Science.gov

Sample records for ion beam development

  1. Development of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tatum, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) construction project has been completed and the first radioactive ion beam has been successfully accelerated. The project, which began in 1992, has involved numerous facility modifications. The Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron has been converted from an energy booster for heavy ion beams to a light ion accelerator with internal ion source. A target-ion source and mass analysis system have been commissioned as key components of the facility`s radioactive ion beam injector to the 25MV tandem electrostatic accelerator. Beam transport lines have been completed, and new diagnostics for very low intensity beams have been developed. Work continues on a unified control system. Development of research quality radioactive beams for the nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics communities continues. This paper details facility development to date.

  2. Development of a focused ion beam micromachining system

    SciTech Connect

    Pellerin, J.G.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    Focused ion beams are currently being investigated for many submicron fabrication and analytical purposes. An FIB micromachining system consisting of a UHV vacuum system, a liquid metal ion gun, and a control and data acquisition computer has been constructed. This system is being used to develop nanofabrication and nanomachining techniques involving focused ion beams and scanning tunneling microscopes.

  3. Development of broad beam ion sources at CSSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y. C.; You, D. W.; Kuang, Y. Z.

    1994-04-01

    High-energy and intense beam current broad beam ion sources have been developed for ion implantation and dynamic recoil mixing at CSSAR. The sources can be operated over beam energy and current ranges of 3-120 keV and 5-70 mA, respectively. For sputter coating of thin films, a series of focusing beam ion sources with different structures has also been developed. The energy and current range from 1-10 keV and 100-350 mA for different applications. For some applications, low-energy (below 100 eV) ion beams are required. CSSAR has developed a 6-cm-diam broad beam ion source. The source can be operated at beam energy 10-70 eV, and the beam current 15-80 mA has been extracted. Typical structures and operational data are given for the sources mentioned above. Recently a new type of broad beam metal ion source (Electron Beam Evaporation Metal Ion Source EBE) is being studied. Ion beams of several kinds of materials such as C, W, Ta, Mo, Cr, Ti, B, Cu, etc. have been extracted from the source. Typical operation conditions and ion yields are given in this paper.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF EMITTANCE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR ION BEAM CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, M. J.; Liu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Transverse beam emittance is a crucial property of charged particle beams that describes their angular and spatial spread. It is a fi gure of merit frequently used to determine the quality of ion beams, the compatibility of an ion beam with a given beam transport system, and the ability to suppress neighboring isotopes at on-line mass separator facilities. Generally a high quality beam is characterized by a small emittance. In order to determine and improve the quality of ion beams used at the Holifi eld Radioactive Ion beam Facility (HRIBF) for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research, the emittances of the ion beams are measured at the off-line Ion Source Test Facilities. In this project, emittance analysis software was developed to perform various data processing tasks for noise reduction, to evaluate root-mean-square emittance, Twiss parameters, and area emittance of different beam fractions. The software also provides 2D and 3D graphical views of the emittance data, beam profi les, emittance contours, and RMS. Noise exclusion is essential for accurate determination of beam emittance values. A Self-Consistent, Unbiased Elliptical Exclusion (SCUBEEx) method is employed. Numerical data analysis techniques such as interpolation and nonlinear fi tting are also incorporated into the software. The software will provide a simplifi ed, fast tool for comprehensive emittance analysis. The main functions of the software package have been completed. In preliminary tests with experimental emittance data, the analysis results using the software were shown to be accurate.

  5. Development of polyatomic ion beam system using liquid organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, G. H.; Nishida, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Kawashita, M.

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a new type of polyatomic ion beam system using liquid organic materials such as octane and ethanol, which consists of a capillary type of nozzle, an ionizer, a mass-separator and a substrate holder. Ion current extracted after ionization was 430 μA for octane and 200 μA for ethanol, respectively. The mass-analysis was realized using a compact E × B mass filter, and the mass-analyzed ion beams were transferred toward the substrate. The ion current density at the substrate was a few μA/cm2 for the mass-separated ion species. Interactions of polyatomic ion beams with silicon (Si) surfaces were investigated by utilizing the ellipsometry measurement. It was found that the damaged layer thickness irradiated by the polyatomic ions with a mass number of about 40 was smaller than that by Ar ion irradiation at the same incident energy and ion fluence. The result indicated that the rupture of polyatomic ions occurred upon its impact on the Si surface with an incident energy larger than a few keV. In addition, the chemical modification of Si surfaces such as wettability could be achieved by adjusting the incident energy for the ethanol ions, which included all the fragment ions.

  6. National negative-ion-based neutral-beam development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.S.; Pyle, R.V.

    1983-08-01

    The plan covers facilities required, program milestones, and decision points. It includes identification of applications, experiments, theoretical research areas, development of specific technologies and reactor development and demonstration facilities required to bring about the successful application of negative-ion-based neutral beams. Particular emphasis is placed on those activities leading to use on existing plasma confinement experiments or their upgrades.

  7. Development of a Negative Hydrogen Ion Source for Spatial Beam Profile Measurement of a High Intensity Positive Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Shinto, Katsuhiro; Wada, Motoi; Nishida, Tomoaki; Demura, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Daichi; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Nishiura, Masaki; Kaneko, Osamu; Kisaki, Masashi; Sasao, Mamiko

    2011-09-26

    We have been developing a negative hydrogen ion (H{sup -} ion) source for a spatial beam profile monitor of a high intensity positive ion beam as a new diagnostic tool. In case of a high intensity continuous-wave (CW) deuteron (D{sup +}) beam for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), it is difficult to measure the beam qualities in the severe high radiation environment during about one-year cyclic operation period. Conventional techniques are next to unusable for diagnostics in the operation period of about eleven months and for maintenance in the one-month shutdown period. Therefore, we have proposed an active beam probe system by using a negative ion beam and started an experimental study for the proof-of-principle (PoP) of the new spatial beam profile monitoring tool. In this paper, we present the status of development of the H{sup -} ion source as a probe beam source for the PoP experiment.

  8. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source. PMID:26932105

  9. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  10. Temporal development of ion beam mean charge state in pulsed vacuum arc ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Anders, A.

    2008-02-15

    Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as 'Mevva' ion sources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is known that the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4, depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presence or absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well as background gas pressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significant decrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can be observed up to a few milliseconds, until a ''noisy'' steady-state value is established. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in the ion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beam energy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of the influence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beam mean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown that for fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced by lower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of the distance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may be associated with charge exchange processes in the discharge plasma.

  11. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  12. Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry

    2013-04-19

    At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide {sup c}ocktails{sup ,} a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

  13. Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry

    2013-04-01

    At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide "cocktails", a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

  14. Temporal Development of Ion Beam Mean Charge State in PulsedVacuum Arc Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2007-06-21

    Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as "Mevva" ionsources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is knownthat the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4,depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presenceor absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well background gaspressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significantdecrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can beobserved up to a few milliseconds, until a "noisy" steady-state value isestablished. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in theion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beamenergy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of theinfluence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beammean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown thatfor fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced bylower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of thedistance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may beassociated with charge exchange processes in the dischargeplasma.

  15. Development and Commissioning of an External Beam Facility in the Union College Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Clark, Morgan; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an external beam facility for the 1.1-MV tandem Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory. The beam is extracted from an aluminum pipe through a 1 / 4 ' ' diameter window with a 7.5- μm thick Kapton foil. This external beam facility allows us to perform ion beam analysis on samples that cannot be put under vacuum, including wet samples and samples too large to fit into the scattering chamber. We have commissioned the new facility by performing proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of several samples of environmental interest. These include samples of artificial turf, running tracks, and a human tooth with an amalgam filling. A 1.7-MeV external proton beam was incident on the samples positioned 2 cm from the window. The resulting X-rays were measured using a silicon drift detector and were analyzed using GUPIX software to determine the concentrations of elements in the samples. The results on the human tooth indicate that while significant concentrations of Hg, Ag, and Sn are present in the amalgam filling, only trace amounts of Hg appear to have leached into the tooth. The artificial turf and running tracks show rather large concentrations of a broad range of elements and trace amounts of Pb in the turf infill.

  16. Development of a lithium liquid metal ion source for MeV ion beam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Read, P.M.; Maskrey, J.T.; Alton, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Lithium liquid metal ion sources are an attractive complement to the existing gaseous ion sources that are extensively used for ion beam analysis. This is due in part to the high brightness of the liquid metal ion source and in part to the availability of a lithium ion beam. High brightness is of particular importance to MeV ion microprobes which are now approaching current density limitations on targets determined by the ion source. The availability of a lithium beam provides increased capabilities for hydrogen profiling and high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. This paper describes the design and performance of a lithium liquid metal ion source suitable for use on a 5MV Laddertron accelerator. Operational experience with the source and some of its uses for ion beam analysis are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Development of an ion beam alignment system for real-time scanning tunneling microscope observation of dopant-ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamioka, Takefumi; Sato, Kou; Kazama, Yutaka; Watanabe, Takanobu; Ohdomari, Iwao

    2008-07-15

    An ion beam alignment system has been developed in order to realize real-time scanning tunneling microscope (STM) observation of 'dopant-ion' irradiation that has been difficult due to the low emission intensity of the liquid-metal-ion-source (LMIS) containing dopant atoms. The alignment system is installed in our original ion gun and STM combined system (IG/STM) which is used for in situ STM observation during ion irradiation. By using an absorbed electron image unit and a dummy sample, ion beam alignment operation is drastically simplified and accurized. We demonstrate that sequential STM images during phosphorus-ion irradiation are successfully obtained for sample surfaces of Si(111)-7x7 at room temperature and a high temperature of 500 deg. C. The LMIS-IG/STM equipped with the developed ion beam alignment system would be a powerful tool for microscopic investigation of the dynamic processes of ion irradiation.

  18. Development of ion transportation, extraction and neutralization systems for atomic beam resonance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagae, Daisuke; Asahi, Koichiro; Miyoshi, Hisanori; Shimada, Kenzi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Ueno, Hideki; Murata, Jiro; Uchida, Makoto; Kameda, Daisuke; Kato, Go; Emori, Shoken; Kijima, Go; Oshima, Sachiko; Takemura, Makoto; Arai, Takemasa; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Haseyama, Tomohito; Schmidt-Ott, W. D.

    2005-11-01

    A device that produces a low-energy and largely spin polarized RI beam based on the atomic beam resonance method (RIABR) has been developed. We have performed measurements of stopping and drifting an incoming RI ion beam in a gas chamber, extraction of the ions into a vacuum region, and neutralization of the extracted low-energy ion beam. The drift efficiency of RI ions in a gas and the extraction efficiency at a Laval-type glass nozzle were found to be 0.72±0.04 and 0.033, respectively. The result of the experiment for the neutralization is also discussed.

  19. Development of ECR plasmas for radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, R.; Bouly, J. L.; Bruandet, J. F.; Chauvin, N.; Curdy, J. C.; Lamy, T.; Nifenecker, H.; Sole, P.; Sortais, P.; Vieux-Rochaz, J. L.

    1999-04-26

    ECR plasmas are utilized for : 1) Charge breeding of 1+ RIB into N+ RIB in continuous regime with an efficiency for one given charge of 10% for noble gases and about 5% for solid elements. 2) Charge breeding with beam bunching (bunch duration 20 ms, 5 Hz) was obtained for Rb{sup 15+} ions with an efficiency of 2.2%. These results are very reproducible and need only about 200 W of RF power. The number of ions contained in one bunch exceeds 1000 times those achieved with EBIS systems. The ECR trap is better suited for pulsed post acceleration. 3) Ion accumulation in the ECR plasma trap may become a method for realizing a radioactive target.

  20. Nonpropulsive applications of ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    Eight centimeter ion beam sources utilizing xenon and argon have been developed that operate over a wide range of beam energies and currents. Three types of processes have been studied: sputter deposition, ion beam machining, and ion beam surface texturing. The broad range of source operating conditions allows optimum sputter deposition of various materials. An ion beam source was used to ion mill laser reflection holograms using photoresist patterns on silicon. Ion beam texturing was tried with many materials and has a multitude of potential applications.

  1. Recent developments and upgrades in ion source technology and ion beam systems at HVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podaru, Nicolae C.; Mous, Dirk J. W.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we discuss various ion sources used in particle accelerator systems dedicated to ion beam analysis techniques. Key performance and characteristics of some ion sources are discussed: emittance, brightness, gas consumption, sample consumption efficiency, lifetime, etc. For negative ion sources, we focus on the performance of volume H- ion sources (e.g. HVE model 358), the duoplasmatron negative ion source and the magnetically filtered multicusp volume sources (e.g. HVE model SO-120). The duoplasmatron ion source has been recently upgraded with a Ta filament to deliver up to 150 μA H- ion beams and in conjunction with the Na charge exchange canal up to 20 μA of He-. The available brightness from the duoplasmatron increased from 2 to 6 A m-2 rad-2 eV-1. The ion source has been incorporated in a stand-alone light ion injector, well suited to deliver 20-30 keV negative ion beams of H-, He-, C-, NHx- and O- to accelerate for most ion beam analysis techniques.

  2. Development of Laser-Ion Beam Photodissociation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    David H. Russell

    2004-05-11

    stabilized) ions. It is difficult to probe 2o/3o structure of gas-phase ions using fragmentation chemistry, because the energy barriers to inter-conversion of different structural forms lie below the fragmentation threshold, studies of low internal energy ions are more suited for these studies. A major challenge for gas-phase ion research is the design of experimental structural probes that can be used in parallel with computational chemistry, molecular modeling and/or classical structural diagnostic tools to aid interpretation of the experimental data. Our experimental design and selection of research problems is guided by this philosophy. The following section of the progress report focus on three main issues: (i) technique and instrument development, and (ii) studies of ion structure and ion chemistry.

  3. Development of Laser-Ion Beam Photodissociation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    David H. Russell

    2004-03-31

    stabilized) ions. It is difficult to probe 2o/3o structure of gas-phase ions using fragmentation chemistry, because the energy barriers to inter-conversion of different structural forms lie below the fragmentation threshold, studies of low internal energy ions are more suited for these studies. A major challenge for gas-phase ion research is the design of experimental structural probes that can be used in parallel with computational chemistry, molecular modeling and/or classical structural diagnostic tools to aid interpretation of the experimental data. Our experimental design and selection of research problems is guided by this philosophy. The following section of the progress report focus on three main issues: (i) technique and instrument development, and (ii) studies of ion structure and ion chemistry.

  4. Development of a pepper pot emittance probe and its application for ECR ion beam studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev, S.; Barcikowski, A.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Vinogradov, N.; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2009-07-21

    A pepper pot-scintillator screen system has been developed and used to measure the emittance of DC ion beams extracted from a high-intensity permanent magnet ECR ion source. The system includes a fast beam shutter with a minimum dwell time of 18 ms to reduce the degradation of the CsI(Tl) scintillator by DC ion beam irradiation and a CCD camera with a variable shutter speed in the range of 1 {micro}s-65 s. On-line emittance measurements are performed by an application code developed on a LabVIEW platform. The sensitivity of the device is sufficient to measure the emittance of DC ion beams with current densities down to about 100 nA/cm{sup 2}. The emittance of all ion species extracted from the ECR ion source and post-accelerated to an energy of 75-90 keV/charge have been measured downstream of the LEBT. As the mass-to-charge ratio of ion species increases, the normalized RMS emittances in both transverse phase planes decrease from 0.5-1.0 {pi} mm mrad for light ions to 0.05-0.09 {pi} mm mrad for highly charged {sup 209}Bi ions. The dependence of the emittance on ion's mass-to-charge ratio follows very well the dependence expected from beam rotation induced by decreasing ECR axial magnetic field. The measured emittance values cannot be explained by only ion beam rotation for all ion species and the contribution to emittance of ion temperature in plasma, non-linear electric fields and non-linear space charge is comparable or even higher than the contribution of ion beam rotation.

  5. Development of Bipolar Pulse Accelerator for Pulsed Ion Beam Implantation to Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Mitsui, Chihiro; Kitamura, Iwao; Takahashi, Takakazu; Tanaka, Yasunori; Tanoue, Hisao; Arai, Kazuo

    2002-12-01

    To improve the purity of the ion beams new type of pulsed power ion accelerator named "bipolar pulse accelerator" was proposed. The accelerator consists of two acceleration gaps (an ion source gap and a post acceleration gap) and a drift tube, and a bipolar pulse is applied to the drift tube to accelerate the beam. In the accelerator intended ions are selectively accelerated and the purity of the ion beam is enhanced. As the first step of the development of the accelerator, a Br-type magnetically insulated acceleration gap is developed. The gap has an ion source of coaxial gas puff plasma gun on the grounded anode and a negative pulse is applied to the cathode to accelerate the ion beam. By using the plasma gun, ion source plasma (nitrogen) of current density around 100 A/cm2 is obtained. In the paper, the experimental results of the evaluation of the ion beam and the characteristics of the gap are shown with the principle and the design concept of the proposed accelerator.

  6. Niobium resonator development for high-brightness ion beam acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Roche, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    Two niobium resonant cavities for high-brightness ion beam acceleration have been constructed and tested. The first was based on a coaxial quarter-wave geometry and was optimized for phase velocity {beta}{sub o} = 0.15. This cavity, which resonates at 400 MHz in the fundamental mode, operated at an average (wall-to-wall) accelerating gradient of 12.9 MV/m under continuous-wave (cw) fields. At this gradient, a cavity Q of 1.4 {times} 10{sup 8} was measured. The second was based on a coaxial half-wave geometry and was optimized for {beta}{sub o} = 0.12. This cavity, which resonates at 355 MHz in the fundamental mode, operated at an average accelerating gradient of 18.0 MV/m under cw fields. This is the highest average accelerating gradient achieved to date in low-velocity structures designed for cw operation. At this gradient, a cavity Q of 1.2 {times} 10{sup 8} was measured.

  7. Development of a low-energy beam transport system at KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Sato, Yoichi; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Choi, Seyong; Won, Mi-Sook; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute has developed a heavy ion accelerator for fast neutron radiography [1]. To meet the requirements for fast neutron generation, we have developed an accelerator system that consists of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS), low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), medium-energy beam transport system, and drift tube linac. In this paper, we present the development of the LEBT system as a part of the heavy ion accelerator system, which operates from the ECR-IS to the RFQ entrance.

  8. Recent developments of SOLEROO: Australia's first high energy radioactive Ion Beam capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, I. P.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Luong, D. H.; Williams, E.; Ramachandran, K.; Cook, K. J.; Muirhead, A. G.; Marshall, S.; Tunningley, T.

    2015-04-01

    The first measurements of the Australian National University's new radioactive ion beam capability were carried out using elastic scattering of a 8Li radioactive beam from a 197Au target. The purpose of this experiment was to test the radioactive ion beam capability as a complete system, which uses a pair of twin position-sensitive parallel plate avalanche counters as tracking detectors along with a highly pixelated double sided Si detector array. The tracking detector system allows us to have extremely high purity secondary radioactive ion beams by electronically tagging the reaction products of interest, thus allowing complete separation from the unwanted contaminant beam species of similar mass and charge. Here, some recent developments and characteristics of this system are presented.

  9. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Assmann, R.; Kabantsev, A.; /UC, San Diego

    2010-06-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  10. Ion source developments for the production of radioactive isotope beams at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, F.; Bricault, P.; Heggen, H.; Kunz, P.; Lassen, J.; Mjøs, A.; Raeder, S.; Teigelhöfer, A.

    2014-02-01

    At the ISAC facility at TRIUMF radioactive ions are produced by bombarding solid targets with up to 100 μA of 500 MeV protons. The reaction products have to diffuse out of the hot target into an ion source. Normally, singly charged ions are extracted. They can be transported either directly to experiments or via an ECR charge state breeder to a post accelerator. Several different types of ion sources have to be used in order to deliver a large variety of rare isotope beams. At ISAC those are surface ion sources, forced electron beam arc discharge (FEBIAD) ion sources and resonant laser ionization sources. Recent development activities concentrated on increasing the selectivity for the ionization to suppress isobaric contamination in the beam. Therefore, a surface ion rejecting resonant laser ionization source (SIRLIS) has been developed to suppress ions from surface ionization. For the FEBIAD ion source a cold transfer line has been introduced to prevent less volatile components from reaching the ion source.

  11. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes.

  12. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-10-08

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes. 6 figs.

  13. Development progresses of radio frequency ion source for neutral beam injector in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, D. H.; Jeong, S. H.; Kim, T. S.; Park, M.; Lee, K. W.; In, S. R.

    2014-02-01

    A large-area RF (radio frequency)-driven ion source is being developed in Germany for the heating and current drive of an ITER device. Negative hydrogen ion sources are the major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER and DEMO. RF ion sources for the production of positive hydrogen (deuterium) ions have been successfully developed for the neutral beam heating systems at IPP (Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics) in Germany. The first long-pulse ion source has been developed successfully with a magnetic bucket plasma generator including a filament heating structure for the first NBI system of the KSTAR tokamak. There is a development plan for an RF ion source at KAERI to extract the positive ions, which can be applied for the KSTAR NBI system and to extract the negative ions for future fusion devices such as the Fusion Neutron Source and Korea-DEMO. The characteristics of RF-driven plasmas and the uniformity of the plasma parameters in the test-RF ion source were investigated initially using an electrostatic probe.

  14. Development progresses of radio frequency ion source for neutral beam injector in fusion devices.

    PubMed

    Chang, D H; Jeong, S H; Kim, T S; Park, M; Lee, K W; In, S R

    2014-02-01

    A large-area RF (radio frequency)-driven ion source is being developed in Germany for the heating and current drive of an ITER device. Negative hydrogen ion sources are the major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER and DEMO. RF ion sources for the production of positive hydrogen (deuterium) ions have been successfully developed for the neutral beam heating systems at IPP (Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics) in Germany. The first long-pulse ion source has been developed successfully with a magnetic bucket plasma generator including a filament heating structure for the first NBI system of the KSTAR tokamak. There is a development plan for an RF ion source at KAERI to extract the positive ions, which can be applied for the KSTAR NBI system and to extract the negative ions for future fusion devices such as the Fusion Neutron Source and Korea-DEMO. The characteristics of RF-driven plasmas and the uniformity of the plasma parameters in the test-RF ion source were investigated initially using an electrostatic probe. PMID:24593580

  15. Progress and future developments of high current ion source for neutral beam injector in the ASIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Liu, Zhimin; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Sheng, Peng; Jiang, Caichao

    2015-04-08

    A high current hot cathode bucket ion source, which based on the US long pulse ion source is developed in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The ion source consists of a bucket plasma generator with multi-pole cusp fields and a set of tetrode accelerator with slit apertures. So far, four ion sources are developed and conditioned on the ion source test bed. 4 MW hydrogen beam with beam energy of 80 keV is extracted. In Aug. 2013, EAST NBI 1 with two ion source installed on the EAST, and achieved H-mode plasma with NBI injection for the first time. In order to achieve stable long pulse operation of high current ion source and negative ion source research, the RF ion source with 200 mm diameter and 120 mm depth driver is designed and developed. The first RF plasma generated with 2 kW power of 1 MHz frequency. More of the RF plasma tests and negative source relative research need to do in the future.

  16. Recent Progress in the Development of a Circular Ion Induction Accelerator for Space Charge Dominated Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahle, L.; Sangster, T. C.; Autrey, D.; Barnard, J.; Craig, G.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Halaxa, E.; Hanks, R. L.; Hernandez, M.; Kirbie, H. C.; Logan, B. G.; Lund, S. M.; Mant, G.; Molvik, A.; Sharp, W.; Berners, D.; Eylon, S.; Judd, D. L.; Reginato, L.; Debeling, A.; Fritz, W.

    1998-11-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been developing the world's first ion induction accelerator. This machine has recently been extended to 90 degress, or 10 half-lattice periods(HLP) with full beam transport. As part of this extension, two new diagnostic systems have been fully enabled, the Capacitive Beam Probes(C-probes) and the Gated Beam Imager(GBI). The C-probes measure the charge centroid of the beam in each HLP and the GBI measures emittance in both transverse planes. Output from both diagnostics will be presented. In addition, induction cores have been installed on five of the HLP's, in anticipation of the first attempts at acceleration. The status of these attempts will also be discussed.

  17. Intense ion beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Humphries, Jr., Stanley; Sudan, Ravindra N.

    1977-08-30

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation.

  18. Development of a plasma generator for a long pulse ion source for neutral beam injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Tobari, H.; Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M.; Jeong, S. H.; Chang, D. H.; Kim, T. S.; Kim, B. R.; Seo, C. S.; Jin, J. T.; Lee, K. W.; In, S. R.; Oh, B. H.; Kim, J.; Bae, Y. S.

    2011-06-01

    A plasma generator for a long pulse H+/D+ ion source has been developed. The plasma generator was designed to produce 65 A H+/D+ beams at an energy of 120 keV from an ion extraction area of 12 cm in width and 45 cm in length. Configuration of the plasma generator is a multi-cusp bucket type with SmCo permanent magnets. Dimension of a plasma chamber is 25 cm in width, 59 cm in length, and 32.5 cm in depth. The plasma generator was designed and fabricated at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Source plasma generation and beam extraction tests for hydrogen coupling with an accelerator of the KSTAR ion source have been performed at the KSTAR neutral beam test stand under the agreement of Japan-Korea collaborative experiment. Spatial uniformity of the source plasma at the extraction region was measured using Langmuir probes and ±7% of the deviation from an averaged ion saturation current density was obtained. A long pulse test of the plasma generation up to 200 s with an arc discharge power of 70 kW has been successfully demonstrated. The arc discharge power satisfies the requirement of the beam production for the KSTAR NBI. A 70 keV, 41 A, 5 s hydrogen ion beam has been extracted with a high arc efficiency of 0.9 -1.1 A/kW at a beam extraction experiment. A deuteron yield of 77% was measured even at a low beam current density of 73 mA/cm2.

  19. Development of a plasma generator for a long pulse ion source for neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Tobari, H.; Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M.; Jeong, S. H.; Chang, D. H.; Kim, T. S.; Kim, B. R.; Seo, C. S.; Jin, J. T.; Lee, K. W.; In, S. R.; Oh, B. H.; Kim, J.; Bae, Y. S.

    2011-06-15

    A plasma generator for a long pulse H{sup +}/D{sup +} ion source has been developed. The plasma generator was designed to produce 65 A H{sup +}/D{sup +} beams at an energy of 120 keV from an ion extraction area of 12 cm in width and 45 cm in length. Configuration of the plasma generator is a multi-cusp bucket type with SmCo permanent magnets. Dimension of a plasma chamber is 25 cm in width, 59 cm in length, and 32.5 cm in depth. The plasma generator was designed and fabricated at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Source plasma generation and beam extraction tests for hydrogen coupling with an accelerator of the KSTAR ion source have been performed at the KSTAR neutral beam test stand under the agreement of Japan-Korea collaborative experiment. Spatial uniformity of the source plasma at the extraction region was measured using Langmuir probes and {+-}7% of the deviation from an averaged ion saturation current density was obtained. A long pulse test of the plasma generation up to 200 s with an arc discharge power of 70 kW has been successfully demonstrated. The arc discharge power satisfies the requirement of the beam production for the KSTAR NBI. A 70 keV, 41 A, 5 s hydrogen ion beam has been extracted with a high arc efficiency of 0.9 -1.1 A/kW at a beam extraction experiment. A deuteron yield of 77% was measured even at a low beam current density of 73 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  20. Z-petawatt driven ion beam radiography development.

    SciTech Connect

    Schollmeier, Marius; Geissel, Matthias; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Sefkow, Adam B.

    2013-09-01

    Laser-driven proton radiography provides electromagnetic field mapping with high spatiotemporal resolution, and has been applied to many laser-driven High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments. Our report addresses key questions about the feasibility of ion radiography at the Z-Accelerator (%E2%80%9CZ%E2%80%9D), concerning laser configuration, hardware, and radiation background. Charged particle tracking revealed that radiography at Z requires GeV scale protons, which is out of reach for existing and near-future laser systems. However, it might be possible to perform proton deflectometry to detect magnetic flux compression in the fringe field region of a magnetized liner inertial fusion experiment. Experiments with the Z-Petawatt laser to enhance proton yield and energy showed an unexpected scaling with target thickness. Full-scale, 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, coupled to fully explicit and kinetic 2D particle-in-cell simulations running for over 10 ps, explain the scaling by a complex interplay of laser prepulse, preplasma, and ps-scale temporal rising edge of the laser.

  1. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam. An accelerator electrode device downstream from the extraction grids is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam. The application of the system to ion implantation is mentioned.

  2. Ion beam thruster shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An ion thruster beam shield is provided that comprises a cylindrical housing that extends downstream from the ion thruster and a plurality of annular vanes which are spaced along the length of the housing, and extend inwardly from the interior wall of the housing. The shield intercepts and stops all charge exchange and beam ions, neutral propellant, and sputter products formed due to the interaction of beam and shield emanating from the ion thruster outside of a fixed conical angle from the thruster axis. Further, the shield prevents the sputter products formed during the operation of the engine from escaping the interior volume of the shield.

  3. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  4. Development of ion beam figuring system with electrostatic deflection for ultraprecise X-ray reflective optics

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Jumpei; Matsuyama, Satoshi Sano, Yasuhisa; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2015-09-15

    We developed an ion beam figuring system that utilizes electrostatic deflection. The system can produce an arbitrary shape by deterministically scanning the ion beam. The scan of the ion beam, which can be precisely controlled using only an electrical signal, enables us to avoid degradation of the mirror shape caused by imperfect acceleration or deceleration of a mechanically scanning stage. Additionally, this surface figuring method can easily be combined with X-ray metrology because the workpiece remains fixed during the figuring. We evaluated the figuring accuracy of the system by fabricating a plano-elliptical mirror for X-ray focusing. A mirror with a shape error of 1.4 nm root mean square (RMS) with a maximum removal depth of 992 nm, which corresponds to figuring accuracy of 0.14% RMS, was achieved. After the second shape corrections, an elliptical shape with a shape error of approximately 1 nm peak-to-valley, 0.48 nm RMS could be fabricated. Then, the mirror surface was smoothed by a low-energy ion beam. Consequently, a micro-roughness of 0.117 nm RMS, measured by atomic force microscopy, was achieved over an area of 1 × 1 μm{sup 2}.

  5. Development of ion beam figuring system with electrostatic deflection for ultraprecise X-ray reflective optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Jumpei; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2015-09-01

    We developed an ion beam figuring system that utilizes electrostatic deflection. The system can produce an arbitrary shape by deterministically scanning the ion beam. The scan of the ion beam, which can be precisely controlled using only an electrical signal, enables us to avoid degradation of the mirror shape caused by imperfect acceleration or deceleration of a mechanically scanning stage. Additionally, this surface figuring method can easily be combined with X-ray metrology because the workpiece remains fixed during the figuring. We evaluated the figuring accuracy of the system by fabricating a plano-elliptical mirror for X-ray focusing. A mirror with a shape error of 1.4 nm root mean square (RMS) with a maximum removal depth of 992 nm, which corresponds to figuring accuracy of 0.14% RMS, was achieved. After the second shape corrections, an elliptical shape with a shape error of approximately 1 nm peak-to-valley, 0.48 nm RMS could be fabricated. Then, the mirror surface was smoothed by a low-energy ion beam. Consequently, a micro-roughness of 0.117 nm RMS, measured by atomic force microscopy, was achieved over an area of 1 × 1 μm2.

  6. Recent developments in rf superconductivity for high-brightness and high-gradient ion beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Kennedy, W.L.; Nichols, G.L.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress in on-going development program leading to the design of superconducting continuous-wave (cw) linear accelerators for high-brightness ion beams is reviewed. A new spoke-resonator geometry incorporating a half-wavelength resonant line was fabricated and tested. This geometry serves as the basis for the constituent cavities of a superconducting section being designed for high-current testing with a deuterium beam. Considerable progress has been made in the design of this section. A multi-phased program leading to the development of a superconducting radio-frequency quadrupole (SCRFQ) has been initiated. Design considerations and test results from the various activities are presented.

  7. Recent developments in rf superconductivity for high-brightness and high-gradient ion beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Kennedy, W.L.; Nichols, G.L.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1992-02-01

    Recent progress in on-going development program leading to the design of superconducting continuous-wave (cw) linear accelerators for high-brightness ion beams is reviewed. A new spoke-resonator geometry incorporating a half-wavelength resonant line was fabricated and tested. This geometry serves as the basis for the constituent cavities of a superconducting section being designed for high-current testing with a deuterium beam. Considerable progress has been made in the design of this section. A multi-phased program leading to the development of a superconducting radio-frequency quadrupole (SCRFQ) has been initiated. Design considerations and test results from the various activities are presented.

  8. Accelerated Nuclear Energy Materials Development with Multiple Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fluss, M J; Bench, G

    2009-08-19

    A fundamental issue in nuclear energy is the changes in material properties as a consequence of time, temperature, and neutron fluence. Usually, candidate materials for nuclear energy applications are tested in nuclear reactors to understand and model the changes that arise from a combination of atomic displacements, helium and hydrogen production, and other nuclear transmutations (e.g. fission and the production of fission products). Experiments may be carried out under neutron irradiation conditions in existing nuclear materials test reactors (at rates of 10 to 20 displacements per atom (DPA) per year or burn-up rates of a few percent per year for fertile fuels), but such an approach takes much too long for many high neutron fluence scenarios (300 DPA for example) expected in reactors of the next generation. Indeed it is reasonable to say that there are no neutron sources available today to accomplish sufficiently rapid accelerated aging let alone also provide the temperature and spectral characteristics of future fast spectrum nuclear energy systems (fusion and fission both). Consequently, materials research and development progress continues to be severely limited by this bottleneck.

  9. An overview on TRIUMF's developments on ion source for radioactive beams.

    PubMed

    Bricault, Pierre; Ames, Friedhelm; Achtzehn, Tobias; Dombsky, Marik; Labrecque, Francis; Lassen, Jens; Lavoie, Jean-Phillipe; Lecesne, Nathalie

    2008-02-01

    The ISAC facility at TRIUMF utilizes up to 100 microA from the 500 MeV H(-) cyclotron to produce the radioactive ion beam (RIB) using the isotopic separation on line method. The ISAC-I facility comprised the RIB production target stations, the mass separator, and the beam delivery to low energy area and to a room temperature linear accelerator composed of a four-rod radio frequency quadrupole and an interdigital H-type structure drift tube LINAC. ISAC-I linear accelerator can provide beam from A=3 to 30 amu with an energy range from 0.15 to 1.5 A MeV. Since the beginning of operations target development program has been to increase proton beam currents on targets. Now we routinely operate our target at 50-85 microA and recently we have operated our target at 100 microA. Other developments are in place to add other ion sources, laser, force electron beam induced are discharge and electron cyclotron resonance ion source to the actual surface ion source. The last two five year plans were mainly devoted to the construction of a heavy ion superconducting LINAC (ISAC-II) that will upgrade the mass and the energy range from 30 to 150 and from 1.5 to 6.5 A MeV, respectively. The intermediate stage E< or =4.2 A MeV is already completed and commissioned; three experiments using (11)Li, (9)Li, and (29)Na have been completed this summer. PMID:18315163

  10. Development of a universal serial bus interface circuit for ion beam current integrators.

    PubMed

    Suresh, K; Panigrahi, B K; Nair, K G M

    2007-08-01

    A universal serial bus (USB) interface circuit has been developed to enable easy interfacing of commercial as well as custom-built ion beam current integrators to personal computer (PC) based automated experimental setups. Built using the popular PIC16F877A reduced instruction set computer and a USB-universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter/first in, first out controller, DLP2232, this USB interface circuit virtually emulates the ion beam current integrators on a host PC and uses USB 2.0 protocol to implement high speed bidirectional data transfer. Using this interface, many tedious and labor intensive ion beam irradiation and characterization experiments can be redesigned into PC based automated ones with advantages of improved accuracy, rapidity, and ease of use and control. This interface circuit was successfully used in carrying out online in situ resistivity measurement of 70 keV O(+) ion irradiated tin thin films using four probe method. In situ electrical resistance measurement showed the formation of SnO(2) phase during ion implantation. PMID:17764373

  11. Ion beam surface modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwight, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The essential details of a study on the practical applications and mechanisms of polymer sputtering via Argon ion impact are summarized. The potential to modify the properties of polymer surfaces to improve their adherence, durability, biocompatibility, or other desirable properties by ion beam sputtering was emphasized. Ion beam milling can be of benefit as an analytical tool to obtain composition versus depth information. Ion impact from a directed ion gun source specifically etches polymer structures according to their morphologies, therefore this technique may be useful to study unknown or new morphological features. Factors addressed were related to: (1) the texture that arises on a polymer target after ion impact; (2) the chemistry of the top surface after ion impact; (3) the chemistry of sputtered films of polymeric material deposited on substrates placed adjacent to targets during ion impact; and (4) practical properties of textured polymer targets, specifically the wettability and adhesive bonding properties.

  12. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids (16, 18) with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets (20) along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam (14). An accelerator electrode device (22) downstream from the extraction grids, is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam.

  13. Ion Beam and Plasma Technology Development for Surface Modification at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; Munson, C.P.; Wood, B.P.; Bitteker, L.J.; Nastasi, M.A.; Rej, D.J.; Waganaar, W.J.; Walter, K.C.; Coates, D.M.; Schleinitz, H.M.

    1997-12-31

    We are developing two high-throughput technologies for materials modification. The first is a repetitive intense ion beam source for materials modification through rapid surface melt and resolidification (up to 10{sup 10} deg/sec cooling rates) and for ablative deposition of coatings. The short range of the ions (typically 0.1 to 5 micrometers) allows vaporization or melting at moderate beam energy density (typically 1-50 J/cm{sup 2}). A new repetitive intense ion beam accelerator called CHAMP is under development at Los Alamos. The design beam parameters are: E=200 keV, I=15 kA, {tau}=1 {micro}s, and 1 Hz. This accelerator will enable applications such as film deposition, alloying and mixing, cleaning and polishing, corrosion and wear resistance, polymer surface treatments, and nanophase powder synthesis. The second technology is plasma source ion implantation (PSII) using plasmas generated from both gas phase (using radio frequency excitation) and solid phase (using a cathodic arc) sources. We have used PSII to directly implant ions for surface modification or as method for generating graded interfaces to enhance the adhesion of surface coatings. Surfaces with areas of up to 16 m{sup 2} and weighing more than a thousand kilograms have been treated in the Los Alamos PSII chamber. In addition, PSII in combination with cathodic source deposition has been used to form highly adherent, thick Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings on steel for reactive metal containment in casting. These coatings resist delamination under extreme mechanical and thermal stress.

  14. The development of the radio frequency driven negative ion source for neutral beam injectors (invited).

    PubMed

    Kraus, W; Fantz, U; Franzen, P; Fröschle, M; Heinemann, B; Riedl, R; Wünderlich, D

    2012-02-01

    Large and powerful negative hydrogen ion sources are required for the neutral beam injection (NBI) systems of future fusion devices. Simplicity and maintenance-free operation favors RF sources, which are developed intensively at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) since many years. The negative hydrogen ions are generated by caesium-enhanced surface conversion of atoms and positive ions on the plasma grid surface. With a small scale prototype the required high ion current density and the low fraction of co-extracted electrons at low pressure as well as stable pulses up to 1 h could be demonstrated. The modular design allows extension to large source dimensions. This has led to the decision to choose RF sources for the NBI of the international fusion reactor, ITER. As an intermediate step towards the full size ITER source at IPP, the development will be continued with a half-size source on the new ELISE testbed. This will enable to gain experience for the first time with negative hydrogen ion beams from RF sources of these dimensions. PMID:22380261

  15. The development of the radio frequency driven negative ion source for neutral beam injectors (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, W.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Wuenderlich, D.

    2012-02-15

    Large and powerful negative hydrogen ion sources are required for the neutral beam injection (NBI) systems of future fusion devices. Simplicity and maintenance-free operation favors RF sources, which are developed intensively at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP) since many years. The negative hydrogen ions are generated by caesium-enhanced surface conversion of atoms and positive ions on the plasma grid surface. With a small scale prototype the required high ion current density and the low fraction of co-extracted electrons at low pressure as well as stable pulses up to 1 h could be demonstrated. The modular design allows extension to large source dimensions. This has led to the decision to choose RF sources for the NBI of the international fusion reactor, ITER. As an intermediate step towards the full size ITER source at IPP, the development will be continued with a half-size source on the new ELISE testbed. This will enable to gain experience for the first time with negative hydrogen ion beams from RF sources of these dimensions.

  16. Ion beam texturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    A microscopic surface texture is created by sputter etching a surface while simultaneously sputter depositing a lower sputter yield material onto the surface. A xenon ion beam source has been used to perform this texturing process on samples as large as three centimeters in diameter. Ion beam textured surface structures have been characterized with SEM photomicrographs for a large number of materials including Cu, Al, Si, Ti, Ni, Fe, Stainless steel, Au, and Ag. Surfaces have been textured using a variety of low sputter yield materials - Ta, Mo, Nb, and Ti. The initial stages of the texture creation have been documented, and the technique of ion beam sputter removal of any remaining deposited material has been studied. A number of other texturing parameters have been studied such as the variation of the texture with ion beam power, surface temperature, and the rate of texture growth with sputter etching time.

  17. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  18. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Gough, Richard A.; Ji, Qing; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    1999-01-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 .mu.m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 .mu.m or less.

  19. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, John B.

    1997-01-01

    An improved pulsed ion beam source having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center.

  20. Focused ion beam induced microstructural alterations: texture development, grain growth, and intermetallic formation.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joseph R

    2011-06-01

    Copper, gold, and tungsten thin films have been exposed to 30 kV Ga+ ion irradiation, and the resulting microstructural modifications are studied as a function of ion dose. The observed microstructural changes include texture development with respect to the easy channeling direction in the target, and in the case of Cu, an additional intermetallic phase is produced. Texture development in these target materials is a function of the starting materials grain size, and these changes are not observed in large grained materials. The accepted models of differential damage driven grain growth are not supported by the results of this study. The implications of this study to the use of focused ion beam tools for sample preparation are discussed. PMID:21466753

  1. Development of ion source with a washer gun for pulsed neutral beam injection.

    PubMed

    Asai, T; Yamaguchi, N; Kajiya, H; Takahashi, T; Imanaka, H; Takase, Y; Ono, Y; Sato, K N

    2008-06-01

    A new type of economical neutral beam source has been developed by using a single washer gun, pulsed operation, and a simple electrode system. We replaced the conventional hot filaments for arc-discharge-type plasma formation with a single stainless-steel washer gun, eliminating the entire dc power supply for the filaments and the cooling system for the electrodes. Our initial experiments revealed successful beam extraction up to 10 kV and 8.6 A, based on spatial profile measurements of density and temperature in the plasma source. The system also shows the potential to control the beam profile by controlling the plasma parameters in the ion accumulation chamber. PMID:18601403

  2. Ion-beam technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  3. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ian G.; Galvin, James

    1987-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  4. Ion beam modification of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1990-04-01

    Energetic ions beams may be used in various ways to modify and so improve the tribological properties of metals. These methods include: — ion implantation of selected additive species; — ion beam mixing of thin deposited coatings; — ion-beam-assisted deposition of thicker overlay coatings. The first of these techniques has been widely used to modify the electronic properties of semiconductors, but has since been extended for the treatment of all classes of material. Tool steels can be strengthened by the ion implantation of nitrogen or titanium, to produce fine dispersions of hard second-phase precipitates. Solid solution strengthening, by combinations of substitutional and interstitial species, such as yttrium and nitrogen, has also been successful. Both ion beam mixing (IBM) and ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) use a combination of coating and ion bombardment. In the first case, the objective is to intermix the coating and substrate by the aid of radiation-enhanced diffusion. In the latter case, the coating is densified and modified during deposition and the process can be continued in order to build up overlay coatings several μm in thickness. The surface can then be tailored, for instance to provide a hard and adherent ceramic such as silicon nitride, boron nitride or titanium nitride. It is an advantage that all the above processes can be applied at relatively low temperatures, below about 200° C, thereby avoiding distortion of precision components. Ion implantation is also being successfully applied for the reduction of corrosion, especially at high temperatures or in the atmosphere and to explore the mechanisms of oxidation. Ion-assisted coatings, being compact and adherent, provide a more substantial protection against corrosion: silicon nitride and boron nitride are potentially useful in this respect. Examples will be given of the successful application of these methods for the surface modification of metals and alloys, and developments in the

  5. Ion beam mixing by focused ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Barna, Arpad; Kotis, Laszlo; Labar, Janos L.; Osvath, Zoltan; Toth, Attila L.; Menyhard, Miklos; Zalar, Anton; Panjan, Peter

    2007-09-01

    Si amorphous (41 nm)/Cr polycrystalline (46 nm) multilayer structure was irradiated by 30 keV Ga{sup +} ions with fluences in the range of 25-820 ions/nm{sup 2} using a focused ion beam. The effect of irradiation on the concentration distribution was studied by Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The ion irradiation did not result in roughening on the free surface. On the other hand, the Ga{sup +} irradiation produced a strongly mixed region around the first Si/Cr interface. The thickness of mixed region depends on the Ga{sup +} fluence and it is joined to the pure Cr matrix with an unusual sharp interface. With increasing fluence the width of the mixed region increases but the interface between the mixed layer and pure Cr remains sharp. TRIDYN simulation failed to reproduce this behavior. Assuming that the Ga{sup +} irradiation induces asymmetric mixing, that is during the mixing process the Cr can enter the Si layer, but the Si cannot enter the Cr layer, the experimental findings can qualitatively be explained.

  6. Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2016-02-01

    In order to realize negative ion sources and accelerators to be applicable to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and JT-60 Super Advanced, a large cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion source and a multi-aperture and multi-stage electric acceleration have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Long pulse production and acceleration of the negative ion beams have been independently carried out. The long pulse production of the high current beams has achieved 100 s at the beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. The pulse duration time is increased three times longer than that before the modification. As for the acceleration, a pulse duration time has been also extended two orders of magnitudes from 0.4 s to 60 s. The developments of the negative ion source and acceleration at JAEA are well in progress towards the realization of the negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion applications.

  7. Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Hanada, M; Kojima, A; Tobari, H; Nishikiori, R; Hiratsuka, J; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Yoshida, M; Ichikawa, M; Watanabe, K; Yamano, Y; Grisham, L R

    2016-02-01

    In order to realize negative ion sources and accelerators to be applicable to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and JT-60 Super Advanced, a large cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion source and a multi-aperture and multi-stage electric acceleration have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Long pulse production and acceleration of the negative ion beams have been independently carried out. The long pulse production of the high current beams has achieved 100 s at the beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. The pulse duration time is increased three times longer than that before the modification. As for the acceleration, a pulse duration time has been also extended two orders of magnitudes from 0.4 s to 60 s. The developments of the negative ion source and acceleration at JAEA are well in progress towards the realization of the negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion applications. PMID:26932050

  8. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  9. Development of an Ion Beam Irradiation System for Liquid Crystal Alignment Layer Production

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Kinoshita, Yuko; Tanii, Masahiro; Tatemichi, Junichi; Konishi, Masashi; Naito, Masao

    2008-11-03

    Ion beam irradiation was employed to produce alignment layers for liquid crystal (LC) displays. The alignment characteristics were compared with those by the conventional rubbing method. Ion incident angle to the films played an important role in LC sample optical qualities. A new ion irradiation method to realize a multi-domain structure for a wide viewing angle was demonstrated.

  10. Development of a local vacuum system for focused ion beam machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Tsuneaki; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Ikeda, Hiromichi; Oguchi, Keigo; Yamagishi, Hikaru; Wakabayashi, Yuji

    2009-07-01

    A local vacuum system for focused ion beam (FIB) processing, with a workpiece set in the air, has been developed. The local vacuum apparatus had a double-wall cylinder structure, used a differential exhaust, and each cylinder was connected to a vacuum exhaust pump. When the gap between the workpiece and the apparatus was 10 μm, the pressure of beam line in the machining head achieved 2.1×10-3 Pa. In addition, a visualization system was developed by visualizing the current flow out from a sample by FIB irradiation. With this system, it is possible to conduct focus adjustments of the FIB and shape recognition on a workpiece in the order of microns.

  11. Development of dual-beam system using an electrostatic accelerator for in-situ observation of swift heavy ion irradiation effects on materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, M.; Asozu, T.; Sataka, M.; Iwase, A.

    2013-11-01

    We have developed the dual beam system which accelerates two kinds of ion beams simultaneously especially for real-time ion beam analysis. We have also developed the alternating beam system which can efficiently change beam species in a short time in order to realize efficient ion beam analysis in a limited beam time. The acceleration of the dual beam is performed by the 20 UR Pelletron™ tandem accelerator in which an ECR ion source is mounted at the high voltage terminal [1,2]. The multi-charged ions of two or more elements can be simultaneously generated from the ECR ion source, so dual-beam irradiation is achieved by accelerating ions with the same charge to mass ratio (for example, 132Xe11+ and 12C+). It enables us to make a real-time beam analysis such as Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) method, while a target is irradiated with swift heavy ions. For the quick change of the accelerating ion beam, the program of automatic setting of the optical parameter of the accelerator has been developed. The switchover time for changing the ion beam is about 5 min. These developments have been applied to the study on the ion beam mixing caused by high-density electronic excitation induced by swift heavy ions.

  12. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    PubMed

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications. PMID:26931978

  13. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm-2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  14. Ion Beam Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-11-08

    IBSimu(Ion Beam Simulator) is a computer program for making two and three dimensional ion optical simulations. The program can solve electrostatic field in a rectangular mesh using Poisson equation using Finite Difference method (FDM). The mesh can consist of a coarse and a fine part so that the calculation accuracy can be increased in critical areas of the geometry, while most of the calculation is done quickly using the coarse mesh. IBSimu can launch ionmore » beam trajectories into the simulation from an injection surface or fomo plasma. Ion beam space charge of time independent simulations can be taken in account using Viasov iteration. Plasma is calculated by compensating space charge with electrons having Boltzmann energy distribution. The simulation software can also be used to calculate time dependent cases if the space charge is not calculated. Software includes diagnostic tools for plotting the geometry, electric field, space charge map, ion beam trajectories, emittance data and beam profiles.« less

  15. Ion Accelerator Merges Several Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.

    1984-01-01

    Intense ion beam formed by merging multiple ion beamlets into one concentrated beam. Beamlet holes in graphite screen and focusing grids arranged in hexagonal pattern. Merged beam passes through single hole in each of aluminum accelerator and decelerator grids. Ion extraction efficiency, beam intensity, and focusing improved.

  16. Ion beam lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-08-02

    A maskless plasma-formed ion beam lithography tool provides for patterning of sub-50 nm features on large area flat or curved substrate surfaces. The system is very compact and does not require an accelerator column and electrostatic beam scanning components. The patterns are formed by switching beamlets on or off from a two electrode blanking system with the substrate being scanned mechanically in one dimension. This arrangement can provide a maskless nano-beam lithography tool for economic and high throughput processing.

  17. Resolution improvement and pattern generator development for the maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ximan

    The shrinking of IC devices has followed the Moore's Law for over three decades, which states that the density of transistors on integrated circuits will double about every two years. This great achievement is obtained via continuous advance in lithography technology. With the adoption of complicated resolution enhancement technologies, such as the phase shifting mask (PSM), the optical proximity correction (OPC), optical lithography with wavelength of 193 nm has enabled 45 nm printing by immersion method. However, this achievement comes together with the skyrocketing cost of masks, which makes the production of low volume application-specific IC (ASIC) impractical. In order to provide an economical lithography approach for low to medium volume advanced IC fabrication, a maskless ion beam lithography method, called Maskless Micro-ion-beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL), has been developed in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The development of the prototype MMRL system has been described by Dr. Vinh Van Ngo in his Ph.D. thesis. But the resolution realized on the prototype MMRL system was far from the design expectation. In order to improve the resolution of the MMRL system, the ion optical system has been investigated. By integrating a field-free limiting aperture into the optical column, reducing the electromagnetic interference and cleaning the RF plasma, the resolution has been improved to around 50 nm. Computational analysis indicates that the MMRL system can be operated with an exposure field size of 0.25 mm and a beam half angle of 1.0 mrad on the wafer plane. Ion-ion interactions have been studied with a two-particle physics model. The results are in excellent agreement with those published by the other research groups. The charge-interaction analysis of MMRL shows that the ion-ion interactions must be reduced in order to obtain a throughput higher than 10 wafers per hour on 300-mm wafers. In addition, two different maskless lithography strategies

  18. Development of a compact permanent magnet helicon plasma source for ion beam bioengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kerdtongmee, P.; Srinoum, D.; Nisoa, M.

    2011-10-15

    A compact helicon plasma source was developed as a millimeter-sized ion source for ion beam bioengineering. By employing a stacked arrangement of annular-shaped permanent magnets, a uniform axial magnetic flux density up to 2.8 kG was obtained. A cost effective 118 MHz RF generator was built for adjusting forward output power from 0 to 40 W. The load impedance and matching network were then analyzed. A single loop antenna and circuit matching elements were placed on a compact printed circuit board for 50 {Omega} impedance matching. A plasma density up to 1.1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} in the 10 mm diameter tube under the magnetic flux density was achieved with 35 W applied RF power.

  19. Development of a compact permanent magnet helicon plasma source for ion beam bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Kerdtongmee, P; Srinoum, D; Nisoa, M

    2011-10-01

    A compact helicon plasma source was developed as a millimeter-sized ion source for ion beam bioengineering. By employing a stacked arrangement of annular-shaped permanent magnets, a uniform axial magnetic flux density up to 2.8 kG was obtained. A cost effective 118 MHz RF generator was built for adjusting forward output power from 0 to 40 W. The load impedance and matching network were then analyzed. A single loop antenna and circuit matching elements were placed on a compact printed circuit board for 50 Ω impedance matching. A plasma density up to 1.1 × 10(12) cm(-3) in the 10 mm diameter tube under the magnetic flux density was achieved with 35 W applied RF power. PMID:22047290

  20. Development of an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap for the Study of Beta Decay Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Precision measurements of beta decay correlation parameters, to the level of 0.1% or better, can be used to test the Standard Model and to search for possible evidence of new physics such as Supersymmetry. We are developing an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap (EIBT) to measure the beta-neutrino correlation parameter of short lived radioactive isotopes produced by the 88-inch Cyclotron at LBNL. The EIBT uses two opposing sets of electrodes to create a parallel pair of electrostatic mirrors to confine ions. Position sensitive beta telescopes and micro-channel plates will be used to detect the beta and recoil nucleus, thus allowing the reconstruction of the momentum vectors of both beta and recoil nucleus on an event-by-event basis. I will describe the measurement technique and update on the status and progress of this program.

  1. Status report on the development of a tubular electron beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Becker, R.; Liljeby, L.; Rensfelt, K.-G.; Beebe, E. N.; Pikin, A. I.

    2004-05-01

    The theoretical estimations and numerical simulations of tubular electron beams in both beam and reflex mode of source operation as well as the off-axis ion extraction from a tubular electron beam ion source (TEBIS) are presented. Numerical simulations have been done with the use of the IGUN and OPERA-3D codes. Numerical simulations with IGUN code show that the effective electron current can reach more than 100 A with a beam current density of about 300-400 A/cm2 and the electron energy in the region of several KeV with a corresponding increase of the ion output. Off-axis ion extraction from the TEBIS, being the nonaxially symmetric problem, was simulated with OPERA-3D (SCALA) code. The conceptual design and main parameters of new tubular sources which are under consideration at JINR, MSL, and BNL are based on these simulations.

  2. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, J.B.

    1997-08-12

    An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

  3. Development of a large volume negative-ion source for ITER neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Amemiya, T.; Hanada, M.; Iga, T.; Imai, T.; Inoue, T.; Kashiwagi, M.; Kuriyama, M.; Morishita, T.; Okumura, Y.; Takayanagi, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    2002-02-01

    Development of the negative-ion sources has been conducted to realize a high power neutral beam injector for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A high negative-ion current density of 31 mA/cm2 (H-) at a very low pressure of 0.1 Pa has been produced in a cesium seeded multicusp plasma generator which has the same concept of the ITER source. For a vacuum insulated accelerator, a voltage holding experiment of long distance vacuum gaps up to ˜1.8 m has been performed. It was clarified that the transition region of product pressure distance (pd) from the vacuum breakdown to the gas discharge is about 0.2 Pa m which is high enough from the operating region of the ITER source. A prototype vacuum insulated accelerator was fabricated based on the experiment and tested. A high-energy H- beam acceleration up to 970 keV, 37 mA, and 1 s has been successfully demonstrated.

  4. Development of long-lived thick carbon stripper foils for high energy heavy ion accelerators by a heavy ion beam sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2013-04-01

    In the past decade, we have developed extremely long-lived carbon stripper foils of 1-50 μg/cm2 thickness prepared by a heavy ion beam sputtering method. These foils were mainly used for low energy heavy ion beams. Recently, high energy negative Hydrogen and heavy ion accelerators have started to use carbon stripper foils of over 100 μg/cm2 in thickness. However, the heavy ion beam sputtering method was unsuccessful in production of foils thicker than about 50 μg/cm2 because of the collapse of carbon particle build-up from substrates during the sputtering process. The reproduction probability of the foils was less than 25%, and most of them had surface defects. However, these defects were successfully eliminated by introducing higher beam energies of sputtering ions and a substrate heater during the sputtering process. In this report we describe a highly reproducible method for making thick carbon stripper foils by a heavy ion beam sputtering with a Krypton ion beam.

  5. Development of long-lived thick carbon stripper foils for high energy heavy ion accelerators by a heavy ion beam sputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2013-04-19

    In the past decade, we have developed extremely long-lived carbon stripper foils of 1-50 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} thickness prepared by a heavy ion beam sputtering method. These foils were mainly used for low energy heavy ion beams. Recently, high energy negative Hydrogen and heavy ion accelerators have started to use carbon stripper foils of over 100 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} in thickness. However, the heavy ion beam sputtering method was unsuccessful in production of foils thicker than about 50 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} because of the collapse of carbon particle build-up from substrates during the sputtering process. The reproduction probability of the foils was less than 25%, and most of them had surface defects. However, these defects were successfully eliminated by introducing higher beam energies of sputtering ions and a substrate heater during the sputtering process. In this report we describe a highly reproducible method for making thick carbon stripper foils by a heavy ion beam sputtering with a Krypton ion beam.

  6. Metal Ion Sources for Ion Beam Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Ren, X. T.

    2008-11-03

    In this paper a theme touched upon the progress of metal ion sources devoted to metal ion beam implantation (MIBI) will be reviewed. A special emphasis will be given to some kinds of ion sources such as ECR, MEVVA and Cluster ion sources. A novel dual hollow cathode metal ion source named DUHOCAMIS will be introduced and discussed.

  7. Developing models for simulation of pinched-beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.K.; Mark, J.W.K.; Sharp, W.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1984-02-22

    For heavy-ion fusion energy applications, Mark and Yu have derived hydrodynamic models for numerical simulation of energetic pinched-beams including self-pinches and external-current pinches. These pinched-beams are applicable to beam propagation in fusion chambers and to the US High Temperature Experiment. The closure of the Mark-Yu model is obtained with adiabatic assumptions mathematically analogous to those of Chew, Goldberger, and Low for MHD. Features of this hydrodynamic beam model are compared with a kinetic treatment.

  8. Ion beam sputter etching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1986-01-01

    An ion beam etching process which forms extremely high aspect ratio surface microstructures using thin sputter masks is utilized in the fabrication of integrated circuits. A carbon rich sputter mask together with unmasked portions of a substrate is bombarded with inert gas ions while simultaneous carbon deposition occurs. The arrival of the carbon deposit is adjusted to enable the sputter mask to have a near zero or even slightly positive increase in thickness with time while the unmasked portions have a high net sputter etch rate.

  9. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  10. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-06-09

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  11. Introduction to Ion Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Martisikova, Maria

    2010-01-05

    Presently, ion beam therapy reaches an increasing interest within the field of radiation therapy, which is caused by the promising clinical results obtained in the last decades. Ion beams enable higher dose conformation to the tumor and increased sparing of the surrounding tissue in comparison to the standard therapy using high energy photons. Heavy ions, like carbon, offer in addition increased biological effectiveness, which makes them suitable for treatment of radioresistant tumors. This contribution gives an overview over the physical and biological properties of ion beams. Common fundamental principles of ion beam therapy are summarized and differences between standard therapy with high energy photons, proton and carbon ion therapy are discussed. The technologies used for the beam production and delivery are introduced, with emphasis to the differences between passive and active beam delivery systems. The last part concentrates on the quality assurance in ion therapy. Specialties of dosimetry in medical ion beams are discussed.

  12. Molecular Ion Beam Transportation for Low Energy Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T. V.; Kropachev, G. N.; Seleznev, D. N.; Yakushin, P. E.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kozlov, A. V.; Koshelev, V. A.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Polozov, S. M.; Poole, H. J.

    2011-01-07

    A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for 100's of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past five years. Current density limitation associated with extracting and transporting low energy ion beams result in lower beam currents that in turn adversely affects the process throughput. The transport channel with electrostatic lenses for decaborane (B{sub 10}H{sub 14}) and carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ion beams transportation was developed and investigated. The significant increase of ion beam intensity at the beam transport channel output is demonstrated. The transport channel simulation, construction and experimental results of ion beam transportation are presented.

  13. Ion Beam Therapy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word "abstract," but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your "Enter" key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style

  14. Development and biological applications of high-resolution ion beam induced fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhaohong, Mi

    High-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become an essential tool in both biological and biomedical sciences, to directly visualize biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels through specific fluorescence labeling. Among the fluorescence microscopy techniques, mega-electron-volt (MeV) ion-induced fluorescence microscopy has unique advantages because MeV ions can penetrate through biological cells with little deflection in their trajectories. The state-of-the-art bioimaging facility in the Centre for Ion Beam Applications, National University of Singapore can achieve sub-30 nm spatial resolutions for structural imaging of biological cells, which is well below the diffraction limits imposed by optical microscopy. Our aim is to achieve similar spatial resolutions for Ion Beam Induced Fluorescence Imaging. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  15. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Qing

    2003-03-10

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O{sub 2}{sup +}, BF{sub 2}{sup +}, P{sup +} etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF{sub 2}{sup +}, over 90% of O{sub 2}{sup +} and P{sup +} have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He{sup +} beam is as high as 440 A/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O{sub 2}{sup +} ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O{sub 2}{sup +} ions with the dose of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The process flow and the experimental results for directly patterned poly-Si features

  16. Recent progress in the development of a polarized proton target for reactions with radioactive ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrego-Blanco, J. P.; Bingham, C. R.; van den Brandt, B.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gómez del Campo, J.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Schmelzbach, P. A.

    2007-08-01

    Polarization observables in nuclear reactions with stable beams have provided important information concerning structural properties of nuclei and reaction mechanisms and hold great promise in the context of exotic nuclei. We report on the development of a polarized target based on plastic foils of 20-200 μm thickness to be used with radioactive ion beams. The operation of such a target requires a moderately high magnetic field and very low temperatures. The plastic foil is placed inside a chamber attached to the mixing chamber of a 3He-4He dilution refrigerator. Cooling of the foil is achieved via a superfluid film of 4He that can be supplied through two capillaries. The chamber has two thin, highly uniform silicon nitride windows. An NMR coil is attached to the target to monitor the polarization. Results of a first test to characterize the target system, using the elastic scattering of 38 MeV 12C by protons in inverse kinematics are presented.

  17. Development and testing of an ion probe for tightly-bunched particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, M.; Pasour, J.

    1996-06-01

    Many high-energy physics experiments require a high-quality and well-diagnosed charged-particle beam (CPB). Precise knowledge of beam size, position, and charge distribution is often crucial to the success of the experiment. It is also important in many applications that the diagnostic used to determine the beam parameters be nonintercepting and nonperturbing. This requirement rules out many diagnostics, such as wire scanners, thin foils which produce Cerenkov or transition radiation, and even some rf cavity diagnostics. Particularly difficult to diagnose are tightly-focused (r{sub b} << 1 mm), short-duration (psec) beams, such as those in state-of-the-art or next-generation particle colliders. In this paper we describe an ion probe that is capable of penetrating the space-charge field of densely bunched CPBs without perturbation, thereby enabling the measurement of the microstructure of the bunch. This diagnostic probe uses a finely-focused stream of ions to interact with the CPB. Related techniques have been discussed in the literature. In fact, the present work evolved from an electron deflection diagnostic for CPBs that we previously described. A similar electron probe was tested even earlier at TRIUMF and in the Former Soviet Union. Electron probes have also been used to measure plasma sheaths and potentials and the neutralization of heavy ion beams. Also, Mendel has used an ion beam (22 keV He{sup +}) to probe rapidly varying fields in plasmas. The probe ions are injected across the beam tube and into the path of the high-energy CPB. The ions are deflected by the CPB, and the direction and magnitude of the deflection are directly related to the spatial and temporal charge distribution of the CPB. Easily-resolved deflections can be produced by microbunches having total charge on the order of a nCoul and pulse durations of a few psec. The deflected ions are monitored with a suitable detector, in this case a microchannel plate capable of detecting single ions.

  18. Heavy ion beam probing

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  19. Recent progress in the development of a circular ion induction accelerator for space charge dominated beams at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L; Autrey, D; Barnard, J; Berners, D; Craig, G; Debeling, A; Eylon, S; Friedman, A; Fritz, W; Grote, D P; Halaxa, E; Hanks, R L; Hernandez, M; Judd, D L; Kirbie, H C; Logan, B G; Lund, S M; Mant, G; Molvik, A W; Reginato, L; Sangster, T C; Sharp, W M

    1998-08-19

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has for several years been developing the world's first circular ion induction accelerator. This machine has recently been extended to 90 degrees, or 10 half-lattice periods (HLP) with full beam transport. In addition, induction cores have been installed on five of the HLP's, each with an independent arbitrary waveform pulser. An arbitrary waveform pulser for the bending electrostatic dipoles has also been enabled. Together, they have allowed the first attempts at coordinated bending and acceleration of the beam. The results of these first attempts will be reported on in the paper by examining the output of various diagnostic devices, such as the capacitive Beam Probes (C-probes), slit scanners, and the Gated Beam Imager(GBI).

  20. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  1. Development of laser-ion beam photodissociation methods. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D.H.

    1992-08-01

    Research efforts were concentrated on developing the tandem magnetic sector (EB)/reflection-time-of-flight (TOF) instrument, preliminary experiments with tandem TOF/TOF instruments, developing method for performing photodissociation with pulsed lasers, experiments with laser ionization of aerosol particles, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), and ion-molecule reaction chemistry of ground and excited state transition metal ions. This progress report is divided into: photodissociation, MALDI (including aerosols), and ion chemistry fundamentals.

  2. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Y.S.

    1991-08-20

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used. 5 figures.

  3. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Y. Simon

    1991-01-01

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used.

  4. Ion beam microtexturing of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Some recent work in surface microtecturing by ion beam sputtering is described. The texturing is accomplished by deposition of an impurity onto a substrate while simultaneously bombarding it with an ion beam. A summary of the theory regarding surface diffusion of impurities and the initiation of cone formation is provided. A detailed experimental study of the time-development of individual sputter cones is described. A quasi-liquid coating was observed that apparently reduces the sputter rate of the body of a cone compared to the bulk material. Experimental measurements of surface diffusion activation energies are presented for a variety of substrate-seed combinations and range from about 0.3 eV to 1.2 eV. Observations of apparent crystal structure in sputter cones are discussed. Measurements of the critical temperature for cone formation are also given along with a correlation of critical temperature with substrate sputter rate.

  5. Focused Ion Beam Technology for Optoelectronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reithmaier, J. P.; Bach, L.; Forchel, A.

    2003-08-01

    High-resolution proximity free lithography was developed using InP as anorganic resist for ion beam exposure. InP is very sensitive on ion beam irradiation and show a highly nonlinear dose dependence with a contrast function comparable to organic electron beam resists. In combination with implantation induced quantum well intermixing this new lithographic technique based on focused ion beams is used to realize high performance nano patterned optoelectronic devices like complex coupled distributed feedback (DFB) and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers.

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW Dosimetry for ion beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karger, Christian P.; Jäkel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2010-11-01

    Recently, ion beam radiotherapy (including protons as well as heavier ions) gained considerable interest. Although ion beam radiotherapy requires dose prescription in terms of iso-effective dose (referring to an iso-effective photon dose), absorbed dose is still required as an operative quantity to control beam delivery, to characterize the beam dosimetrically and to verify dose delivery. This paper reviews current methods and standards to determine absorbed dose to water in ion beam radiotherapy, including (i) the detectors used to measure absorbed dose, (ii) dosimetry under reference conditions and (iii) dosimetry under non-reference conditions. Due to the LET dependence of the response of films and solid-state detectors, dosimetric measurements are mostly based on ion chambers. While a primary standard for ion beam radiotherapy still remains to be established, ion chamber dosimetry under reference conditions is based on similar protocols as for photons and electrons although the involved uncertainty is larger than for photon beams. For non-reference conditions, dose measurements in tissue-equivalent materials may also be necessary. Regarding the atomic numbers of the composites of tissue-equivalent phantoms, special requirements have to be fulfilled for ion beams. Methods for calibrating the beam monitor depend on whether passive or active beam delivery techniques are used. QA measurements are comparable to conventional radiotherapy; however, dose verification is usually single field rather than treatment plan based. Dose verification for active beam delivery techniques requires the use of multi-channel dosimetry systems to check the compliance of measured and calculated dose for a representative sample of measurement points. Although methods for ion beam dosimetry have been established, there is still room for developments. This includes improvement of the dosimetric accuracy as well as development of more efficient measurement techniques.

  7. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A.

    2012-02-15

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  8. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev S.; Alessi J.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pardo, R.C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A.

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  9. Development of Polarized Solid Targets for Spectroscopic Studies with Radioactive Ion Beams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrego-Blanco, J. P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; van den Brandt, B.

    2005-04-01

    Exciting new findings with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) in nuclear spectroscopy have resulted in a growing interest in this field. In order to fully exploit the potential of RIBs it is necessary to develop appropriate experimental tools. We are investigating the possibility of introducing polarization observables in spectroscopic studies with RIBs, at energies around the Coulomb barrier, through polystyrene targets of polarized protons and deuterons in the thickness range between 20 and 100μm. The operation of such target systems requires a cooling scheme where the target is situated in the isolation vacuum of a cryostat in open connection to the vacuum of the beamline. This can be achieved by using two parallel polarized foils mounted on a copper tube, serving also as the NMR coil (for sampling the polarization), to form together a closed volume. Cooling of the foils is then achieved by a liquid helium bath (^4He or ^3He) via the copper tube, and subsequently via a superfluid ^4He film that can be added through the hollow NMR coil. The first tests of this proposed geometry are discussed and a status of the project is delivered.

  10. Ion Beam Modification of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Averback, B; de la Rubia, T D; Felter, T E; Hamza, A V; Rehn, L E

    2005-10-10

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, IBMM 2004, and is published by Elsevier-Science Publishers as a special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods B. The conference series is the major international forum to present and discuss recent research results and future directions in the field of ion beam modification, synthesis and characterization of materials. The first conference in the series was held in Budapest, Hungary, 1978, and subsequent conferences were held every two years at locations around the Globe, most recently in Japan, Brazil, and the Netherlands. The series brings together physicists, materials scientists, and ion beam specialists from all over the world. The official conference language is English. IBMM 2004 was held on September 5-10, 2004. The focus was on materials science involving both basic ion-solid interaction processes and property changes occurring either during or subsequent to ion bombardment and ion beam processing in relation to materials and device applications. Areas of research included Nanostructures, Multiscale Modeling, Patterning of Surfaces, Focused Ion Beams, Defects in Semiconductors, Insulators and Metals, Cluster Beams, Radiation Effects in Materials, Photonic Devices, Ion Implantation, Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine including New Materials, Imaging, and Treatment.

  11. Development and characterization of a 2D scintillation detector for quality assurance in scanned carbon ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborini, A.; Raffaele, L.; Mirandola, A.; Molinelli, S.; Viviani, C.; Spampinato, S.; Ciocca, M.

    2016-04-01

    At the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO Foundation), a two-dimensional high resolution scintillating dosimetry system has been developed and tested for daily Quality Assurance measurements (QA) in carbon ion radiotherapy with active scanning technique, for both single pencil beams and scanned fields produced by a synchrotron accelerator. The detector consists of a thin plane organic scintillator (25×25 cm2, 2 mm thick) coupled with a high spatial resolution CCD camera (0.25 mm) in a light-tight box. A dedicated Labview software was developed for image acquisition triggered with the beam extraction, data post-processing and analysis. The scintillator system was preliminary characterized in terms of short-term reproducibility (found to be within±0.5%), linearity with the number of particles (linear fit χ2 = 0.996) and dependence on particle flux (measured to be < 1.5 %). The detector was then tested for single beam spot measurements (Full Width at Half Maximum and position) and for 6×6 cm2 reference scanned field (determination of homogeneity) for carbon ions with energy from 115 MeV/u up to 400 MeV/u. No major differences in the investigated beam parameters measured with scintillator system and the radiochromic EBT3 reference films were observed. The system allows therefore real-time monitoring of the carbon ion beam relevant parameters, with a significant daily time saving with respect to films currently used. The results of this study show the suitability of the scintillation detector for daily QA in a carbon ion facility with an active beam delivery system.

  12. Development of the 3D Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code IMPACT to Simulate the Ion Beam Transport System of VENUS (Abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Ryne, R.D.

    2005-03-15

    The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV.For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.

  13. Development of the 3D Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code IMPACT to Simulate the Ion Beam Transport System of VENUS (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, J.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Ryne, R. D.

    2005-03-01

    The superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The RIA driver linac requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to an order of magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable with conventional ECR ion sources. In order to design the beam line optics of the low energy beam line for the RIA front end for the wide parameter range required for the RIA driver accelerator, reliable simulations of the ion beam extraction from the ECR ion source through the ion mass analyzing system are essential. The RIA low energy beam transport line must be able to transport intense beams (up to 10 mA) of light and heavy ions at 30 keV. For this purpose, LBNL is developing the parallel 3D particle-in-cell code IMPACT to simulate the ion beam transport from the ECR extraction aperture through the analyzing section of the low energy transport system. IMPACT, a parallel, particle-in-cell code, is currently used to model the superconducting RF linac section of RIA and is being modified in order to simulate DC beams from the ECR ion source extraction. By using the high performance of parallel supercomputing we will be able to account consistently for the changing space charge in the extraction region and the analyzing section. A progress report and early results in the modeling of the VENUS source will be presented.

  14. Intense Pulsed Heavy Ion Beam Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al(1-3)+) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89 %. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were succesively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration.

  15. Ion beam sputtering of fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Etching and deposition of fluoropolymers are of considerable industrial interest for applications dealing with adhesion, chemical inertness, hydrophobicity, and dielectric properties. This paper describes ion beam sputter processing rates as well as pertinent characteristics of etched targets and films. An argon ion beam source was used to sputter etch and deposit the fluoropolymers PTFE, FEP, and CTFE. Ion beam energy, current density, and target temperature were varied to examine effects on etch and deposition rates. The ion etched fluoropolymers yield cone or spire-like surface structures which vary depending upon the type of polymer, ion beam power density, etch time, and target temperature. Also presented are sputter target and film characteristics which were documented by spectral transmittance measurements, X-ray diffraction, ESCA, and SEM photomicrographs.

  16. ION BEAM COLLIMATOR

    DOEpatents

    Langsdorf, A.S. Jr.

    1957-11-26

    A device is described for defining a beam of high energy particles wherein the means for defining the beam in the horizontal and vertical dimension are separately adjustable and the defining members are internally cooled. In general, the device comprises a mounting block having a central opening through which the beam is projected, means for rotatably supporting two pairs of beam- forming members, passages in each member for the flow of coolant; the beam- forming members being insulated from each other and the block, and each having an end projecting into the opening. The beam-forming members are adjustable and may be cooperatively positioned to define the beam passing between the end of the members. To assist in projecting and defining the beam, the member ends have individual means connected thereto for indicating the amount of charge collected thereon due to beam interception.

  17. The development of the radio frequency driven negative ion source for neutral beam injectors (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, W.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Fröschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Wünderlich, D.

    2012-02-01

    Large and powerful negative hydrogen ion sources are required for the neutral beam injection (NBI) systems of future fusion devices. Simplicity and maintenance-free operation favors RF sources, which are developed intensively at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) since many years. The negative hydrogen ions are generated by caesium-enhanced surface conversion of atoms and positive ions on the plasma grid surface. With a small scale prototype the required high ion current density and the low fraction of co-extracted electrons at low pressure as well as stable pulses up to 1 h could be demonstrated. The modular design allows extension to large source dimensions. This has led to the decision to choose RF sources for the NBI of the international fusion reactor, ITER. As an intermediate step towards the full size ITER source at IPP, the development will be continued with a half-size source on the new ELISE testbed. This will enable to gain experience for the first time with negative hydrogen ion beams from RF sources of these dimensions.

  18. Intense non-relativistic cesium ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lampel, M.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium Injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl. Fus. 21, 529 (1981)) is applied to the problem of the Cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx. 5 cm, and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx. 10 cm.

  19. Simulation of ion beam transport through the 400 Kv ion implanter at Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Naab, F. U.; Toader, O. F.; Was, G. S.

    2013-04-19

    The Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory houses a 400 kV ion implanter. An application that simulates the ion beam trajectories through the implanter from the ion source to the target was developed using the SIMION Registered-Sign code. The goals were to have a tool to develop an intuitive understanding of abstract physics phenomena and diagnose ion trajectories. Using this application, new implanter users of different fields in science quickly understand how the machine works and quickly learn to operate it. In this article we describe the implanter simulation application and compare the parameters of the implanter components obtained from the simulations with the measured ones. The overall agreement between the simulated and measured values of magnetic fields and electric potentials is {approx}10%.

  20. Infrared imaging diagnostics for INTF ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhir, D.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Pandey, R.; Joshi, J.; Yadav, A.; Rotti, C.; Bhuyan, M.; Bansal, G.; Soni, J.; Tyagi, H.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.

    2015-04-01

    In India, testing facility named INTF [1] (Indian test facility) is being built in Institute for Plasma Research to characterize ITER-Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB). INTF is expected to deliver 60A negative hydrogen ion beam current of energy 100keV. The beam will be operated with 5Hz modulation having 3s ON/20s OFF duty cycle. To characterize the beam parameters several diagnostics are at different stages of design and development. One of them will be a beam dump, made of carbon fiber composite (CFC) plates placed perpendicular to the beam direction at a distance lm approximately. The beam dump needs to handle ˜ 6MW of beam power with peak power density ˜ 38.5MW/m2. The diagnostic is based on thermal (infra-red - IR) imaging of the footprint of the 1280 beamlets falling on the beam dump using four IR cameras from the rear side of the dump. The beam dump will be able to measure beam uniformity, beamlet divergence. It may give information on relative variation of negative ion stripping losses for different beam pulses. The design of this CFC based beam dump needs to address several physics and engineering issues, including some specific inputs from manufacturers. The manuscript will describe an overview of the diagnostic system and its design methodology highlighting those issues and the present status of its development.

  1. Ion-beam technology and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Robson, R. R.; Sovey, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Ion propulsion research and development yields a mature technology that is transferable to a wide range of nonpropulsive applications, including terrestrial and space manufacturing. A xenon ion source was used for an investigation into potential ion-beam applications. The results of cathode tests and discharge-chamber experiments are presented. A series of experiments encompassing a wide range of potential applications is discussed. Two types of processes, sputter deposition, and erosion were studied. Some of the potential applications are thin-film Teflon capacitor fabrication, lubrication applications, ion-beam cleaning and polishing, and surface texturing.

  2. Beam imaging diagnostics for heavy ion beam fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Prost, L.; Ghiorso, W.

    2003-05-01

    We are developing techniques for imaging beams in heavy-ion beam fusion experiments in the HIF-VNL in 2 to 4 transverse dimensions. The beams in current experiments range in energy from 50 keV to 2 MeV, with beam current densities from <10 to 200 mA/cm{sup 2}, and pulse lengths of 4 to 20 {micro}s. The beam energy will range up to 10 MeV in near-future beam experiments. The imaging techniques, based on kapton films and optical scintillators, complement and, in some cases, may replace mechanical slit scanners. The kapton film images represent a time-integrated image on the film exposed to the beam. The optical scintillator utilizes glass and ceramic scintillator material imaged by a fast, image-intensified CCD-based camera. We will discuss the techniques, results, and plans for implementation of the diagnostics on the beam experiments.

  3. Applications of ion beam technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelerinter, E.; Spielberg, N.

    1980-01-01

    Wire adhesion in steel belted radial tires; carbon fibers and composite; cold welding, brazing, and fabrication; hydrogen production, separation, and storage; membrane use; catalysis; sputtering and texture; and ion beam implantation are discussed.

  4. Development of a pepper-pot device to determine the emittance of an ion beam generated by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmeier, M.; Benitez, J. Y.; Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C. M.; Todd, D. S.; Bantel, M.

    2010-02-15

    This paper describes the recent development and commissioning of a pepper-pot emittance meter at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). It is based on a potassium bromide (KBr) scintillator screen in combination with a charged coupled device camera. Pepper-pot scanners record the full four-dimensional transverse phase space emittances which are particularly interesting for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. The strengths and limitations of evaluating emittances using optical pepper-pot scanners are described and systematic errors induced by the optical data acquisition system will be presented. Light yield tests of KBr exposed to different ion species and first emittance measurement data using ion beams extracted from the 6.4 GHz LBNL electron cyclotron resonance ion source are presented and discussed.

  5. Development of a pepper-pot device to determine the emittance of an ion beam generated by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, M; Benitez, J Y; Leitner, D; Lyneis, C M; Todd, D S; Bantel, M

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes the recent development and commissioning of a pepper-pot emittance meter at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). It is based on a potassium bromide (KBr) scintillator screen in combination with a charged coupled device camera. Pepper-pot scanners record the full four-dimensional transverse phase space emittances which are particularly interesting for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. The strengths and limitations of evaluating emittances using optical pepper-pot scanners are described and systematic errors induced by the optical data acquisition system will be presented. Light yield tests of KBr exposed to different ion species and first emittance measurement data using ion beams extracted from the 6.4 GHz LBNL electron cyclotron resonance ion source are presented and discussed. PMID:20192450

  6. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Lili

    2007-01-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 μm-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25

  7. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-02-15

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

  8. Recent developments in the application of rf superconductivity to high-brightness and high-gradient ion beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Kennedy, W.L.; Nichols, G.L.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1991-12-31

    A development program is underway to apply rf superconductivity to the design of continuous-wave (cw) linear accelerators for high- brightness ion beams. Since the last workshop, considerable progress has been made both experimentally and theoretically toward this application. Recent tests of niobium resonators for ion acceleration have yielded average accelerating gradients as high as 18 MV/m. In an experiment with a radio-frequency quadrupole geometry, niobium was found to sustain cw peak surface electric fields as high as 128 MV/m over large (10 cm{sup 2}) surface areas. Theoretical studies of beam impingement and cumulative beam breakup have also yielded encouraging results. Consequently, a section of superconducting resonators and focusing elements has been designed for tests with high-current deuteron beams. In addition, considerable data pertaining to the rf properties of high-{Tc} superconductors has been collected at rf-field amplitudes and frequencies of interest in connection with accelerator operation. This paper summarizes the recent progress and identifies current and future work in the areas of accelerator technology and superconducting materials which will build upon it.

  9. Recent developments in the application of rf superconductivity to high-brightness and high-gradient ion beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Kennedy, W.L.; Nichols, G.L.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1991-01-01

    A development program is underway to apply rf superconductivity to the design of continuous-wave (cw) linear accelerators for high- brightness ion beams. Since the last workshop, considerable progress has been made both experimentally and theoretically toward this application. Recent tests of niobium resonators for ion acceleration have yielded average accelerating gradients as high as 18 MV/m. In an experiment with a radio-frequency quadrupole geometry, niobium was found to sustain cw peak surface electric fields as high as 128 MV/m over large (10 cm{sup 2}) surface areas. Theoretical studies of beam impingement and cumulative beam breakup have also yielded encouraging results. Consequently, a section of superconducting resonators and focusing elements has been designed for tests with high-current deuteron beams. In addition, considerable data pertaining to the rf properties of high-{Tc} superconductors has been collected at rf-field amplitudes and frequencies of interest in connection with accelerator operation. This paper summarizes the recent progress and identifies current and future work in the areas of accelerator technology and superconducting materials which will build upon it.

  10. Ion source research and development at University of Jyväskylä: Studies of different plasma processes and towards the higher beam intensities.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, H; Kalvas, T; Tarvainen, O; Komppula, J; Laulainen, J; Kronholm, R; Ranttila, K; Tuunanen, J; Thuillier, T; Xie, D; Machicoane, G

    2016-02-01

    Several ion source related research and development projects are in progress at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The work can be divided into investigation of the ion source plasma and development of ion sources, ion beams, and diagnostics. The investigation covers the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) plasma instabilities, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and visible light emission, photon induced electron emission, and the development of plasma diagnostics. The ion source development covers the work performed for radiofrequency-driven negative ion source, RADIS, beam line upgrade of the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS, and the development of a new room-temperature-magnet 18 GHz ECRIS, HIISI. PMID:26931943

  11. Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V.; McClelland, J. J.

    2013-07-28

    We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1} and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1}. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

  12. Recent developments in production of radioactive ion beams with the selective laser ion source at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherall, R.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Köster, U.; Lettry, J.; Suberlucq, G.; Marsh, B. A.; Tengborn, E.

    2004-05-01

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) of the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility is based on the method of laser stepwise resonance ionization of atoms in a hot metal cavity. The atomic selectivity of the RILIS compliments the mass selection process of the ISOLDE separator magnets to provide beams of a chosen isotope with greatly reduced isobaric contamination. Using a system of dye lasers pumped by copper vapor lasers, ion beams of 22 elements have been generated at ISOLDE with ionization efficiencies in the range of 0.5%-30%. As part of the ongoing RILIS development, recent off-line resonance ionization spectroscopy studies have determined the optimal three-step ionization schemes for yttrium, scandium, and antimony.

  13. Development of foam-based layered targets for laser-driven ion beam production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prencipe, I.; Sgattoni, A.; Dellasega, D.; Fedeli, L.; Cialfi, L.; Choi, Il Woo; Jong Kim, I.; Janulewicz, K. A.; Kakolee, K. F.; Lee, Hwang Woon; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Nam, Chang Hee; Passoni, M.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the development of foam-based double-layer targets (DLTs) for laser-driven ion acceleration. Foam layers with a density of a few mg cm-3 and controlled thickness in the 8-36 μm range were grown on μm-thick Al foils by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The DLTs were experimentally investigated by varying the pulse intensity, laser polarisation and target properties. Comparing DLTs with simple Al foils, we observed a systematic enhancement of the maximum and average energies and number of accelerated ions. Maximum energies up to 30 MeV for protons and 130 MeV for C6+ ions were detected. Dedicated three-dimensional particle-in-cell (3D-PIC) simulations were performed considering both uniform and cluster-assembled foams to interpret the effect of the foam nanostructure on the acceleration process.

  14. Neon Ion Beam Lithography (NIBL).

    PubMed

    Winston, Donald; Manfrinato, Vitor R; Nicaise, Samuel M; Cheong, Lin Lee; Duan, Huigao; Ferranti, David; Marshman, Jeff; McVey, Shawn; Stern, Lewis; Notte, John; Berggren, Karl K

    2011-10-12

    Existing techniques for electron- and ion-beam lithography, routinely employed for nanoscale device fabrication and mask/mold prototyping, do not simultaneously achieve efficient (low fluence) exposure and high resolution. We report lithography using neon ions with fluence <1 ion/nm(2), ∼1000× more efficient than using 30 keV electrons, and resolution down to 7 nm half-pitch. This combination of resolution and exposure efficiency is expected to impact a wide array of fields that are dependent on beam-based lithography. PMID:21899279

  15. Transfer Casting From Ion-Beam-Textured Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Sovey, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Textured surfaces created on metals, ceramics, and polymers. Electron-bombardment ion thrustor used as neutralized-ion-beam source. Beam of directed, energetic ions alter surface chemistry and/or morphology of many materials. By adjusting ion energy and ion-beam current density impinging upon target, precise surface modifications obtained without risk of targetmaterial melting or bulk decomposition. Technique developed to generate precise, controllable, surface microstructures on metals, ceramics, and polymers.

  16. A pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Hermann; Stroebele, Julia; Schreiner, Thomas; Hirtl, Albert; Georg, Dietmar

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a flexible pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy. Dose distributions were calculated using the newly developed pencil beam algorithm and validated using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. Methods: The algorithm was based on the established theory of fluence weighted elemental pencil beam (PB) kernels. Using a new real-time splitting approach, a minimization routine selects the optimal shape for each sub-beam. Dose depositions along the beam path were determined using a look-up table (LUT). Data for LUT generation were derived from MC simulations in water using GATE 6.1. For materials other than water, dose depositions were calculated by the algorithm using water-equivalent depth scaling. Lateral beam spreading caused by multiple scattering has been accounted for by implementing a non-local scattering formula developed by Gottschalk. A new nuclear correction was modelled using a Voigt function and implemented by a LUT approach. Validation simulations have been performed using a phantom filled with homogeneous materials or heterogeneous slabs of up to 3 cm. The beams were incident perpendicular to the phantoms surface with initial particle energies ranging from 50 to 250 MeV/A with a total number of 10{sup 7} ions per beam. For comparison a special evaluation software was developed calculating the gamma indices for dose distributions. Results: In homogeneous phantoms, maximum range deviations between PB and MC of less than 1.1% and differences in the width of the distal energy falloff of the Bragg-Peak from 80% to 20% of less than 0.1 mm were found. Heterogeneous phantoms using layered slabs satisfied a {gamma}-index criterion of 2%/2mm of the local value except for some single voxels. For more complex phantoms using laterally arranged bone-air slabs, the {gamma}-index criterion was exceeded in some areas giving a maximum {gamma}-index of 1.75 and 4.9% of the voxels showed {gamma}-index values larger than one. The calculation precision of the

  17. Rhenium ion beam for implantation into semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T. V.; Seleznev, D. N.; Alyoshin, M. E.; Kraevsky, S. V.; Yakushin, P. E.; Khoroshilov, V. V.; Gerasimenko, N. N.; Smirnov, D. I.; Fedorov, P. A.; Temirov, A. A.

    2012-02-15

    At the ion source test bench in Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics the program of ion source development for semiconductor industry is in progress. In framework of the program the Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc ion source for germanium and rhenium ion beam generation was developed and investigated. It was shown that at special conditions of ion beam implantation it is possible to fabricate not only homogenous layers of rhenium silicides solid solutions but also clusters of this compound with properties of quantum dots. At the present moment the compound is very interesting for semiconductor industry, especially for nanoelectronics and nanophotonics, but there is no very developed technology for production of nanostructures (for example quantum sized structures) with required parameters. The results of materials synthesis and exploration are presented.

  18. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  19. A synchronous beam sweeper for heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaty, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility at Argonne National Laboratory provides a wide range of accelerated heavy ions from the periodic table. Frequently, the beam delivery rate of 12 MHz is too fast for the type of experiment on line. Reaction by-products from a target bombardment may have a decay interval much longer than the dead time between beam bunches. To prevent data from being corrupted by incoming ions a beam sweeper was developed which synchronously eliminates selected beam bunches to suit experimental needs. As the SWEEPER is broad band (DC to 6 MHz) beam delivery rates can be instantaneously changed. Ion beam bunches are selectively kicked out by an electrostatic dipole electrode pulsed to 2 kVDC. The system has been used for almost three years with several hundred hours of operating time logged to date. Beam bunch delivery rates of 6 MHz down to 25 kHz have been provided. Since this is a non-resonant system any beam delivery rate from 6 MHz down to zero can be set. In addition, burst modes have been used where beam is supplied in 12 MHz bursts and then shut down for a period of time set by the user. 3 figs.

  20. Ion sources and targets for radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Back, B.B.; Ahmad, I.

    1995-08-01

    A high-intensity ISOL-type radioactive beam facility depends critically on the performance of the target/ion source system. We developed a concept for producing high-intensity secondary beams of fission fragments, such as {sup 132}Sn, using a two-part target and ion source combination. The idea involves stopping a 1000-kW beam of 200-MeV deuterons in a target of Be or U to produce a secondary beam of neutrons. Just behind the neutron production target is a second target, typically a porous form of UC, coupled to an ISOL-type ion source. In December 1994, we tested this concept with 200-MeV deuterons at low intensity in an experiment at the NSCL. The yields of characteristic gamma rays were measured and confirmed our predictions.

  1. Precise formation of geometrically focused ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Davydenko, V.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Korepanov, S.A.; Kotelnikov, I.A.

    2006-03-15

    Geometrically focused intense neutral beams for plasma diagnostic consist of many elementary beams formed by a multiaperture ion-optical system and aimed at the focal point. In real conditions, some of the elementary beams may have increased angular divergence and/or deviate from the intended direction, thus diminishing the neutral beam density at the focus. Several improvements to the geometrical focusing are considered in the article including flattening of the plasma profile across the emission surface, using of quasi-Pierce electrodes at the beam periphery, and minimizing the deviation of the electrodes from the spherical form. Application of these measures to the neutral beam Russian diagnostic injector developed in Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics allows an increase of neutral beam current density in the focus by {approx}50%.

  2. Research and development of H- ion source and low energy beam transport for a kaon-neutrino factory.

    PubMed

    Ji, Q; Staples, J; Sy, A; Schenkel, T; Li, D

    2012-02-01

    A baseline H(-) ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) system have been identified for Project X. The filament-discharge H(-) ion source has been fabricated by D-Pace, Inc. and is now in operation at LBNL. The source is capable of delivering over 10 mA of H(-) beam in cw operation with normalized 4 rms emittances less than 0.7 π mm mrad. A two-solenoid magnetic lens LEBT system has been design. The design has been validated with simulations of beam transport for 5 mA 30 keV H(-) beams using various simulation codes. PMID:22380227

  3. Electron Cooling of Intense Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, J.; Kamerdjiev, V.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Stein, J.; Stockhorst, H.; Korotaev, Yu.; Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2006-03-20

    Results of experimental studies of the electron cooling of a proton beam at COSY (Juelich, Germany) are presented. Intensity of the proton beam is limited by two general effects: particle loss directly after the injection and development of instability in a deep cooled ion beam. Results of the instability investigations performed at COSY during last years are presented in this report in comparison with previous results from HIMAC (Chiba, Japan) CELSIUS (Uppsala, Sweden) and LEAR (CERN). Methods of the instability suppression, which allow increasing the cooled beam intensity, are described. This work is supported by RFBR grant no. 05-02-16320 and INTAS grant no. 03-54-5584.

  4. Development of a liquid lithium thin film for use as a heavy ion beam stripper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momozaki, Y.; Nolen, J.; Reed, C.; Novick, V.; Specht, J.

    2009-04-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate the feasibility of a liquid lithium thin film for a charge stripper in a high-power heavy ion linac. Various preliminary experiments using simulants were first conducted to determine the film formation scheme, to investigate the film stability, and to obtain the design parameters for a liquid lithium thin film system. Based on the results from these preliminary studies, a prototypical, high pressure liquid lithium system was constructed to demonstrate liquid lithium thin film formation. This system was capable of driving liquid lithium at lesssim300 °C and up to 13.9 MPa (2000 psig) through a nozzle opening as large as 1 mm (40 mil) in diameter. This drive pressure corresponds to a Li velocity of >200 m/s. A thin lithium film of 9 mm in width at velocity of ~58 m/s was produced. Its thickness was estimated to be roughly lesssim13 μm. High vacuum was maintained in the area of the film. This type of liquid metal thin film may also be used in other high power beam applications such as for intense X-ray or neutron sources.

  5. Development of the carbon foils as charge strippers for high-intensity uranium ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasebe, Hiroo; Kuboki, Hironori; Okuno, Hiroki; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Kamigaito, Osamu; Imao, Hiroshi; Goto, Akira; Kase, Masayuki

    2011-11-01

    carbon foil (C-foil) is commonly used as a charge stripper in the heavy-ion accelerators. Since 2005, the polymer-coated carbon foils (PCC-foils) have been fabricated at Nishina Center to prepare larger and thicker C-foils than those previously used as charge strippers. However, the multi-layer PCC-foils did not have sufficiently long life-time. Since August 2009, a new magnetron sputtering system is used to fabricate a thick C-foil. The foils coated with polymer are used as strippers. Life-times of the new single-layer PCC-foils under the uranium beam were measured in two configurations: at the first one a small piece of C-foil was attached to a fixed holder and in the second one a large C-foil was attached to a "rotating-cylinder stripper" device. The properties of the new single-layer PCC-foils and the results of the life-time measurements are reported in this contribution.

  6. Resolution Improvement and Pattern Generator Development for theMaskless Micro-Ion-Beam Reduction Lithography System

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ximan

    2006-05-18

    The shrinking of IC devices has followed the Moore's Law for over three decades, which states that the density of transistors on integrated circuits will double about every two years. This great achievement is obtained via continuous advance in lithography technology. With the adoption of complicated resolution enhancement technologies, such as the phase shifting mask (PSM), the optical proximity correction (OPC), optical lithography with wavelength of 193 nm has enabled 45 nm printing by immersion method. However, this achievement comes together with the skyrocketing cost of masks, which makes the production of low volume application-specific IC (ASIC) impractical. In order to provide an economical lithography approach for low to medium volume advanced IC fabrication, a maskless ion beam lithography method, called Maskless Micro-ion-beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL), has been developed in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The development of the prototype MMRL system has been described by Dr. Vinh Van Ngo in his Ph.D. thesis. But the resolution realized on the prototype MMRL system was far from the design expectation. In order to improve the resolution of the MMRL system, the ion optical system has been investigated. By integrating a field-free limiting aperture into the optical column, reducing the electromagnetic interference and cleaning the RF plasma, the resolution has been improved to around 50 nm. Computational analysis indicates that the MMRL system can be operated with an exposure field size of 0.25 mm and a beam half angle of 1.0 mrad on the wafer plane. Ion-ion interactions have been studied with a two-particle physics model. The results are in excellent agreement with those published by the other research groups. The charge-interaction analysis of MMRL shows that the ion-ion interactions must be reduced in order to obtain a throughput higher than 10 wafers per hour on 300-mm wafers. In addition, two different maskless lithography strategies

  7. Upgoing ion beams. I - Microscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, R. L.; Kintner, P. M.

    1982-12-01

    The stability of electrostatic waves with frequencies near the hydrogen cyclotron frequency is investigated for an auroral plasma containing an ion beam by studying the relationship between low-frequency waves (0-1 kHz) and particles seen by the S3-3 satellite. It is concluded that only electrostatic hydrogen ion cyclotron (EHC) waves can be generated at the observed frequencies by the observed energetic particles, with the waves being produced either by drifting electrons or by the ion beam. In the model developed, ion beams are seen with their observed temperatures because they have evolved to a weakly unstable configuration in which the wave growth length is comparable to the width of the beam region. Waves are well confined to the beams because they are damped rapidly in the adjacent plasma, and the mirror effect can maintain a weak instability over a considerable altitude range. It is proposed that this effect is a source for strong pitch angle scattering, as well as an explanation for the nonexistence of downgoing ion beams.

  8. Ion beam deposited protective films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Sputter deposition of adherent thin films on complex geometric surfaces by ion beam sources is examined in order to evaluate three different types of protective coatings for die materials. In the first experiment, a 30 cm diameter argon ion source was used to sputter deposit adherent metallic films up to eight microns thick on H-13 steel, and a thermal fatigue test specimen sputter deposited with metallic coatings one micron thick was immersed in liquid aluminum and cooled by water for 15,000 cycles to simulate operational environments. Results show that these materials do protect the steel by reducing thermal fatigue and thereby increasing die lifetime. The second experiment generated diamond-like carbon films using a dual beam ion source system that directed an eight cm argon ion source beam at the substrates. These films are still in the process of being evaluated for crystallinity, hardness and infrared absorption. The third experiment coated a fiber glass beam shield incorporated in the eight-cm diameter mercury ion thruster with molybdenum to ensure proper electrical and thermal properties. The coating maintained its integrity even under acceleration tests.

  9. Recent Progress in the Development of a Multi-Layer Green's Function Code for Ion Beam Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, John; Walker, Steven A.; Wilson, John W.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    2008-01-01

    To meet the challenge of future deep space programs, an accurate and efficient engineering code for analyzing the shielding requirements against high-energy galactic heavy radiation is needed. To address this need, a new Green's function code capable of simulating high charge and energy ions with either laboratory or space boundary conditions is currently under development. The computational model consists of combinations of physical perturbation expansions based on the scales of atomic interaction, multiple scattering, and nuclear reactive processes with use of the Neumann-asymptotic expansions with non-perturbative corrections. The code contains energy loss due to straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and downshifts. Previous reports show that the new code accurately models the transport of ion beams through a single slab of material. Current research efforts are focused on enabling the code to handle multiple layers of material and the present paper reports on progress made towards that end.

  10. Development and diagnostics of revised ion beam analyzer, ion or laser produced plasmas and X-ray pre-ionizer for gas lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuya, K.; Watanabe, M.; Kamiya, T.; Nishigori, K.; Funatsu, M.; Ido, D.; Ebine, T.; Okayama, H.; Sunami, H.; Wu, C.; Adachi, T.; Hotta, E.; Hattori, T.; Yasuike, K.; Nakai, S.; Miyamoto, S.

    1997-04-15

    A CCD element was tested as an end plate of a Thomson parabola analyzer. This element was directly irradiated by ion beams to produce electric signals associated with the beams. With a pin-hole camera, we also tried to measure the divergence angle of ion beams. Coated thin layers of ion source materials on a quartz plate were back-lighted by an e-beam pumped KrF laser, and the produced plasmas were observed to supply advanced source plasmas for pulsed ion diodes. We built a cryogenic target which was cooled by liquid nitrogen, and the ice-covered target was irradiated by proton beams to measure the concerned ablation processes. Fundamental characteristics of an X-ray source with wire-initiated discharge plasmas for pre-ionization of gas mixtures of our former discharge-pumped KrF laser in place of UV pre-ionization were also investigated.

  11. Development of laser-ion beam photodissociation methods. Progress report, December 1991--November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D.H.

    1994-06-01

    This project emphasizes the development of laser mass spectrometry methods for fundamental and applied studies of gas-phase processes. The current studies are focussed on the photochemistry and photophysics of peptides and other biological molecules. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) is used to produce ions that are subsequently subjected to photoexcitation and dissociation. MALDI is still very much in the developmental stages, thus a significant portion of this research focusses on fundamental studies of the MALDI ion formation/energy transfer process. The authors view is that excited state H+-transfer reactions play an important role in MALDI, consequently a significant portion of their research activities are focussed on such studies. Fundamental studies of the role of the matrix in MALDI are an integral part of this project. A new MALDI experiment, MALDI of aerosol particles generated from solutions, has been demonstrated and new developmental research in this area is planned. The authors are also actively pursuing a research program on gas-phase H+-transfer processes that mimic the MALDI process. In addition, they are developing photodissociation experiments, based on tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometers, for structural characterization of complex organic molecules. The photodissociation studies use MALDI as the ionization method. These research areas involve the development of new instrumentation, new instrument methodologies, and data processing.

  12. Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source for Radioactive Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan; Beene, James R; Havener, Charles C; Vane, C Randy; Gottwald, T.; Wendt, K.; Mattolat, C.; Lassen, J.

    2009-01-01

    A resonant ionization laser ion source based on all-solid-state, tunable Ti:Sapphire lasers is being developed for the production of pure radioactive ion beams. It consists of a hot-cavity ion source and three pulsed Ti:Sapphire lasers operating at a 10 kHz pulse repetition rate. Spectroscopic studies are being conducted to develop ionization schemes that lead to ionizing an excited atom through an auto-ionization or a Rydberg state for numerous elements of interest. Three-photon resonant ionization of 12 elements has been recently demonstrated. The overall efficiency of the laser ion source measured for some of these elements ranges from 1 to 40%. The results indicate that Ti:Sapphire lasers could be well suited for laser ion source applications. The time structures of the ions produced by the pulsed lasers are investigated. The information may help to improve the laser ion source performance.

  13. Electron beam diagnostic for space charge measurement of an ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Prabir K.; Yu, Simon S.; Henestroza, Enrique; Eylon, Shmuel; Shuman, Derek B.; Ludvig, Jozsef; Bieniosek, Frank M.; Waldron, William L.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Vanecek, David L.; Hannink, Ryan; Amezcua, Monserrat

    2004-09-25

    A non-perturbing electron beam diagnostic system for measuring the charge distribution of an ion beam is developed for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) beam physics studies. Conventional diagnostics require temporary insertion of sensors into the beam, but such diagnostics stop the beam, or significantly alter its properties. In this diagnostic a low energy, low current electron beam is swept transversely across the ion beam; the measured electron beam deflection is used to infer the charge density profile of the ion beam. The initial application of this diagnostic is to the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), which is exploring the physics of space-charge-dominated beam focusing onto a small spot using a neutralizing plasma. Design and development of this diagnostic and performance with the NTX ion beamline is presented.

  14. An overview of the facilities, activities, and developments at the University of North Texas Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Poudel, Prakash R.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Pandey, Bimal; Deoli, Naresh T.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Mulware, Stephen J.; Baxley, Jacob; Manuel, Jack E.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Szilasi, Szabolcs; Weathers, Duncan L.; Reinert, Tilo; Glass, Gary A.; Duggan, Jerry L.; McDaniel, Floyd D.

    2013-07-01

    The Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) at the University of North Texas includes several accelerator facilities with capabilities of producing a variety of ion beams from tens of keV to several MeV in energy. The four accelerators are used for research, graduate and undergraduate education, and industrial applications. The NEC 3MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has three ion sources for negative ions: He Alphatross and two different SNICS-type sputter ion sources. Presently, the tandem accelerator has four high-energy beam transport lines and one low-energy beam transport line directly taken from the negative ion sources for different research experiments. For the low-energy beam line, the ion energy can be varied from ˜20 to 80 keV for ion implantation/modification of materials. The four post-acceleration beam lines include a heavy-ion nuclear microprobe; multi-purpose PIXE, RBS, ERD, NRA, and broad-beam single-event upset; high-energy ion implantation line; and trace-element accelerator mass spectrometry. The NEC 3MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator has an RF ion source mainly for hydrogen, helium and heavier inert gases. We recently installed a capacitive liner to the terminal potential stabilization system for high terminal voltage stability and high-resolution microprobe analysis. The accelerator serves a beam line for standard RBS and RBS/C. Another beamline for high energy focused ion beam application using a magnetic quadrupole lens system is currently under construction. This beam line will also serve for developmental work on an electrostatic lens system. The third accelerator is a 200 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator with an RF ion source. The fourth accelerator is a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which was in operation for last several decades is currently planned to be used mainly for educational purpose. Research projects that will be briefly discussed include materials synthesis/modification for photonic, electronic, and

  15. An overview of the facilities, activities, and developments at the University of North Texas Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Poudel, Prakash R.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Pandey, Bimal; Deoli, Naresh T.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Mulware, Stephen J.; Baxley, Jacob; Manuel, Jack E.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Szilasi, Szabolcs; Weathers, Duncan L.; Reinert, Tilo; Glass, Gary A.; Duggan, Jerry L.; McDaniel, Floyd D.

    2013-07-03

    The Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) at the University of North Texas includes several accelerator facilities with capabilities of producing a variety of ion beams from tens of keV to several MeV in energy. The four accelerators are used for research, graduate and undergraduate education, and industrial applications. The NEC 3MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has three ion sources for negative ions: He Alphatross and two different SNICS-type sputter ion sources. Presently, the tandem accelerator has four high-energy beam transport lines and one low-energy beam transport line directly taken from the negative ion sources for different research experiments. For the low-energy beam line, the ion energy can be varied from {approx}20 to 80 keV for ion implantation/modification of materials. The four post-acceleration beam lines include a heavy-ion nuclear microprobe; multi-purpose PIXE, RBS, ERD, NRA, and broad-beam single-event upset; high-energy ion implantation line; and trace-element accelerator mass spectrometry. The NEC 3MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator has an RF ion source mainly for hydrogen, helium and heavier inert gases. We recently installed a capacitive liner to the terminal potential stabilization system for high terminal voltage stability and high-resolution microprobe analysis. The accelerator serves a beam line for standard RBS and RBS/C. Another beamline for high energy focused ion beam application using a magnetic quadrupole lens system is currently under construction. This beam line will also serve for developmental work on an electrostatic lens system. The third accelerator is a 200 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator with an RF ion source. The fourth accelerator is a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which was in operation for last several decades is currently planned to be used mainly for educational purpose. Research projects that will be briefly discussed include materials synthesis/modification for photonic, electronic, and

  16. Proposed LLNL electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R.E.; Egan, P.O.; Proctor, I.; Levine, M.A.; Hansen, L.; Kajiyama, Y.; Wolgast, R.

    1985-07-02

    The interaction of energetic electrons with highly charged ions is of great importance to several research fields such as astrophysics, laser fusion and magnetic fusion. In spite of this importance there are almost no measurements of electron interaction cross sections for ions more than a few times ionized. To address this problem an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) is being developed at LLNL. The device is essentially an EBIS except that it is not intended as a source of extracted ions. Instead the (variable energy) electron beam interacting with the confined ions will be used to obtain measurements of ionization cross sections, dielectronic recombination cross sections, radiative recombination cross sections, energy levels and oscillator strengths. Charge-exchange recombinaion cross sections with neutral gasses could also be measured. The goal is to produce and study elements in many different charge states up to He-like xenon and Ne-like uranium. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Ion-beam-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, A.; Okuda, H.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1982-10-01

    We present results of numerical simulations on the electrostatic ion cyclotron instabilities driven by the ion beam parallel to the magnetic field. For the beam speed exceeding the thermal speed of background ions and the beam temperature much lower than the background ion temperature, it is found that the instability results in strong perpendicular heating and slowing down of parallel drift of the beam ions, leading to the saturation of the instability. Applications to plasma heating and space plasma physics are discussed.

  18. Ion-beam irradiation, gene identification, and marker-assisted breeding in the development of low-cadmium rice.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Satoru; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Igura, Masato; Kuramata, Masato; Abe, Tadashi; Senoura, Takeshi; Hase, Yoshihiro; Arao, Tomohito; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Nakanishi, Hiromi

    2012-11-20

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain is a major dietary source of cadmium (Cd), which is toxic to humans, but no practical technique exists to substantially reduce Cd contamination. Carbon ion-beam irradiation produced three rice mutants with <0.05 mg Cd⋅kg(-1) in the grain compared with a mean of 1.73 mg Cd⋅kg(-1) in the parent, Koshihikari. We identified the gene responsible for reduced Cd uptake and developed a strategy for marker-assisted selection of low-Cd cultivars. Sequence analysis revealed that these mutants have different mutations of the same gene (OsNRAMP5), which encodes a natural resistance-associated macrophage protein. Functional analysis revealed that the defective transporter protein encoded by the mutant osnramp5 greatly decreases Cd uptake by roots, resulting in decreased Cd in the straw and grain. In addition, we developed DNA markers to facilitate marker-assisted selection of cultivars carrying osnramp5. When grown in Cd-contaminated paddy fields, the mutants have nearly undetectable Cd in their grains and exhibit no agriculturally or economically adverse traits. Because mutants produced by ion-beam radiation are not transgenic plants, they are likely to be accepted by consumers and thus represent a practical choice for rice production worldwide. PMID:23132948

  19. Post-acceleration of laser-induced ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassisi, V.; Delle Side, D.

    2015-04-01

    A complete review of the essential and recent developments in the field of post-acceleration of laser-induced ion beams is presented. After a brief introduction to the physics of low-intensity nanosecond laser-matter interaction, the details of ions extraction and acceleration are critically analyzed and the key parameters to obtain good-quality ion beams are illustrated. A description of the most common ion beam diagnosis system is given, together with the associated analytical techniques.

  20. Focused ion beams in biology.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Kedar; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2015-11-01

    A quiet revolution is under way in technologies used for nanoscale cellular imaging. Focused ion beams, previously restricted to the materials sciences and semiconductor fields, are rapidly becoming powerful tools for ultrastructural imaging of biological samples. Cell and tissue architecture, as preserved in plastic-embedded resin or in plunge-frozen form, can be investigated in three dimensions by scanning electron microscopy imaging of freshly created surfaces that result from the progressive removal of material using a focused ion beam. The focused ion beam can also be used as a sculpting tool to create specific specimen shapes such as lamellae or needles that can be analyzed further by transmission electron microscopy or by methods that probe chemical composition. Here we provide an in-depth primer to the application of focused ion beams in biology, including a guide to the practical aspects of using the technology, as well as selected examples of its contribution to the generation of new insights into subcellular architecture and mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions. PMID:26513553

  1. Ion beam lithography with gold and silicon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Nishijima, Yoshiaki; Nadzeyka, Achim; Bauerdick, Sven; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2016-04-01

    Different ion species deliver a different material sputtering yield and implantation depth, thus enabling focused ion beam (FIB) fabrication for diverse applications. Using newly developed FIB milling with double charged hbox {Au}^{2+} and hbox {Si}^{2+} ions, fabrication has been carried out on Au-sputtered films to define arrays of densely packed nanoparticles supporting optical extinction peaks at visible-IR wavelengths determined by the size, shape, and proximity of nanoparticles. Results are qualitatively compared with hbox {Ga}+ milling. A possibility to use such ion implantation to tailor the etching rate of silicon is also demonstrated.

  2. On the development of an ion-beam stochastic cooling system for the nuclotron superconducting accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobets, A. G.; Sidorin, A. O.; Trubnikov, G. V.; Shurkhno, N. A.

    2012-07-01

    The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) initiated the creation of a unique heavy-ion collider, the Nuclotron-based ion collider facility (NICA), which is planned to be put into commission in 2016. According to the calculation data, the collider luminosity, which should be kept at a record high level of 1027 cm-2 s-1, will gradually decrease, mainly due to intrabeam scattering. To maintain luminosity at a high level, it is necessary to include a cooling system in the base project of the accelerator. Among the two cooling methods (electron and stochastic) most frequently used for heavy ion beams, stochastic cooling seems more attractive. However, there has been a lack of experience in the development and commissioning of such systems in Russia. For this reason, an experiment on stochastic cooling on the Nuclotron accelerator is being prepared to explore the technology and possibilities of this method. In this work, the method of stochastic cooling, the technique for calculating the cooling dynamics, and the experimental setup under development are briefly described.

  3. Neutral Beam Ion Loss Modeling for NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mikkelsen; D.S. Darrow; L. Grisham; R. Akers; S. Kaye

    1999-06-01

    A numerical model, EIGOL, has been developed to calculate the loss rate of neutral beam ions from NSTX and the resultant power density on the plasma facing components. This model follows the full gyro-orbit of the beam ions, which can be a significant fraction of the minor radius. It also includes the three-dimensional structure of the plasma facing components inside NSTX. Beam ion losses from two plasma conditions have been compared: {beta} = 23%, q{sub 0} = 0.8, and {beta} = 40%, q{sub 0} = 2.6. Global losses are computed to be 4% and 19%, respectively, and the power density on the rf antenna is near the maximum tolerable levels in the latter case.

  4. Integration of scanning probes and ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, A.; Park, S.J.; Liddle, J.A.; Schenkel, T.; Bokor, J.; Rangelow, I.

    2005-03-30

    We report the integration of a scanning force microscope with ion beams. The scanning probe images surface structures non-invasively and aligns the ion beam to regions of interest. The ion beam is transported through a hole in the scanning probe tip. Piezoresistive force sensors allow placement of micromachined cantilevers close to the ion beam lens. Scanning probe imaging and alignment is demonstrated in a vacuum chamber coupled to the ion beam line. Dot arrays are formed by ion implantation in resist layers on silicon samples with dot diameters limited by the hole size in the probe tips of a few hundred nm.

  5. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented. PMID:20192366

  6. Effects of prenatal irradiation with accelerated heavy-ion beams on postnatal development in rats: III. Testicular development and breeding activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    With a significant increase in human activities dealing with space missions, potential teratogenic effects on the mammalian reproductive system from prenatal exposure to space radiation have become a hot topic that needs to be addressed. However, even for the ground experiments, such effects from exposure to high LET ionizing radiation are not as well studied as those for low LET ionizing radiations such as X-rays. Using the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, effects on gonads in prenatal male fetuses, on postnatal testicular development and on breeding activity of male offspring were studied following exposure of the pregnant animals to either accelerated carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV/μm or neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on gestation day 15. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp estimated for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. A significantly dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in gonocytes appeared 6 h after irradiations with a dose of 0.5 Gy or more. Measured delayed testis descent and malformed testicular seminiferous tubules were observed to be significantly different from the control animals at a dose of 0.5 Gy. These effects are observed to be dose- and LET-dependent. Markedly reduced testicular weight and testicular weight to body weight ratio were scored at postnatal day 30 even in the offspring that were prenatally irradiated with neon-ions at a dose of 0.1 Gy. A dose of 0.5 Gy from neon-ion beams induced a marked decrease in breeding activity in the prenatally irradiated male rats, while for the carbon-ion beams or X-rays, the significantly reduced breeding activity was observed only when the prenatal dose was at 1.0 Gy or more. These findings indicated that prenatal irradiations with heavy-ion beams on gestation day 15 generally induced markedly detrimental effects on prenatal gonads, postnatal testicular development and male

  7. ION BEAM FOCUSING MEANS FOR CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1959-06-01

    An ion beam focusing arrangement for calutrons is described. It provides a virtual focus of origin for the ion beam so that the ions may be withdrawn from an arc plasma of considerable width providing greater beam current and accuracy. (T.R.H.)

  8. Ion-beam Plasma Neutralization Interaction Images

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; S. Klasky; Ronald C. Davidson

    2002-04-09

    Neutralization of the ion beam charge and current is an important scientific issue for many practical applications. The process of ion beam charge and current neutralization is complex because the excitation of nonlinear plasma waves may occur. Computer simulation images of plasma neutralization of the ion beam pulse are presented.

  9. Beam Control for Ion Induction Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, T.C.; Ahle, L.

    2000-02-17

    Coordinated bending and acceleration of an intense space-charge-dominated ion beam has been achieved for the first time. This required the development of a variable waveform, precision, bi-polar high voltage pulser and a precision, high repetition rate induction core modulator. Waveforms applied to the induction cores accelerate the beam as the bi-polar high voltage pulser delivers a voltage ramp to electrostatic dipoles which bend the beam through a 90 degree permanent magnet quadrupole lattice. Further work on emittance minimization is also reported.

  10. Obliquely incident ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Shengyi

    2015-10-01

    A new ion beam figuring (IBF) technique, obliquely incident IBF (OI-IBF), is proposed. In OI-IBF, the ion beam bombards the optical surface obliquely with an invariable incident angle instead of perpendicularly as in the normal IBF. Due to the higher removal rate in oblique incidence, the process time in OI-IBF can be significantly shortened. The removal rates at different incident angles were first tested, and then a test mirror was processed by OI-IBF. Comparison shows that in the OI-IBF technique with a 30 deg incident angle, the process time was reduced by 56.8%, while keeping the same figure correcting ability. The experimental results indicate that the OI-IBF technique is feasible and effective to improve the surface correction process efficiency.

  11. BEARS: Radioactive ion beams at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Guo, F.Q.; Haustein, P.E.

    1998-07-01

    BEARS (Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species) is an initiative to develop a radioactive ion-beam capability at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim is to produce isotopes at an existing medical cyclotron and to accelerate them at the 88 inch Cyclotron. To overcome the 300-meter physical separation of these two accelerators, a carrier-gas transport system will be used. At the terminus of the capillary, the carrier gas will be separated and the isotopes will be injected into the 88 inch Cyclotron`s Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source. The first radioactive beams to be developed will include 20-min {sup 11}C and 70-sec {sup 14}O, produced by (p,n) and (p,{alpha}) reactions on low-Z targets. A test program is currently being conducted at the 88 inch Cyclotron to develop the parts of the BEARS system. Preliminary results of these tests lead to projections of initial {sup 11}C beams of up to 2.5 {times} 10{sup 7} ions/sec and {sup 14}O beams of 3 {times} 10{sup 5} ions/sec.

  12. Ion beam inertial confinement target

    DOEpatents

    Bangerter, Roger O.; Meeker, Donald J.

    1985-01-01

    A target for implosion by ion beams composed of a spherical shell of frozen DT surrounded by a low-density, low-Z pusher shell seeded with high-Z material, and a high-density tamper shell. The target has various applications in the inertial confinement technology. For certain applications, if desired, a low-density absorber shell may be positioned intermediate the pusher and tamper shells.

  13. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    SciTech Connect

    Usov, Igor O; Arendt, Paul N; Stan, Liliana; Holesinger, Terry G; Foltyn, Steven R; Depaula, Raymond F

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  14. Development of an all-permanent-magnet microwave ion source equipped with multicusp magnetic fields for high current proton beam production.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Hara, S; Seki, T; Iga, T

    2008-02-01

    An all-permanent-magnet (APM) microwave hydrogen ion source was developed to reduce the size and to simplify structure of a conventional solenoid coil microwave ion source developed for reliability improvement of high current proton linac application systems. The difficulty in developing the APM source was sensitive dependence of the source performance on axial magnetic field in the microwave discharge chamber. It was difficult to produce high current proton beam stably without precise tuning of the magnetic field using solenoid coils. We lowered the sensitivity using multicusp magnetic fields for plasma confinement at the discharge chamber sidewall of the source. This enabled stable high current proton beam production with the APM microwave ion source with no tuning coil. The water cooling and the power supply for the coils are not necessary for the APM source, which leads to better reliability and system simplification. The outer diameter of the APM source was around 300 mm, which was 20% lower than the coil source. The APM source produced a maximum hydrogen ion beam current of 65 mA (high current density of 330 mA/cm(2), proton ratio of 87%, and beam energy of 30 keV) with a 5 mm diameter extraction aperture, pulse width of 400 micros, and 20 Hz repetition rate at 1.3 kW microwave power. This performance is almost the same as the best performances of the conventional coil sources. The extracted ion beams were focused with electrostatic five-grid lens to match beam to acceptance of radio-frequency quadrupole linacs. The maximum focused beam current through the orifice (5 mm radius) and the lens was 36 mA and the 90% focused beam half-width was 1-2 mm. PMID:18315183

  15. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 e{mu}A of O{sup 7+} and 1.15 emA of O{sup 6+}, more than 100 e{mu}A of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar{sup 13+}, Ca{sup 13+}, Fe{sup 13+}, Co{sup 14+} and Kr{sup 18+}, and tens of e{mu}A of heavy ions with charge states to Kr{sup 26+}, Xe{sup 28+}, Au{sup 35+}, Bi{sup 34+} and U{sup 34+} have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 e{mu}A, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe{sup 36+}, Au{sup 46+}, Bi{sup 47+} and U{sup 48+}. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I {ge} 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams.

  16. Neurosurgical applications of ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrikant, Jacob I.; Levy, Richard P.; Phillips, Mark H.; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Lyman, John T.

    1989-04-01

    The program at Donner Pavilion has applied nuclear medicine research to the diagnosis and radiosurgical treatment of life-threatening intracranial vascular disorders that affect more than half a million Americans. Stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery, using narrow beams of heavy ions, demonstrates superior biological and physical characteristics in brain over X-and γ-rays, viz., improved dose distribution in the Bragg peak and sharp lateral and distal borders and less scattering of the beam. Examination of CNS tissue response and alteration of cerebral blood-flow dynamics related to heavy-ion Bragg peak radiosurgery is carried out using three-dimensional treatment planning and quantitative imaging utilizing cerebral angiography, computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cine-CT, xenon X-ray CT and positron emission tomography (PET). Also under examination are the physical properties of narrow heavy-ion beams for improving methods of dose delivery and dose distribution and for establishing clinical RBE/LET and dose-response relationships for human CNS tissues. Based on the evaluation and treatment with stereotactically directed narrow beams of heavy charged particles of over 300 patients, with cerebral angiography, CT scanning and MRI and PET scanning of selected patients, plus extensive clinical and neuroradiological followup, it appears that Stereotactic charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery obliterates intracranial arteriovenous malformations or protects against rebleeding with reduced morbidity and no mortality. Discussion will include the method of evaluation, the clinical research protocol, the Stereotactic neuroradiological preparation, treatment planning, the radiosurgery procedure and the protocol for followup. Emphasis will be placed on the neurological results, including the neuroradiological and clinical response and early and late delayed injury in brain leading to complications (including vasogenic edema

  17. Development of gas cluster ion beam surface treatments for reducing field emission and breakdown in RF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, D R; Degenkolb, E; Wu, A T; Insepov, Z

    2006-11-01

    Sub-micron-scale surface roughness and contamination cause field emission that can lead to high voltage breakdown of electrodes, and these are limiting factors in the development of high gradient RF technology. We are studying various Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) treatments to smooth, clean, etch and/or chemically alter electrode surfaces to allow higher fields and accelerating gradients, and to reduce the time and cost of conditioning high voltage electrodes. For this paper, we have processed Nb, Stainless Steel, and Ti electrode materials using beams of Ar, O2, or NF3 +O2 clusters with accelerating potentials up to 35 kV. Using a Scanning Field Emission Microscope (SFEM), we have repeatedly seen a dramatic reduction in the number of field emission sites on Nb coupons treated with GCIB. Smoothing effects on Stainless steel and Ti substrates have been evaluated using AFM imaging and show that 200-nm wide polishing scratch marks are greatly attenuated. A 150-mm diameter GCIB treated stainless steel electrode has now shown virtually no DC field emission current at gradients over 20 MV/m.

  18. Development of Gas Cluster Ion Beam Surface Treatments for Reducing Field Emission and Breakdown in RF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, D. R.; Degenkolb, E.; Wu, A. T.; Insepov, Z.

    2006-11-27

    Sub-micron-scale surface roughness and contamination cause field emission that can lead to high voltage breakdown of electrodes, and these are limiting factors in the development of high gradient RF technology. We are studying various Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) treatments to smooth, clean, etch and/or chemically alter electrode surfaces to allow higher fields and accelerating gradients, and to reduce the time and cost of conditioning high voltage electrodes. For this paper, we have processed Nb, Stainless Steel, and Ti electrode materials using beams of Ar, O2, or NF3 +O2 clusters with accelerating potentials up to 35 kV. Using a Scanning Field Emission Microscope (SFEM), we have repeatedly seen a dramatic reduction in the number of field emission sites on Nb coupons treated with GCIB. Smoothing effects on Stainless steel and Ti substrates have been evaluated using AFM imaging and show that 200-nm wide polishing scratch marks are greatly attenuated. A 150-mm diameter GCIB treated stainless steel electrode has now shown virtually no DC field emission current at gradients over 20 MV/m.

  19. Electron beam ion sources and traps (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Reinard

    2000-02-01

    The electron beam method of stepwise ionization to highest charge states has found applications in electron beam ion sources (EBISs) for accelerators and atomic physics collision experiments as well as in electron beam ion traps (EBITs) for x-ray and mass spectroscopy. A dense and almost monoenergetic electron beam provides a unique tool for ionization, because radiative recombination by slow electrons is negligible and charge exchange is almost avoided in ultrahigh vacua. These are essential differences to electron cyclotron resonance ion sources with inevitable low energy electrons and comparatively high gas pressure. The distinction between EBIS and EBIT as genuine devices has become meaningless, because EBISs may work as traps and almost all EBITs are feeding beamlines for external experiments. More interesting is to note the diversification of these devices, which demonstrates that a matured technology is finding dedicated answers for different applications. At present we may distinguish six major lines of development and application: high current EBISs for upcoming hadron colliders, super EBITs in the energy range above 300 keV for quantum electrondynamics tests, inexpensive and small EBISTs for atomic physics studies, a highly efficient EBIS with oscillating electrons, MEDEBIS for tumor therapy with C6+, and charge breeding in facilities for exotic radioactive beams.

  20. Development of mass spectrometry by high energy focused heavy ion beam: MeV SIMS with 8 MeV Cl7+ beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeromel, Luka; Siketić, Zdravko; Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina; Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Pelicon, Primož

    2014-08-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) at microprobe of Jožef Stefan Institute is used to measure two-dimensional quantitative elemental maps of biological tissue. To improve chemical and biological understanding of the processes in vivo, supplementary information about chemical bonding and/or molecular distributions could be obtained by heavy-ion induced molecular desorption and a corresponding mass spectroscopy with Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. As the method combines the use of heavy focused ions in MeV energy range and TOF Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, it is denoted as MeV SIMS. At Jožef Stefan Institute, we constructed a linear TOF spectrometer and mount it to our multipurpose nuclear microprobe. A beam of 8 MeV 35Cl7+ could be focused to a diameter of better than 3 μm × 3 μm and pulsed by electrostatic deflection at the high-energy side of accelerator. TOF mass spectrometer incorporates an 1 m long drift tube and a double stack microchannel plate (MCP) as a stop detector positioned at the end of the drift path. Secondary ions are focused at MCP using electrostatic cylindrical einzel lens. Time of flight spectra are currently acquired with a single-hit time-to-digital converter. Pulsed ion beam produces a shower of secondary ions that are ejected from positively biased target and accelerated towards MCP. We start our time measurement simultaneously with the start of the beam pulse. Signal of the first ion hitting MCP is used to stop the time measurement. Standard pulses proportional to the time of flight are produced with time to analog converter (TAC) and fed into analog-to-digital converter to obtain a time histogram. To enable efficient detection of desorbed fragments with higher molecular masses, which are of particular interest, we recently implemented a state-of art Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based multi-hit TOF acquisition. To test the system we used focused 8 MeV 35Cl7+ ion beam with pulse length of 180 ns. Mass resolution

  1. Focused electron and ion beam systems

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Persaud, Arun; Ji, Qing; Jiang, Ximan

    2004-07-27

    An electron beam system is based on a plasma generator in a plasma ion source with an accelerator column. The electrons are extracted from a plasma cathode in a plasma ion source, e.g. a multicusp plasma ion source. The beam can be scanned in both the x and y directions, and the system can be operated with multiple beamlets. A compact focused ion or electron beam system has a plasma ion source and an all-electrostatic beam acceleration and focusing column. The ion source is a small chamber with the plasma produced by radio-frequency (RF) induction discharge. The RF antenna is wound outside the chamber and connected to an RF supply. Ions or electrons can be extracted from the source. A multi-beam system has several sources of different species and an electron beam source.

  2. Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2002-05-31

    Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs.

  3. Fast Ion Beam Microscopy of Whole Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Frank; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Ce-Belle; Udalagama, Chammika Nb; Ren, Minqin; Pastorin, G.; Bettiol, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    The way in which biological cells function is of prime importance, and the determination of such knowledge is highly dependent on probes that can extract information from within the cell. Probing deep inside the cell at high resolutions however is not easy: optical microscopy is limited by fundamental diffraction limits, electron microscopy is not able to maintain spatial resolutions inside a whole cell without slicing the cell into thin sections, and many other new and novel high resolution techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and near field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) are essentially surface probes. In this paper we show that microscopy using fast ions has the potential to extract information from inside whole cells in a unique way. This novel fast ion probe utilises the unique characteristic of MeV ion beams, which is the ability to pass through a whole cell while maintaining high spatial resolutions. This paper first addresses the fundamental difference between several types of charged particle probes, more specifically focused beams of electrons and fast ions, as they penetrate organic material. Simulations show that whereas electrons scatter as they penetrate the sample, ions travel in a straight path and therefore maintain spatial resolutions. Also described is a preliminary experiment in which a whole cell is scanned using a low energy (45 keV) helium ion microscope, and the results compared to images obtained using a focused beam of fast (1.2 MeV) helium ions. The results demonstrate the complementarity between imaging using low energy ions, which essentially produce a high resolution image of the cell surface, and high energy ions, which produce an image of the cell interior. The characteristics of the fast ion probe appear to be ideally suited for imaging gold nanoparticles in whole cells. Using scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) to image the cell interior, forward scattering transmission ion microscopy (FSTIM) to improve the

  4. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Igor B. Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  5. EDITORIAL: Negative ion based neutral beam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsworth, R. S.

    2006-06-01

    It is widely recognized that neutral beam injection (NBI), i.e. the injection of high energy, high power, beams of H or D atoms, is a flexible and reliable system that has been the main heating system on a large variety of fusion devices, and NBI has been chosen as one of the three heating schemes of the International Tokomak Reactor (ITER). To date, all the NBI systems but two have been based on the neutralization (in a simple gas target) of positive hydrogen or deuterium ions accelerated to <100 keV/nucleon. Above that energy the neutralization of positive ions falls to unacceptably low values, and higher energy neutral beams have to be created by the neutralization of accelerated negative ions (in a simple gas target), as this remains high (approx60%) up to >1 MeV/nucleon. Unfortunately H- and D- are difficult to create, and the very characteristic that makes them attractive, the ease with which the electron is detached from the ion, means that it is difficult to create high concentrations or fluxes of them, and it is difficult to avoid substantial, collisional, losses in the extraction and acceleration processes. However, there has been impressive progress in negative ion sources and accelerators over the past decade, as demonstrated by the two pioneering, operational, multi-megawatt, negative ion based, NBI systems at LHD (180 keV, H0) and JT-60U (500 keV, D0), both in Japan. Nevertheless, the system proposed for ITER represents a substantial technological challenge as an increase is required in beam energy, to 1 MeV, D0, accelerated ion (D-) current, to 40 A, accelerated current density, 200 A m-2 of D-, and pulse length, to 1 h. At the Fourth IAEA Technical Meeting on Negative Ion Based Neutral Beam Injectors, hosted by the Consorzio RFX, Padova, Italy, 9-11 May 2005, the status of the R&D aimed at the realization of the injectors for ITER was presented. Because of the importance of this development to the success of the ITER project, participants at that

  6. The electromagnetic ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peter Gary, S.; Schriver, David

    1987-01-01

    Electromagnetic instabilities driven by an anisotropic, relatively cool ion beam are studied for the case in which both the beam and the instabilities propagate parallel or antiparallel to a uniform magnetic field. At modest beam-core relative drift speeds, sufficiently large perpendicular-to-parallel beam temperature ratios and sufficiently large plasma beta, the mode of fastest growth rate is the ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability. Because the right-hand polarized waves observed upstream of slow shocks in the earth's magnetotail can lead to the appropriate beam anisotropy, the ion cyclotron instability may be present and account for the left-hand polarized magnetic waves observed there. Also, because of its relatively low phase speed, the ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability may provide the scattering necessary for ion Fermi acceleration at slow shocks of sufficiently high plasma beta.

  7. Negative Ion Beam Extraction and Emittance

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Andrew J. T.

    2007-08-10

    The use of magnetic fields to both aid the production of negative ions and suppress the co-extracted electrons causes the emittance and hence the divergence of the negative ion beam to increase significantly due to the plasma non-uniformity from jxB drift. This drift distorts the beam-plasma meniscus and experimental results of the beam emittance are presented, which show that non-uniformity causes the square of the emittance to be proportional to the 2/3 power of the extracted current density. This can cause the divergence of the negative ion beam to be significantly larger than its positive ion counterpart. By comparing results from positive and negative ion beam emittances from the same source, it is also possible to draw conclusions about their vulnerability to magnetic effects. Finally emittances of caesiated and un-caesiated negative ion beams are compared to show how the surface and volume modes of production interact.

  8. Monte Carlo simulations of nanoscale focused neon ion beam sputtering.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Rajendra; Rack, Philip D

    2013-12-13

    A Monte Carlo simulation is developed to model the physical sputtering of aluminum and tungsten emulating nanoscale focused helium and neon ion beam etching from the gas field ion microscope. Neon beams with different beam energies (0.5-30 keV) and a constant beam diameter (Gaussian with full-width-at-half-maximum of 1 nm) were simulated to elucidate the nanostructure evolution during the physical sputtering of nanoscale high aspect ratio features. The aspect ratio and sputter yield vary with the ion species and beam energy for a constant beam diameter and are related to the distribution of the nuclear energy loss. Neon ions have a larger sputter yield than the helium ions due to their larger mass and consequently larger nuclear energy loss relative to helium. Quantitative information such as the sputtering yields, the energy-dependent aspect ratios and resolution-limiting effects are discussed. PMID:24231648

  9. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described. PMID:26932088

  10. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  11. Caborane beam from ITEP Bernas ion source for semiconductor implanters

    SciTech Connect

    Seleznev, D.; Hershcovitch, A.; Kropachev, G.; Kozlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Koshelev, V.; Kulevoy, T.; Jonson, B.; Poole, J.; Alexeyenko, O.; Gurkova, E.; Oks, E.; Gushenets, V.; Polozov, S.; Masunov, E.

    2010-02-01

    A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for hundreds of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past 5 years. The difficulties of extraction and transportation of low energy boron beams can be solved by implanting clusters of boron atoms. In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the Bernas ion source successfully generated the beam of decaborane ions. The carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ion beam is more attractive material due to its better thermal stability. The results of carborane ion beam generation are presented. The result of the beam implantation into the silicon wafer is presented as well.

  12. Development of a pepper-pot emittance meter for diagnostics of low-energy multiply charged heavy ion beams extracted from an ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, T.; Tzoganis, V.; Kase, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Nakagawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    Several fluorescent materials were tested for use in the imaging screen of a pepper-pot emittance meter that is suitable for investigating the beam dynamics of multiply charged heavy ions extracted from an ECR ion source. SiO2 (quartz), KBr, Eu-doped CaF2, and Tl-doped CsI crystals were first irradiated with 6.52-keV protons to determine the effects of radiation damage on their fluorescence emission properties. For such a low-energy proton beam, only the quartz was found to be a suitable fluorescent material, since the other materials suffered a decay in fluorescence intensity with irradiation time. Subsequently, quartz was irradiated with heavy 12C4+, 16O4+, and 40Ar11+ ions, but it was found that the fluorescence intensity decreased too rapidly to measure the emittance of these heavy-ion beams. These results suggest that a different energy loss mechanism occurs for heavier ions and for protons.

  13. Development of a pepper-pot emittance meter for diagnostics of low-energy multiply charged heavy ion beams extracted from an ECR ion source.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, T; Tzoganis, V; Kase, M; Kamigaito, O; Nakagawa, T

    2016-02-01

    Several fluorescent materials were tested for use in the imaging screen of a pepper-pot emittance meter that is suitable for investigating the beam dynamics of multiply charged heavy ions extracted from an ECR ion source. SiO2 (quartz), KBr, Eu-doped CaF2, and Tl-doped CsI crystals were first irradiated with 6.52-keV protons to determine the effects of radiation damage on their fluorescence emission properties. For such a low-energy proton beam, only the quartz was found to be a suitable fluorescent material, since the other materials suffered a decay in fluorescence intensity with irradiation time. Subsequently, quartz was irradiated with heavy (12)C(4+), (16)O(4+), and (40)Ar(11+) ions, but it was found that the fluorescence intensity decreased too rapidly to measure the emittance of these heavy-ion beams. These results suggest that a different energy loss mechanism occurs for heavier ions and for protons. PMID:26932092

  14. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    SciTech Connect

    SEXTON,FREDERICK W.; WALSH,DAVID S.; DOYLE,BARNEY L.; DODD,PAUL E.

    2000-04-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a {minus}.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients.

  15. High performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates of Si-based Au film developed by focused ion beam nanofabrication

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A novel method with high flexibility and efficiency for developing SERS substrates is proposed by patterning nanostructures on Si substrates using focused ion beam direct writing (FIBDW) technology following with precise thermal evaporation of gold film on the substrate. The effect of SERS on the substrate was systematically investigated by optimizing the processing parameters and the gold film thickness. The results proved that small dwell time could improve the machining accuracy and obtain smaller nanogap. The Raman-enhanced performance of the substrate was investigated with 10−6mol/L Rhodamine 6 G solution. It was indicated that the elliptic nanostructures with 15-nm spacing on Si substrates, coated with approximately 15-nm thick gold film, have exhibited a high-enhanced performance, but dramatic performance degradation was found as the gold film thickness further increased, which most probably resulted from changes of the nanostructures’ morphology such as elliptical tip and spacing. To avoid the morphological changes effectively after depositing gold film, optimization design of the nanostructures for FIBDW on Si substrates was proposed. Besides, a similar phenomenon was found when the gold film was less than 15nm because there was little gold remaining on the substrate. The method proposed in this paper shows a great potential for the higher performance SERS substrates development, which can further reduce the spacing between hot spots. PMID:22804810

  16. High performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates of Si-based Au film developed by focused ion beam nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Xu, Zongwei; Fang, Fengzhou; Gao, Wenlong; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Xiaoxuan

    2012-01-01

    A novel method with high flexibility and efficiency for developing SERS substrates is proposed by patterning nanostructures on Si substrates using focused ion beam direct writing (FIBDW) technology following with precise thermal evaporation of gold film on the substrate. The effect of SERS on the substrate was systematically investigated by optimizing the processing parameters and the gold film thickness. The results proved that small dwell time could improve the machining accuracy and obtain smaller nanogap. The Raman-enhanced performance of the substrate was investigated with 10-6mol/L Rhodamine 6 G solution. It was indicated that the elliptic nanostructures with 15-nm spacing on Si substrates, coated with approximately 15-nm thick gold film, have exhibited a high-enhanced performance, but dramatic performance degradation was found as the gold film thickness further increased, which most probably resulted from changes of the nanostructures' morphology such as elliptical tip and spacing. To avoid the morphological changes effectively after depositing gold film, optimization design of the nanostructures for FIBDW on Si substrates was proposed. Besides, a similar phenomenon was found when the gold film was less than 15nm because there was little gold remaining on the substrate. The method proposed in this paper shows a great potential for the higher performance SERS substrates development, which can further reduce the spacing between hot spots. PMID:22804810

  17. Ion beam emittance from an ECRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spädtke, P.; Lang, R.; Mäder, J.; Maimone, F.; Schlei, B. R.; Tinschert, K.; Biri, S.; Rácz, R.

    2016-02-01

    Simulation of ion beam extraction from an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) is a fully 3 dimensional problem, even if the extraction geometry has cylindrical symmetry. Because of the strong magnetic flux density, not only the electrons are magnetized but also the Larmor radius of ions is much smaller than the geometrical dimension of the plasma chamber (Ø 64 × 179 mm). If we assume that the influence of collisions is small on the path of particles, we can do particle tracking through the plasma if the initial coordinates of particles are known. We generated starting coordinates of plasma ions by simulation of the plasma electrons, accelerated stochastically by the 14.5 GHz radio frequency power fed to the plasma. With that we were able to investigate the influence of different electron energies on the extracted beam. Using these assumptions, we can reproduce the experimental results obtained 10 years ago, where we monitored the beam profile with the help of viewing targets. Additionally, methods have been developed to investigate arbitrary 2D cuts of the 6D phase space. To this date, we are able to discuss full 4D information. Currently, we extend our analysis tool towards 5D and 6D, respectively.

  18. Plasma formed ion beam projection lithography system

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette; Ngo, Vinh; Zahir, Nastaran

    2002-01-01

    A plasma-formed ion-beam projection lithography (IPL) system eliminates the acceleration stage between the ion source and stencil mask of a conventional IPL system. Instead a much thicker mask is used as a beam forming or extraction electrode, positioned next to the plasma in the ion source. Thus the entire beam forming electrode or mask is illuminated uniformly with the source plasma. The extracted beam passes through an acceleration and reduction stage onto the resist coated wafer. Low energy ions, about 30 eV, pass through the mask, minimizing heating, scattering, and sputtering.

  19. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joseph

    2010-05-21

    Ion beam emission/neutralization is one of the most fundamental problems in spacecraft plasma interactions and electric propulsion. Although ion beam neutralization is readily achieved in experiments, the understanding of the underlying physical process remains at a rather primitive level. No theoretical or simulation models have convincingly explained the detailed neutralization mechanism, and no conclusions have been reached. This paper presents a fully kinetic simulation of ion beam neutralization and plasma beam propagation and discusses the physics of electron-ion coupling and the resulting propagation of a neutralized mesothermal plasma.

  20. Neutral Beam Ion Confinement in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Darrow; E.D. Fredrickson; S.M. Kaye; S.S. Medley; and A.L. Roquemore

    2001-07-24

    Neutral-beam (NB) heating in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) began in September 2000 using up to 5 MW of 80 keV deuterium (D) beams. An initial assessment of beam ion confinement has been made using neutron detectors, a neutral particle analyzer (NPA), and a Faraday cup beam ion loss probe. Preliminary neutron results indicate that confinement may be roughly classical in quiescent discharges, but the probe measurements do not match a classical loss model. MHD activity, especially reconnection events (REs) causes substantial disturbance of the beam ion population.

  1. Status of radioactive ion beams at the HRIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stracener, D. W.

    2003-05-01

    Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) are produced using the isotope separation on-line technique and are subsequently accelerated up to a few MeV per nucleon for use in nuclear physics experiments. The first RIB experiments at the HRIBF were completed at the end of 1998 using 17F beams. Since then other proton-rich ion beams have been developed and a large number of neutron-rich ion beams are now available. The neutron-rich radioactive nuclei are produced via proton-induced fission of uranium in a low-density matrix of uranium carbide. Recently developed RIBs include 25Al from a silicon carbide target and isobarically pure beams of neutron-rich Ge, Sn, Br and I isotopes from a uranium carbide target.

  2. Historical milestones and future prospects of cluster ion beam technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Isao

    2014-08-01

    Development of technology for processing of surfaces by means of gas cluster ion beams began only about a quarter century ago even though fundamental research related to generation of gas clusters began much earlier. Industrial applications of cluster ion beams did not start to be explored until commercial equipment was first introduced to the ion beam community in around 2000. The technology is now evolving rapidly with industrial equipment being engineered for many diverse surface processing applications which are made possible by the unique characteristics of cluster-ion/solid-surface interactions. In this paper, important historical milestones in cluster ion beam development are described. Present activities related to a wide range of industrial applications in semiconductors, magnetic and optical devices, and bio-medical devices are reviewed. Several emerging new advances in cluster beam applications for the future are also discussed.

  3. On the role of ion-based imaging methods in modern ion beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Magallanes, L. Rinaldi, I.; Brons, S.; Marcelos, T. Parodi, K.; Takechi, M.; Voss, B.; Jäkel, O.

    2014-11-07

    External beam radiotherapy techniques have the common aim to maximize the radiation dose to the target while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. The inverted and finite depth-dose profile of ion beams (Bragg peak) allows for precise dose delivery and conformai dose distribution. Furthermore, increased radiobiological effectiveness of ions enhances the capability to battle radioresistant tumors. Ion beam therapy requires a precise determination of the ion range, which is particularly sensitive to range uncertainties. Therefore, novel imaging techniques are currently investigated as a tool to improve the quality of ion beam treatments. Approaches already clinically available or under development are based on the detection of secondary particles emitted as a result of nuclear reactions (e.g., positron-annihilation or prompt gammas, charged particles) or transmitted high energy primary ion beams. Transmission imaging techniques make use of the beams exiting the patient, which have higher initial energy and lower fluence than the therapeutic ones. At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, actively scanned energetic proton and carbon ion beams provide an ideal environment for the investigation of ion-based radiography and tomography. This contribution presents the rationale of ion beam therapy, focusing on the role of ion-based transmission imaging methods towards the reduction of range uncertainties and potential improvement of treatment planning.

  4. On the role of ion-based imaging methods in modern ion beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magallanes, L.; Brons, S.; Marcelos, T.; Takechi, M.; Voss, B.; Jäkel, O.; Rinaldi, I.; Parodi, K.

    2014-11-01

    External beam radiotherapy techniques have the common aim to maximize the radiation dose to the target while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. The inverted and finite depth-dose profile of ion beams (Bragg peak) allows for precise dose delivery and conformai dose distribution. Furthermore, increased radiobiological effectiveness of ions enhances the capability to battle radioresistant tumors. Ion beam therapy requires a precise determination of the ion range, which is particularly sensitive to range uncertainties. Therefore, novel imaging techniques are currently investigated as a tool to improve the quality of ion beam treatments. Approaches already clinically available or under development are based on the detection of secondary particles emitted as a result of nuclear reactions (e.g., positron-annihilation or prompt gammas, charged particles) or transmitted high energy primary ion beams. Transmission imaging techniques make use of the beams exiting the patient, which have higher initial energy and lower fluence than the therapeutic ones. At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, actively scanned energetic proton and carbon ion beams provide an ideal environment for the investigation of ion-based radiography and tomography. This contribution presents the rationale of ion beam therapy, focusing on the role of ion-based transmission imaging methods towards the reduction of range uncertainties and potential improvement of treatment planning.

  5. Treatment Planning for Ion Beam Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greilich, Steffen; Jäkel, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Beams of charged particles offer an improved dose conformation to the target volume as compared to photon radiotherapy, with better sparing of normal tissue structures close to the target. In addition, beams of ions heavier than helium exhibit a strong increase of the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) in the Bragg peak as compared to the entrance region, resulting in a higher biological efficiency in the target region. These physical and biological properties make ion beams more favorable for radiation therapy of cancer than photon beams. As a consequence, particle therapy with heavy ions has gained increasing interest worldwide. To fully benefit from the advantages of ion radiotherapy, appropriate treatment planning has to be done—taking into account the specific characteristics of ion beams, e.g. the inverted depth-dose profile, nuclear fragmentation, and increase radiobiological effectiveness. This paper describes in brief the approach taken at GSI Darmstadt and HIT Heidelberg for an active 3D beam scanning system.

  6. Development and Characterization of a Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Multi Electrode Array Realized with Ion Beam Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Carbone, Emilio; Croin, Luca; Enrico, Emanuele; Forneris, Jacopo; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carabelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ∼mΩ·cm) by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16-channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array) suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3) to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release. PMID:25558992

  7. Development and characterization of a diamond-insulated graphitic multi electrode array realized with ion beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Carbone, Emilio; Croin, Luca; Enrico, Emanuele; Forneris, Jacopo; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carabelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ~mΩ·cm) by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16‑channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array) suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3) to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release. PMID:25558992

  8. A preliminary model of ion beam neutralization. [in thruster plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, D. E.; Katz, I.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model of neutralized thruster ion beam plasmas has been developed. The basic premise is that the beam forms an electrostatic trap for the neutralizing electrons. A Maxwellian spectrum of electron energies is maintained by collisions between trapped electrons and by collective randomization of velocities of electrons injected from the neutralizer into the surrounding plasma. The theory contains the observed barometric law relationship between electron density and electron temperatures and ion beam spreading in good agreement with measured results.

  9. Beam Dynamics Considerations in Electron Ion Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Geoffrey

    2015-04-01

    The nuclear physics community is converging on the idea that the next large project after FRIB should be an electron-ion collider. Both Brookhaven National Lab and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility have developed accelerator designs, both of which need novel solutions to accelerator physics problems. In this talk we discuss some of the problems that must be solved and their solutions. Examples in novel beam optics systems, beam cooling, and beam polarization control will be presented. Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177. The U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce this manuscript for U.S. Government purposes.

  10. University of Wisconsin Ion Beam Laboratory: A facility for irradiated materials and ion beam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Field, K. G.; Wetteland, C. J.; Cao, G.; Maier, B. R.; Gerczak, T. J.; Kriewaldt, K.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R.; Dickerson, C.; Field, C. R.

    2013-04-19

    The University of Wisconsin Ion Beam Laboratory (UW-IBL) has recently undergone significant infrastructure upgrades to facilitate graduate level research in irradiated materials phenomena and ion beam analysis. A National Electrostatics Corp. (NEC) Torodial Volume Ion Source (TORVIS), the keystone upgrade for the facility, can produce currents of hydrogen ions and helium ions up to {approx}200 {mu}A and {approx}5 {mu}A, respectively. Recent upgrades also include RBS analysis packages, end station developments for irradiation of relevant material systems, and the development of an in-house touch screen based graphical user interface for ion beam monitoring. Key research facilitated by these upgrades includes irradiation of nuclear fuels, studies of interfacial phenomena under irradiation, and clustering dynamics of irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened steels. The UW-IBL has also partnered with the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR-NSUF) to provide access to the irradiation facilities housed at the UW-IBL as well as access to post irradiation facilities housed at the UW Characterization Laboratory for Irradiated Materials (CLIM) and other ATR-NSUF partner facilities. Partnering allows for rapid turnaround from proposed research to finalized results through the ATR-NSUF rapid turnaround proposal system. An overview of the UW-IBL including CLIM and relevant research is summarized.

  11. Laser cooling of a stored ion beam: A first step towards crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hangst, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses: a brief introduction to storage rings; crystalline beams; laser cooling of ion beams; description of astrid-the experimental setup; first experiments with lithium 7 ion beam; experiments with erbium 166 ion beams; further experiments with lithium 7 ion beams; beam dynamics, laser cooling,and crystalline beams in astrid; possibilities for further study in astrid.

  12. Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y.; Kuznetsov, G.

    2012-02-15

    RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

  13. Heavy ion beams for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Godlove, T.F.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1980-05-01

    The United States' program in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is described in this paper, with emphasis on the studies of the use of intense high energy beams of heavy ions to provide the power and energy needed to initiate thermonuclear burn. Preliminary calculations of the transport of intense ion beams in an electrostatic quadrupole focussing structure are discussed.

  14. Ion beam figuring of small optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drueding, Thomas W.; Fawcett, Steven C.; Wilson, Scott R.; Bifano, Thomas G.

    1995-12-01

    Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The process involves bombarding a component with a stable beam of accelerated particles that selectively removes material from the surface. Figure corrections are achieved by rastering the fixed-current beam across the workplace at appropriate, time-varying velocities. Unlike conventional methods, ion figuring is a noncontact technique and thus avoids such problems as edge rolloff effects, tool wear, and force loading of the workpiece. This work is directed toward the development of the precision ion machining system at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. This system is designed for processing small (approximately equals 10-cm diam) optical components. Initial experiments were successful in figuring 8-cm-diam fused silica and chemical-vapor-deposited SiC samples. The experiments, procedures, and results of figuring the sample workpieces to shallow spherical, parabolic (concave and convex), and non-axially-symmetric shapes are discussed. Several difficulties and limitations encountered with the current system are discussed. The use of a 1-cm aperture for making finer corrections on optical components is also reported.

  15. Development of a fast cyclotron gas stopper for intense rare isotope beams from projectile fragmentation: Study of ion extraction with a radiofrequency carpet

    SciTech Connect

    Bollen, Georg; Morrissey, David

    2011-01-16

    Research and development has been performed in support of the design of a future rare isotope beam facility in the US. An important aspect of plans for earlier RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) and a requirement of FRIB (Facility of Rare Isotope Beams) to be built at Michigan State University are the availability of so-called “stopped beams” for research that contributes to answering questions like how elements in the universe are created and to provide better insight into the nature of Fundamental Interactions. In order to create “stopped beams” techniques are required that transform fast rare isotopes beams as they are available directly after addresses questions like the origin of that will allow and High priority is given to the evaluation of intensity limitations and the efficiency of stopping of fast fragment beams in gas cells and to the exploration of options to increase the efficiency and the reduction of space charge effects. Systematic studies performed at MSU as part of the RIA R&D with a linear gas cell under conditions close to those expected at RIA and related simulations confirm that the efficiency of stopping and extracting ions decreases with increasing beam intensity. Similar results have also been observed at RIKEN in Japan. These results indicate the concepts presently under study will not be able to cover the full range of intensities of fast beams expected at RIA without major losses. The development of a more robust concept is therefore critical to the RIA concept. Recent new beam simulation studies performed at the NSCL show that the stopping of heavy ions in a weakly focusing gas-filled magnetic field can overcome the intensity limitation of present systems while simultaneously providing a much faster ion extraction. We propose to design and build such a cyclotron gas stopper and to test it at the NSCL under conditions as close as possible to those found at RIA.

  16. Simulations and Observations of Heating of Auroral Ion Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Collin, H. L.; Lin, C. S.; Persoon, A. M.

    1989-01-01

    In the auroral zone, quasi-static parallel electric fields produce beams of ionospheric ions (e.g., H(+), He(+) and 0(+)), which flow outward into the magnetosphere, providing a significant source of ions for the ring current and plasma sheet. Because the velocities to which these beams are accelerated is dependent on the mass of the ions, differential flows between the various ion species can develop which are unstable to an ion-ion streaming instability. Particle simulations and observations from DE 1 are used to investigate the heating of the ion beams produced by this instability. It is shown that there is net transfer of energy from the light ions to the heavy ions, with the heavy ions reaching maximum velocities near the beam velocity of the light ions. Bulk heating of the heavy ions occurs when their relative density is low while high-energy tails are produced when their relative density is high. The heating is primarily parallel to the magnetic field if the difference in the heavy and light ion beam velocities is subsonic while both perpendicular and parallel heating can occur if it is supersonic. In the latter case, very strong heating of an intermediate ion's species such as He(+) can also occur. Comparison with observations shows features consistent with heating via the ion-ion instability including perpendicular heating in the supersonic regime and parallel heating in the subsonic regime and a change in the heating between these regimes as the ratio of the H(+) beam speed to the local sound speed is observed to decrease. This heating is, however, not always observed in association with enhanced wave emissions. This lack of waves is attributed to reabsorption of the waves as the ions become heated.

  17. Optical Faraday Cup for Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, Frank; Bieniosek, F.M.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-06-25

    We have been using alumina scintillators for imaging beams in heavy-ion beam fusion experiments in 2 to 4 transverse dimensions [1]. The scintillator has a limited lifetime under bombardment by the heavy ion beams. As a possible replacement for the scintillator, we are studying the technique of imaging the beam on a gas cloud. A gas cloud for imaging the beam may be created on a solid hole plate placed in the path of the beam, or by a localized gas jet. It is possible to image the beam using certain fast-quenching optical lines that closely follow beam current density and are independent of gas density. We describe this technique and show preliminary experimental data. This approach has promise to be a new fast beam current diagnostic on a nanosecond time scale.

  18. Focused ion beam source method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Pellin, Michael J.; Lykke, Keith R.; Lill, Thorsten B.

    2000-01-01

    A focused ion beam having a cross section of submicron diameter, a high ion current, and a narrow energy range is generated from a target comprised of particle source material by laser ablation. The method involves directing a laser beam having a cross section of critical diameter onto the target, producing a cloud of laser ablated particles having unique characteristics, and extracting and focusing a charged particle beam from the laser ablated cloud. The method is especially suited for producing focused ion beams for semiconductor device analysis and modification.

  19. Beam Compression in Heavy-Ion Induction Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.A.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Calanog, J.; Chen, A.X.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Grote, D.P.; Jung, J.Y.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Ni, P.; Roy, P.K.; Van den Bogert, K.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Heavy-Ion Fusion Sciences Virtual National Laboratory is pursuing an approach to target heating experiments in the Warm Dense Matter regime, using space-charge-dominated ion beams that are simultaneously longitudinally bunched and transversely focused. Longitudinal beam compression by large factors has been demonstrated in the LBNL Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) experiment with controlled ramps and forced neutralization. The achieved peak beam current and energy can be used in experiments to heat targets and create warm dense matter. Using an injected 30 mA K{sup +} ion beam with initial kinetic energy 0.3 MeV, axial compression leading to {approx}50x current amplification and simultaneous radial focusing to beam radii of a few mm have led to encouraging energy deposition approaching the intensities required for eV-range target heating experiments. We discuss experiments that are under development to reach the necessary higher beam intensities and the associated beam diagnostics.

  20. Metallic beam development for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Machicoane, Guillaume Cole, Dallas; Leitner, Daniela; Neben, Derek; Tobos, Larry

    2014-02-15

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University (MSU) will accelerate a primary ion beam to energies beyond 200 MeV/u using a superconducting RF linac and will reach a maximum beam power of 400 kW on the fragmentation target. The beam intensity needed from the ECR ion source is expected to be between 0.4 and 0.5 emA for most medium mass to heavy mass elements. Adding to the challenge of reaching the required intensity, an expanded list of primary beams of interest has been established based on the production rate and the number of isotope beams that could be produced with FRIB. We report here on the development done for some of the beam in the list including mercury (natural), molybdenum ({sup 98}Mo), and selenium ({sup 82}Ser)

  1. Ion beam sputtering in electric propulsion facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine sputter yields of potential ion beam target materials, to assess the impact of charge exchange on beam diagnostics in large facilities, and to examine material erosion and deposition after a 957-hour test of a 5 kW-class ion thruster. The xenon ion sputter yield of flexible graphite was lower than other graphite forms especialy at high angles of incidence. Ion beam charge exchange effects were found to hamper beam probe current collection diagnostics even at pressures from 0.7 to 1.7 mPa. Estimates of the xenon ion beam envelope were made and predictions of the thickness of sputter deposited coatings in the facility were compared with measurements.

  2. Ion beam sputtering in electric propulsion facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine sputter yields of potential ion beam target materials, to assess the impact of charge exchange on beam diagnostics in large facilities, and to examine material erosion and deposition after a 957 hr test of a 5 kW-class ion thruster. The xenon ion sputter yield of flexible graphite was lower than other graphite forms especially at high angles of incidence. Ion beam charge exchange effects were found to hamper beam probe current collection diagnostics even at pressures from 0.7 to 1.7 mPa. Estimates of the xenon ion beam envelope were made and predictions of the thickness of sputter deposited coatings in the facility were compared with measurements.

  3. Ion beam microtexturing and enhanced surface diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Ion beam interactions with solid surfaces are discussed with particular emphasis on microtexturing induced by the deliberate deposition of controllable amounts of an impurity material onto a solid surface while simultaneously sputtering the surface with an ion beam. Experimental study of the optical properties of microtextured surfaces is described. Measurements of both absorptance as a function of wavelength and emissivity are presented. A computer code is described that models the sputtering and ion reflection processes involved in microtexture formation.

  4. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; White, S.

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  5. Expansion Discharge Source for Ion Beam Laser Spectroscopy of Cold Molecular Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porambo, Michael; Pearson, Jessica; Riccardo, Craig; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2013-06-01

    Molecular ions are important in several fields of research, and spectroscopy acts as a key tool in the study of these ions. However, problems such as low ion abundance, ion-neutral confusion, and spectral congestion due to high internal temperatures can hinder effective spectroscopic studies. To circumvent these problems, we are developing a technique called Sensitive, Cooled, Resolved, Ion BEam Spectroscopy (SCRIBES). This ion beam spectrometer will feature a continuous supersonic expansion discharge source to produce cold molecular ions, electrostatic ion optics to focus the ions into an ion beam and bend the beam away from co-produced neutral molecules, an overlap region for cavity enhanced spectroscopy, and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. When completed, SCRIBES will be an effective tool for the study of large, fluxional, and complex molecular ions that are difficult to study with other means. The ion beam spectrometer has been successfully implemented with a hot ion source. This talk will focus on the work of integrating a supersonic expansion discharge source into the instrument. To better understand how the source would work in the whole ion beam instrument, characterization studies are being performed with spectroscopy of HN_2^+ in a section of the system to ascertain the rotational temperature of the ion expansion. Attempts are also underway to measure the ion current from a beam formed from the expansion. Once the source in this environment is properly understood, we will reintegrate it to the rest of the ion beam system, completing SCRIBES. A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel and B. J. McCall J. Chem. Phys., 135, 224201, (2011). K. N. Crabtree, C. A. Kauffman and B. J. McCall Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 086103, (2010).

  6. Recent developments of ion beam induced luminescence at the external scanning microbeam facility of the LABEC laboratory in Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, E.; Calusi, S.; Cossio, R.; Giuntini, L.; Giudice, A. Lo; Mandò, P. A.; Manfredotti, C.; Massi, M.; Mirto, F. A.; Vittone, E.

    2008-04-01

    A new ionoluminescence (IL) apparatus has been successfully installed at the external scanning microbeam facility of the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the INFN LABEC in Firenze; the apparatus for photon detection has been fully integrated in the existing ion beam analysis (IBA) set-up, for the simultaneous acquisition of IL and PIXE/PIGE/BS spectra and maps. The potential of the new set-up is illustrated in this paper by some results extracted by the analysis of art objects and advanced semiconductor materials. In particular, the adequacy of the new IBA set-up in the field of cultural heritage is pointed out by the coupled PIXE/IL micro-analysis of a lapis lazuli stone; concerning applications in material science, IL spectra from a N doped diamond sample were acquired and compared with CL analyses to evaluate the relevant sensitivities and the effect of ion damage.

  7. Ion-beam nitriding of steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, Joshua (Inventor); Hubbell, Theodore E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A surface of a steel substrate is nitrided without external heating by exposing it to a beam of nitrogen ions under low pressure, a pressure much lower than that employed for ion-nitriding. An ion source is used instead of a glow discharge. Both of these features reduce the introduction of impurities into the substrate surface.

  8. Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

    2008-08-03

    For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

  9. Modified betatron for ion beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rostoker, N.; Fisher, A.

    1986-01-01

    An intense neutralized ion beam can be injected and trapped in magnetic mirror or tokamak geometry. The details of the process involve beam polarization so that the beam crosses the fringing fields without deflection and draining the polarization when the beam reaches the plasma. Equilibrium requires that a large betatron field be added in tokamak geometry. In mirror geometry a toroidal field must be added by means of a current along the mirror axis. In either case, the geometry becomes that of the modified betatron which has been studied experimentally and theoretically in recent years. We consider beams of d and t ions with a mean energy of 500 kev and a temperature of about 50 kev. The plasma may be a proton plasma with cold ions. It is only necessary for beam trapping or to carry currents. The ion energy for slowing down is initially 500 kev and thermonuclear reactions depend only on the beam temperature of 50 kev which changes very slowly. This new configuration for magnetic confinement fusion leads to an energy gain of 10--20 for d-t reactions whereas previous studies of beam target interaction predicted a maximum energy gain of 3--4. The high beam energy available with pulsed ion diode technology is also essential for advanced fuels. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Beam Ion Driven Instabilities in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    N.N. Gorelenkov; E. Belova; H.L. Berk; C.Z. Cheng; E. Fredrickson; W. Heidbrink; S. Kaye; G. Kramer

    2003-11-07

    A low-field, low-aspect-ratio device such as NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) is an excellent testbed to study the ITER-relevant physics of fast-particle confinement that is of major importance for burning plasmas. The low Alfvin speed in NSTX offers a window to the super-Alfvinic regime expected in ITER. Effects such as the large FLR, orbit width, strong shaping, and high thermal and fast-ion betas make this effort a greater challenge. We report on the linear stability of different Alfvin eigenmode (AE) branches and compare theory with experimental data. Low-frequency MHD activities, {approx}100 kHz, on NSTX are often observed and identified as the toroidicity-induced AEs (TAE) driven by beam ions. Sometimes they are accompanied by beam ion losses in H-mode, high q(0) plasmas. Numerical analysis using the NOVA-K code shows good agreement with the experimental data. The TAE instability was compared in experiments on NSTX and DIII-D. With very similar plasma conditions, we tested the theoretical prediction that the toroidal mode number of the most unstable TAEs scales with the machine minor radius, n {approx} a. In NSTX, TAEs are observed with n = 1-2, whereas in DIII-D n = 4-7. The confirmation of n scaling validates the predictive capabilities of theoretical tools (NOVA-K) for studying ITER plasmas. In the high-frequency range, recent observations of rich sub-ion cyclotron frequency MHD activities in NSTX suggest that new instabilities are excited, which we identify as Global shear AEs (GAEs). Similar to the compressional AEs (CAEs), GAEs are destabilized by the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance in the presence of 80 keV neutral-beam injection. To simulate GAE/CAEs in realistic NSTX plasma conditions, we have developed a nonlinear hybrid kinetic-MHD code, HYM, which is capable of computing the mode structure, saturation, and energetic particle transport.

  11. Mini RF-driven ion source for focused ion beam system

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Ji, Q.; Chang, A.; Leung, K.N.

    2002-08-02

    Mini RF-driven ion sources with 1.2 cm and 1.5 cm inner chamber diameter have been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Several gas species have been tested including argon, krypton and hydrogen. These mini ion sources operate in inductively coupled mode and are capable of generating high current density ion beams at tens of watts. Since the plasma potential is relatively low in the plasma chamber, these mini ion sources can function reliably without any perceptible sputtering damage. The mini RF-driven ion sources will be combined with electrostatic focusing columns, and are capable of producing nano focused ion beams for micro machining and semiconductor fabrications.

  12. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams

    SciTech Connect

    Raeder, Sebastian Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders; Heggen, Henning; Institute of Applied Physics, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 7, 64289 Darmstadt ; Lassen, Jens Teigelhöfer, Andrea; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2

    2014-03-15

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

  13. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams.

    PubMed

    Raeder, Sebastian; Heggen, Henning; Lassen, Jens; Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders; Teigelhöfer, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated. PMID:24689577

  14. Development of a two-beam high-current ion accelerator based on Doppler effect. Final report (1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, B.I.; Yegorov, A.M.

    1995-03-01

    This Final Report presents the results of work accomplished in accordance with the Scope of Work to the Purchase Order No 4596310. The amount of works includes the following items: 1. Start of the manufacture of the Experimental Accelerating Stand (EAS)-the section for proton acceleration from 5 MeV to 8 MeV, in which RF fields are excited by an electron beam at the anomalous Doppler effect. 2. Theoretical investigation and computer simulation of field excitation and ion acceleration in the EAS. Under item 1, the EAS manufacturing is begun. To present time, a pedestal for the EAS and a stainless steel vacuum chamber for RF resonator are made (length of the chamber is about 180 cm, diameter is about 40 cm). Besides, parts of the EAS resonator with the acceleration structure are manufactured, and its assembly is begun. Under item 2, it is realized three works: calculation of increment and frequency shift of the EAS resonator excited by electron beam, calculation of the solenoid for creation of magnetic field with required spatial distribution, and theoretical investigation and computer simulation of ion acceleration in the EAS. 14 figs., 16 refs.

  15. Radially uniform circular sweep of ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmetov, T.D.; Davydenko, V.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Kobets, V.V.; Medvedko, A.S.; Skorobogatov, D.N.; Tiunov, M.A.

    2006-03-15

    A spiral sweep of the ion beam was suggested to provide sufficiently uniform irradiation of a circular target. It is shown that if the beam radius is small enough, the radius of the beam center should increase as a square root of time to provide uniform radial irradiation of the target. In the complex for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, the proton beam sweep will be performed by a sweeper with uniform magnetic field with strength up to 500 G and axial length {approx}20 cm, rotating at 100-2000 Hz, and scanning over the radius at a 1-10 Hz frequency. The sweeper field is produced by four longitudinal flat current windings placed near the inner walls of a box-shaped yoke with the inner opening of a square cross section. A similar sweeping technique can be used in a 200 keV oxygen implanter, which is also under development at the Budker Institute.

  16. Space Charge Neutralization in the ITER Negative Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Surrey, Elizabeth

    2007-08-10

    A model of the space charge neutralization of negative ion beams, developed from the model due to Holmes, is applied to the ITER heating and diagnostic beams. The Holmes model assumed that the plasma electron temperature was derived from the stripped electrons. This is shown to be incorrect for the ITER beams and the plasma electron temperature is obtained from the average creation energy upon ionization. The model shows that both ITER beams will be fully space charge compensated in the drift distance between the accelerator and the neutralizer. Inside the neutralizer, the plasma over compensates the space charge to the extent that a significant focusing force is predicted. At a certain position in the neutraliser this force balances the defocusing force due to the ions' transverse energy. Under these conditions the beam distribution function can change from Gaussian to Bennett and evidence of such a distribution observed in a multi-aperture, neutralized negative ion beam is presented.

  17. Heavy ion beam transport and interaction with ICF targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, G.; Aragonés, J. M.; Gago, J. A.; Gámez, L.; González, M. C.; Honrubia, J. J.; Martínez-Val, J. M.; Mínguez, E.; Ocaña, J. L.; Otero, R.; Perlado, J. M.; Santolaya, J. M.; Serrano, J. F.; Velarde, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical simulation codes provide an essential tool for analyzing the very broad range of concepts and variables considered in ICF targets. In this paper, the relevant processes embodied in the NORCLA code, needed to simulate ICF targets driven by heavy ion beams will be presented. Atomic physic models developed at DENIM to improve the atomic data needed for ion beam plasma interaction will be explained. Concerning the stopping power, the average ionization potential following a Thomas-Fermi model has been calculated, and results are compared with full quantum calculations. Finally, a parametric study of multilayered single shell targets driven by heavy ion beams will be shown.

  18. Development of Zn and Eu beams by plasma sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Rodrigues, G.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.; Singh, Beer Pal; Kumar, R.

    2006-05-01

    Accelerated ion beams of various species are important tools to engineer the materials. The low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) provides the ion beams of energy in the range of a few keV to a few MeV. The LEIBF is fully operational since 2001 and its performance has been tested very well with ion beams from noble gases. Metallic and rare earth ion beams have important role in the field of nano-technology and enhancement of optical properties of semiconducting nano-particles inside various matrices. During the last few years, an effort was made to extract ion beams of various metal and rare earth elements using different techniques. Here we describe the successful development of Zn and Eu ion beams using sputtering technique in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. Operational experience to produce such kind of beams and results on beam analysis are described in the paper.

  19. A Distributed Radiator, Heavy Ion Target with Realistic Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Debra A.; Tabak, Max

    1997-11-01

    Recent efforts in heavy ion target design have centered around the distributed radiator design of Tabak(M. Tabak, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., Vol 41, No 7, 1996.). The initial distributed radiator target assumed beams with a uniform radial density distribution aimed directly along the z axis. Chamber propagation simulations indicate that the beam distribution is more nearly Gaussian at best focus. In addition, more than two beams will be necessary to carry the required current; this means that the beams must be angled to allow space for the final focusing systems upstream. We will describe our modifications to the distributed radiator target to allow realistic beams and realistic beam angles.

  20. Confined ion beam sputtering device and method

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A hollow cylindrical target, lined internally with a sputter deposit material and open at both ends, surrounds a substrate on which sputtered deposition is to be obtained. An ion beam received through either one or both ends of the open cylindrical target is forced by a negative bias applied to the target to diverge so that ions impinge at acute angles at different points of the cylindrical target surface. The ion impingement results in a radially inward and downstream directed flux of sputter deposit particles that are received by the substrate. A positive bias applied to the substrate enhances divergence of the approaching ion beams to generate a higher sputtered deposition flux rate. Alternatively, a negative bias applied to the substrate induces the core portion of the ion beams to reach the substrate and provide ion polishing of the sputtered deposit thereon.

  1. Confined ion beam sputtering device and method

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, D.J.

    1986-03-25

    A hollow cylindrical target, lined internally with a sputter deposit material and open at both ends, surrounds a substrate on which sputtered deposition is to be obtained. An ion beam received through either one or both ends of the open cylindrical target is forced by a negative bias applied to the target to diverge so that ions impinge at acute angles at different points of the cylindrical target surface. The ion impingement results in a radially inward and downstream directed flux of sputter deposit particles that are received by the substrate. A positive bias applied to the substrate enhances divergence of the approaching ion beams to generate a higher sputtered deposition flux rate. Alternatively, a negative bias applied to the substrate induces the core portion of the ion beams to reach the substrate and provide ion polishing of the sputtered deposit thereon.

  2. Xenon ion beam characterization in a helicon double layer thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.; Lieberman, M. A.

    2006-12-25

    A current-free electric double layer is created in a helicon double layer thruster operating with xenon and compared to a recently developed theory. The Xe{sup +} ion beam formed by acceleration through the potential drop of the double layer is characterized radially using an electrostatic ion energy analyzer. For operating conditions of 500 W rf power, 0.07 mTorr gas pressure, and a maximum magnetic field of 125 G, the measured beam velocity is about 6 km s{sup -1}, the beam area is about 150 cm{sup 2}, and the measured beam divergence is less than 6 deg.

  3. Xenon ion beam characterization in a helicon double layer thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.; Lieberman, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    A current-free electric double layer is created in a helicon double layer thruster operating with xenon and compared to a recently developed theory. The Xe+ ion beam formed by acceleration through the potential drop of the double layer is characterized radially using an electrostatic ion energy analyzer. For operating conditions of 500W rf power, 0.07mTorr gas pressure, and a maximum magnetic field of 125G, the measured beam velocity is about 6kms-1, the beam area is about 150cm2, and the measured beam divergence is less than 6°.

  4. Experimental Studies of Ion Beam Neutralization: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, N.; Polansky, J.; Downey, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    A testing platform is designed to study ion beam neutralization in the mesothermal, collisionless region. In the experimental setup, argon neutrals were ionized in a microwave cavity and accelerated by a plasma lens system which was biased to 2500 V above the system ground. Electrons were boiled off from two hot tungsten filaments to neutralize the ion beam. The plasma is diagnosed using Langmuir probe and Faraday probe. A 3-D traversing system and a complete data acquisition loop were developed to efficiently measure 3-D beam profile. Preliminary measurements of beam profiles are presented for different operating conditions.

  5. Study of beam optics and beam halo by integrated modeling of negative ion beams from plasma meniscus formation to beam acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Hatayama, A.; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.

    2013-01-14

    To understand the physical mechanism of the beam halo formation in negative ion beams, a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code for simulating the trajectories of negative ions created via surface production has been developed. The simulation code reproduces a beam halo observed in an actual negative ion beam. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the plasma meniscus (an electro-static lens in a source plasma) are over-focused in the extractor due to large curvature of the meniscus.

  6. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Babbush, C. A.; Vankampen, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Electron bombardment ion thrusters used as ion sources have demonstrated a unique capability to vary the surface morphology of surgical implant materials. The microscopically rough surface texture produced by ion beam sputtering of these materials may result in improvements in the biological response and/or performance of implanted devices. Control of surface roughness may result in improved attachment of the implant to soft tissue, hard tissue, bone cement, or components deposited from blood. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam texturing discussed include: vascular prostheses, artificial heart pump diaphragms, pacemaker fixation, percutaneous connectors, orthopedic pros-thesis fixtion, and dental implants.

  7. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Van Kampen, C. L.; Babbush, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electron bombardment ion thrusters used as ion sources have demonstrated a unique capability to vary the surface morphology of surgical implant materials. The microscopically rough surface texture produced by ion beam sputtering of these materials may result in improvements in the biological response and/or performance of implanted devices. Control of surface roughness may result in improved attachment of the implant to soft tissue, hard tissue, bone cement, or components deposited from blood. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam texturing discussed include: vascular prostheses, artificial heart pump diaphragms, pacemaker fixation, percutaneous connectors, orthopedic prosthesis fixation, and dental implants.

  8. Focused ion beam in dental research.

    PubMed

    Ngo, H; Cairney, J; Munroe, P; Vargas, M; Mount, G

    2000-11-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) has been available for over 10 yrs but until recently its usage has been confined to the semiconductor industry. It has been developed as an important tool in defect analysis, circuit modification and recently transmission electron microscope sample preparation. This paper introduces FIB and demonstrates its application in dental research. Its ion and electron imaging modes complement the SEM while its ability to prepare TEM samples from a wide range of material will allow the study of new types of adhesive interface. As an example, its use is described in the characterization of the interface of resin to a tribochemically treated surface of an experimental fiber-reinforced resin-based composite. As with all new techniques, the initial learning curve was difficult to manage. This new instrument offers opportunities to expand research in dental materials to areas not possible before. PMID:11763915

  9. Novel method for unambiguous ion identification in mixed ion beams extracted from an electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Meissl, W.; Simon, M. C.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Tawara, H.; Ullrich, J.; Winter, HP.; Aumayr, F.

    2006-09-15

    A novel technique to identify small fluxes of mixed highly charged ion beams extracted from an electron beam ion trap is presented and practically demonstrated. The method exploits projectile charge state dependent potential emission of electrons as induced by ion impact on a metal surface to separate ions with identical or very similar mass-to-charge ratio.

  10. ION BEAM ETCHING EFFECTS IN BIOLOGICAL MICROANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxygen ion beam sputter etching used in SIMS has been shown to produce morphologic effects which have similarities and differences in comparison to rf plasma etching of biological specimens. Sputter yield variations resulting from structural microheterogeneity are illustrated (e....

  11. Biomedical applications of ion-beam technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Gibbons, D. F.; Vankampen, C. L.; Babbush, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Microscopically-rough surface texture of various biocompatible alloys and polymers produced by ion-beam sputtering may result in improvements in response of hard or soft tissue to various surgical implants.

  12. Ion Beam Scattering by Background Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillet, Anne; Hughes, Thomas; Boerner, Jeremiah

    2015-11-01

    The presence of background gases can cause charged particle beams to become more diffuse due to scattering. Calculations for the transport of an ion beam have been performed using Aleph, a particle-in-cell plasma modeling code, and verified against a general envelop equation for charged particle beams. We have investigated the influence of background helium on the coherence and transmitted current of the ion beam. Collisions between ions and neutral particles were calculated assuming isotropic elastic scattering. Since this tends to predict larger scattering angles than are expected at high energies, these are conservative estimates for beam scattering. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

  13. Performance of positive ion based high power ion source of EAST neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Jiang, Caichao; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-02-01

    The positive ion based source with a hot cathode based arc chamber and a tetrode accelerator was employed for a neutral beam injector on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Four ion sources were developed and each ion source has produced 4 MW @ 80 keV hydrogen beam on the test bed. 100 s long pulse operation with modulated beam has also been tested on the test bed. The accelerator was upgraded from circular shaped to diamond shaped in the latest two ion sources. In the latest campaign of EAST experiment, four ion sources injected more than 4 MW deuterium beam with beam energy of 60 keV into EAST. PMID:26932029

  14. Experimental results of a dual-beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. H. Cui, B. Q.; Ma, R. G.; Ma, Y. J.; Tang, B.; Huang, Q. H.; Jiang, W. S.; Zheng, Y. N.

    2014-02-15

    A dual beam ion source for 200 keV ion implanter aimed to produce 200 keV H{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sup +} beams simultaneously has been developed. Not suitable to use the analyzing magnet, the purity of beam extracted from the source becomes important to the performance of implanter. The performance of ion source was measured. The results of experiments show that the materials of inlet tube of ion source, the time of arc ionization in ion source, and the amount of gas flow have significant influence on the purity of beam. The measures by using copper as inlet tube material, long time of arc ionization, and increasing the inlet of gas flow could effectively reduce the impurity of beam. And the method using the gas mass flow controller to adjust the proportion of H{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sup +} is feasible.

  15. Beam dynamics in heavy ion induction LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.

    1981-10-01

    Interest in the use of an induction linac to accelerate heavy ions for the purpose of providing the energy required to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated a theoretical effort to investigate various beam dynamical effects associated with high intensity heavy ion beams. This paper presents a summary of the work that has been done so far; transverse, longitudinal and coupled longitudinal transverse effects are discussed.

  16. Ion-beam nitriding of steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the ion beam technique to the nitriding of steels is described. It is indicated that the technique can be successfully applied to nitriding. Some of the structural changes obtained by this technique are similar to those obtained by ion nitriding. The main difference is the absence of the iron nitride diffraction lines. It is found that the dependence of the resultant microhardness on beam voltage for super nitralloy is different from that of 304 stainless steel.

  17. Ion-beam nitriding of steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.

    1984-01-01

    The application of the ion beam technique to the nitriding of steels is described. It is indicated that the technique can be successfully applied to nitriding. Some of the structural changes obtained by this technique are similar to those obtained by ion nitriding. The main difference is the absence of the iron nitride diffraction lines. It is found that the dependence of the resultant microhardness on beam voltage for super nitralloy is different from that of 304 stainless steel.

  18. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  19. A large-scale mutant panel in wheat developed using heavy-ion beam mutagenesis and its application to genetic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Koji; Nishiura, Aiko; Kazama, Yusuke; Abe, Tomoko

    2013-11-01

    Mutation analysis is a powerful tool for studying gene function. Heavy-ion beam mutagenesis is a comparatively new approach to inducing mutations in plants and is particularly efficient because of its high linear energy transfer (LET). High LET radiation induces a higher rate of DNA double-strand breaks than other mutagenic methods. Over the last 12 years, we have constructed a large-scale mutant panel in diploid einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) using heavy-ion beam mutagenesis. Einkorn wheat seeds were exposed to a heavy-ion beam and then sown in the field. Selfed seeds from each spike of M1 plants were used to generate M2 lines. Every year, we obtained approximately 1000 M2 lines and eventually developed a mutant panel with 10,000 M2 lines in total. This mutant panel is being systematically screened for mutations affecting reproductive growth, and especially for flowering-time mutants. To date, we have identified several flowering-time mutants of great interest: non-flowering mutants (mvp: maintained vegetative phase), late-flowering mutants, and early-flowering mutants. These novel mutations will be of value for investigations of the genetic mechanism of flowering in wheat.

  20. Superintense ion beam with high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Dudnikova, Galina

    2008-04-01

    The energy density of ion beam accumulated in a storage ring can be increased dramatically with using of space charge compensation as was demonstrated in experiments [1]. The intensity of said superintense beam can be far greater than a space charge limit without space charge compensation. The model of secondary plasma build up with secondary ion-electron emission as a source of delayed electrons has been presented and discussed. This model can be used for explanation of bunched beam instability with electron surviving after gap, for prediction of e-cloud generation in coasting and long bunches beam, and can be important for pressure rise in worm and cold sections of storage rings. A fast desorption by ion of physically adsorbed molecules can explain a ``first pulse Instability''. Application of this model for e-p instability selfstabilization and superintense circulating beam accumulation is considered. Importance of secondary plasma for high perveance ion beam stabilization in ion implantation will be considered. Preliminary results of simulation of electron and ion accumulation will be presented. [1]. Belchenko et al., Xth International Particle Accelerator Conference, Protvino, 1977, Vol. 2, p. 287.

  1. Development of W/C soft x-ray multilayer mirror by ion beam sputtering (IBS) system for below 50A wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, A.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-06-25

    A home-made Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) system has been developed in our laboratory. Using the IBS system single layer W and single layer C film has been deposited at 1000eV Ar ion energy and 10mA ion current. The W-film has been characterized by grazing Incidence X-ray reflectrometry (GIXR) technique and Atomic Force Microscope technique. The single layer C-film has been characterized by Spectroscopic Ellipsometric technique. At the same deposition condition 25-layer W/C multilayer film has been deposited which has been designed for using as mirror at 30 Degree-Sign grazing incidence angle around 50A wavelength. The multilayer sample has been characterized by measuring reflectivity of CuK{alpha} radiation and soft x-ray radiation around 50A wavelength.

  2. Electron-Cloud Effects on Heavy-Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, T; Friedman, A; Cohen, R; Vay, J

    2004-03-29

    Stray electrons can be introduced in positive-charge accelerators for heavy ion fusion (or other applications) as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary-electron emission. We are developing a capability for self-consistent simulation of ion beams with the electron clouds they produce. We report on an ingredient in this capability, the effect of specified electron cloud distributions on the dynamics of a coasting ion beam. We consider here electron distributions with axially varying density, centroid location, or radial shape, and examine both random and sinusoidally varying perturbations. We find that amplitude variations are most effective in spoiling ion beam quality, though for sinusoidal variations which match the natural ion beam centroid oscillation or breathing mode frequencies, the centroid and shape perturbations can also be effective. We identify a possible instability associated with resonance with the beam-envelope ''breathing'' mode. One conclusion from this study is that heavy-ion beams are surprisingly robust to electron clouds, compared to a priori expectations.

  3. Thermoacoustic imaging using heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Tesmer, J.R.; Deemer, B.C.; Murphy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Ion beams have been used for surface modification, semiconductor device fabrication and for material analysis, which makes ion-material interactions of significant importance. Ion implantation will produce new compositions near the surface by ion mixing or directly by implanting desired ions. Ions exchange their energy to the host material as they travel into the material by several different processes. High energy ions ionize the host atoms before atomic collisions transfer the remaining momentum and stop the incident ion. As they penetrate the surface, the low energy ions ionize the host atoms, but also have a significantly large momentum transfer mechanism near the surface of the material. This leads to atoms, groups of atoms and electrons being ejected from the surface, which is the momentum transfer process of sputtering. This talk addresses the acoustic waves generated during ion implantation using modulated heavy ion beams. The mechanisms for elastic wave generation during ion implantation, in the regimes where sputtering is significant and where implantation is dominant and sputtering is negligible, has been studied. The role of momentum transfer and thermal energy production during ion implantation was compared to laser generated elastic waves in an opaque solid as a reference, since laser generated ultrasound has been extensively studied and is fairly well understood. The thermoelastic response dominated in both high and low ion energy regimes since, apparently, more energy is lost to thermal heat producing mechanisms than momentum transfer processes. The signal magnitude was found to vary almost linearly with incident energy as in the laser thermoelastic regime. The time delays for longitudinal and shear waves-were characteristic of those expected for a purely thermal heating source. The ion beams are intrinsically less sensitive to the albedo of the surface.

  4. Graphene engineering by neon ion beams

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Iberi, Vighter; Ievlev, Anton V.; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Joy, David C.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-02-18

    Achieving the ultimate limits of materials and device performance necessitates the engineering of matter with atomic, molecular, and mesoscale fidelity. While common for organic and macromolecular chemistry, these capabilities are virtually absent for 2D materials. In contrast to the undesired effect of ion implantation from focused ion beam (FIB) lithography with gallium ions, and proximity effects in standard e-beam lithography techniques, the shorter mean free path and interaction volumes of helium and neon ions offer a new route for clean, resist free nanofabrication. Furthermore, with the advent of scanning helium ion microscopy, maskless He+ and Ne+ beam lithography of graphenemore » based nanoelectronics is coming to the forefront. Here, we will discuss the use of energetic Ne ions in engineering graphene devices and explore the mechanical, electromechanical and chemical properties of the ion-milled devices using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). By using SPM-based techniques such as band excitation (BE) force modulation microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of the exact same devices can be quantitatively extracted. Additionally, the effect of defects inherent in ion beam direct-write lithography, on the overall performance of the fabricated devices is elucidated.« less

  5. Beam current controller for laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to the design and use of an ion source with a rapid beam current controller for experimental and medicinal purposes. More particularly, the present invention relates to the design and use of a laser ion source with a magnetic field applied to confine a plasma flux caused by laser ablation.

  6. Mass spectrometer and methods of increasing dispersion between ion beams

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.; Delmore, James E.

    2006-01-10

    A mass spectrometer includes a magnetic sector configured to separate a plurality of ion beams, and an electrostatic sector configured to receive the plurality of ion beams from the magnetic sector and increase separation between the ion beams, the electrostatic sector being used as a dispersive element following magnetic separation of the plurality of ion beams. Other apparatus and methods are provided.

  7. Neutral beam development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Staten, H S

    1980-08-01

    The national plan is presented for developing advanced injection systems for use on upgrades of existing experiments, and use on future facilities such as ETF, to be built in the late 1980's or early 90's where power production from magnetic fusion will move closer to a reality. Not only must higher power and longer pulse length systems be developed , but they must operate reliably; they must be a tool for the experimenter, not the experiment itself. Neutral beam systems handle large amounts of energy and as such, they often are as complicated as the plasma physics experiment itself. This presents a significant challenge to the neutral beam developer.

  8. Materials processing with intense pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    We review research investigating the application of intense pulsed ion beams (IPIBs) for the surface treatment and coating of materials. The short range (0.1-10 {mu}m) and high-energy density (1-50 J/cm{sup 2}) of these short-pulsed ({le} 1 {mu}s) beams (with ion currents I = 5 - 50 kA, and energies E = 100 - 1000 keV) make them ideal to flash-heat a target surface, similar to the more familiar pulsed laser processes. IPIB surface treatment induces rapid melt and solidification at up to 10{sup 10} K/s to cause amorphous layer formation and the production of non-equilibrium microstructures. At higher energy density the target surface is vaporized, and the ablated vapor is condensed as coatings onto adjacent substrates or as nanophase powders. Progress towards the development of robust, high-repetition rate IPIB accelerators is presented along with economic estimates for the cost of ownership of this technology.

  9. Enabling Nanotechnology with Focused Ion Beams from Laser Cooled Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Orloff, J.; Maazouz, M.; McClelland, J. J.

    2011-05-01

    The Magneto-Optical Trap Ion Source (MOTIS) being developed at NIST has the potential to enable numerous advances in nanoscale science. In a MOTIS, atoms are captured into a MOT, photoionized, and accelerated to an energy of a few hundred eV to a few tens of kV. A beam formed in this way can be brought to a tight focus, competitive with the commercial focused ion beam machines deployed widely today. Additionally, the unique characteristics of this source, coupled with the user's choice of ion from the long and growing list of laser-coolable atomic species suggest that the MOTIS has the potential to advance the state of the art in applications such as imaging, nanofabrication, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and others. I will present high-resolution images from our lithium and chromium MOTIS-based focused ion beams and discuss applications which we will pursue with these new tools.

  10. Laser-cooled continuous ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    A collaboration with a group in Arhus, Denmark, using their storage ring ASTRID, brought about better understanding of ion beams cooled to very low temperatures. The longitudinal Schottky fluctuation noise signals from a cooled beam were studied. The fluctuation signals are distorted by the effects of space charge as was observed in earlier measurements at other facilities. However, the signal also exhibits previously unobserved coherent components. The ions` velocity distribution, measured by a laser fluorescence technique suggests that the coherence is due to suppression of Landau damping. The observed behavior has important implications for the eventual attainment of a crystalline ion beam in a storage ring. A significant issue is the transverse temperature of the beam -- where no direct diagnostics are available and where molecular dynamics simulations raise interesting questions about equilibrium.

  11. Microdosimetry in ion-beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrin, Giulio; Mayer, Ramona

    2015-05-01

    The information of the dose is not sufficiently describing the biological effects of ions on tissue since it does not express the radiation quality, i.e. the heterogeneity of the processes due to the slowing-down and the fragmentation of the particles when crossing a target. Depending on different circumstances, the radiation quality can be determined using measurements, calculations, or simulations. Microdosimeters are the primary tools used to provide the experimental information of the radiation quality and their role is becoming crucial for the recent clinical developments in particular with carbon ion therapy. Microdosimetry is strongly linked to the biological effectiveness of the radiation since it provides the physical parameters which explicitly distinguish the radiation for its capability of damaging cells. In the framework of ion-beam therapy microdosimetry can be used in the preparation of the treatment to complement radiobiological experiments and to analyze the modification of the radiation quality in phantoms. A more ambitious goal is to perform the measurements during the irradiation procedure to determine the non-targeted radiation and, more importantly, to monitor the modification of the radiation quality inside the patient. These procedures provide the feedback of the treatment directly beneficial for the single patient but also for the characterization of the biological effectiveness in general with advantages for all future treatment. Traditional and innovative tools are currently under study and an outlook of present experience and future development is presented here.

  12. Development of multilayer coatings (Ni/C-Pt/C) for hard x-ray telescopes by e-beam evaporation with ion assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, Daniele; Pareschi, Giovanni; Citterio, Oberto; Banham, Robert; Basso, Stefano; Cassanelli, Marco; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Negri, Barbara; Grisoni, Gabriele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Vernani, Dervis

    2004-10-01

    A number of X-ray astronomical missions of near future (XEUS, Constellation-X, SIMBOL-X, HEXIT-SAT, NEXT) will make use of hard X-ray (10-100 keV) optics with broad-band multilayer coatings. To this aim we are developing a multilayer deposition technique for large substrates based on the e-beam deposition technique, improved by the implementation of an ion beam assistance device, in order to reduce the interfacial roughness and improve the reflectivity. The e-beam deposition with ion assistance keeps the film smoothness at a good level and takes the advantage of a reduction of the interlayer stresses. This approach is well suited for the manufacturing of high-reflectance multilayer mirrors for hard X-rays space telescopes where, in addition to a high quality of the deposited films, a volume production is also requested. Moreover, we are also up-grading the replication technique by nickel electroforming, already successfully used for the gold coated soft X-ray mirrors of Beppo-SAX, XMM, JET-X/SWIFT missions, to the case of multilayer coated mirrors. In this paper we will present the technique under development and the implemented deposition facility. Some preliminary, very encouraging, results achieved with the X-ray (8.05 and 17.4 keV) and topographic characterization on flat samples will be discussed.

  13. Ion beams from laser-generated plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. H.; Anderson, R. J.; Gray, L. G.; Rosenfeld, J. P.; Manka, C. K.; Carruth, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the space-charge-limited beams produced by the plasma blowoffs generated by 20-MW bursts of 1.06-micron radiation from an active Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Laser power densities near 10 to the 11th/sq cm on solid targets generate thermalized plasma plumes which drift to a 15-kV gridded extraction gap where the ions are extracted, accelerated, and electrostatically focused; the spatially defined ion beams are then magnetically analyzed to determine the charge state content in the beams formed from carbon, aluminum, copper, and lead targets. This technique preserves time-of-flight (TOF) information in the plasma drift region, which permits plasma ion temperatures and mass flow velocities to be determined from the Maxwellian ion curve TOF shapes for the individual charge species.

  14. Ion beam driven warm dense matter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Ni, P. A.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P. K.; More, R.; Barnard, J. J.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A. W.; Yoneda, H.

    2007-11-01

    We report plans and experimental results in ion beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) experiments. Initial experiments at LBNL are at 0.3-1 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak), increasing toward the Bragg peak in future versions of the accelerator. The WDM conditions are envisioned to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. Initial experiments include an experiment to study transient darkening at LBNL; and a porous target experiment at GSI heated by intense heavy-ion beams from the SIS 18 storage ring. Further experiments will explore target temperature and other properties such as electrical conductivity to investigate phase transitions and the critical point.

  15. High current ion beam transport using solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, R.; Spaedtke, P.

    2008-02-15

    In the framework of the future project FAIR several upgrade programs and construction of new facilities are in progress such as the U{sup 4+} upgrade for the existing high current injector and the new 70 MeV proton injector. For both injectors solenoids in the low energy beam transport section are foreseen to inject the beam into the following rf accelerator. The paper presents beam quality measurements of high current ion beams behind a solenoid using a slit-grid emittance measurement device, viewing targets, and a pepper pot measurement device at the high current test bench at GSI.

  16. Beam Dynamics Design and Simulation in Ion Linear Accelerators (

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-08-01

    Orginally, the ray tracing code TRACK has been developed to fulfill the many special requirements for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Facility known as RIA. Since no available beam-dynamics code met all the necessary requirements, modifications to the code TRACK were introduced to allow end-to-end (from the ion souce to the production target) simulations of the RIA machine, TRACK is a general beam-dynamics code and can be applied for the design, commissioning and operation of modernmore » ion linear accelerators and beam transport systems.« less

  17. Beam Dynamics Design and Simulation in Ion Linear Accelerators (

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, Peter N.; Asseev, Vladislav N.; Mustapha, and Brahim

    2006-08-01

    Orginally, the ray tracing code TRACK has been developed to fulfill the many special requirements for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Facility known as RIA. Since no available beam-dynamics code met all the necessary requirements, modifications to the code TRACK were introduced to allow end-to-end (from the ion souce to the production target) simulations of the RIA machine, TRACK is a general beam-dynamics code and can be applied for the design, commissioning and operation of modern ion linear accelerators and beam transport systems.

  18. Ion beam applications research. A summary of Lewis Research Center Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the ion beam applications research (IBAR) program organized to enable the development of materials, products, and processes through the nonpropulsive application of ion thruster technology is given. Specific application efforts utilizing ion beam sputter etching, deposition, and texturing are discussed as well as ion source and component technology applications.

  19. Medical applications of ion beam processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioshansi, P.

    The use of ions beams for treatment of surfaces in medical prostheses has gained increasing interest in the past few years. The application of ion beams has taken different forms: (1) ion implantation has been used for increasing the hardness and wear resistance of the new generation titanium based alloys, as well as reducing the wear of the mating polyethylene component used in orthopedic total joint replacement. Spire Corporation has been successful in commercializing ion implantation technology and is processing several thousand artificial knees and hips per year. (Spire uses the tradename IONGUARD™ for this application.) (2) Similarly, ion implantation has proven to be very effective for increasing the corrosion resistance of the Co-Cr based alloys that have traditionally been used in orthopedic prostheses. This application should be of particular interest in resolving the issues surrounding ion release problems associated with these alloys. (3) Ion beam etching/milling has been used for producing a highly textured surface for tissue ingrowth in applications ranging from porous orthopedic implants and percutaneous devices to artificial skin and the process should have a significant impact in this application. (4) There are indications that ion implantation is a useful process for increasing biocompatibility and tissue attachment on metallic samples. This subject deserves considerable attention in the coming years.

  20. Development of large area polycrystalline diamond detectors for fast timing application of high-energy heavy-ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirru, F.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Scruton, L.; Bentley, M. A.; Fox, S. P.; Lohstroh, A.; Sellin, P. J.; Banu, A.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Simmons, E.; Alharbi, A. A.; Trache, L.; Freer, M.; Parker, D.

    2012-05-01

    We have studied the effects of electrode fabrication and detector capacitance on the time resolution of large area electronic grade polycrystalline chemical vapour deposited diamond sensors that are suitable for time of flight measurements of heavy ions at relativistic velocities. Sensors were prepared both in house, with Al or Au metal contacts, and commercially fabricated with Au/diamond-like carbon contacts. 3He, 40Ar and a mixture of 20Ne and 16O beams at 16.3, 33.5 and 21-23 MeV/u, respectively were used on these devices whilst arranged in transmission geometry. Signal processing only began over one meter away from the sensors. The present approach, where we have large-area/large capacitance multi-strip detectors with processing electronics at some distance from the target, is compatible with anticipated space limitations in particle-identification and tracking setups at existing and planned nuclear fragmentation facilities. In a systematic study under these conditions, we demonstrate that the time resolution is limited by detector capacitance and energy deposition in the sensors. An intrinsic time resolution σt = (44±5) ps was achieved for a diamond detector of ~ 14 pF capacitance. We conclude that, once further refinements are made, a large area time of flight detection system using polycrystalline diamond detectors would be able to provide time resolutions better than 40 ps, approaching the requirement for particle-identification in relativistic fragmentation experiments, such as those at the facility for antiproton and ion research, FAIR.

  1. Ion beam sputter etching and deposition of fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Sovey, J. S.; Miller, T. B.; Crandall, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    Fluoropolymer etching and deposition techniques including thermal evaporation, RF sputtering, plasma polymerization, and ion beam sputtering are reviewed. Etching and deposition mechanisms and material characteristics are discussed. Ion beam sputter etch rates for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were determined as a function of ion energy, current density and ion beam power density. Peel strengths were measured for epoxy bonds to various ion beam sputtered fluoropolymers. Coefficients of static and dynamic friction were measured for fluoropolymers deposited from ion bombarded PTFE.

  2. Ion beam sputter etching and deposition of fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Sovey, J. S.; Miller, T. B.; Crandall, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    Fluoropolymer etching and deposition techniques including thermal evaporation, RF sputtering, plasma polymerization, and ion beam sputtering are reviewed. Etching and deposition mechanism and material characteristics are discussed. Ion beam sputter etch rates for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were determined as a function of ion energy, current density and ion beam power density. Peel strengths were measured for epoxy bonds to various ion beam sputtered fluoropolymers. Coefficients of static and dynamic friction were measured for fluoropolymers deposited from ion bombarded PTFE.

  3. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; L. Grisham; I. Kaganovich; R. L. Watson; V. Horvat; K. E. Zaharakis; Y. Peng

    2002-06-25

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters.

  4. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse. PMID:22380206

  5. Model for the description of ion beam extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spaedtke, P.

    2010-02-15

    The finite difference method trajectory code KOBRA3-INP has been developed now for 25 years to perform the simulation of ion beam extraction in three dimensions. Meanwhile, the code has been validated for different applications: high current ion beam extraction from plasma sources for ion implantation technology, neutral gas heating in fusion devices, or ion thrusters for space propulsion. One major issue of the development of this code was to improve the flexibility of the applied model for the simulation of different types of particle sources. Fixed emitter sources might be simulated with that code as well as laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs), or H{sup -} sources, which require the simulation of negative ions, negative electrons, and positive charges simultaneously. The model which has been developed for ECRIS has now been used to explore the conditions for the ion beam extraction from a still nonexisting ion source, a so called ARC-ECRIS [P. Suominen and F. Wenander, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A305 (2008)]. It has to be shown whether the plasma generator has similar properties like regular ECRIS. However, the emittance of the extracted beam seems to be much better compared to an ECRIS equipped with a hexapole.

  6. Effects of prenatal irradiation with an accelerated heavy-ion beam on postnatal development in rats: II. Further study on neurophysiologic alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Organogenesis is a highly radiosensitive period, study of prenatal exposure to high LET heavy ion beams on postnatal development is important for clarifying the radiation risk in space and promoting the evidence-based mechanism research. The effects from heavy ion irradiations are not well studied as those for low LET radiations such as X-rays in this field, even the ground-based investigations remain to be addressed. Using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring was investigated following exposure of pregnant rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age for appearance of four physiologic markers and attainment of five neonatal reflexes, and gain in body weight were monitored. Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests including open field and hole-board dipping tests. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For most of the endpoints at early age, significant neurophysiological alteration was observed even in offspring receiving 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions but not X-rays. All offspring receiving 2.0 Gy of accelerated neon ions died prior to weaning. Offspring prenatally irradiated with neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death, increased preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in physiological markers and reflexes, significantly lower body weight and reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight, and altered behavior compared to those exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1 1.5 Gy. These findings indicate that irradiations with neon ions at 0.1 1.5 Gy on day 15 of gestation caused varied developmental alterations in offspring, and efficient dose leading to the detrimental effects seemed to be lower than that of X-rays.

  7. Charge breeding simulations for radioactive ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Variale, V.; Raino, A. C.; Clauser, T.

    2012-02-15

    The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied.

  8. Diffuse ions produced by electromagnetic ion beam instabilities. [in earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winske, D.; Leroy, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of the electromagnetic ion beam instability driven by the reflected ion component backstreaming away from the earth's bow shock into the foreshock region is studied by means of computer simulation. The linear and quasi-linear stages of the instability are found to be in good agreement with known results for the resonant mode propagating parallel to the beam along the magnetic field and with theory developed in this paper for the nonresonant mode, which propagates antiparallel to the beam direction. The quasi-linear stage, which produces large amplitude delta B approximately B, sinusoidal transverse waves and 'intermediate' ion distributions, is terminated by a nonlinear phase in which strongly nonlinear, compressive waves and 'diffuse' ion distributions are produced. Additional processes by which the diffuse ions are accelerated to observed high energies are not addressed. The results are discussed in terms of the ion distributions and hydromagnetic waves observed in the foreshock of the earth's bow shock and of interplanetary shocks.

  9. Fast ion beam chopping system for neutron generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.; Miller, T. G.; Van Staagen, P. K.

    2005-02-01

    Fast deuterium (D+) and tritium (T+) ion beam pulses are needed in some neutron-based imaging systems. A compact, integrated fast ion beam extraction and chopping system has been developed and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for these applications, and beam pulses with 15ns full width at half maximum have been achieved. Computer simulations together with experimental tests indicate that even faster pulses are achievable by shortening the chopper voltage rise time. This chopper arrangement will be implemented in a coaxial neutron generator, in which a small point-like neutron source is created by multiple 120keV D+ ion beams hitting a titanium target at the center of the source.

  10. Fast ion beam chopping system for neutron generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Leung, K.N.; Reijonen, J.; Miller, T.G.; Van Staagen, P.K.

    2005-02-01

    Fast deuterium (D{sup +}) and tritium (T{sup +}) ion beam pulses are needed in some neutron-based imaging systems. A compact, integrated fast ion beam extraction and chopping system has been developed and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for these applications, and beam pulses with 15 ns full width at half maximum have been achieved. Computer simulations together with experimental tests indicate that even faster pulses are achievable by shortening the chopper voltage rise time. This chopper arrangement will be implemented in a coaxial neutron generator, in which a small point-like neutron source is created by multiple 120 keV D{sup +} ion beams hitting a titanium target at the center of the source.

  11. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  12. Probe measurements in ion-beam plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dudin, S.V.

    1994-12-31

    The particularities of the electric probe measurements in the ion-beam plasma (IBP) have been investigated. To find the electron density n{sub e} and temperature T{sub c} as well as electron energy distribution it is necessary to separate electron current from full probe current, because ion part of this current is often large enough to mask the electron part. According to collisionless probe theory, radius of ion layer in strongly non-isothermal plasma (as in their case) and consequently the ion current are determined by Child`s law. However, at presence of ion beam with high enough energy {var_epsilon}{sub b} >> e{var_phi}{sub p}, this law is broken. The author has found the dependence of Langmuir probe ion current I{sub i} on probe potential {var_phi}{sub p} at presence of IB. The constant ion density approach was used in cylindrical and spherical geometry of the probe layer. Dependence of ion current founded experimentally accords with Child`s law when the probe is placed outside the beam and linear--within the beam. Application of only the chemical Langmuir probe is insufficient for energoanalysis of IBP electrons because of ion current interference. To solve this problem combination of the techniques of cylindrical probe, large plate probe (5 x 5mm) and two-grid energoanalyzer was used. Design and parameters of the two-grid analyzer are presented. Measuring system is described for determination of electron energy distribution function in low temperature plasma by double differentiation of the electric probe volt-ampere characteristic by modulation method.

  13. Scanning He+ Ion Beam Microscopy and Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, David C.

    2011-11-10

    The CD-SEM has been the tool of choice for the imaging and metrology of semiconductor devices for the past three decades but now, with critical dimensions at the nanometer scale, electron beam instruments can no longer deliver adequate performance. A scanning microscope using a He+ ion beam offers superior resolution and depth of field, and provides enhanced imaging contrast. Device metrology performed using ion beam imaging produces data which is comparable to or better than that from a conventional CD-SEM although there are significant differences in the experimental conditions required and in the details of image formation. The charging generated by a He+ beam, and the sample damage that it can cause, require care in operation but are not major problems.

  14. Beam structure and transverse emittance studies of high-energy ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatmand, K.; Johnson, K. F.; Schneider, J. D.

    1991-05-01

    A visual diagnostic technique was developed to monitor and study ion beam structure shape and size along a transport line. In this technique, a commercially available fluorescent screen is utilized in conjunction with a video camera. This visual representation of the beam structure is digitized and enhanced through use of false color coding and displayed on a TV monitor for on-line viewing. Digitized information is stored for further off-line processing (e.g., extraction of beam profiles). An optional wire grid placed upstream of the fluor screen adds the capability of transverse emittance (or angular spread) measurement to this technique. This diagnostic allows real time observation of the beam response to parameter changes (e.g., evolution of the beam structure, shifts in the beam intensity at various spatial locations within the beam perimeter, and shifts in the beam center and position).

  15. Plasma focus ion beam-scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saw, S. H.

    2014-08-01

    Measurements on plasma focus ion beams include various advanced techniques producing a variety of data which has yet to produce benchmark numbers. Recent numerical experiments using an extended version of the Lee Code has produced reference numbers and scaling trends for number and energy fluence of deuteron beams as functions of stored energy E0. At the pinch exit the ion number fluence (ions m-2) and energy fluence (J m-2) computed as 2.4-7.8×1020 and 2.2-33×106 respectively were found to be independent of E0 from 0.4 - 486 kJ. This work was extended to the ion beams for various gases. The results show that, for a given plasma focus, the fluence, flux, ion number and ion current decrease from the lightest to the heaviest gas except for trend-breaking higher values for Ar fluence and flux. The energy fluence, energy flux, power flow and damage factors are relatively constant from H2 to N2 but increase for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe due to radiative cooling and collapse effects. This paper reviews this work and in a concluding section attempts to put the accumulating large amounts of data into the form of a scaling law of beam energy Ebeam versus storage energy E0 taking the form for deuteron as: {Ebeam} = 18.2{E}01.23; where Ebeam is in J and E0 is in kJ. It is hoped that the establishment of such scaling laws places on a firm footing the reference quantitative ideas for plasma focus ion beams.

  16. Temperature measurements during high flux ion beam irradiations.

    PubMed

    Crespillo, M L; Graham, J T; Zhang, Y; Weber, W J

    2016-02-01

    A systematic study of the ion beam heating effect was performed in a temperature range of -170 to 900 °C using a 10 MeV Au(3+) ion beam and a Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) sample at a flux of 5.5 × 10(12) cm(-2) s(-1). Different geometric configurations of beam, sample, thermocouple positioning, and sample holder were compared to understand the heat/charge transport mechanisms responsible for the observed temperature increase. The beam heating exhibited a strong dependence on the background (initial) sample temperature with the largest temperature increases occurring at cryogenic temperatures and decreasing with increasing temperature. Comparison with numerical calculations suggests that the observed heating effect is, in reality, a predominantly electronic effect and the true temperature rise is small. A simple model was developed to explain this electronic effect in terms of an electrostatic potential that forms during ion irradiation. Such an artificial beam heating effect is potentially problematic in thermostated ion irradiation and ion beam analysis apparatus, as the operation of temperature feedback systems can be significantly distorted by this effect. PMID:26931879

  17. Understanding the ion beam in EUV mask blank production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Patrick; Jindal, Vibhu; Weaver, Alfred; Teora, Pat; Sporre, John; Ruzic, David; Goodwin, Frank

    2012-03-01

    One of the major technical hurdles to be overcome before EUV lithography can enter high volume manufacturing is the amount of defects in EUV mask blanks, many of which occur during the EUV reflector deposition process. The technology currently used to deposit this reflector is ion beam sputter deposition. Understanding the properties of the ion beam and the nature of the plasma in the deposition chamber is therefore critical to understanding defect production mechanisms and subsequently eliminating them. In this work, we have studied how the source parameters influence ion beam divergence, its footprint on the target, and the amount of beam that misses the target and hits the shielding. By optimizing the source parameters, we can modulate certain target- and shield-specific defect types. We have compared our data with models of source performance and found general agreement, enabling the theory to be fine-tuned based on the results of the measurements. Models are being developed to better describe actual source performance. We have also investigated the plasma conditions the ion beam creates in the tool, which is crucial to understanding the transport of defects from their source to the mask. A well characterized ion beam and plasma will lead to process and tool changes that will ultimately reduce defect levels in EUV mask blanks.

  18. Temperature measurements during high flux ion beam irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespillo, M. L.; Graham, J. T.; Zhang, Y.; Weber, W. J.

    2016-02-01

    A systematic study of the ion beam heating effect was performed in a temperature range of -170 to 900 °C using a 10 MeV Au3+ ion beam and a Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) sample at a flux of 5.5 × 1012 cm-2 s-1. Different geometric configurations of beam, sample, thermocouple positioning, and sample holder were compared to understand the heat/charge transport mechanisms responsible for the observed temperature increase. The beam heating exhibited a strong dependence on the background (initial) sample temperature with the largest temperature increases occurring at cryogenic temperatures and decreasing with increasing temperature. Comparison with numerical calculations suggests that the observed heating effect is, in reality, a predominantly electronic effect and the true temperature rise is small. A simple model was developed to explain this electronic effect in terms of an electrostatic potential that forms during ion irradiation. Such an artificial beam heating effect is potentially problematic in thermostated ion irradiation and ion beam analysis apparatus, as the operation of temperature feedback systems can be significantly distorted by this effect.

  19. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

  20. ALLIGATOR - An apparatus for ion beam assisted deposition with a broad-beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wituschek, H.; Barth, M.; Ensinger, W.; Frech, G.; Rück, D. M.; Leible, K. D.; Wolf, G. K.

    1992-04-01

    Ion beam assisted deposition is a versatile technique for preparing thin films and coatings for various applications. Up to now a prototype setup for research purposes has been used in our laboratory. Processing of industrial standard workpieces requires a high current ion source with broad beam and high uniformity for homogeneous bombardment. In this contribution a new apparatus for large area samples will be described. It is named ALLIGATOR (German acronym of facility for ion assisted evaporation on transverse movable or rotary targets). In order to have a wide energy range available two ion sources are used. One delivers a beam energy up to 1.3 keV. The other is suitable for energies from 5 keV up to 40 keV. The ``high-energy'' ion source is a multicusp multiaperture source with 180-mA total current and a beam diameter of 280 mm at the target position.

  1. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, O.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    Full particle PIC simulations are performed to study the neutralization of an ion beam in the cohesionless, mesothermal regime. Simulations further confirmed that neutralization is achieved through interactions between the trapped electrons and the potential well established by the propagation of the beam front along the beam direction and is not through plasma instabilities as previous studies suggested. In the transverse direction, the process is similar to that of the expansion of mesothermal plasma into vacuum. Parametric simulations are also performed to investigate the effects of beam radius and domain boundary condition on the neutralization process. The results suggests that, while the qualitative behavior may be similar in ground tests, quantitative parameters such as the beam potential will be affected significantly by the vacuum chamber because of the limits imposed on the expansion process by the finite chamber space.

  2. Beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.

    1995-04-01

    A standard design for heavy ion fusion drivers under study in the US is an induction linac with electrostatic focusing at low energy and magnetic focusing at higher energy. The need to focus the intense beam to a few-millimeter size spot at the deuterium-tritium target establishes the emittance budget for the accelerator. Economic and technological considerations favor a larger number of beams in the low-energy, electrostatic-focusing section than in the high-energy, magnetic-focusing section. Combining four beams into a single focusing channel is a viable option, depending on the growth in emittance due to the combining process. Several significant beam dynamics issues that are, or have been, under active study are discussed: large space charge and image forces, beam wall clearances, halos, alignment, longitudinal instability, and bunch length control.

  3. Using neutral beams as a light ion beam probe (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Fisher, R. K.; Kramer, G. J.; Nazikian, R.; Austin, M. E.; Hanson, J. M.; Zeng, L.

    2014-11-15

    By arranging the particle first banana orbits to pass near a distant detector, the light ion beam probe (LIBP) utilizes orbital deflection to probe internal fields and field fluctuations. The LIBP technique takes advantage of (1) the in situ, known source of fast ions created by beam-injected neutral particles that naturally ionize near the plasma edge and (2) various commonly available diagnostics as its detector. These born trapped particles can traverse the plasma core on their inner banana leg before returning to the plasma edge. Orbital displacements (the forces on fast ions) caused by internal instabilities or edge perturbing fields appear as modulated signal at an edge detector. Adjustments in the q-profile and plasma shape that determine the first orbit, as well as the relative position of the source and detector, enable studies under a wide variety of plasma conditions. This diagnostic technique can be used to probe the impact on fast ions of various instabilities, e.g., Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and neoclassical tearing modes, and of externally imposed 3D fields, e.g., magnetic perturbations. To date, displacements by AEs and by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields have been measured using a fast ion loss detector. Comparisons with simulations are shown. In addition, nonlinear interactions between fast ions and independent AE waves are revealed by this technique.

  4. Negative hydrogen ion source for TOKAMAK neutral beam injector (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Y.; Fujiwara, Y.; Kashiwagi, M.; Kitagawa, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Morishita, T.; Hanada, M.; Takayanagi, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2000-02-01

    Intense negative ion source producing multimegawatt hydrogen/deuterium negative ion beams has been developed for the neutral beam injector (NBI) in TOKAMAK thermonuclear fusion machines. Negative ions are produced in a cesium seeded multi-cusp plasma generator via volume and surface processes, and accelerated with a multistage electrostatic accelerator. The negative ion source for JT-60U has produced 18.5 A/360 keV (6.7 MW) H- and 14.3 A/380 keV (5.4 MW) D- ion beams at average current densities of 11 mA/cm2 (H-) and 8.5 mA/cm2 (D-). A high energy negative ion source has been developed for the next generation TOKAMAK such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The source has demonstrated to accelerate negative ions up to 1 MeV, the energy required for ITER. Higher negative ion current density of more than 20 mA/cm2 was obtained in the ITER concept sources. It was confirmed that the consumption rate of cesium is small enough to operate the source for a half year in ITER-NBI without maintenance.

  5. Modeling of nanocluster formation by ion beam implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kun-Dar

    2011-08-15

    A theoretical model was developed to investigate the mechanism of the formation of nanoclusters via ion beam implantation. The evolution of nanoclusters, including the nucleation and growth process known as Ostwald ripening, was rebuilt using numerical simulations. The effects of implantation parameters such as the ion energy, ion fluence, and temperature on the morphology of implanted microstructures were also studied through integration with the Monte Carlo Transport of Ions in Matter code calculation for the distribution profiles of implanted ions. With an appropriate ion fluence, a labyrinth-like nanostructure with broad size distributions of nanoclusters formed along the ion implantation range. In a latter stage, a buried layer of implanted impurity developed. With decreasing ion energy, the model predicted the formation of precipitates on the surface. These simulation results were fully consistent with many experimental observations. With increased temperature, the characteristic length and size of nanostructures would increase due to the high mobility. This theoretical model provides an efficient numerical approach for fully understanding the mechanism of the formation of nanoclusters, allowing for the design of ion beam experiments to form specific nanostructures through ion-implantation technology.

  6. The Heidelberg CSR: Stored Ion Beams in a Cryogenic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Hahn, R. von; Grieser, M.; Orlov, D. A.; Fadil, H.; Welsch, C. P.; Andrianarijaona, V.; Diehl, A.; Schroeter, C. D.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Weber, T.; Mallinger, V.; Schwalm, D.; Ullrich, J.; Rappaport, M.; Urbain, X.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Quack, H.; Zajfman, D.

    2006-03-20

    A cryogenic electrostatic ion storage ring CSR is under development at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. Cooling of the ultrahigh vacuum chamber is envisaged to lead to extremely low pressures as demonstrated by cryogenic ion traps. The ring will apply electron cooling with electron beams of a few eV up to 200 eV. Through long storage times of 1000 s as well as through the low wall temperature, internal cooling of infrared-active molecular ions to their rotational ground state will be possible and their collisions with merged collinear beams of electrons and neutral atoms can be detected with high energy resolution. In addition storage of slow highly charged ions is foreseen. Using a fixed in-ring gas target and a reaction microscope, collisions of the stored ions at a speed of the order of the atomic unit can be kinematically reconstructed. The layout and the cryogenic concept are introduced.

  7. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  8. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  9. Physics with fast molecular-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kanter, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Fast (MeV) molecular-ion beams provide a unique source of energetic projectile nuclei which are correlated in space and time. The recognition of this property has prompted several recent investigations of various aspects of the interactions of these ions with matter. High-resolution measurements on the fragments resulting from these interactions have already yielded a wealth of new information on such diverse topics as plasma oscillations in solids and stereochemical structures of molecular ions as well as a variety of atomic collision phenomena. The general features of several such experiments will be discussed and recent results will be presented.

  10. Graphene engineering by neon ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iberi, Vighter; Ievlev, Anton V.; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Joy, David C.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-03-01

    Achieving the ultimate limits of lithographic resolution and material performance necessitates engineering of matter with atomic, molecular, and mesoscale fidelity. With the advent of scanning helium ion microscopy, maskless He+ and Ne+ beam lithography of 2D materials, such as graphene-based nanoelectronics, is coming to the forefront as a tool for fabrication and surface manipulation. However, the effects of using a Ne focused-ion-beam on the fidelity of structures created out of 2D materials have yet to be explored. Here, we will discuss the use of energetic Ne ions in engineering graphene nanostructures and explore their mechanical, electromechanical and chemical properties using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). By using SPM-based techniques such as band excitation (BE) force modulation microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we are able to ascertain changes in the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of Ne+ beam milled graphene nanostructures and surrounding regions. Additionally, we are able to link localized defects around the milled graphene to ion milling parameters such as dwell time and number of beam passes in order to characterize the induced changes in mechanical and electromechanical properties of the graphene surface.

  11. Focused ion beam micromilling and articles therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce C.; Stutz, Roger A.

    1998-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromilling apparatus and process are isclosed. Additionally, a durable data storage medium using the micromilling process is disclosed, the durable data storage medium capable of storing, e.g., digital or alphanumeric characters as well as graphical shapes or characters.

  12. Graphene engineering by neon ion beams.

    PubMed

    Iberi, Vighter; Ievlev, Anton V; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Joy, David C; Rondinone, Adam J; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2016-03-29

    Achieving the ultimate limits of lithographic resolution and material performance necessitates engineering of matter with atomic, molecular, and mesoscale fidelity. With the advent of scanning helium ion microscopy, maskless He(+) and Ne(+) beam lithography of 2D materials, such as graphene-based nanoelectronics, is coming to the forefront as a tool for fabrication and surface manipulation. However, the effects of using a Ne focused-ion-beam on the fidelity of structures created out of 2D materials have yet to be explored. Here, we will discuss the use of energetic Ne ions in engineering graphene nanostructures and explore their mechanical, electromechanical and chemical properties using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). By using SPM-based techniques such as band excitation (BE) force modulation microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we are able to ascertain changes in the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of Ne(+) beam milled graphene nanostructures and surrounding regions. Additionally, we are able to link localized defects around the milled graphene to ion milling parameters such as dwell time and number of beam passes in order to characterize the induced changes in mechanical and electromechanical properties of the graphene surface. PMID:26890062

  13. Metal assisted focused-ion beam nanopatterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannegulla, Akash; Cheng, Li-Jing

    2016-09-01

    Focused-ion beam milling is a versatile technique for maskless nanofabrication. However, the nonuniform ion beam profile and material redeposition tend to disfigure the surface morphology near the milling areas and degrade the fidelity of nanoscale pattern transfer, limiting the applicability of the technique. The ion-beam induced damage can deteriorate the performance of photonic devices and hinders the precision of template fabrication for nanoimprint lithography. To solve the issue, we present a metal assisted focused-ion beam (MAFIB) process in which a removable sacrificial aluminum layer is utilized to protect the working material. The new technique ensures smooth surfaces and fine milling edges; in addition, it permits direct formation of v-shaped grooves with tunable angles on dielectric substrates or metal films, silver for instance, which are rarely achieved by using traditional nanolithography followed by anisotropic etching processes. MAFIB was successfully demonstrated to directly create nanopatterns on different types of substrates with high fidelity and reproducibility. The technique provides the capability and flexibility necessary to fabricate nanophotonic devices and nanoimprint templates.

  14. Metal assisted focused-ion beam nanopatterning.

    PubMed

    Kannegulla, Akash; Cheng, Li-Jing

    2016-09-01

    Focused-ion beam milling is a versatile technique for maskless nanofabrication. However, the nonuniform ion beam profile and material redeposition tend to disfigure the surface morphology near the milling areas and degrade the fidelity of nanoscale pattern transfer, limiting the applicability of the technique. The ion-beam induced damage can deteriorate the performance of photonic devices and hinders the precision of template fabrication for nanoimprint lithography. To solve the issue, we present a metal assisted focused-ion beam (MAFIB) process in which a removable sacrificial aluminum layer is utilized to protect the working material. The new technique ensures smooth surfaces and fine milling edges; in addition, it permits direct formation of v-shaped grooves with tunable angles on dielectric substrates or metal films, silver for instance, which are rarely achieved by using traditional nanolithography followed by anisotropic etching processes. MAFIB was successfully demonstrated to directly create nanopatterns on different types of substrates with high fidelity and reproducibility. The technique provides the capability and flexibility necessary to fabricate nanophotonic devices and nanoimprint templates. PMID:27479713

  15. Focused ion beam micromilling and articles therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, B.C.; Stutz, R.A.

    1998-06-30

    An ultrahigh vacuum focused ion beam micromilling apparatus and process are disclosed. Additionally, a durable data storage medium using the micromilling process is disclosed, the durable data storage medium capable of storing, e.g., digital or alphanumeric characters as well as graphical shapes or characters. 6 figs.

  16. Subcutoff microwave driven plasma ion sources for multielemental focused ion beam systems.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Jose V; Chowdhury, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2008-06-01

    A compact microwave driven plasma ion source for focused ion beam applications has been developed. Several gas species have been experimented including argon, krypton, and hydrogen. The plasma, confined by a minimum B multicusp magnetic field, has good radial and axial uniformity. The octupole multicusp configuration shows a superior performance in terms of plasma density (~1.3 x 10(11) cm(-3)) and electron temperature (7-15 eV) at a power density of 5-10 Wcm(2). Ion current densities ranging from a few hundreds to over 1000 mA/cm(2) have been obtained with different plasma electrode apertures. The ion source will be combined with electrostatic Einzel lenses and should be capable of producing multielemental focused ion beams for nanostructuring and implantations. The initial simulation results for the focused beams have been presented. PMID:18601405

  17. Storage rings for radioactive ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolden, F.; Dimopoulou, C.; Dolinskii, A.; Steck, M.

    2008-10-01

    Storage rings for radioactive heavy ions can be applied for a wide range of experiments in atomic and nuclear physics. The rare isotope beams are produced in flight via fragmentation or fission of high-intensity primary ions and they circulate in the storage ring at moderately relativistic energies (typically between 0.1 GeV/u up to 1 GeV/u). Due to their production mechanism they are usually highly charged or even fully stripped. The circulating radioactive heavy ion beams can be used to measure nuclear properties such as masses and decay times, which, in turn, can depend strongly on the ionic charge state. The storage rings must have large acceptances and dynamic apertures. The subsequent application of stochastic precooling of the secondary ions which are injected with large transverse and longitudinal emittances, and electron cooling to reach very high phase space densities has turned out to be a helpful tool for experiments with short-lived ions having lifetimes down to a few seconds. Some of these experiments have already been performed at the experimental storage ring ESR at GSI. The storage ring complex of the FAIR project is intended to enhance significantly the range of experimental possibilities. It is planned to extend the scope of experimental possibilities to collisions with electron or antiproton beams.

  18. Ion beam analysis of diffusion in heterogeneous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, A. S.; Jenneson, P. M.

    1998-04-01

    Ion-beam analysis has been applied to a variety of problems involving diffusion in heterogeneous materials. An energy loss technique has been used to study both the diffusion of water and the surface segregation of fluoropolymers in polymeric matrices. A scanning micro-beam technique has been developed to allow water concentrations in hydrophilic polymers and cements to be measured together with associated solute elements. It has also been applied to the diffusion of shampoo into hair.

  19. Ion beam analysis based on cellular nonlinear networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senger, V.; Tetzlaff, R.; Reichau, H.; Ratzinger, U.

    2011-07-01

    The development of a non- destructive measurement method for ion beam parameters has been treated in various projects. Although results are promising, the high complexity of beam dynamics has made it impossible to implement a real time process control up to now. In this paper we will propose analysing methods based on the dynamics of Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) that can be implemented on pixel parallel CNN based architectures and yield satisfying results even at low resolutions.

  20. Laser-cooled bunched ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    In collaboration with the Arhus group, the laser cooling of a beam bunched by an rf electrode was investigated at the ASTRID storage ring. A single laser is used for unidirectional cooling, since the longitudinal velocity of the beam will undergo {open_quotes}synchrotron oscillations{close_quotes} and the ions are trapped in velocity space. As the cooling proceeds the velocity spread of the beam, as well as the bunch length is measured. The bunch length decreases to the point where it is limited only by the Coulomb repulsion between ions. The measured length is slightly (20-30%) smaller than the calculated limit for a cold beam. This may be the accuracy of the measurement, or may indicate that the beam still has a large transverse temperature so that the longitudinal repulsion is less than would be expected from an absolutely cold beam. Simulations suggest that the coupling between transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom is strong -- but this issue will have to be resolved by further measurements.

  1. MULTIPLE ELECTRON BEAM ION PUMP AND SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, R.E.

    1962-02-27

    A vacuum pump is designed which operates by ionizing incoming air and by withdrawing the ions from the system by means of electrical fields. The apparatus comprises a cylindrical housing communicable with the vessel to be evacuated and having a thin wall section in one end. Suitable coils provide a longitudinal magnetic field within the cylinder. A broad cathode and an anode structure is provided to establish a plurality of adjacent electron beams which are parallel to the cylinder axis. Electron reflector means are provided so that each of the beams constitutes a PIG or reflex discharge. Such structure provides a large region in which incoming gas molecules may be ionized by electron bombardment. A charged electrode assembly accelerates the ions through the thin window, thereby removing the gas from the system. The invention may also be utilized as a highly efficient ion source. (AEC)

  2. Spectroscopy of ions using fast beams and ion traps

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnington, E H; Trabert, E

    2004-10-01

    A knowledge of the spectra of ionized atoms is of importance in many fields. They can be studied in a wide variety of light sources. In recent years techniques coming under the broad heatings of fast beams and ion traps have been used extensively for such investigations. This article considers the advantages that various techniques have for particular applications.

  3. Temperature measurements during high flux ion beam irradiations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crespillo, Miguel L.; Graham, Joseph T.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2016-02-16

    A systematic study of the ion beam heating effect was performed in a temperature range of –170 to 900 °C using a 10 MeV Au3+ ion beam and a Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) sample at a flux of 5.5 × 1012 cm–2 s–1. Different geometric configurations of beam, sample, thermocouple positioning, and sample holder were compared to understand the heat/charge transport mechanisms responsible for the observed temperature increase. The beam heating exhibited a strong dependence on the background (initial) sample temperature with the largest temperature increases occurring at cryogenic temperatures and decreasing with increasing temperature. Comparison with numerical calculations suggestsmore » that the observed heating effect is, in reality, a predominantly electronic effect and the true temperature rise is small. Furthermore, a simple model was developed to explain this electronic effect in terms of an electrostatic potential that forms during ion irradiation. Such an artificial beam heating effect is potentially problematic in thermostated ion irradiation and ion beamanalysis apparatus, as the operation of temperature feedback systems can be significantly distorted by this effect.« less

  4. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Murata, H; Kitami, H; Mitsubori, H; Sakuraba, J; Soga, T; Aoki, Y; Katoh, T

    2016-02-01

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P(+) beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P(+) beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH3 gas. PMID:26932118

  5. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Murata, H.; Kitami, H.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Soga, T.; Aoki, Y.; Katoh, T.

    2016-02-01

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P+ beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P+ beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH3 gas.

  6. Energy gain and spectral tailoring of ion beams using ultra-high intensity laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Swantusch, Marco; Cerchez, Mirela; Spickermann, Sven; Auorand, Bastian; Wowra, Thomas; Boeker, Juergen; Willi, Oswald

    2015-11-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration over the past decade has produced a huge amount of research. Nowadays, several multi-beam facilities with high rep rate system, e.g. ELI, are being developed across the world for different kinds of experiments. The study of interaction dynamics of multiple beams possessing ultra-high intensity and ultra-short pulse duration is of vital importance. Here, we present the first experimental results on ion acceleration using two ultra-high intensity beams. Thanks to the unique capability of Arcturus laser at HHU Düsseldorf, two almost identical, independent beams in laser parameters such as intensity (>1020 W/cm2), pulse duration (30 fs) and contrast (>1010), could be accessed. Both beams are focused onto a 5 μm thin Ti target. While ensuring spatial overlap of the two beams, at relative temporal delay of ~ 50 ps (optimum delay), the proton and carbon ion energies were enhanced by factor of 1.5. Moreover, strong modulation in C4+ions near the high energy cut-off is observed later than the optimum delay for the proton enhancement. This offers controlled tailoring of the spectral content of heavy ions.

  7. Discrimination of ionic species from broad-beam ion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a broad-beam, three-grid, ion extraction system incorporating radio frequency (RF) mass discrimination was investigated experimentally. This testing demonstrated that the system, based on a modified single-stage Bennett mass spectrometer, can discriminate between ionic species having about a 2-to-1 mass ratio while producing a broad-beam of ions with low kinetic energy (less than 15 eV). Testing was conducted using either argon and krypton ions or atomic and diatomic oxygen ions. A simple one-dimensional model, which ignores magnetic field and space-charge effects, was developed to predict the species separation capabilities as well as the kinetic energies of the extracted ions. The experimental results correlated well with the model predictions. This RF mass discrimination system can be used in applications where both atomic and diatomic ions are produced, but a beam of only one of the species is desired. An example of such an application is a 5 eV atomic oxygen source. This source would produce a beam of atomic oxygen with 5 eV kinetic energy, which would be directed onto a material specimen, to simulate the interaction between the surface of a satellite and the rarefied atmosphere encountered in low-Earth orbit.

  8. Ion acceleration mechanism in electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, A.F.

    1982-07-01

    Analysis of experimental data reveals that several processes observed in diodes and during the transport of intense electron beams in a neutral gas result from polarization of a plasma in an electric field. Under certain conditions this effect gives rise to a high-field region at the boundary of a plasma column. The electron beam is strongly focused in this region. As a result, a two-dimensional potential well forms at the crossover point of a strongly focused beam. The electric field at this well can reach several megavolts per centimeter. The crossover point moves as a result of expansion of the plasma cloud. The ions trapped in the potential well are accelerated. There is effective acceleration over a distance of the order of a few times the beam radius. A new physical model gives a satisfactory explanation of the experimental results.

  9. Small radio frequency driven multicusp ion source for positive hydrogen ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.T.; Herz, P.R.; Leung, K.N.; Pickard, D.S. )

    1994-04-01

    A compact, 2.5 cm diam rf-driven multicusp ion source has been developed and tested for H[sup +] ion production in pulse mode operation. The source is optimized for atomic hydrogen ion species and extractable current. It is found that hydrogen ion beam current densities in excess of 650 mA/cm[sup 2] can be achieved with H[sup +] species above 80%. The geometry and position of the porcelain-coated copper antenna were found to be of great significance in relation to the efficiency of the ion source.

  10. Ion-beam sputtering increases solar-cell efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, D. E.; Dubow, J. B.; Sites, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Ion-beam sputtering, fabrication of oxide-semiconductor-on-silicon (OSOS) solar cells, results in cells of 12% efficiency. Ion-beam sputtering technique is compatible with low-cost continuous fabrication and requires no high-temperature processing.

  11. Multiple beam induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Barnard, John J.; Faltens, Andris; Friedman, Alex; Waldron, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Induction accelerators are appealing for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy (HIF) because of their high efficiency and their demonstrated capability to accelerate high beam current (≥10 kA in some applications). For the HIF application, accomplishments and challenges are summarized. HIF research and development has demonstrated the production of single ion beams with the required emittance, current, and energy suitable for injection into an induction linear accelerator. Driver scale beams have been transported in quadrupole channels of the order of 10% of the number of quadrupoles of a driver. We review the design and operation of induction accelerators and the relevant aspects of their use as drivers for HIF. We describe intermediate research steps that would provide the basis for a heavy-ion research facility capable of heating matter to fusion relevant temperatures and densities, and also to test and demonstrate an accelerator architecture that scales well to a fusion power plant.

  12. The uses of electron beam ion traps in the study of highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, D.

    1994-11-02

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is a relatively new tool for the study of highly charged ions. Its development has led to a variety of new experimental opportunities; measurements have been performed with EBITs using techniques impossible with conventional ion sources or storage rings. In this paper, I will highlight the various experimental techniques we have developed and the results we have obtained using the EBIT and higher-energy Super-EBIT built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The EBIT employs a high-current-density electron beam to trap, ionize, and excite a population of ions. The ions can be studied in situ or extracted from the trap for external experiments. The trapped ions form an ionization-state equilibrium determined by the relative ionization and recombination rates. Ions of several different elements may simultaneously be present in the trap. The ions are nearly at rest, and, for most systems, all in their ground-state configurations. The electron-ion interaction energy has a narrow distribution and can be varied over a wide range. We have used the EBIT devices for the measurement of electron-ion interactions, ion structure, ion-surface interactions, and the behavior of low-density plasmas.

  13. White Paper on Ion Beam Transport for ICF: Issues, R&D Need,and Tri-Lab Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.; Lee, E.; Langdon, B.

    2005-05-04

    To date, most resources for ion beam fusion have been devoted to development of accelerators and target physics; relatively few resources have gone into ion beam transport development. Because of theoretical studies and substantial experience with electron beam transport, the ion beam transport community is now poised to develop and optimize ion beam transport for ICF. Because of this Tri-Lab effort, a path for coordinated development of ion beam transport has been established. The rate of progress along this path will now be determined largely by the availability of resources.

  14. Test bed ion engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.; Deininger, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    A test bed ion (TBI) engine was developed to serve as a tool in exploring the limits of electrostatic ion thruster performance. A description of three key ion engine components, the decoupled extraction and amplified current (DE-AC) accelerator system, field enhanced refractory metal (FERM) hollow cathode and divergent line cusp (DLC) discharge chamber, whose designs and operating philosophies differ markedly from conventional thruster technology is given. Significant program achievements were: (1) high current density DE-AC accelerator system operation at low electric field stress with indicated feasibility of a 60 mA/sq cm argon ion beam; (2) reliable FERM cathode start up times of 1 to 2 secs. and demonstrated 35 ampere emission levels; (3) DLC discharge chamber plasma potentials negative of anode potential; and (4) identification of an efficient high plasma density engine operating mode. Using the performance projections of this program and reasonable estimates of other parameter values, a 1.0 Newton thrust ion engine is identified as a realizable technology goal. Calculations show that such an engine, comparable in beam area to a J series 30 cm thruster, could, operating on Xe or Hg, have thruster efficiencies as high as 0.76 and 0.78 respectively, with a 100 eV/ion discharge loss.

  15. Silicon ion irradiation effects on the magnetic properties of ion beam synthesized CoPt phase

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, S.; Amirthapandian, S.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Mangamma, G.; Kalavathi, S.; Gupta, Ajay; Nair, K. G. M.

    2012-06-05

    Ion beam mixing of Pt/Co bilayers using self ion (Pt{sup +}) beam results in formation of CoPt phase. Upon ion beam annealing the ion mixed samples using 4 MeV Si{sup +} ions at 300 deg. C, diffusion of Co towards the Pt/Co interface is observed. The Si{sup +} ion beam rotates the magnetization of the CoPt phase from in plane to out of plane of the film.

  16. Inertial confinement fusion with light ion beams.

    PubMed

    Vandevender, J P; Cook, D L

    1986-05-16

    The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) is presently under construction and is the only existing facility with the potential of igniting thermonuclear fuel in the laboratory. The accelerator will generate up to 5 megamperes of lithium ions at 30 million electron volts and will focus them onto an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target after beam production and focusing have been optimized. Since its inception, the light ion approach to ICF has been considered the one that combines low cost, high risk, and high payoff. The beams are of such high density that their self-generated electric and magnetic fields were thought to prohibit high focal intensities. Recent advances in beam production and focusing demonstrate that these self-forces can be controlled to the degree required for ignition, break-even, and high gain experiments. ICF has been pursued primarily for its potential military applications. However, the high efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the light ion approach enhance its potential for commercial energy application as well. PMID:17755963

  17. Ion beam figuring system in NUDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Xie, Xuhui; Dai, Yifan; Jiao, Changjun; Li, Shengyi

    2007-12-01

    Ion beam figuring (IBF) is an optical fabrication technique that provides highly deterministic process to correct surface figure error of previously polished surfaces by using a directed, inert and neutralized ion beam to physically sputter material from the optic surface. Recently, an ion beam figuring system KDIFS-500 has been designed and built in National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) of the P.R. China. KDIFS-500 is capable of processing workpiece up to Φ500mm. Line scanning process was discussed in detail for estimating the parameters of the beam removal function (BRF) in process. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate that the BRF increases gradually in process and by employing a stability control, the BRF can be kept stable in process. Finally, a Φ95 mm plano optical sample of CVD coated SiC substrate has been figured in two process iterations for demonstrating the correction capability of the KDIFS-500. Their figure convergence ratios reached 5.8 and 2.1 respectively. The actual figure residual errors were basically consistent with the predicted error. These consistencies indicated that the IBF processes on KDIFS-500 are predictable deterministic processes.

  18. High sensitivity charge amplifier for ion beam uniformity monitor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W.

    2001-01-01

    An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

  19. Ion energy distribution near a plasma meniscus with beam extraction for multi element focused ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Jose V.; Paul, Samit; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2010-05-15

    An earlier study of the axial ion energy distribution in the extraction region (plasma meniscus) of a compact microwave plasma ion source showed that the axial ion energy spread near the meniscus is small ({approx}5 eV) and comparable to that of a liquid metal ion source, making it a promising candidate for focused ion beam (FIB) applications [J. V. Mathew and S. Bhattacharjee, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 96101 (2009)]. In the present work we have investigated the radial ion energy distribution (IED) under the influence of beam extraction. Initially a single Einzel lens system has been used for beam extraction with potentials up to -6 kV for obtaining parallel beams. In situ measurements of IED with extraction voltages upto -5 kV indicates that beam extraction has a weak influence on the energy spread ({+-}0.5 eV) which is of significance from the point of view of FIB applications. It is found that by reducing the geometrical acceptance angle at the ion energy analyzer probe, close to unidirectional distribution can be obtained with a spread that is smaller by at least 1 eV.

  20. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; ET AL.

    2005-02-28

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linac. The highly successful development of an EBIS at BNL now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based pre-injectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The new RFQ and Linac that are used to accelerate beams from the EBIS to an energy sufficient for injection into the Booster are both very similar to existing devices already in operation at other facilities. Injection into the Booster will occur at the same location as the existing injection from the Tandem.

  1. Ion beam sputter deposited diamond like films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Rutledge, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    A single argon ion beam source was used to sputter deposit carbon films on fused silica, copper, and tantalum substrates under conditions of sputter deposition alone and sputter deposition combined with simultaneous argon ion bombardment. Simultaneously deposited and ion bombarded carbon films were prepared under conditions of carbon atom removal to arrival ratios of 0, 0.036, and 0.71. Deposition and etch rates were measured for films on fused silica substrates. Resulting characteristics of the deposited films are: electrical resistivity of densities of 2.1 gm/cu cm for sputter deposited films and 2.2 gm/cu cm for simultaneously sputter deposited and Ar ion bombarded films. For films approximately 1700 A thick deposited by either process and at 5550 A wavelength light the reflectance was 0.2, the absorptance was 0.7, the absorption coefficient was 67,000 cm to the -1 and the transmittance was 0.1.

  2. Physics design of linear accelerators for intense ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Advances in the physics and technology of linear accelerators for intense ion beams are leading to new methods for the design of such machines. The physical effects that limit beam current and brightness are better understood and provide the criteria for choosing the rf frequency and for determining optimum focusing configurations to control longitudinal and transverse emittances. During the past decade, the use of developments such as the radio-frequency quadrupole, multiple beams, funneling, ramped-field linac tanks, and self-matching linac tanks is leading to greater design flexibility and improved performance capabilities. 39 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  3. Ion-beam cleaning for cold welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, B. L.

    1980-01-01

    1000 eV beam bombarding metal surfaces to be joined removes oxides and contaminants at rate of several atomic layers per second for current density of 1 mA/squ. cm. Clean surfaces can then be joined by squeezing them together. With ion-beam cleaning, mating force for strong bond is low enough to cause only 1% deformation. Conventional cold-welding requires about 70% deformation for bonding. Technique was tested successfully on aluminum to aluminum welds, copper to copper, copper to aluminum, copper to nickel, and silver to iron. Base metals failed before welds in tear test.

  4. High-intensity positive beams extracted from a compact double-chamber ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Huck, H.; Somacal, H.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Igarzabal, M.; Di Paolo, H.; Reinoso, M.

    2005-06-15

    This work presents the design and development of a simple ion source, the associated ion extraction optics, and the beam transport of a low-energy and high-current proton accelerator. In its actual version, the ion source can deliver positive proton currents up to 100 mA. This rather high beam current is achieved by adding a small ionization chamber between the discharge chamber containing the filament and the extraction electrode of the ion source. Different parameters of the ion source and the injection beam line are evaluated by means of computer simulations to optimize the beam production and transmission.

  5. Masking Technique for Ion-Beam Sputter Etching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Rutledge, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Improved process for fabrication of integrated circuits developed. Technique utilizes simultaneous ion-beam sputter etching and carbon sputter deposition in conjunction with carbon sputter mask or organic mask decomposed to produce carbon-rich sputter-mask surface. Sputter etching process replenishes sputter mask with carbon to prevent premature mask loss.

  6. Spin Observables in Reactions with Radioactive Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Urrego Blanco, Juan Pablo

    2007-01-01

    Polarization observables in nuclear reactions with exotic nuclei will provide important information concerning structural properties of nuclei and reaction mechanisms. We are currently engaged in exploring the use of polarization observables with radioactive ion beams and in the development of a polarized cryogenic target.

  7. Funnel cone for focusing intense ion beams on a target

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Ni, P.

    2009-10-05

    We describe a funnel cone for concentrating an ion beam on a target. The cone utilizes the reflection characteristic of ion beams on solid walls to focus the incident beam andincrease beam intensity on target. The cone has been modeled with the TRIM code. A prototype has been tested and installed for use in the 350-keV K+ NDCX target chamber.

  8. Liquid metal alloy ion sources—An alternative for focussed ion beam technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Lothar; Mazarov, Paul; Bruchhaus, Lars; Gierak, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Today, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) processing is nearly exclusively based on gallium Liquid Metal Ion Sources (LMIS). But, many applications in the μm- or nm range could benefit from ion species other than gallium: local ion implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam synthesis, or Focused Ion Beam Lithography (IBL). Therefore, Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources (LMAIS) represent a promising alternative to expand the remarkable application fields for FIB. Especially, the IBL process shows potential advantages over, e.g., electron beam or other lithography techniques: direct, resistless, and three-dimensional patterning, enabling a simultaneous in-situ process control by cross-sectioning and inspection. Taking additionally into account that the used ion species influences significantly the physical and chemical nature of the resulting nanostructures—in particular, the electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanic properties leading to a large potential application area which can be tuned by choosing a well suited LMAIS. Nearly half of the elements of the periodic table are recently available in the FIB technology as a result of continuous research in this area during the last forty years. Key features of a LMAIS are long life-time, high brightness, and stable ion current. Recent developments could make these sources feasible for nano patterning issues as an alternative technology more in research than in industry. The authors will review existing LMAIS, LMIS other than Ga, and binary and ternary alloys. These physical properties as well as the fabrication technology and prospective domains for modern FIB applications will similarly be reviewed. Other emerging ion sources will be also presented and their performances discussed.

  9. LASER BEAM PROFILE MONITOR DEVELOPMENT AT BNL FOR SNS.

    SciTech Connect

    CONNOLLY,R.; CAMERON,P.; CUPOLO,J.; GASSNER,D.; GRAU,M.; KESSELMAN,M.; PENG,S.; SIKORA,R.

    2002-05-06

    A beam profile monitor for H-beams based on laser photoneutralization is being developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for use on the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l]. An H ion has a first ionization potential of 0.75eV and can be neutralized by light from a Nd:YAG laser (h=1064nm). To measure beam profiles, a narrow laser beam is passed through the ion beam neutralizing a portion of the H-beam struck by the laser. The laser trajectory is stepped across the ion beam. At each laser position, the reduction of the beam current caused by the laser is measured. A proof-of-principle experiment was done earlier at 750keV. This paper reports on measurements made on 200MeV beam at BNL and with a compact scanner prototype at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab on beam from the SNS RFQ.

  10. Spectrometer for cluster ion beam induced luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuto, H. Sakata, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Takaoka, G. H.; Musumeci, F.

    2015-02-15

    A spectrometer to detect the ultra-weak luminescence originated by the collision of cluster ions on the surfaces of solid materials was constructed. This spectrometer consists of 11 photomultipliers with band-pass interference filters that can detect the luminescence within the wavelength ranging from 300 to 700 nm and of a photomultiplier without filter. The calibration of the detection system was performed using the photons emitted from a strontium aluminate fluorescent tape and from a high temperature tungsten filament. Preliminary measurements show the ability of this spectrometer to detect the cluster ion beam induced luminescence.

  11. Heavy ion beam transport in an inertial confinement fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Barboza, N.

    1995-08-01

    A new code, bimc, is under development to determine if a beam of heavy ions can be focused to the necessary spot-size radius of about 2 mm within an inertial confinement reactor chamber where the background gas densities are on the order of 10{sup 14}--10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3} Lithium (or equivalent). Beam transport is expected to be strongly affected by stripping and collective plasma phenomena; however, if propagation is possible in this regime, it could lead to simplified reactor designs. The beam is modeled using a 2 1/2 D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code coupled with a Monte Carlo (MC) method for analyzing collisions. The MC code follows collisions between the beam ions and neutral background gas atoms that account for the generation of electrons and background gas ions (ionization), and an increase of the charge state of the beam ions (stripping). The PIC code models the complete dynamics of the interaction of the various charged particle species with the self generated electromagnetic fields. Details of the code model and preliminary results are presented.

  12. Upgrade of the electron beam ion trap in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, D.; Yang, Y.; Xiao, J.; Shen, Y.; Fu, Y.; Wei, B.; Yao, K.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Over the last few years the Shanghai electron beam ion trap (EBIT) has been successfully redesigned and rebuilt. The original machine, developed under collaboration with the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, first produced an electron beam in 2005. It could be tuned with electron energies between 1 and 130 keV and beam current up to 160 mA. After several years of operation, it was found that several modifications for improvements were necessary to reach the goals of better electron optics, higher photon detection, and ion injection efficiencies, and more economical running costs. The upgraded Shanghai-EBIT is made almost entirely from Ti instead of stainless steel and achieves a vacuum of less than 10-10 Torr, which helps to minimize the loss of highly changed ions through charge exchange. Meanwhile, a more compact structure and efficient cryogenic system, and excellent optical alignment have been of satisfactory. The magnetic field in the central trap region can reach up till 4.8 T with a uniformity of 2.77 × 10-4. So far the upgraded Shanghai-EBIT has been operated up to an electron energy of 151 keV and a beam current of up to 218 mA, although promotion to even higher energy is still in progress. Radiation from ions as highly charged as Xe53+, 54+ has been produced and the characterization of current density is estimated from the measured electron beam width.

  13. Plasma neutralization models for intense ion beam transport in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; O'Rourke, Sean; Lee, Edward P.

    2003-05-01

    Plasma neutralization of an intense ion pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, cosmic ray propagation, etc. An analytical electron fluid model has been developed based on the assumption of long charge bunches (l{sub b} >> r{sub b}). Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of calculations utilizing a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The cold electron fluid results agree well with the PIC simulations for ion beam propagation through a background plasma. The analytical predictions for the degree of ion beam charge and current neutralization also agree well with the results of the numerical simulations. The model predicts very good charge neutralization (>99%) during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration {tau}{sub b} is much longer than the electron plasma period 2{pi}/{omega}{sub p}, where {omega}{sub p} = (4{pi}e{sup 2}n{sub p}/m){sup 1/2} is the electron plasma frequency, and n{sub p} is the background plasma density. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. The analytical formulas derived in this paper can provide an important benchmark for numerical codes, and provide scaling relations for different beam and plasma parameters.

  14. Upgrade of the electron beam ion trap in Shanghai

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, D.; Yang, Y.; Xiao, J.; Shen, Y.; Fu, Y.; Wei, B.; Yao, K.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.

    2014-09-15

    Over the last few years the Shanghai electron beam ion trap (EBIT) has been successfully redesigned and rebuilt. The original machine, developed under collaboration with the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, first produced an electron beam in 2005. It could be tuned with electron energies between 1 and 130 keV and beam current up to 160 mA. After several years of operation, it was found that several modifications for improvements were necessary to reach the goals of better electron optics, higher photon detection, and ion injection efficiencies, and more economical running costs. The upgraded Shanghai-EBIT is made almost entirely from Ti instead of stainless steel and achieves a vacuum of less than 10{sup −10} Torr, which helps to minimize the loss of highly changed ions through charge exchange. Meanwhile, a more compact structure and efficient cryogenic system, and excellent optical alignment have been of satisfactory. The magnetic field in the central trap region can reach up till 4.8 T with a uniformity of 2.77 × 10{sup −4}. So far the upgraded Shanghai-EBIT has been operated up to an electron energy of 151 keV and a beam current of up to 218 mA, although promotion to even higher energy is still in progress. Radiation from ions as highly charged as Xe{sup 53+,} {sup 54+} has been produced and the characterization of current density is estimated from the measured electron beam width.

  15. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; GRANDINETTI, R.; HSEUH, H.; JAVIDFAR, A.; KPONOU, A.; LAMBIASE, R.; LESSARD, E.; LOCKEY, R.; LODESTRO, V.; MAPES, M.; MIRABELLA, D.; NEHRING, T.; OERTER, B.; PENDZICK, A.; PIKIN, A.; RAPARIA, D.; RITTER, J.; ROSER, T.; RUSSO, T.; SNYDSTRUP, L.; WILINSKI, M.; ZALTSMAN, A.; ZHANG, S.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linear accelerator (Linac). The highly successful development of an EBIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based preinjectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The proposed pre-injector system would also provide for a major enhancement in capability for the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), which utilizes heavy-ion beams from the RHIC complex. EBIS would allow for the acceleration of all important ion species for the NASA radiobiology program, such as, helium, argon, and neon which are unavailable with the present Tandem injector. In addition, the new system would allow for very rapid switching of ion species for

  16. Effects of Beam Filling Pattern on Beam Ion Instability and Beam Loading In PEP-X

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2009-06-02

    A proposed high-brightness synchrotron light source (PEP-X) is under design at SLAC. The 4.5-GeV PEP-X storage ring has four theoretical minimum emittance (TME) cells to achieve the very low emittance and two double-bend achromat (DBA) cells to provide spaces for IDs. Damping wigglers will be installed in zero-dispersion straights to reduce the emittance below 0.1 nm. Ion induced beam instability is one critical issue due to its ultra small emittance. Third harmonic cavity can be used to lengthen the bunch in order to improve the beam's life time. Bunch-train filling pattern is proposed to mitigate both the fast ion instability and beam loading effect. This paper investigates the fast ion instability and beam loading for different beam filling patterns.

  17. Biophysical models in ion beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Michael; Elsässer, Thilo

    One major rationale for the application of heavy ion beams in tumor therapy is their increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the Bragg peak region. For dose prescription, the increased effectiveness has to be taken into account in treatment planning. Hence, the complex dependencies of RBE on the dose level, biological endpoint, position in the field etc. require biophysical models, which have to fulfill two important criteria: simplicity and quantitative precision. Simplicity means that the number of free parameters should be kept at a minimum. Due to the lack of precise quantitative data, at least at present, this requirement is incompatible with approaches aiming at the molecular modeling of the whole chain of production, processing and repair of biological damages. Quantitative precision is required since steep gradients in the dose response curves are observed for most tumor and normal tissues; thus, even small uncertainties in the estimation of the biologically effective dose can transform into large uncertainties in the clinical outcome. The paper will give a general introduction into the field, followed by a description of a specific model, the so called 'Local Effect Model' (LEM). This model has been successfully applied within treatment planning in the GSI pilot project for carbon ion tumor therapy over almost 10 years now. The model is based on the knowledge of charged particle track structure in combination with the response of the cells or tissues under consideration to conventional photon radiation. The model is compared to other approaches developed for the calculation of the biological effects of high-LET radiation. Furthermore, recent improvements of the model are described. Due to the quantitative precision, besides applications in tumor therapy the LEM seems to be adequate for the calculation of stochastic radiation effects, i.e. in the framework of radiation protection. Examples for the calculation of cell transformation are

  18. Dispensing targets for ion beam particle generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A target for dispensing high energy protons or neutrons or ionized atoms or ionized molecules is provided which comprises a container for the target gas, which is at atmospheric or higher pressure. The container material can release the target gas in the spot where the container is heated above a predetermined temperature by the impact of an ion beam where protons or neutrons are desired, or by electrons where ionized atoms or molecules are desired. On the outside of the container, except for the region where the beam is to impact, there is deposited a layer of a metal which is imperious to gaseous diffusion. A further protective coating of a material is placed over the layer of metal, except at the region of the ion impact area in order to adsorb any unreacted gas in the vacuum in which the target is placed, to thereby prevent reduction of the high vacuum, as well as contamination of the interior of the vacuum chamber.

  19. Ion-beam-assisted etching of diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efremow, N. N.; Geis, M. W.; Flanders, D. C.; Lincoln, G. A.; Economou, N. P.

    1985-01-01

    The high thermal conductivity, low RF loss, and inertness of diamond make it useful in traveling wave tubes operating in excess of 500 GHz. Such use requires the controlled etching of type IIA diamond to produce grating like structures tens of micrometers deep. Previous work on reactive ion etching with O2 gave etching rates on the order of 20 nm/min and poor etch selectivity between the masking material (Ni or Cr) and the diamond. An alternative approach which uses a Xe(+) beam and a reactive gas flux of NO2 in an ion-beam-assisted etching system is reported. An etching rate of 200 nm/min was obtained with an etching rate ratio of 20 between the diamond and an aluminum mask.

  20. Electron-beam multicharge ion source IMI-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul'manov, V. G.; Dement'ev, E. N.; Miginskaya, E. G.; Mironenko, L. A.; Pirogov, O. V.; Tomilov, V. P.; Tsukanov, V. M.

    2000-08-01

    The main parameters of the electron beam multicharge ion source IMI-2 are given. Experimental results are also given. The IMI-2 electron-beam system (EBS) includes a short-focus electron gyn with a spherical cathode of diameter 16 mm and curvature radius of 9.5 mm. The perveance of the gun is 1,6 (mu) A/V3/2. The electron beam current can reach 2.5 A. An electrostatic and magnetic beam compression of ~103 allows one to obtain a density of the electron beam of not less than ~103 A/cm2 on a 30 cm length. A specific method of dosed injection of the atoms of solid-state elements to an ion trap by means of local pulse deflection of the electron beam was used in the facility 1. The electron-beam ion source (EBIS) IMI-2, Fig. 1, has a vertical design with an electron gun in the top section. The electron gun is mounted in a vacuum chamber of diameter 160 mm and length 500 mm. The vacuum chamber having a drift structure is inside the classical water-cooled solenoid with a completely closed magnetic circuit. An electron collector, an ion line, and a magnetic analyzer are located in the lower section of the facility. Like IMI-1 7-9, IMI-2 2-6 was also designed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics for production of multicharge beams of gaseous and solid elements. In the EBS parameters, IMI-2 is intermediate between first-generation EBIS and those that can be used at acceleration complexes developed at the present time.

  1. Enhancing Secondary Ion Yields in Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Using Water Cluster Primary Beams

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Low secondary ion yields from organic and biological molecules are the principal limitation on the future exploitation of time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) as a surface and materials analysis technique. On the basis of the hypothesis that increasing the density of water related fragments in the ion impact zone would enhance proton mediated reactions, a prototype water cluster ion beam has been developed using supersonic jet expansion methodologies that enable ion yields using a 10 keV (H2O)1000+ beam to be compared with those obtained using a 10 keV Ar1000+ beam. The ion yields from four standard compounds, arginine, haloperidol, DPPC, and angiotensin II, have been measured under static+ and high ion dose conditions. Ion yield enhancements relative to the argon beam on the order of 10 or more have been observed for all the compounds such that the molecular ion yield per a 1 μm pixel can be as high as 20, relative to 0.05 under an argon beam. The water beam has also been shown to partially lift the matrix effect in a 1:10 mixture of haloperidol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) that suppresses the haloperidol signal. These results provide encouragement that further developments of the water cluster beam to higher energies and larger cluster sizes will provide the ion yield enhancements necessary for the future development of TOF-SIMS. PMID:23718847

  2. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Kim, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH's integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  3. The status of the Electron Beam Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.

    1990-12-31

    More than twenty years after its invention, 13 examples of the Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) are in operation worldwide. The substantial progress in operation and insight, achieved over the last few years, made the EBISes become reliable tools for the production of beams of very highly charged, low-energy ions. For example, 8 EBISes produce bare argon on a standard basis. The successful production of hydrogen-like xenon presents the ions with the highest ionization energy, whereas the production of Th80+ presents the highest achieved charge state. Several synchrotrons are fed by EBIS injectors, taking advantage of the EBIS batch mode production, which yields the highest charge states. A few EBISes are used for ion source development. However, most of the EBISes` efforts are directed to research the physics of highly charged ions. Some of those are used to study the electron--ion interaction inside the source. But normally, most EBISes deliver the ions for external experiments, which so far concentrate on the recombination of the highly charged ions with atoms, molecules and surfaces. The ions are typically produced at a potential of 1 to a few kilovolts per charge; but in most cases, the EBIS is mounted on a high voltage platform or is followed by an RFQ, and therefore can generate ion energies from a few hundred volts up to a few hundred kilovolts per charge. The delivered beams have a low emittance and a low energy spread, which is an advantage for high-resolution experiments. This paper presents briefly all operational EBISes, their capabilities, their achievements, and their contribution to physics research. 5 figs., 1 tab., 59 refs.

  4. The status of the Electron Beam Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    More than twenty years after its invention, 13 examples of the Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) are in operation worldwide. The substantial progress in operation and insight, achieved over the last few years, made the EBISes become reliable tools for the production of beams of very highly charged, low-energy ions. For example, 8 EBISes produce bare argon on a standard basis. The successful production of hydrogen-like xenon presents the ions with the highest ionization energy, whereas the production of Th80+ presents the highest achieved charge state. Several synchrotrons are fed by EBIS injectors, taking advantage of the EBIS batch mode production, which yields the highest charge states. A few EBISes are used for ion source development. However, most of the EBISes' efforts are directed to research the physics of highly charged ions. Some of those are used to study the electron--ion interaction inside the source. But normally, most EBISes deliver the ions for external experiments, which so far concentrate on the recombination of the highly charged ions with atoms, molecules and surfaces. The ions are typically produced at a potential of 1 to a few kilovolts per charge; but in most cases, the EBIS is mounted on a high voltage platform or is followed by an RFQ, and therefore can generate ion energies from a few hundred volts up to a few hundred kilovolts per charge. The delivered beams have a low emittance and a low energy spread, which is an advantage for high-resolution experiments. This paper presents briefly all operational EBISes, their capabilities, their achievements, and their contribution to physics research. 5 figs., 1 tab., 59 refs.

  5. Nanodosimetric characterization of ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bug, Marion Ute; Hilgers, Gerhard; Baek, Woon Yong; Rabus, Hans

    2014-08-01

    The characterization of particle track structure is essential for an estimation of radiobiological effects, particularly in the case of densely ionizing radiation. The particle track structure can be characterized by nanodosimetric quantities which are measurable by means of a nanodosimeter. Results obtained from experiments with the nanodosimeter can be used to validate track structure simulations, which are essential for estimating track structure parameters in biological material. For this purpose, the dedicated Monte Carlo code PTra has been developed to simulate the nanodosimeter setup as well as nanometric targets consisting of water. Recently, electron-impact cross section data of DNA constituents measured at PTB were implemented into PTra. A calculation of nanodosimetric quantities in DNA-analog media shows considerable differences to results obtained in water medium, particularly for electron energies lower than 200 eV. These discrepancies become more considerable when nanodosimetric quantities are used to estimate biological effects. This paper aims to provide an overview of the present status of nanodosimetry, focusing on the experimental and simulation work at PTB. Furthermore, the suitability of simple models directly linking nanodosimetric track structure characteristics and radiobiological effectiveness is discussed.

  6. A high-performance electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi,J.; Beebe, E.; Bellavia, S.; Gould, O.; Kponou, A.; Lambiase, R.; Lockey, R.; McCafferty, D.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A. I.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Syndstrup, L.

    2009-06-08

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, a high current Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has been developed as part of a new preinjector that is under construction to replace the Tandem Van de Graaffs as the heavy ion preinjector for the RHIC and NASA experimental programs. This preinjector will produce milliampere-level currents of essentially any ion species, with q/A {ge} 1/6, in short pulses, for injection into the Booster synchrotron. In order to produce the required intensities, this EBIS uses a 10A electron gun, and an electron collector designed to handle 300 kW of pulsed electron beam power. The EBIS trap region is 1.5 m long, inside a 5T, 2m long, 8-inch bore superconducting solenoid. The source is designed to switch ion species on a pulse-to-pulse basis, at a 5 Hz repetition rate. Singly-charged ions of the appropriate species, produced external to the EBIS, are injected into the trap and confined until the desired charge state is reached via stepwise ionization by the electron beam. Ions are then extracted and matched into an RFQ, followed by a short IH Linac, for acceleration to 2 MeV/A, prior to injection into the Booster synchrotron. An overview of the preinjector is presented, along with experimental results from the prototype EBIS, where all essential requirements have already been demonstrated. Design features and status of construction of the final high intensity EBIS is also be presented.

  7. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A. L.; Peng, S. X.; Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H+ beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H- beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H- ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  8. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A L; Peng, S X; Ren, H T; Zhang, T; Zhang, J F; Xu, Y; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H(+) beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H(-) beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H(-) ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results. PMID:26932087

  9. Radioactive Ion Beam Production Capabilities At The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beene, J. R.; Dowling, D. T.; Gross, C. J.; Juras, R. C.; Liu, Y.; Meigs, M. J.; Mendez, A. J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Sinclair, J. W.; Stracener, D. W.; Tatum, B. A.

    2011-06-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a national user facility for research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) that has been in routine operation since 1996. It is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and operated by the ORNL Physics Division. The principal mission of the HRIBF is the production of high quality beams of shortlived radioactive isotopes to support research in nuclear structure physics and nuclear astrophysics. HRIBF is currently unique worldwide in its ability to provide neutron-rich fission fragment beams post-accelerated to energies above the Coulomb barrier for nuclear reactions. HRIBF produces RIBs by the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique using a particle accelerator system that consists of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) driver accelerator, one of the two Injectors for Radioactive Ion Species (IRIS1 or IRIS2) production systems, and the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator that is used for RIB post-acceleration. ORIC provides a light ion beam (proton, deuteron, or alpha) which is directed onto a thick target mounted in a target-ion source (TIS) assembly located on IRIS1 or IRIS2. Radioactive atoms that diffuse from the target material are ionized, accelerated, mass selected, and transported to the tandem accelerator where they are further accelerated to energies suitable for nuclear physics research. RIBs are transported through a beam line system to various experimental end stations including the Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) for nuclear structure research, and the Daresbury Recoil Separator (DRS) for nuclear astrophysics research. HRIBF also includes two off-line ion source test facilities, one low-power on-line ISOL test facility (OLTF), and one high-power on-line ISOL test facility (HPTL). This paper provides an overview and status update of HRIBF, describes the recently completed 4.7M IRIS2 addition and incorporation of laser systems for beam production and purification, and discusses a

  10. Radio frequency multicusp ion source development (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-03-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. It has been demonstrated that the source can meet the H{sup {minus}} beam current and emittance requirements for this application. By employing a porcelain-coated antenna, a clean plasma discharge with very long-life operation can be achieved. Today, the rf source is used to generate both positive and negative hydrogen ion beams and has been tested in various particle accelerator laboratories throughout the world. Applications of this ion source have been extended to other fields such as ion beam lithography, oil-well logging, ion implantation, accelerator mass spectrometry and medical therapy machines. This paper summarizes the latest rf ion source technology and development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. An On-line Monitor for Fluence Distributions and Imaging of Scanning Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautard, C.; Balanzat, E.; Ban, G.; Batin, E.; Carniol, B.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Etasse, D.; Fontbonne, J. M.; Labalme, M.; Laborie, P.

    2007-11-01

    Clinical applications of hadron beams have generated a wide development of radiobiology experiments, especially at GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds), an ion accelerator in Caen. Biological samples are irradiated with ions in order to observe the induced biological effects. As these observations have to be related to the fluence distribution, an on-line beam monitor has been developed in order to measure and image fluence maps of each biological sample irradiation with a 1% uncertainty. This beam monitor has been tested with different types of ions at several energies and for intensities from 104 to 109 ions per second.

  12. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  13. Transport of intense beams of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, M.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Spadtke, P.; Tinschert, K.

    2005-10-01

    The new generation of ion sources delivers beams with intensities of several mA. This requires a careful design of the analysing system and the low-energy beam transport (LEBT) from the source to the subsequent systems. At INFN-LNS, high intensity proton sources (TRIPS [L. Celona, G. Ciavola, S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1423 (2004)], PM-TRIPS [G. Ciavola, L. Celona, S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1453 (2004)]) as well as ECR ion sources for the production of highly charged high-intensity heavy ion beams are developed (SERSE [S. Gammino, G. Ciavola, L. Celona et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(11) 4090 (2001), and references therein], GyroSERSE [S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1637 (2004)], MS-ECRIS [G. Ciavola et al ., (2005), 11th Int. Conf. on Ion Sources, Caen, (in press)]). In this paper, we present ion-optical design studies of various LEBT systems for ion-sources devoted to the production of intense beams. Calculations were performed using the computer codes GIOS [H. Wollnik, J. Brezina and M. Berz, NIM A 258 (1987)], GICO [M. Berz, H.C. Hoffmann, and H. Wollnik, NIM A 258 (1987)], and TRANSPORT [K.L. Brown, F. Rothacker and D.C. Carey, SLAC-R-95-462, Fermilab-Pub-95/069, UC-414 (1995)]. Simulations take into account the expected phase space growth of the beam emittance due to space-charge effects and image aberrations introduced by the magnetic elements.

  14. Large areas elemental mapping by ion beam analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, T. F.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Curado, J. F.; Allegro, P.; Moro, M. V.; Campos, P. H. O. V.; Santos, S. B.; Kajiya, E. A. M.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The external beam line of the Laboratory for Material Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI) is a versatile setup for multi-technique analysis. X-ray detectors for Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE) measurements, a Gamma-ray detector for Particle Induced Gamma- ray Emission (PIGE), and a particle detector for scattering analysis, such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), were already installed. In this work, we present some results, using a large (60-cm range) XYZ computer controlled sample positioning system, completely developed and build in our laboratory. The XYZ stage was installed at the external beam line and its high spacial resolution (better than 5 μm over the full range) enables positioning the sample with high accuracy and high reproducibility. The combination of a sub-millimeter beam with the large range XYZ robotic stage is being used to produce elemental maps of large areas in samples like paintings, ceramics, stones, fossils, and all sort of samples. Due to its particular characteristics, this is a unique device in the sense of multi-technique analysis of large areas. With the continuous development of the external beam line at LAMFI, coupled to the robotic XYZ stage, it is becoming a robust and reliable option for regular analysis of trace elements (Z > 5) competing with the traditional in-vacuum ion-beam-analysis with the advantage of automatic rastering.

  15. Improving Negative Ion Beam Quality and Purity with a RF Quadrupole Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.

    2011-09-26

    Recent progress in the development of a gas-filled RF quadrupole ion cooler for cooling negative ions is reported. Experiments demonstrate that negative ion beams can be cooled to 2 eV FWHM energy spread with more than 50% transmission through the cooler. The RFQ cooler can potentially improve the purity of radioactive ion beams by magnetic mass separation. New developments on purifying negative ion beams by photodetachment in the RFQ cooler are presented. With a laser of proper photon energy, nearly 100% suppression of the unwanted negative ions in the RFQ cooler has been observed, while the desired ions remain mostly intact. A recent experimental study demonstrates that pure ground state negative ion beams can be obtained by state-selective photodetachment in the RFQ cooler.

  16. Improving Negative Ion Beam Quality And Purity With A RF Quadrupole Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of a gas-filled RF quadrupole ion cooler for cooling negative ions is reported. Experiments demonstrate that negative ion beams can be cooled to 2 eV FWHM energy spread with more than 50% transmission through the cooler. The RFQ cooler can potentially improve the purity of radioactive ion beams by magnetic mass separation. New developments on purifying negative ion beams by photodetachment in the RFQ cooler are presented. With a laser of proper photon energy, nearly 100% suppression of the unwanted negative ions in the RFQ cooler has been observed, while the desired ions remain mostly intact. A recent experimental study demonstrates that pure ground state negation ion beams can be obtained by state-selective photodetachment in the RFQ cooler.

  17. Persistent ion beam induced conductivity in zinc oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Johannes, Andreas; Niepelt, Raphael; Gnauck, Martin; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-12-19

    We report persistently increased conduction in ZnO nanowires irradiated by ion beam with various ion energies and species. This effect is shown to be related to the already known persistent photo conduction in ZnO and dubbed persistent ion beam induced conduction. Both effects show similar excitation efficiency, decay rates, and chemical sensitivity. Persistent ion beam induced conduction will potentially allow countable (i.e., single dopant) implantation in ZnO nanostructures and other materials showing persistent photo conduction.

  18. Ion Beam Analysis of Targets Used in Controlatron Neutron Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, James C.; Doyle, Barney L.; Walla, Lisa A.; Walsh, David S.

    2009-03-10

    Controlatron neutron generators are used for testing neutron detection systems at Sandia National Laboratories. To provide for increased tube lifetimes for the moderate neutron flux output of these generators, metal hydride (ZrT{sub 2}) target fabrication processes have been developed. To provide for manufacturing quality control of these targets, ion beam analysis techniques are used to determine film composition. The load ratios (i.e. T/Zr concentration ratios) of ZrT{sub 2} Controlatron neutron generator targets have been successfully measured by simultaneously acquiring RBS and ERD data using a He{sup ++} beam energy of 10 MeV. Several targets were measured and the film thicknesses obtained from RBS measurements agreed within {+-}2% with Dektak profilometer measurements. The target fabrication process and ion beam analysis techniques will be presented.

  19. Longitudinal beam dynamics for heavy ion fusion using WARPrz

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, D.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Friedman, A.; Haber, I.

    1993-02-22

    WARPrz is a 2.5 dimensional, cylindrically symmetric, electrostatic, particle-in-cell code. It is part of the WARP family of codes which has been developed to study heavy ion fusion driver issues. WARPrz is being used to study the longitudinal dynamics of heavy ion beams including a longitudinal instability that is driven by the impedance of the LINAC accelerating modules. This instability is of concern because it can enhance longitudinal momentum spread; chromatic abhoration in the lens system restricts the amount of momentum spread allowed in the beam in the final focusing system. The impedance of the modules is modeled by a continuum of resistors and capacitors in parallel in WARPrz. We discuss simulations of this instability including the effect of finite temperature and reflection of perturbations off the beam ends. We also discuss intermittency of axial confining fields (``ears`` fields) as a seed for this instability.

  20. Ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettiol, Andrew A.; Mi, Zhaohong; Vanga, Sudheer Kumar; Chen, Ce-belle; Tao, Ye; Watt, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Imaging fluorescence generated by MeV ions in biological systems such as cells and tissue sections requires a high resolution beam (<100 nm), a sensitive detection system and a fluorescent probe that has a high quantum efficiency and low bleaching rate. For cutting edge applications in bioimaging, the fluorescence imaging technique needs to break the optical diffraction limit allowing for sub-cellular structure to be visualized, leading to a better understanding of cellular function. In a nuclear microprobe this resolution requirement can be readily achieved utilizing low beam current techniques such as Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM). In recent times, we have been able to extend this capability to fluorescence imaging through the development of a new high efficiency fluorescence detection system, and through the use of new novel fluorescent probes that are resistant to ion beam damage (bleaching). In this paper we demonstrate ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in several biological samples, highlighting the advantages and challenges associated with using this technique.

  1. Patient position verification in ion-beam therapy using ion-beam radiography and fiducial markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Lucas; Telsemeyer, Julia; Martišíková, Mária; Jäkel, Oliver

    2011-11-01

    The basic rationale for radiation therapy using ion-beams is its high local precision of dose deposition. Therefore accurate patient positioning prior to and during beam application is a crucial part of the therapy. The current standard position verification procedure uses X-ray based imaging before each beam application. The patient is assumed to remain in his position throughout irradiation. Currently there is no monitoring of the patient position or organ movement during treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of verifying the position of a fiducial marker during therapy using ion radiography. Some modern ion therapy facilities like the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), where our measurements were carried out, use scanning pencil beams to apply dose. Exploiting them for imaging allows to solely irradiate regions of interest in the patient's body, e.g. tissue containing medical markers. The advantage of this technique is that it can be performed quickly in turn with therapeutic beam application and irradiates only very little tissue. For our measurements we used conventional medical metal markers embedded in phantom material mimicking body tissue. To image the residual beam we use a Perkin Elmer RID256-L flat panel detector. In an idealized setup the marker contrast was measured to be as high as 60%, which was reduced by a factor of 2-2.5 when the marker was placed at distances to the detector in the phantom material larger than 10 cm. It was shown that applying 2ṡ105 carbon ions suffices to make the markers' position visible in a setup of realistic material thickness and marker depth. While the dose is comparable to X-ray imaging, the irradiated volume and, consequently, also the integral dose is considerably reduced. However, in realistic geometries there are large particle range differences in lateral direction yielding steep signal gradients in the radiography. Thus, the useful image area with unambiguous signal

  2. Design and performance analysis of an ultraprecision ion beam polishing tool.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Xie, Xuhui; Zhou, Lin

    2016-03-01

    First, we introduce requirements for the ion beam polishing tool used in the subnanometer precision process. Based on the ion beam figuring (IBF) principle, the definitive factor of the IBF capability is analyzed, and the deficiencies of the ion beam polishing tool are identified. The effect of focused ion optics on the ion beam removal function is based on theoretic calculation and computer simulation; and focused three-grid ion optics are developed and tested. Finally, a 150 mm flat optics element is figured and results show that the contour error decreases from 15.58 nm RMS to 0.796 nm RMS, demonstrating that the ion beam polishing tool is very efficient for optical IBF. PMID:26974611

  3. Modeling FAMA ion beam diagnostics based on the Ptolemy II model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balvanović, R.; Beličev, P.; Radjenović, B.

    2012-10-01

    The previously developed model of ion beam transport control of the FAMA facility is further enhanced by equipping it with the model of ion beam diagnostics. The model of control, executing once, is adjusted so that it executes in iterative mode, where each iteration samples the input beam normally distributed over initial phase space and calculates a single trajectory through the facility beam lines. The model takes into account only the particles that manage to pass through all the beam line apertures, emulating in this way a Faraday cup and a beam profile meter. Generated are also beam phase space distributions and horizontal and vertical beam profiles at the end of the beam transport lines the FAMA facility consists of. By adding the model of ion beam diagnostics to the model of ion beam transport control, the process of determining optimal ion beam control parameters is eased and speeded up, and the understanding of influence of control parameters on the ion beam characteristics is improved.

  4. Highly Compressed Ion Beam for High Energy Density Science

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Caporaso, G.J.; Celata, C.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich I.; Lee, E.P.; Lee, R.W.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Nelson, S.D.; Olson, C.L.; Penn, G.; Reginato,L.R.; Renk, T.; Rose, D.; Seessler, A.; Staples, J.W.; Tabak, M.; Thoma,C.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.R.; Wurtele, J.; Yu, S.S.

    2005-05-16

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach they are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target ''foils,'' which may in fact be foams with mean densities 1% to 10% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI Darmstadt, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrically target. They present the beam requirements for Warm Dense Matter experiments. The authors discuss neutralized drift compression and final focus experiments and modeling. They describe suitable accelerator architectures based on Drift-Tube Linac, RF, single-gap, Ionization-Front Accelerator, and Pulse-Line Ion Accelerator concepts. The last of these is being pursued experimentally. Finally, they discuss plans toward a user facility for target experiments.

  5. The Neutralization of Ion-Rocket Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Harold R.

    1961-01-01

    The experimental ion-beam behavior obtained without neutralizers is compared with both simple collision theory and plasma-wave theory. This comparison indicates that plasma waves play an important part in beam behavior, although the present state of plasma-wave theory does not permit more than a qualitative comparison. The theories of immersed-emitter and electron-trap neutralizer operation are discussed; and, to the extent permitted by experimental data, the theory is compared with experimental results. Experimental data are lacking completely at the present time for operation in space. The results that might be expected in space and the means of simulating such operation in Earth-bound facilities, however, are discussed.

  6. Nuclear astrophysics at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.S.

    1994-12-31

    The potential for understanding spectacular stellar explosions such as novae, supernovae, and X-ray bursts will be greatly enhanced by the availability of the low-energy, high-intensity, accelerated beams of proton-rich radioactive nuclei currently being developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These beams will be utilized in absolute cross section measurements of crucial (p, {gamma}) capture reactions in efforts to resolve the substantial qualitative uncertainties in current models of explosive stellar hydrogen burning outbursts. Details of the nuclear astrophysics research program with the unique HRIBF radioactive beams and a dedicated experimental endstation--centered on the Daresbury Recoil Separator--will be presented.

  7. Nonlinear bidimensional evolution of ion beam driven electrostatic instabilities in the auroral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottez, Fabrice; Chanteur, Gerard

    1991-12-01

    A 2D (in configuration space), 3D (in velocity space) electrostatic explicit particle code is used to investigate the interaction between an ion beam flowing along the magnetic field and a highly magnetized plasma. The beam drift velocity Vdi is larger than Vte, the electron thermal velocity, and much larger than the thermal velocities of the core and beam ions. Two instabilities are found to develop. First, the interaction between the ion beam and electrons leads to the rapid growth of parallel modes and to the fast diffusion of electrons along the magnetic field, predominantly in the ion beam direction. This ion-electron instability is rapidly quenched by electron heating. Second, and ion-ion instability develops, which involves oblique modes leading to a selective heating of ions in a direction oblique to B. It is shown that the heating via the electron-ion instability is a necessary step for the development of the ion-ion instability. Finally, it is shown that the nonlinear development of the ion-ion instability gives rise to purely perpendicular modes that are not linearly unstable.

  8. Status report for the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Auble, R.L.; Alton, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the HHIRF became a project to develop a first-generation radioactive ion beam facility, the HRIBF, a national user facility for RIB research. Intense beams from ORIC will produce radioactive atoms as reaction products in thick targets using an ISOL-type target-ion source mounted on a 300-kV RIB injector. These radioactive atoms will be ionized, mass analyzed, charge exchanged, accelerated to ground potential, and analyzed again to separate isobars with a second-stage mass analyzer. The resulting RIBs will be injected into the tandem and accelerated to energies of interest for nuclear physics and astrophysics studied. The construction phase of the project has been completed. A report on the status and progress developing the facility is given, along with the long term development plans.

  9. Modeling of a multicharged ion beam line using SIMION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korwin-Pawlowski, Michael L.; Amiz, Karima; Elsayed-Ali, Hani

    2009-06-01

    Multicharged ion beams (MCI) are promising tools to probe or modify the surface of materials with applications in microelectronics and nanotechnology. Ion beam lines are parts of the MCI systems connecting the ion source with the processing chamber and they perform the function of extracting, accelerating, decelerating, focusing and scanning the ion beam on the surface of the target. In our work we present results of modeling of an MCI beam line using the SIMION code to simulate the flight of ions, with the purpose of optimizing the yield of the line and avoiding spurious effects due to interaction of the ions with the metallic elements of the line, such as heating, outgassing and excessive Xray emission. We show that a two stage ion extractor could significantly reduce ion beam losses.

  10. SIMULATION OF INTENSE BEAMS FOR HEAVY ION FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A

    2004-06-10

    Computer simulations of intense ion beams play a key role in the Heavy Ion Fusion research program. Along with analytic theory, they are used to develop future experiments, guide ongoing experiments, and aid in the analysis and interpretation of experimental results. They also afford access to regimes not yet accessible in the experimental program. The U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory and its collaborators have developed state-of-the art computational tools, related both to codes used for stationary plasmas and to codes used for traditional accelerator applications, but necessarily differing from each in important respects. These tools model beams in varying levels of detail and at widely varying computational cost. They include moment models (envelope equations and fluid descriptions), particle-in-cell methods (electrostatic and electromagnetic), nonlinear-perturbative descriptions (''{delta}f''), and continuum Vlasov methods. Increasingly, it is becoming clear that it is necessary to simulate not just the beams themselves, but also the environment in which they exist, be it an intentionally-created plasma or an unwanted cloud of electrons and gas. In this paper, examples of the application of simulation tools to intense ion beam physics are presented, including support of present-day experiments, fundamental beam physics studies, and the development of future experiments. Throughout, new computational models are described and their utility explained. These include Mesh Refinement (and its dynamic variant, Adaptive Mesh Refinement); improved electron cloud and gas models, and an electron advance scheme that allows use of larger time steps; and moving-mesh and adaptive-mesh Vlasov methods.

  11. Aifira: An ion beam facility for multidisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorieul, S.; Alfaurt, Ph.; Daudin, L.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2014-08-01

    During the last decade, the CENBG (Centre d'Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan) commissioned a new facility called AIFIRA (Applications Interdisciplinaires des Faisceaux d'ions en Région Aquitaine). It allowed the development of a multidisciplinary activity based on the "in-house" expertise of CENBG in ion beam analysis. The great flexibility offered by the five beam lines confers a lot of possibilities for chemical analysis and nuclear physics. Indeed, not only the macrobeam and the external beam lines provide the full set of IBA techniques for routine sample analysis but an additional beam line is devoted to the production of monoenergetic neutrons through the interaction of the incoming ion with selected targets. In addition, the two high-resolution microbeam lines are used for chemical analyses, 2D/3D imaging, and targeted cell irradiation. Besides, the combination of the nanobeam line flexibility, the uniqueness of the micro-irradiation design completed by the internal CENBG expertise confers a great specificity to AIFIRA in biomedical field. After a detailed technical overview of the platform, the article focuses on the two high-resolution lines as they tap most of the activity. Thus a quick overview of the most significant results concerning biomedical samples is proposed in order to highlight the analytical possibilities of AIFIRA microbeam lines. A summary of the development status of the micro-irradiation line is also done.

  12. Simulation Studies of Beam-Beam Effects of a Ring-Ring Electron-Ion Collider Based on CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhong Zhang,Ji Qiang

    2009-05-01

    The collective beam-beam effect can potentially cause a rapid growth of beam sizes and reduce the luminosity of a collider to an unacceptably low level. The ELIC, a proposed ultra high luminosity electron-ion collider based on CEBAF, employs high repetition rate crab crossing colliding beams with very small bunch transverse sizes and very short bunch lengths, and collides them at up to 4 interaction points with strong final focusing. All of these features can make the beam-beam effect challenging. In this paper, we present simulation studies of the beam-beam effect in ELIC using a self-consistent strong-strong beam-beam simulation code developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This simulation study is used for validating the ELIC design and for searching for an optimal parameter set.

  13. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm{sup 3}), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented.

  14. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus.

    PubMed

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y S

    2014-02-01

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm(3)), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented. PMID:24593595

  15. LASER BEAM PROFILE MONITOR DEVELOPMENT AT BNL FOR SNS.

    SciTech Connect

    CONNOLLY,R.; CAMERON,P.; CUPOLO,J.; DAWSON,C.; DEGEN,C.; DELLA PENNA,A.; GASSNER,D.; GRAU,M.; KESSELMAN,M.; PENG,S.; SIKORA,R.

    2002-08-19

    A beam profile monitor for H{sup -} beams using laser photoneutralization is being developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory [1] for use on the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [2]. An H{sup -} ion has a first ionization potential of 0.75eV and can be neutralized by light from a Nd:YAG laser ({lambda}=1064nm). To measure beam profiles, a narrow laser beam is passed through the ion beam neutralizing a portion of the H{sup -} beam struck by the laser, and the perturbation of the beam current caused by the laser is measured. The laser trajectory is stepped across the ion beam generating a transverse profile. Proof-of-principle experiments were done at 750keV and 200MeV. Also a compact scanner prototype was used at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) [3] during commissioning of the SNS RFQ.

  16. Positive and negative ion beam merging system for neutral beam production

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2005-12-13

    The positive and negative ion beam merging system extracts positive and negative ions of the same species and of the same energy from two separate ion sources. The positive and negative ions from both sources pass through a bending magnetic field region between the pole faces of an electromagnet. Since the positive and negative ions come from mirror image positions on opposite sides of a beam axis, and the positive and negative ions are identical, the trajectories will be symmetrical and the positive and negative ion beams will merge into a single neutral beam as they leave the pole face of the electromagnet. The ion sources are preferably multicusp plasma ion sources. The ion sources may include a multi-aperture extraction system for increasing ion current from the sources.

  17. Applications of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, K.; Azuma, H.; Fujita, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Kato, Y.; Arrabal, R. Gonzalez; Soldo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2012-07-01

    Laser produced ion beams have unique characteristics which are ultra-short pulse, very low emittance, and variety of nuclear species. These characteristics could be used for analyzing various materials like low Z ion doped heavy metals or ceramics. Energies of laser produced ion beam extend from 0.1MeV to 100MeV. Therefore, various nuclear processes can be induced in the interactions of ion beams with samples. The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. To explore the applicability of laser ion beam to the analysis of the Li ion battery, a proton beam with the diameter of ˜ 1.0 μm at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used. For the analysis, the PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission) is used. The proton beam scans over Li battery electrode samples to diagnose Li density in the LiNi0.85Co0.15O2 anode. As the results, PIGE images for Li area density distributions are obtained with the spatial resolution of better than 1.5μm FWHM. By the Li PIGE images, the depth dependence of de-intercalation levels of Li in the anode is obtained. By the POP experiments at TIARA, it is clarified that laser produced ion beam is appropriate for the Li ion battery analysis. 41.85.Lc, 41.75.Jv, 42.62.cf.

  18. Imaging with a multiplane multiwire proportional chamber using heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.; Alonso, J.R.; Tobias, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    A 16-plane multiwire proportional chamber has been developed to accurately map intensity profiles of heavy ion beams at the Bevalac. The imaging capability of the system has been tested for reconstruction of 3-dimensional representation of a canine thorax region using heavy ion beams.

  19. Multi-slit triode ion optical system with ballistic beam focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydenko, V.; Amirov, V.; Gorbovsky, A.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Mishagin, V.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N.; Karpushov, A. N.; Smirnov, A.; Uhlemann, R.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits.

  20. Multi-slit triode ion optical system with ballistic beam focusing.

    PubMed

    Davydenko, V; Amirov, V; Gorbovsky, A; Deichuli, P; Ivanov, A; Kolmogorov, A; Kapitonov, V; Mishagin, V; Shikhovtsev, I; Sorokin, A; Stupishin, N; Karpushov, A N; Smirnov, A; Uhlemann, R

    2016-02-01

    Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits. PMID:26932031

  1. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Igawa, K.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2007-01-15

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named ''bipolar pulse accelerator'' (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time.

  2. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator.

    PubMed

    Ito, H; Igawa, K; Kitamura, I; Masugata, K

    2007-01-01

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named "bipolar pulse accelerator" (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time. PMID:17503918

  3. Neutral Beam Ion Loss Modelling for NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrow, D. S.; Akers, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Mikkelsen, D. R.

    1999-11-01

    The loss of 80 keV D neutral beam ions to the walls has been modeled for a range of plasma conditions in NSTX using the EIGOL code[1]. Initial results of the code are in reasonable agreement with those from the LOCUST code[2]. Both codes predict loss fractions of 20% for a discharge with β_T=40% and q_0=2.6. Losses are strongly concentrated on the front face and edges of the high-harmonic fast wave antenna as it projects farther inward than other internal structures at the midplane. The edges of the passive stabilizer plates near the midplane are also subject to a large flux of lost beam ions under some conditions. The dependence of the loss upon the plasma density profile, I_p, and BT will be presented. [1] D. S. Darrow, et al., in Proceedings of the 26th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 14-18 June 1999. [2] R. Akers, et al., ibid.

  4. Ion beam probing of electrostatic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persson, H.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of a cylindrically symmetric, time-independent electrostatic potential V in a magnetic field B with the same symmetry by measurements of the deflection of a primary beam of ions is analyzed and substantiated by examples. Special attention is given to the requirements on canonical angular momentum and total energy set by an arbitrary, nonmonotone V, to scaling laws obtained by normalization, and to the analogy with ionospheric sounding. The inversion procedure with the Abel analysis of an equivalent problem with a one-dimensional fictitious potential is used in a numerical experiment with application to the NASA Lewis Modified Penning Discharge. The determination of V from a study of secondary beams of ions with increased charge produced by hot plasma electrons is also analyzed, both from a general point of view and with application to the NASA Lewis SUMMA experiment. Simple formulas and geometrical constructions are given for the minimum energy necessary to reach the axis, the whole plasma, and any point in the magnetic field. The common, simplifying assumption that V is a small perturbation is critically and constructively analyzed; an iteration scheme for successively correcting the orbits and points of ionization for the electrostatic potential is suggested.

  5. Ion beam requirements for fast ignition of inertial fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Honrubia, J. J.; Murakami, M.

    2015-01-15

    Ion beam requirements for fast ignition are investigated by numerical simulation taking into account new effects, such as ion beam divergence, not included before. We assume that ions are generated by the TNSA scheme in a curved foil placed inside a re-entrant cone and focused on the cone apex or beyond. From the focusing point to the compressed core, ions propagate with a given divergence angle. Ignition energies are obtained for two compressed fuel configurations heated by proton and carbon ion beams. The dependence of the ignition energies on the beam divergence angle and on the position of the ion beam focusing point has been analyzed. Comparison between TNSA and quasi-monoenergetic ions is also shown.

  6. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source experience at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, T; Cee, R; Haberer, T; Naas, B; Peters, A; Scheloske, S; Spädtke, P; Tinschert, K

    2008-02-01

    Radiotherapy with heavy ions is an upcoming cancer treatment method with to date unparalleled precision. It associates higher control rates particularly for radiation resistant tumor species with reduced adverse effects compared to conventional photon therapy. The accelerator beam lines and structures of the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) have been designed under the leadership of GSI, Darmstadt with contributions of the IAP Frankfurt. Currently, the accelerator is under commissioning, while the injector linac has been completed. When the patient treatment begins in 2008, HIT will be the first medical heavy ion accelerator in Europe. This presentation will provide an overview about the project, with special attention given to the 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources in operation with carbon, hydrogen, helium, and oxygen, and the experience of one year of continuous operation. It also displays examples for beam emittances, measured in the low energy beam transport. In addition to the outlook of further developments at the ECR ion sources for a continuously stable operation, this paper focuses on some of the technical processings of the past year. PMID:18315121

  7. Estimation of keV submicron ion beam width using a knife-edge method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Isoya, Akira; Kojima, Takuji; Arakawa, Kazuo

    2003-11-01

    A beam width measurement system has been developed for keV submicron ion beams of 0.1 μm or less in width assuming a round shape beam. The system enables to measure beam current change as a function of knife-edge position by cutting a beam focusing point (beam spot) with the sharp edge within a spatial resolution of 0.02 μm. The width of 30 keV order submicron H + ion beam was estimated by fitting current change curves based on three different ion density models: uniform, flat-top and Gaussian. Among these models, the flat-top model provide the most reasonable beam width of 0.56 μm interpreting contribution of halo around the beam spot to beam width estimation. The beam width measurement system with the high spatial resolution and the data analysis based on the flat-top ion density model should contribute to accelerate developments of submicron ion beam production technologies.

  8. PARALLEL ION BEAM PROFILE SCAN USING LASER WIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Huang, Chunning; Long, Cary D; Dickson, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    We report on the world s first experiment of a parallel profile scan of the hydrogen ion (H-) beam using a laser wire system. The system was developed at the superconducting linac of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator complex. The laser wire profile scanner is based on a photo-detachment process and therefore can be conducted on an operational H- beam in a nonintrusive manner. The parallel profile scanning system makes it possible to simultaneously measure profiles of the 1-MW neutron production H- beam at 9 different locations of the linac by using a single light source. This paper describes the design, optical system and software platform development, and measurement results of the parallel profile scanning system.

  9. Simultaneous ion beam profile scan using a single laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Long, C.; Huang, C.; Dickson, R.; Aleksandrov, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the world’s first experiment of a simultaneous profile scan of the hydrogen ion (H-) beam using a laser wire system. The system was developed and brought to operational level of application at the superconducting linac of the Spallation Neutron Source accelerator complex. The laser wire profile scanner is based on a photodetachment process and therefore can be conducted on a 1-MW neutron production H- beam in a nonintrusive manner. The new simultaneous profile scanning system allows one to simultaneously measure profiles of the H- beam at nine different locations of the linac with high speed and accuracy, and therefore provides a unique tool for accelerator tuning and physics study. This paper describes the design, optical system and software platform developments, and measurement results of the simultaneous profile scanning system.

  10. The prospects of a subnanometer focused neon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Rahman, F H M; McVey, Shawn; Farkas, Louis; Notte, John A; Tan, Shida; Livengood, Richard H

    2012-01-01

    The success of the helium ion microscope has encouraged extensions of this technology to produce beams of other ion species. A review of the various candidate ion beams and their technical prospects suggest that a neon beam might be the most readily achieved. Such a neon beam would provide a sputtering yield that exceeds helium by an order of magnitude while still offering a theoretical probe size less than 1-nm. This article outlines the motivation for a neon gas field ion source, the expected performance through simulations, and provides an update of our experimental progress. PMID:21796647

  11. Performance and Controllability of Pulsed Ion Beam Ablation Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Yazawa, Masaru; Buttapeng, Chainarong; Harada, Nobuhiro; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2006-05-02

    We propose novel propulsion driven by ablation plasma pressures produced by the irradiation of pulsed ion beams onto a propellant. The ion beam ablation propulsion demonstrates by a thin foil (50 {mu}mt), and the flyer velocity of 7.7 km/s at the ion beam energy density of 2 kJ/cm2 adopted by using the Time-of-flight method is observed numerically and experimentally. We estimate the performance of the ion beam ablation propulsion as specific impulse of 3600 s and impulse bit density of 1700 Ns/m2 obtained from the demonstration results. In the numerical analysis, a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model with ion beam energy depositions is used. The control of the ion beam kinetic energy is only improvement of the performance but also propellant consumption. The spacecraft driven by the ion beam ablation provides high performance efficiency with short-pulsed ion beam irradiation. The numerical results of the advanced model explained latent heat and real gas equation of state agreed well with experimental ones over a wide range of the incident ion beam energy density.

  12. Spacecraft charging during ion beam emissions in sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, S. T.; Mcneil, W. J.; Aggson, T. L.

    1990-01-01

    During ion beam emissions from the SCATHA satellite, the potential of the negatively charged satellite body shows a sinusoidal oscillation frequency of once-per-spin of the satellite. The minimum occurs when the ion beam is sunward. The processes that may be responsible for the voltage modulation are considered. Neutralization of ion beam space charge by photoelectrons is examined. The photoelectrons are accelerated by the negative potential of the satellite. Effects of electron impact ionization, excitation of metastable states, and photoionization of xenon neutral atoms in the ion beam are studied in detail. Critical ionization velocity interaction is unlikely under the condition considered.

  13. Ion Beam Energy Dependant Study of Nanopore Sculpting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledden, Brad

    2005-03-01

    Experiments show that ion beams of various energies (1keV, 3keV, and 5keV) can be used to controllably ``sculpt'' nanoscale features in silicon nitride films using a feedback controlled ion beam sculpting apparatus. We report on nanopore ion beam sculpting effects that depend on inert gas ion beam energy. We show that: (1) all ion beam energies enable single nanometer control of structural dimensions in nanopores; (2) the ion beam energies above show similar ion beam flux dependence of nanopore formation; (3) the thickness of nanopores differs depending on ion beam energy. Computer simulations (with SRIM and TRIM) and an ``adatom'' surface diffusion model are employed to explain the dynamics of nanoscale dimension change by competing sputtering and surface mass transport processes induced by different ion beam irradiation. These experiments and theoretical work reveal the surface atomic transport phenomena in a quantitative way that allows the extraction of parameters such as the adatom surface diffusion coefficients and average travel distances.

  14. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J.

    1992-05-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-{mu}s accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance.

  15. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I. ); Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics)

    1992-01-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-{mu}s accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance.

  16. Testing Time Dilation on Fast Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saathoff, G.; Reinhardt, S.; Bernhardt, B.; Holzwarth, R.; Udem, T.; Hänsch, T. W.; Bing, D.; Schwalm, D.; Wolf, A.; Botermann, B.; Karpuk, S.; Novotny, C.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Huber, G.; Geppert, C.; Kühl, T.; Stöhlker, T.; Rempel, T.; Gwinner, G.

    2011-12-01

    We report the status of an experimental test of special-relativistic time dilation. Following an idea of Ives and Stilwell in 1938, we measure the forward and backward Doppler shifts of an electronic transition of fast moving ions, using high-precision laser spectroscopy. From these Doppler shifts both the ion velocity β = υ/c and the time dilation factor γ = γ {SR} (1 + hat α β 2 ) can be derived for testing Special Relativity. From measurements based on saturation spectroscopy on lithium ions stored at β = 0.03 and β = 0.06, we achieved an upper limit for deviation from Special Relativity of <=ft| {hat α } ; | \\underline < 8 × 10{ - 8} . Recent measurements on a β = 0.338 Li+ beam show similar sensitivity and promise an improvement by at least one order of magnitude. Finally we discuss present sensitivities to various coefficients in the photon and particle sector of the Standard-Model Extension, as well as possible modifications of the experiment for the test of further, hitherto unbounded, coefficients.

  17. A new luminescence beam profile monitor for intense proton and heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang,T.; Bellavia, S.; Connolly, R.; Gassner, D.; Makdisi, Y.; Russo, T.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2008-10-01

    A new luminescence beam profile monitor is realized in the polarized hydrogen gas jet target at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. In addition to the spin polarization of the proton beam being routinely measured by the hydrogen gas jet, the luminescence produced by beam-hydrogen excitation leads to a strong Balmer series lines emission. A selected hydrogen Balmer line is spectrally filtered and imaged to produce the transverse RHIC proton beam shape with unprecedented details on the RHIC beam profile. Alternatively, when the passage of the high energy RHIC gold ion beam excited only the residual gas molecules in the beam path, sufficient ion beam induced luminescence is produced and the transverse gold ion beam profile is obtained. The measured transverse beam sizes and the calculated emittances provide an independent confirmation of the RHIC beam characteristics and to verify the emittance conservation along the RHIC accelerator. This optical beam diagnostic technique by making use of the beam induced fluorescence from injected or residual gas offers a truly noninvasive particle beam characterization, and provides a visual observation of proton and heavy ion beams. Combined with a longitudinal bunch measurement system, a 3-dimensional spatial particle beam profile can be reconstructed tomographically.

  18. Laser cooling of relativistic heavy-ion beams for FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, D.; Beck, T.; Birkl, G.; Dimopoulou, C.; Hannen, V.; Kühl, Th; Lochmann, M.; Loeser, M.; Ma, X.; Nolden, F.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Rein, B.; Sánchez, R.; Schramm, U.; Siebold, M.; Spiller, P.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, Th; Ullmann, J.; Walther, Th; Wen, W.; Yang, J.; Zhang, D.; Bussmann, M.

    2015-11-01

    Laser cooling is a powerful technique to reduce the longitudinal momentum spread of stored relativistic ion beams. Based on successful experiments at the experimental storage ring at GSI in Darmstadt, of which we show some important results in this paper, we present our plans for laser cooling of relativistic ion beams in the future heavy-ion synchrotron SIS100 at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Darmstadt.

  19. ITEP MEVVA ion beam for rhenium silicide production

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T.; Seleznev, D.; Kropachev, G.; Kozlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Yakushin, P.; Petrenko, S.; Gerasimenko, N.; Medetov, N.; Zaporozhan, O.

    2010-02-15

    The rhenium silicides are very attractive materials for semiconductor industry. In the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) at the ion source test bench the research program of rhenium silicide production by ion beam implantation are going on. The investigation of silicon wafer after implantation of rhenium ion beam with different energy and with different total dose were carried out by secondary ions mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis, and x-ray diffraction analysis. The first promising results of rhenium silicide film production by high intensity ion beam implantation are presented.

  20. New method of beam bunching in free-ion lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bessonov, E.G.

    1995-12-31

    An effective ion beam bunching method is suggested. This method is based on a selective interaction of line spectrum laser light (e.g. axial mode structure light) with non-fully stripped ion beam cooled in a storage rings, arranging the ion beam in layers in radial direction of an energy-longitudinal coordinate plane and following rotation of the beam at the right angle after switching on the RF cavity or undulator grouper/buncher. Laser cooling of the ion beam can be used at this position after switching off the resonator to decrease the energy spread caused by accelerating field of the resonator. A relativistic multilayer ion mirror will be produced this way. Both monochromatic laser beams and intermediate monochromaticity and bandwidth light sources of spontaneous incoherent radiation can be used for production of hard and high power electromagnetic radiation by reflection from this mirror. The reflectivity of the mirror is rather high because of the cross-section of the backward Rayleigh scattering of photon light by non-fully stripped relativistic ions ({approximately}{lambda}{sup 2}) is much greater ({approximately} 10{divided_by}15 orders) then Thompson one ({approximately} r{sub e}{sup 2}). This position is valid even in the case of non-monochromatic laser light ({Delta}{omega}/{omega} {approximately} 10{sup -4}). Ion cooling both in longitudinal plane and three-dimensional radiation ion cooling had been proposed based on this observation. The using of these cooling techniques will permit to store high current and low emittance relativistic ion beams in storage rings. The bunched ion beam can be used in ordinary Free-Ion Lasers as well. After bunching the ion beam can be extracted from the storage ring in this case. Storage rings with zero momentum compaction function will permit to keep bunching of the ion beam for a long time.

  1. Beam loss ion chamber system upgrade for experimental halls

    SciTech Connect

    D. Dotson; D. Seidman

    2005-08-01

    The Beam loss Ion Chamber System (BLICS) was developed to protect Jefferson Labs transport lines, targets and beam dumps from a catastrophic ''burn through''. Range changes and testing was accomplished manually requiring the experiment to be shut down. The new upgraded system is based around an ''off the shelf'' Programmable Logic Controller located in a single control box supporting up to ten individual detectors. All functions that formerly required an entry into the experimental hall and manual adjustment can be accomplished from the Machine Control Center (MCC). A further innovation was the addition of a High Voltage ''Brick'' at the detector location. A single cable supplies the required voltage for the Brick and a return line for the ion chamber signal. The read back screens display range, trip point, and accumulated dose for each location. The new system is very cost effective and significantly reduces the amount of lost experimental time.

  2. Beam Loss Ion Chamber System Upgrade for Experimental Halls

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Dotson; D.J. Seidman

    2005-05-16

    The Beam loss Ion Chamber System (BLICS) was developed to protect Jefferson Labs transport lines, targets and beam dumps from a catastrophic ''burn through''. Range changes and testing was accomplished manually requiring the experiment to be shut down. The new upgraded system is based around an ''off the shelf'' Programmable Logic Controller located in a single control box supporting up to ten individual detectors. All functions that formerly required an entry into the experimental hall and manual adjustment can be accomplished from the Machine Control Center (MCC). A further innovation was the addition of a High Voltage ''Brick'' at the detector location. A single cable supplies the required voltage for the Brick and a return line for the ion chamber signal. The read back screens display range, trip point, and accumulated dose for each location. The new system is very cost effective and significantly reduces the amount of lost experimental time.

  3. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; Kluth, Patrick; Tuomisto, Filip

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiationmore » effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.« less

  4. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; Kluth, Patrick; Tuomisto, Filip

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiation effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.

  5. Neutral-beam development plan, FY 1982-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The following chapters are included: (1) status of BNL negative ion source development, (2) source development program plan, (3) status of beam transport and acceleration, (4) accelerator development program plan, (5) neutralizer concepts, (6) neutralization program plan, (7) neutral beam systems, (8) test facilities, (9) program milestones and time schedules, (10) organization and Grumman participation, and (11) funding tables. (MOW)

  6. Plasma opening switch for long-pulse intense ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; Mason, R.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Greenly, J.B.; Rej, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    A Plasma Opening Switch (POS) is being developed at Los Alamos, as part of an intense ion beam experiment with special application to materials processing. The switch must conduct up to 100 kA for 600 ns, and open quickly to avoid premature gap closure in the ion beam diode load. Power multiplication is not a necessity, but prepulse suppression is. A positive central polarity is desirable, since with it an ion beam can be conveniently launched beyond the switch from the central anode toward a negatively charged target. Thus, otherwise by virtue of traditional scaling rules, a POS was designed with a 1.25 cm radius inner anode, and a 4.75 cm radius outer cathode. This has been constructed, and subjected to circuit, and simulational analysis. The computations are being performed with the 2D ANTHEM implicit code. Preliminary results show a marked difference in switching dynamics, when the central positive polarity is used in place of the more conventional opposite choice. Opening goes by the fast development of a central anode magnetic layer, rather than by the more conventional slow evolution of a cathode gap. With the central anode, higher fill densities are needed to achieve desired conduction times. This has suggested switch design improvements, which are discussed.

  7. Plasma opening switch for long-pulse intense ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; Mason, R.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Greenly, J.B.; Rej, D.J.

    1992-08-01

    A Plasma Opening Switch (POS) is being developed at Los Alamos, as part of an intense ion beam experiment with special application to materials processing. The switch must conduct up to 100 kA for 600 ns, and open quickly to avoid premature gap closure in the ion beam diode load. Power multiplication is not a necessity, but prepulse suppression is. A positive central polarity is desirable, since with it an ion beam can be conveniently launched beyond the switch from the central anode toward a negatively charged target. Thus, otherwise by virtue of traditional scaling rules, a POS was designed with a 1.25 cm radius inner anode, and a 4.75 cm radius outer cathode. This has been constructed, and subjected to circuit, and simulational analysis. The computations are being performed with the 2D ANTHEM implicit code. Preliminary results show a marked difference in switching dynamics, when the central positive polarity is used in place of the more conventional opposite choice. Opening goes by the fast development of a central anode magnetic layer, rather than by the more conventional slow evolution of a cathode gap. With the central anode, higher fill densities are needed to achieve desired conduction times. This has suggested switch design improvements, which are discussed.

  8. Negative ion based neutral beam injector for JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Y.; Araki, M.; Hanada, M.; Inoue, T.; Kunieda, S.; Kuriyama, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Mizuno, M.; Ohara, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Watanabe, K.

    1992-10-01

    A 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beam injector is to be constructed in JT-60 Upgrade for the experiments of current drive and heating of heat density core plasmas. This is the first neutral beam injector in the world using negative ions as the primary ions. In the design, D- ion beams of 44 A, 500 keV are produced by two ion sources (22 A/each ion source) and neutralized in a long gas neutralizer. The total system efficiency is about 40%. The ion source is a cesium-seeded multicusp volume source having a three stage electrostatic accelerator. To reduce the stripping loss of D- ions in the accelerator, the ion source should be operated at a low pressure of 0.3 Pa with a current density of 13 mA/cm2. The first test of the full-size negative ion source is scheduled from middle of 1993.

  9. Dielectronic Recombination of Highly Charged Ions Using an Electron Beam Ion Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, David Russell

    1992-01-01

    Dielectronic Recombination is an important electron -ion recombination process which affects many aspects of plasmas. This work presents experimental measurements of relative dielectronic recombination cross sections for three highly charged ions: hydrogenlike argon (Ar ^{17+}), heliumlike argon (Ar ^{16+}), and neonlike xenon (Xe ^{44+}). The dielectronic recombination cross sections are compared to theoretical resonance strengths. Excellent agreement is found overall. The energy resolution of the experimental measurements is 18 eV FWHM. These experiments make use of the ion extraction system recently installed on the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). With this technique the interactions are measured through measurement of relative ion populations rather than relative x-ray intensities. Following a general introduction an overview of the theory of dielectronic recombination is presented which includes the calculation of the rate coefficient, the effects of dielectronic recombination on relative ion populations, and the relationship between the rate coefficient and the cross sections and resonance strengths. Both relativistic and nonrelativistic aspects of the theory are discussed and a sketch of the Multiconfiguration Dirac Fock (MCDF) method used to obtain theoretical cross sections is given. The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is described in detail. Relations between the important operating parameters, such as the depth of the potential well and the electron beam current, are discussed. The ion extraction system is described. Physical processes which affect the populations of ions in the trap are discussed including evaporative cooling. The general rate equations for the time development of the ion populations are presented. The separate experiments for the three ions Ar ^{17+}, Ar^ {16+}, and Xe^{44+ } are then examined in detail. The KLL, KLM, KLN, KLO and KLP groups of resonances of hydogenlike argon as well as the LMM, LMN, LMO, LMP and LMQ groups of resonances

  10. Observation of Beam ION Instability in Spear3

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, D.; Cai, Y.; Corbett, W.J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Safranek, J.A.; Schmerge, J.F.; Sebek, J.J.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    Weak vertical coupled bunch instability with oscillation amplitude at {mu}m level has been observed in SPEAR3. The instability becomes stronger when there is a vacuum pressure rise by partially turning off vacuum pumps and it becomes weaker when the vertical beam emittance is increased by turning off the skew quadrupole magnets. These confirmed that the instability was driven by ions in the vacuum. The threshold of the beam ion instability when running with a single bunch train is just under 200 mA. This paper presents the comprehensive observations of the beam ion instability in SPEAR3. The effects of vacuum pressure, beam current, beam filling pattern, chromaticity, beam emittance and bunch-by-bunch feedback are investigated in great detail. In an electron accelerator, ions generated from the residual gas molecules can be trapped by the beam. Then these trapped ions interact resonantly with the beam and cause beam instability and emittance blow-up. Most existing light sources use a long single bunch train filling pattern, followed by a long gap to avoid multi-turn ion trapping. However, such a gap does not preclude ions from accumulating during one passage of the single bunch train beam, and those ions can still cause a Fast Ion Instability (FII) as predicted by Raubenheimer and Zimmermann. FII has been observed in ALS, and PLS by artificially increasing the vacuum pressure by injecting helium gas into the vacuum chamber or by turning off the ion pumps in order to observe the beam ion instability. In some existing rings, for instance B factory, the beam ion instability was observed at the beginning of the machine operation after a long period of shutdown and then it automatically disappeared when the vacuum was better. However, when the beam emittance becomes smaller, the FII can occur at nominal conditions as observed in PLS, SOLEIL and SSRF. This paper reports the observations of beam ion instabilities in SPEAR3 under different condition during a period of one

  11. Plasma and Beam Production Experiments with HYBRIS, a Microwave-assisted H- Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R.; Kwan, J.; Hahto, S.; Regis, M.; Wallig, J.

    2007-08-01

    A two-stage ion source concept was presented a few years ago, consisting of a proven H- ion source and a 2.45-GHz Electron Cyclotron-Resonance (ECR) type ion source, here used as a plasma cathode. This paper describes the experimental development path pursued at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, from the early concept to a working unit that produces plasma in both stages and creates a negative particle beam. Without cesiation applied to the second stage, the H- fraction of this beam is very low, yielding 75 micro-amperes of extracted ion beam current at best. The apparent limitations of this approach and envisaged improvements are discussed.

  12. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  13. Ion Beam Sputtered Coatings of Bioglass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hench, Larry L.; Wilson, J.; Ruzakowski, Patricia Henrietta Anne

    1982-01-01

    The ion beam sputtering technique available at the NASA-Lewis was used to apply coatings of bioglass to ceramic, metallic, and polymeric substrates. Experiments in vivo and in vitro described investigate these coatings. Some degree of substrate masking was obtained in all samples although stability and reactivity equivalent to bulk bioglass was not observed in all coated samples. Some degree of stability was seen in all coated samples that were reacted in vitro. Both metallic and ceramic substrates coated in this manner failed to show significantly improved coatings over those obtained with existing techniques. Implantation of the coated ceramic substrate samples in bone gave no definite bonding as seen with bulk glass; however, partial and patchy bonding was seen. Polymeric substrates in these studies showed promise of success. The coatings applied were sufficient to mask the underlying reactive test surface and tissue adhesion of collagen to bioglass was seen. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic, charged, and uncharged polymeric surfaces were successfully coated.

  14. Controlling FAMA by the Ptolemy II model of ion beam transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balvanović, R.; Rađenović, B.; Beličev, P.; Nešković, N.

    2009-08-01

    FAMA is a facility for modification and analysis of materials with ion beams. Due to the wide range of ion beams and energies used in the facility and its future expansion, the need has arisen for faster tuning of ion beams transport control parameters. With this aim, a new approach to modeling ion-beam transport system was developed, based on the Ptolemy II modeling and design framework. A model in Ptolemy II is a hierarchical aggregation of components called actors, which communicate with other actors using tokens, or pieces of data. Each ion optical element is modeled by a composite actor implementing beam matrix transformation function, while tokens carry beam matrix data. A basic library of models of typical ion optical elements is developed, and a complex model of FAMA ion beam transport system is hierarchically integrated with bottom-up approach. The model is extended to include control functions. The developed model is modular, flexible and extensible. The results obtained by simulation on the model demonstrate easy and efficient tuning of beam line control parameters. Fine tuning of control parameters, due to uncertainties inherent to modeling, still has to be performed on-line.

  15. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, G. Q.; Lei, G. J.; Cao, J. Y.; Duan, X. R.

    2012-07-15

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage ({approx}100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak.

  16. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zou, G Q; Lei, G J; Cao, J Y; Duan, X R

    2012-07-01

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage (∼100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak. PMID:22852685

  17. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform.

    PubMed

    Sun, L T; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, X X; Wang, H; Guo, X H; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed. PMID:18315202

  18. Cavity Ringdown Technique for negative-hydrogen-ion measurement in ion source for neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Shibuya, M.; Geng, S.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2016-03-01

    The Cavity Ringdown Technique (CRD) is applied for negative hydrogen ion (H-) density measurement in H- source for the neutral beam injector. The CRD is one of the laser absorption techniques. Nd:YAG pulse laser was utilized for negative-hydrogen-ion photodetachment. The H- density related to extracted H- beam was successfully observed by a fixed position CRD. A two-dimensional movable CRD has been developed to measure the H- density profile. Measured profiles were consistent with expected profiles from the H- production area in pure hydrogen and cesium seeded plasmas. By applying absorption saturation in the optical cavity, negative hydrogen ion temperature was evaluated and was confirmed as being a similar value measured with other diagnostics.

  19. Ion beam sputter deposited zinc telluride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Zinc telluride is of interest as a potential electronic device material, particularly as one component in an amorphous superlattice, which is a new class of interesting and potentially useful materials. Some structural and electronic properties of ZnTe films deposited by argon ion beam sputter depoairion are described. Films (up to 3000 angstroms thick) were deposited from a ZnTe target. A beam energy of 1000 eV and a current density of 4 mA/sq. cm. resulted in deposition rates of approximately 70 angstroms/min. The optical band gap was found to be approximately 1.1 eV, indicating an amorphous structure, as compared to a literature value of 2.26 eV for crystalline material. Intrinsic stress measurements showed a thickness dependence, varying from tensile for thicknesses below 850 angstroms to compressive for larger thicknesses. Room temperature conductivity measurement also showed a thickness dependence, with values ranging from 1.86 x to to the -6/ohm. cm. for 300 angstrom film to 2.56 x 10 to the -1/ohm. cm. for a 2600 angstrom film. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the conductivity for these films showed complicated behavior which was thickness dependent. Thinner films showed at least two distinct temperature dependent conductivity mechanisms, as described by a Mott-type model. Thicker films showed only one principal conductivity mechanism, similar to what might be expected for a material with more crystalline character.

  20. Ion beam sputter deposited zinc telluride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc telluride is of interest as a potential electronic device material, particularly as one component in an amorphous superlattice, which is a new class of interesting and potentially useful materials. Some structural and electronic properties of ZnTe films deposited by argon ion beam sputter deposition are described. Films (up to 3000 angstroms thick) were deposited from a ZnTe target. A beam energy of 1000 eV and a current density of 4 mA/sq cm resulted in deposition rates of approximately 70 angstroms/min. The optical band gap was found to be approximately 1.1 eV, indicating an amorphous structure, as compared to a literature value of 2.26 eV for crystalline material. Intrinsic stress measurements showed a thickness dependence, varying from tensile for thicknesses below 850 angstroms to compressive for larger thicknesses. Room temperature conductivity measurement also showed a thickness dependence, with values ranging from 1.86 x 10 to the -6th/ohm cm for 300 angstrom film to 2.56 x 10 to the -1/ohm cm for a 2600 angstrom film. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the conductivity for these films showed complicated behavior which was thickness dependent. Thinner films showed at least two distinct temperature dependent conductivity mechanisms, as described by a Mott-type model. Thicker films showed only one principal conductivity mechanism, similar to what might be expected for a material with more crystalline character.

  1. Ion beam driven ion-acoustic waves in a plasma cylinder with negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Gahlot, Ajay

    2008-07-15

    An ion beam propagating through a magnetized plasma cylinder containing K{sup +} positive ions, electrons, and SF{sub 6}{sup -} negative ions drives electrostatic ion-acoustic (IA) waves to instability via Cerenkov interaction. Two electrostatic IA wave modes in presence of K{sup +} and SF{sub 6}{sup -} ions are studied. The phase velocity of the sound wave in presence of positive and negative ions increase with the relative density of negative ions. The unstable wave frequencies and the growth rate of both the modes in presence of positive and negative ions increase with the relative density of negative ions. The growth rate of both the unstable modes in presence of SF{sub 6}{sup -} and K{sup +} ions scales as the one-third power of the beam density. Numerical calculations of the phase velocity, growth rate, and mode frequencies have been carried out for the parameters of the experiment of Song et al. [Phys. Fluids B 3, 284 (1991)].

  2. NRL light ion beam research for inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Goldstein, S. A.; Mosher, D.; Barker, R. J.; Boller, J. R.; Colombant, D. G.; Drobot, A.; Meger, R. A.; Oliphant, W. F.; Ottinger, P. F.

    1980-11-01

    There is presently great interest in using light ions beams to drive thermonuclear pellets. Terrawatt-level ion beams have been efficiently produced using conventional pulsed power generators at Sandia Laboratory with magnetically-insulated ion diodes and at the Naval Research Laboratory with pinch-reflex ion diodes. Both laboratories have recently focused ion beams to pellet dimensions. This paper reviews recent advances made at NRL in the area of ion production with pinch-reflex diodes, and in the areas of beam focusing and transport. In addition, modulator generator and beam requirements for pellet ignition systems are reviewed and compared with the latest experimental results. These results include the following: (1) production of = or - 100,100 kj proton and deuteron beams with peak ion powers approaching 2 TW on the PITHON generator in collaboration with Physics International Co., (2) focusing of 0.5 TW deuteron beams produced on the NRL Gamble 2 generator to current densities of about 300 kA/sq cm, and (3) efficient transport of 100 kA level ion beams over 1 meter distances using Z-discharge plasma channels.

  3. Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam ChargeNeutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson,Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Waldron, William; Logan, B. Grant

    2005-10-01

    Plasmas are employed as a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length {approx} 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce one-meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being developed. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO{sub 3} to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic, and high voltage ({approx} 1-5 kV) applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long has produced plasma densities of 5 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. The source was integrated into the previous Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K{sup +} ion beam. Presently, the one-meter source is being fabricated. The source is being characterized and will be integrated into NDCX for charge neutralization experiments.

  4. Cryo-focused-ion-beam applications in structural biology.

    PubMed

    Rigort, Alexander; Plitzko, Jürgen M

    2015-09-01

    The ability to precisely control the preparation of biological samples for investigations by electron cryo-microscopy is becoming increasingly important for ultrastructural imaging in biology. Precision machining instruments such as the focused ion beam microscope (FIB) were originally developed for applications in materials science. However, today we witness a growing use of these tools in the life sciences mainly due to their versatility, since they can be used both as manipulation and as imaging devices, when complemented with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The advent of cryo-preparation equipment and accessories made it possible to pursue work on frozen-hydrated biological specimens with these two beam (FIB/SEM) instruments. In structural biology, the cryo-FIB can be used to site-specifically thin vitrified specimens for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tomography. Having control over the specimen thickness is a decisive factor for TEM imaging, as the thickness of the object under scrutiny determines the attainable resolution. Besides its use for TEM preparation, the FIB/SEM microscope can be additionally used to obtain three-dimensional volumetric data from biological specimens. The unique combination of an imaging and precision manipulation tool allows sequentially removing material with the ion beam and imaging the milled block faces by scanning with the electron beam, an approach known as FIB/SEM tomography. This review covers both fields of cryo-FIB applications: specimen preparation for TEM cryo-tomography and volume imaging by cryo-FIB/SEM tomography. PMID:25703192

  5. Production of multiply charged ion beams from solid substances with the mVINIS ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, I.; Dobrosavljevic, A.; Nedeljkovic, T.; Siljegovic, M.

    2006-03-15

    The mVINIS ion source has enabled us to obtain multiply charged ion beams from gases as well as from solid materials. The solid substance ion beams were produced by using two techniques: (a) the evaporation of metals by using the inlet system based on a minioven and (b) the metal-ions-from-volatile-compounds method (MIVOC) by using the modified gas inlet system. Great efforts were made in the production of high current stable ion beams of solids with relatively high melting points (over 1000 deg. C). The B{sup 3+} ion-beam current of over 300 {mu}A was one of the most intensive beams extracted until now. The obtained multiply charged ion-beam spectra of solid substances (B, Fe, and Zn) are presented as well as some of the corresponding experimental results achieved during the modification of polymers, carbon materials, and fullerenes.

  6. Nanopore Sculpting with Low Energy Ion Beam of Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qun; Ledden, Brad; Krueger, Eric; Golovchenko, Jene; Li, Jiali

    2005-03-01

    Experiments show that 3keV Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, and Xenon ion beams can be used to controllably ``sculpt'' nanoscale features in silicon nitride films using a feedback controlled ion beam sculpting apparatus. Here we report nanopore ion beam sculpting effects that depend on the inert gas ion species. We demonstrate that: (1) all the noble gas ion beams enable single nanometer control of structural dimensions in nanopores; (2) every ion species above shows similar ion beam flux dependence of nanopore formation, (3) the thickness of nanopores sculpted with different inert gas ion beam is deferent. Computer simulations (with SRIM and TRIM) and an ``adatom'' surface diffusion model are employed to explain the dynamics of nanoscale dimension change by competing sputtering and surface mass transport processes induced by different ion beam irradiation. These experiments and theoretical work reveal the surface atomic transport phenomena in a quantitative way that allows the extraction of parameters such as the adatom surface diffusion coefficients and average travel distances.

  7. Surface modification using low energy ground state ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of effecting modifications at the surfaces of materials using low energy ion beams of known quantum state, purity, flux, and energy is presented. The ion beam is obtained by bombarding ion-generating molecules with electrons which are also at low energy. The electrons used to bombard the ion generating molecules are separated from the ions thus obtained and the ion beam is directed at the material surface to be modified. Depending on the type of ion generating molecules used, different ions can be obtained for different types of surface modifications such as oxidation and diamond film formation. One area of application is in the manufacture of semiconductor devices from semiconductor wafers.

  8. Plasma and ion barrier for electron beam spot stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Snell, Charles M.

    2000-03-01

    High-current electron beams of small spot size are used for high-resolution x-ray radiography of dense objects. Intense energy deposition in the bremsstrahlung target causes generation of ions which can propagate upstream and disrupt the electron beam. We have investigated the use of a thin beryllium foil placed 1-2 cm in front of the target, which serves as a barrier for the ions but is essentially transparent to the incoming electron beam. Analysis and computer simulations confirm that this confinement method will halt ion propagation and preserve the spot size stability of the electron beam. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Atomic-scale thermocapillary flow in focused ion beam milling

    SciTech Connect

    Das, K.; Johnson, H. T.; Freund, J. B.

    2015-05-15

    Focused ion beams provide a means of nanometer-scale manufacturing and material processing, which is used for applications such as forming nanometer-scale pores in thin films for DNA sequencing. We investigate such a configuration with Ga{sup +} bombardment of a Si thin-film target using molecular dynamics simulation. For a range of ion intensities in a realistic configuration, a recirculating melt region develops, which is seen to flow with a symmetrical pattern, counter to how it would flow were it driven by the ion momentum flux. Such flow is potentially important for the shape and composition of the formed structures. Relevant stress scales and estimated physical properties of silicon under these extreme conditions support the importance thermocapillary effects. A flow model with Marangoni forcing, based upon the temperature gradient and geometry from the atomistic simulation, indeed reproduces the flow and thus could be used to anticipate such flows and their influence in applications.

  10. Defocusing of an ion beam propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability

    SciTech Connect

    Tokluoglu, Erinc; Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2015-04-15

    The current and charge neutralization of charged particle beams by background plasma enable ballistic beam propagation and have a wide range of applications in inertial fusion and high energy density physics. However, the beam-plasma interaction can result in the development of collective instabilities that may have deleterious effects on ballistic propagation of an ion beam. In the case of fast, light-ion beams, non-linear fields created by instabilities can lead to significant defocusing of the beam. We study an ion beam pulse propagating in a background plasma, which is subjected to two-stream instability between the beam ions and plasma electrons, using PIC code LSP. The defocusing effects of the instability on the beam can be much more pronounced in small radius beams. We show through simulations that a beamlet produced from an ion beam passed through an aperture can be used as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of the two-stream instability and quantify its defocusing effects. The effect can be observed on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II facility by measuring the spot size of the extracted beamlet propagating through several meters of plasma.

  11. Defocusing of an ion beam propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokluoglu, Erinc; Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2015-04-01

    The current and charge neutralization of charged particle beams by background plasma enable ballistic beam propagation and have a wide range of applications in inertial fusion and high energy density physics. However, the beam-plasma interaction can result in the development of collective instabilities that may have deleterious effects on ballistic propagation of an ion beam. In the case of fast, light-ion beams, non-linear fields created by instabilities can lead to significant defocusing of the beam. We study an ion beam pulse propagating in a background plasma, which is subjected to two-stream instability between the beam ions and plasma electrons, using PIC code LSP. The defocusing effects of the instability on the beam can be much more pronounced in small radius beams. We show through simulations that a beamlet produced from an ion beam passed through an aperture can be used as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of the two-stream instability and quantify its defocusing effects. The effect can be observed on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II facility by measuring the spot size of the extracted beamlet propagating through several meters of plasma.

  12. Long-pulse beam acceleration of MeV-class H(-) ion beams for ITER NB accelerator.

    PubMed

    Umeda, N; Kashiwagi, M; Taniguchi, M; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Yamanaka, H; Inoue, T; Kojima, A; Hanada, M

    2014-02-01

    In order to realize neutral beam systems in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor whose target is to produce a 1 MeV, 200 A/m(2) during 3600 s D(-) ion beam, the electrostatic five-stages negative ion accelerator so-called "MeV accelerator" has been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. To extend pulse length, heat load of the acceleration grids was reduced by controlling the ion beam trajectory. Namely, the beam deflection due to the residual magnetic field of filter magnet was suppressed with the newly developed extractor with a 0.5 mm off-set aperture displacement. The new extractor improved the deflection angle from 6 mrad to 1 mrad, resulting in the reduction of direct interception of negative ions from 23% to 15% of the total acceleration power, respectively. As a result, the pulse length of 130 A/m(2), 881 keV H(-) ion beam has been successfully extended from a previous value of 0.4 s to 8.7 s. This is the first long pulse negative ion beam acceleration over 100 MW/m(2). PMID:24593581

  13. Transverse acceptance calculation for continuous ion beam injection into the electron beam ion trap charge breeder of the ReA post-accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittimanapun, K.; Baumann, T. M.; Lapierre, A.; Schwarz, S.; Bollen, G.

    2015-11-01

    The ReA post-accelerator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) employs an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) as a charge breeder. A Monte-Carlo simulation code was developed to calculate the transverse acceptance phase space of the EBIT for continuously injected ion beams and to determine the capture efficiency in dependence of the transverse beam emittance. For this purpose, the code records the position and time of changes in charge state of injected ions, leading either to capture or loss of ions. To benchmark and validate the code, calculated capture efficiencies were compared with results from a geometrical model and measurements. The results of the code agree with the experimental findings within a few 10%. The code predicts a maximum total capture efficiency of 50% for EBIT parameters readily achievable and an efficiency of up to 80% for an electron beam current density of 1900 A/cm2.

  14. Lithium ion beam driven hohlraums for PBFA II

    SciTech Connect

    Dukart, R.J.

    1994-05-06

    In our light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program, fusion capsules are driven with an intense x-ray radiation field produced when an intense beam of ions penetrates a radiation case and deposits energy in a foam x-ray conversion region. A first step in the program is to generate and measure these intense fields on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II). Our goal is to generate a 100-eV radiation temperature in lithium ion beam driven hohlraums, the radiation environment which will provide the initial drive temperature for ion beam driven implosion systems designed to achieve high gain. In this paper, we describe the design of such hohlraum targets and their predicted performance on PBFA II as we provide increasing ion beam intensities.

  15. Intense ion beams accelerated by relativistic laser plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Markus; Cowan, Thomas E.; Gauthier, Jean-Claude J.; Allen, Matthew; Audebert, Patrick; Blazevic, Abel; Fuchs, Julien; Geissel, Matthias; Hegelich, Manuel; Karsch, S.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, Jurgen; Pukhov, Alexander; Schlegel, Theodor

    2001-12-01

    We have studied the influence of the target properties on laser-accelerated proton and ion beams generated by the LULI multi-terawatt laser. A strong dependence of the ion emission on the surface conditions, conductivity, shape and material of the thin foil targets were observed. We have performed a full characterization of the ion beam using magnetic spectrometers, Thompson parabolas, radiochromic film and nuclear activation techniques. The strong dependence of the ion beam acceleration on the conditions on the target back surface was found in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism. Proton kinetic energies up to 25 MeV have been observed.

  16. Investigation of ion-beam machining methods for replicated x-ray optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drueding, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    The final figuring step in the fabrication of an optical component involves imparting a specified contour onto the surface. This can be expensive and time consuming step. The recent development of ion beam figuring provides a method for performing the figuring process with advantages over standard mechanical methods. Ion figuring has proven effective in figuring large optical components. The process of ion beam figuring removes material by transferring kinetic energy from impinging neutral particles. The process utilizes a Kaufman type ion source, where a plasma is generated in a discharge chamber by controlled electric potentials. Charged grids extract and accelerate ions from the chamber. The accelerated ions form a directional beam. A neutralizer outside the accelerator grids supplies electrons to the positive ion beam. It is necessary to neutralize the beam to prevent charging workpieces and to avoid bending the beam with extraneous electro-magnetic fields. When the directed beam strikes the workpiece, material sputters in a predicable manner. The amount and distribution of material sputtered is a function of the energy of the beam, material of the component, distance from the workpiece, and angle of incidence of the beam. The figuring method described here assumes a constant beam removal, so that the process can be represented by a convolution operation. A fixed beam energy maintains a constant sputtering rate. This temporally and spatially stable beam is held perpendicular to the workpiece at a fixed distance. For non-constant removal, corrections would be required to model the process as a convolution operation. Specific figures (contours) are achieved by rastering the beam over the workpiece at varying velocities. A unique deconvolution is performed, using series-derivative solution developed for the system, to determine these velocities.

  17. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work. PMID:26932095

  18. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toivanen, V.; Küchler, D.

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  19. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process

  20. Direct plasma injection scheme with various ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.

    2010-09-15

    The laser ion source is one of the most powerful heavy ion sources. However, it is difficult to obtain good stability and to control its intense current. To overcome these difficulties, we proposed a new beam injection scheme called 'direct plasma injection scheme'. Following this it was established to provide various species with desired charge state as an intense accelerated beam. Carbon, aluminum and iron beams have been tested.

  1. Measurements of Beam Ion Loss from the Compact Helical System

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Darrow, M. Isobe, Takashi Kondo, M. Sasao, and the CHS Group National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, Japan

    2010-02-03

    Beam ion loss from the Compact Helical System (CHS) has been measured with a scintillator-type probe. The total loss to the probe, and the pitch angle and gyroradius distributions of that loss, have been measured as various plasma parameters were scanned. Three classes of beam ion loss were observed at the probe position: passing ions with pitch angles within 10o of those of transition orbits, ions on transition orbits, and ions on trapped orbits, typically 15o or more from transition orbits. Some orbit calculations in this geometry have been performed in order to understand the characteristics of the loss. Simulation of the detector signal based upon the following of orbits from realistic beam deposition profiles is not able to reproduce the pitch angle distribution of the losses measured. Consequently it is inferred that internal plasma processes, whether magnetohydrodynamic modes, radial electric fields, or plasma turbulence, move previously confined beam ions to transition orbits, resulting in their loss.

  2. An improved Green's function for ion beam transport.

    PubMed

    Tweed, J; Wilson, J W; Tripathi, R K

    2004-01-01

    Ion beam transport theory allows testing of material transmission properties in the laboratory environment generated by particle accelerators. This is a necessary step in materials development and evaluation for space use. The approximations used in solving the Boltzmann transport equation for the space setting are often not sufficient for laboratory work and those issues are the main emphasis of the present work. In consequence, an analytic solution of the linear Boltzmann equation is pursued in the form of a Green's function allowing flexibility in application to a broad range of boundary value problems. It has been established that simple solutions can be found for high charge and energy (HZE) ions by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift with dispersion associated with nuclear events. Recently, we have found global solutions including these effects providing a broader class of HZE ion solutions. PMID:15880918

  3. An improved Green's function for ion beam transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, J.; Wilson, J. W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2004-01-01

    Ion beam transport theory allows testing of material transmission properties in the laboratory environment generated by particle accelerators. This is a necessary step in materials development and evaluation for space use. The approximations used in solving the Boltzmann transport equation for the space setting are often not sufficient for laboratory work and those issues are the main emphasis of the present work. In consequence, an analytic solution of the linear Boltzmann equation is pursued in the form of a Green's function allowing flexibility in application to a broad range of boundary value problems. It has been established that simple solutions can be found for high charge and energy (HZE) ions by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift with dispersion associated with nuclear events. Recently, we have found global solutions including these effects providing a broader class of HZE ion solutions. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laser Ion Source Operation at the TRIUMF Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassen, J.; Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Lavoie, J. P.; Gillner, M.; Gottwald, T.; Hellbusch, F.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2009-03-01

    The TRIUMF Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) for radioactive ion beam production is presented, with target ion source, laser beam transport, laser system and operation. In this context aspects of titanium sapphire (TiSa) laser based RILIS and facility requirements are discussed and results from the first years of TRILIS RIB delivery are given.

  5. Ripple rotation, pattern transitions, and long range ordered dots on silicon by ion beam erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Ziberi, B.; Frost, F.; Tartz, M.; Neumann, H.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2008-02-11

    The importance of the ion incidence angle in self-organized pattern formation during low energy Xe{sup +} ion beam erosion of silicon is elaborated. By a small step variation of the ion incidence angle, a variety of nanostructured patterns can develop. In this context, the angular distribution of ions within the ion beam is explored as an additional parameter controlling the evolution of the surface topography. Due to a controlled variation of these two parameters, hitherto unknown phenomena are found: (i) formation of rotated ripples, (ii) continuous transitions between patterns, and (iii) long range square ordered dot patter000.

  6. Adaptation of ion beam technology to microfabrication of solid state devices and transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topich, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    It was found that ion beam texturing of silicon surfaces can be used to increase the effective surface area of MOS capacitors. There is, however, a problem with low dielectric breakdown. Preliminary work was begun on the fabrication of ion implanted resistors on textured surfaces and the potential improvement of wire bond strength by bonding to a textured surface. In the area of ion beam sputtering, the techniques for sputtering PVC were developed. A PVC target containing valinomycin was used to sputter an ion selective membrane on a field effect transistor to form a potassium ion sensor.

  7. A CW radiofrequency ion source for production of negative hydrogen ion beams for cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H.; Tuunanen, J.; Potkins, D.; Stewart, T.; Dehnel, M. P.

    2015-04-08

    A CW 13.56 MHz radiofrequency-driven ion source RADIS for production of H{sup −} and D{sup −} beams is under development for replacing the filament-driven ion source of the MCC30/15 cyclotron. The RF ion source has a 16-pole multicusp plasma chamber, an electromagnet-based magnetic filter and an external planar spiral RF antenna behind an AlN window. The extraction is a 5-electrode system with an adjustable puller electrode voltage for optimizing the beam formation, a water-cooled electron dump electrode and an accelerating einzel lens. At 2650 W of RF power, the source produces 1 mA of H{sup −} (2.6 mA/cm{sup 2}), which is the intensity needed at injection for production of 200 µA H{sup +} with the filament-driven ion source. A simple pepperpot device has been developed for characterizing the beam emittance. Plans for improving the power efficiency with the use of a new permanent magnet front plate is discussed.

  8. Analytical and Numerical Studies of the Complex Interaction of a Fast Ion Beam Pulse with a Background Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-11-25

    Plasma neutralization of an intense ion beam pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, high energy physics, etc. Comprehensive analytical, numerical, and experimental studies are underway to investigate the complex interaction of a fast ion beam with a background plasma. The positively charged ion beam attracts plasma electrons, and as a result the plasma electrons have a tendency to neutralize the beam charge and current. A suite of particle-in-cell codes has been developed to study the propagation of an ion beam pulse through the background plasma. For quasi-steady-state propagation of the ion beam pulse, an analytical theory has been developed using the assumption of long charge bunches and conservation of generalized vorticity. The analytical results agree well with the results of the numerical simulations. The visualization of the data obtained in the numerical simulations shows complex collective phenomena during beam entry into and ex it from the plasma.

  9. Tamped, split fuel-layer ion-beam target

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, D.J.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    A double shelled, split fuel layer target with an outer hydro tamper surrounding the low Z absorber has been designed for ion beam drivers. Results from 1-D computer calculations predict a 5 GeV heavy ion beam could produce gains in excess of 200. The behavior of this target as a function of ion range, tamper thickness and spot size has been studied.

  10. Beam-Ion Instability in PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, S.; Kulikov, A.; Wang, Min-Huey; Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    The instability in the PEP-II electron ring has been observed while reducing the clearing gap in the bunch train. We study the ion effects in the ring summarizing existing theories of the beam-ion interaction, comparing them with observations, and estimating effect on luminosity in the saturation regime. Considering the gap instability we suggest that the instability is triggered by the beam-ion instability, and discuss other mechanisms pertinent to the instability.

  11. Design and operation of the electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, D.

    1990-05-30

    This report describes the basic features and operating principles of the Electron Beam Ion Trap. The differences between EBIT and other sources of highly charged ions are outlined. Its features and operating parameters are discussed. The report also explains why certain design choices were necessary and the constraints involved in building an electron beam ion trap. EBIT's evaporation cooling system is described in detail. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Pattern evolution during ion beam sputtering; reductionistic view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.-H.; Kim, J.-S.

    2016-09-01

    The development of the ripple pattern during the ion beam sputtering (IBS) is expounded via the evolution of its constituent ripples. For that purpose, we perform numerical simulation of the ripple evolution that is based on Bradley-Harper model and its non-linear extension. The ripples are found to evolve via various well-defined processes such as ripening, averaging, bifurcation and their combinations, depending on their neighboring ripples. Those information on the growth kinetics of each ripple allow the detailed description of the pattern development in real space that the instability argument and the diffraction study both made in k-space cannot provide.

  13. Studies of Ion Beam Charge Neutralization by Ferroelectric Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    Space-charge forces limit the possible transverse compression of high perveance ion beams that are used in ion-beam-driven high energy density physics applications; the minimum radius to which a beam can be focused is an increasing function of perveance. The limit can be overcome if a plasma is introduced in the beam path between the focusing element and the target in order to neutralize the space charge of the beam. This concept has been implemented on the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX) at LBNL using Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPS). In our experiment at PPPL, we propagate a perveance-dominated ion beam through a FEPS to study the effect of the neutralizing plasma on the beam envelope and its evolution in time. A 30-60 keV space-charge-dominated Argon beam is focused with an Einzel lens into a FEPS located at the beam waist. The beam is intercepted downstream from the FEPS by a movable Faraday cup that provides time-resolved 2D current density profiles of the beam spot on target. We report results on: (a) dependence of charge neutralization on FEPS plasma density; (b) effects on beam emittance, and (c) time evolution of the beam envelope after the FEPS pulse. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Area-selective formation of Si nanocrystals by assisted ion-beam irradiation during dual-ion-beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Kwon; Cha, Kyu Man; Kang, Jung Hyun; Kim, Yong; Yi, Jae-Yel; Chung, Tae Hun; Bark, Hong Jun

    2004-08-30

    We investigate the effect of Ar-ion-beam irradiation during the deposition of SiO{sub x} films by dual-ion-beam deposition system. Ion-beam irradiation effectively increases the oxygen content, x, in SiO{sub x} films indicative of the preferential sputtering of Si phase as compared to SiO{sub 2} phase in SiO{sub x} films. We observe the intense photoluminescence from nonirradiated sample after postdeposition annealing at 1100 deg. C indicating the formation of Si nanocrystals as shown by a cross-sectional transmission electron microscope. However, the increased oxygen content in ion-beam-irradiated sample results in small optical volume of small Si nanocrystals not sufficient for yielding appreciable photoluminescence intensity after postdeposition annealing. The property is utilized for achieving the area-selective formation of Si nanocrytals by inserting a shadow mask in assist ion beam during deposition.

  15. A review of studies on ion thruster beam and charge-exchange plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Various experimental and analytical studies of the primary beam and charge-exchange plasmas of ion thrusters are reviewed. The history of plasma beam research is recounted, emphasizing experiments on beam neutralization, expansion of the beam, and determination of beam parameters such as electron temperature, plasma density, and plasma potential. The development of modern electron bombardment ion thrusters is treated, detailing experimental results. Studies on charge-exchange plasma are discussed, showing results such as the relationship between neutralizer emission current and plasma beam potential, ion energies as a function of neutralizer bias, charge-exchange ion current collected by an axially moving Faraday cup-RPA for 8-cm and 30-cm ion thrusters, beam density and potential data from a 15-cm ion thruster, and charge-exchange ion flow around a 30-cm thruster. A 20-cm thruster electrical configuration is depicted and facility effects are discussed. Finally, plasma modeling is covered in detail for plasma beam and charge-exchange plasma.

  16. Applications of the Lithium Focused Ion Beam: Nanoscale Electrochemistry and Microdisk Mode Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGehee, William; Takeuchi, Saya; Michels, Thomas; Oleshko, Vladimir; Aksyuk, Vladimir; Soles, Christopher; McClelland, Jabez; Center for Nanoscale Science; Technology at NIST Collaboration; Materials Measurement Laboratory at NIST Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The NIST-developed lithium Focused-Ion-Beam (LiFIB) system creates a low-energy, picoampere-scale ion beam from a photoionized gas of laser-cooled atoms. The ion beam can be focused to a <30 nm spot and scanned across a sample. This enables imaging through collection of ion-induced secondary electrons (similar to SEM) as well as the ability to selectively deposit lithium-ions into nanoscale volumes in a material. We exploit this second ability of the LiFIB to selectively ''titrate'' lithium ions as a means of probing the optical modes in microdisk resonators as well as for exploring nanoscale, Li-ion electrochemistry in battery-relevant materials. We present an overview of both measurements, including imaging of the optical mode in a silicon microdisk and a comparison of FIB and electrochemical lithiation of tin.

  17. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Guo, X. H.; Cao, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Song, M. T.; Zhao, H. Y.; Jin, T.; Shang, Y.; Zhan, W. L.; Wei, B. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6T at injection, 2.2T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5kW by two 18GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810eμA of O7+, 505eμA of Xe20+, 306eμA of Xe27+, and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  18. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007. PMID:18315105

  19. Accelerator development for a radioactive beam facility based on ATLAS.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-08

    The existing superconducting linac ATLAS is in many respects an ideal secondary beam accelerator for an ISOL (Isotope separator on-line) type radioactive beam facility. Such a facility would require the addition of two major accelerator elements: a low charge state injector for the existing heavy ion linac, and a primary beam accelerator providing 220 MV of acceleration for protons and light ions. Development work for both of these elements, including the option of superconducting cavities for the primary beam accelerator is discussed.

  20. A gas jet target for radioactive ion beam experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chipps, K. A.; Greife, U.; Hager, U.; Sarazin, F.; Bardayan, D. W.; Pain, S. D.; Schmitt, K. T.; Smith, M. S.; Blackmon, J. C.; Linhardt, L. E.; Browne, J.; Kontos, A.; Meisel, Z.; Montes, F.; Schatz, H.; Erikson, L. E.; Lemut, A.; and others

    2013-04-19

    New radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities, like FRIB in the US or FAIR in Europe, will push further away from stability and enable the next generation of nuclear physics experiments. Thus, the need for improved RIB targets is more crucial than ever: developments in exotic beams should coincide with developments in targets for use with those beams, in order for nuclear physics to remain on the cutting edge. Of great importance to the future of RIB physics are scattering, transfer and capture reaction measurements of rare, exotic, and unstable nuclei on light targets such as hydrogen and helium. These measurements require targets that are dense, highly localized, and pure, and conventional targets often suffer too many drawbacks to allow for such experimental designs. Targets must also accommodate the use of large area, highly-segmented silicon detector arrays, high-efficiency gamma arrays, and novel heavy ion detectors to efficiently measure the reaction products. To address this issue, the Jet Experiments in Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics (JENSA) Collaboration led by the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) is in the process of designing, building and testing a supersonic gas jet target for use at existing and future RIB facilities. The gas jet target provides a high density and high purity of target nuclei within a tightly confined region, without the use of windows or backing materials. The design also enables the use of multiple state-of-the-art detection systems.

  1. Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Shepard, K.W.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Fuerst, J.D.; Waldschmidt, G.; Gonin, I.V.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006 < v/c < 0.06. Superconducting TEM-class cavities have been widely applied to CW acceleration of ion beams. SC linacs can be formed as an array of independently-phased cavities, enabling a variable velocity profile to maximize the output energy for each of a number of different ion species. Several laboratories in the US and Europe are planning exotic beam facilities based on SC linacs. The cavity designs presented here are intended for the front-end of such linacs, particularly for the post-acceleration of rare isotopes of low charge state. Several types of SC cavities have been developed recently to cover particle velocities above 0.06c. Superconducting four-gap quarter-wave resonators for velocities 0.008 < {beta} = v/c < 0.05 were developed about two decades ago and have been successfully operated at the ATLAS SC linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Since that time, progress in simulation tools, cavity fabrication and processing have increased SC cavity gradients by a factor of 3-4. This paper applies these tools to optimize the design of a four-gap quarter-wave resonator for exotic beam facilities and other low-velocity applications.

  2. A gas jet target for radioactive ion beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipps, K. A.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Browne, J.; Couder, M.; Erikson, L. E.; Greife, U.; Hager, U.; Kontos, A.; Lemut, A.; Linhardt, L. E.; Meisel, Z.; Montes, F.; Pain, S. D.; Robertson, D.; Sarazin, F.; Schatz, H.; Schmitt, K. T.; Smith, M. S.; Vetter, P.; Wiescher, M.

    2013-04-01

    New radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities, like FRIB in the US or FAIR in Europe, will push further away from stability and enable the next generation of nuclear physics experiments. Thus, the need for improved RIB targets is more crucial than ever: developments in exotic beams should coincide with developments in targets for use with those beams, in order for nuclear physics to remain on the cutting edge. Of great importance to the future of RIB physics are scattering, transfer and capture reaction measurements of rare, exotic, and unstable nuclei on light targets such as hydrogen and helium. These measurements require targets that are dense, highly localized, and pure, and conventional targets often suffer too many drawbacks to allow for such experimental designs. Targets must also accommodate the use of large area, highly-segmented silicon detector arrays, high-efficiency gamma arrays, and novel heavy ion detectors to efficiently measure the reaction products. To address this issue, the Jet Experiments in Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics (JENSA) Collaboration led by the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) is in the process of designing, building and testing a supersonic gas jet target for use at existing and future RIB facilities. The gas jet target provides a high density and high purity of target nuclei within a tightly confined region, without the use of windows or backing materials. The design also enables the use of multiple state-of-the-art detection systems.

  3. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gonzales, Fermin; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin; Sedillo, James Daniel; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  4. Method and apparatus for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams

    DOEpatents

    Beene, James R.; Liu, Yuan; Havener, Charles C.

    2008-02-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams. A method of purifying an ion beam includes: inputting the ion beam into a gas-filled multipole ion guide, the ion beam including a plurality of ions; increasing a laser-ion interaction time by collisional cooling the plurality of ions using the gas-filled multipole ion guide, the plurality of ions including at least one contaminant; and suppressing the at least one contaminant by selectively removing the at least one contaminant from the ion beam by electron photodetaching at least a portion of the at least one contaminant using a laser beam.

  5. Fabrication of Pt nanoparticle incorporated polymer nanowires by high energy ion and electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukuda, Satoshi; Takahasi, Ryouta; Seki, Shu; Sugimoto, Masaki; Idesaki, Akira; Yoshikawa, Masahito; Tanaka, Shun-Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-Pt nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid nanowires were fabricated by high energy ion beam irradiation to PVP thin films including H2PtCl6. Single ion hitting caused crosslinking reactions of PVP and reduction of Pt ions within local cylindrical area along an ion trajectory (ion track); therefore, the PVP nanowires including Pt NPs were formed and isolated on Si substrate after wet-development procedure. The number of Pt NPs was easily controlled by the mixed ratio of PVP and H2PtCl6. However, increasing the amount of H2PtCl6 led to decreasing the radial size and separation of the hybrid nanowires during the wet-development. Additional electron beam irradiation after ion beam improved separation of the nanowires and controlled radial sizes due to an increase in the density of crosslinking points inner the nanowires.

  6. High intensity ion beam injection into the 88-inch cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Wutte, Daniela; Clark, Dave J.; Laune, Bernard; Leitner,Matthaeus A.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2000-05-31

    Low cross section experiments to produce super-heavyelements have increased the demand for high intensity heavy ion beams atenergies of about 5 MeV/nucleon at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory. Therefore, efforts are underway to increasethe overall ion beam transmission through the axial injection line andthe cyclotron. The ion beam emittance has been measured for various ionmasses and charge states. Beam transport simulations including spacecharge effects were performed for both of the injection line and the ionsource extraction. The relatively low nominal injection voltage of 10 kVwas found to be the main factor for ion beam losses, because of beam blowup due to space charge forces at higher intensities. Consequently,experiments and simulations have been performed at higherinjectionenergies, and it was demonstrated that the ion beams could still becentered in the cyclotron at these energies. Therefore, the new injectorion source VENUS and its ion beam transport system (currently underconstruction at the 88-Inch Cyclotron) are designed for extractionvoltages up to 30 kV.

  7. The generation and application of intense pulsed ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, J.; Kapetanakos, C. A.; Pasour, J. A.; Mahaffey, R. A.

    1981-04-01

    Means for the generation of pulsed, ultrahigh power beams of low-atomic-mass ions are considered, and potential applications of the beams in thermonuclear fusion and other applications are discussed. The intense ion beam sources represent an extension of the pulsed-power technology of relativistic electron beams, employing transmission lines powered by Marx generators to produce pulses of 25-100 nsec duration, energies of 0.1-2 MV, currents of 1 kA to 1 MA, and power levels above 1 GW. The most successful approach to intense pulsed beam generation is based on the acceleration of plasma ions within vacuum-diode-like sources involving the processes of plasma generation, ion extraction, and the suppression of the electron current, which may be accomplished by reflexing, pinching or magnetic insulation. Ion beams thus generated have been used to form transient, field-reversed ion layers and to excite high-power gas lasers. Intense ion beams are also under investigation as drivers of inertial confinement in thermonuclear reactors.

  8. Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam-processed surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kodali, P.

    1998-01-01

    The intent of this work was to broaden the applications of well-established surface modification techniques and to elucidate the various wear mechanisms that occur in sliding contact of ion-beam processed surfaces. The investigation included characterization and evaluation of coatings and modified surfaces synthesized by three surface engineering methods; namely, beam-line ion implantation, plasma-source ion implantation, and DC magnetron sputtering. Correlation among measured properties such as surface hardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior was also examined. This dissertation focused on the following areas of research: (1) investigating the mechanical and tribological properties of mixed implantation of carbon and nitrogen into single crystal silicon by beam-line implantation; (2) characterizing the mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings processed by plasma source ion implantation; and (3) developing and evaluating metastable boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) compound coatings for mechanical and tribological properties. The surface hardness of a mixed carbon-nitrogen implant sample improved significantly compared to the unimplanted sample. However, the enhancement in the wear factor of this sample was found to be less significant than carbon-implanted samples. The presence of nitrogen might be responsible for the degraded wear behavior since nitrogen-implantation alone resulted in no improvement in the wear factor. DLC coatings have low friction, low wear factor, and high hardness. The fracture toughness of DLC coatings has been estimated for the first time. The wear mechanism in DLC coatings investigated with a ruby slider under a contact stress of 1 GPa was determined to be plastic deformation. The preliminary data on metastable BCN compound coatings indicated high friction, low wear factor, and high hardness.

  9. High-Speed Nano-Processing with Cluster Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, T.; Matsuo, J.

    2006-11-01

    The gas cluster ion beam process has a high potential for material processing in nano-technology devices, such as photonic crystals, thin film transistors (TFTs) and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). In order to fabricate the devices, one needs to etch target materials with a high-speed, low-damage and ultra-smooth process. Extremely high rate sputtering was realized by high-energy cluster ion beam. We have been using this technique for poly-Si TFTs. There are many hillocks on poly-Si films formed by using a laser anneal technique, and they cause degradation of devices. When the laser crystallized poly-Si film was irradiated with cluster ion beam, the higher hillocks could be etched selectively and the surfaces of poly-Si films could be processed with low ion dose. High-speed nano-processing was realized by cluster ion beam.

  10. Ion beam collimating grid to reduce added defects

    DOEpatents

    Lindquist, Walter B.; Kearney, Patrick A.

    2003-01-01

    A collimating grid for an ion source located after the exit grid. The collimating grid collimates the ion beamlets and disallows beam spread and limits the beam divergence during transients and steady state operation. The additional exit or collimating grid prevents beam divergence during turn-on and turn-off and prevents ions from hitting the periphery of the target where there is re-deposited material or from missing the target and hitting the wall of the vessel where there is deposited material, thereby preventing defects from being deposited on a substrate to be coated. Thus, the addition of a collimating grid to an ion source ensures that the ion beam will hit and be confined to a specific target area.

  11. Neutralization tests on the SERT II spacecraft. [of ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Domitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Orbit precession returned the SERT II spacecraft to continuous sunlight in January 1979 for the first time since early 1972, and new experiments were planned and conducted. Neutralization of an ion beam was accomplished by a second neutralizer cathode located 1 meter away. Plasma potential measurements were made of the plasma surrounding the ion beam and connecting the beam to the second neutralizer. When the density of the connecting plasma was increased by turning on the main discharge of a neighboring ion thruster, the neutralization of the ion beam occurred with improved (lower) coupling voltage. These and other tests reported should aid in the future design of spacecraft using electric thruster systems. Data taken indicate that cross neutralization of ion thrusters in a multiple thruster array should occur readily.

  12. Gabor lens focusing of a negative ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Palkovic, J.A.; Mills, F.E.; Schmidt, C.; Young, D.E.

    1989-05-01

    Gabor or plasma lenses have previously been used to focus intense beams of positive ions at energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV. It is the large electrostatic field of the non-neutral plasma in the Gabor lens which is responsible for the focusing. Focusing an ion beam with a given sign of charge in a Gabor lens requires a non-neutral plasma with the opposite sign of charge as the beam. A Gabor lens constructed at Fermilab has been used to focus a 30 keV proton beam with good optical quality. We discuss studies of the action of a Gabor lens on a beam of negative ions. A Gabor lens has been considered for matching an H/sup /minus// beam into an RFQ in the redesign of the low energy section of the Fermilab linac. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Nakagawa, T.; Haba, H.; Fujimaki, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Tamura, M.; Aihara, T.; Uchiyama, A.

    2012-02-15

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U{sup 35+} for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power.

  14. Preliminary result of rapid solenoid for controlling heavy-ion beam parameters of laser ion source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Okamura, M.; Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Kanesue, T.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.

    2015-03-13

    To realize a heavy ion inertial fusion driver, we have studied a possibility of laser ion source (LIS). A LIS can provide high current high brightness heavy ion beams, however it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters. To overcome the issue, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The rapid ramping magnetic field could enhance limited time slice of the current and simultaneously the beam emittance changed accordingly. This approach may also useful to realize an ion source for HIF power plant.

  15. Progress of resonant ionization laser ion source development at GANIL

    SciTech Connect

    Henares, J. L. Huguet, Y.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Osmond, B.; Sjödin, A. M.; Kron, T.; Schneider, F.; Wendt, K.

    2014-02-15

    SPIRAL2 (Système de Production d’Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne) is a research facility under construction at GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds) for the production of radioactive ion beams by isotope separation on-line methods and low-energy in-flight techniques. A resonant ionization laser ion source will be one of the main techniques to produce the radioactive ion beams. GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is a test bench developed to study a fully operational laser ion source available for Day 1 operations at SPIRAL2 Phase 2. The aim of this project is to find the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results about the new ion source geometry will be presented.

  16. Characterization of the Ion Beam Focusing in a Mass Spectrometer using an IonCCD™ Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Grant E.; Hadjar, Omar; Laskin, Julia

    2011-07-26

    A position sensitive pixel-based detector array, referred to as the IonCCDTM, has been employed to characterize the ion optics and ion beam focusing in a custom built mass spectrometer designed for soft and reactive landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces. The IonCCDTM was placed at several stages along the path of the ion beam to determine the focusing capabilities of the various ion optics which include an electrodynamic ion funnel, two radiofrequency (RF) only collision quadrupoles, a mass resolving quadrupole, a quadrupole bender, and two Einzel lens assemblies. The focusing capabilities of the RF-only collision quadrupoles and Einzel lenses are demonstrated by large decreases in the diameter of the ion beam. In contrast, the mass resolving quadrupole is shown to significantly defocus the mass-selected ion beam resulting in an expansion of the measured ion beam diameter. Combined with SIMION simulations we demonstrate that the IonCCDTM can identify minor errors in the alignment of charged-particle optics that result in erratic trajectories and significant deflections of the ion beam.. This information can be used to improve the design assembly and maintenance of custom-built mass spectrometry instrumentation.

  17. Characterization of the ion beam focusing in a mass spectrometer using an IonCCD™ detector.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Grant E; Hadjar, Omar; Laskin, Julia

    2011-08-01

    A position sensitive pixel-based detector array, referred to as the IonCCD, has been employed to characterize the ion optics and ion beam focusing in a custom built mass spectrometer designed for soft and reactive landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces. The IonCCD was placed at several stages along the path of the ion beam to determine the focusing capabilities of the various ion optics, which include an electrodynamic ion funnel, two radiofrequency (rf)-only collision quadrupoles, a mass resolving quadrupole, a quadrupole bender, and two einzel lens assemblies. The focusing capabilities of the rf-only collision quadrupoles and einzel lenses are demonstrated by large decreases in the diameter of the ion beam. In contrast, the mass resolving quadrupole is shown to significantly defocus the mass-selected ion beam resulting in an expansion of the measured ion beam diameter. Combined with SIMION simulations, we demonstrate that the IonCCD can identify minor errors in the alignment of charged-particle optics that result in erratic trajectories and significant deflections of the ion beam. This information may be used to facilitate the design, assembly, and maintenance of custom-built mass spectrometry instrumentation. PMID:21953193

  18. Performance of MACACO Compton telescope for ion-beam therapy monitoring: first test with proton beams.

    PubMed

    Solevi, Paola; Muñoz, Enrique; Solaz, Carles; Trovato, Marco; Dendooven, Peter; Gillam, John E; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F; Rafecas, Magdalena; Torres-Espallardo, Irene; Llosá, Gabriela

    2016-07-21

    In order to exploit the advantages of ion-beam therapy in a clinical setting, delivery verification techniques are necessary to detect deviations from the planned treatment. Efforts are currently oriented towards the development of devices for real-time range monitoring. Among the different detector concepts proposed, Compton cameras are employed to detect prompt gammas and represent a valid candidate for real-time range verification. We present the first on-beam test of MACACO, a Compton telescope (multi-layer Compton camera) based on lanthanum bromide crystals and silicon photo-multipliers. The Compton telescope was first characterized through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The detector linearity was measured employing (22)Na and Am-Be sources, obtaining about 10% deviation from linearity at 3.44 MeV. A spectral image reconstruction algorithm was tested on synthetic data. Point-like sources emitting gamma rays with energy between 2 and 7 MeV were reconstructed with 3-5 mm resolution. The two-layer Compton telescope was employed to measure radiation emitted from a beam of 150 MeV protons impinging on a cylindrical PMMA target. Bragg-peak shifts were achieved via adjustment of the PMMA target location and the resulting measurements used during image reconstruction. Reconstructed Bragg peak profiles proved sufficient to observe peak-location differences within 10 mm demonstrating the potential of the MACACO Compton Telescope as a monitoring device for ion-beam therapy. PMID:27352107

  19. Performance of MACACO Compton telescope for ion-beam therapy monitoring: first test with proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solevi, Paola; Muñoz, Enrique; Solaz, Carles; Trovato, Marco; Dendooven, Peter; Gillam, John E.; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F.; Rafecas, Magdalena; Torres-Espallardo, Irene; Llosá, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    In order to exploit the advantages of ion-beam therapy in a clinical setting, delivery verification techniques are necessary to detect deviations from the planned treatment. Efforts are currently oriented towards the development of devices for real-time range monitoring. Among the different detector concepts proposed, Compton cameras are employed to detect prompt gammas and represent a valid candidate for real-time range verification. We present the first on-beam test of MACACO, a Compton telescope (multi-layer Compton camera) based on lanthanum bromide crystals and silicon photo-multipliers. The Compton telescope was first characterized through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The detector linearity was measured employing 22Na and Am-Be sources, obtaining about 10% deviation from linearity at 3.44 MeV. A spectral image reconstruction algorithm was tested on synthetic data. Point-like sources emitting gamma rays with energy between 2 and 7 MeV were reconstructed with 3–5 mm resolution. The two-layer Compton telescope was employed to measure radiation emitted from a beam of 150 MeV protons impinging on a cylindrical PMMA target. Bragg-peak shifts were achieved via adjustment of the PMMA target location and the resulting measurements used during image reconstruction. Reconstructed Bragg peak profiles proved sufficient to observe peak-location differences within 10 mm demonstrating the potential of the MACACO Compton Telescope as a monitoring device for ion-beam therapy.

  20. Spontaneous ion beam formation in the laboratory, space, and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J. Jr.; Cassak, P. A.; Galante, M.; Keesee, A. M.; Lusk, G.; Magee, R. M.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S.; Vandervort, R.; Gulbrandsen, N.; Goldman, Martin; Newman, David; Eastwood, J. P.

    2013-07-15

    We present experimental evidence for the spontaneous formation of multiple double layers within a single divergent magnetic field structure. Downstream of the divergent magnetic field, multiple accelerated ion populations are observed. The similarity of the accelerated ion populations observed in these laboratory experiments to ion populations observed in the magnetosphere and in numerical simulations suggests that the observation of a complex ion velocity distribution alone is insufficient to distinguish between simple plasma expansion and magnetic reconnection. Further, the effective temperature of the aggregate ion population is significantly larger than the temperatures of the individual ion population components, suggesting that insufficiently resolved measurements could misidentify multiple beam creation as ion heating. Ions accelerated in randomly oriented electric fields that mimic heating would have an ion heating rate dependent on the ion charge and mass that is qualitatively consistent with recent experimental observations of ion heating during magnetic reconnection.