Science.gov

Sample records for ion beam-fabricated tools

  1. Micromilling of Metal Alloys with Focused Ion Beam-Fabricated Tools

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS,DAVID P.; VASILE,M.J.; BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; CAMPBELL,ANN N.

    1999-11-05

    This work combines focused ion beam sputtering and ultra-precision machining as a first step in fabricating microstructure in metals and alloys. Specifically, {approx}25{micro}m diameter micro-end mills are made from cobalt M42 high-speed steel and C2 micrograin tungsten carbide tool blanks by ion beam sputtering. A 20 keV focused gallium beam defines tool cutting edges having radii of curvature < 0.1{micro}m. Micro-end mills having 2, 4 and 5 cutting edges successfully machine small trenches in 6061-T4 aluminum, brass, 4340 steel and polymethyl methacrylate. Machined trench widths are approximately equal to the tool diameters and surface roughnesses (rms) are {approx}150 nm or less. Microtools are robust and operate for more than 6 hours without fracture. Results from ultra-precision machining aluminum at feed rates as high as 50 mm/minute are included.

  2. Focused ion beam fabrication of boron-doped diamond ultramicroelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingping; Holt, Katherine B; Foord, John S

    2009-07-15

    The fabrication of ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) for analytical electrochemical applications has been explored, using boron-doped diamond as the active electrode material in an insulating coating formed by deposition of electrophoretic paint. Because of the rough nature of the diamond film, the property of such coatings that is normally exploited in the fabrication of UMEs, namely the tendency to retract automatically from sharp protrusions, cannot be used in the present instance. Instead focused ion beam (FIB) sputtering was employed to controllably produce UMEs with well-defined geometry, critical dimension of a few micrometers, and very thin insulating coatings. If the FIB machining is carried out at normal incidence to the diamond electrode surface, significant ion beam damage reduces the yield of successful electrodes. However, if a parallel machining geometry is employed, high yields of ultramicroelectrodes with a flat disk geometry can be obtained very reliably. The electrochemical properties of diamond UMEs are characterized. They show much lower background currents than the equivalent Pt or carbon fiber electrodes but more varied electrochemical response than macroscopic diamond electrodes. PMID:19545137

  3. Radiation damage and its recovery in focused ion beam fabricated ferroelectric capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanishevsky, A.; Nagaraj, B.; Melngailis, J.; Ramesh, R.; Khriachtchev, L.; McDaniel, E.

    2002-09-01

    We studied the effect of ion damage on the properties of 50 keV Ga+ focused ion beam fabricated lead-zirconate-titanate capacitors as a function of the ion dose. We observed significant modification in the chemical composition of the damaged layer due to loss of lead and oxygen, and gallium impurity accumulation. The 5-10 nm thick damaged layer becomes dielectric after annealing and does not recover its ferroelectric properties. This dielectric layer substantially reduces the actual volume of the ferroelectric material in sub-100 nm structures, and can affect their performance.

  4. Focused ion beam fabrication of novel core-shell nanowire structures.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Johansson, Jonas; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Hull, Robert

    2008-11-01

    A novel method of indirect deposition by means of a focused ion beam (FIB) is utilized to develop metal/insulator/semiconductor nanowire core-shell structures. This method is based upon depositing an annular pattern centered on a nanowire, with secondary deposition then coating the wire. Typical cross-sectional deposition area increments as a function of ion doses are 1.3 × 10(-2) µm(2) nC(-1) for Pt and 3.5 × 10(-2) µm(2) nC(-1) for SiO(2). The structures are examined with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) using a new nanowire TEM sample preparation method that allows direct examinations of individually selected core-shell nanowires fabricated under different indirect FIB deposition conditions. Elemental analyses by means of energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and electron energy filtered TEM imaging verify the deposition of SiO(2) and Pt layers. Relatively uniform Pt and SiO(2) coatings on individual GaP nanowires can be achieved with overall thickness deviation of about 10% for deposition up to 25-30 nm thick Pt or SiO(2) shells. It should be possible to extend this approach to any nanowire/nanotube system, and to a wide range of coatings in any desired layer sequences. PMID:21832742

  5. Role of the substrate in the electrical transport characteristics of focused ion beam fabricated nanogap electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, Nitul S.; Singh, Abhishek K.; Verma, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    Precise metallic nanogap structure is fabricated on a glass substrate by using a 30 keV focused Ga ion beam. While investigating the I-V behavior of the nanogap structure, tunneling through the substrate has been found to play a vital role in the electrical transportation process. Substrate breakdown occurs at a certain applied voltage and a metal vapor state is initiated through intense heat generation at the nanogap region. The experimental observation confirms the role of the substrate in the explosion process. Metallic spherical particles are formed during cooling/condensation of the metal vapors or splashing of the liquid droplets showing a wide distribution of size from few tens of nanometers to few microns.

  6. Silica-gold bilayer-based transfer of focused ion beam-fabricated nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofei; Geisler, Peter; Krauss, Enno; Kullock, René; Hecht, Bert

    2015-10-21

    The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex situ transfer, a spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) film is used to carry the nanostructures so that the bilayer can be etched away after being peeled off. For the in situ transfer, using a micro-manipulator inside the FIB machine, a cut-out piece of silica on which a nanostructure has been fabricated is peeled off from the bulk substrate and thus carries the nanostructure to a target substrate. We demonstrate the performance of both methods by transferring plasmonic nano-antennas fabricated from single-crystalline gold flakes by FIB milling to a silicon wafer and to a scanning probe tip. PMID:26395208

  7. Silica-gold bilayer-based transfer of focused ion beam-fabricated nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaofei; Geisler, Peter; Krauss, Enno; Kullock, René; Hecht, Bert

    2015-10-01

    The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex situ transfer, a spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) film is used to carry the nanostructures so that the bilayer can be etched away after being peeled off. For the in situ transfer, using a micro-manipulator inside the FIB machine, a cut-out piece of silica on which a nanostructure has been fabricated is peeled off from the bulk substrate and thus carries the nanostructure to a target substrate. We demonstrate the performance of both methods by transferring plasmonic nano-antennas fabricated from single-crystalline gold flakes by FIB milling to a silicon wafer and to a scanning probe tip.The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex

  8. Focused Ion Beam Fabrication of Silicon-On Field-Effect Transistors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiussi, Greg Andrew

    N-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) have been fabricated on silicon -on-insulator (SOI) substrates using a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) to pattern the gate and to dope the source and drains. Lightly -doped source (LDS) structures were implemented with the FIB to increase the drain-to-source voltage at which single transistor latch-up occurred. FIB exposure of two electron-beam resists was investigated for lithography of the transistor gate and the device mesas. Vertical resist profiles were achieved for linewidths down to 0.2 μm in width in the case of the negative-tone SAL-601 resist from Shipley Co. Openings in resist as narrow as 0.35 μm were made using the positive-tone P28 resist from OCG Microelectronic Materials. Optimal doses, pre- and post-exposure processing conditions were determined for both resists. Transistors with LDS structures showed higher latching voltages than those without. The magnitude of the increase in latching voltage due to the LDS was a function of body doping level, SOI thickness, and coded gate length. The largest increase was 5.1 V for a 0.8 μm MOSFET fabricated in a 125 nm thick SOI film with a body implant dose of 5.6times10^ {12} B cm^{-2}. Devices fabricated in SOI films of thickness 250 nm showed smaller increases in latching voltage with the LDS than those in 125 nm SOI films.

  9. Thickness-dependent blue shift in the excitonic peak of conformally grown ZnO:Al on ion-beam fabricated self-organized Si ripples

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, T.; Kumar, M.; Som, T.; Nandy, S.; Satpati, B.; Saini, C. P.; Kanjilal, A.

    2015-09-14

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films of thicknesses 5,10, 15, 20, and 30 nm were deposited on 500 eV argon ion-beam fabricated nanoscale self-organized rippled-Si substrates at room temperature and are compared with similar films deposited on pristine-Si substrates (without ripples). It is observed that morphology of self-organized AZO films is driven by the underlying substrate morphology. For instance, for pristine-Si substrates, a granular morphology evolves for all AZO films. On the other hand, for rippled-Si substrates, morphologies having chain-like arrangement (anisotropic in nature) are observed up to a thickness of 20 nm, while a granular morphology evolves (isotropic in nature) for 30 nm-thick film. Photoluminescence studies reveal that excitonic peaks corresponding to 5–15 nm-thick AZO films, grown on rippled-Si templates, show a blue shift of 8 nm and 3 nm, respectively, whereas the peak shift is negligible for 20-nm thick film (with respect to their pristine counter parts). The observed blue shifts are substantiated by diffuse reflectance study and attributed to quantum confinement effect, associated with the size of the AZO grains and their spatial arrangements driven by the anisotropic morphology of underlying rippled-Si templates. The present findings will be useful for making tunable AZO-based light-emitting devices.

  10. Ion beam fabrication of aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer for high-performance liquid crystals alignment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lee, Ju Hwan; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, a 1.8 keV ion beam (IB) sputtered thin layer of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) with columnar AZO bumps covering the surface working as an alignment layer for the homogeneous alignment of liquid crystals (LC) is investigated. Bumpy AZO alignment layers in twisted nematic (TN) cells generated larger LC pre-tilt angles and thus enabled accelerated switching of LC, and the highly conductive bumpy AZO thin layers allowed super-fast release of accumulated charges, and led to low residual DC performance. These results indicate the promising applications of AZO bumps layer as alignment layer in LC devices. PMID:27464189

  11. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution.

    PubMed

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai

    2013-10-24

    A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au_NRsd) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au_NRsd was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au_NRsd and Ag NPs/Au_NRsd was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au_NRsd was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10(7) in magnitude, which increased ≈10(12) in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au_NRsd. A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au_NRsd was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10(-3) to 10(-12)M) in water or milk solution upon Au_NRsd or Ag NPs/Au_NRsd were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm(-1) for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm(-1) was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au_NRsd) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au_NRsd) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au_NRsd and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/Au_NRsd is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for screening MEL in complex matrices such as adulteration in e.g., food and pharmaceutical products. PMID:24120168

  12. Influence of 700 °C vacuum annealing on fracture behavior of micro/nanoscale focused ion beam fabricated silicon structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goshima, Yoshiharu; Fujii, Tatsuya; Inoue, Shozo; Namazu, Takahiro

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the influence of 700 °C vacuum annealing on strength and fracture behavior of micro- and nano-scale Si structures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB). Si nanowires (NWs) made from silicon-on-nothing (SON) membrane are fabricated using FIB. Microscale Si specimens are fabricated by conventional micromachining technologies and FIB. These specimens are tensioned to failure using specially developed microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device and thin-film tensile tester, respectively. The mean fracture strengths of the nano- and microscale specimens are 5.6 and 1.6 GPa, respectively, which decrease to 2.9 and 0.9 GPa after vacuum annealing at 700 °C for only 10 s. These strength values do not vary with increasing annealing time. Fracture origin and its behavior are discussed in the light of fracture surface and FIB damage layer observations.

  13. Ion trap simulation tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Benjamin Roger

    2009-02-01

    Ion traps present a potential architecture for future quantum computers. These computers are of interest due to their increased power over classical computers stemming from the superposition of states and the resulting capability to simultaneously perform many computations. This paper describes a software application used to prepare and visualize simulations of trapping and maneuvering ions in ion traps.

  14. Next-Generation Ion Thruster Design Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Computational tools that accurately predict the performance of electric propulsion devices are highly desirable and beneficial to NASA and the broader electric propulsion community. The current state of the art in electric propulsion modeling relies heavily on empirical data and numerous computational "knobs." In Phase I of this project, Tech-X Corporation developed the most detailed ion engine discharge chamber model that currently exists. This kinetic model simulates all particles in the discharge chamber along with a physically correct simulation of the electric fields. In addition, kinetic erosion models are included for modeling the ion-impingement effects on thruster component erosion. In Phase II, Tech-X developed a user-friendly computer program for NASA and other governmental and industry customers. Tech-X has implemented a number of advanced numerical routines to bring the computational time down to a commercially acceptable level. NASA now has a highly sophisticated, user-friendly ion engine discharge chamber modeling tool.

  15. Design and performance analysis of an ultraprecision ion beam polishing tool.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Xie, Xuhui; Zhou, Lin

    2016-03-01

    First, we introduce requirements for the ion beam polishing tool used in the subnanometer precision process. Based on the ion beam figuring (IBF) principle, the definitive factor of the IBF capability is analyzed, and the deficiencies of the ion beam polishing tool are identified. The effect of focused ion optics on the ion beam removal function is based on theoretic calculation and computer simulation; and focused three-grid ion optics are developed and tested. Finally, a 150 mm flat optics element is figured and results show that the contour error decreases from 15.58 nm RMS to 0.796 nm RMS, demonstrating that the ion beam polishing tool is very efficient for optical IBF. PMID:26974611

  16. Results obtained with the CHARPAN Engineering Tool and prospects of the ion Mask Exposure Tool (iMET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platzgummer, Elmar; Loeschner, Hans; Gross, Gerhard

    2008-10-01

    Projection Mask-Less Patterning (PMLP) is based on many hundred thousands of ion beams working in parallel. A PMLP proof-of-concept tool has been realized as part of the European project CHARPAN (Charged Particle Nanotech) and has been presented at SPIE Photomask BACUS 2007. Using 10 keV protons, 16nm hp resolution has been demonstrated in non- CAR materials (HSQ) with 25μC/cm2 exposure dose. The system is upgraded to a CHARPAN Engineering Tool (CHET) with a laser-interferometer controlled vacuum stage and a CMOS based programmable Aperture Plate System (APS) providing ca. 40,000 beams with < 20nm spot size. The engineering of an ion Mask Exposure Tool (iMET) for the 22nm hp mask node has been started; main iMET features are discussed.

  17. MinION: A Novel Tool for Predicting Drug Hypersensitivity?

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Eng Wee; Ng, Pei Yuen

    2016-01-01

    The launch of the MinION Access Program has caused much activity within the scientific community. MinION represents a keenly anticipated, novel addition to the current melange of commercial sequencers. Driven by the nanopore sequencing mechanism that requires minimal sample manipulation, the device is capable of generating long sequence reads in sizes (up to or exceeding 50 kb) that surpass those of all other platforms. One notable advantage of this feature is that long-range haplotypes can be more accurately resolved; such advantage is particularly pertinent to the genotyping of complex loci such as genes encoding the human leukocyte antigens, which are pivotal determinants of drug hypersensitivity. With this timely, albeit brief, review, we set out to examine the applications on which MinION has been tested thus far, the bioinformatics workflow tailored to the unique characteristics of its extended sequence reads, the device’s potential utility in the detection of genetic markers for drug hypersensitivity, and how it may eventually evolve to become fit for diagnostic purposes in the clinical setting. PMID:27378921

  18. Ion trap simulation program, ITSIM: A powerful heuristic and predictive tool in ion trap mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Huy Anh

    The multi-particle simulation program, ITSIM version 4.0, takes advantage of the enhanced performance of the Windows 95 and NT operating systems in areas such as memory management, user friendliness, flexibility of graphics and speed, to investigate the motion of ions in the quadrupole ion trap. The objective of this program is to use computer simulations based on mathematical models to improve the performance of the ion trap mass spectrometer. The simulation program can provide assistance in understanding fundamental aspects of ion trap mass spectrometry, precede and help to direct the course of experiments, as well as having didactic value in elucidating and allowing visualization of ion behavior under different experimental conditions. The program uses the improved Euler method to calculate ion trajectories as numerical solutions to the Mathieu differential equation. This Windows version can simultaneously simulate the trajectories of ions with a virtually unlimited number of different mass-to-charge ratios and hence allows realistic mass spectra, ion kinetic energy distributions and other experimentally measurable properties to be simulated. The large number of simulated ions allows examination of (i) the offsetting effects of mutual ion repulsion and collisional cooling in an ion trap and (ii) the effects of higher order fields. Field inhomogeneities arising from exit holes, electrode misalignment, imperfect electrode surfaces or new trap geometries can be simulated with the program. The simulated data are used to obtain mass spectra from mass-selective instability scans as well as by Fourier transformation of image currents induced by coherently moving ion clouds. Complete instruments, from an ion source through the ion trap mass analyzer to a detector, can now be simulated. Applications of the simulation program are presented and discussed. Comparisons are made between the simulations and experimental data. Fourier transformed experiments and a novel six

  19. SIMS ion microscopy as a novel, practical tool for subcellular chemical imaging in cancer research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, S.

    2003-01-01

    The development of cryogenic sample preparations, subcellular image quantification schemes, and correlative confocal laser scanning microscopy and ion microscopy have made dynamic SIMS a versatile tool in biology and medicine. For example, ion microscopy can provide much needed, novel information on calcium influx and intracellular calcium stores at organelle resolution in normal and transformed cells in order to better understand the altered calcium signaling in malignant cells. 3-D SIMS imaging of cells revealed dynamic gradients of calcium in cells undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis. Studies of subcellular localization of anticancer drugs is another area of research where ion microscopy can provide novel observations in many types of cancers. Ion microscopy is already an essential tool in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain cancer as it can be used to quantitatively image the subcellular location of boron in cells and tissues. This information is critically needed for testing the efficacy of boronated agents and for calculations of radiation dosimetry.

  20. Computational Tools for Interpreting Ion Channel pH-Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Sazanavets, Ivan; Warwicker, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Activity in many biological systems is mediated by pH, involving proton titratable groups with pKas in the relevant pH range. Experimental analysis of pH-dependence in proteins focusses on particular sidechains, often with mutagenesis of histidine, due to its pKa near to neutral pH. The key question for algorithms that predict pKas is whether they are sufficiently accurate to effectively narrow the search for molecular determinants of pH-dependence. Through analysis of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), mutational effects on pH-dependence are probed, distinguishing between groups described as pH-coupled or pH-sensor. Whereas mutation can lead to a shift in transition pH between open and closed forms for either type of group, only for pH-sensor groups does mutation modulate the amplitude of the transition. It is shown that a hybrid Finite Difference Poisson-Boltzmann (FDPB) – Debye-Hückel continuum electrostatic model can filter mutation candidates, providing enrichment for key pH-coupled and pH-sensor residues in both ASICs and Kir channels, in comparison with application of FDPB alone. PMID:25915903

  1. Computational Tools for Interpreting Ion Channel pH-Dependence.

    PubMed

    Sazanavets, Ivan; Warwicker, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Activity in many biological systems is mediated by pH, involving proton titratable groups with pKas in the relevant pH range. Experimental analysis of pH-dependence in proteins focusses on particular sidechains, often with mutagenesis of histidine, due to its pKa near to neutral pH. The key question for algorithms that predict pKas is whether they are sufficiently accurate to effectively narrow the search for molecular determinants of pH-dependence. Through analysis of inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), mutational effects on pH-dependence are probed, distinguishing between groups described as pH-coupled or pH-sensor. Whereas mutation can lead to a shift in transition pH between open and closed forms for either type of group, only for pH-sensor groups does mutation modulate the amplitude of the transition. It is shown that a hybrid Finite Difference Poisson-Boltzmann (FDPB) - Debye-Hückel continuum electrostatic model can filter mutation candidates, providing enrichment for key pH-coupled and pH-sensor residues in both ASICs and Kir channels, in comparison with application of FDPB alone. PMID:25915903

  2. Advances in ion trap mass spectrometry: Photodissociation as a tool for structural elucidation

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, J.L. Jr.; Booth, M.M.; Eyler, J.R.; Yost, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Photo-induced dissociation (PID) is the next most frequently used method (after collisional activation) for activation of Polyatomic ions in tandem mass spectrometry. The range of internal energies present after the photon absorption process are much narrower than those obtained with collisional energy transfer. Therefore, the usefulness of PID for the study of ion structures is greatly enhanced. The long storage times and instrumental configuration of the ion trap mass spectrometer are ideally suited for photodissociation experiments. This presentation will focus on both the fundamental and analytical applications of CO{sub 2} lasers in conjunction with ion trap mass spectrometry. The first portion of this talk will examine the fundamental issues of wavelength dependence, chemical kinetics, photoabsorption cross section, and collisional effects on photodissociation efficiency. The second half of this presentation will look at novel instrumentation for electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry, with the concurrent development of photodissociation as a tool for structural elucidation of organic compounds and antibiotics.

  3. Ion Beam Sputter Fabrication of Micro-Grooving and Micro-Threading Tools

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS,DAVID P.; VASILE,M.J.; KRISHNAN,A.S.M.

    1999-11-05

    This paper presents techniques for fabricating microscopic, nonplanar features in a variety of materials. Micro-grooving and micro-threading tools having cutting dimensions of 10-30{micro}m are made by focused ion beam sputtering and used in ultra-precision machining. Tool fabrication involves directing a 20 keV gallium beam at polished cylindrical punches made of cobalt M42 high-speed steel or C2 tungsten carbide. This creates cutting edges having radii of curvature less than 0.4 {micro}m, and rake features similar to conventional lathe tools. Clearance for minimizing frictional drag of a tool results from the sputter yield dependence on ion herd target incidence angle. Numerically controlled, ultra-precision machining with micro-grooving tools results in a close matching between tool width and feature size. Microtools controllably machine 13 {micro}m wide, 4 {micro}m deep, helical grooves in polymethyl methacrylate and 6061-T6 Al cylindrical substrates. Micro-grooving tools also fabricate sinusoidal waveform features in polished metal substrates.

  4. Investigation of focused ion beam induced damage in single crystal diamond tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Zhen; Luo, Xichun

    2015-08-01

    In this work, transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to characterise the focused ion beam (FIB) induced damage layer in a single crystal diamond tool under different FIB processing voltages. The results obtained from the experiments and the simulations are in good agreement. The results indicate that during FIB processing cutting tools made of natural single crystal diamond, the energetic Ga+ collision will create an impulse-dependent damage layer at the irradiated surface. For the tested beam voltages in a typical FIB system (from 8 kV to 30 kV), the thicknesses of the damaged layers formed on a diamond tool surface increased from 11.5 nm to 27.6 nm. The dynamic damage process of FIB irradiation and ion-solid interactions physics leading to processing defects in FIB milling were emulated by MD simulations. The research findings from this study provide the in-depth understanding of the wear of nanoscale multi-tip diamond tools considering the FIB irradiation induced doping and defects during the tool fabrication process.

  5. The ion microscope as a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Tsatrafyllis, N.; Bergues, B.; Schröder, H.; Veisz, L.; Skantzakis, E.; Gray, D.; Bodi, B.; Kuhn, S.; Tsakiris, G. D.; Charalambidis, D.; Tzallas, P.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region measuring spatially resolved atomic ionization products at the focus of an EUV beam. The ionizing radiation is a comb of the 11th–15th harmonics of a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser beam produced in a Xenon gas jet. The spatial ion distribution at the focus of the harmonics is recorded using an ion microscope. Spatially resolved single- and two-photon ionization products of Argon and Helium are observed. From such ion distributions single- and two-photon generalized cross sections can be extracted by a self-calibrating method. The observation of spatially resolved two-EUV-photon ionization constitutes an initial step towards future single-shot temporal characterization of attosecond pulses. PMID:26868370

  6. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry: A powerful high throughput screening tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smentkowski, Vincent S.; Ostrowski, Sara G.

    2007-07-01

    Combinatorial materials libraries are becoming more complicated; successful screening of these libraries requires the development of new high throughput screening methodologies. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a surface analytical technique that is able to detect and image all elements (including hydrogen which is problematic for many other analysis instruments) and molecular fragments, with high mass resolution, during a single measurement. Commercial ToF-SIMS instruments can image 500μm areas by rastering the primary ion beam over the region of interest. In this work, we will show that large area analysis can be performed, in one single measurement, by rastering the sample under the ion beam. We show that an entire 70mm diameter wafer can be imaged in less than 90min using ToF-SIMS stage (macro)rastering techniques. ToF-SIMS data sets contain a wealth of information since an entire high mass resolution mass spectrum is saved at each pixel in an ion image. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA) tools are being used in the ToF-SIMS community to assist with data interpretation; we will demonstrate that MVSA tools provide details that were not obtained using manual (univariate) analysis.

  7. Computer aided design of computer generated holograms for electron beam fabrication.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, K S; Lee, S H; Guest, C C; Feldman, M R; Farhoosh, H

    1989-08-15

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems that have been developed for electrical and mechanical design tasks are also effective tools for the process of designing Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), particularly when these holograms are to be fabricated using electron beam lithography. CAD workstations provide efficient and convenient means of computing, storing, displaying, and preparing for fabrication many of the features that are common to CGH designs. Experience gained in the process of designing CGHs with various types of encoding methods is presented. Suggestions are made so that future workstations may further accommodate the CGH design process. PMID:20555710

  8. Computer Aided Design of Computer Generated Holograms for electron beam fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urquhart, Kristopher S.; Lee, Sing H.; Guest, Clark C.; Feldman, Michael R.; Farhoosh, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems that have been developed for electrical and mechanical design tasks are also effective tools for the process of designing Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), particularly when these holograms are to be fabricated using electron beam lithography. CAD workstations provide efficient and convenient means of computing, storing, displaying, and preparing for fabrication many of the features that are common to CGH designs. Experience gained in the process of designing CGHs with various types of encoding methods is presented. Suggestions are made so that future workstations may further accommodate the CGH design process.

  9. Ion mobility spectrometry as a high-throughput analytical tool in occupational pyrethroid exposure.

    PubMed

    Armenta, S; Blanco, M

    2012-08-01

    The capabilities of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) as a high throughput and green analytical tool in the occupational health and safety control, using pyrethroids as models has been evidenced. The method used for dermal and inhalation exposure assessment is based on the passive pyrethroid sampling using Teflon membranes, direct thermal extraction of the pyrethroids, and measurement of the vaporized analytes by IMS without reagent and solvent consumption. The IMS signatures of the studied synthetic pyrethroids under atmospheric pressure chemical ionization by investigating the formed negative ion products have been obtained. The main advantages of the proposed procedure are related to the obtained limits of detection, ranging from 0.08 to 5 ng, the simplicity of measurement, the lack of sample treatment, and therefore, solvent consumption and waste generation, and finally, the speed of analysis. PMID:22159370

  10. Nano-Scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry - A new analytical tool in biogeochemistry and soil ecology

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, A M; Ritz, K; Nunan, N; Clode, P L; Pett-Ridge, J; Kilburn, M R; Murphy, D V; O'Donnell, A G; Stockdale, E A

    2006-10-18

    Soils are structurally heterogeneous across a wide range of spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, external environmental conditions do not have a uniform effect throughout the soil, resulting in a large diversity of micro-habitats. It has been suggested that soil function can be studied without explicit consideration of such fine detail, but recent research has indicated that the micro-scale distribution of organisms may be of importance for a mechanistic understanding of many soil functions. Due to a lack of techniques with adequate sensitivity for data collection at appropriate scales, the question 'How important are various soil processes acting at different scales for ecological function?' is challenging to answer. The nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS) represents the latest generation of ion microprobes which link high-resolution microscopy with isotopic analysis. The main advantage of NanoSIMS over other secondary ion mass spectrometers is the ability to operate at high mass resolution, whilst maintaining both excellent signal transmission and spatial resolution ({approx}50 nm). NanoSIMS has been used previously in studies focusing on presolar materials from meteorites, in material science, biology, geology and mineralogy. Recently, the potential of NanoSIMS as a new tool in the study of biophysical interfaces in soils has been demonstrated. This paper describes the principles of NanoSIMS and discusses the potential of this tool to contribute to the field of biogeochemistry and soil ecology. Practical considerations (sample size and preparation, simultaneous collection of isotopes, mass resolution, isobaric interference and quantification of the isotopes of interest) are discussed. Adequate sample preparation avoiding biases in the interpretation of NanoSIMS data due to artifacts and identification of regions-of interest are of most concerns in using NanoSIMS as a new tool in biogeochemistry and soil ecology. Finally, we review the areas of

  11. Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy of plasma immersion ion implanted H13 tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terwagne, G.; Collins, G. A.; Hutchings, R.

    1994-12-01

    Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) has been used to investigate nitride formation in AISI-H13 tool steel after treatment by plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) at 350 °C. With only slight variation in the plasma conditions, it is possible to influence the kinetics of nitride precipitation so as to obtain nitrogen concentrations that range from those associated with ɛ-Fe2N through ɛ-Fe3N to γ'-Fe4N. The CEMS results enable a more definite identification of the nitrides than that obtained by glancing-angle X-ray diffraction and nuclear reaction analysis alone.

  12. Measurement of the Ion Distribution Function in a Dual Frequency Plasma Etch Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, Walter; Moore, Nathaniel; Pribyl, Patrick; Kushner, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The ion energy distribution function, (IEDF) was measured in detail in an industrial etch tool. The plasma was made with an ICP source (440 kHz, 500 W) and two independently controlled bias sources. The Si wafer was placed on a ceramic electrostatic chuck with an embedded capacitor plate. The first source ran at 2.2 MHz (600 Vpp and 2500 W) with a maximum sheath potential drop of 650 V or 2000V. The second source ran at 19 MHz with Vpp of 600 V. The principal diagnostic was Laser Induced Fluorescence on Argon using 611.49 nm light from a tunable dye laser with ions responding to Doppler shifted light. Using cylindrical lens combinations the laser light was transformed into a sheet 15 cm wide and 0.5 cm thick. The beam could be transverse or parallel to the normal of the wafer. The glowing ions (at 461 nm) were photographed by a CCD camera with 400 micron resolution. The laser was phase locked to the 2.2 MHz rf and the IDDF measured as a function of radial position, height above the wafer and at 8 phases. With Vpp = 600 V the highest energy ions observed were 500 eV, 1.2 mm above the wafer. These observations as well as the angular distribution agreed well with a computer simulation. In the dual frequency case when the potential of the wafer was most negative wrt the bulk plasma the IEDF structure 0.8 mm above the wafer was well fitted by 4 Gaussians. The ion flux to the wafer was far more uniform in the dual frequency case. This research supported by the NSF and DOE.

  13. Single-ion microbeam as a tool for low-dose radiation effects investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardi, Silvia; Galeazzi, Giuseppe; Cherubini, Roberto

    2006-05-01

    Practical assessment of human radiation exposure risk deserves particular attention especially for low doses (and low dose rates), which concern environmental and occupational exposure. At these dose levels ionizing radiation exposures involve mainly isolated charged particle tracks, which strike individual cells at time intervals averaging from weeks to several years apart. Accelerator-based microbeam irradiation technique offers a unique tool to mimic such an exposure, allowing irradiating single cells individually with micrometer precision and with a preset number of charged particles down to one particle per cell. A horizontal single-ion microbeam facility for single-cell irradiations has been designed and set up at the INFN-LNL 7MV CN Van de Graaff accelerator. The light ion beam is collimated in air down to a section of 2-3µm in diameter by means of appropriate pinholes. Semi-automatic cell visualization and automatic cell positioning and revisiting system, based on an inverted phase contrast optical microscope and on X-Y translation stages with 0.1µm positioning precision, has been developed. An in-house-written software allows to control remotely the irradiation protocol. As a distinctive feature of the facility, cell recognition is performed without using fluorescent staining and UV light. Particle detection in air, behind the biological sample, is based on a silicon detector while in-air beam profile and precise hit position measurements are accomplished by a custom-made cooled-CCD camera and Solid State Nuclear Track detectors, respectively. A particle counting rate of less than 1 ion/sec can be reached.

  14. Architecture Framework for Trapped-Ion Quantum Computer based on Performance Simulation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, Muhammad

    The challenge of building scalable quantum computer lies in striking appropriate balance between designing a reliable system architecture from large number of faulty computational resources and improving the physical quality of system components. The detailed investigation of performance variation with physics of the components and the system architecture requires adequate performance simulation tool. In this thesis we demonstrate a software tool capable of (1) mapping and scheduling the quantum circuit on a realistic quantum hardware architecture with physical resource constraints, (2) evaluating the performance metrics such as the execution time and the success probability of the algorithm execution, and (3) analyzing the constituents of these metrics and visualizing resource utilization to identify system components which crucially define the overall performance. Using this versatile tool, we explore vast design space for modular quantum computer architecture based on trapped ions. We find that while success probability is uniformly determined by the fidelity of physical quantum operation, the execution time is a function of system resources invested at various layers of design hierarchy. At physical level, the number of lasers performing quantum gates, impact the latency of the fault-tolerant circuit blocks execution. When these blocks are used to construct meaningful arithmetic circuit such as quantum adders, the number of ancilla qubits for complicated non-clifford gates and entanglement resources to establish long-distance communication channels, become major performance limiting factors. Next, in order to factorize large integers, these adders are assembled into modular exponentiation circuit comprising bulk of Shor's algorithm. At this stage, the overall scaling of resource-constraint performance with the size of problem, describes the effectiveness of chosen design. By matching the resource investment with the pace of advancement in hardware technology

  15. Laboratory robotics -- An automated tool for preparing ion chromatography calibration standards

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, J.L.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the use of a laboratory robot as an automated tool for preparing multi-level calibration standards for On-Line Ion Chromatography (IC) Systems. The robot is designed for preparation of up to six levels of standards, with each level containing up to eleven ionic species in aqueous solution. The robot is required to add the standards` constituents as both a liquid and solid additions and to keep a record of exactly what goes into making up every standard. Utilizing a laboratory robot to prepare calibration standards provides significant benefits to the testing environment. These benefits include: accurate and precise calibration standards in individually capped containers with preparation traceability; automated and unattended multi-specie preparation for both anion and cation analytical channels; the ability to free up a test operator from a repetitive routine and re-apply those efforts to test operations; The robot uses a single channel IC to analyze each prepared standard for specie content and concentration. Those results are later used as a measure of quality control. System requirements and configurations, robotic operations, manpower requirements, analytical verification, accuracy and precision of prepared solutions, and robotic downtime are discussed in detail.

  16. On resonant ICRF absorption in three-ion component plasmas: a new promising tool for fast ion generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Ye. O.; Van Eester, D.; Dumont, R.; Ongena, J.

    2015-03-01

    We report on a very efficient ion-cyclotron-resonance-frequency (ICRF) absorption scheme (Z)-Y-X, which hinges on the presence of three ion species residing in the plasma. A mode conversion (cutoff-resonance) layer is well known to appear in two-ion species plasmas. If the location of the L-cutoff in Y-X plasmas, which can be controlled by varying the Y : X density ratio, almost coincides with the fundamental cyclotron resonance of the third ion species Z (resonant absorber), the latter—albeit present only in trace quantities—is shown to absorb almost all the incoming RF power. A quantitative criterion for the resonant Y : X plasma composition is derived and a few numerical examples are given. Since the absorbed power per resonant particle is much larger than for any other ICRF scheme, the here discussed scenarios are particularly promising for fast particle generation. Their possible application as a source of high-energy ions for the stellarator W7-X and to mimic alpha particles during the non-activated phase of ITER tokamak is briefly discussed.

  17. Analysis and Visualization Tool for Targeted Amplicon Bisulfite Sequencing on Ion Torrent Sequencers.

    PubMed

    Pabinger, Stephan; Ernst, Karina; Pulverer, Walter; Kallmeyer, Rainer; Valdes, Ana M; Metrustry, Sarah; Katic, Denis; Nuzzo, Angelo; Kriegner, Albert; Vierlinger, Klemens; Weinhaeusel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Targeted sequencing of PCR amplicons generated from bisulfite deaminated DNA is a flexible, cost-effective way to study methylation of a sample at single CpG resolution and perform subsequent multi-target, multi-sample comparisons. Currently, no platform specific protocol, support, or analysis solution is provided to perform targeted bisulfite sequencing on a Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Here, we present a novel tool, called TABSAT, for analyzing targeted bisulfite sequencing data generated on Ion Torrent sequencers. The workflow starts with raw sequencing data, performs quality assessment, and uses a tailored version of Bismark to map the reads to a reference genome. The pipeline visualizes results as lollipop plots and is able to deduce specific methylation-patterns present in a sample. The obtained profiles are then summarized and compared between samples. In order to assess the performance of the targeted bisulfite sequencing workflow, 48 samples were used to generate 53 different Bisulfite-Sequencing PCR amplicons from each sample, resulting in 2,544 amplicon targets. We obtained a mean coverage of 282X using 1,196,822 aligned reads. Next, we compared the sequencing results of these targets to the methylation level of the corresponding sites on an Illumina 450k methylation chip. The calculated average Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.91 confirms the sequencing results with one of the industry-leading CpG methylation platforms and shows that targeted amplicon bisulfite sequencing provides an accurate and cost-efficient method for DNA methylation studies, e.g., to provide platform-independent confirmation of Illumina Infinium 450k methylation data. TABSAT offers a novel way to analyze data generated by Ion Torrent instruments and can also be used with data from the Illumina MiSeq platform. It can be easily accessed via the Platomics platform, which offers a web-based graphical user interface along with sample and parameter storage. TABSAT is freely

  18. Analysis and Visualization Tool for Targeted Amplicon Bisulfite Sequencing on Ion Torrent Sequencers

    PubMed Central

    Pabinger, Stephan; Ernst, Karina; Pulverer, Walter; Kallmeyer, Rainer; Valdes, Ana M.; Metrustry, Sarah; Katic, Denis; Nuzzo, Angelo; Kriegner, Albert; Vierlinger, Klemens; Weinhaeusel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Targeted sequencing of PCR amplicons generated from bisulfite deaminated DNA is a flexible, cost-effective way to study methylation of a sample at single CpG resolution and perform subsequent multi-target, multi-sample comparisons. Currently, no platform specific protocol, support, or analysis solution is provided to perform targeted bisulfite sequencing on a Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Here, we present a novel tool, called TABSAT, for analyzing targeted bisulfite sequencing data generated on Ion Torrent sequencers. The workflow starts with raw sequencing data, performs quality assessment, and uses a tailored version of Bismark to map the reads to a reference genome. The pipeline visualizes results as lollipop plots and is able to deduce specific methylation-patterns present in a sample. The obtained profiles are then summarized and compared between samples. In order to assess the performance of the targeted bisulfite sequencing workflow, 48 samples were used to generate 53 different Bisulfite-Sequencing PCR amplicons from each sample, resulting in 2,544 amplicon targets. We obtained a mean coverage of 282X using 1,196,822 aligned reads. Next, we compared the sequencing results of these targets to the methylation level of the corresponding sites on an Illumina 450k methylation chip. The calculated average Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.91 confirms the sequencing results with one of the industry-leading CpG methylation platforms and shows that targeted amplicon bisulfite sequencing provides an accurate and cost-efficient method for DNA methylation studies, e.g., to provide platform-independent confirmation of Illumina Infinium 450k methylation data. TABSAT offers a novel way to analyze data generated by Ion Torrent instruments and can also be used with data from the Illumina MiSeq platform. It can be easily accessed via the Platomics platform, which offers a web-based graphical user interface along with sample and parameter storage. TABSAT is freely

  19. Heavy ion microprobes: a unique tool for bystander research and other radiobiological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, K. O.; Fournier, C.; Taucher-Scholz, G.

    2008-07-01

    The risk assessment for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation has been challenged by a growing body of experimental evidence showing that non-irradiated bystander cells can receive signals from irradiated cells to elicit a variety of cellular responses. These may be significant for radiation protection but also for radiation therapy using heavy ions. Charged particle microbeams for radiobiological application provide a unique means to address these issues by allowing the precise irradiation of single cells with a counted numbers of ions. Here, we focus specifically on heavy ion microbeam facilities currently in use for biological purposes, describing their technical features and biological results. Typically, ion species up to argon are used for targeted biological irradiation at the vertically collimated microbeam at JAEA (Takasaki, Japan). At the SNAKE microprobe in Munich, mostly oxygen ions have been used in a horizontal focused beam line for cell targeting. At GSI (Darmstadt), a horizontal microprobe with a focused beam for defined targeting using ion species up to uranium is operational. The visualization of DNA damage response proteins relocalizing to defined sites of ion traversal has been accomplished at the three heavy ion microbeam facilities described above and is used to study mechanistic aspects of heavy ion effects. However, bystander studies have constituted the main focus of biological applications. While for cell inactivation and effects on cell cycle progression a response of non-targeted cells has been described at JAEA and GSI, respectively, in part controversial results have been obtained for the induction of DNA damage measured by double-strand formation or at the cytogenetic level. The results emphasize the influence of the cellular environment, and standardization of experimental conditions for cellular studies at different facilities as well as the investigation of bystander effects in tissue will be the aims of future

  20. Protein-Modified-Paramagnetic-Particles as a Tool for Detection of Silver(I) Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizek, R.; Krizkova, S.; Adam, V.; Huska, D.; Hubalek, J.; Trnkova, L.

    2009-04-01

    In a number of published articles the toxic effect of silver(I) ions on aquatic organisms is described. Silver(I) ions in aquatic environment are stable in a wide range of pH. Under alkali pH AgOH and Ag(OH)2- can be formed. However, in water environment there are many compounds to interact with silver(I) ions. The most important ones are chloride anions, which forms insoluble precipitate with silver(I) ions (AgCl). The insoluble silver containing compounds do not pose any threat to aquatic organisms. Toxicity of silver ions is probably caused by their very good affinity to nucleic acids and also proteins. The binding into active enzyme site leads to the expressive enzyme reaction inhibition. Silver(I) ions are into living environment introduced thanks to anthropogenic activities. They easily contaminate atmosphere as well as aquatic environment or soils. Several authors described using of carbon electrode as working electrode for determination of silver. Recently, we have suggested heavy metal biosensor based on interaction of metal ions with low molecular mass protein called metallothionein (MT), which was adsorbed on the surface of hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The biosensor was successfully used for detection of cadmium(II) and zinc(II) ions, cisplatin, cisplatin-DNA adducts and palladium(II) ions. Due to the convincing results with MT as biological component we report on suggesting of heavy metal biosensor based on immobilization of metallothionein (MT) on the surface of carbon paste electrode (CPE) via MT-antibodies. Primarily we studied of basic electrochemical behaviour of MT at surface of carbon paste electrode by using of square wave voltammetry (SWV). Detection limit (3 S/N) for MT was evaluated as 0.1 μg/ml. After that we have evaluated the electroactivity of MT at surface of SWV, we aimed our attention on the way of capturing of MT on the surface of CPE. We choose antibody against MT obtained from chicken eggs for these purposes. Antibodies

  1. Intense ion beams as a tool for opacity measurements in warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, Joseph; Tauschwiz, An; Jacoby, J; Maruhn, J A; Novikov, V G; Tauschwitz, A; Onkels, E; Wittle, K; Rosmej, F B; Schott, R

    2009-01-01

    Opacity measurements in warm dense matter (WDM) provide a valuable benchmark for the diverging theoretical models in this regime. Heating of thin foils with intense heavy-ion beams allows one to create isolated samples of warm dense matter suitable for experimental determination of frequency-dependent opacities. A prerequisite for the measurements is the isothermal expansion of the heated foil. Hydrodynamic simulations predict that this condition is fulfilled. The analysis shows that existing ion-beam accelerators are capable to contribute to this field of research.

  2. DeconMSn: A Software Tool for accurate parent ion monoisotopic mass determination for tandem mass spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Purvine, Samuel O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-04-01

    We present a new software tool for tandem MS analyses that: • accurately calculates the monoisotopic mass and charge of high–resolution parent ions • accurately operates regardless of the mass selected for fragmentation • performs independent of instrument settings • enables optimal selection of search mass tolerance for high mass accuracy experiments • is open source and thus can be tailored to individual needs • incorporates a SVM-based charge detection algorithm for analyzing low resolution tandem MS spectra • creates multiple output data formats (.dta, .MGF) • handles .RAW files and .mzXML formats • compatible with SEQUEST, MASCOT, X!Tandem

  3. ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE): AN INVESTIGATIVE TOOL FOR CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF COMPOUNDS OF REGULATORY IMPORTANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ion Composition Elucidation (ICE) often leads to identification of compounds and provides high quality evidence for tracking compounds to their sources. Mass spectra for most organic compounds are not found in mass spectral libraries used to tentatively identify analytes. In addi...

  4. Scanning ion imaging - a potent tool in SIMS U -Pb zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M. J.; Fedo, C.; Kusiak, M.; Nemchin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The application of high spatial resolution (< 15-20 μm lateral) U-Pb data obtained by sec-ondary ion mass spectrometers (SIMS) coupled with textural information from scanning electron microscope (SEM) based cathodoluminescence (CL) and/or back-scattered elec-tron (BSE) characterisation, has revolutionised geochronology over the past 25 years, re-vealing complexities of crustal evolution from zoned zircons. In addition to ge-ochronology, such studies now commonly form the basis of broader investigations using O- and Hf- isotopes and trace elements obtained from the same growth zone as age, circumventing ambiguities commonly present in bulk-rock isotope studies. The choice of analytical beam diameter is often made to maximise the precision of data obtained from a given area of analysis within an identifiable growth zone. In cases where zircons yield poorly constrained internal structures in SEM, high spatial resolution spot analyses may yield uninterpretable and/or meaningless mixed ages by inadvertent sampling across regions with real age differences. Scanning ion imaging (SII) has the potential to generate accurate and precise geochrono-logical data with a spatial resolution down to ca. 2 μm, much higher than that of a normal spot analysis. SII acquisition utilises a rastered primary beam to image an area of the sample with a spatial resolution dependent on the selected primary beam diameter. On the Cameca ims1270/80 instruments, the primary beam scanning is coupled with the dynamic transfer optical system (DTOS) which deflects the secondary ions back on to the ion optical axis of the instrument regardless of where in the raster illuminated area the ions originated. This feature allows retention of a high field magnification (= high transmission) mode and the ability to operate the mass spectrometer at high mass resolution without any compromise in the quality of the peak shape. Secondary ions may be detected either in a sequential (peak hopping) mono

  5. MultiSIMNRA: A computational tool for self-consistent ion beam analysis using SIMNRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, T. F.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Mayer, M.; Moro, M. V.; Trindade, G. F.; Aguirre, F. R.; Added, N.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2016-03-01

    SIMNRA is widely adopted by the scientific community of ion beam analysis for the simulation and interpretation of nuclear scattering techniques for material characterization. Taking advantage of its recognized reliability and quality of the simulations, we developed a computer program that uses multiple parallel sessions of SIMNRA to perform self-consistent analysis of data obtained by different ion beam techniques or in different experimental conditions of a given sample. In this paper, we present a result using MultiSIMNRA for a self-consistent multi-elemental analysis of a thin film produced by magnetron sputtering. The results demonstrate the potentialities of the self-consistent analysis and its feasibility using MultiSIMNRA.

  6. Zebrafish: a novel research tool for cardiac (patho)electrophysiology and ion channel disorders.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Arie O; Remme, Carol Ann

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish is a cold-blooded tropical freshwater teleost with two-chamber heart morphology. A major advantage of the zebrafish for heart studies is that the embryo is transparent, allowing for easy assessment of heart development, heart rate analysis and phenotypic characterization. Moreover, rapid and effective gene-specific knockdown can be achieved using morpholino oligonucleotides. Lastly, zebrafish are small in size, are easy to maintain and house, grow fast, and have large offspring size, making them a cost-efficient research model. Zebrafish embryonic and adult heart rates as well as action potential (AP) shape and duration and electrocardiogram morphology closely resemble those of humans. However, whether the zebrafish is truly an attractive alternative model for human cardiac electrophysiology depends on the presence and gating properties of the various ion channels in the zebrafish heart, but studies into the latter are as yet limited. The rapid component of the delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)) remains the best characterized and validated ion current in zebrafish myocytes, and zebrafish may represent a valuable model to investigate human I(Kr) channel-related disease, including long QT syndrome. Arguments against the use of zebrafish as model for human cardiac (patho)electrophysiology include its cold-bloodedness and two-chamber heart morphology, absence of t-tubuli, sarcoplamatic reticulum function, and a different profile of various depolarizing and repolarizing ion channels, including a limited Na(+) current density. Based on the currently available literature, we propose that zebrafish may constitute a relevant research model for investigating ion channel disorders associated with abnormal repolarization, but may be less suitable for studying depolarization disorders or Ca(2+)-modulated arrhythmias. PMID:22934012

  7. Ion beam irradiation as a tool to improve the ionic conductivity in solid polymer electrolyte systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjunatha, H.; Damle, R.; Kumaraswamy, G. N.

    2016-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have potential applications in solid state electronic and energy devices. The optimum conductivity of SPEs required for such applications is about 10-1 - 10-3 Scm-1, which is hard to achieve in these systems. It is observed that ionic conductivity of SPEs continuously increase with increasing concentration of inorganic salt in the host polymer. However, there is a critical concentration of the salt beyond which the conductivity of SPEs decreases due to the formation of ion pairs. In the present study, solid polymer thin films based on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with NaBr salt with different concentrations have been prepared and the concentration at which ion pair formation occurs in PEOxNaBr is identified. The microstructure of the SPE with highest ionic conductivity is modified by irradiating it with low energy O+1 ion (100 keV) of different fluencies. It is observed that the ionic conductivity of irradiated SPEs increases by one order in magnitude. The increase in ionic conductivity may be attributed to the enhanced segmental motion of the polymer chains due to radiation induced micro structural modification.

  8. Ion Implantation : A Tool For The Production Of New Optical Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thévenard, P.

    1983-09-01

    Ion implantation and ion mixing have made possible the production of new materials having new properties and new phases or structures. Typically, the optical properties modification of material by implantation strongly depends on the chemical bonding in the matrix. In the particular case of insulators these modifications can result in two different ways : the creation of intrinsic defects associated with energy loss processes (electronic excitations or nuclear collisions) and extrinsic defects due to the doping. The defect concentration is inhomogeneous in depth as the energy loss profiles which is very usefull for waveguide applications to obtain a refractive index gradient or a coloration gradient. The implantation of chemically reactive ions in materials is a non conventionnal way of doping. Bonding and charge transfert effects can induce strong modifications of the optical properties of the implanted layer. In addition for heavily implanted materials, new phases can be formed by precipitation processes such as small metallic clusters embedded in an insulator. Their implications in solar energy conversion are important for selective absorber production.

  9. Solar wind low-energy energetic ion enhancements: A tool to forecast large geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Z. K.; Murtagh, W. J.

    2009-10-01

    Predicting the occurrence of large geomagnetic storms more than an hour in advance is an important, yet difficult task. Energetic ion data show enhancements in flux that herald the approach of interplanetary shocks, usually for many hours before the shock arrival. We present a technique for predicting large geomagnetic storms (Kp ⩾ 7) following the arrival of interplanetary shocks at 1 AU, using low-energy energetic ions (47-65 keV) and solar wind data measured at the L1 libration point. It is based on a study of the relationship between energetic ion enhancements (EIEs) and large geomagnetic storms by Smith et al. [Smith, Z., Murtagh, W., Smithtro, C. Relationship between solar wind low-energy energetic ion enhancements and large geomagnetic storms. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A01110, 2004. doi:10.1029/ 2003JA010044] using data in the rise and maximum of solar cycle 23 (February 1998-December 2000). An excellent correlation was found between storms with Kp ⩾ 7 and the peak flux of large energetic ion enhancements that almost always (93% of time in our time period) accompany the arrival of interplanetary shocks at L1. However, as there are many more large EIEs than large geomagnetic storms, other characteristics were investigated to help determine which EIEs are likely to be followed by large storms. An additional parameter, the magnitude of the post-shock total magnetic field at the L1 Lagrangian point, is introduced here. This improves the identification of the EIEs that are likely to be followed by large storms. A forecasting technique is developed and tested on the time period of the original study (the training data set). The lead times, defined as the times from the arrival of the shock to the start of the 3-h interval of maximum Kp, are also presented. They range from minutes to more than a day; the average for large storms is 7 h. These times do not include the extra warning time given when the EI flux cross the high thresholds ahead of the shock. Because the

  10. Intermediate energy heavy ions: An emerging multi-disciplinary research tool

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1988-10-01

    In the ten years that beams of intermediate energy ({approx}50 MeV/amu{le}E{le}{approx}2 GeV/amu) heavy ions (Z{le}92) have been available, an increasing number of new research areas have been opened up. Pioneering work at the Bevalac at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, still the world's only source of the heaviest beams in this energy range, has led to the establishment of active programs in nuclear physics, atomic physics, cosmic ray physics, as well as biology and medicine, and industrial applications. The great promise for growth of these research areas has led to serious planning for new facilities capable of delivering such beams; several such facilities are now in construction around the world. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Unique ion filter: a data reduction tool for GC/MS data preprocessing prior to chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Adutwum, L A; Harynuk, J J

    2014-08-01

    Using raw GC/MS data as the X-block for chemometric modeling has the potential to provide better classification models for complex samples when compared to using the total ion current (TIC), extracted ion chromatograms/profiles (EIC/EIP), or integrated peak tables. However, the abundance of raw GC/MS data necessitates some form of data reduction/feature selection to remove the variables containing primarily noise from the data set. Several algorithms for feature selection exist; however, due to the extreme number of variables (10(6)-10(8) variables per chromatogram), the feature selection time can be prolonged and computationally expensive. Herein, we present a new prefilter for automated data reduction of GC/MS data prior to feature selection. This tool, termed unique ion filter (UIF), is a module that can be added after chromatographic alignment and prior to any subsequent feature selection algorithm. The UIF objectively reduces the number of irrelevant or redundant variables in raw GC/MS data, while preserving potentially relevant analytical information. In the m/z dimension, data are reduced from a full spectrum to a handful of unique ions for each chromatographic peak. In the time dimension, data are reduced to only a handful of scans around each peak apex. UIF was applied to a data set of GC/MS data for a variety of gasoline samples to be classified using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) according to octane rating. It was also applied to a series of chromatograms from casework fire debris analysis to be classified on the basis of whether or not signatures of gasoline were detected. By reducing the overall population of candidate variables subjected to subsequent variable selection, the UIF reduced the total feature selection time for which a perfect classification of all validation data was achieved from 373 to 9 min (98% reduction in computing time). Additionally, the significant reduction in included variables resulted in a concomitant

  12. Development of a patient positioning error compensation tool for Korea Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator Treatment Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Joo; Suh, Tae-Suk; Cho, Woong; Jung, Won-Gyun

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a potential validation tool for compensating for the patient positioning error was developed by using 2D/3D and 3D/3D image registration. For 2D/3D registration, digitallyreconstructed radiography (DRR) and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) images were applied. The ray-casting algorithm is the most straightforward method for generating DRR, so we adopted the traditional ray-casting method, which finds the intersections of a ray with all objects, voxels of the 3D-CT volume in the scene. The similarity between the extracted DRR and the orthogonal image was measured by using a normalized mutual information method. Two orthogonal images were acquired from a Cyber-knife system from the anterior-posterior (AP) and right lateral (RL) views. The 3D-CT and the two orthogonal images of an anthropomorphic phantom and of the head and neck of a cancer patient were used in this study. For 3D/3D registration, planning CT and in-room CT images were applied. After registration, the translation and the rotation factors were calculated to position a couch to be movable in six dimensions. Registration accuracies and average errors of 2.12 mm ± 0.50 mm for transformations and 1.23 ° ± 0.40 ° for rotations were acquired by using 2D/3D registration with the anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom. In addition, registration accuracies and average errors of 0.90 mm ± 0.30 mm for transformations and 1.00 ° ± 0.2 ° for rotations were acquired by using CT image sets. We demonstrated that this validation tool could compensate for patient positioning errors. In addition, this research could be a fundamental step in compensating for patient positioning errors at the Korea Heavy-ion Medical Accelerator Treatment Center.

  13. SU-E-J-137: Image Registration Tool for Patient Setup in Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M; Suh, T; Cho, W; Jung, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A potential validation tool for compensating patient positioning error was developed using 2D/3D and 3D/3D image registration. Methods: For 2D/3D registration, digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) images were applied. The ray-casting algorithm is the most straightforward method for generating DRR. We adopted the traditional ray-casting method, which finds the intersections of a ray with all objects, voxels of the 3D-CT volume in the scene. The similarity between the extracted DRR and orthogonal image was measured by using a normalized mutual information method. Two orthogonal images were acquired from a Cyber-Knife system from the anterior-posterior (AP) and right lateral (RL) views. The 3D-CT and two orthogonal images of an anthropomorphic phantom and head and neck cancer patient were used in this study. For 3D/3D registration, planning CT and in-room CT image were applied. After registration, the translation and rotation factors were calculated to position a couch to be movable in six dimensions. Results: Registration accuracies and average errors of 2.12 mm ± 0.50 mm for transformations and 1.23° ± 0.40° for rotations were acquired by 2D/3D registration using an anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom. In addition, registration accuracies and average errors of 0.90 mm ± 0.30 mm for transformations and 1.00° ± 0.2° for rotations were acquired using CT image sets. Conclusion: We demonstrated that this validation tool could compensate for patient positioning error. In addition, this research could be the fundamental step for compensating patient positioning error at the first Korea heavy-ion medical accelerator treatment center.

  14. Fission track-secondary ion mass spectrometry as a tool for detecting the isotopic signature of individual uranium containing particles.

    PubMed

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Magara, Masaaki; Kimura, Takaumi

    2012-04-01

    A fission track technique was used as a sample preparation method for subsequent isotope abundance ratio analysis of individual uranium containing particles with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to measure the particles with higher enriched uranium efficiently. A polycarbonate film containing particles was irradiated with thermal neutrons and etched with 6M NaOH solution. Each uranium containing particle was then identified by observing fission tracks created and a portion of the film having a uranium containing particle was cut out and put onto a glassy carbon planchet. The polycarbonate film, which gave the increases of background signals on the uranium mass region in SIMS analysis, was removed by plasma ashing with 200 W for 20 min. In the analysis of swipe samples having particles containing natural (NBL CRM 950a) or low enriched uranium (NBL CRM U100) with the fission track-SIMS method, uranium isotope abundance ratios were successfully determined. This method was then applied to the analysis of a real inspection swipe sample taken at a nuclear facility. As a consequence, the range of (235)U/(238)U isotope abundance ratio between 0.0276 and 0.0438 was obtained, which was higher than that measured by SIMS without using a fission track technique (0.0225 and 0.0341). This indicates that the fission track-SIMS method is a powerful tool to identify the particle with higher enriched uranium in environmental samples efficiently. PMID:22405310

  15. DtaRefinery: a software tool for elimination of systematic errors from parent ion mass measurements in tandem mass spectra datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-12-16

    Hybrid two-stage mass spectrometers capable of both highly accurate mass measurement and MS/MS fragmentation have become widely available in recent years and have allowed for sig-nificantly better discrimination between true and false MS/MS pep-tide identifications by applying relatively narrow windows for maxi-mum allowable deviations for parent ion mass measurements. To fully gain the advantage of highly accurate parent ion mass meas-urements, it is important to limit systematic mass measurement errors. The DtaRefinery software tool can correct systematic errors in parent ion masses by reading a set of fragmentation spectra, searching for MS/MS peptide identifications, then fitting a model that can estimate systematic errors, and removing them. This results in a new fragmentation spectrum file with updated parent ion masses.

  16. Ion-nitriding of the AISI M2 high speed tool steel and comparison of its mechanical properties with nitrided steels

    SciTech Connect

    Cimen, O.; Alnipak, B.

    1995-12-31

    In the past it was shown that plasma diffusion treatment of steels has several advantages over conventional processes such as gas or salt bath nitriding and nitrocarburizing. Plasma diffusion treatment allows close control of the process so that surface layers with defined microstructures and properties can be obtained. The amount of {gamma}{prime} and {epsilon} phase present can be easily controlled. In this paper, variation of surfaces hardness properties of AISI M2 high speed tool speed after ion nitriding treatments were investigated. The mechanical and electro-chemical advantages of the ion nitrided structures were compared with the other methods.

  17. DIRAC: A new version of computer algebra tools for studying the properties and behavior of hydrogen-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Sean; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey

    2010-03-01

    During recent years, the DIRAC package has proved to be an efficient tool for studying the structural properties and dynamic behavior of hydrogen-like ions. Originally designed as a set of MAPLE procedures, this package provides interactive access to the wave and Green's functions in the non-relativistic and relativistic frameworks and supports analytical evaluation of a large number of radial integrals that are required for the construction of transition amplitudes and interaction cross sections. We provide here a new version of the DIRAC program which is developed within the framework of MATHEMATICA (version 6.0). This new version aims to cater to a wider community of researchers that use the MATHEMATICA platform and to take advantage of the generally faster processing times therein. Moreover, the addition of new procedures, a more convenient and detailed help system, as well as source code revisions to overcome identified shortcomings should ensure expanded use of the new DIRAC program over its predecessor. New version program summaryProgram title: DIRAC Catalogue identifier: ADUQ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUQ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 45 073 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 285 828 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica 6.0 or higher Computer: All computers with a license for the computer algebra package Mathematica (version 6.0 or higher) Operating system: Mathematica is O/S independent Classification: 2.1 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADUQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 165 (2005) 139 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Since the early days of quantum mechanics, the

  18. DtaRefinery, a Software Tool for Elimination of Systematic Errors from Parent Ion Mass Measurements in Tandem Mass Spectra Data Sets*

    PubMed Central

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid two-stage mass spectrometers capable of both highly accurate mass measurement and high throughput MS/MS fragmentation have become widely available in recent years, allowing for significantly better discrimination between true and false MS/MS peptide identifications by the application of a relatively narrow window for maximum allowable deviations of measured parent ion masses. To fully gain the advantage of highly accurate parent ion mass measurements, it is important to limit systematic mass measurement errors. Based on our previous studies of systematic biases in mass measurement errors, here, we have designed an algorithm and software tool that eliminates the systematic errors from the peptide ion masses in MS/MS data. We demonstrate that the elimination of the systematic mass measurement errors allows for the use of tighter criteria on the deviation of measured mass from theoretical monoisotopic peptide mass, resulting in a reduction of both false discovery and false negative rates of peptide identification. A software implementation of this algorithm called DtaRefinery reads a set of fragmentation spectra, searches for MS/MS peptide identifications using a FASTA file containing expected protein sequences, fits a regression model that can estimate systematic errors, and then corrects the parent ion mass entries by removing the estimated systematic error components. The output is a new file with fragmentation spectra with updated parent ion masses. The software is freely available. PMID:20019053

  19. Design and fabrication of nano-scale single crystal diamond cutting tool by focused ion beam (FIB) milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung-Yub

    2015-07-01

    Micro/nanoscale diamond cutting tools used in ultra-precision machining can be fabricated by precision grinding, but it is hard to fabricate a tool with a nanometric cutting edge and complex configurations. High-precision geometry accuracy and special shapes for microcutting tools with sharp edges can be achieved by FIB milling. Because the FIB milling method induces much smaller machining stress compared with conventional precision grinding methods. In this study, the FIB milling characteristics of single-crystal diamond were investigated, along with methods for decreasing the FIB-induced damage on diamond tools. Lift-off process method and Pt(Platinum) coating process method with FIB milling were investigated to reduce the damage layer on diamond substrate and quadrilateral-shaped single-crystal diamond cutting tool with cutting edge width under 500 nm were obtained.

  20. Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-01-406

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-07-01

    The pressure within a lithium-ion cell changes due to various chemical reactions. When a battery undergoes an unintended short circuit, the pressure changes are drastic - and often lead to uncontrolled failure of the cells. As part of work for others with Oceanit Laboratories Inc. for the NAVY STTR, NREL built Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations that can identify potential weak spots in the battery during such events, as well as propose designs to control violent failure of batteries.

  1. Blood metal ion testing is an effective screening tool to identify poorly performing metal-on-metal bearing surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sidaginamale, R. P.; Joyce, T. J.; Lord, J. K.; Jefferson, R.; Blain, P. G.; Nargol, A. V. F.; Langton, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this piece of work were to: 1) record the background concentrations of blood chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations in a large group of subjects; 2) to compare blood/serum Cr and Co concentrations with retrieved metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacings; 3) to examine the distribution of Co and Cr in the serum and whole blood of patients with MoM hip arthroplasties; and 4) to further understand the partitioning of metal ions between the serum and whole blood fractions. Methods A total of 3042 blood samples donated to the local transfusion centre were analysed to record Co and Cr concentrations. Also, 91 hip resurfacing devices from patients who had given pre-revision blood/serum samples for metal ion analysis underwent volumetric wear assessment using a coordinate measuring machine. Linear regression analysis was carried out and receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the reliability of metal ions to identify abnormally wearing implants. The relationship between serum and whole blood concentrations of Cr and Co in 1048 patients was analysed using Bland-Altman charts. This relationship was further investigated in an in vitro study during which human blood was spiked with trivalent and hexavalent Cr, the serum then separated and the fractions analysed. Results Only one patient in the transfusion group was found to have a blood Co > 2 µg/l. Blood/Serum Cr and Co concentrations were reliable indicators of abnormal wear. Blood Co appeared to be the most useful clinical test, with a concentration of 4.5 µg/l showing sensitivity and specificity for the detection of abnormal wear of 94% and 95%, respectively. Generated metal ions tended to fill the serum compartment preferentially in vivo and this was replicated in the in vitro study when blood was spiked with trivalent Cr and bivalent Co. Conclusions Blood/serum metal ion concentrations are reliable indicators of abnormal wear processes. Important differences exist

  2. Kinetic simulation of complex decomposition as a tool for the ion chromatographic determination of elemental speciation of less inert metal ions.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christian; Seubert, Andreas

    2016-01-15

    Species decomposition is an often occurring artefact during the chromatographic determination of elemental speciation. The decomposition follows a simple path to lower coordinated compounds. Therefore a simulation is developed for those decomposition reactions. The simulation separates the isochronal processes of the separation itself and the ongoing reaction and delivers thermodynamic and kinetic information about the species present in the original sample. This shifts the boundaries of separation based elemental speciation to less inert metal ions which are typically not analyzable by this approach. The less inert gallium monooxalato complex [GaOx](+) is used as example for testing the simulation software as this complex decomposes only to Ga(3+) and both species are retained on cation exchange columns. We extracted thermodynamic and kinetic information from flow rate experiments by the analysis of the peak areas in the chromatogram. The results show that some of our assumptions such as the irreversibility under the applied chromatographic conditions are not ultimately true, but good accordance of simulation and measured data was achieved. PMID:26709021

  3. Pion shadowing as a tool to study the topology of heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Badala, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A.C.; Turrisi, R.; Barbera, R.; Riggi, F.; Russo, G.; Turrisi, R.; Russo, G.

    1997-05-01

    The pion reabsorption effect has been exploited, through a new analysis technique, to study the topological distribution of nuclear matter in the course of a heavy-ion collision at intermediate energies. The azimuthal angular distribution of pions with respect to the reaction plane and the angular correlations between pions and projectilelike fragments have been investigated. Quantitative estimations of the pion production time scale and of the impact parameter range involved are provided. The experimental results are successfully compared with the predictions of a microscopic theoretical model based on the solution of the Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov transport equation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Ion-imprinted silica adsorbent modified diffusive gradients in thin films technique: Tool for speciation analysis of free lead species.

    PubMed

    Sui, Dian-Peng; Chen, Hua-Xia; Liu, Lin; Liu, Ming-Xuan; Huang, Cong-Cong; Fan, Hong-Tao

    2016-02-01

    A new diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) device, using Pb(II) ion-imprinted silica (IIS) as the binding agents and commercial cellulose acetate dialysis (CAD) membrane as the diffusion layer (CAD/IIS-DGT), has been developed and evaluated for sampling and measurement of free Pb(II) species. The CAD/IIS-DGT devices were successfully applied to the measurement of free Pb(II) species in synthetic solutions, in natural freshwaters and in industrial wastewaters. The CAD/IIS-DGT provides reliable results over pH range of 4.5-6.5 and a wide range of ionic strength from 1.0×10(-3) to 0.7 mol L(-1). The concentrations of the free Pb(II) species in synthetic solution containing different concentrations of ligands measured by CAD/IIS-DGT showed a good agreement with the value measured by Pb-ion selective electrode. Field deployments of the CAD/IIS-DGT devices allowed accurate measurements of the concentrations of free Pb(II) species. PMID:26653451

  5. Status of the SPES project, a new tool for fundamental and apply science studies with exotic ion beams at LNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoli, D. R.; Andrighetto, A.; Antonini, P.; Bellan, L.; Bellato, M.; Benini, D.; Bermudez, J.; Bisoffi, G.; Boratto, E.; Bortolato, D.; Calabretta, L.; Calderolla, M.; Calore, A.; Campo, D.; Carturan, S.; Cinausero, M.; Comunian, M.; Corradetti, S.; De Angelis, G.; De Ruvo, P. L.; Esposito, J.; Ferrari, L.; Galatá, A.; Gelain, F.; Giacchini, M.; Giacomazzi, P.; Gobbi, C.; Gramegna, F.; Gulmini, M.; Lollo, M.; Lombardi, A.; Maggiore, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Michinelli, R.; Modanese, P.; Moisio, M. F.; Monetti, A.; Mozzi, A.; Palmieri, A.; Pasquato, F.; Pedretti, D.; Pegoraro, R.; Pisent, A.; Poggi, M.; Pranovi, L.; Prete, G.; Roncolato, C.; Rossignoli, M.; Russo, A. D.; Sarchiapone, L.; Scarpa, D.; Silingardi, R.; Dobon, J. J. Valiente; Visentin, E.; Vivian, G.; Zafiropoulos, D.; Prete, G. F.

    2016-07-01

    SPES, a new accelerator facility for both the production of exotic ion beams and radio-pharmaceuticals, is presently being installed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro in Italy (LNL). The new cyclotron, which will provide high intensity proton beams for the production of the rare isotopes, has been installed and is now in the commissioning phase. We present here the status of the part of the project devoted to the production and acceleration of fission fragments created in the interaction of an intense proton beam on a production target of UCx. The expected SPES radioactive beams intensities, their quality and their maximum energies (up to 11 MeV/A for A=130) will permit to perform forefront research in nuclear structure and nuclear dynamics far from the stability valley. Another low energy section of the facility is foreseen for new and challenging research, both in the nuclear physics and in the material science frameworks.

  6. NGS tools for traceability in candies as high processed food products: Ion Torrent PGM versus conventional PCR-cloning.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The Next Generation Sequencing methodologies are considered the next step within DNA-based methods and their applicability in different fields is being evaluated. Here, we tested the usefulness of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in food traceability analyzing candies as a model of high processed foods, and compared the results with those obtained by PCR-cloning-sequencing (PCR-CS). The majority of samples exhibited consistency between methodologies, yielding more information and species per product from the PGM platform than PCR-CS. Significantly higher AT-content in sequences of the same species was also obtained from PGM. This together with some taxonomical discrepancies between methodologies suggest that the PGM platform is still pre-mature for its use in food traceability of complex highly processed products. It could be a good option for analysis of less complex food, saving time and cost per sample. PMID:27507519

  7. Focused ion beam as a tool for graphene technology: Structural study of processing sequence by electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rius, Gemma; Tavabi, Amir H.; Mestres, Narcis; Eryu, Osamu; Tanji, Takayoshi; Yoshimura, Masamichi

    2014-02-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) techniques are used to investigate the microstructure of ultrathin carbon layers obtained by focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID). The investigation determines the crystalline structure, chemical bonding and elemental contents of FIBID-C materials. The effect of a thermal treatment to the ultrathin C films is analyzed. As-deposited FIBID-C is a metastable material transforming at mid-high temperatures. Evidence of its graphitization by metal catalysis is presented. Understanding of the heat transformation and crystallization is established based on the observations. Specifically, carbonization, H desorption decomposition, and graphitization, driven by high temperature metal-induced crystallization, are the identified processes. Demonstration of the graphitization of ultrathin FIBID-C enables a strategy towards graphene integrative planar technologies.

  8. Algebraic tools for dealing with the atomic shell model. I. Wavefunctions and integrals for hydrogen-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhykov, Andrey; Koval, Peter; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    Today, the 'hydrogen atom model' is known to play its role not only in teaching the basic elements of quantum mechanics but also for building up effective theories in atomic and molecular physics, quantum optics, plasma physics, or even in the design of semiconductor devices. Therefore, the analytical as well as numerical solutions of the hydrogen-like ions are frequently required both, for analyzing experimental data and for carrying out quite advanced theoretical studies. In order to support a fast and consistent access to these (Coulomb-field) solutions, here we present the DIRAC program which has been developed originally for studying the properties and dynamical behavior of the (hydrogen-like) ions. In the present version, a set of MAPLE procedures is provided for the Coulomb wave and Green's functions by applying the (wave) equations from both, the nonrelativistic and relativistic theory. Apart from the interactive access to these functions, moreover, a number of radial integrals are also implemented in the DIRAC program which may help the user to construct transition amplitudes and cross sections as they occur frequently in the theory of ion-atom and ion-photon collisions. Program summaryTitle of program:DIRAC Catalogue number: ADUQ Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUQ Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: None Computer for which the program is designed and has been tested: All computers with a license of the computer algebra package MAPLE [1] Program language used: Maple 8 and 9 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:2186 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 162 591 Distribution format: tar gzip file CPC Program Library subprograms required: None Nature of the physical problem: Analytical solutions of the hydrogen atom are widely used in very different fields of physics [2,3]. Despite of the rather simple structure

  9. Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry as a Tool for the Structural Characterization of Peptides Bearing Intramolecular Disulfide Bond(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonnet, Philippe; Haler, Jean R. N.; Upert, Gregory; Degueldre, Michel; Morsa, Denis; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Mourier, Gilles; Gilles, Nicolas; Quinton, Loïc; De Pauw, Edwin

    2016-08-01

    Disulfide bonds are post-translationnal modifications that can be crucial for the stability and the biological activities of natural peptides. Considering the importance of these disulfide bond-containing peptides, the development of new techniques in order to characterize these modifications is of great interest. For this purpose, collision cross cections (CCS) of a large data set of 118 peptides (displaying various sequences) bearing zero, one, two, or three disulfide bond(s) have been measured in this study at different charge states using ion mobility-mass spectrometry. From an experimental point of view, CCS differences (ΔCCS) between peptides bearing various numbers of disulfide bonds and peptides having no disulfide bonds have been calculated. The ΔCCS calculations have also been applied to peptides bearing two disulfide bonds but different cysteine connectivities (Cys1-Cys2/Cys3-Cys4; Cys1-Cys3/Cys2-Cys4; Cys1-Cys4/Cys2-Cys3). The effect of the replacement of a proton by a potassium adduct on a peptidic structure has also been investigated.

  10. Isothermal microcalorimetry as a tool to study solid-electrolyte interphase formation in lithium-ion cells.

    PubMed

    Hall, David S; Glazier, Stephen L; Dahn, J R

    2016-04-28

    Isothermal microcalorimetry can be used in conjunction with electrochemical measurements to study solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation reactions as they occur in a Li-ion cell. The heat flow was measured in wound cells that contained no electrolyte additives and in cells prepared with four additives that are known to produce an SEI at the negative electrode surface: vinylene carbonate (VC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), pyridine boron trifluoride (PBF), and prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone (PES). For VC, two distinct features in the differential capacity (dQ/dV vs. Q) plot that align with overlapping peaks in the heat flow plot do not agree with a simple one-electron reduction followed by anionic polymerization. For FEC, three distinct differential capacity and calorimetric peaks are observed. Heat flow measurements at multiple PBF concentrations show that PBF reduction does not significantly affect the reduction of EC at higher cell voltage. The total heat flow during SEI formation in PBF- and PES-containing cells match the calculated energies in recently published reaction pathways. It is concluded that IMC may be used to study the underlying chemistry of SEI formation, especially when paired with computational studies. PMID:27056253

  11. Laser desorption-ion mobility spectrometry as a useful tool for imaging of thin layer chromatography surface.

    PubMed

    Ilbeigi, Vahideh; Sabo, Martin; Valadbeigi, Younes; Matejcik, Stefan; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud

    2016-08-12

    We present a novel method for coupling thin layer chromatography (TLC) with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) using laser desorption technique (LD). After separation of the compounds by TLC, the TLC surface was sampled by the LD-IMS without any further manipulation or preparation. The position of the laser was fixed and the TLC plate was moved in desired directions by the motorized micro-positioning stage. The method was successfully applied to analyze the TLC plates containing explosives (tri nitro toluene, 1,3,5-trinitro- 1,3,5-triazacyclohexane, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, 2,4-dinitro toluene and 3,4-dinitro toluene), amino acids (alanine, proline and isoleucine), nicotine and diphenylamine mixtures and detection limits for these compounds were determined. Combination of TLC with LD-IMS technique offers additional separation dimension, allowing separation of overlapping TLC analytes. The time for TLC sampling by LD-IMS was less than 80s. The scan rate for LD is adjustable so that fast and effective analysis of the mixtures is possible with the proposed method. PMID:27397925

  12. Quality control tool of electrode coating for lithium-ion batteries based on X-ray radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etiemble, A.; Besnard, N.; Adrien, J.; Tran-Van, P.; Gautier, L.; Lestriez, B.; Maire, E.

    2015-12-01

    A simple and efficient method, based on X-ray radiography, is developed to check the quality (homogeneity of the thickness, presence of defects) of NMC-, LFP- and NMC/LFP-based electrode coating for Li-ion batteries at the scale of several cm2 with a resolution of 20 μm. As a first step, the attenuation coefficient of NMC- and LFP-based coating is experimentally determined according to the Beer-Lambert law. Then, the attenuation coefficient of each active material is estimated from these experimental results and X-ray attenuation databases, which allows establishing an attenuation law for any coating composition. Finally, thanks to this relationship, the thickness can be evaluated in each spot of the film and the defects, such as pinholes or broad edges with gradual decrease of the thickness coating, can be detected. The analysis of NMC-, LFP- and NMC/LFP-based electrodes shows that the coating quality decreases as coating thickness increases and as the nanometric vs. micrometric material content increases in the coating composition. This reveals detrimental aspects of nanomaterials with respect to their use in composite electrode manufactured through conventional slot-die or casting process.

  13. Ion colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  14. The Stanford-U.S. Geological Survey SHRIMP ion microprobe--a tool for micro-scale chemical and isotopic analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles R.; Grove, Marty; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Coble, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Answers to many questions in Earth science require chemical analysis of minute volumes of minerals, volcanic glass, or biological materials. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is an extremely sensitive analytical method in which a 5–30 micrometer diameter "primary" beam of charged particles (ions) is focused on a region of a solid specimen to sputter secondary ions from 1–5 nanograms of the sample under high vacuum. The elemental abundances and isotopic ratios of these secondary ions are determined with a mass spectrometer. These results can be used for geochronology to determine the age of a region within a crystal thousands to billions of years old or to precisely measure trace abundances of chemical elements at concentrations as low as parts per billion. A partnership of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Stanford University School of Earth Sciences operates a large SIMS instrument, the Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe with Reverse Geometry (SHRIMP–RG) on the Stanford campus.

  15. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, Vladimir P.; Lam, Thomas; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Haney, Paul; Lezec, Henri J.; Davydov, Albert V.; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Cumings, John; Talin, A. Alec

    2014-09-01

    Complex interfacial phenomena and phase transformations that govern the operation of Li-ion batteries require detailed nanoscale 3D structural and compositional characterization that can be directly related to their capacity and electrical transport properties. For this purpose, we have designed model miniature all solid-state radial heterostructure Li-ion batteries composed of LiCoO2 cathode, LiPON electrolyte and amorphous Si anode shells, which were deposited around metallized high-aspect-ratio Si nanowires as a scaffolding core. Such diagnostic batteries, the smallest, complete secondary Li-ion batteries realized to date, were specifically designed for in situ electrical testing in a field-emission scanning electron microscope and/or transmission electron microscope. The results of electrochemical testing were described in detail in a previous publication (Nano Lett., 2012, 12, 505-511). The model Li-ion batteries allow analysis of the correlations between electrochemical properties and their structural evolution during cycling in various imaging, diffraction and spectroscopic modes down to the atomic level. Employing multimode analytical scanning/transmission electron microscopy imaging coupled with correlative multivariate statistical analysis and tomography, we have analyzed and quantified the 3D morphological and structural arrangement of the batteries, including textured platelet-like LiCoO2 nanocrystallites, buried electrode-electrolyte interfaces and hidden internal defects to clarify effects of scaling on a battery's electrochemical performance. Characterization of the nanoscale interfacial processes using model heterostructure nanowire-based Li-ion batteries provides useful guidelines for engineering of prospective nano-sized building blocks in future electrochemical energy storage systems.Complex interfacial phenomena and phase transformations that govern the operation of Li-ion batteries require detailed nanoscale 3D structural and compositional

  16. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Oleshko, Vladimir P; Lam, Thomas; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Haney, Paul; Lezec, Henri J; Davydov, Albert V; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Cumings, John; Talin, A Alec

    2014-10-21

    Complex interfacial phenomena and phase transformations that govern the operation of Li-ion batteries require detailed nanoscale 3D structural and compositional characterization that can be directly related to their capacity and electrical transport properties. For this purpose, we have designed model miniature all solid-state radial heterostructure Li-ion batteries composed of LiCoO2 cathode, LiPON electrolyte and amorphous Si anode shells, which were deposited around metallized high-aspect-ratio Si nanowires as a scaffolding core. Such diagnostic batteries, the smallest, complete secondary Li-ion batteries realized to date, were specifically designed for in situ electrical testing in a field-emission scanning electron microscope and/or transmission electron microscope. The results of electrochemical testing were described in detail in a previous publication (Nano Lett., 2012, 12, 505-511). The model Li-ion batteries allow analysis of the correlations between electrochemical properties and their structural evolution during cycling in various imaging, diffraction and spectroscopic modes down to the atomic level. Employing multimode analytical scanning/transmission electron microscopy imaging coupled with correlative multivariate statistical analysis and tomography, we have analyzed and quantified the 3D morphological and structural arrangement of the batteries, including textured platelet-like LiCoO2 nanocrystallites, buried electrode-electrolyte interfaces and hidden internal defects to clarify effects of scaling on a battery's electrochemical performance. Characterization of the nanoscale interfacial processes using model heterostructure nanowire-based Li-ion batteries provides useful guidelines for engineering of prospective nano-sized building blocks in future electrochemical energy storage systems. PMID:25157420

  17. Argon broad ion beam tomography in a cryogenic scanning electron microscope: a novel tool for the investigation of representative microstructures in sedimentary rocks containing pore fluid.

    PubMed

    Desbois, G; Urai, J L; Pérez-Willard, F; Radi, Z; Offern, S; Burkart, I; Kukla, P A; Wollenberg, U

    2013-03-01

    The contribution describes the implementation of a broad ion beam (BIB) polisher into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) functioning at cryogenic temperature (cryo). The whole system (BIB-cryo-SEM) provides a first generation of a novel multibeam electron microscope that combines broad ion beam with cryogenic facilities in a conventional SEM to produce large, high-quality cross-sections (up to 2 mm(2)) at cryogenic temperature to be imaged at the state-of-the-art SEM resolution. Cryogenic method allows detecting fluids in their natural environment and preserves samples against desiccation and dehydration, which may damage natural microstructures. The investigation of microstructures in the third dimension is enabled by serial cross-sectioning, providing broad ion beam tomography with slices down to 350 nm thick. The functionalities of the BIB-cryo-SEM are demonstrated by the investigation of rock salts (synthetic coarse-grained sodium chloride synthesized from halite-brine mush cold pressed at 150 MPa and 4.5 GPa, and natural rock salt mylonite from a salt glacier at Qom Kuh, central Iran). In addition, results from BIB-cryo-SEM on a gas shale and Boom Clay are also presented to show that the instrument is suitable for a large range of sedimentary rocks. For the first time, pore and grain fabrics of preserved host and reservoir rocks can be investigated at nm-scale range over a representative elementary area. In comparison with the complementary and overlapping performances of the BIB-SEM method with focused ion beam-SEM and X-ray tomography methods, the BIB cross-sectioning enables detailed insights about morphologies of pores at greater resolution than X-ray tomography and allows the production of large representative surfaces suitable for FIB-SEM investigations of a specific representative site within the BIB cross-section. PMID:23323728

  18. MAGIC: an automated N-linked glycoprotein identification tool using a Y1-ion pattern matching algorithm and in silico MS² approach.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Ke-Shiuan; Chen, Chen-Chun; Lih, T Mamie; Cheng, Cheng-Wei; Su, Wan-Chih; Chang, Chun-Hao; Cheng, Chia-Ying; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Chen, Yu-Ju; Sung, Ting-Yi

    2015-02-17

    Glycosylation is a highly complex modification influencing the functions and activities of proteins. Interpretation of intact glycopeptide spectra is crucial but challenging. In this paper, we present a mass spectrometry-based automated glycopeptide identification platform (MAGIC) to identify peptide sequences and glycan compositions directly from intact N-linked glycopeptide collision-induced-dissociation spectra. The identification of the Y1 (peptideY0 + GlcNAc) ion is critical for the correct analysis of unknown glycoproteins, especially without prior knowledge of the proteins and glycans present in the sample. To ensure accurate Y1-ion assignment, we propose a novel algorithm called Trident that detects a triplet pattern corresponding to [Y0, Y1, Y2] or [Y0-NH3, Y0, Y1] from the fragmentation of the common trimannosyl core of N-linked glycopeptides. To facilitate the subsequent peptide sequence identification by common database search engines, MAGIC generates in silico spectra by overwriting the original precursor with the naked peptide m/z and removing all of the glycan-related ions. Finally, MAGIC computes the glycan compositions and ranks them. For the model glycoprotein horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a 5-glycoprotein mixture, a 2- to 31-fold increase in the relative intensities of the peptide fragments was achieved, which led to the identification of 7 tryptic glycopeptides from HRP and 16 glycopeptides from the mixture via Mascot. In the HeLa cell proteome data set, MAGIC processed over a thousand MS(2) spectra in 3 min on a PC and reported 36 glycopeptides from 26 glycoproteins. Finally, a remarkable false discovery rate of 0 was achieved on the N-glycosylation-free Escherichia coli data set. MAGIC is available at http://ms.iis.sinica.edu.tw/COmics/Software_MAGIC.html . PMID:25629585

  19. Ion beam surface modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwight, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The essential details of a study on the practical applications and mechanisms of polymer sputtering via Argon ion impact are summarized. The potential to modify the properties of polymer surfaces to improve their adherence, durability, biocompatibility, or other desirable properties by ion beam sputtering was emphasized. Ion beam milling can be of benefit as an analytical tool to obtain composition versus depth information. Ion impact from a directed ion gun source specifically etches polymer structures according to their morphologies, therefore this technique may be useful to study unknown or new morphological features. Factors addressed were related to: (1) the texture that arises on a polymer target after ion impact; (2) the chemistry of the top surface after ion impact; (3) the chemistry of sputtered films of polymeric material deposited on substrates placed adjacent to targets during ion impact; and (4) practical properties of textured polymer targets, specifically the wettability and adhesive bonding properties.

  20. NUMEN Project @ LNS : Heavy Ions Double Charge Exchange as a tool towards the 0νββ Nuclear Matrix Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agodi, C.; Cappuzzello, F.; Bonanno, D. L.; Bongiovanni, D. G.; Branchina, V.; Calabrese, S.; Calabretta, L.; Calanna, A.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Colonna, M.; Foti, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Greco, V.; Lanzalone, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Longhitano, F.; Muoio, A.; Pandola, L.; Rifuggiato, D.; Tudisco, S.

    2016-06-01

    The NUMEN Project, proposed at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) in Catania, has the aim to access the nuclear matrix elements, entering the expression of the life time of double beta decay, by relevant cross sections of double charge exchange reactions. The basic point, on which it is based this innovative technique, is the coincidence of the initial and final state wave-functions in the two classes of processes and the similarity of the transition operators. A key aspect of the Project is the use of MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer, for the detection of the ejectiles, and of the INFN LNS K800 Superconducting Cyclotron (CS), for the acceleration of the required high resolution and low emittance heavy-ion beams.

  1. Laser-cooled atomic ions as probes of molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kenneth R.; Viteri, C. Ricardo; Clark, Craig R.; Goeders, James E.; Khanyile, Ncamiso B.; Vittorini, Grahame D.

    2015-01-22

    Trapped laser-cooled atomic ions are a new tool for understanding cold molecular ions. The atomic ions not only sympathetically cool the molecular ions to millikelvin temperatures, but the bright atomic ion fluorescence can also serve as a detector of both molecular reactions and molecular spectra. We are working towards the detection of single molecular ion spectra by sympathetic heating spectroscopy. Sympathetic heating spectroscopy uses the coupled motion of two trapped ions to measure the spectra of one ion by observing changes in the fluorescence of the other ion. Sympathetic heating spectroscopy is a generalization of quantum logic spectroscopy, but does not require ions in the motional ground state or coherent control of the ion internal states. We have recently demonstrated this technique using two isotopes of Ca{sup +} [Phys. Rev. A, 81, 043428 (2010)]. Limits of the method and potential applications for molecular spectroscopy are discussed.

  2. A novel ion-pairing chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin components in feed additives: chemometric tools for improving the optimization and validation.

    PubMed

    De Zan, María M; Teglia, Carla M; Robles, Juan C; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2011-07-15

    The development, optimization and validation of an ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin (NIC) components: 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) and 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (HDP) in bulk materials and feed additives are described. An experimental design was used for the optimization of the chromatographic system. Four variables, including mobile phase composition and oven temperature, were analyzed through a central composite design exploring their contribution to analyte separation. Five responses: peak resolutions, HDP capacity factor, HDP tailing and analysis time, were modelled by using the response surface methodology and were optimized simultaneously by implementing the desirability function. The optimum conditions resulted in a mobile phase consisting of 10.0 mmol L(-1) of 1-heptanesulfonate, 20.0 mmol L(-1) of sodium acetate, pH=3.30 buffer and acetonitrile in a gradient system at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min(-1). Column was an INERSTIL ODS-3 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm particle size) at 40.0°C. Detection was performed at 300 nm by a diode array detector. The validation results of the method indicated a high selectivity and good precision characteristics, with RSD less than 1.0% for both components, both in intra and inter-assay precision studies. Linearity was proved for a range of 32.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) of NIC in sample solution. The recovery, studied at three different fortification levels, varied from 98.0 to 101.4 for HDP and from 99.1 to 100.2 for DNC. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining DNC and HDP content in raw materials and commercial formulations used for coccidiosis prevention. Assays results on real samples showed that considerable differences in molecular ratio DNC:HDP exist among them. PMID:21645683

  3. Ion Torrent PGM as Tool for Fungal Community Analysis: A Case Study of Endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis Reveals High Taxonomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Kemler, Martin; Garnas, Jeff; Wingfield, Michael J.; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Pillay, Kerry-Anne; Slippers, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters). Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths. PMID:24358124

  4. Scope and limitation of ruthenium ion catalyzed oxidation of coal as an analytical tool for an aliphatic portion of coal organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, S.; Nomura, M.; U-esaka, K. I.

    1994-12-31

    We have been investigating a chemical structure of Japanese bituminous Akabira coal by Curie-point pyrolysis GC/MS coupled with CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR and proposed a unit chemical structure of the coal on the basis of these results. In that paper, we had pointed out more precise and quantitative evaluation of chemical bonds connecting aromatic rings should be clarified in order to evaluate more precise chemical structures of coal organic materials (COM). As for this, Stock et al., investigated ruthenium ion catalyzed oxidation (RICO) of coal. Ruthenium tetroxide is well known to have a property to attack selectively sp{sup 2} carbons of organic substrates: for example, in this oxidation arylalkanes and diarylalkanes could be converted to aliphatic monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids, respectively. One of the most critical points of this reaction is believed to be the difficulty in attaining quantitative analyses of lower carboxylic acids because they are main products, showing high volatility. Stock et al. and Strausz et al. had applied the isotope dilution method{close_quote} and esterification with phenacyl bromide for the quantitative analysis, respectively. The former, however, needs preparation of deuterium-labeled carboxylic acids and the later has a slow rate of conversion of the carboxylic acids to their phenacyl esters. In this paper, we have examined quantitative determination of carboxylic acids resulted from RICO reaction and proposed the method to accomplish this, applying this for RICO reaction of Illinois No.6 (American subbituminous), Akabira (Japanese bituminous), and Zao Zhuang (Chinese bituminous) coals.

  5. On-line headspace-multicapillary column-ion mobility spectrometry hyphenation as a tool for the determination of off-flavours in foods.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Sillero, Isabel; Cárdenas, Soledad; Sielemann, Stefanie; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2014-03-14

    In this work, an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with a tritium ionization source on-line coupled to a headspace (HS) autosampler and a multicapillary column (MCC) was evaluated for the monitoring of lipid oxidation products in milk with different flavours (cacao, fruits, cereals and nuts) and linseed oil samples enriched with omega-3 acids. In this combination, the multicapillary column is used as an interface between the HS and the IMS, providing the efficient separation of the volatile compounds. In this way, the proposed method permits the detection of hexanal, 2-butanone, acetone and dimethyl sulfide as representative degradation products. The limits of detection were in the interval 0.3 μg L(-1) (for hexanal in milk) to 3.0 μg L(-1) (for dimethyl sulfide in linseed oil) while the limits of quantification varied between 1.1 μg L(-1) (for hexanal in milk) and 9.6 μg L(-1) (for dimethyl sulfide in linseed oil). The precision of the method was evaluated as relative standard deviation and the values were better than 8% in all cases. The evolution of the volatiles profile during 36 days under different storage conditions (temperature, oxygen and light) demonstrates the capability of the HS-MCC-IMS coupling for the estimation of the degradation of the samples. After the degradation study, it can be concluded that the stability of the milk samples during storage is more affected by the light while temperature was more critical for oil samples. PMID:24529959

  6. Tools for magnetostructural correlations for the 3d8(3A2 state) ions at orthorhombic sites: Comparative study with applications to Ni2+ ions in Y2BaNiO5 and Nd2BaNiO5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnutek, P.; Açıkgöz, M.; Rudowicz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Three approaches are employed to study magnetostructural correlations for the 3d8(3A2 state) ions at orthorhombic sites in crystals: (i) the higher-order perturbation theory (PT) of the microscopic spin Hamiltonian (MSH) parameters, (ii) the crystal field (CF) analysis (CFA) within all 3d8 states combined with the superposition model (SPM) calculations of CF parameters, and (iii) the second-order PT of MSH parameters. A comparative study is carried out to assess the merit of each modeling approach. These approaches enable predictions of the orthorhombic zero-field splitting parameters (ZFSPs) for the 3d8 ions at orthorhombic sites. Hence, correlation of the magnetic and spectroscopic properties with the structural ones may be considered. The approach (i) and (iii) take into account only the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and a limited set of low lying states. Analysis of the expressions used in the approach (i) reveals discrepancies concerning: the sign of the SOC parameter, the cubic crystal field parameter Dq, the energy levels sequence, and numerical errors, which diminish its reliability. The distinction between the first- and second-kind orthorhombic symmetry is also elucidated. The approaches (i)-(iii) are applied for Ni2+ (S=1) ions in the Haldane gap systems Y2BaNiO5 and Nd2BaNiO5. The contributions to the ZFSPs due to the spin-spin and spin-other-orbit interactions considered using the approach (ii) are found nearly insignificant as compared with the dominant SOC ones. The results indicate that the approach (i)-corrected and (iii) may be employed only as an approximation. The approach (ii) together with the SPM/CFP modeling appear to be preferable and more reliable tools to study magnetostructural correlations and thus spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the 3d8(3A2 state) ions at orthorhombic sites in crystals.

  7. Shifting tools

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, E.P.; Welch, W.R.

    1984-03-13

    An improved shifting tool connectable in a well tool string and useful to engage and position a slidable sleeve in a sliding sleeve device in a well flow conductor. The selectively profiled shifting tool keys provide better fit with and more contact area between keys and slidable sleeves. When the engaged slidable sleeve cannot be moved up and the shifting tool is not automatically disengaged, emergency disengagement means may be utilized by applying upward force to the shifting tool sufficient to shear pins and cause all keys to be cammed inwardly at both ends to completely disengage for removal of the shifting tool from the sliding sleeve device.

  8. FORTRAN tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presser, L.

    1978-01-01

    An integrated set of FORTRAN tools that are commercially available is described. The basic purpose of various tools is summarized and their economic impact highlighted. The areas addressed by these tools include: code auditing, error detection, program portability, program instrumentation, documentation, clerical aids, and quality assurance.

  9. Percussion tool

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-11-28

    A percussion tool is described and which includes a housing mounting a tool bit; a reciprocally moveable hammer borne by the housing and which is operable to repeatedly strike the tool bit; and a reciprocally moveable piston enclosed within the hammer and which imparts reciprocal movement to the reciprocally moveable hammer.

  10. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  11. Tool Using

    PubMed Central

    Kahrs, Björn A.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the development of tool use in children has often emphasized the cognitive bases of this achievement, focusing on the choice of an artifact, but has largely neglected its motor foundations. However, research across diverse fields, from evolutionary anthropology to cognitive neuroscience, converges on the idea that the actions that embody tool use are also critical for understanding its ontogenesis and phylogenesis. In this article, we highlight findings across these fields to show how a deeper examination of the act of tool using can inform developmental accounts and illuminate what makes human tool use unique. PMID:25400691

  12. Phosphoinositides regulate ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Hille, Bertil; Dickson, Eamonn J.; Kruse, Martin; Vivas, Oscar; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositides serve as signature motifs for different cellular membranes and often are required for the function of membrane proteins. Here, we summarize clear evidence supporting the concept that many ion channels are regulated by membrane phosphoinositides. We describe tools used to test their dependence on phosphoinositides, especially phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and consider mechanisms and biological meanings of phosphoinositide regulation of ion channels. This lipid regulation can underlie changes of channel activity and electrical excitability in response to receptors. Since different intracellular membranes have different lipid compositions, the activity of ion channels still in transit towards their final destination membrane may be suppressed until they reach an optimal lipid environment. PMID:25241941

  13. GRIPPING TOOL

    DOEpatents

    Sandrock, R.J.

    1961-12-12

    A self-actuated gripping tool is described for transferring fuel elements and the like into reactors and other inaccessible locations. The tool will grasp or release the load only when properly positioned for this purpose. In addition, the load cannot be released except when unsupported by the tool, so that jarring or contact will not bring about accidental release of the load. The gripping members or jaws of the device are cam-actuated by an axially slidable shaft which has two lockable positions. A spring urges the shaft into one position and a solenoid is provided to overcome the spring and move it into the other position. The weight of the tool operates a sleeve to lock the shaft in its existing position. Only when the cable supporting the tool is slack is the device capable of being actuated either to grasp or release its load. (AEC)

  14. Omics Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Schaumberg, Andrew

    2012-12-21

    The Omics Tools package provides several small trivial tools for work in genomics. This single portable package, the “omics.jar” file, is a toolbox that works in any Java-based environment, including PCs, Macs, and supercomputers. The number of tools is expected to grow. One tool (called cmsearch.hadoop or cmsearch.local), calls the external cmsearch program to predict non-coding RNA in a genome. The cmsearch program is part of the third-party Infernal package. Omics Tools does not contain Infernal. Infernal may be installed separately. The cmsearch.hadoop subtool requires Apache Hadoop and runs on a supercomputer, though cmsearch.local does not and runs on a server. Omics Tools does not contain Hadoop. Hadoop mat be installed separartely The other tools (cmgbk, cmgff, fastats, pal, randgrp, randgrpr, randsub) do not interface with third-party tools. Omics Tools is written in Java and Scala programming languages. Invoking the “help” command shows currently available tools, as shown below: schaumbe@gpint06:~/proj/omics$ java -jar omics.jar help Known commands are: cmgbk : compare cmsearch and GenBank Infernal hits cmgff : compare hits among two GFF (version 3) files cmsearch.hadoop : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your supercomputer cmsearch.local : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your workstation fastats : FASTA stats, e.g. # bases, GC content pal : stem-loop motif detection by palindromic sequence search (code stub) randgrp : random subsample without replacement, of groups randgrpr : random subsample with replacement, of groups (fast) randsub : random subsample without replacement, of file lines For more help regarding a particular command, use: java -jar omics.jar command help Usage: java -jar omics.jar command args

  15. Omics Tools

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-12-21

    The Omics Tools package provides several small trivial tools for work in genomics. This single portable package, the “omics.jar” file, is a toolbox that works in any Java-based environment, including PCs, Macs, and supercomputers. The number of tools is expected to grow. One tool (called cmsearch.hadoop or cmsearch.local), calls the external cmsearch program to predict non-coding RNA in a genome. The cmsearch program is part of the third-party Infernal package. Omics Tools does not containmore » Infernal. Infernal may be installed separately. The cmsearch.hadoop subtool requires Apache Hadoop and runs on a supercomputer, though cmsearch.local does not and runs on a server. Omics Tools does not contain Hadoop. Hadoop mat be installed separartely The other tools (cmgbk, cmgff, fastats, pal, randgrp, randgrpr, randsub) do not interface with third-party tools. Omics Tools is written in Java and Scala programming languages. Invoking the “help” command shows currently available tools, as shown below: schaumbe@gpint06:~/proj/omics$ java -jar omics.jar help Known commands are: cmgbk : compare cmsearch and GenBank Infernal hits cmgff : compare hits among two GFF (version 3) files cmsearch.hadoop : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your supercomputer cmsearch.local : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your workstation fastats : FASTA stats, e.g. # bases, GC content pal : stem-loop motif detection by palindromic sequence search (code stub) randgrp : random subsample without replacement, of groups randgrpr : random subsample with replacement, of groups (fast) randsub : random subsample without replacement, of file lines For more help regarding a particular command, use: java -jar omics.jar command help Usage: java -jar omics.jar command args« less

  16. Drilling tool

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, O.; Dohse, H.P.; Reibetanz, W.; Wanner, K.

    1983-09-27

    A drilling tool is disclosed which has a drilling shaft member, a crown drilling member with an annular wall provided with a plurality of cutting edges and detachably mounted on the shaft member, a center drilling member detachably mounted on the shaft member inside the crown drilling member and having a further cutting edge, and elements for limiting a drilling depth of the tool when the center drilling member is mounted on the shaft member. Thereby, the operator of the drilling tool, after drilling a guiding groove in a rock, is forced to remove the center drilling member from the drilling tool and drill further without the center drilling member, which increases the drilling efficiency.

  17. Mercury ion thruster technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Matossian, J. N.

    1989-01-01

    The Mercury Ion Thruster Technology program was an investigation for improving the understanding of state-of-the-art mercury ion thrusters. Emphasis was placed on optimizing the performance and simplifying the design of the 30 cm diameter ring-cusp discharge chamber. Thruster performance was improved considerably; the baseline beam-ion production cost of the optimized configuration was reduced to Epsilon (sub i) perspective to 130 eV/ion. At a discharge propellant-utilization efficiency of 95 percent, the beam-ion production cost was reduced to about 155 eV/ion, representing a reduction of about 40 eV/ion over the corresponding value for the 30 cm diameter J-series thruster. Comprehensive Langmuir-probe surveys were obtained and compared with similar measurements for a J-series thruster. A successful volume-averaging scheme was developed to correlate thruster performance with the dominant plasma processes that prevail in the two thruster designs. The average Maxwellian electron temperature in the optimized ring-cusp design is as much as 1 eV higher than it is in the J-series thruster. Advances in ion-extraction electrode fabrication technology were made by improving materials selection criteria, hydroforming and stress-relieving tooling, and fabrications procedures. An ion-extraction performance study was conducted to assess the effect of screen aperture size on ion-optics performance and to verify the effectiveness of a beam-vectoring model for three-grid ion optics. An assessment of the technology readiness of the J-series thruster was completed, and operation of an 8 cm IAPS thruster using a simplified power processor was demonstrated.

  18. Authoring Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviranus, Jutta

    Authoring tools that are accessible and that enable authors to produce accessible Web content play a critical role in web accessibility. Widespread use of authoring tools that comply to the W3C Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) would ensure that even authors who are neither knowledgeable about nor particularly motivated to produce accessible content do so by default. The principles and techniques of ATAG are discussed. Some examples of accessible authoring tools are described including authoring tool content management components such as TinyMCE. Considerations for creating an accessible collaborative environment are also covered. As part of providing accessible content, the debate between system-based personal optimization and one universally accessible site configuration is presented. The issues and potential solutions to address the accessibility crisis presented by the advent of rich internet applications are outlined. This challenge must be met to ensure that a large segment of the population is able to participate in the move toward the web as a two-way communication mechanism.

  19. Robot Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Mecanotron, now division of Robotics and Automation Corporation, developed a quick-change welding method called the Automatic Robotics Tool-change System (ARTS) under Marshall Space Flight Center and Rockwell International contracts. The ARTS system has six tool positions ranging from coarse sanding disks and abrasive wheels to cloth polishing wheels with motors of various horsepower. The system is used by fabricators of plastic body parts for the auto industry, by Texas Instruments for making radar domes, and for advanced composites at Aerospatiale in France.

  20. Management Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Manugistics, Inc. (formerly AVYX, Inc.) has introduced a new programming language for IBM and IBM compatible computers called TREES-pls. It is a resource management tool originating from the space shuttle, that can be used in such applications as scheduling, resource allocation project control, information management, and artificial intelligence. Manugistics, Inc. was looking for a flexible tool that can be applied to many problems with minimal adaptation. Among the non-government markets are aerospace, other manufacturing, transportation, health care, food and beverage and professional services.

  1. Single cell electroporation using proton beam fabricated biochips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homhuan, S.; Zhang, B.; Sheu, F.-S.; Bettiol, A. A.; Watt, F.

    2010-05-01

    We report the design and fabrication of a novel single cell electroporation biochip fabricated by the Proton Beam Writing technique (PBW), a new technique capable of direct-writing high-aspect-ratio nano and microstructures. The biochip features nickel micro-electrodes with straight-side walls between which individual cells are positioned. By applying electrical impulses across the electrodes, SYTOX® Green nucleic acid stain is incorporated into mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. When the stain binds with DNA inside the cell nucleus, green fluorescence is observed upon excitation from a halogen lamp. Three parameters; electric field strength, pulse duration, and the number of pulses have been considered and optimized for the single cell electroporation. The results show that our biochip gives successfully electroporated cells . This single cell electroporation system represents a promising method for investigating the introduction of a wide variety of fluorophores, nanoparticles, quantum dots, DNAs and proteins into cells.

  2. Image Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.A.; Gardner, S.D.; Rogers, M.L.; Sanders, F.; Tunnell, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    ImageTool is a software package developed at Bechtel Nevada, Los Alamos Operations. This team has developed a set of analysis tools, in the form of image processing software used to evaluate camera calibration data. Performance measures are used to identify capabilities and limitations of a camera system, while establishing a means for comparing systems. The camera evaluations are designed to provide system performance, camera comparison and system modeling information. This program is used to evaluate digital camera images. ImageTool provides basic image restoration and analysis features along with a special set of camera evaluation tools which are used to standardize camera system characterizations. This process is started with the acquisition of a well-defined set of calibration images. Image processing algorithms provide a consistent means of evaluating the camera calibration data. Performance measures in the areas of sensitivity, noise, and resolution are used as a basis for comparing camera systems and evaluating experimental system performance. Camera systems begin with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and optical relay system and may incorporate image intensifiers, electro-static image tubes, or electron bombarded charge-coupled devices (EBCCDs). Electro-optical components provide fast shuttering and/or optical gain to camera systems. Camera types evaluated include gated intensified cameras and multi-frame cameras used in applications ranging from X-ray radiography to visible and infrared imaging. It is valuable to evaluate the performance of a camera system in order to determine if a particular system meets experimental requirements. In this paper we highlight the processing features of ImageTool.

  3. Downhole tool

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Muradov, Andrei; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2007-03-20

    A double shouldered downhole tool connection comprises box and pin connections having mating threads intermediate mating primary and secondary shoulders. The connection further comprises a secondary shoulder component retained in the box connection intermediate a floating component and the primary shoulders. The secondary shoulder component and the pin connection cooperate to transfer a portion of makeup load to the box connection. The downhole tool may be selected from the group consisting of drill pipe, drill collars, production pipe, and reamers. The floating component may be selected from the group consisting of electronics modules, generators, gyroscopes, power sources, and stators. The secondary shoulder component may comprises an interface to the box connection selected from the group consisting of radial grooves, axial grooves, tapered grooves, radial protrusions, axial protrusions, tapered protrusions, shoulders, and threads.

  4. (Relativistic heavy ion research)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, participation in the E802 Experiment, which is the first major heavy-ion experiment at the BNL-AGS, was the main focus of the group during the past four years. The emphases of the E802 experiment were on (a) accurate particle identification and measurements of spectra over a wide kinematical domain (5{degree} < {theta}{sub LAB} < 55{degree}, p < 20 GeV/c); and (b) measurements of small-angle two-particle correlations, with event characterization tools: multiplicity array, forward and large-angle calorimeters. This experiment and other heavy ion collision experiments are discussed in this report.

  5. Solution dewatering with concomitant ion removal

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Eric S.; Marshall, Douglas W.; Stone, Mark L.

    2003-08-05

    One of the biggest needs in the separations and waste handling and reduction area is a method for dewatering ion-containing solutions. Unexpectedly, it has been found that phosphazene polymers can discriminate between water and metal ions, allowing water to pass through the membrane while retaining the ions. This unexpected result, along with the inherent chemical and thermal stability of the phosphazene polymers, yields a powerful tool for separating and dewatering metal-ion-containing solutions.

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillaspy, J. D.

    2001-10-01

    This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of highly charged ions, the methods of producing them (with particular emphasis on table-top devices), and their use as a tool for both basic science and applied technology. Topics discussed include: charge dependence and scaling laws along isoelectronic or isonuclear sequences (for wavefunction size or Bohr radius, ionization energy, dipole transition energy, relativistic fine structure, hyperfine structure, Zeeman effect, Stark effect, line intensities, linewidths, strength of parity violation, etc), changes in angular momentum coupling schemes, selection rules, interactions with surfaces, electron-impact ionization, the electron beam ion trap (EBIT), ion accelerators, atomic reference data, cosmic chronometers, laboratory x-ray astrophysics, vacuum polarization, solar flares, ion implantation, ion lithography, ion microprobes (SIMS and x-ray microscope), nuclear fusion diagnostics, nanotechnology, quantum computing, cancer therapy and biotechnology.

  7. Ion beam lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-08-02

    A maskless plasma-formed ion beam lithography tool provides for patterning of sub-50 nm features on large area flat or curved substrate surfaces. The system is very compact and does not require an accelerator column and electrostatic beam scanning components. The patterns are formed by switching beamlets on or off from a two electrode blanking system with the substrate being scanned mechanically in one dimension. This arrangement can provide a maskless nano-beam lithography tool for economic and high throughput processing.

  8. Tool Gear: Infrastructure for Parallel Tools

    SciTech Connect

    May, J; Gyllenhaal, J

    2003-04-17

    Tool Gear is a software infrastructure for developing performance analysis and other tools. Unlike existing integrated toolkits, which focus on providing a suite of capabilities, Tool Gear is designed to help tool developers create new tools quickly. It combines dynamic instrumentation capabilities with an efficient database and a sophisticated and extensible graphical user interface. This paper describes the design of Tool Gear and presents examples of tools that have been built with it.

  9. Green tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    With an eye toward forging tools that the nonscientist can use to make environmentally prudent policy, the National Science Foundation has provided the seed funding to establish a new National Center for Environmental Decision-Making Research. NSF has awarded $5 million over the next five years to the Joint Institute for Energy and the Environment at the University of Tennessee for creation of the center. The organizing principle of the effort, according to NSF, is to "make scientific environmental research more relevant and useful to decision makers." Interdisciplinary teams of sociologists, economists, geologists, ecologists, computer scientists, psychologists, urban planners, and others will be asked to interpret existing research and to conduct new studies of environmental problems and how they were resolved.

  10. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Martina, E.F.

    1958-04-22

    An improved ion source particularly adapted to provide an intense beam of ions with minimum neutral molecule egress from the source is described. The ion source structure includes means for establishing an oscillating electron discharge, including an apertured cathode at one end of the discharge. The egress of ions from the source is in a pencil like beam. This desirable form of withdrawal of the ions from the plasma created by the discharge is achieved by shaping the field at the aperture of the cathode. A tubular insulator is extended into the plasma from the aperture and in cooperation with the electric fields at the cathode end of the discharge focuses the ions from the source,

  11. Analysis of quaternary ammonium compounds in estuarine sediments by LC-ToF-MS: very high positive mass defects of alkylamine ions provide powerful diagnostic tools for identification and structural elucidation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaolin; Brownawell, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and robust method of analysis for quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in marine sediments is presented. Methods for extraction, sample purification, and HPLC-Time-of-Flight-MS analysis were optimized, providing solutions to problems associated with analysis of QACs, such as dialkyldimethylammonium (DADMAC) and benzalkonium (BAC) compounds experienced previously. Recognized in this study are the exceptionally high positive mass defects characteristic of alkylammonium or protonated alkylamine ions. No alternative and chemically-viable elemental formulas exist within 25.2 mDa when the number of double bond equivalents is low, effectively allowing facile discrimination of this compound class in complex mixtures. Accurate mass measurements of diagnostic collision induced dissociation fragment ions and heavy isotope peaks were obtained and also seen to be uniquely heavy compared to other elemental formulae. In the case of BACs, the ability to resolve masses of alkylamine fragment ions is greater than it is for molecular ions, opening up a wide range of potential applications. The power of utilizing a combination of approaches is illustrated with the identification of non-targeted DADMAC C8:C8 and C8:C10, two widely used biocides previously unreported in environmental samples. Concentrations of QACs in sewage-impacted estuarine sediments (up to 74 μg/g) were higher than concentrations of other organic contaminants measured in the same or nearby samples, suggesting further study is needed. PMID:19739657

  12. Ion production from solid state laser ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gottwald, T.; Havener, Charles C; Lassen, J.; Liu, Yuan; Mattolat, C.; Raeder, S.; Rothe, S.; Wendt, K.

    2010-01-01

    Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. Recent developments are focused on the use of the state-of-the-art all solid-state laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the periodic table are available from laser ion sources based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers. Recent progress in this field regarding the establishment of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:sapphire lasers are reported.

  13. Ion production from solid state laser ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K.; Havener, C.; Liu, Y.; Lassen, J.; Rothe, S.

    2010-02-15

    Laser ion sources based on resonant excitation and ionization of atoms are well-established tools for selective and efficient production of radioactive ion beams. Recent developments are focused on the use of the state-of-the-art all solid-state laser systems. To date, 35 elements of the periodic table are available from laser ion sources based on tunable Ti:sapphire lasers. Recent progress in this field regarding the establishment of suitable optical excitation schemes for Ti:sapphire lasers are reported.

  14. Ion channel therapeutics for pain

    PubMed Central

    Skerratt, Sarah E; West, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex disease which can progress into a debilitating condition. The effective treatment of pain remains a challenge as current therapies often lack the desired level of efficacy or tolerability. One therapeutic avenue, the modulation of ion channel signaling by small molecules, has shown the ability to treat pain. However, of the 215 ion channels that exist in the human genome, with 85 ion channels having a strong literature link to pain, only a small number of these channels have been successfully drugged for pain. The focus of future research will be to fully explore the possibilities surrounding these unexplored ion channels. Toward this end, a greater understanding of ion channel modulation will be the greatest tool we have in developing the next generation of drugs for the treatment of pain. PMID:26218246

  15. Computational Ion Optics Design Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Shane P.; Soulas, George C.

    2004-01-01

    Ion optics computational models are invaluable tools in the design of ion optics systems. In this study a new computational model developed by an outside vendor for use at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is presented. This computational model is a gun code that has been modified to model the plasma sheaths both upstream and downstream of the ion optics. The model handles multiple species (e.g. singly and doubly-charged ions) and includes a charge-exchange model to support erosion estimations. The model uses commercially developed solid design and meshing software to allow high flexibility in ion optics geometric configurations. The results from this computational model are applied to the NEXT project to investigate the effects of crossover impingement erosion seen during the 2000-hour wear test.

  16. Ion Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulik, James D.; Sawicki, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Accurate for the analysis of ions in solution, this form of analysis enables the analyst to directly assay many compounds that previously were difficult or impossible to analyze. The method is a combination of the methodologies of ion exchange, liquid chromatography, and conductimetric determination with eluant suppression. (Author/RE)

  17. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Lili

    2007-01-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 μm-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25

  18. Simulation of ion beam transport through the 400 Kv ion implanter at Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Naab, F. U.; Toader, O. F.; Was, G. S.

    2013-04-19

    The Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory houses a 400 kV ion implanter. An application that simulates the ion beam trajectories through the implanter from the ion source to the target was developed using the SIMION Registered-Sign code. The goals were to have a tool to develop an intuitive understanding of abstract physics phenomena and diagnose ion trajectories. Using this application, new implanter users of different fields in science quickly understand how the machine works and quickly learn to operate it. In this article we describe the implanter simulation application and compare the parameters of the implanter components obtained from the simulations with the measured ones. The overall agreement between the simulated and measured values of magnetic fields and electric potentials is {approx}10%.

  19. ION SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Cook, B.

    1959-02-10

    An ion switch capable of transferring large magnitudes of power is described. An ion switch constructed in accordance with the invention includes a pair of spaced control electrodes disposed in a highly evacuated region for connection in a conventional circuit to control the passing of power therethrough. A controllable ionic conduction path is provided directiy between the control electrodes by a source unit to close the ion switch. Conventional power supply means are provided to trigger the source unit and control the magnitude, durations and pulse repetition rate of the aforementioned ionic conduction path.

  20. Molecular ions, Rydberg spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jungen, Ch.

    2015-01-22

    Ion spectroscopy, Rydberg spectroscopy and molecular dynamics are closely related subjects. Multichannel quantum defect theory is a theoretical approach which draws on this close relationship and thereby becomes a powerful tool for the study of systems consisting of a positively charged molecular ion core interacting with an electron which may be loosely bound or freely scattering.

  1. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Leland, W.T.

    1960-01-01

    The ion source described essentially eliminater the problem of deposits of nonconducting materials forming on parts of the ion source by certain corrosive gases. This problem is met by removing both filament and trap from the ion chamber, spacing them apart and outside the chamber end walls, placing a focusing cylinder about the filament tip to form a thin collimated electron stream, aligning the cylinder, slits in the walls, and trap so that the electron stream does not bombard any part in the source, and heating the trap, which is bombarded by electrons, to a temperature hotter than that in the ion chamber, so that the tendency to build up a deposit caused by electron bombardment is offset by the extra heating supplied only to the trap.

  2. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Blue, C.W.; Luce, J.S.

    1960-07-19

    An ion source is described and comprises an arc discharge parallel to the direction of and inside of a magnetic field. an accelerating electrode surrounding substantially all of the discharge except for ion exit apertures, and means for establishing an electric field between that electrode and the arc discharge. the electric field being oriented at an acute angle to the magnetic field. Ions are drawn through the exit apertures in the accelrating electrcde in a direction substantially divergent to the direction of the magnetic field and so will travel in a spiral orbit along the magnetic field such that the ions will not strike the source at any point in their orbit within the magnetic field.

  3. Ion focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-10

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  4. Ion Beam Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-11-08

    IBSimu(Ion Beam Simulator) is a computer program for making two and three dimensional ion optical simulations. The program can solve electrostatic field in a rectangular mesh using Poisson equation using Finite Difference method (FDM). The mesh can consist of a coarse and a fine part so that the calculation accuracy can be increased in critical areas of the geometry, while most of the calculation is done quickly using the coarse mesh. IBSimu can launch ionmore » beam trajectories into the simulation from an injection surface or fomo plasma. Ion beam space charge of time independent simulations can be taken in account using Viasov iteration. Plasma is calculated by compensating space charge with electrons having Boltzmann energy distribution. The simulation software can also be used to calculate time dependent cases if the space charge is not calculated. Software includes diagnostic tools for plotting the geometry, electric field, space charge map, ion beam trajectories, emittance data and beam profiles.« less

  5. Ion beam modification of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1990-04-01

    Energetic ions beams may be used in various ways to modify and so improve the tribological properties of metals. These methods include: — ion implantation of selected additive species; — ion beam mixing of thin deposited coatings; — ion-beam-assisted deposition of thicker overlay coatings. The first of these techniques has been widely used to modify the electronic properties of semiconductors, but has since been extended for the treatment of all classes of material. Tool steels can be strengthened by the ion implantation of nitrogen or titanium, to produce fine dispersions of hard second-phase precipitates. Solid solution strengthening, by combinations of substitutional and interstitial species, such as yttrium and nitrogen, has also been successful. Both ion beam mixing (IBM) and ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) use a combination of coating and ion bombardment. In the first case, the objective is to intermix the coating and substrate by the aid of radiation-enhanced diffusion. In the latter case, the coating is densified and modified during deposition and the process can be continued in order to build up overlay coatings several μm in thickness. The surface can then be tailored, for instance to provide a hard and adherent ceramic such as silicon nitride, boron nitride or titanium nitride. It is an advantage that all the above processes can be applied at relatively low temperatures, below about 200° C, thereby avoiding distortion of precision components. Ion implantation is also being successfully applied for the reduction of corrosion, especially at high temperatures or in the atmosphere and to explore the mechanisms of oxidation. Ion-assisted coatings, being compact and adherent, provide a more substantial protection against corrosion: silicon nitride and boron nitride are potentially useful in this respect. Examples will be given of the successful application of these methods for the surface modification of metals and alloys, and developments in the

  6. Expansion Discharge Source for Ion Beam Laser Spectroscopy of Cold Molecular Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porambo, Michael; Pearson, Jessica; Riccardo, Craig; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2013-06-01

    Molecular ions are important in several fields of research, and spectroscopy acts as a key tool in the study of these ions. However, problems such as low ion abundance, ion-neutral confusion, and spectral congestion due to high internal temperatures can hinder effective spectroscopic studies. To circumvent these problems, we are developing a technique called Sensitive, Cooled, Resolved, Ion BEam Spectroscopy (SCRIBES). This ion beam spectrometer will feature a continuous supersonic expansion discharge source to produce cold molecular ions, electrostatic ion optics to focus the ions into an ion beam and bend the beam away from co-produced neutral molecules, an overlap region for cavity enhanced spectroscopy, and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. When completed, SCRIBES will be an effective tool for the study of large, fluxional, and complex molecular ions that are difficult to study with other means. The ion beam spectrometer has been successfully implemented with a hot ion source. This talk will focus on the work of integrating a supersonic expansion discharge source into the instrument. To better understand how the source would work in the whole ion beam instrument, characterization studies are being performed with spectroscopy of HN_2^+ in a section of the system to ascertain the rotational temperature of the ion expansion. Attempts are also underway to measure the ion current from a beam formed from the expansion. Once the source in this environment is properly understood, we will reintegrate it to the rest of the ion beam system, completing SCRIBES. A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel and B. J. McCall J. Chem. Phys., 135, 224201, (2011). K. N. Crabtree, C. A. Kauffman and B. J. McCall Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 086103, (2010).

  7. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Bell, W.A. Jr.; Love, L.O.; Prater, W.K.

    1958-01-28

    An ion source is presented capable of producing ions of elements which vaporize only at exceedingly high temperatures, i.e.,--1500 degrees to 3000 deg C. The ion source utilizes beams of electrons focused into a first chamber housing the material to be ionized to heat the material and thereby cause it to vaporize. An adjacent second chamber receives the vaporized material through an interconnecting passage, and ionization of the vaporized material occurs in this chamber. The ionization action is produced by an arc discharge sustained between a second clectron emitting filament and the walls of the chamber which are at different potentials. The resultant ionized material egresses from a passageway in the second chamber. Using this device, materials which in the past could not be processed in mass spectometers may be satisfactorily ionized for such applications.

  8. Precise Countersinking Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Eric S.; Smith, William N.

    1992-01-01

    Tool countersinks holes precisely with only portable drill; does not require costly machine tool. Replaceable pilot stub aligns axis of tool with centerline of hole. Ensures precise cut even with imprecise drill. Designed for relatively low cutting speeds.

  9. The power tool

    SciTech Connect

    HAYFIELD, J.P.

    1999-02-01

    POWER Tool--Planning, Optimization, Waste Estimating and Resourcing tool, a hand-held field estimating unit and relational database software tool for optimizing disassembly and final waste form of contaminated systems and equipment.

  10. Your Health Priorities Tool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care Explore Your Treatment Options: Your Health Priorities Tool Home Why Explore Your Options Start the Conversation ... Home > Your Health Priorities Tool Your Health Priorities Tool If you don’t share details about your ...

  11. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    charge state phosphorus and antimony could have resulted in a lower power consumption of 30 kW/implanter) for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. Nevertheless, BNL has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to high charge state ions need for RHIC preinjection. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. R&D of novel transport and gasless plasmaless deceleration, as well as decaborane molecular ion source to mitigate space charge problems in low energy shallow ion implantation was also conducted though results were not yet ready for commercialization. Future work should be focused on gasless plasmaless transport and deceleration as well as on molecular ions due to their significance to low energy, shallow implantation; which is the last frontier of ion implantation. To summarize the significant accomplishments: 1. Record steady state output currents of high charge state phosphorous, P, ions in particle milli-Ampere: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA). 2. Record steady state output currents of high charge state antimony, Sb, ions in particle milli-Ampere: Sb{sup 3+} (16.2 pmA), Sb{sup 4+} (7.6 pmA), Sb{sup 5+} (3.3 pmA), and Sb{sup 6+} (2.2 pmA). 3. 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art) from a Calutron-Bemas ion source. These accomplishments have the potential of benefiting the semiconductor

  12. Preset pivotal tool holder

    DOEpatents

    Asmanes, Charles

    1979-01-01

    A tool fixture is provided for precise pre-alignment of a radiused edge cutting tool in a tool holder relative to a fixed reference pivot point established on said holder about which the tool holder may be selectively pivoted relative to the fixture base member to change the contact point of the tool cutting edge with a workpiece while maintaining the precise same tool cutting radius relative to the reference pivot point.

  13. Epitope extraction technique using a proteolytic magnetic reactor combined with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry as a tool for the screening of potential vaccine lead peptides.

    PubMed

    Bílková, Z; Stefanescu, R; Cecal, R; Korecká, L; Ouzká, S; Jezová, J; Viovy, J-L; Przybylski, M

    2005-01-01

    Epitope extraction technique is based on the specific digestion of a target protein followed by immunoaffinity isolation of a specific recognition peptide. This technique, in combination with mass spectrometry, has been efficiently used for epitope identification. The major goal of this work was to utilize newly developed enzyme and immunoaffinity magnetic reactors for the epitope extraction procedure and confirm the efficiency of this improved system for epitope screening of proteins. Alginic acid-coated magnetite microparticles with immobilized TPCK-trypsin provided high working efficiency with low non-specific adsorption, digestion time in minutes and low frequency of missed cleavages. The sensitivity and specificity of tryptic fragmentation of the beta-amyloid-peptide Abeta (1-40) as a model polypeptide was confirmed by Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry analysis. The Sepharose reactor or immunoaffinity magnetic reactors, both with anti-amyloid-beta monoclonal antibodies, were used for specific isolation and identification of target peptides. In this way, the epitope extraction technique combined with mass spectrometric analysis is shown to be an excellent base for molecular screening of potential vaccine lead proteins. PMID:16322655

  14. Metal Ion Sources for Ion Beam Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Ren, X. T.

    2008-11-03

    In this paper a theme touched upon the progress of metal ion sources devoted to metal ion beam implantation (MIBI) will be reviewed. A special emphasis will be given to some kinds of ion sources such as ECR, MEVVA and Cluster ion sources. A novel dual hollow cathode metal ion source named DUHOCAMIS will be introduced and discussed.

  15. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  16. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1]could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  17. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect

    L. Grisham and J.W. Kwan

    2008-08-12

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1] could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  18. ION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1961-01-01

    An ion pump and pumping method are given for low vacuum pressures in which gases introduced into a pumping cavity are ionized and thereafter directed and accelerated into a quantity of liquid gettering metal where they are absorbed. In the preferred embodiment the metal is disposed as a liquid pool upon one electrode of a Phillips ion gauge type pump. Means are provided for continuously and remotely withdrawing and degassing the gettering metal. The liquid gettering metal may be heated if desired, although various combinations of gallium, indium, tin, bismuth, and lead, the preferred metals, have very low melting points. A background pressure of evaporated gettering metal may be provided by means of a resistance heated refractory metal wick protruding from the surface of the pcol of gettering metal.

  19. Ion Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Christopher J.; Lyon, Mary; Bennett, Aaron; Troxel, Daylin; Blaser, Kelvin J.; Harper, Stuart; Durfee, Dallin S.

    2010-03-01

    We report on the progress of an ion interferometer based on a laser-cooled ^87Sr^+ beam which will be split and recombined using stimulated Raman transitions. This device will be used to implement an extremely precise electromagnetic field sensor. Design considerations and instrumentation development will be discussed. Possible practical and fundamental applications, including deviations from Coulomb's inverse-square law and the search for a possible photon rest mass, will be discussed.

  20. Test bed ion engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.; Deininger, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    A test bed ion (TBI) engine was developed to serve as a tool in exploring the limits of electrostatic ion thruster performance. A description of three key ion engine components, the decoupled extraction and amplified current (DE-AC) accelerator system, field enhanced refractory metal (FERM) hollow cathode and divergent line cusp (DLC) discharge chamber, whose designs and operating philosophies differ markedly from conventional thruster technology is given. Significant program achievements were: (1) high current density DE-AC accelerator system operation at low electric field stress with indicated feasibility of a 60 mA/sq cm argon ion beam; (2) reliable FERM cathode start up times of 1 to 2 secs. and demonstrated 35 ampere emission levels; (3) DLC discharge chamber plasma potentials negative of anode potential; and (4) identification of an efficient high plasma density engine operating mode. Using the performance projections of this program and reasonable estimates of other parameter values, a 1.0 Newton thrust ion engine is identified as a realizable technology goal. Calculations show that such an engine, comparable in beam area to a J series 30 cm thruster, could, operating on Xe or Hg, have thruster efficiencies as high as 0.76 and 0.78 respectively, with a 100 eV/ion discharge loss.

  1. Simulating complex ion channel kinetics with IonChannelLab

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Manuel; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jorge E; Perez-Cornejo, Patricia; Arreola, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    In-silico simulation based on Markov chains is a powerful way to describe and predict the activity of many transport proteins including ion channels. However, modeling and simulation using realistic models of voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels exposed to a wide range of experimental conditions require building complex kinetic schemes and solving complicated differential equations. To circumvent these problems, we developed IonChannelLab a software tool that includes a user-friendly Graphical User Interface and a simulation library. This program supports channels with Ohmic or Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz behavior and can simulate the time-course of ionic and gating currents, single channel behavior and steady-state conditions. The program allows the simulation of experiments where voltage, ligand and ionic concentration are varied independently or simultaneously. PMID:20935453

  2. Fast ion generation and bulk plasma heating with three-ion ICRF scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Ye. O. Van Eester, D.; Ongena, J.; Lerche, E.; Messiaen, A.

    2015-12-10

    Launching electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is an efficient method of plasma heating, actively employed in most of fusion machines. ICRF has a number of important supplementary applications, including the generation of high-energy ions. In this paper, we discuss a new set of three-ion ICRF scenarios and the prospect of their use as a dedicated tool for fast ion generation in tokamaks and stellarators. A distinct feature of these scenarios is a strong absorption efficiency possible at very low concentrations of resonant minority ions (∼ 1% or even below). Such concentration levels are typical for impurities contaminating fusion plasmas. An alternative ICRF scenario for maximizing the efficiency of bulk D-T ion heating is suggested for JET and ITER tokamaks, which is based on three-ion ICRF heating of intrinsic Beryllium impurities.

  3. Fast ion generation and bulk plasma heating with three-ion ICRF scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Ye. O.; Van Eester, D.; Dumont, R.; Ongena, J.; Lerche, E.; Messiaen, A.

    2015-12-01

    Launching electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is an efficient method of plasma heating, actively employed in most of fusion machines. ICRF has a number of important supplementary applications, including the generation of high-energy ions. In this paper, we discuss a new set of three-ion ICRF scenarios and the prospect of their use as a dedicated tool for fast ion generation in tokamaks and stellarators. A distinct feature of these scenarios is a strong absorption efficiency possible at very low concentrations of resonant minority ions (˜ 1% or even below). Such concentration levels are typical for impurities contaminating fusion plasmas. An alternative ICRF scenario for maximizing the efficiency of bulk D-T ion heating is suggested for JET and ITER tokamaks, which is based on three-ion ICRF heating of intrinsic Beryllium impurities.

  4. Highly charged ion secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hamza, Alex V.; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnes, Alan V.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2001-01-01

    A secondary ion mass spectrometer using slow, highly charged ions produced in an electron beam ion trap permits ultra-sensitive surface analysis and high spatial resolution simultaneously. The spectrometer comprises an ion source producing a primary ion beam of highly charged ions that are directed at a target surface, a mass analyzer, and a microchannel plate detector of secondary ions that are sputtered from the target surface after interaction with the primary beam. The unusually high secondary ion yield permits the use of coincidence counting, in which the secondary ion stops are detected in coincidence with a particular secondary ion. The association of specific molecular species can be correlated. The unique multiple secondary nature of the highly charged ion interaction enables this new analytical technique.

  5. Instrumentation: Ion Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of ion chromatography in separating and measuring anions. The principles of ion exchange are presented, along with some applications of ion chromatography in industry. Ion chromatography systems are described, as well as ion pair and ion exclusion chromatography, column packings, detectors, and programming. (TW)

  6. Hydrated Ions: From Individual Ions to Ion Pairs to Ion Clusters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Houyang; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2015-10-01

    The structure of hydrated ions plays a central role in chemical and biological sciences. In the present paper, five ions, namely, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-), are examined using molecular dynamics simulations. In addition to hydrated individual ions and ion pairs identified previously, hydrated ion clusters containing 3, 4, 5, or more ions are identified in the present paper. The dependence of hydration numbers and mole fractions of individual ions, ion pairs, and larger ion clusters on the electrolyte concentration is determined. As the electrolyte concentration increases, the mole fraction of hydrated individual ions decreases, and the mole fraction of hydrated larger ion clusters increases. The results also reveal that the hydrogen bonding numbers of the H2O molecules of the first hydration shells of individual ions, ion pairs, and larger ion clusters are insensitive to the electrolyte concentration, but sensitive to the nature and conformation of ions. PMID:26358093

  7. The uses of electron beam ion traps in the study of highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, D.

    1994-11-02

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is a relatively new tool for the study of highly charged ions. Its development has led to a variety of new experimental opportunities; measurements have been performed with EBITs using techniques impossible with conventional ion sources or storage rings. In this paper, I will highlight the various experimental techniques we have developed and the results we have obtained using the EBIT and higher-energy Super-EBIT built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The EBIT employs a high-current-density electron beam to trap, ionize, and excite a population of ions. The ions can be studied in situ or extracted from the trap for external experiments. The trapped ions form an ionization-state equilibrium determined by the relative ionization and recombination rates. Ions of several different elements may simultaneously be present in the trap. The ions are nearly at rest, and, for most systems, all in their ground-state configurations. The electron-ion interaction energy has a narrow distribution and can be varied over a wide range. We have used the EBIT devices for the measurement of electron-ion interactions, ion structure, ion-surface interactions, and the behavior of low-density plasmas.

  8. Tool grinding machine

    DOEpatents

    Dial, Sr., Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thickness may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  9. Improved tool grinding machine

    DOEpatents

    Dial, C.E. Sr.

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thicknesses may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  10. Focused ion beams in biology.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Kedar; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2015-11-01

    A quiet revolution is under way in technologies used for nanoscale cellular imaging. Focused ion beams, previously restricted to the materials sciences and semiconductor fields, are rapidly becoming powerful tools for ultrastructural imaging of biological samples. Cell and tissue architecture, as preserved in plastic-embedded resin or in plunge-frozen form, can be investigated in three dimensions by scanning electron microscopy imaging of freshly created surfaces that result from the progressive removal of material using a focused ion beam. The focused ion beam can also be used as a sculpting tool to create specific specimen shapes such as lamellae or needles that can be analyzed further by transmission electron microscopy or by methods that probe chemical composition. Here we provide an in-depth primer to the application of focused ion beams in biology, including a guide to the practical aspects of using the technology, as well as selected examples of its contribution to the generation of new insights into subcellular architecture and mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions. PMID:26513553

  11. ICEPO: the ion channel electrophysiology ontology.

    PubMed

    Hinard, V; Britan, A; Rougier, J S; Bairoch, A; Abriel, H; Gaudet, P

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that selectively allow ions to flow across the plasma membrane and play key roles in diverse biological processes. A multitude of diseases, called channelopathies, such as epilepsies, muscle paralysis, pain syndromes, cardiac arrhythmias or hypoglycemia are due to ion channel mutations. A wide corpus of literature is available on ion channels, covering both their functions and their roles in disease. The research community needs to access this data in a user-friendly, yet systematic manner. However, extraction and integration of this increasing amount of data have been proven to be difficult because of the lack of a standardized vocabulary that describes the properties of ion channels at the molecular level. To address this, we have developed Ion Channel ElectroPhysiology Ontology (ICEPO), an ontology that allows one to annotate the electrophysiological parameters of the voltage-gated class of ion channels. This ontology is based on a three-state model of ion channel gating describing the three conformations/states that an ion channel can adopt: closed, open and inactivated. This ontology supports the capture of voltage-gated ion channel electrophysiological data from the literature in a structured manner and thus enables other applications such as querying and reasoning tools. Here, we present ICEPO (ICEPO ftp site:ftp://ftp.nextprot.org/pub/current_release/controlled_vocabularies/), as well as examples of its use. PMID:27055825

  12. ICEPO: the ion channel electrophysiology ontology

    PubMed Central

    Hinard, V.; Britan, A.; Rougier, J.S.; Bairoch, A.; Abriel, H.; Gaudet, P.

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that selectively allow ions to flow across the plasma membrane and play key roles in diverse biological processes. A multitude of diseases, called channelopathies, such as epilepsies, muscle paralysis, pain syndromes, cardiac arrhythmias or hypoglycemia are due to ion channel mutations. A wide corpus of literature is available on ion channels, covering both their functions and their roles in disease. The research community needs to access this data in a user-friendly, yet systematic manner. However, extraction and integration of this increasing amount of data have been proven to be difficult because of the lack of a standardized vocabulary that describes the properties of ion channels at the molecular level. To address this, we have developed Ion Channel ElectroPhysiology Ontology (ICEPO), an ontology that allows one to annotate the electrophysiological parameters of the voltage-gated class of ion channels. This ontology is based on a three-state model of ion channel gating describing the three conformations/states that an ion channel can adopt: closed, open and inactivated. This ontology supports the capture of voltage-gated ion channel electrophysiological data from the literature in a structured manner and thus enables other applications such as querying and reasoning tools. Here, we present ICEPO (ICEPO ftp site: ftp://ftp.nextprot.org/pub/current_release/controlled_vocabularies/), as well as examples of its use. PMID:27055825

  13. LensTools: Weak Lensing computing tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, A.

    2016-02-01

    LensTools implements a wide range of routines frequently used in Weak Gravitational Lensing, including tools for image analysis, statistical processing and numerical theory predictions. The package offers many useful features, including complete flexibility and easy customization of input/output formats; efficient measurements of power spectrum, PDF, Minkowski functionals and peak counts of convergence maps; survey masks; artificial noise generation engines; easy to compute parameter statistical inferences; ray tracing simulations; and many others. It requires standard numpy and scipy, and depending on tools used, may require Astropy (ascl:1304.002), emcee (ascl:1303.002), matplotlib, and mpi4py.

  14. Ion detector

    DOEpatents

    Tullis, Andrew M.

    1987-01-01

    An improved ion detector device of the ionization detection device chamber ype comprises an ionization chamber having a central electrode therein surrounded by a cylindrical electrode member within the chamber with a collar frictionally fitted around at least one of the electrodes. The collar has electrical contact means carried in an annular groove in an inner bore of the collar to contact the outer surface of the electrode to provide electrical contact between an external terminal and the electrode without the need to solder leads to the electrode.

  15. Improved ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  16. Portable beveling tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Portable tool was designed to semiautomatically bevel end surfaces of tubular or cylindrical components. Tool may be used for fabrication of elbow assembly which requires mating flange and elbow by fusion butt welding.

  17. Development of an ion beam alignment system for real-time scanning tunneling microscope observation of dopant-ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamioka, Takefumi; Sato, Kou; Kazama, Yutaka; Watanabe, Takanobu; Ohdomari, Iwao

    2008-07-15

    An ion beam alignment system has been developed in order to realize real-time scanning tunneling microscope (STM) observation of 'dopant-ion' irradiation that has been difficult due to the low emission intensity of the liquid-metal-ion-source (LMIS) containing dopant atoms. The alignment system is installed in our original ion gun and STM combined system (IG/STM) which is used for in situ STM observation during ion irradiation. By using an absorbed electron image unit and a dummy sample, ion beam alignment operation is drastically simplified and accurized. We demonstrate that sequential STM images during phosphorus-ion irradiation are successfully obtained for sample surfaces of Si(111)-7x7 at room temperature and a high temperature of 500 deg. C. The LMIS-IG/STM equipped with the developed ion beam alignment system would be a powerful tool for microscopic investigation of the dynamic processes of ion irradiation.

  18. ION GUN

    DOEpatents

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  19. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  20. Hand tools: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A selection of new hand tools, modifications of existing tools, and techniques developed in the course of NASA research and development projects are presented. The items are presented in two sections: tools for cable and connector applications, and tools for welding applications. Safety is emphasized, together with ease of operation and use in restricted areas or hazardous environments. The discussions are directed primarily toward the technician engaged in assembly or maintenance of mechanical or electrical equipment.

  1. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  2. Tools of the Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langham, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Tangible tools needed by the instructor of orientation and mobility techniques for people with visual impairments include cane repair tools, a tape measure, a stopwatch, labeling materials, raised-line drawing equipment, a bicycle, compass and map, mace, and evaluation tools. (DB)

  3. Software engineering tools.

    PubMed

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1994-01-01

    We have looked at general descriptions and illustrations of several software development tools, such as tools for prototyping, developing DFDs, testing, and maintenance. Many others are available, and new ones are being developed. However, you have at least seen some examples of powerful CASE tools for systems development. PMID:10131419

  4. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  5. Tool Support Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    Tool support ring requires only single repositioning to give broaching tool access to series of 66 holes located on circle. Permits use of tools designed for hand-held use (such as electric drill) where less portable setup (such as milling machine) otherwise required.

  6. Tools for Achieving TQE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latta, Raymond F.; Downey, Carolyn J.

    This book presents a wide array of sophisticated problem-solving tools and shows how to use them in a humanizing way that involves all stakeholders in the process. Chapter 1 develops the rationale for educational stakeholders to consider quality tools. Chapter 2 highlights three quality group-process tools--brainstorming, the nominal group…

  7. MOD Tool (Microwave Optics Design Tool)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Daniel S.; Borgioli, Andrea; Cwik, Tom; Fu, Chuigang; Imbriale, William A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Springer, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently designing and building a number of instruments that operate in the microwave and millimeter-wave bands. These include MIRO (Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), and IMAS (Integrated Multispectral Atmospheric Sounder). These instruments must be designed and built to meet key design criteria (e.g., beamwidth, gain, pointing) obtained from the scientific goals for the instrument. These criteria are frequently functions of the operating environment (both thermal and mechanical). To design and build instruments which meet these criteria, it is essential to be able to model the instrument in its environments. Currently, a number of modeling tools exist. Commonly used tools at JPL include: FEMAP (meshing), NASTRAN (structural modeling), TRASYS and SINDA (thermal modeling), MACOS/IMOS (optical modeling), and POPO (physical optics modeling). Each of these tools is used by an analyst, who models the instrument in one discipline. The analyst then provides the results of this modeling to another analyst, who continues the overall modeling in another discipline. There is a large reengineering task in place at JPL to automate and speed-up the structural and thermal modeling disciplines, which does not include MOD Tool. The focus of MOD Tool (and of this paper) is in the fields unique to microwave and millimeter-wave instrument design. These include initial design and analysis of the instrument without thermal or structural loads, the automation of the transfer of this design to a high-end CAD tool, and the analysis of the structurally deformed instrument (due to structural and/or thermal loads). MOD Tool is a distributed tool, with a database of design information residing on a server, physical optics analysis being performed on a variety of supercomputer platforms, and a graphical user interface (GUI) residing on the user's desktop computer. The MOD Tool client is being developed using Tcl

  8. rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-02-15

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being employed in various industrial ion beam systems. There are four areas where the rf-driven ion sources are commonly used in industry. (1) In semiconductor manufacturing, rf-driven sources have found important applications in plasma etching, ion beam implantation, and ion beam lithography. (2) In material analysis and surface modification, miniature rf-ion sources can be found in focused ion beam systems. They can provide ion beams of essentially any element in the Periodic Table. The newly developed combined rf ion-electron beam unit improves greatly the performance of the secondary ion mass spectrometry tool. (3) For neutron production, rf ion source is a major component of compact, high flux D-D, D-T, or T-T neutron generators. These neutron sources are now being employed in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as well as in neutron imaging and material interrogation. (4) Large area rf-driven ion source will be used in an industrial design neutral beam diagnostic system for probing fusion plasmas. Such sources can be easily scaled to provide large ion beam current for future fusion reactor applications.

  9. Ion source development for various applications in Korea (invited) (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y. S.

    2008-02-15

    Ion source development in Korea has been related with various applications from accelerator to nanotechnology. Conventional ion sources such as Duoplasmatron and PIG ion sources were developed for high power proton accelerator and small cyclotron accelerators. To improve lifetime of the high current proton ion source, helicon plasma ion sources were developed with external rf antenna and applied for neutron generation in drive-in-target configuration. Negative hydrogen ion sources were also developed for tandem and cyclotron accelerators by using both rf and filament discharges. Large-area high-current ion sources for the KSTAR NBI system were developed and successfully tested for long-pulse operation of up to 300 s. Several broad beam ion sources for industrial applications such as ion implantation and surface treatment were also developed by using arc, rf, and microwave discharges. Recently, ion source applications become diversified to the area of nano- and biotechnologies. For example, C60 ion source was developed for the use of bioapplications in nanometer scale. For focused ion beam as a nanofabrication tool, liquid metal ion sources were improved and a novel plasma ion source was developed by utilizing localized sheath discharges. Research and development activities of these ion sources will be discussed with short description of appropriate applications.

  10. Evaluation of the ion implantation process for production of solar cells from silicon sheet materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    For the ion implantation tooling was fabricated with which to hold dendritic web samples. This tooling permits the expeditious boron implantation of the back to form the back surface field (BSF). Baseline BSF web cells were fabricated.

  11. On the role of ion-based imaging methods in modern ion beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Magallanes, L. Rinaldi, I.; Brons, S.; Marcelos, T. Parodi, K.; Takechi, M.; Voss, B.; Jäkel, O.

    2014-11-07

    External beam radiotherapy techniques have the common aim to maximize the radiation dose to the target while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. The inverted and finite depth-dose profile of ion beams (Bragg peak) allows for precise dose delivery and conformai dose distribution. Furthermore, increased radiobiological effectiveness of ions enhances the capability to battle radioresistant tumors. Ion beam therapy requires a precise determination of the ion range, which is particularly sensitive to range uncertainties. Therefore, novel imaging techniques are currently investigated as a tool to improve the quality of ion beam treatments. Approaches already clinically available or under development are based on the detection of secondary particles emitted as a result of nuclear reactions (e.g., positron-annihilation or prompt gammas, charged particles) or transmitted high energy primary ion beams. Transmission imaging techniques make use of the beams exiting the patient, which have higher initial energy and lower fluence than the therapeutic ones. At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, actively scanned energetic proton and carbon ion beams provide an ideal environment for the investigation of ion-based radiography and tomography. This contribution presents the rationale of ion beam therapy, focusing on the role of ion-based transmission imaging methods towards the reduction of range uncertainties and potential improvement of treatment planning.

  12. On the role of ion-based imaging methods in modern ion beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magallanes, L.; Brons, S.; Marcelos, T.; Takechi, M.; Voss, B.; Jäkel, O.; Rinaldi, I.; Parodi, K.

    2014-11-01

    External beam radiotherapy techniques have the common aim to maximize the radiation dose to the target while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. The inverted and finite depth-dose profile of ion beams (Bragg peak) allows for precise dose delivery and conformai dose distribution. Furthermore, increased radiobiological effectiveness of ions enhances the capability to battle radioresistant tumors. Ion beam therapy requires a precise determination of the ion range, which is particularly sensitive to range uncertainties. Therefore, novel imaging techniques are currently investigated as a tool to improve the quality of ion beam treatments. Approaches already clinically available or under development are based on the detection of secondary particles emitted as a result of nuclear reactions (e.g., positron-annihilation or prompt gammas, charged particles) or transmitted high energy primary ion beams. Transmission imaging techniques make use of the beams exiting the patient, which have higher initial energy and lower fluence than the therapeutic ones. At the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, actively scanned energetic proton and carbon ion beams provide an ideal environment for the investigation of ion-based radiography and tomography. This contribution presents the rationale of ion beam therapy, focusing on the role of ion-based transmission imaging methods towards the reduction of range uncertainties and potential improvement of treatment planning.

  13. Robotic tool change mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An assembly of three major components is disclosed which included a wrist interface plate which is secured to the wrist joint of a robotic arm, a tool interface plate which is secured to each tool intended for use by the robotic arm, and a tool holster for each tool attached to the interface plate. The wrist interface plate and a selected tool interface plate are mutually connectable together through an opening or recess in the upper face of the interface plate by means of a notched tongue protruding from the front face of the wrist interface plate which engages a pair of spring-biased rotatable notched wheels located within the body of the tool interface plate. The tool holster captures and locks onto the tool interface plate by means of a pair of actuation claws including a locking tab and an unlocking wedge which operate respective actuation bosses on each of the notched wheels in response to a forward and backward motion of the tool interface plate as a result of motion of the robotic arm to either park the tool or use the tool.

  14. Ion mobility sensor

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2005-08-23

    An ion mobility sensor which can detect both ion and molecules simultaneously. Thus, one can measure the relative arrival times between various ions and molecules. Different ions have different mobility in air, and the ion sensor enables measurement of ion mobility, from which one can identify the various ions and molecules. The ion mobility sensor which utilizes a pair of glow discharge devices may be designed for coupling with an existing gas chromatograph, where various gas molecules are already separated, but numbers of each kind of molecules are relatively small, and in such cases a conventional ion mobility sensor cannot be utilized.

  15. Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langouche, G.; Yoshida, Y.

    In this tutorial we describe the basic principles of the ion implantation technique and we demonstrate that emission Mössbauer spectroscopy is an extremely powerful technique to investigate the atomic and electronic configuration around implanted atoms. The physics of dilute atoms in materials, the final lattice sites and their chemical state as well as diffusion phenomena can be studied. We focus on the latest developments of implantation Mössbauer spectroscopy, where three accelerator facilities, i.e., Hahn-Meitner Institute Berlin, ISOLDE-CERN and RIKEN, have intensively been used for materials research in in-beam and on-line Mössbauer experiments immediately after implantation of the nuclear probes.

  16. ION MAGNETRON

    DOEpatents

    Gow, J.D.; Layman, R.W.

    1962-10-31

    A magnetohydrodynamic device or plasma generator of the ion magnetron class is described wherein a long central electrode is disposed along the axis of an evacuated cylinder. A radial electric field and an axial magnetic field are provided between the cylsnder and the electrode, forming a plasma trapping and heating region. For maximum effectiveness, neutral particles from the cylinder wall must be prevented from entering such region This is effected by forming a cylindrical sheath of electrons near the cylinder wall for ionizing undesired neutral particles, which are then trapped and removed by the magnetic field. An annular filament at one end of the device provides the electrons, which follow the axial magnetic field to a reflecting electrode at the opposite end of the device. (AEC)

  17. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W. M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from the source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a vacuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  18. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from thc source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a varuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  19. Ion Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2003-11-18

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  20. Computational tools to investigate genetic cardiac channelopathies

    PubMed Central

    Abriel, Hugues; de Lange, Enno; Kucera, Jan P.; Loussouarn, Gildas; Tarek, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this perspective article is to share with the community of ion channel scientists our thoughts and expectations regarding the increasing role that computational tools will play in the future of our field. The opinions and comments detailed here are the result of a 3-day long international exploratory workshop that took place in October 2013 and that was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. PMID:24421770

  1. Tool setting device

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Raymond J.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention relates to a tool setting device for use with numerically controlled machine tools, such as lathes and milling machines. A reference position of the machine tool relative to the workpiece along both the X and Y axes is utilized by the control circuit for driving the tool through its program. This reference position is determined for both axes by displacing a single linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT) with the machine tool through a T-shaped pivotal bar. The use of the T-shaped bar allows the cutting tool to be moved sequentially in the X or Y direction for indicating the actual position of the machine tool relative to the predetermined desired position in the numerical control circuit by using a single LVDT.

  2. INELASTIC DIFFRACTION AT HEAVY ION COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, S.

    2005-01-01

    The heavy ion physics approach to global event characterization has led us to instrument the forward region in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. In heavy ion collisions this coverage yields a measurement of the ''spectator'' energy and its distribution about the beam direction. This energy flow is the basis of event-by-event determination of the centrality and reaction plane which are key to analyzing particle production in heavy ion collisions. These same tools have also enabled a unique set of measurements on inelastic diffraction with proton, deuteron and gold ion beams in the PHENIX experiment. We present first new results on this topic and discuss briefly the opportunity for diffractive physics with Heavy Ion beams at the LHC.

  3. Coulombic Effects in Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Clowers, Brian H.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been increasingly employed in a number of applications. When coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), IMS becomes a powerful analytical tool for separating complex samples and investigating molecular structure. Therefore, improvements in IMS-MS instrumentation, e.g. IMS resolving power and sensitivity, are highly desirable. Implementation of an ion trap for accumulation and pulsed ion injection to IMS based on the ion funnel has provided considerably increased ion currents, and thus a basis for improved sensitivity and measurement throughput. However, large ion populations may manifest Coulombic effects contributing to the spatial dispersion of ions traveling in the IMS drift tube, and reduction in the IMS resolving power. In this study, we present an analysis of Coulombic effects on IMS resolution. Basic relationships have been obtained for the spatial evolution of ion packets due to Coulombic repulsion. The analytical relationships were compared with results of a computer model that simulates IMS operation based on a first principles approach. Initial experimental results reported here are consistent with the computer modeling. A noticeable decrease in the IMS resolving power was observed for ion populations of >10,000 elementary charges. The optimum IMS operation conditions which would minimize the Coulombic effects are discussed. PMID:19438247

  4. Micrometer-Scale Machining of Metals and Polymers Enabled by Focused Ion Beam Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.P.; Benavides, G.L.; Vasile, M.J.

    1998-12-22

    This work combines focused ion beam sputtering and ultra-precision machining for microfabrication of metal alloys and polymers. Specifically, micro-end mills are made by Ga ion beam sputtering of a cylindrical tool shank. Using an ion energy of 20keV, the focused beam defines the tool cutting edges that have submicrometer radii of curvature. We demonstrate 25 {micro}m diameter micromilling tools having 2, 4 and 5 cutting edges. These tools fabricate fine channels, 26-28 microns wide, in 6061 aluminum, brass, and polymethyl methacrylate. Micro-tools are structurally robust and operate for more than 5 hours without fracture.

  5. Diagnostics for studies of novel laser ion acceleration mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Senje, Lovisa; Aurand, Bastian; Wahlström, Claes-Göran; Yeung, Mark; Kuschel, Stephan; Rödel, Christian; Wagner, Florian; Roth, Markus; Li, Kun; Neumayer, Paul; Dromey, Brendan; Jung, Daniel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Zepf, Matthew; Kuehl, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    Diagnostic for investigating and distinguishing different laser ion acceleration mechanisms has been developed and successfully tested. An ion separation wide angle spectrometer can simultaneously investigate three important aspects of the laser plasma interaction: (1) acquire angularly resolved energy spectra for two ion species, (2) obtain ion energy spectra for multiple species, separated according to their charge to mass ratio, along selected axes, and (3) collect laser radiation reflected from and transmitted through the target and propagating in the same direction as the ion beam. Thus, the presented diagnostic constitutes a highly adaptable tool for accurately studying novel acceleration mechanisms in terms of their angular energy distribution, conversion efficiency, and plasma density evolution.

  6. Enterprise integration: A tool`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, J.; Jones, A.; Grant, H.

    1993-06-01

    The advent of sophisticated automation equipment and computer hardware and software is changing the way manufacturing is carried out. To compete in the global marketplace, manufacturing companies must integrate these new technologies into their factories. In addition, they must integrate the planning, control, and data management methodologies needed to make effective use of these technologies. This paper provides an overview of recent approaches to achieving this enterprise integration. It then describes, using simulation as a particular example, a new tool`s perspective of enterprise integration.

  7. Evolution of instrumentation for the study of gas-phase ion/ion chemistry via mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yu; McLuckey, Scott A

    2008-02-01

    The scope of gas-phase ion/ion chemistry accessible to mass spectrometry is largely defined by the available tools. Due to the development of novel instrumentation, a wide range of reaction phenomenologies has been noted, many of which have been studied extensively and exploited for analytical applications. This perspective presents the development of mass spectrometry-based instrumentation for the study of the gas-phase ion/ion chemistry in which at least one of the reactants is multiply charged. The instrument evolution is presented within the context of three essential elements required for any ion/ion reaction study: the ionization source(s), the reaction vessel or environment, and the mass analyzer. Ionization source arrangements have included source combinations that allow for reactions between multiply charged ions of one polarity and singly charged ions of opposite polarity, arrangements that enable the study of reactions of multiply charged ions of opposite polarity and, most recently, arrangements that allow for ion formation from more than two ion sources. Gas-phase ion/ion reaction studies have been performed at near atmospheric pressure in flow reactor designs and within electrodynamic ion traps operated in the mTorr range. With ion trap as a reaction vessel, ionization and reaction processes can be independently optimized and ion/ion reactions can be implemented within the context of MSn experiments. Spatial separation of the reaction vessel from the mass analyzer allows for the use of any form of mass analysis in conjunction with ion/ion reactions. Time-of-flight mass analysis, for example, has provided significant improvements in mass analysis figures of merit relative to mass filters and ion traps. PMID:18083527

  8. Evolution of Instrumentation for the Study of Gas-Phase Ion/Ion Chemistry via Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yu; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The scope of gas phase ion/ion chemistry accessible to mass spectrometry is largely defined by the available tools. Due to the development of novel instrumentation, a wide range of reaction phenomenologies have been noted, many of which have been studied extensively and exploited for analytical applications. This perspective presents the development of mass spectrometry-based instrumentation for the study of the gas phase ion/ion chemistry in which at least one of the reactants is multiply-charged. The instrument evolution is presented within the context of three essential elements required for any ion/ion reaction study: the ionization source(s), the reaction vessel or environment, and the mass analyzer. Ionization source arrangements have included source combinations that allow for reactions between multiply charged ions of one polarity and singly charged ions of opposite polarity, arrangements that enable the study of reactions of multiply charged ions of opposite polarity, and most recently, arrangements that allow for ion formation from more than two ion sources. Gas phase ion/ion reaction studies have been performed at near atmospheric pressure in flow reactor designs and within electrodynamic ion traps operated in the mTorr range. With ion trap as a reaction vessel, ionization and reaction processes can be independently optimized and ion/ion reactions can be implemented within the context of MSn experiments. Spatial separation of the reaction vessel from the mass analyzer allows for the use of any form of mass analysis in conjunction with ion/ion reactions. Time-of-flight mass analysis, for example, has provided significant improvements in mass analysis figures of merit relative to mass filters and ion traps. PMID:18083527

  9. Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Gregory; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Rasmussen, Craig

    2005-02-18

    Designing and developing parallel programs is an inherently complex task. Developers must choose from the many parallel architectures and programming paradigms that are available, and face a plethora of tools that are required to execute, debug, and analyze parallel programs i these environments. Few, if any, of these tools provide any degree of integration, or indeed any commonality in their user interfaces at all. This further complicates the parallel developer's task, hampering software engineering practices, and ultimately reducing productivity. One consequence of this complexity is that best practice in parallel application development has not advanced to the same degree as more traditional programming methodologies. The result is that there is currently no open-source, industry-strength platform that provides a highly integrated environment specifically designed for parallel application development. Eclipse is a universal tool-hosting platform that is designed to providing a robust, full-featured, commercial-quality, industry platform for the development of highly integrated tools. It provides a wide range of core services for tool integration that allow tool producers to concentrate on their tool technology rather than on platform specific issues. The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment is an open-source project that is supported by over 70 organizations, including IBM, Intel and HP. The Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform (PTP) plug-in extends the Eclipse framwork by providing support for a rich set of parallel programming languages and paradigms, and a core infrastructure for the integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration, support for a small number of parallel architectures, and basis

  10. Modeling of a multicharged ion beam line using SIMION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korwin-Pawlowski, Michael L.; Amiz, Karima; Elsayed-Ali, Hani

    2009-06-01

    Multicharged ion beams (MCI) are promising tools to probe or modify the surface of materials with applications in microelectronics and nanotechnology. Ion beam lines are parts of the MCI systems connecting the ion source with the processing chamber and they perform the function of extracting, accelerating, decelerating, focusing and scanning the ion beam on the surface of the target. In our work we present results of modeling of an MCI beam line using the SIMION code to simulate the flight of ions, with the purpose of optimizing the yield of the line and avoiding spurious effects due to interaction of the ions with the metallic elements of the line, such as heating, outgassing and excessive Xray emission. We show that a two stage ion extractor could significantly reduce ion beam losses.

  11. PERFORMANCE LIMITATIONS IN HIGH-ENERGY ION COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER, W.

    2005-05-16

    High-energy ion colliders (hadron colliders operating with ions other than protons) are premier research tools for nuclear physics. The collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operations considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species, including asymmetric collisions. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams limits are set by space charge, charge exchange, and intrabeam scattering effects. The latter leads to luminosity lifetimes of only a few hours for intense heavy ions beams. Currently, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL is the only operating high-energy ion collider. Later this decade the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN, will also run with heavy ions.

  12. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  13. Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Eiden, Greg C.

    2005-09-01

    This chapter describes research conducted in a few research groups in the 1990s in which RF quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers were coupled to a powerful atomic ion source, the inductively coupled plasma used in conventional ICP-MS instruments. Major section titles for this chapter are: RF Quadrupole Ion Traps Features of RF Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers Selective Ion Trapping methods Inductively Coupled Plasma Source Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers

  14. Lunar hand tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, Karl F.; Coleman, Robert D.; Dubnik, Kathy; Marshall, William S.; Mcentee, Amy; Na, Sae H.; Patton, Scott G.; West, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    Tools useful for operations and maintenance tasks on the lunar surface were determined and designed. Primary constraints are the lunar environment, the astronaut's space suit and the strength limits of the astronaut on the moon. A multipurpose rotary motion tool and a collapsible tool carrier were designed. For the rotary tool, a brushless motor and controls were specified, a material for the housing was chosen, bearings and lubrication were recommended and a planetary reduction gear attachment was designed. The tool carrier was designed primarily for ease of access to the tools and fasteners. A material was selected and structural analysis was performed on the carrier. Recommendations were made about the limitations of human performance and about possible attachments to the torque driver.

  15. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  16. Tool steels. 5. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, G.; Krauss, G.; Kennedy, R.

    1998-12-31

    The revision of this authoritative work contains a significant amount of new information from the past nearly two decades presented in an entirely new outline, making this a must have reference for engineers involved in tool-steel production, as well as in the selection and use of tool steels in metalworking and other materials manufacturing industries. The chapter on tool-steel manufacturing includes new production processes, such as electroslag refining, vacuum arc remelting, spray deposition processes (Osprey and centrifugal spray), and powder metal processing. The seven chapters covering tool-steel types in the 4th Edition have been expanded to 11 chapters covering nine main groups of tool steels as well as other types of ultrahigh strength steels sometimes used for tooling. Each chapter discusses in detail processing, composition, and applications specific to the particular group. In addition, two chapters have been added covering surface modification and trouble shooting production and performance problems.

  17. Various uses of ion chromatography in the manufacture of MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Beverly

    1999-08-01

    Ion Chromatography has already shown its value as a process monitoring and troubleshooting tool for the semiconductor and disk drive manufacturers. Similarly, there are many possible uses for this analytical technique in the manufacture of microelectromechanical devices. Some of these uses are: (i) the analysis of corrosive ions in ultrapure water and ultrapure chemicals; (ii) analysis of plating bath constituents and contaminants; (iii) analysis of corrosive ions found on MEMS devices during manufacturing and which can later cause device failure of reliability problems; (iv) the analysis of corrosive ions found on MEMS manufacturing tools, carriers and other materials that come in contact with the final product. This paper will explore the many uses of ion chromatography for the manufacture of MEMS devices. Special techniques, only recently developed for use on very small objects, will also be presented for the analysis of ions at part per trillion levels.

  18. Authoring tool evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.L.; Klenk, K.S.; Coday, A.C.; McGee, J.P.; Rivenburgh, R.R.; Gonzales, D.M.; Mniszewski, S.M.

    1994-09-15

    This paper discusses and evaluates a number of authoring tools currently on the market. The tools evaluated are Visix Galaxy, NeuronData Open Interface Elements, Sybase Gain Momentum, XVT Power++, Aimtech IconAuthor, Liant C++/Views, and Inmark Technology zApp. Also discussed is the LIST project and how this evaluation is being used to fit an authoring tool to the project.

  19. A GRB tool shed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.; Hakkila, Jon; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Mallozzi, Robert

    2000-09-01

    We describe the design of a suite of software tools to allow users to query Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) data and perform data mining expeditions. We call this suite of tools a shed (SHell for Expeditions using Datamining). Our schedule is to have a completed prototype (funded via the NASA AISRP) by February, 2002. Meanwhile, interested users will find a partially functioning tool shed at http:/grb.mankato.msus.edu. .

  20. OEXP Analysis Tools Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. Bernard; Wright, Robert L.; Badi, Deborah; Findlay, John T.

    1988-01-01

    This publication summarizes the software needs and available analysis tools presented at the OEXP Analysis Tools Workshop held at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia on June 21 to 22, 1988. The objective of the workshop was to identify available spacecraft system (and subsystem) analysis and engineering design tools, and mission planning and analysis software that could be used for various NASA Office of Exploration (code Z) studies, specifically lunar and Mars missions.

  1. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  2. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  3. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, Fred N.; Murry, Kenneth R.

    1988-12-27

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting edges formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  4. Strain gauge installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Conard, Lisa Marie

    1998-01-01

    A tool and a method for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool.

  5. Air Sparging Decision Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-06-10

    The Air Sparging Decision Tool is a computer decision aid to help environmental managers and field practitioners in evaluating the applicability of air sparging to a wide range of sites and for refining the operation of air sparging systems. The program provides tools for the practitioner to develop the conceptual design for an air sparging system suitable for the identified site. The Tool provides a model of the decision making process, not a detailed designmore » of air sparging systems. The Tool will quickly and cost effectively assist the practitioner in screening for applicability of the technology at a proposed site.« less

  6. Tool use as adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Biro, Dora; Haslam, Michael; Rutz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Tool use is a vital component of the human behavioural repertoire. The benefits of tool use have often been assumed to be self-evident: by extending control over our environment, we have increased energetic returns and buffered ourselves from potentially harmful influences. In recent decades, however, the study of tool use in both humans and non-human animals has expanded the way we think about the role of tools in the natural world. This Theme Issue is aimed at bringing together this developing body of knowledge, gathered across multiple species and from multiple research perspectives, to chart the wider evolutionary context of this phylogenetically rare behaviour. PMID:24101619

  7. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore » by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.« less

  8. ATAMM analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert; Stoughton, John; Mielke, Roland

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostics software for analyzing Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) based concurrent processing systems is presented. ATAMM is capable of modeling the execution of large grain algorithms on distributed data flow architectures. The tool graphically displays algorithm activities and processor activities for evaluation of the behavior and performance of an ATAMM based system. The tool's measurement capabilities indicate computing speed, throughput, concurrency, resource utilization, and overhead. Evaluations are performed on a simulated system using the software tool. The tool is used to estimate theoretical lower bound performance. Analysis results are shown to be comparable to the predictions.

  9. ATAMM analysis tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert; Stoughton, John; Mielke, Roland

    1991-10-01

    Diagnostics software for analyzing Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) based concurrent processing systems is presented. ATAMM is capable of modeling the execution of large grain algorithms on distributed data flow architectures. The tool graphically displays algorithm activities and processor activities for evaluation of the behavior and performance of an ATAMM based system. The tool's measurement capabilities indicate computing speed, throughput, concurrency, resource utilization, and overhead. Evaluations are performed on a simulated system using the software tool. The tool is used to estimate theoretical lower bound performance. Analysis results are shown to be comparable to the predictions.

  10. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, F.A.; Murry, K.R.

    1986-02-10

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting flutes formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  11. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  12. Chimera Grid Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  13. Manifold tool guide

    DOEpatents

    Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    1983-12-27

    A tool guide that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into to cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc.

  14. Manifold tool guide

    DOEpatents

    Djordjevic, A.

    1983-12-27

    A tool guide is described that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into the cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc. 3 figs.

  15. Manifold tool guide

    DOEpatents

    Djordjevic, A.

    1982-07-08

    A tool guide that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into to cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc.

  16. Strain gauge installation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, Lisa Marie

    1997-12-01

    A tool and a method for attaching a strain gauge to a test specimen by maintaining alignment of, and applying pressure to, the strain gauge during the bonding of the gauge to the specimen. The tool comprises rigid and compliant pads attached to a spring-loaded clamp. The pads are shaped to conform to the specimen surface to which the gauge is to be bonded. The shape of the pads permits the tool to align itself to the specimen and to maintain alignment of the gauge to the specimen during the bond curing process. A simplified method of attaching a strain gauge is provided by use of the tool.

  17. Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components

    DOEpatents

    McHargue, Carl J.

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: A tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

  18. Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components

    DOEpatents

    McHargue, C.J.

    1981-10-21

    In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: a tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

  19. Dynamic ion-ion and water-ion interactions in ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J V

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic interactions among ions and water molecules in ion channels are treated based on an assumption that ions at binding sites can be knocked off by both transient entering ions and local water molecules. The theory, when applied to a single-site model K+ channel, provides solutions for super- and subsaturations, flux-ratio exponent (n') greater than 1, osmotic streaming current, activity-dependent reversal potentials, and anomalous mole-fraction behavior. The analysis predicts that: (a) the saturation may but, in general, does not follow the Michaelis-Menten relation; (b) streaming current results from imbalanced water-ion knock-off interactions; (c) n' greater than 1 even for single-site channels, but it is unlikely to exceed 1.4 unless the pore is occupied by one or more ion(s); (d) in the calculation involving two permeant ion species with similar radii, the heavier ions show higher affinity; the ion-ion knock-off dissociation from the site is more effective when two interacting ions are identical. Therefore, the "multi-ion behaviors" found in most ion channels are the consequences of dynamic ion-ion and water-ion interactions. The presence of these interactions does not require two or more binding sites in channels. PMID:1376158

  20. Ion energization in upwelling ion events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Lockwood, M.; Persoon, A.; Suguira, M.

    1986-01-01

    A source of H(+), He(+), O(+), and N(+) outflow from the ionosphere has been identified near the polar cusp/cleft using the Dynamics Explorer/retarding ion mass spectrometer data set. This ion outflow termed 'upwelling ions' is characterized by large outfluxes of H(+) and O(+) ions and high transverse ion temperatures. This paper reports on the associated particle and field characteristics of one such upwelling ion event on March 12, 1982. Field-aligned currents and strong E x B convection channels are associated with the event as well as strong broadband plasma wave emission. One or all of these sources may play an important role in the ion energization in this region.

  1. The LLNL Cluster Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S L

    2007-03-27

    {lg_bullet} The Cluster Tool -is a set of linked vacuum chambers -can deposit multiple layers of metal and metal oxides {lg_bullet} Each layer can be deposited without breaking vacuum {lg_bullet} Shadow masks can give each layer a different pattern {lg_bullet} The Cluster Tool will be operational in April

  2. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  3. Portable Chamfering Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berson, Leo A.

    1987-01-01

    Portable machine tool precisely cuts chamfer on valve seat. With tool, delicate machining operation done without removing part to machine shop. Taken to part and used wherever pressurized air and electric power available. Plug and bushing nest in bore chamfered. They guide steady cutter rod as it cuts 15 degrees chamfer on top edge of bore.

  4. Locknut preload tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, J. E.; Kauppi, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Small tool replaces large torque wrench for turning locknuts. Preload tool "stretches" threaded rod on which locknut turns, reducing force on nut which can then be turned by common hand wrench. Advantages are reduced cost and weight, ease of manipulation in cramped space near actuators, and portability.

  5. Tool Storage Problem Solved!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenke, Andrew M.; Dell, Tim W.

    2007-01-01

    Graduates of the automotive technology program at Pittsburg State University (PSU) generally enter the workforce in some type of automotive management role. As a result, the program does not require students to purchase their own tools, and it does not have room for all 280 majors to roll around a personal tool chest. Each instructor must maintain…

  6. Java Tool Retirement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... 08:00 am EDT Event Impact:  The ASDC Java Order Tool was officially retired on Wednesday, May 14, 2014.  The HTML Order Tool and additional options are available from our Order Data Page .  Please update all bookmarks.     ...

  7. Fastener starter tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Faith T. (Inventor); Valentino, William D. (Inventor); Garton, Harry L. (Inventor); Arnett, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A fastener starter tool includes a number of spring retention fingers for retaining a small part, or combination of parts. The tool has an inner housing, which holds the spring retention fingers, a hand grip, and an outer housing configured to slide over the inner housing and the spring retention fingers toward and away from the hand grip, exposing and opening, or respectively, covering and closing, the spring retention fingers. By sliding the outer housing toward (away from) the hand grip, a part can be released from (retained by) the tool. The tool may include replaceable inserts, for retaining parts, such as screws, and configured to limit the torque applied to the part, to prevent cross threading. The inner housing has means to transfer torque from the hand grip to the insert. The tool may include replaceable bits, the inner housing having means for transferring torque to the replaceable bit.

  8. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  9. UniProt Tools.

    PubMed

    Pundir, Sangya; Martin, Maria J; O'Donovan, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) is a comprehensive resource for protein sequence and annotation data (UniProt Consortium, 2015). The UniProt Web site receives ∼400,000 unique visitors per month and is the primary means to access UniProt. Along with various datasets that you can search, UniProt provides three main tools. These are the 'BLAST' tool for sequence similarity searching, the 'Align' tool for multiple sequence alignment, and the 'Retrieve/ID Mapping' tool for using a list of identifiers to retrieve UniProtKB proteins and to convert database identifiers from UniProt to external databases or vice versa. This unit provides three basic protocols, three alternate protocols, and two support protocols for using UniProt tools. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27010333

  10. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  11. Diamond Smoothing Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Diamond smoothing tools have been proposed for use in conjunction with diamond cutting tools that are used in many finish-machining operations. Diamond machining (including finishing) is often used, for example, in fabrication of precise metal mirrors. A diamond smoothing tool according to the proposal would have a smooth spherical surface. For a given finish machining operation, the smoothing tool would be mounted next to the cutting tool. The smoothing tool would slide on the machined surface left behind by the cutting tool, plastically deforming the surface material and thereby reducing the roughness of the surface, closing microcracks and otherwise generally reducing or eliminating microscopic surface and subsurface defects, and increasing the microhardness of the surface layer. It has been estimated that if smoothing tools of this type were used in conjunction with cutting tools on sufficiently precise lathes, it would be possible to reduce the roughness of machined surfaces to as little as 3 nm. A tool according to the proposal would consist of a smoothing insert in a metal holder. The smoothing insert would be made from a diamond/metal functionally graded composite rod preform, which, in turn, would be made by sintering together a bulk single-crystal or polycrystalline diamond, a diamond powder, and a metallic alloy at high pressure. To form the spherical smoothing tip, the diamond end of the preform would be subjected to flat grinding, conical grinding, spherical grinding using diamond wheels, and finally spherical polishing and/or buffing using diamond powders. If the diamond were a single crystal, then it would be crystallographically oriented, relative to the machining motion, to minimize its wear and maximize its hardness. Spherically polished diamonds could also be useful for purposes other than smoothing in finish machining: They would likely also be suitable for use as heat-resistant, wear-resistant, unlubricated sliding-fit bearing inserts.

  12. Spherical ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. G.

    1969-01-01

    Radial focusing of electrons in ion source produces greater ion densities, resulting in higher resolution and focus capability for a given source volume. Electron beam is focused near exit aperture by spherical fields. High density ions allow focusing ion beam to high density at echo, allowing high current through small aperture.

  13. Sputtering and ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on sputtering and ion plating are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) concepts and applications of ion plating, (2) sputtering for deposition of solid film lubricants, (3) commercial ion plating equipment, (4) industrial potential for ion plating and sputtering, and (5) fundamentals of RF and DC sputtering.

  14. IOOC Organizational Network (ION) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, H.

    2013-12-01

    In order to meet the growing need for ocean information, research communities at the national and international levels have responded most recently by developing organizational frameworks that can help to integrate information across systems of existing networks and standardize methods of data gathering, management, and processing that facilitate integration. To address recommendations and identified challenges related to the need for a better understanding of ocean observing networks, members of the U.S. Interagency Ocean Observation Committee (IOOC) supported pursuing a project that came to be titled the IOOC Organizational Network (ION). The ION tool employs network mapping approaches which mirror approaches developed in academic literature aimed at understanding political networks. Researchers gathered data on the list of global ocean observing organizations included in the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO), developed in 2012 by the international Task Team for an Integrated Framework for Sustained Ocean Observing. At the international scale, researchers reviewed organizational research plans and documents, websites, and formal international agreement documents. At the U.S. national scale, researchers analyzed legislation, formal inter-agency agreements, work plans, charters, and policy documents. Researchers based analysis of relationships among global organizations and national federal organizations on four broad relationship categories: Communications, Data, Infrastructure, and Human Resources. In addition to the four broad relationship categories, researchers also gathered data on relationship instrument types, strength of relationships, and (at the global level) ocean observing variables. Using network visualization software, researchers then developed a series of dynamic webpages. Researchers used the tool to address questions identified by the ocean observing community, including identifying gaps in global relationships and the types of tools used to

  15. Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-02-18

    Designing and developing parallel programs is an inherently complex task. Developers must choose from the many parallel architectures and programming paradigms that are available, and face a plethora of tools that are required to execute, debug, and analyze parallel programs i these environments. Few, if any, of these tools provide any degree of integration, or indeed any commonality in their user interfaces at all. This further complicates the parallel developer's task, hampering software engineering practices,more » and ultimately reducing productivity. One consequence of this complexity is that best practice in parallel application development has not advanced to the same degree as more traditional programming methodologies. The result is that there is currently no open-source, industry-strength platform that provides a highly integrated environment specifically designed for parallel application development. Eclipse is a universal tool-hosting platform that is designed to providing a robust, full-featured, commercial-quality, industry platform for the development of highly integrated tools. It provides a wide range of core services for tool integration that allow tool producers to concentrate on their tool technology rather than on platform specific issues. The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment is an open-source project that is supported by over 70 organizations, including IBM, Intel and HP. The Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform (PTP) plug-in extends the Eclipse framwork by providing support for a rich set of parallel programming languages and paradigms, and a core infrastructure for the integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration, support for a small number of parallel architectures

  16. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    DOEpatents

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  17. Software architecture considerations for ion source control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    General characteristics of distributed control system software tools are examined from the perspective of ion source control system requirements. Emphasis is placed on strategies for building extensible, distributed systems in which the ion source element is one component of a larger system. Vsystem, a commercial software tool kit from Vista Control Systems was utilized extensively in the control system upgrade of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Part of the control system is described and the characteristics of Vsystem are examined and compared with those of EPICS, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System.

  18. Well bore tools

    SciTech Connect

    Burge, E.V.

    1984-08-28

    Well bore tools configured as centralizers/stabilizers, well bore reamers, and keyseat wipers each of which includes an elongate tubular body having a generally cylindrical outer surface and a diameter approximately equal to the diameter of the borehole being drilled are disclosed. Each tool affords an improved mode of drilling a borehole by increasing downhole directional control and stability, increasing tool wear reliability, and reducing return mud flow resistance. The outer surface of each tool has a plurality of longitudinal passages formed in pairs of upright intersecting right and left hand helicies or spirals about the exterior of said tool and extending from one end to the other end thereof. The intersecting right and left hand helical or spiral channels form raised pad areas therebetween to provide 360/sup 0/ contiguous well bore contact by each tool for enhanced stability and efficiency. In addition, the intersecting right and left hand helical channels afford greater surficial engagement area while providing unobstructed return mud flow paths between each tool and the wall of the borehole. The raised pad areas may have wear resistant surfaces which are arranged in a configuration for affording constant 360/sup 0/ contiguous contact with the wall of the borehole. Preferably, the wear resistance surfaces are provided by replaceable inserts mounted in recesses in the pad areas.

  19. Tool Gear: Infrastructure for Building Parallel Programming Tools

    SciTech Connect

    May, J M; Gyllenhaal, J

    2002-12-09

    Tool Gear is a software infrastructure for developing performance analysis and other tools. Unlike existing integrated toolkits, which focus on providing a suite of capabilities, Tool Gear is designed to help tool developers create new tools quickly. It combines dynamic instrumentation capabilities with an efficient database and a sophisticated and extensible graphical user interface. This paper describes the design of Tool Gear and presents examples of tools that have been built with it.

  20. AN Fitting Reconditioning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A tool was developed to repair or replace AN fittings on the shuttle external tank (ET). (The AN thread is a type of fitting used to connect flexible hoses and rigid metal tubing that carry fluid. It is a U.S. military-derived specification agreed upon by the Army and Navy, hence AN.) The tool is used on a drill and is guided by a pilot shaft that follows the inside bore. The cutting edge of the tool is a standard-size replaceable insert. In the typical Post Launch Maintenance/Repair process for the AN fittings, the six fittings are removed from the ET's GUCP (ground umbilical carrier plate) for reconditioning. The fittings are inspected for damage to the sealing surface per standard operations maintenance instructions. When damage is found on the sealing surface, the condition is documented. A new AN reconditioning tool is set up to cut and remove the surface damage. It is then inspected to verify the fitting still meets drawing requirements. The tool features a cone-shaped interior at 36.5 , and may be adjusted at a precise angle with go-no-go gauges to insure that the cutting edge could be adjusted as it wore down. One tool, one setting block, and one go-no-go gauge were fabricated. At the time of this reporting, the tool has reconditioned/returned to spec 36 AN fittings with 100-percent success of no leakage. This tool provides a quick solution to repair a leaky AN fitting. The tool could easily be modified with different-sized pilot shafts to different-sized fittings.

  1. Gramicidin Channels: Versatile Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Olaf S.; Koeppe, Roger E., II; Roux, Benoît

    Gramicidin channels are miniproteins in which two tryptophan-rich subunits associate by means of transbilayer dimerization to form the conducting channels. That is, in contrast to other ion channels, gramicidin channels do not open and close; they appear and disappear. Each subunit in the bilayer-spanning channel is tied to the bilayer/solution interface through hydrogen bonds that involve the indole NH groups as donors andwater or the phospholipid backbone as acceptors. The channel's permeability characteristics are well-defined: gramicidin channels are selective for monovalent cations, with no measurable permeability to anions or polyvalent cations; ions and water move through a pore whose wall is formed by the peptide backbone; and the single-channel conductance and cation selectivity vary when the amino acid sequence is varied, even though the permeating ions make no contact with the amino acid side chains. Given the plethora of available experimental information—for not only the wild-type channels but also for channels formed by amino acid-substituted gramicidin analogues—gramicidin channels continue to provide important insights into the microphysics of ion permeation through bilayer-spanning channels. For similar reasons, gramicidin channels constitute a system of choice for evaluating computational strategies for obtaining mechanistic insights into ion permeation through the more complex channels formed by integral membrane proteins.

  2. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm(2). The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research. PMID:26931931

  3. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm2. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  4. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-02-15

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

  5. Walkability Audit Tool.

    PubMed

    Smith, Letha

    2015-09-01

    Walking is one of the simplest lifestyle changes workers can make to improve their health. Research shows a wealth of health benefits. Often, occupational and environmental health nurses are in charge of implementing walking programs. A tool is needed to continuously improve a company's walking program whether in the beginning stages or to an already established program. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Walkability Audit Tool for a healthier worksite is an easy seven-step audit tool that occupational and environmental health nurses can easily implement. PMID:26215975

  6. Graphitic packing removal tool

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Graphitic packing removal tools are described for removal of the seal rings in one piece from valves and pumps. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  7. Interactive knowledge acquisition tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudziak, Martin J.; Feinstein, Jerald L.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of designing practical tools to aid the knowledge engineer and general applications used in performing knowledge acquisition tasks are discussed. A particular approach was developed for the class of knowledge acquisition problem characterized by situations where acquisition and transformation of domain expertise are often bottlenecks in systems development. An explanation is given on how the tool and underlying software engineering principles can be extended to provide a flexible set of tools that allow the application specialist to build highly customized knowledge-based applications.

  8. Benchmarking expert system tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  9. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  10. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.