognostic factors for bRFS. With a median follow-up of 60 months, the 5-year bRFS for all patients was 84.3% (high-dose arm, 92.9%; low-dose arm, 72.4%, P = 0.047). bRFS in the pre-HDR PSA ? 0.1 ng/ml subgroup was significantly improved compared with that in the pre-HDR PSA > 0.1 ng/ml subgroup (88.3% vs 68.2%, P = 0.034). On multivariate analysis, dose of HDR (P = 0.045, HR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.038-0.97) and pre-HDR PSA level (P = 0.02 HR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.18-10.16) were significant prognostic factors predicting bRFS. In high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with the trimodality therapy, the dose of HDR and pre-HDR PSA were significant prognostic factors. The pre-HDR PSA ? 0.1 subgroup had significantly improved bRFS. Further studies are needed to confirm the relevance of pre-HDR PSA in trimodality therapy. PMID:24351458

Aoki, Manabu; Miki, Kenta; Kido, Masahito; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Kijima, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Masao; Egawa, Shin; Kanehira, Chihiro

2014-05-01

241

Antitumor effects of 32P-chromic-poly (L-lactide) brachytherapy in nude mice with human prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effects and tissue distribution of 32P-chromic-poly (L-lactide) (32P-CP-PLLA) in nude mice with human prostate cancer. Tumor models were obtained by transplantation of PC-3M tumor cells into male BALB/c nude mice. Animals were randomly divided into control, 32P-chromic phosphate (32P-CP) colloid and 32P-CP-PLLA groups (all n=20). A series of indices were investigated, including apoptosis of tumor cells, rate of apoptosis, expression of caspase 3 and 8, biodistribution and intratumoral concentration of 32P-CP-PLLA, intensity of radioactivity, tumor volume and microvessel density (MVD). Highly concentrated radioactivity of 32P-CP-PLLA in the tumor mass was detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning. The residual activities of the 32P-CP-PLLA and 32P-CP colloid groups were 3.02±0.32 and 1.76±0.31 MBq, respectively, on day 14 following treatment. The tumor inhibition rates were 67.24±3.55 and 55.92±7.65%, respectively (P<0.01). Necrotic changes, in conjunction with apoptosis, were observed in the treatment group. MVD values for the 32P-CP-PLLA and 32P-CP colloid groups were 28.24±10.07 and 36.15±11.06, respectively. 32P-CP-PLLA showed an excellent capacity for killing tumor cells, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:24137391

SUN, LIUJING; ZHU, XISHAN; XU, LONGBAO; WANG, ZIZHENG; SHAO, GUOQIANG; ZHAO, JUN

2013-01-01

242

Results of stereotactic brachytherapy used in the initial management of patients with glioblastoma  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have shown a survival benefit for patients with recurrent glioblastomas treated with stereotactic brachytherapy. On the basis of these encouraging results, we began a prospective study in 1987 to evaluate the use of brachytherapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Patients were considered eligible for this study if they met the following criteria: Karnofsky performance status 70% or greater; tumor size not greater than 5 cm in any dimension; a radiographically well delineated, supratentorial lesion not involving the ependymal surfaces; and pathologically confirmed glioblastoma. We treated 35 such patients between 1987 and 1990 with stereotactic brachytherapy as part of their initial therapy. The treatment protocol involved surgery, partial brain external-beam radiotherapy, and stereotactic brachytherapy with temporary high-activity iodine 125 sources giving an additional 50 Gy to the tumor bed. Chemotherapy was not used in the initial management of these 35 patients. To compare our results with those obtained in a matched control group, we identified 40 patients with glioblastoma treated with surgery and external radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, between 1977 and 1986 at our institution. These patients had clinical and radiographic characteristics that would have made them eligible for the brachytherapy protocol. Survival rates at 1 and 2 years after diagnosis were 87% and 57%, respectively, for patients receiving brachytherapy versus 40% and 12.5%, respectively, for the controls (P less than .001). We conclude that stereotactic brachytherapy improves the survival of patients with glioblastoma when it can be incorporated into the initial treatment approach. Unfortunately, only about one in four patients with glioblastoma are suitable candidates for brachytherapy at the time of initial presentation.

Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E. 3d.; Wen, P.Y.; Shea, W.M.; Coleman, C.N.; Kooy, H.M.; Fine, H.A.; Nedzi, L.A.; Silver, B.; Riese, N.E. (Joint Center for Radiation Therapy, Boston, MA (USA))

1990-12-19

243

A phase II study of external beam radiotherapy combined with permanent source brachytherapy for intermediate-risk, clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate: Preliminary results of RTOG P-0019  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the rate of acute and late Grade 3-5 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity after treatment with external beam radiotherapy and permanent source brachytherapy in a multi-institutional, cooperative group setting. Methods and Materials: All patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions), followed 2-6 weeks later by an interstitial implant using {sup 125}I to deliver an additional 108 Gy. Late genitourinary toxicity was graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria Version 2.0, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late radiation morbidity scoring system was used for all other toxicity. Results: A total of 138 patients from 28 institutions were entered on this study. Acute toxicity information was available in 131 patients, and 127 patients were analyzable for late toxicity. Acute Grade 3 toxicity was documented in 10 of 131 patients (7.6%). No Grade 4 or 5 acute toxicity has been observed. The 18-month month estimate of late Grade 3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity was 3.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.1-6.5). No late Grade 4 or 5 toxicity has been observed. Conclusions: The acute and late morbidity observed in this multi-institutional, cooperative group study is consistent with previous reports from single institutions with significant prostate brachytherapy experience.

Lee, W. Robert [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)]. E-mail: wrlee@wfubmc.edu; De Silvio, Michelle [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lawton, Colleen [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Gillin, Michael [M.D. Anderson Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Morton, Gerard [Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Firat, Selim [Albert Einstein School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Baikadi, Madhava [Albert Einstein School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kuettel, Michael [Roswell Park Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY (United States); Greven, Kathryn [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Sandler, Howard [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2006-03-01

244

The impact of activating source dwell positions outside the CTV on the dose to treated normal tissue volumes in TRUS guided 3D conformal interstitial HDR brachytherapy of prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Dose coverage is crucial for successful treatment in mono-brachytherapy. Since few and very high dose fractions are used, there is an important balance between dwell positioning outside the clinical target volume (CTV) and possible damage on adjacent normal tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of having dwell positions close to the CTV surface, while maintaining an acceptable dose distribution, and to investigate the robustness in terms of known geometrical uncertainties of the implant. Material and methods This study included 37 patients who had received brachytherapy for prostate cancer as a monotherapy with the following schedules: 2 × 14 Gy or 3 × 11 Gy, each fraction separated by two weeks. The source dwell positions were activated 5 mm outside CTV. New optimizations were simulated for dwell positions at 3, 2, 1, and 0 mm. Inverse and graphical optimization were applied according to the relative dose constraints: V100 CTV ? 97%, Dmax, urethra ? 110%, and D10 rectal mucosa ? 65%. The V100, normal tissue outside CTV was used to evaluate dose variations caused by different dwell positions. Prostate geometries and dose distributions for the different dwell positions outside the CTV were used to investigate the impact on the CTV dose distribution due to geometrical uncertainties. Results Both V100, CTV, and V100, normal tissue decreased, 98.6% to 92.2%, and 17 cm3 to 9.0 cm3, for dwell activation from 5 mm to 0 mm. The evaluation of both simulated longitudinal geometrical uncertainties and different source dwell activations implied that V100, CTV ranged from 98.6% to 86.3%. Conclusions It is possible to reduce the V100, normal tissue by decreasing the source dwell positions outside the CTV from 5 to 3 mm, while maintaining dose constraints. In combination with the estimated geometrical uncertainties, however, the source dwell positions need to be 5 mm from the surface in order to maintain a robust implant. PMID:25337130

Thunberg, Per; Johansson, Bengt; Persliden, Jan

2014-01-01

245

Rectal Bleeding After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Hypofractionated External-Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: The Relationship Between Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters and the Occurrence Rate  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the predictive risk factors for Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer using dose-volume histogram analysis. Methods and Materials: The records of 216 patients treated with HDR-BT combined with EBRT were analyzed. The treatment protocols for HDR-BT were 5 Gy Multiplication-Sign five times in 3 days or 7 Gy Multiplication-Sign three, 10.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign two, or 9 Gy Multiplication-Sign two in 2 days. The EBRT doses ranged from 45 to 51 Gy with a fractional dose of 3 Gy. Results: In 20 patients Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding developed, and the cumulative incidence rate was 9% at 5 years. By converting the HDR-BT and EBRT radiation doses into biologic effective doses (BED), the BED{sub 3} at rectal volumes of 5% and 10% in the patients who experienced bleeding were significantly higher than those in the remaining 196 patients. Univariate analysis showed that a higher rectal BED{sub 3-5%} and the use of fewer needles in brachytherapy were correlated with the incidence of bleeding, but BED{sub 3-5%} was found to be the only significant factor on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The radiation dose delivered to small rectal lesions as 5% is important for predicting Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding after HDR-BT combined with EBRT for prostate cancer.

Okamoto, Masahiko, E-mail: masaoka@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ebara, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Tamaki, Tomoaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Akimoto, Tetsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Kazuto; Miyakubo, Mai; Yamamoto, Takumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Takahashi, Takeo; Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

2012-02-01

246

External-Beam Radiation Therapy and High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy in High and Very High Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Data on Clinical Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 200 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (32.5%) or very high-risk prostate cancer (67.5%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen of 15.2 ng/mL, a clinical stage of T2c, and a Gleason score of 7. Treatment consisted of 54 Gy of external irradiation (three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [3DCRT]) followed by 19 Gy of HDR brachytherapy in four twice-daily treatments. ADT started 0-3 months before 3DCRT and continued for 2 years. Results: One hundred and ninety patients (95%) received 2 years of ADT. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years (range, 2-9), late Grade {>=}2 urinary toxicity was observed in 18% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 was observed in 5%. Prior transurethral resection of the prostate (p = 0.013) and bladder D{sub 50} {>=}1.19 Gy (p = 0.014) were associated with increased Grade {>=}2 urinary complications; age {>=}70 (p = 0.05) was associated with Grade {>=}3 urinary complications. Late Grade {>=}2 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 9% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 in 1.5%. CTV size {>=}35.8 cc (p = 0.007) and D{sub 100} {>=}3.05 Gy (p = 0.01) were significant for increased Grade {>=}2 complications. The 5-year and 9-year biochemical relapse-free survival (nadir + 2) rates were 85.1% and 75.7%, respectively. Patients with Gleason score of 7-10 had a decreased biochemical relapse-free survival (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Intermediate-term results at the 5-year time point indicate a favorable outcome without an increase in the rate of late complications.

Martinez-Monge, Rafael, E-mail: rmartinezm@unav.es [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Cambeiro, Mauricio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio [Department of Medical Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Gaztanaga, Miren; Arbea, Leire [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Pascual, Ignacio [Department of Urology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Aristu, Javier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain)

2012-03-01

247

A prospective quality-of-life study in men with clinically localized prostate carcinoma treated with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, or interstitial brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To prospectively assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and changes in HRQOL during the first year after 3 different treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer.Methods and Materials: Ninety men with T1–T2 adenocarcinoma of the prostate were treated with curative intent between May 1998 and June 1999 and completed a quality-of-life Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) questionnaire before

W. Robert Lee; M. Craig Hall; Richard P McQuellon; L. Douglas Case; David L McCullough

2001-01-01

248

The dosimetry of brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction  

SciTech Connect

There is emerging evidence that brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) is technique-related and may be minimized by careful attention to source placement. Herein, we review the relationship between radiation doses to the prostate gland/surrounding structures and the development of brachytherapy-induced ED. The permanent prostate brachytherapy literature was reviewed using MEDLINE searches to ensure completeness. Although the site-specific structure associated with brachytherapy-induced ED remains unknown, there is an increasing body of data implicating the proximal penis. With day 0 CT-based dosimetry, the dose to 50% (D{sub 50}) and 25% (D{sub 25}) of the bulb of the penis should be maintained below 40% and 60% mPD, respectively, while the crura D{sub 50} should be maintained below 28% mPD to maximize post-brachytherapy potency. To date, there is no data to suggest that either radiation doses to the neurovascular bundles or choice of isotope is associated with brachytherapy-induced ED, while conflicting data has been reported regarding radiation dose to the prostate and the use of supplemental external beam radiation therapy. Although the etiology of brachytherapy-induced ED is likely multifactorial, the available data supports the proximal penis as an important site-specific structure. Refinements in implant technique, including preplanning and intraoperative seed placement, will result in lower radiation doses to the proximal penis with potential improvement in potency preservation.

Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M

2003-12-31

249

Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound  

SciTech Connect

Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant.

Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W. (Northwest Tumor Institute, Seattle, WA (USA))

1990-11-01

250

Papillary tumors of the pineal region: a novel therapeutic option-stereotactic 125iodine brachytherapy.  

PubMed

We evaluated the efficacy of interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) using (125)Iodine ((125)I) seeds for treatment of papillary tumors of the pineal region. Between September 2003 and September 2010, four patients (M/F = 2/2; median age, 57.3 years; range 29.2-69.1 years) with papillary tumors of the pineal region underwent IBT using (125)I seeds. Before brachytherapy two patients underwent endoscopic ventriculo-cisternotomy, because of occlusive hydrocephalus, and subsequent microsurgical resection was performed on one; three patients were primarily treated with IBT. Median tumor volume was 3.3 ml (range 1.6-4 ml), the tumor surface dose ranged between 50 and 65 Gy. For three patients the seeds were implanted permanently whereas one patient received temporary implants (28 days). The median follow-up time was 53.6 months (range 13-103.4 months). After brachytherapy, follow-up MR images revealed complete remission in one patient, partial remission in two, and stable disease in the remaining patient. Neurological status improved in all patients (reduced headache and nausea/vomiting for four patients; improvement of oculomotor dysfunction for two of three patients partially and for one of three patients completely). Neither treatment-related morbidity nor mortality was observed. Our results are indicative of good local control of papillary tumors of the pineal region after IBT, without treatment-related morbidity. PMID:22528796

El Majdoub, Faycal; Blau, Tobias; Hoevels, Mauritius; Bührle, Christian; Deckert, Martina; Treuer, Harald; Sturm, Volker; Maarouf, Mohammad

2012-08-01

251

aallll IIrreell aanndd ccaanncceerr ssttaattiissttiiccss sseeccoonndd rreeppoorrtt 11999988--22000000 Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer  

E-print Network

--22000000 58 Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer

Paxton, Anthony T.

252

FRACTIONATION AND PROTRACTION FOR RADIOTHERAPY OF PROSTATE CARCINOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate whether current fractionation and brachytherapy protraction schemes for the treatment of prostatic cancer with radiation are optimal, or could be improved. Methods and Materials: We analyzed two mature data sets on radiotherapeutic tumor control for prostate cancer, one using EBRT and the other permanent seed implants, to extract the sensitivity to changes in fractionation of prostatic tumors.

DAVID J. BRENNER; D. SC; ERIC J. HALL

1999-01-01

253

Edema associated with I-125 or Pd103 prostate brachytherapy and its impact on post-implant dosimetry: an analysis based on serial CT acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To characterize the magnitude and duration of post-implant edema following the implantation of I-125 or Pd-103 seeds into the prostate and to investigate its effect on the CT-based calculation of the total dose delivered by the implant.Materials and Methods: A pre-implant CT scan and 3 to 5 serial post-implant CT scans were obtained on 10 patients who received either

Frank M. Waterman; Ning Yue; Benjamin W. Corn; Adam P. Dicker

1998-01-01

254

Advanced brachytherapy dosimetric considerations  

E-print Network

The practice of brachytherapy and brachytherapy dosimetry was investigated with emphasis on evaluations of dose distributions and shielding considerations for both photon- and neutron-emitting radionuclides. Monte Carlo ...

Melhus, Christopher S. (Christopher Scott), 1974-

2008-01-01

255

The Adjoint Method for The Optimization of Brachytherapy and Radiotherapy Patient Treatment Planning Procedures Using Monte Carlo Calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project is to investigate the use of the adjoint method, commonly used in the reactor physics community, for the optimization of radiation therapy patient treatment plans. Two different types of radiation therapy are being examined, interstitial brachytherapy and radiotherapy. In brachytherapy radioactive sources are surgically implanted within the diseased organ such as the prostate to treat

D. L. Henderson; S. Yoo; M. Kowalok; T. R. Mackie; B. R. Thomadsen

2001-01-01

256

Coregistered photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging applied to brachytherapy.  

PubMed

Brachytherapy is a form of radiation therapy commonly used in the treatment of prostate cancer wherein sustained radiation doses can be precisely targeted to the tumor area by the implantation of small radioactive seeds around the treatment area. Ultrasound is a popular imaging mode for seed implantation, but the seeds are difficult to distinguish from the tissue structure. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of photoacoustic imaging for identifying brachytherapy seeds in a tissue phantom, comparing the received intensity to endogenous contrast. We have found that photoacoustic imaging at 1064 nm can identify brachytherapy seeds uniquely at laser penetration depths of 5 cm in biological tissue at the ANSI limit for human exposure with a contrast-to-noise ratio of 26.5 dB. Our realtime combined photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging approach may be suitable for brachytherapy seed placement and post-placement verification, potentially allowing for realtime dosimetry assessment during implantation. PMID:21895302

Harrison, Tyler; Zemp, Roger J

2011-08-01

257

Value of perioperative brachytherapy in the management of non-oat cell carcinoma of the lung  

SciTech Connect

Nearly one-half of all patients with non-oat cell carcinoma of the lung are found to have mediastinal lymph node metastases at the time of initial presentation. There is no consensus today on what constitutes best treatment in patients whose disease is confined to the chest and in whom mediastinal lymph node metastases are the only evident site of tumor spread. The overall survival of these patients is so low that the majority have been either excluded from therapy or have been treated palliatively by external radiation therapy. In an attempt to improve the control of mediastinal lymph node metastases in the operable patients, a pilot study was begun in 1977 at Memorial Hospital to determine the value of perioperative brachytherapy (permanent Iodine-125 implantation of primary lung and a temporary Iridium-192 implantation of the mediastinum) with or without resection followed by a moderate dose of postoperative external beam irradiation. This pilot study has demonstrated that the combination of surgery, perioperative brachytherapy and external beam irradiation in non-oat cell carcinoma of the lung, metastatic to mediastinal lymph nodes, can improve the locoregional control and prolong survival with minimal early or late morbidity.

Hilaris, B.S.; Nori, D.; Beattie, E.J. Jr.; Martini, N.

1983-08-01

258

Design and optimization of a brachytherapy robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trans-rectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) low dose rate (LDR) interstitial brachytherapy has become a popular procedure for the treatment of prostate cancer, the most common type of non-skin cancer among men. The current TRUS technique of LDR implantation may result in less than ideal coverage of the tumor with increased risk of negative response such as rectal toxicity and urinary retention. This technique is limited by the skill of the physician performing the implant, the accuracy of needle localization, and the inherent weaknesses of the procedure itself. The treatment may require 100 or more sources and 25 needles, compounding the inaccuracy of the needle localization procedure. A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy may increase the accuracy of needle placement while minimizing the effect of physician technique in the TRUS procedure. Furthermore, a robot may improve associated toxicities by utilizing angled insertions and freeing implantations from constraints applied by the 0.5 cm-spaced template used in the TRUS method. Within our group, Lin et al. have designed a new type of LDR source. The "directional" source is a seed designed to be partially shielded. Thus, a directional, or anisotropic, source does not emit radiation in all directions. The source can be oriented to irradiate cancerous tissues while sparing normal ones. This type of source necessitates a new, highly accurate method for localization in 6 degrees of freedom. A robot is the best way to accomplish this task accurately. The following presentation of work describes the invention and optimization of a new prostate brachytherapy robot that fulfills these goals. Furthermore, some research has been dedicated to the use of the robot to perform needle insertion tasks (brachytherapy, biopsy, RF ablation, etc.) in nearly any other soft tissue in the body. This can be accomplished with the robot combined with automatic, magnetic tracking.

Meltsner, Michael A.

259

Comparison of Prophylactic Naftopidil, Tamsulosin, and Silodosin for {sup 125}I Brachytherapy-Induced Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients With Prostate Cancer: Randomized Controlled Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the efficacy of three {alpha}{sub 1A}/{alpha}{sub 1D}-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonists-naftopidil, tamsulosin, and silodosin-that have differing affinities for the {alpha}{sub 1}-AR subtypes in treating urinary morbidities in Japanese men with {sup 125}I prostate implantation (PI) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This single-institution prospective randomized controlled trial compared naftopidil, tamsulosin, and silodosin in patients undergoing PI. Patients were randomized and received either naftopidil, tamsulosin, or silodosin. Treatment began 1 day after PI and continued for 1 year. The primary efficacy variables were the changes in total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and postvoid residual urine (PVR). The secondary efficacy variables were changes in IPSS storage score and IPSS voiding score from baseline to set points during the study (1, 3, 6, and 12 months). Results: Two hundred twelve patients were evaluated in this study between June 2006 and February 2009: 71, 70, and 71 patients in the naftopidil, tamsulosin, and silodosin groups, respectively. With respect to the primary efficacy variables, the mean changes in the total IPSS at 1 month after PI in the naftopidil, tamsulosin, and silodosin groups were +10.3, +8.9, and +7.5, respectively. There were significantly greater decreases with silodosin than naftopidil at 1 month in the total IPSS. The mean changes in the PVR at 6 months were +14.6, +23.7, and +5.7 mL in the naftopidil, tamsulosin, and silodosin groups, respectively; silodosin showed a significant improvement in the PVR at 6 months vs. tamsulosin. With respect to the secondary efficacy variables, the mean changes in the IPSS voiding score at 1 month in the naftopidil, tamsulosin, and silodosin groups were +6.5, +5.6, and +4.5, respectively; silodosin showed a significant improvement in the IPSS voiding score at 1 month vs. naftopidil. Conclusions: Silodosin has a greater impact on improving PI-induced lower urinary tract symptoms than the other two agents.

Tsumura, Hideyasu, E-mail: sugan@pd5.so-net.ne.jp [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Satoh, Takefumi [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Ishiyama, Hiromichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Tabata, Ken-ichi [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Kotani, Shouko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Minamida, Satoru; Kimura, Masaki; Fujita, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Kazumasa [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Kitano, Masashi; Hayakawa, Kazushige [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Baba, Shiro [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

2011-11-15

260

A new endoscopic ultrasonography image processing method to evaluate the prognosis for pancreatic cancer treated with interstitial brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To develop a fuzzy classification method to score the texture features of pancreatic cancer in endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) images and evaluate its utility in making prognosis judgments for patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer treated by EUS-guided interstitial brachytherapy. METHODS: EUS images from our retrospective database were analyzed. The regions of interest were drawn, and texture features were extracted, selected, and scored with a fuzzy classification method using a C++ program. Then, patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer were enrolled to receive EUS-guided iodine 125 radioactive seed implantation. Their fuzzy classification scores, tumor volumes, and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) levels before and after the brachytherapy were recorded. The association between the changes in these parameters and overall survival was analyzed statistically. RESULTS: EUS images of 153 patients with pancreatic cancer and 63 non-cancer patients were analyzed. A total of 25 consecutive patients were enrolled, and they tolerated the brachytherapy well without any complications. There was a correlation between the change in the fuzzy classification score and overall survival (Spearman test, r = 0.616, P = 0.001), whereas no correlation was found to be significant between the change in tumor volume (P = 0.663), CA199 level (P = 0.659), and overall survival. There were 15 patients with a decrease in their fuzzy classification score after brachytherapy, whereas the fuzzy classification score increased in another 10 patients. There was a significant difference in overall survival between the two groups (67 d vs 151 d, P = 0.001), but not in the change of tumor volume and CA199 level. CONCLUSION: Using the fuzzy classification method to analyze EUS images of pancreatic cancer is feasible, and the method can be used to make prognosis judgments for patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer treated by interstitial brachytherapy. PMID:24151368

Xu, Wei; Liu, Yan; Lu, Zheng; Jin, Zhen-Dong; Hu, Yu-Hong; Yu, Jian-Guo; Li, Zhao-Shen

2013-01-01

261

Prostate Adenocarcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Prostate Adenocarcinoma Prostate Adenocarcinoma Last Updated: April 01, 2013 What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is a disease of the prostate, a walnut-size gland in the male reproductive system.  Nearly all prostate

262

[Brachytherapy for anal cancers].  

PubMed

Low dose-rate brachytherapy as a boost after concomitant chemoradiation therapy is a standard of care for locally advanced anal carcinoma, providing a rigorous selection taking into account the initial staging and tumor response to external beam radiotherapy. Local control is likely to be superior when the boost is performed with brachytherapy than with external beam radiotherapy. The several steps of the brachytherapy procedure are described. The standard treatment scheme is a concomitant chemoradiation therapy, including 45 Gy (1,8 Gy × 5) pelvic external beam radiotherapy and two courses of 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C, followed by a 15 Gy brachytherapy boost with a gap limited to 2 to 3 weeks. Higher irradiation dose for the most advanced cases has not yet demonstrated a therapeutic gain in terms of colostomy free survival. Exclusive brachytherapy for in-situ carcinoma or invasive carcinoma less than 10mm is not recommended due to a high risk of local recurrence. Pulsed dose rate brachytherapy is an alternative to low dose rate brachytherapy (iridium wires) providing the respect of the recommended dose rate (0.5 to 1 Gy/hour). High dose rate brachytherapy is still under evaluation. PMID:23582604

Pommier, P; Mirabel, X; Hannoun-Lévi, J-M; Malet, C; Gérard, J-P; Peiffert, D

2013-04-01

263

A permanent breast seed implant as partial breast radiation therapy for early-stage patients: A comparison of palladium-103 and iodine-125 isotopes based on radiation safety considerations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) technique has been developed as a new form of partial adjuvant radiation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. This study compares iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) and palladium-103 ({sup 103}Pd) isotopes by examining the exposure and effective dose (ED) to a patient's partner.Methods and Materials: A low-energy survey meter was used to measure exposure rates as a function of bolus thickness placed over {sup 103}Pd or {sup 125}I seeds. A general mathematical expression for the initial exposure rate at 1 m (x{sub o,1m}) from the skin surface as a function of the implant size, R, and the distance between the skin surface and the implant, d, was derived. Also, a second general equation is proposed to calculate the ED to the patient's partner.Results: The initial exposure rate at 1 meter and the ED are calculated as follows: x{sub o,1m} = (3{alpha})/2R{sup 3}{center_dot}{beta}{sup 3} [e{sup -{beta}}{sup (2R+d)}({beta}R + 1) + e{sup -{beta}}{sup {center_dot}}{sup d}({beta}R - 1)], and ED = aR{sup b} {center_dot} [e{sup -c(2R+d)} {center_dot} (cR + 1) + e{sup -cd} -bar (cR - 1)]. For {sup 125}I, the parameters are: {alpha} = 0.154409, {beta} = 0.388460, a = 197, b = -0.95, and c = 0.38846. For {sup 103}Pd, they are: {alpha} = 0.06877, {beta} = 0.421098, a = 18.6, b -0.78, and c = 0.421098. For implant diameters varying from 2 to 6 cm and skin-to-implant distances varying from 0.7 to 4 cm, the ED is consistently below 2.6 mSv using the {sup 103}Pd isotope, but more than 5 mSv in many instances and possibly up to 20 mSv using {sup 125}I.Conclusions: PBSI using {sup 103}Pd seeds appears safe because the patient's partner ED is consistently below 5 mSv. The{sup 125}I isotope is not recommended for PBSI.

Keller, Brian [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook and Women's Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sankreacha, Raxa [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook and Women's Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Rakovitch, Eileen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook and Women's Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); O'Brien, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook and Women's Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Pignol, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook and Women's Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Jean-Philippe.Pignol@sw.ca

2005-06-01

264

Automatic Brachytherapy Seed Placement Under MRI Guidance  

PubMed Central

The paper presents a robotic method of performing low dose rate prostate brachytherapy under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The design and operation of a fully automated MR compatible seed injector is presented. This is used with the MrBot robot for transperineal percutaneous prostate access. A new image-registration marker and algorithms are also presented. The system is integrated and tested with a 3T MRI scanner. Tests compare three different registration methods, assess the precision of performing automated seed deployment, and use the seeds to assess the accuracy of needle targeting under image guidance. Under the ideal conditions of the in vitro experiments, results show outstanding image-guided needle and seed placement accuracy. PMID:17694871

Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Muntener, Michael; Mazilu, Dumitru; Schar, Michael; Stoianovici, Dan

2011-01-01

265

[Brachytherapy in France: Current situation and economic outlook due to the unavailability of iridium wires].  

PubMed

In 2013, about 6000 patients were treated with brachytherapy, the number diminishing by 2.6% per year since 2008. Prostate, breast and gynecological cancers are the most common types of cancers. Since 2008, the number of brachytherapy facilities has decreased by 18%. In medicoeconomic terms, brachytherapy faces many problems: the coding system is outdated; brachytherapy treatments cost as much as internal radiation; fees do not cover costs; since iridium wire has disappeared from the market, the technique will be transferred to more expensive high-speed or pulse dose rates. The French financing grid based on the national study of costs lags behind changes in such treatments and in the best of cases, hospitals resorting to alternatives such as in-hospital brachytherapy are funded at 46% of their additional costs. Brachytherapy is a reference technique. With intense pressure on hospital pricing, financing brachytherapy facilities will become even more problematic as a consequence of the disappearance of iridium 192 wires. The case of brachytherapy illustrates the limits of the French financing system and raises serious doubts as to its responsiveness. PMID:25195115

Le Vu, B; Boucher, S

2014-10-01

266

Directional interstitial brachytherapy from simulation to application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organs at risk (OAR) are sometimes adjacent to or embedded in or overlap with the clinical target volume (CTV) to be treated. The purpose of this PhD study is to develop directionally low energy gamma-emitting interstitial brachytherapy sources. These sources can be applied between OAR to selectively reduce hot spots in the OARs and normal tissues. The reduction of dose over undesired regions can expand patient eligibility or reduce toxicities for the treatment by conventional interstitial brachytherapy. This study covers the development of a directional source from design optimization to construction of the first prototype source. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to simulate the radiation transport for the designs of directional sources. We have made a special construction kit to assemble radioactive and gold-shield components precisely into D-shaped titanium containers of the first directional source. Directional sources have a similar dose distribution as conventional sources on the treated side but greatly reduced dose on the shielded side, with a sharp dose gradient between them. A three-dimensional dose deposition kernel for the 125I directional source has been calculated. Treatment plans can use both directional and conventional 125I sources at the same source strength for low-dose-rate (LDR) implants to optimize the dose distributions. For prostate tumors, directional 125I LDR brachytherapy can potentially reduce genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities and improve potency preservation for low risk patients. The combination of better dose distribution of directional implants and better therapeutic ratio between tumor response and late reactions enables a novel temporary LDR treatment, as opposed to permanent or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the intermediate risk T2b and high risk T2c tumors. Supplemental external-beam treatments can be shortened with a better brachytherapy boost for T3 tumors. In conclusion, we have successfully finished the design optimization and construction of the first prototype directional source. Potential clinical applications and potential benefits of directional sources have been shown for prostate and breast tumors.

Lin, Liyong

267

Prostate Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Aging & Health A to Z Prostate Diseases Basic Facts & Information What are Prostate Diseases? The prostate—one of the components of a man's sex organs—is a ... out anything serious. The Most Common Types of Prostate Diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis Prostate cancer ...

268

Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers of men in the Western hemisphere and is second\\u000a only to lung cancer for male cancer mortality. Most patients are diagnosed in the early\\/clinically localized stage, which\\u000a can be treated curatively with radiation therapy alone. Innovative methods such as brachytherapy, three-dimensional conformal\\u000a radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and IMRT (intensity modulated

Moshe E. Stein; Dirk Boehmer; Abraham Kuten

269

Integration of IMRT and Brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated courses of IMRT-brachytherapy treatment offer many clinical advantages. These range from reducing the toxicity profile associated with standard combinations of external beam therapy and brachytherapy to achieving dose intensification or accelerated fractionation to an extent not possible by either modality alone. However, combined modality treatment presents several challenges that currently available brachytherapy and IMRT planning technology are ill equipped

Jeffrey F. Williamson

270

Optimal drug release schedule for in-situ radiosensitization of image guided permanent prostate implants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planned in-situ radiosensitization may improve the therapeutic ratio of image guided 125I prostate brachytherapy. Spacers used in permanent implants may be manufactured from a radiosensitizer-releasing polymer to deliver protracted localized sensitization of the prostate. Such devices will have a limited drug-loading capacity, and the drug release schedule that optimizes outcome, under such a constraint, is not known. This work determines the optimal elution schedules for 125I prostate brachytherapy. The interaction between brachytherapy dose distributions and drug distribution around drug eluting spacers is modeled using a linear-quadratic (LQ) model of cell kill. Clinical brachytherapy plans were used to calculate the biologic effective dose (BED) for planned radiation dose distributions while adding the spatial distributions of radiosensitizer while varying the temporal release schedule subject to a constraint on the drug capacity of the eluting spacers. Results: The greatest increase in BED is achieved by schedules with the greatest sensitization early in the implant. Making brachytherapy spacers from radiosensitizer eluting polymer transforms inert parts of the implant process into a means of enhancing the effect of the brachytherapy radiation. Such an approach may increase the therapeutic ratio of prostate brachytherapy or offer a means of locally boosting the radiation effect without increasing the radiation dose to surrounding tissues.

Cormack, Robert A.; Nguyen, Paul L.; D'Amico, Anthony V.; Sridhar, Sri; Makrigiorgos, Mike

2011-03-01

271

Prostate Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... a combination of medicines, surgery, and lifestyle changes. Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is common among American men. Your ... fruits and vegetables may raise your risk. Diagnosing Prostate Cancer At the start, prostate cancer does not cause ...

272

Semiautomatic 3-D Prostate Segmentation from TRUS Images Using Spherical Harmonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate brachytherapy quality assessment procedure should be performed while the patient is still on the operating table since this would enable physicians to implant additional seeds immediately into the prostate if necessary thus reducing the costs and increasing patient outcome. Seed placement procedure is readily performed under fluoroscopy and ultrasound guidance. Therefore, it has been proposed that seed locations be

Ismail B. Tutar; Sayan D. Pathak; Lixin Gong; Paul S. Cho; Kent Wallner; Yongmin Kim

2006-01-01

273

Brachytherapy seed localization using geometric and linear programming techniques.  

PubMed

We propose an optimization algorithm to solve the brachytherapy seed localization problem in prostate brachytherapy. Our algorithm is based on novel geometric approaches to exploit the special structure of the problem and relies on a number of key observations which help us formulate the optimization problem as a minimization integer program (IP). Our IP model precisely defines the feasibility polyhedron for this problem using a polynomial number of half-spaces; the solution to its corresponding linear program is rounded to yield an integral solution to our task of determining correspondences between seeds in multiple projection images. The algorithm is efficient in theory as well as in practice and performs well on simulation data (approximately 98% accuracy) and real X-ray images (approximately 95% accuracy). We present in detail the underlying ideas and an extensive set of performance evaluations based on our implementation. PMID:17896600

Singh, Vikas; Mukherjee, Lopamudra; Xu, Jinhui; Hoffmann, Kenneth R; Dinu, Petru M; Podgorsak, Matthew

2007-09-01

274

An approach to using conventional brachytherapy software for clinical treatment planning of complex, Monte Carlo-based brachytherapy dose distributions  

SciTech Connect

Certain brachytherapy dose distributions, such as those for LDR prostate implants, are readily modeled by treatment planning systems (TPS) that use the superposition principle of individual seed dose distributions to calculate the total dose distribution. However, dose distributions for brachytherapy treatments using high-Z shields or having significant material heterogeneities are not currently well modeled using conventional TPS. The purpose of this study is to establish a new treatment planning technique (Tufts technique) that could be applied in some clinical situations where the conventional approach is not acceptable and dose distributions present cylindrical symmetry. Dose distributions from complex brachytherapy source configurations determined with Monte Carlo methods were used as input data. These source distributions included the 2 and 3 cm diameter Valencia skin applicators from Nucletron, 4-8 cm diameter AccuBoost peripheral breast brachytherapy applicators from Advanced Radiation Therapy, and a 16 mm COMS-based eye plaque using {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs seeds. Radial dose functions and 2D anisotropy functions were obtained by positioning the coordinate system origin along the dose distribution cylindrical axis of symmetry. Origin:tissue distance and active length were chosen to minimize TPS interpolation errors. Dosimetry parameters were entered into the PINNACLE TPS, and dose distributions were subsequently calculated and compared to the original Monte Carlo-derived dose distributions. The new planning technique was able to reproduce brachytherapy dose distributions for all three applicator types, producing dosimetric agreement typically within 2% when compared with Monte Carlo-derived dose distributions. Agreement between Monte Carlo-derived and planned dose distributions improved as the spatial resolution of the fitted dosimetry parameters improved. For agreement within 5% throughout the clinical volume, spatial resolution of dosimetry parameter data {<=}0.1 cm was required, and the virtual brachytherapy source data set included over 5000 data points. On the other hand, the lack of consideration for applicator heterogeneity effect caused conventional dose overestimates exceeding an order of magnitude in regions of clinical interest. This approach is rationalized by the improved dose estimates. In conclusion, a new technique was developed to incorporate complex Monte Carlo-based brachytherapy dose distributions into conventional TPS. These results are generalizable to other brachytherapy source types and other TPS.

Rivard, Mark J.; Melhus, Christopher S.; Granero, Domingo; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Ballester, Facundo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Radiation Oncology Department, Physics Section, ''La Fe'' University Hospital, Avenida Campanar 21, E-46009 Valencia (Spain); Department of Atomic, Molecular, and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain and IFIC (University of Valencia-CSIC), C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain)

2009-06-15

275

Advances in small molecule inhibitors of androgen receptor for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Current treatments for localized prostate cancer include brachytherapy, external beam radiation, surgery, and active surveillance.\\u000a Unfortunately, 20–40% of prostate cancer patients will experience recurrence and require hormonal therapies. These therapies\\u000a involve androgen ablation by chemical or surgical castration and application of antiandrogens. Hormonal therapy is initially\\u000a effective, but will inevitably fail and the disease will progress to lethal castration-resistant prostate

Marianne D. Sadar

276

A novel ytterbium-169 brachytherapy source and delivery system for use in conjunction with minimally invasive wedge resection of early-stage lung cancer  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To describe a novel source–delivery system for intraoperative brachytherapy in patients with early-stage lung cancer that is readily adaptable to a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approach and can be precisely delivered to achieve optimal dose distribution. METHODS AND MATERIALS Radioactive ytterbium-169 (169Yb) was sealed within a titanium tube 0.28 mm in diameter and then capped and resealed by titanium wires laser welded to the tube to serve as the legs of a tissue-fastening system. Dose simulations were performed using Monte Carlo computer code (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM) to mimic the geometric and elemental compositions of the source, fastening apparatus, and surroundings. RESULTS Five test source capsules were subjected to a tensile load to failure. Failure in each capsule occurred in the wire of the fastener leg; there were no weld failures. Monte Carlo simulations and subsequent dose measurement showed the perturbation by the source legs in the deployed (bent over) position to be small (4–5%) for 169Yb and much less than that for iodine-125 (32%). CONCLUSION We have developed a 169Yb brachytherapy source–delivery system that can be used in conjunction with commercially available surgical stapling instruments, facilitates the precise placement of brachytherapy sources relative to the surgical margin, assures the seeds remain fixed in their precise position for the duration of the treatment, overcomes the technical difficulties of manipulating the seeds through the narrow surgical incision associated with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, and reduces the radiation dose to the clinicians. PMID:20705525

Leonard, Kara Lynne; DiPetrillo, Thomas A.; Munro, John J.; Wazer, David E.

2011-01-01

277

PROSTATE CANCER 7. PROSTATE CANCER  

E-print Network

PROSTATE CANCER 57 7. PROSTATE CANCER 7.1. SUMMARY Prostate cancer was the most common cancer to 2007 the annual increase was 5% in RoI and 6% in NI. The risk of developing prostate cancer up and 17,829 aged 65 and over were alive up to 15 years after their prostate cancer diagnosis. Table 7

Paxton, Anthony T.

278

Enlarged prostate  

MedlinePLUS

BPH; Benign prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy); Prostate - enlarged ... The actual cause of prostate enlargement is unknown. Factors linked to aging and changes in the cells of the testicles may have a role in the growth ...

279

Prostatitis - bacterial  

MedlinePLUS

... to the area between the scrotum and anus (perineum) Urinary catheter , cystoscopy , or prostate biopsy (removing a ... prostate infection) Your doctor may do a prostatic massage to see whether you have an infection. To ...

280

Learning about Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Hereditary Form of Prostate Cancer 2002 Learning About Prostate Cancer What is prostate cancer? What is the prostate? ... Resources of Information on Prostate Cancer What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in ...

281

About the Prostate  

MedlinePLUS

... Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer About the Prostate About the Prostate What Can ... Prostate? Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis What is Prostate Cancer? English | Español The more you know about the ...

282

Stereotactic brachytherapy of low-grade cerebral glioma after tumor resection  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of stereotactic brachytherapy (SBT) on survival time and outcome when applied after resection of low-grade glioma (LGG) of World Health Organization grade II. From January 1982 through December 2006 we treated 1024 patients who had glioma with stereotactic implantation of iodine-125 seeds and SBT in accordance with a prospective protocol. For the present analysis, we selected 95 of 277 patients with LGG, in whom SBT was applied to treat progressive (43 patients) or recurrent (52 patients) tumor after resection. At 24 months after seed implantation, the tumor response rate was 35.9%, and the tumor control rate was 97.3%. The median progression-free-survival (PFS) duration after SBT was 52.7 ± 7.1 months. Five-year and 10-year PFS probabilities were 43.4% and 10.7%, respectively. Malignant tumor transformation, the diagnosis “astrocytoma,” and tumor volume >20 mL were significantly associated with reduced PFS. Tumor progression or relapse after SBT (53 of 95 patients) was treated with tumor resection, a second SBT, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. The median overall survival duration (from the first diagnosis of LGG until the patient's last contact) was 245.0 ± 4.9 months. Patients still under observation after seed implantation had a median follow-up time of 156.4 ± 55.7 months. Perioperative transient morbidity was 1.1%, and the frequency of permanent morbidity caused by SBT was 3.3%. In conclusion, SBT of recurrent or progressive LGG after resection located in functionally critical brain areas has high local efficacy and comparably low morbidity. Referred to individually adopted glioma treatment concepts SBT provides a reasonably long PFS, thus improving overall survival. In selected patients, SBT can lead to delays in the application of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. PMID:21868412

Suchorska, Bogdana; Ruge, Maximilian; Treuer, Harald; Sturm, Volker; Voges, Jürgen

2011-01-01

283

Prostate elastography: preliminary in vivo results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report preliminary results from our investigation of in vivo prostate elastography. Fewer than 50% of all prostate cancers are typically visible in current clinical imaging modalities. Elastography displays a map of strain that results when tissue is externally compressed. Thus, elastography is ideal for imaging prostate cancers because they are generally stiffer than the surrounding tissue and stiffer regions usually exhibit lower strain in elastograms. In our study, digital radio-frequency (RF) ultrasound echo data were acquired from prostate-cancer patients undergoing brachytherapy. Seed placement is guided by a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe, which is held in a mechanical fixture. The probe can be moved in XYZ directions and tilted. The probe face, in contact with the rectal wall, is used to apply a compression force to the immediately adjacent prostate. We also used a water-filled (acoustic) coupling balloon to compress the prostate by increasing the water volume inside the balloon. In each scan plane (transverse), we acquired RF data from successive scans at the scanner frame rate as the deformation force on the rectal wall was continuously increased. We computed strain using 1D RF cross-correlation analysis. The compression method based on fixture displacement produced low-noise elastograms that beautifully displayed the prostate architecture and emphasized stiff areas. Balloon-based compression also produced low-noise elastograms. Initial results demonstrate that elastography may be useful in the detection and evaluation of prostate cancers, occult in conventional imaging modalities.

Alam, S. K.; Feleppa, E. J.; Kalisz, A.; Ramchandran, S.; Ennis, R. D.; Lizzi, Frederick L.; Wuu, C.-S.; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

2005-04-01

284

Prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

1987-01-01

285

Development of an adjoint sensitivity field-based treatment-planning technique for the use of newly designed directional LDR sources in brachytherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and application of an automated 3D greedy heuristic (GH) optimization algorithm utilizing the adjoint sensitivity fields for treatment planning to assess the advantage of directional interstitial prostate brachytherapy is presented. Directional and isotropic dose kernels generated using Monte Carlo simulations based on Best Industries model 2301 I-125 source are utilized for treatment planning. The newly developed GH algorithm is employed for optimization of the treatment plans for seven interstitial prostate brachytherapy cases using mixed sources (directional brachytherapy) and using only isotropic sources (conventional brachytherapy). All treatment plans resulted in V100 > 98% and D90 > 45 Gy for the target prostate region. For the urethra region, the D10Ur, D90Ur and V150Ur and for the rectum region the V100cc, D2cc, D90Re and V90Re all are reduced significantly when mixed sources brachytherapy is used employing directional sources. The simulations demonstrated that the use of directional sources in the low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy of the prostate clearly benefits in sparing the urethra and the rectum sensitive structures from overdose. The time taken for a conventional treatment plan is less than three seconds, while the time taken for a mixed source treatment plan is less than nine seconds, as tested on an Intel Core2 Duo 2.2 GHz processor with 1GB RAM. The new 3D GH algorithm is successful in generating a feasible LDR brachytherapy treatment planning solution with an extra degree of freedom, i.e. directionality in very little time.

Chaswal, V.; Thomadsen, B. R.; Henderson, D. L.

2012-02-01

286

Prostate Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ... prostate cancer: Prostate Cancer Prevention Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin cancer among men ...

287

The American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for brachytherapy of soft tissue sarcomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This report presents the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) guidelines for the use of brachytherapy for patients with soft tissue sarcoma.Methods and Materials: Members of the ABS with expertise in soft tissue sarcoma formulated brachytherapy guidelines based upon their clinical experience and a review of the literature. The Board of Directors of the ABS approved the final report.Results: Brachytherapy used

Subir Nag; Daniel Shasha; Nora Janjan; Ivy Petersen; Marco Zaider

2001-01-01

288

Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy.

Meltsner, M. A.; Ferrier, N. J.; Thomadsen, B. R.

2007-09-01

289

Dose gradient impact on equivalent dose at 2 Gy for high dose rate interstitial brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate a new calculation model estimating the equivalent dose at 2 Gy (EQD2) taking into account dose gradient in high dose rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDRIB). Material and methods Forty dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of breast (20 pts) and prostate (20 pts) cancer dose distributions were reviewed. Physical prescribed doses (PPD) were 34 Gy (10f/5d) and 18 Gy (6f/2d) for breast (partial irradiation protocol) and prostate (boost after external irradiation) treatment, respectively. For each DVH, clinical target volume (CTV), V100, V150, V200, D90 and D100 were determined. Based on DVH segmentation, elementary doses (d) delivered to elementary volumes were determined, then multiplied by C (% of CTV receiving d). According to the linear quadratic model, EQD2 was calculated for different ?/? ratios. Results For breast implant, median EQD2 (?/? = 4) was 42 Gy and 76 Gy (66-85) without and with dose gradient consideration, respectively. For prostate implant, median EQD2 (?/? = 1.5) was 39 Gy and 98 Gy (90-103) whether dose gradient was not or was taken into account, respectively. Conclusions This study pointed out that for brachytherapy, EQD2 calculation must take into account the dose gradient. Because this model is a mathematical one, it has to be cautiously applied. Nevertheless, it appears as a useful tool for EQD2 comparison between the same PPD delivered through EBRT or brachytherapy regarding trial result interpretation. PMID:23346135

Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel; Chand-Fouche, Marie-Eve; Dejean, Catherine

2012-01-01

290

Prostate motion during standard radiotherapy as assessed by fiducial markers.  

PubMed

From November 1993 to August 1994, 55 patients with localized prostate carcinoma had three gold seeds placed in the prostate under transrectal ultrasound guidance prior to the start of radiotherapy in order to track prostate motion. Patients had a planning CT scan before initial simulation and again at about 40 Gy, just prior to simulation of a field reduction. Seed position relative to fixed bony landmarks (pubic symphysis and both ischial tuberosities) was digitized from each pair of orthogonal films from the initial and boost simulation using the Nucletron brachytherapy planning system. Vector analysis was performed to rule out the possibility of independent seed migration within the prostate between the time of initial and boost simulation. Prostate motion was seen in the posterior (mean: 0.56 cm; SD: 0.41 cm) and inferior directions (mean: 0.59 cm; SD: 0.45 cm). The base of the prostate was displaced more than 1 cm posteriorly in 30% of patients and in 11% in the inferior direction. Prostate position is related to rectal and bladder filling. Distension of these organs displaces the prostate in an anterosuperior direction, with lesser degrees of filling allowing the prostate to move posteriorly and inferiorly. Conformal therapy planning must take this motion into consideration. Changes in prostate position of this magnitude preclude the use of standard margins. PMID:8539455

Crook, J M; Raymond, Y; Salhani, D; Yang, H; Esche, B

1995-10-01

291

Prostate Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

292

Prostatic melanosis.  

PubMed

Prostatic melanosis is a very rare, benign lesion characterized by the presence of melanin in the epithelium of the prostate gland and stromal dendritic cells, requiring no additional treatment. It constitutes the melanocytic lesions of the prostate together with blue nevus and malignant melanoma. We present a case with prostatic melanosis because it is rarely seen and its distinction from malignant melanoma is clinicopathologically very important. PMID:25371626

Gucer, Hasan; Bagci, Pelin

2014-10-01

293

Prostate Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from ... and out of the body. A young man's prostate is about the size of a walnut. It ...

294

[Brachytherapy for head and neck cancers].  

PubMed

The main indications of brachytherapy for head and neck cancers are limited tumours of the oral cavity, the oropharynx and the nasopharynx. This technique can be exclusive, associated with external radiotherapy or postoperative. This is also a treatment for second localizations in previously irradiated areas. If low-dose rate brachytherapy is the reference, the pulse dose rate brachytherapy by control of the dose rate and optimisation of the dose distribution is the technique to be preferred. High-dose rate brachytherapy is an option. The major prognosis factors of local control and complications are the use of a leaded protection of the mandible, the intersource spacing (1.2-1.4 cm), the volume treated (30 cm(3), i.e. three loops), the safety margin (5 mm), the dose rate (0.5 Gy/h), the total dose (65 Gy in case of exclusive brachytherapy, 25 Gy in case of a combination of external beam irradiation [50 Gy] and brachytherapy in the oropharyngeal carcinomas, 35 Gy in case of a combination of external beam irradiation [40 Gy] and brachytherapy in the oral cavity carcinomas, 60 Gy in case of a second localization in previous irradiated tissues), the delay between external irradiation and brachytherapy (<20 days), the dose per fraction and the treated volume for high-dose rate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy, when possible, is the optimal method of irradiation of head and neck carcinomas with limited volume. PMID:23498590

Lapeyre, M; Coche-Dequéant, B; Moreira, J-F; Le Bourhis, J; Peiffert, D

2013-04-01

295

Soy Isoflavone Supplementation and Biochemical Recurrence After Curative Treatment for Localized Prostate Cancer  

E-print Network

deposition, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction; side effects of prostatectomy 2 and radiation therapy include incontinence, bowel dysfunction, and erectile dysfunction. Identifying a method to prevent or delay biochemical recurrence after curative... beam radiation include cystitis, hematuria, incontinence, erectile dysfunction, and secondary malignancies (24). Brachytherapy involves the placement of radioactive seeds directly in the prostate (23,24). The seeds contain iodine or cesium...

Camey, Sarah

2013-08-31

296

The American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for high-dose-rate brachytherapy for carcinoma of the cervix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This report presents guidelines for using high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in the management of patients with cervical cancer, taking into consideration the current availability of resources in most institutions.Methods: Members of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) with expertise in HDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer performed a literature review, supplemented their clinical experience to formulate guidelines for HDR brachytherapy of cervical

Subir Nag; Beth Erickson; Bruce Thomadsen; Colin Orton; Jeffrey D Demanes; Daniel Petereit

2000-01-01

297

The American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for low-dose-rate brachytherapy for carcinoma of the cervix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This report presents guidelines for using low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy in the management of patients with cervical cancer.Methods: Members of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) with expertise in LDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer performed a literature review, supplemented by their clinical experience, to formulate guidelines for LDR brachytherapy of cervical cancer.Results: The ABS strongly recommends that radiation treatment for cervical

Subir Nag; Clifford Chao; Beth Erickson; Jeffery Fowler; Nilendu Gupta; Alvaro Martinez; Bruce Thomadsen

2002-01-01

298

Progress and controversies: Radiation therapy for prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Radiation therapy remains a standard treatment option for men with localized prostate cancer. Alone or in combination with androgen-deprivation therapy, it represents a curative treatment and has been shown to prolong survival in selected populations. In this article, the authors review recent advances in prostate radiation-treatment techniques, photon versus proton radiation, modification of treatment fractionation, and brachytherapy-all focusing on disease control and the impact on morbidity. Also discussed are refinements in the risk stratification of men with prostate cancer and how these are better for matching patients to appropriate treatment, particularly around combined androgen-deprivation therapy. Many of these advances have cost and treatment burden implications, which have significant repercussions given the prevalence of prostate cancer. The discussion includes approaches to improve value and future directions for research. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;64:389-407. © 2014 American Cancer Society. PMID:25234700

Martin, Neil E; D'Amico, Anthony V

2014-11-01

299

UCSF study compares prostate cancer therapies by cost and effectiveness  

Cancer.gov

The most comprehensive retrospective study ever conducted comparing how the major types of prostate cancer treatments stack up to each other in terms of saving lives and cost effectiveness is reported this week by a team of researchers at UCSF. Appearing in the British Journal of Urology International, the work analyzed 232 papers published in the last decade that report results from clinical studies following patients with low-, intermediate- and high-risk forms of prostate cancer who were treated with one or more of the standard treatments – radiation therapy, surgery, hormone therapies and brachytherapy. UCSF is home to the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center.

300

Thermoluminescence dosimetry measurements of brachytherapy sources in liquid water  

SciTech Connect

Radiation therapy dose measurements are customarily performed in liquid water. The characterization of brachytherapy sources is, however, generally based on measurements made with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), for which contact with water may lead to erroneous readings. Consequently, most dosimetry parameters reported in the literature have been based on measurements in water-equivalent plastics, such as Solid Water. These previous reports employed a correction factor to transfer the dose measurements from a plastic phantom to liquid water. The correction factor most often was based on Monte Carlo calculations. The process of measuring in a water-equivalent plastic phantom whose exact composition may be different from published specifications, then correcting the results to a water medium leads to increased uncertainty in the results. A system has been designed to enable measurements with TLDs in liquid water. This system, which includes jigs to support water-tight capsules of lithium fluoride in configurations suitable for measuring several dosimetric parameters, was used to determine the correction factor from water-equivalent plastic to water. Measurements of several {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs prostate brachytherapy sources in liquid water and in a Solid Water phantom demonstrated a correction factor of 1.039{+-}0.005 at 1 cm distance. These measurements are in good agreement with a published value of this correction factor for an {sup 125}I source.

Tailor, Ramesh; Tolani, Naresh; Ibbott, Geoffrey S. [Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 94, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Radiological Physics Center, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 7515 South Main Street, Suite 300, Houston, Texas 77030-4519 (United States)

2008-09-15

301

CT-Based Interstitial HDR Brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Development, application and evaluation of a CT-guided implantation technique and a fully CT-based treatment planning procedure for brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A brachytherapy procedure based on CT-guided implantation technique and CT-based treatment planning has been developed and clinical evaluated. For this purpose a software system (PROMETHEUS) for the 3D reconstruction of brachytherapy catheters and patient anatomy using only CT

Christos Kolotas; Dimos Baltas; Nikolaos Zamboglou

1999-01-01

302

Duke researchers develop potential new technique for anticancer radiotherapy could provide alternative to brachytherapy  

Cancer.gov

A promising new approach to treating solid tumors with radiation was highly efficacious and minimally toxic to healthy tissue in a mouse model of cancer, according to data published in Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Some patients with solid tumors, including prostate cancer, are treated using a clinical technique called brachytherapy. Brachytherapy involves the surgical implantation of radioactive "seeds" within a patient's tumor to expose the tumor cells to high levels of radiation while minimizing the negative side effects of radiation on the rest of the body. Researchers at Duke University (home to the Duke Cancer Institute) generated an injectable substance, called a polymer, attached to a source of radioactivity that spontaneously assembled into a radioactive seed after being injected into a tumor.

303

MR-Guided Prostate Interventions  

PubMed Central

In this article the current issues of diagnosis and detection of prostate cancer are reviewed. The limitations for current techniques are highlighted and some possible solutions with MR imaging and MR-guided biopsy approaches are reviewed. There are several different biopsy approaches under investigation. These include transperineal open magnet approaches to closed-bore 1.5T transrectal biopsies. The imaging, image processing, and tracking methods are also discussed. In the arena of therapy, MR guidance has been used in conjunction with radiation methods, either brachytherapy or external delivery. The principles of the radiation treatment, the toxicities, and use of images are outlined. The future role of imaging and image-guided interventions lie with providing a noninvasive surrogate for cancer surveillance or monitoring treatment response. The shift to minimally invasive focal therapies has already begun and will be very exciting when MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery reaches its full potential. PMID:18219689

Tempany, Clare; Straus, Sarah; Hata, Nobuhiko; Haker, Steven

2009-01-01

304

The Effects of Metallic Implants on Electroporation Therapies: Feasibility of Irreversible Electroporation for Brachytherapy Salvage  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Electroporation-based therapies deliver brief electric pulses into a targeted volume to destabilize cellular membranes. Nonthermal irreversible electroporation (IRE) provides focal ablation with effects dependent on the electric field distribution, which changes in heterogeneous environments. It should be determined if highly conductive metallic implants in targeted regions, such as radiotherapy brachytherapy seeds in prostate tissue, will alter treatment outcomes. Theoretical and experimental models determine the impact of prostate brachytherapy seeds on IRE treatments. Materials and Methods: This study delivered IRE pulses in nonanimal, as well as in ex vivo and in vivo tissue, with and in the absence of expired radiotherapy seeds. Electrical current was measured and lesion dimensions were examined macroscopically and with magnetic resonance imaging. Finite-element treatment simulations predicted the effects of brachytherapy seeds in the targeted region on electrical current, electric field, and temperature distributions. Results: There was no significant difference in electrical behavior in tissue containing a grid of expired radiotherapy seeds relative to those without seeds for nonanimal, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments (all p > 0.1). Numerical simulations predict no significant alteration of electric field or thermal effects (all p > 0.1). Histology showed cellular necrosis in the region near the electrodes and seeds within the ablation region; however, there were no seeds beyond the ablation margins. Conclusion: This study suggests that electroporation therapies can be implemented in regions containing small metallic implants without significant changes to electrical and thermal effects relative to use in tissue without the implants. This supports the ability to use IRE as a salvage therapy option for brachytherapy.

Neal, Robert E., E-mail: robert.neal@alfred.org.au [The Alfred Hospital, Radiology Research Unit, Department of Radiology (Australia); Smith, Ryan L., E-mail: ryan.smith@wbrc.org.au [The Alfred Hospital, William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre (Australia); Kavnoudias, Helen, E-mail: H.Kavnoudias@alfred.org.au [The Alfred Hospital, Radiology Research Unit, Department of Radiology (Australia)] [The Alfred Hospital, Radiology Research Unit, Department of Radiology (Australia); Rosenfeldt, Franklin, E-mail: F.Rosenfeldt@alfred.org.au; Ou, Ruchong, E-mail: Ruchong.Ou@bakeridi.edu.au [Monash University, Department of Surgery (Australia)] [Monash University, Department of Surgery (Australia); Mclean, Catriona A., E-mail: C.Mclean@alfred.org.au [The Alfred Hospital, Department of Anatomical Pathology (Australia); Davalos, Rafael V., E-mail: davalos@vt.edu [Virginia Tech, School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (United States); Thomson, Kenneth R., E-mail: K.Thomson@alfred.org.au [The Alfred Hospital, Radiology Research Unit, Department of Radiology (Australia)

2013-12-15

305

[Congress of the Association Française d'Urologie (AFU) 2004: prostate cancer management].  

PubMed

Prostate cancer was the subject of communications, round tables and plenary sessions at the 98th congress of the Association française d'urologie (AFU). We report the whole of the meetings on the subject by classifying them by categories: epidemiology and biological diagnosis, information to patients included in screening (recommendations of the ANAES), biopsies and IRM, radiotherapy, radical prostatectomy, brachytherapy, HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound), functional consequences and quality of life, treatment of PSA elevation, advanced cancer of the prostate, place of surgery in T3 cancers of the prostate, research. PMID:16008113

Bruyère, F; Traxer, O

2005-04-01

306

The Prostate Normaland Prostate Cancer Cells Display  

E-print Network

The Prostate Normaland Prostate Cancer Cells Display Distinct Molecular Profiles of a epithelial cells (PZ-HPV-7), androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells (LNCaP), transitional androgen-independent prostate cancer cells (LNCaP-cds and CWR22Rv1), and androgen- independent prostate cancer cells (PC3

Tong, Liang

307

What is Prostate Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... the key statistics about prostate cancer? What is prostate cancer? To understand prostate cancer, it helps to know ... cancer " section for a description of this procedure.) Prostate cancer Several types of cells are found in the ...

308

What Is Your Prostate?  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Prostate? Understanding Your Body What is Your Prostate? The prostate is part of a man's reproductive ... the sperm through the penis during orgasm. The Prostate of Older Men As men age they have ...

309

The experience of pain and anxiety in rectal cancer patients during high-dose-rate brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Pain and anxiety have been reported as primary concerns for patients with head-and-neck, gynecologic, and prostate cancers undergoing high dose rate (hdr) brachytherapy. However, almost no research has been published on the degree to which these symptoms are experienced by rectal cancer patients undergoing hdr brachytherapy. We conducted a pilot study examining the experiences of rectal cancer patients during hdr brachytherapy, specifically the intensity and trajectory of their anxiety and pain. Methods Rectal cancer patients (n = 25) who received hdr brachytherapy treatment at a hospital in Montreal, Quebec, completed verbal analog scales for pain and anxiety at 4 time points over 4 treatment days. Results On all 4 days, a subset of patients reported moderate-to-severe anxiety before applicator insertion. Pain increased significantly from the time patients were lying on the table to immediately after insertion of the applicator (p < 0.001). Insertion of the applicator appears to be the most painful part of the procedure, and although anxiety declined to below baseline after applicator removal, pain remained somewhat elevated. Some patients required conscious sedation; however, reports of moderate-to-severe pain were more frequent from patients who received pain medications than from patients who did not receive such medication (p < 0.05). Conclusions Most patients with rectal cancer tolerated hdr rectal brachytherapy well, although the procedure is stressful and painful for some. Insertion of the applicator was found to be the point of maximal pain, and medication was not always completely successful at alleviating the pain, suggesting that additional psychosocial interventions might be needed, with particular emphasis on the time of applicator insertion. PMID:24523626

Neron, S.; Perez, S.; Benc, R.; Bellman, A.; Rosberger, Z.; Vuong, T.

2014-01-01

310

EM-navigated catheter placement for gynecologic brachytherapy: an accuracy study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gynecologic malignancies, including cervical, endometrial, ovarian, vaginal and vulvar cancers, cause significant mortality in women worldwide. The standard care for many primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers consists of chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. In high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, intracavitary applicators and /or interstitial needles are placed directly inside the cancerous tissue so as to provide catheters to deliver high doses of radiation. Although technology for the navigation of catheters and needles is well developed for procedures such as prostate biopsy, brain biopsy, and cardiac ablation, it is notably lacking for gynecologic HDR brachytherapy. Using a benchtop study that closely mimics the clinical interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy procedure, we developed a method for evaluating the accuracy of image-guided catheter placement. Future bedside translation of this technology offers the potential benefit of maximizing tumor coverage during catheter placement while avoiding damage to the adjacent organs, for example bladder, rectum and bowel. In the study, two independent experiments were performed on a phantom model to evaluate the targeting accuracy of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system. The procedure was carried out using a laptop computer (2.1GHz Intel Core i7 computer, 8GB RAM, Windows 7 64-bit), an EM Aurora tracking system with a 1.3mm diameter 6 DOF sensor, and 6F (2 mm) brachytherapy catheters inserted through a Syed-Neblett applicator. The 3D Slicer and PLUS open source software were used to develop the system. The mean of the targeting error was less than 2.9mm, which is comparable to the targeting errors in commercial clinical navigation systems.

Mehrtash, Alireza; Damato, Antonio; Pernelle, Guillaume; Barber, Lauren; Farhat, Nabgha; Viswanathan, Akila; Cormack, Robert; Kapur, Tina

2014-03-01

311

EM-Navigated Catheter Placement for Gynecologic Brachytherapy: An Accuracy Study  

PubMed Central

Gynecologic malignancies, including cervical, endometrial, ovarian, vaginal and vulvar cancers, cause significant mortality in women worldwide. The standard care for many primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers consists of chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. In high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, intracavitary applicators and/or interstitial needles are placed directly inside the cancerous tissue so as to provide catheters to deliver high doses of radiation. Although technology for the navigation of catheters and needles is well developed for procedures such as prostate biopsy, brain biopsy, and cardiac ablation, it is notably lacking for gynecologic HDR brachytherapy. Using a benchtop study that closely mimics the clinical interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy procedure, we developed a method for evaluating the accuracy of image-guided catheter placement. Future bedside translation of this technology offers the potential benefit of maximizing tumor coverage during catheter placement while avoiding damage to the adjacent organs, for example bladder, rectum and bowel. In the study, two independent experiments were performed on a phantom model to evaluate the targeting accuracy of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system. The procedure was carried out using a laptop computer (2.1GHz Intel Core i7 computer, 8GB RAM, Windows 7 64-bit), an EM Aurora tracking system with a 1.3mm diameter 6 DOF sensor, and 6F (2 mm) brachytherapy catheters inserted through a Syed-Neblett applicator. The 3D Slicer and PLUS open source software were used to develop the system. The mean of the targeting error was less than 2.9mm, which is comparable to the targeting errors in commercial clinical navigation systems. PMID:25076828

Mehrtash, Alireza; Damato, Antonio; Pernelle, Guillaume; Barber, Lauren; Farhat, Nabgha; Viswanathan, Akila; Cormack, Robert; Kapur, Tina

2014-01-01

312

Curative radiation therapy in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy has experienced an extremely rapid development in recent years. Important improvements such as the introduction of multileaf collimators and computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning software have enabled three dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3DCRT). The development of treatment planning systems and technology for brachytherapy has been very rapid as well. Development of accelerators with integrated on-board imaging equipment and technology, for example image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has further improved the precision with reduced margins to adjacent normal tissues. This has, in turn, led to the possibility to administer even higher doses to the prostate than previously. Although radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy have been used for the last decades as curative treatment modalities, still there are no randomized trials published comparing these two options. Outcome data show that the two treatment modalities are highly comparable when used for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. PMID:21604948

Harmenberg, Ulrika; Hamdy, Freddie C; Widmark, Anders; Lennernäs, Bo; Nilsson, Sten

2011-06-01

313

A unique nasopharynx brachytherapy technique  

SciTech Connect

To deliver a curative dose of radiation therapy to the nasopharynx using either external beam radiotherapy or conventional brachytherapy, it is often necessary to expose a large volume of normal tissue. Tolerance of normal tissue also limits the dose of radiation given for salvage therapy in failed nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A unique brachytherapy technique with associated treatment planning is presented as an alternative method of treatment. This technique combines a single linear cesium-137 source inserted in the nasopharynx via a modified cuffed endotracheal tube, in conjunction with a plaque of iridium-192 ribbons applied in the form of a modified upper denture appliance. This method allows additional treatment to the primary area while neither exposing more normal tissue than necessary nor exceeding tolerance doses to surrounding structures.

Wolf, C.D.; Giri, P.G.; Cytacki, E.P. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

1990-01-01

314

A customized finger brachytherapy carrier.  

PubMed

In recent years, radiation therapy has been used with increasing frequency in the management of neoplasms of the head and neck region. Brachytherapy is a method of radiation treatment in which sealed radioactive sources are used to deliver the dose a short distance by interstitial (direct insertion into tissue), intracavitary (placement within a cavity) or surface application (molds). Mold brachytherapy is radiation delivered via a custom-fabricated carriers, designed to provide a more constant and reproducible geometry for source positioning. Radiation carriers are customized to fit the patient in a comfortable, stable, and retentive manner to ensure maximal therapeutic radiations to the desired location and in addition sparing the normal surrounding tissues due to rapid fall-off radioactivity thus minimizing postreatment sequelae of irradiation. This clinical report describes a method of fabrication of a customized radiation carrier or mold for a patient suffering from squamous cell carcinoma of right ring finger, planned to undergo brachytherapy (surface mold therapy). This paper highlights the role and responsibility of the prosthodontist in fabricating the carrier and to maintain the predetermined position of the hollow tubes (catheters) within the mold to remain in the exact position as determined by the radiation oncologist for required results. PMID:25183922

Wadhwa, Supneet Singh; Duggal, Nidhi

2014-09-01

315

Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... The following organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ... Urology Care Foundation - www. ...

316

Dynamic rotating-shield brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present dynamic rotating shield brachytherapy (D-RSBT), a novel form of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with electronic brachytherapy source, where the radiation shield is capable of changing emission angles during the radiation delivery process.Methods: A D-RSBT system uses two layers of independently rotating tungsten alloy shields, each with a 180° azimuthal emission angle. The D-RSBT planning is separated into two stages: anchor plan optimization and optimal sequencing. In the anchor plan optimization, anchor plans are generated by maximizing the D{sub 90} for the high-risk clinical-tumor-volume (HR-CTV) assuming a fixed azimuthal emission angle of 11.25°. In the optimal sequencing, treatment plans that most closely approximate the anchor plans under the delivery-time constraint will be efficiently computed. Treatment plans for five cervical cancer patients were generated for D-RSBT, single-shield RSBT (S-RSBT), and {sup 192}Ir-based intracavitary brachytherapy with supplementary interstitial brachytherapy (IS + ICBT) assuming five treatment fractions. External beam radiotherapy doses of 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy each were accounted for. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) doses were escalated such that the D{sub 2cc} of the rectum, sigmoid colon, or bladder reached its tolerance equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2 with ?/?= 3 Gy) of 75 Gy, 75 Gy, or 90 Gy, respectively.Results: For the patients considered, IS + ICBT had an average total dwell time of 5.7 minutes/fraction (min/fx) assuming a 10 Ci{sup 192}Ir source, and the average HR-CTV D{sub 90} was 78.9 Gy. In order to match the HR-CTV D{sub 90} of IS + ICBT, D-RSBT required an average of 10.1 min/fx more delivery time, and S-RSBT required 6.7 min/fx more. If an additional 20 min/fx of delivery time is allowed beyond that of the IS + ICBT case, D-RSBT and S-RSBT increased the HR-CTV D{sub 90} above IS + ICBT by an average of 16.3 Gy and 9.1 Gy, respectively.Conclusions: For cervical cancer patients, D-RSBT can boost HR-CTV D{sub 90} over IS + ICBT and S-RSBT without violating the tolerance doses to the bladder, rectum, or sigmoid. The D{sub 90} improvements from D-RSBT depend on the patient, the delivery time budget, and the applicator structure.

Liu, Yunlong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Flynn, Ryan T.; Kim, Yusung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Yang, Wenjun [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2013-12-15

317

Optimum timing for image-based dose evaluation of 125I and 103Pd prostate seed implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose\\/Objective: Image-based dose evaluation of permanent brachytherapy implants for prostate cancer is important for optimal patient management after implantation. Because of edema caused by the surgical procedure in the implantation, if the dose evaluation is based on the images obtained too early after implantation, dose coverage will usually be underestimated. Conversely, if the images are obtained too late, the dose

Ning Yue; Zhe Chen; Richard Peschel; Adam P. Dicker; Frank M. Waterman; Ravinder Nath

1999-01-01

318

Prostatic calculi.  

PubMed

The presence of calculi in 300 whole prostates from consecutive autopsies were investigated by the Faxitron imaging technique. Calculi were found in 99% of the prostates, their number and size increasing with age. They were mainly localized in the ducts in the borderzone between the middle lobes and the periferal prostate posterolaterally, but often some were also found anteriorly in the centreline. Calculi were never seen in the middle lobes. We found no statistically significant relation between the number, size or localization of calculi and other morphological or pathological parameters. Prostatic calculi seem to be a part of the normal process of aging, and do in only exceedingly rare cases assume any clinical importance. PMID:2440234

Søndergaard, G; Vetner, M; Christensen, P O

1987-05-01

319

Sensitivity of low energy brachytherapy Monte Carlo dose calculations to uncertainties in human tissue composition  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objective of this work is to assess the sensitivity of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations to uncertainties in human tissue composition for a range of low photon energy brachytherapy sources: {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, {sup 131}Cs, and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS). The low energy photons emitted by these sources make the dosimetry sensitive to variations in tissue atomic number due to the dominance of the photoelectric effect. This work reports dose to a small mass of water in medium D{sub w,m} as opposed to dose to a small mass of medium in medium D{sub m,m}. Methods: Mean adipose, mammary gland, and breast tissues (as uniform mixture of the aforementioned tissues) are investigated as well as compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean. Prostate mean compositions from three different literature sources are also investigated. Three sets of MC simulations are performed with the GEANT4 code: (1) Dose calculations for idealized TG-43-like spherical geometries using point sources. Radial dose profiles obtained in different media are compared to assess the influence of compositional uncertainties. (2) Dose calculations for four clinical prostate LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 125}I seeds (Model 2301, Best Medical, Springfield, VA). The effect of varying the prostate composition in the planning target volume (PTV) is investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. (3) Dose calculations for four clinical breast LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 103}Pd seeds (Model 2335, Best Medical). The effects of varying the adipose/gland ratio in the PTV and of varying the elemental composition of adipose and gland within one standard deviation of the assumed mean composition are investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. For (2) and (3), the influence of using the mass density from CT scans instead of unit mass density is also assessed. Results: Results from simulation (1) show that variations in the mean compositions of tissues affect low energy brachytherapy dosimetry. Dose differences between mean and one standard deviation of the mean composition increasing with distance from the source are observed. It is established that the {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs sources are the least sensitive to variations in elemental compositions while {sup 103}Pd is most sensitive. The EBS falls in between and exhibits complex behavior due to significant spectral hardening. Results from simulation (2) show that two prostate compositions are dosimetrically equivalent to water while the third shows D{sub 90} differences of up to 4%. Results from simulation (3) show that breast is more sensitive than prostate with dose variations of up to 30% from water for 70% adipose/30% gland breast. The variability of the breast composition adds a {+-}10% dose variation. Conclusions: Low energy brachytherapy dose distributions in tissue differ from water and are influenced by density, mean tissue composition, and patient-to-patient composition variations. The results support the use of a dose calculation algorithm accounting for heterogeneities such as MC. Since this work shows that variations in mean tissue compositions affect MC dosimetry and result in increased dose uncertainties, the authors conclude that imaging tools providing more accurate estimates of elemental compositions such as dual energy CT would be beneficial.

Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Murrer, Lars; Lutgens, Ludy; Bloemen-Van Gurp, Esther; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Keller, Brian; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie, de l'Universite Laval, CHUQ, Pavillon L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada) and Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands) and Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2010-10-15

320

Comparison of radiation shielding requirements for HDR brachytherapy using {sup 169}Yb and {sup 192}Ir sources  

SciTech Connect

{sup 169}Yb has received a renewed focus lately as an alternative to {sup 192}Ir sources for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Following the results of a recent work by our group which proved {sup 169}Yb to be a good candidate for HDR prostate brachytherapy, this work seeks to quantify the radiation shielding requirements for {sup 169}Yb HDR brachytherapy applications in comparison to the corresponding requirements for the current {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy standard. Monte Carlo simulation (MC) is used to obtain {sup 169}Yb and {sup 192}Ir broad beam transmission data through lead and concrete. Results are fitted to an analytical equation which can be used to readily calculate the barrier thickness required to achieve a given dose rate reduction. Shielding requirements for a HDR brachytherapy treatment room facility are presented as a function of distance, occupancy, dose limit, and facility workload, using analytical calculations for both {sup 169}Yb and {sup 192}Ir HDR sources. The barrier thickness required for {sup 169}Yb is lower than that for {sup 192}Ir by a factor of 4-5 for lead and 1.5-2 for concrete. Regarding {sup 169}Yb HDR brachytherapy applications, the lead shielding requirements do not exceed 15 mm, even in highly conservative case scenarios. This allows for the construction of a lead door in most cases, thus avoiding the construction of a space consuming, specially designed maze. The effects of source structure, attenuation by the patient, and scatter conditions within an actual treatment room on the above-noted findings are also discussed using corresponding MC simulation results.

Lymperopoulou, G.; Papagiannis, P.; Sakelliou, L.; Georgiou, E.; Hourdakis, C. J.; Baltas, D. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71, Athens (Greece); Dosimetry Laboratory, Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications (IASA), P.O. Box 17214 GR-10024, Athens (Greece); Medical Physics Department, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 11527, Athens (Greece); Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Licensing and Inspection Department, Agia Paraskeui 15310, Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach, 63069 Offenbach, Germany and Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece)

2006-07-15

321

The American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for high-dose-rate brachytherapy for carcinoma of the endometrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To develop recommendations for use of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in patients with endometrial cancer.Methods: A panel of members of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) performed a literature review, supplemented their clinical experience, and formulated recommendations for endometrial HDR brachytherapy.Results: The ABS endorses the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for indications for radiation therapy for patients with endometrial cancer

Subir Nag; Beth Erickson; Suhrid Parikh; Nilendu Gupta; Mahesh Varia; Glenn Glasgow

2000-01-01

322

Adaptation of the CVT algorithm for catheter optimization in high dose rate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: An innovative, simple, and fast method to optimize the number and position of catheters is presented for prostate and breast high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, both for arbitrary templates or template-free implants (such as robotic templates).Methods: Eight clinical cases were chosen randomly from a bank of patients, previously treated in our clinic to test our method. The 2D Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations (CVT) algorithm was adapted to distribute catheters uniformly in space, within the maximum external contour of the planning target volume. The catheters optimization procedure includes the inverse planning simulated annealing algorithm (IPSA). Complete treatment plans can then be generated from the algorithm for different number of catheters. The best plan is chosen from different dosimetry criteria and will automatically provide the number of catheters and their positions. After the CVT algorithm parameters were optimized for speed and dosimetric results, it was validated against prostate clinical cases, using clinically relevant dose parameters. The robustness to implantation error was also evaluated. Finally, the efficiency of the method was tested in breast interstitial HDR brachytherapy cases.Results: The effect of the number and locations of the catheters on prostate cancer patients was studied. Treatment plans with a better or equivalent dose distributions could be obtained with fewer catheters. A better or equal prostate V100 was obtained down to 12 catheters. Plans with nine or less catheters would not be clinically acceptable in terms of prostate V100 and D90. Implantation errors up to 3 mm were acceptable since no statistical difference was found when compared to 0 mm error (p > 0.05). No significant difference in dosimetric indices was observed for the different combination of parameters within the CVT algorithm. A linear relation was found between the number of random points and the optimization time of the CVT algorithm. Because the computation time decrease with the number of points and that no effects were observed on the dosimetric indices when varying the number of sampling points and the number of iterations, they were respectively fixed to 2500 and to 100. The computation time to obtain ten complete treatments plans ranging from 9 to 18 catheters, with the corresponding dosimetric indices, was 90 s. However, 93% of the computation time is used by a research version of IPSA. For the breast, on average, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recommendations would be satisfied down to 12 catheters. Plans with nine or less catheters would not be clinically acceptable in terms of V100, dose homogeneity index, and D90.Conclusions: The authors have devised a simple, fast and efficient method to optimize the number and position of catheters in interstitial HDR brachytherapy. The method was shown to be robust for both prostate and breast HDR brachytherapy. More importantly, the computation time of the algorithm is acceptable for clinical use. Ultimately, this catheter optimization algorithm could be coupled with a 3D ultrasound system to allow real-time guidance and planning in HDR brachytherapy.

Poulin, Eric; Fekete, Charles-Antoine Collins; Beaulieu, Luc [Département de Physique, de Génie Physique et d’Optique et Centre de recherche sur le cancer de l’Université Laval, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie et Axe oncologie du Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada)] [Département de Physique, de Génie Physique et d’Optique et Centre de recherche sur le cancer de l’Université Laval, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada and Département de Radio-Oncologie et Axe oncologie du Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Létourneau, Mélanie [Département de Radio-Oncologie, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada)] [Département de Radio-Oncologie, CHU de Québec, 11 Côte du Palais, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Fenster, Aaron [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (United Kingdom)] [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (United Kingdom); Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States)

2013-11-15

323

Accuracy of needle implantation in brachytherapy using a medical AR system: a phantom study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brachytherapy is the treatment method of choice for patients with a tumor relapse after a radiation therapy with external beams or tumors in regions with sensitive surrounding organs-at-risk, e. g. prostate tumors. The standard needle implantation procedure in brachytherapy uses pre-operatively acquired image data displayed as slices on a monitor beneath the operation table. Since this information allows only a rough orientation for the surgeon, the position of the needles has to be verified repeatedly during the intervention. Within the project Medarpa a transparent display being the core component of a medical Augmented Reality (AR) system has been developed. There, pre-operatively acquired image data is displayed together with the position of the tracked instrument allowing a navigated implantation of the brachytherapy needles. The surgeon is enabled to see the anatomical information as well as the virtual instrument in front of the operation area. Thus, the Medarpa system serves as "window into the patient". This paper deals with the results of first clinical trials of the system. Phantoms have been used for evaluating the achieved accuracy of the needle implantation. This has been done by comparing the output of the system (instrument positions relative to the phantom) with the real positions of the needles measured by means of a verification CT scan.

Wesarg, Stefan; Firle, Evelyn A.; Schwald, Bernd; Seibert, Helmut; Zogal, Pawel; Roeddiger, Sandra

2004-05-01

324

Prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

It is a paradigm in cancer treatment that early detection and treatment improves survival. However, although screening measures lead to a higher rate of detection, for small bulk localised prostate cancer it remains unclear whether early detection and early treatment will lead to an overall decrease in mortality. The management options include surveillance, radiotherapy, and radical prostatectomy but there is no evidence base to evaluate the benefits of each approach. Advanced prostate cancer is managed by hormonal therapy. There have been major changes in treatment over the last two decades with the use of more humane treatment and developments in both chemotherapy and radiation. In this article we review the natural history and management of prostate cancer. PMID:12415080

Mazhar, D; Waxman, J

2002-01-01

325

Clinical Trials of a Urethral Dose Measurement System in Brachytherapy Using Scintillation Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on the clinical feasibility of a novel scintillation detector system with fiberoptic readout that measures the urethral dose during high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of the prostate. Methods and Materials: The clinical trial enrolled 24 patients receiving high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment to the prostate. After the first 14 patients, three improvements were made to the dosimeter system design to improve clinical reliability: a dosimeter self-checking facility; a radiopaque marker to determine the position of the dosimeter, and a more robust optical extension fiber. Results: Improvements to the system design allowed for accurate dose measurements to be made in vivo. A maximum measured dose departure of 9% from the calculated dose was observed after dosimeter design improvements. Conclusions: Departures of the measured from the calculated dose, after improvements to the dosimetry system, arise primarily from small changes in patient anatomy. Therefore, we recommend that patient response be correlated with the measured in vivo dose rather than with the calculated dose.

Suchowerska, Natalka, E-mail: natalka@email.cs.nsw.gov.a [Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Jackson, Michael [Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Lambert, Jamil; Yin, Yong Bai [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hruby, George [Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); McKenzie, David R. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

2011-02-01