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Sample records for ion coincidence eico

  1. Development of an Apparatus for High-Resolution Auger Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS) and Electron Ion Coincidence (EICO) Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakiuchi, Takuhiro; Hashimoto, Shogo; Fujita, Narihiko; Mase, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Okusawa, Makoto

    We have developed an electron electron ion coincidence (EEICO) apparatus for high-resolution Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS) and electron ion coincidence (EICO) spectroscopy. It consists of a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer (ASMA), a miniature double-pass cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer (DP-CMA), a miniature time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), a magnetic shield, an xyz stage, a tilt-adjustment mechanism, and a conflat flange with an outer diameter of 203 mm. A sample surface was irradiated by synchrotron radiation, and emitted electrons were energy-analyzed and detected by the ASMA and the DP-CMA, while desorbed ions were mass-analyzed and detected by the TOF-MS. The performance of the new EEICO analyzer was evaluated by measuring Si 2p photoelectron spectra of clean Si(001)-2×1 and Si(111)-7×7, and by measuring Si-L23VV-Si-2p Auger photoelectron coincidence spectra (Si-L23VV-Si-2p APECS) of clean Si(001)-2×1.

  2. Development of a compact electron ion coincidence analyzer using a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer and a miniature polar-angle-resolved time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer with four concentric anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Eiichi; Nambu, Akira; Mase, Kazuhiko; Isari, Kouji; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Mori, Masanobu; Okudaira, Koji K.; Ueno, Nobuo

    2009-04-15

    A compact electron ion coincidence (EICO) analyzer that uses a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer and a miniature polar-angle-resolved time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer with four concentric anodes was developed for surface science and surface analysis. The apparatus is especially useful in the study of ion desorption stimulated by an Auger process because information on the mass, yield, desorption polar angle, and kinetic energy of ions can be obtained for the selected core-ionization-final-states or the selected Auger-final-states. The analyzer can be used also for analysis of the configuration of specific surface molecules because the desorption polar angles reflect the direction of surface bonds. The EICO analyzer was evaluated by measuring polar-angle-resolved-ion yield spectra and coincidence spectra of Auger-electron and polar-angle-resolved H{sup +} from condensed water.

  3. Secondary ion coincidence in highly charged ion based secondary ion mass spectroscopy for process characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, A.V.; Schenkel, T.; Barnes, A.V.; Schneider, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Coincidence counting in highly charged ion based secondary ion mass spectroscopy has been applied to the characterization of selective tungsten deposition via disilane reduction of tungsten hexafluoride on a patterned SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer. The high secondary ion yield and the secondary ion emission from a small area produced by highly charged ions make the coincidence technique very powerful.

  4. A magnetic-bottle multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Akitaka; Fushitani, Mizuho; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Eland, John H. D.; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-10-01

    A novel multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer developed on the basis of a 1.5 m-long magnetic-bottle electron spectrometer is presented. Electrons are guided by an inhomogeneous magnetic field to a detector at the end of the flight tube, while a set of optics is used to extract counterpart ions to the same detector, by a pulsed inhomogeneous electric field. This setup allows ion detection with high mass resolution, without impairing the high collection efficiency for electrons. The performance of the coincidence spectrometer was tested with double ionization of carbon disulfide, CS2 → CS_2^{2+} + e- + e-, in ultrashort intense laser fields (2.8 × 1013 W/cm2, 280 fs, 1030 nm) to clarify the electron correlation below the rescattering threshold.

  5. A magnetic-bottle multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Akitaka; Fushitani, Mizuho; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Eland, John H D; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-10-01

    A novel multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer developed on the basis of a 1.5 m-long magnetic-bottle electron spectrometer is presented. Electrons are guided by an inhomogeneous magnetic field to a detector at the end of the flight tube, while a set of optics is used to extract counterpart ions to the same detector, by a pulsed inhomogeneous electric field. This setup allows ion detection with high mass resolution, without impairing the high collection efficiency for electrons. The performance of the coincidence spectrometer was tested with double ionization of carbon disulfide, CS(2) → CS(2)(2+) + e(-) + e(-), in ultrashort intense laser fields (2.8 × 10(13) W/cm(2), 280 fs, 1030 nm) to clarify the electron correlation below the rescattering threshold. PMID:22047278

  6. A magnetic-bottle multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Akitaka; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi; Fushitani, Mizuho; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Eland, John H. D.

    2011-10-15

    A novel multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer developed on the basis of a 1.5 m-long magnetic-bottle electron spectrometer is presented. Electrons are guided by an inhomogeneous magnetic field to a detector at the end of the flight tube, while a set of optics is used to extract counterpart ions to the same detector, by a pulsed inhomogeneous electric field. This setup allows ion detection with high mass resolution, without impairing the high collection efficiency for electrons. The performance of the coincidence spectrometer was tested with double ionization of carbon disulfide, CS{sub 2} {yields} CS{sub 2}{sup 2+} + e{sup -} + e{sup -}, in ultrashort intense laser fields (2.8 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, 280 fs, 1030 nm) to clarify the electron correlation below the rescattering threshold.

  7. Coincidence ion imaging with a fast frame camera

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Suk Kyoung; Cudry, Fadia; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Fan, Lin; Li, Wen

    2014-12-15

    A new time- and position-sensitive particle detection system based on a fast frame CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductors) camera is developed for coincidence ion imaging. The system is composed of four major components: a conventional microchannel plate/phosphor screen ion imager, a fast frame CMOS camera, a single anode photomultiplier tube (PMT), and a high-speed digitizer. The system collects the positional information of ions from a fast frame camera through real-time centroiding while the arrival times are obtained from the timing signal of a PMT processed by a high-speed digitizer. Multi-hit capability is achieved by correlating the intensity of ion spots on each camera frame with the peak heights on the corresponding time-of-flight spectrum of a PMT. Efficient computer algorithms are developed to process camera frames and digitizer traces in real-time at 1 kHz laser repetition rate. We demonstrate the capability of this system by detecting a momentum-matched co-fragments pair (methyl and iodine cations) produced from strong field dissociative double ionization of methyl iodide.

  8. Coincidence electron/ion imaging with a fast frame camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander; Fan, Lin

    2015-05-01

    A new time- and position- sensitive particle detection system based on a fast frame CMOS camera is developed for coincidence electron/ion imaging. The system is composed of three major components: a conventional microchannel plate (MCP)/phosphor screen electron/ion imager, a fast frame CMOS camera and a high-speed digitizer. The system collects the positional information of ions/electrons from a fast frame camera through real-time centroiding while the arrival times are obtained from the timing signal of MCPs processed by a high-speed digitizer. Multi-hit capability is achieved by correlating the intensity of electron/ion spots on each camera frame with the peak heights on the corresponding time-of-flight spectrum. Efficient computer algorithms are developed to process camera frames and digitizer traces in real-time at 1 kHz laser repetition rate. We demonstrate the capability of this system by detecting a momentum-matched co-fragments pair (methyl and iodine cations) produced from strong field dissociative double ionization of methyl iodide. We further show that a time resolution of 30 ps can be achieved when measuring electron TOF spectrum and this enables the new system to achieve a good energy resolution along the TOF axis.

  9. A tandem time-of-flight spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence measurements with soft x-ray excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strâhlman, Christian; Sankari, Rami; Kivimäki, Antti; Richter, Robert; Coreno, Marcello; Nyholm, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We present a newly constructed spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence spectroscopy of gaseous samples. The instrument consists of two time-of-flight ion spectrometers and a magnetic momentum filter for deflection of electrons. The instrument can measure double and triple coincidences between mass-resolved negative and positive ions with high detection efficiency. First results include identification of several negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence channels following inner-shell photoexcitation of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).

  10. A tandem time-of-flight spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence measurements with soft x-ray excitation.

    PubMed

    Stråhlman, Christian; Sankari, Rami; Kivimäki, Antti; Richter, Robert; Coreno, Marcello; Nyholm, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We present a newly constructed spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence spectroscopy of gaseous samples. The instrument consists of two time-of-flight ion spectrometers and a magnetic momentum filter for deflection of electrons. The instrument can measure double and triple coincidences between mass-resolved negative and positive ions with high detection efficiency. First results include identification of several negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence channels following inner-shell photoexcitation of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). PMID:26827311

  11. Photoelectron-photofragment coincidence spectroscopy in a cryogenically cooled linear electrostatic ion beam trap

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Shen, Ben B.; Poad, Berwyck L. J.; Continetti, Robert E.

    2011-10-15

    A cryogenically cooled linear electrostatic ion beam trap for use in photoelectron-photofragment coincidence (PPC) spectroscopy is described. Using this instrument, anions created in cold, low-duty-cycle sources can be stored for many seconds in a {approx}20 K environment to cool radiatively, removing energetic uncertainties due to vibrationally excited precursor anions. This apparatus maintains a well-collimated beam necessary for high-resolution fragment imaging and the high experimental duty cycle needed for coincidence experiments. Ion oscillation is bunched and phase-locked to a modelocked laser, ensuring temporal overlap between ion bunches and laser pulses and that ions are intersected by the laser only when travelling in one direction. An electron detector is housed in the field-free center of the trap, allowing PPC experiments to be carried out on ions while they are stored and permitting efficient detection of 3-dimensional electron and neutral recoil trajectories. The effects of trapping parameters on the center-of-mass trajectories in the laser-ion interaction region are explored to optimize neutral particle resolution, and the impact of bunching on ion oscillation is established. Finally, an initial demonstration of radiative cooling is presented.

  12. Coincidence measurements between fragment ions and the number of emitted electrons in heavy ion collisions with polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, T.; Majima, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Tsuchida, H.; Itoh, A.

    2012-11-01

    We have studied multiple ionization and multifragmentation of a chlorofluorocarbon molecule, CH2FCF3, induced by collisions of 580-keV C+ ions. Coincidence measurements of product ions and the number of emitted electrons from CH2FCF3 were performed under charge-changing conditions of C+ → Cq+ (q = 0, 2, 3). A fully inclusive measurement regardless of outgoing projectile charge state was also performed by making coincidence with a pulsed ion beam. Mass distributions of fragment ions and number distributions of emitted electrons were both found to change greatly according to charge-changing conditions. Highly multiple ionization emitting up to about 10 electrons was observed in electron loss collisions.

  13. Chiral asymmetry in the multiphoton ionization of methyloxirane using femtosecond electron-ion coincidence imaging.

    PubMed

    Rafiee Fanood, Mohammad M; Powis, Ivan; Janssen, Maurice H M

    2014-12-11

    Multiphoton photoelectron circular dichroism (MP-PECD) has been observed as an asymmetry in the angular distribution of photoelectrons emitted in the ionization of pure enantiomers of the small chiral molecule methyloxirane using a femtosecond laser operated at 420 nm. Energetically, this requires the uptake of four photons. By switching the laser between left- and right-circular polarization, and observing the differences in the full three-dimensional electron momentum distribution recorded in an electron-ion coincidence technique, the chiral (odd) terms in the angular distribution expression can be isolated. Electron events can additionally be filtered by coincident ion mass, providing mass-tagged electron distributions and quantitative measures of the MP-PECD asymmetry that help characterize the different ionization channels. For the production of ground state parent cation, the magnitude of the mean chiral asymmetry is measured to be 4.7%, with a peak magnitude exceeding 10% PMID:25402546

  14. Coincidence measurements of electron capture and loss in ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, R.D.

    1990-09-01

    Collisions between fast, fully stripped projectiles and atomic targets predominantly result in target electrons being ejected to the continuum. For fast partially stripped projectiles which bring weakly bound electrons into the collision, projectile ionization can also contribute to the observed electron spectra. At lower impact velocities, electron capture by the projectile ion becomes important and higher order processes, often referred to as transfer ionization, can be a significant source of free electrons. In recent years, coincidence techniques have been used to evaluate the relative importance of electron capture and loss in free electron production, to separate the capture and loss contributions from those resulting from target ionization alone, and to provide more detailed information about electron capture and loss mechanisms than is available from total cross section measurements. A brief survey of these experiments will be presented. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Stability and dissociation dynamics of N2 (++) ions following core ionization studied by an Auger-electron-photoion coincidence method.

    PubMed

    Iwayama, H; Kaneyasu, T; Hikosaka, Y; Shigemasa, E

    2016-07-21

    An Auger-electron-photoion coincidence (AEPICO) method has been applied to study the stability and dissociation dynamics of dicationic states after the N K-shell photoionization of nitrogen molecules. From time-of-flight and kinetic energy analyses of the product ions, we have obtained coincident Auger spectra associated with metastable states of N2 (++) ions and dissociative states leading to N2 (++) → N(+) + N(+) and N(++) + N. To investigate the production of dissociative states, we present two-dimensional AEPICO maps which reveal the correlations between the binding energies of the Auger final states and the ion kinetic energy release. These correlations have been used to determine the dissociation limits of individual Auger final states. PMID:27448885

  16. Dissociation of internal energy-selected methyl bromide ion revealed from threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence velocity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xiaoguo; Sun, Zhongfa; Liu, Shilin; Liu, Fuyi; Sheng, Liusi; Yan, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative photoionization of methyl bromide (CH3Br) in an excitation energy range of 10.45-16.90 eV has been investigated by using threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) velocity imaging. The coincident time-of-flight mass spectra indicate that the ground state X2E of CH3Br+ is stable, and both A2A1 and B2E ionic excited states are fully dissociative to produce the unique fragment ion of CH3+. From TPEPICO 3D time-sliced velocity images of CH3+ dissociated from specific state-selected CH3Br+ ion, kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) and angular distribution of CH3+ fragment ion are directly obtained. Both spin-orbit states of Br(2P) atom can be clearly observed in fast dissociation of CH3Br+(A2A1) ion along C-Br rupture, while a KERD of Maxwell-Boltzmann profile is obtained in dissociation of CH3Br+(B2E) ion. With the aid of the re-calculated potential energy curves of CH3Br+ including spin-orbit coupling, dissociation mechanisms of CH3Br+ ion in A2A1 and B2E states along C-Br rupture are revealed. For CH3Br+(A2A1) ion, the CH3+ + Br(2P1/2) channel is occurred via an adiabatic dissociation by vibration, while the Br(2P3/2) formation is through vibronic coupling to the high vibrational level of X2E state followed by rapid dissociation. C-Br bond breaking of CH3Br+(B2E) ion can occur via slow internal conversion to the excited vibrational level of the lower electronic states and then dissociation.

  17. Double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence sheds new light on the dissociation of energy-selected CH3Cl(+) ions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Weijun; Garcia, Gustavo A; Nahon, Laurent

    2016-09-14

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and dissociative photoionization of CH3Cl in the energy range of 11-17 eV have been investigated in detail by combining synchrotron radiation and double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidences (i(2)PEPICO). Three low-lying electronic states of the CH3Cl(+) molecular ion, X(2)E, A(2)A1 and B(2)E, were prepared and analyzed. The appearance energies of the energetically accessible fragment ions, CH2Cl(+), CHCl(+), CH3(+) and CH2(+), have been obtained from their respective mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectra (TPES) or photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves. The dissociation mechanisms of energy-selected CH3Cl(+) ions, prepared in the A(2)A1 and the B(2)E electronic states, as well as outside the Franck-Condon region, have been revealed to be state-specific via ion/electron kinetic energy correlation diagrams. In particular, the umbrella mode vibrational progression of the CH3(+) fragment ion in the direct dissociation of the A(2)A1 electronic state was identified and assigned indicating that this state correlates to the CH3(+)(1(1)A1') + Cl((2)P1/2) dissociation limit, in agreement with the theoretical calculations performed in this work. PMID:27524637

  18. Dissociation of internal energy-selected methyl bromide ion revealed from threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence velocity imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xiaoguo E-mail: yanbing@jlu.edu.cn; Liu, Shilin; Sun, Zhongfa; Liu, Fuyi; Sheng, Liusi; Yan, Bing E-mail: yanbing@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-01-28

    Dissociative photoionization of methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br) in an excitation energy range of 10.45–16.90 eV has been investigated by using threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) velocity imaging. The coincident time-of-flight mass spectra indicate that the ground state X{sup 2}E of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} is stable, and both A{sup 2}A{sub 1} and B{sup 2}E ionic excited states are fully dissociative to produce the unique fragment ion of CH{sub 3}{sup +}. From TPEPICO 3D time-sliced velocity images of CH{sub 3}{sup +} dissociated from specific state-selected CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} ion, kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) and angular distribution of CH{sub 3}{sup +} fragment ion are directly obtained. Both spin-orbit states of Br({sup 2}P) atom can be clearly observed in fast dissociation of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(A{sup 2}A{sub 1}) ion along C–Br rupture, while a KERD of Maxwell-Boltzmann profile is obtained in dissociation of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(B{sup 2}E) ion. With the aid of the re-calculated potential energy curves of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} including spin-orbit coupling, dissociation mechanisms of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} ion in A{sup 2}A{sub 1} and B{sup 2}E states along C–Br rupture are revealed. For CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(A{sup 2}A{sub 1}) ion, the CH{sub 3}{sup +} + Br({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) channel is occurred via an adiabatic dissociation by vibration, while the Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) formation is through vibronic coupling to the high vibrational level of X{sup 2}E state followed by rapid dissociation. C–Br bond breaking of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(B{sup 2}E) ion can occur via slow internal conversion to the excited vibrational level of the lower electronic states and then dissociation.

  19. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laksman, J.; Céolin, D.; Mânsson, E. P.; Sorensen, S. L.; Gisselbrecht, M.

    2013-12-01

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer.

  20. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Laksman, J; Céolin, D; Månsson, E P; Sorensen, S L; Gisselbrecht, M

    2013-12-01

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer. PMID:24387426

  1. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Laksman, J.; Céolin, D.; Månsson, E. P.; Sorensen, S. L.; Gisselbrecht, M.

    2013-12-15

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer.

  2. Ion-coincidence momentum imaging of three-body Coulomb explosion of formaldehyde in ultrashort intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Fushitani, M.; Matsuda, A.; Hishikawa, A.; Tseng, C.-M.

    2015-12-31

    Three-body Coulomb explosion of formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) in intense 7- and 35-fs laser fields (1.3 × 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}) has been investigated by using ion-coincidence momentum imaging technique. Two types of explosion pathways from the triply charged state, H{sub 2}CO{sup 3+} → (i) H{sup +} + H{sup +} + CO{sup +} and (ii) H{sup +} + CH{sup +} + O{sup +}, have been identified. It is shown from the momentum correlation of the fragment ions of pathway (i), that the geometrical structure of the molecule is essentially frozen along the H-C-H bending coordinate for the 7-fs case. On the other hand, for a longer pulse duration (35 fs), structural deformation along the C-H stretching and H-C-H bending coordinates is identified, which is ascribed to the nuclear dynamics in the dication states populated within the laser pulse duration.

  3. Vacuum upgrade and enhanced performances of the double imaging electron/ion coincidence end-station at the vacuum ultraviolet beamline DESIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Gil, Jean-François; Nahon, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    We report here the recent upgrade of the SAPHIRS permanent photoionization end-station at the DESIRS vacuum ultraviolet beamline of synchrotron SOLEIL, whose performances have been enhanced by installing an additional double-skimmer differential chamber. The smaller molecular beam profile obtained at the interaction region has increased the mass resolution of the double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (i2PEPICO) spectrometer, DELICIOUS III, installed in the photoionization chamber of the SAPHIRS endstation, by a factor of two, to M/ΔM ˜ 1700 (FWHM). The electron kinetic energy resolution offered by the velocity map imaging (VMI) part of the spectrometer has been improved down to 2.8% (ΔE/E) as we show on the N2 photoionization case in the double skimmer configuration. As a representative example of the overall state-of-the-art i2PEPICO performances, experimental results of the dissociation of state-selected O2+ (B 2 ∑ g - , v+ = 0-6) molecular ions performed at the fixed photon energy of hν = 21.1 eV are presented.

  4. Vacuum upgrade and enhanced performances of the double imaging electron/ion coincidence end-station at the vacuum ultraviolet beamline DESIRS.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Garcia, Gustavo A; Gil, Jean-François; Nahon, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    We report here the recent upgrade of the SAPHIRS permanent photoionization end-station at the DESIRS vacuum ultraviolet beamline of synchrotron SOLEIL, whose performances have been enhanced by installing an additional double-skimmer differential chamber. The smaller molecular beam profile obtained at the interaction region has increased the mass resolution of the double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (i(2)PEPICO) spectrometer, DELICIOUS III, installed in the photoionization chamber of the SAPHIRS endstation, by a factor of two, to M/ΔM ∼ 1700 (FWHM). The electron kinetic energy resolution offered by the velocity map imaging (VMI) part of the spectrometer has been improved down to 2.8% (ΔE/E) as we show on the N2 photoionization case in the double skimmer configuration. As a representative example of the overall state-of-the-art i(2)PEPICO performances, experimental results of the dissociation of state-selected O2(+)(B(2)∑(g)(-), v(+) = 0-6) molecular ions performed at the fixed photon energy of hν = 21.1 eV are presented. PMID:26724007

  5. Coincidence Proportional Counter

    DOEpatents

    Manley, J H

    1950-11-21

    A coincidence proportional counter having a plurality of collecting electrodes so disposed as to measure the range or energy spectrum of an ionizing particle-emitting source such as an alpha source, is disclosed.

  6. High-repetition-rate and high-photon-flux 70 eV high-harmonic source for coincidence ion imaging of gas-phase molecules.

    PubMed

    Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Shamir, Yariv; Tschnernajew, Maxim; Klas, Robert; Hoffmann, Armin; Tadesse, Getnet K; Klenke, Arno; Gottschall, Thomas; Eidam, Tino; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas; Boll, Rebecca; Bomme, Cedric; Dachraoui, Hatem; Erk, Benjamin; Di Fraia, Michele; Horke, Daniel A; Kierspel, Thomas; Mullins, Terence; Przystawik, Andreas; Savelyev, Evgeny; Wiese, Joss; Laarmann, Tim; Küpper, Jochen; Rolles, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Unraveling and controlling chemical dynamics requires techniques to image structural changes of molecules with femtosecond temporal and picometer spatial resolution. Ultrashort-pulse x-ray free-electron lasers have significantly advanced the field by enabling advanced pump-probe schemes. There is an increasing interest in using table-top photon sources enabled by high-harmonic generation of ultrashort-pulse lasers for such studies. We present a novel high-harmonic source driven by a 100 kHz fiber laser system, which delivers 1011 photons/s in a single 1.3 eV bandwidth harmonic at 68.6 eV. The combination of record-high photon flux and high repetition rate paves the way for time-resolved studies of the dissociation dynamics of inner-shell ionized molecules in a coincidence detection scheme. First coincidence measurements on CH3I are shown and it is outlined how the anticipated advancement of fiber laser technology and improved sample delivery will, in the next step, allow pump-probe studies of ultrafast molecular dynamics with table-top XUV-photon sources. These table-top sources can provide significantly higher repetition rates than the currently operating free-electron lasers and they offer very high temporal resolution due to the intrinsically small timing jitter between pump and probe pulses. PMID:27505779

  7. Coincident ion acceleration and electron extraction for space propulsion using the self-bias formed on a set of RF biased grids bounding a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafalskyi, D.; Aanesland, A.

    2014-11-01

    We propose an alternative method to accelerate ions in classical gridded ion thrusters and ion sources such that co-extracted electrons from the source may provide beam space charge neutralization. In this way there is no need for an additional electron neutralizer. The method consists of applying RF voltage to a two-grid acceleration system via a blocking capacitor. Due to the unequal effective area of the two grids in contact with the plasma, a dc self-bias is formed, rectifying the applied RF voltage. As a result, ions are continuously accelerated within the grid system while electrons are emitted in brief instants within the RF period when the RF space charge sheath collapses. This paper presents the first experimental results and a proof-of-principle. Experiments are carried out using the Neptune thruster prototype which is a gridded Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) source operated at 4 MHz, attached to a larger beam propagation chamber. The RF power supply is used both for the ICP discharge (plasma generation) and powering the acceleration grids via a capacitor for ion acceleration and electron extraction without any dc power supplies. The ion and electron energies, particle flux and densities are measured using retarding field energy analyzers (RFEA), Langmuir probes and a large beam target. The system operates in Argon and N2. The dc self-bias is found to be generated within the gridded extraction system in all the range of operating conditions. Broad quasi-neutral ion-electron beams are measured in the downstream chamber with energies up to 400 eV. The beams from the RF acceleration method are compared with classical dc acceleration with an additional external electron neutralizer. It is found that the two acceleration techniques provide similar performance, but the ion energy distribution function from RF acceleration is broader, while the floating potential of the beam is lower than for the dc accelerated beam.

  8. Coincident disruptive coloration

    PubMed Central

    Cuthill, Innes C.; Székely, Aron

    2008-01-01

    Even if an animal matches its surroundings perfectly in colour and texture, any mismatch between the spatial phase of its pattern and that of the background, or shadow created by its three-dimensional relief, is potentially revealing. Nevertheless, for camouflage to be fully broken, the shape must be recognizable. Disruptive coloration acts against object recognition by the use of high-contrast internal colour boundaries to break up shape and form. As well as the general outline, characteristic features such as eyes and limbs must also be concealed; this can be achieved by having the colour patterns on different, but adjacent, body parts aligned to match each other (i.e. in phase). Such ‘coincident disruptive coloration’ ensures that there is no phase disjunction where body parts meet, and causes different sections of the body to blend perceptually. We tested this theory using field experiments with predation by wild birds on artificial moth-like targets, whose wings and (edible pastry) bodies had colour patterns that were variously coincident or not. We also carried out an experiment with humans searching for analogous targets on a computer screen. Both experiments show that coincident disruptive coloration is an effective mechanism for concealing an otherwise revealing body form. PMID:18990668

  9. Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range using 3-D multi-coincidence ion momentum imaging spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oghbaie, Shabnam; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Laksman, Joakim; Mânsson, Erik P.; Sankari, Anna; Sorensen, Stacey L.

    2015-09-01

    Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range has been studied with tunable synchrotron radiation using full three-dimensional ion momentum imaging. Using ab initio calculations, the electronic states of the molecular dication below 33 eV are identified. The results of the measurement and calculation show that double ionization from π orbitals selectively triggers twisting about the terminal or central C-C bonds. We show that this conformational rearrangement depends upon the dication electronic state, which effectively acts as a gateway for the dissociation reaction pathway. For photon energies above 33 eV, three-body dissociation channels where neutral H-atom evaporation precedes C-C charge-separation in the dication species appear in the correlation map. The fragment angular distributions support a model where the dication species is initially aligned with the molecular backbone parallel to the polarization vector of the light, indicating a high probability for double-ionization to the "gateway states" for molecules with this orientation.

  10. Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range using 3-D multi-coincidence ion momentum imaging spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Oghbaie, Shabnam; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Laksman, Joakim; Månsson, Erik P; Sankari, Anna; Sorensen, Stacey L

    2015-09-21

    Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range has been studied with tunable synchrotron radiation using full three-dimensional ion momentum imaging. Using ab initio calculations, the electronic states of the molecular dication below 33 eV are identified. The results of the measurement and calculation show that double ionization from π orbitals selectively triggers twisting about the terminal or central C-C bonds. We show that this conformational rearrangement depends upon the dication electronic state, which effectively acts as a gateway for the dissociation reaction pathway. For photon energies above 33 eV, three-body dissociation channels where neutral H-atom evaporation precedes C-C charge-separation in the dication species appear in the correlation map. The fragment angular distributions support a model where the dication species is initially aligned with the molecular backbone parallel to the polarization vector of the light, indicating a high probability for double-ionization to the "gateway states" for molecules with this orientation. PMID:26395707

  11. Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range using 3-D multi-coincidence ion momentum imaging spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Oghbaie, Shabnam; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Laksman, Joakim; Månsson, Erik P.; Sankari, Anna; Sorensen, Stacey L.

    2015-09-21

    Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range has been studied with tunable synchrotron radiation using full three-dimensional ion momentum imaging. Using ab initio calculations, the electronic states of the molecular dication below 33 eV are identified. The results of the measurement and calculation show that double ionization from π orbitals selectively triggers twisting about the terminal or central C–C bonds. We show that this conformational rearrangement depends upon the dication electronic state, which effectively acts as a gateway for the dissociation reaction pathway. For photon energies above 33 eV, three-body dissociation channels where neutral H-atom evaporation precedes C–C charge-separation in the dication species appear in the correlation map. The fragment angular distributions support a model where the dication species is initially aligned with the molecular backbone parallel to the polarization vector of the light, indicating a high probability for double-ionization to the “gateway states” for molecules with this orientation.

  12. Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbar, M. Heuser, S.; Boge, R.; Lucchini, M.; Cirelli, C.; Keller, U.; Gallmann, L.

    2014-10-15

    Here we present a successful combination of an attosecond beamline with a COLTRIMS apparatus, which we refer to as AttoCOLTRIMS. The setup provides either single attosecond pulses or attosecond pulse trains for extreme ultraviolet-infrared pump-probe experiments. We achieve full attosecond stability by using an active interferometer stabilization. The capability of the setup is demonstrated by means of two measurements, which lie at the heart of the COLTRIMS detector: firstly, we resolve the rotating electric field vector of an elliptically polarized few-cycle infrared laser field by attosecond streaking exploiting the access to the 3D momentum space of the charged particles. Secondly, we show streaking measurements on different atomic species obtained simultaneously in a single measurement making use of the advantage of measuring ions and electrons in coincidence. Both of these studies demonstrate the potential of the AttoCOLTRIMS for attosecond science.

  13. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  14. Coincidence/Multiplicity Photofission Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Jones; M.T. Swinhoe; S.J. Tobin; W. H. Geist; D.R. Norman; R.B. Rothrock; C.R. Freeman; K. J. Haskell

    2009-09-01

    An series of experiments using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) photonuclear inspection system and a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)-supplied, list-mode data acquisition method have shown enhanced performance utilizing pulsed photofission-induced, neutron coincidence counting between pulses of an up-to-10-MeV electron accelerator for nuclear material detection and identification. The enhanced inspection methodology has applicability to homeland security, treaty-related support, and weapon dismantlement applications. For the latter, this technology can directly support of Department of Energy/NA241 programmatic mission objectives relative to future Rocky Ridge-type testing campaigns for active inspection systems.

  15. Soft coincidence in late acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Pavon, Diego

    2005-06-15

    We study the coincidence problem of late cosmic acceleration by assuming that the present ratio between dark matter and dark energy is a slowly varying function of the scale factor. As the dark energy component we consider two different candidates, first a quintessence scalar field, and then a tachyon field. In either case analytical solutions for the scale factor, the field, and the potential are derived. Both models show a good fit to the recent magnitude-redshift supernovae data. However, the likelihood contours disfavor the tachyon field model as it seems to prefer a excessively high value for the matter component.

  16. Concepts for Alpha Coincidence Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Tatishvili, Gocha

    2015-03-01

    The effectiveness of conventional measurement techniques for environmental monitoring is limited by background and other interferences. We are exploring a new measurement approach involving the detection of α particles in coincidence with conversion electrons as a means to simultaneously assay environmental samples for actinides without chemical separation. The initial target isotopes studied in this work are 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am. We explore various aspects of the design, such as impact of the mounting of the source material, resolution requirements and impact of a background on isotopic uncertainties. We conclude that a dual gas proportional counter and a dual-sided, large-area silicon detector could provide similar performance for the measurement scenario examined.

  17. A portable neutron coincidence counter

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, A.J.; Bowyer, S.M.; Craig, R.A.; Dudder, G.B.; Knopf, M.A.; Panisko, M.E.; Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1996-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has designed and constructed a prototype portable neutron coincidence counter intended for use in a variety of applications, such as the verification and inspection of weapons components, safety measurements for novel and challenging situations, portable portal deployment to prevent the transportation of fissile materials, uranium enrichment measurements in hard-to-reach locations, waste assays for objects that cannot be measured by existing measurement systems, and decontamination and decommissioning. The counting system weighs less than 40 kg and is composed of parts each weighing no more than 5 kg. In addition, the counter`s design is sufficiently flexible to allow rapid, reliable assembly around containers of nearly arbitrary size and shape. The counter is able to discern the presence of 1 kg of weapons-grade plutonium within an ALR-8 (30-gal drum) in roughly 100 seconds and 10 g in roughly 1000 seconds. The counter`s electronics are also designed for maximum adaptability, allowing operation under a wide variety of circumstances, including exposure to gamma-ray fields of 1 R/h. This report provides a detailed review of the design and construction process. Finally, preliminary experimental measurements that confirm the performance capabilities of this counter are discussed. 6 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Artifacts in digital coincidence timing.

    PubMed

    Moses, W W; Peng, Q

    2014-11-01

    Digital methods are becoming increasingly popular for measuring time differences, and are the de facto standard in PET cameras. These methods usually include a master system clock and a (digital) arrival time estimate for each detector that is obtained by comparing the detector output signal to some reference portion of this clock (such as the rising edge). Time differences between detector signals are then obtained by subtracting the digitized estimates from a detector pair. A number of different methods can be used to generate the digitized arrival time of the detector output, such as sending a discriminator output into a time to digital converter (TDC) or digitizing the waveform and applying a more sophisticated algorithm to extract a timing estimator.All measurement methods are subject to error, and one generally wants to minimize these errors and so optimize the timing resolution. A common method for optimizing timing methods is to measure the coincidence timing resolution between two timing signals whose time difference should be constant (such as detecting gammas from positron annihilation) and selecting the method that minimizes the width of the distribution (i.e. the timing resolution). Unfortunately, a common form of error (a nonlinear transfer function) leads to artifacts that artificially narrow this resolution, which can lead to erroneous selection of the 'optimal' method. The purpose of this note is to demonstrate the origin of this artifact and suggest that caution should be used when optimizing time digitization systems solely on timing resolution minimization. PMID:25321885

  19. Artifacts in Digital Coincidence Timing

    PubMed Central

    Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Digital methods are becoming increasingly popular for measuring time differences, and are the de facto standard in PET cameras. These methods usually include a master system clock and a (digital) arrival time estimate for each detector that is obtained by comparing the detector output signal to some reference portion of this clock (such as the rising edge). Time differences between detector signals are then obtained by subtracting the digitized estimates from a detector pair. A number of different methods can be used to generate the digitized arrival time of the detector output, such as sending a discriminator output into a time to digital converter (TDC) or digitizing the waveform and applying a more sophisticated algorithm to extract a timing estimator. All measurement methods are subject to error, and one generally wants to minimize these errors and so optimize the timing resolution. A common method for optimizing timing methods is to measure the coincidence timing resolution between two timing signals whose time difference should be constant (such as detecting gammas from positron annihilation) and selecting the method that minimizes the width of the distribution (i.e., the timing resolution). Unfortunately, a common form of error (a nonlinear transfer function) leads to artifacts that artificially narrow this resolution, which can lead to erroneous selection of the “optimal” method. The purpose of this note is to demonstrate the origin of this artifact and suggest that caution should be used when optimizing time digitization systems solely on timing resolution minimization. PMID:25321885

  20. Artifacts in digital coincidence timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.

    2014-11-01

    Digital methods are becoming increasingly popular for measuring time differences, and are the de facto standard in PET cameras. These methods usually include a master system clock and a (digital) arrival time estimate for each detector that is obtained by comparing the detector output signal to some reference portion of this clock (such as the rising edge). Time differences between detector signals are then obtained by subtracting the digitized estimates from a detector pair. A number of different methods can be used to generate the digitized arrival time of the detector output, such as sending a discriminator output into a time to digital converter (TDC) or digitizing the waveform and applying a more sophisticated algorithm to extract a timing estimator. All measurement methods are subject to error, and one generally wants to minimize these errors and so optimize the timing resolution. A common method for optimizing timing methods is to measure the coincidence timing resolution between two timing signals whose time difference should be constant (such as detecting gammas from positron annihilation) and selecting the method that minimizes the width of the distribution (i.e. the timing resolution). Unfortunately, a common form of error (a nonlinear transfer function) leads to artifacts that artificially narrow this resolution, which can lead to erroneous selection of the ‘optimal’ method. The purpose of this note is to demonstrate the origin of this artifact and suggest that caution should be used when optimizing time digitization systems solely on timing resolution minimization.

  1. Artifacts in digital coincidence timing

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.

    2014-10-16

    Digital methods are becoming increasingly popular for measuring time differences, and are the de facto standard in PET cameras. These methods usually include a master system clock and a (digital) arrival time estimate for each detector that is obtained by comparing the detector output signal to some reference portion of this clock (such as the rising edge). Time differences between detector signals are then obtained by subtracting the digitized estimates from a detector pair. A number of different methods can be used to generate the digitized arrival time of the detector output, such as sending a discriminator output into a time to digital converter (TDC) or digitizing the waveform and applying a more sophisticated algorithm to extract a timing estimator.All measurement methods are subject to error, and one generally wants to minimize these errors and so optimize the timing resolution. A common method for optimizing timing methods is to measure the coincidence timing resolution between two timing signals whose time difference should be constant (such as detecting gammas from positron annihilation) and selecting the method that minimizes the width of the distribution (i.e. the timing resolution). Unfortunately, a common form of error (a nonlinear transfer function) leads to artifacts that artificially narrow this resolution, which can lead to erroneous selection of the 'optimal' method. In conclusion, the purpose of this note is to demonstrate the origin of this artifact and suggest that caution should be used when optimizing time digitization systems solely on timing resolution minimization.

  2. Multiverse understanding of cosmological coincidences

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2009-09-15

    There is a deep cosmological mystery: although dependent on very different underlying physics, the time scales of structure formation, of galaxy cooling (both radiatively and against the CMB), and of vacuum domination do not differ by many orders of magnitude, but are all comparable to the present age of the universe. By scanning four landscape parameters simultaneously, we show that this quadruple coincidence is resolved. We assume only that the statistical distribution of parameter values in the multiverse grows towards certain catastrophic boundaries we identify, across which there are drastic regime changes. We find order-of-magnitude predictions for the cosmological constant, the primordial density contrast, the temperature at matter-radiation equality, the typical galaxy mass, and the age of the universe, in terms of the fine structure constant and the electron, proton and Planck masses. Our approach permits a systematic evaluation of measure proposals; with the causal patch measure, we find no runaway of the primordial density contrast and the cosmological constant to large values.

  3. Line-coincidence schemes for producing laser action at soft-x-ray wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.F.

    1983-01-12

    Line-coincidence schemes for producing laser action in the wavelength regime 100-30A are reviewed. Schemes involving pumping of 2..-->..4 transitions in neon-like ions are singled out as particularly attractive.

  4. Artifacts in digital coincidence timing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.

    2014-10-16

    Digital methods are becoming increasingly popular for measuring time differences, and are the de facto standard in PET cameras. These methods usually include a master system clock and a (digital) arrival time estimate for each detector that is obtained by comparing the detector output signal to some reference portion of this clock (such as the rising edge). Time differences between detector signals are then obtained by subtracting the digitized estimates from a detector pair. A number of different methods can be used to generate the digitized arrival time of the detector output, such as sending a discriminator output into amore » time to digital converter (TDC) or digitizing the waveform and applying a more sophisticated algorithm to extract a timing estimator.All measurement methods are subject to error, and one generally wants to minimize these errors and so optimize the timing resolution. A common method for optimizing timing methods is to measure the coincidence timing resolution between two timing signals whose time difference should be constant (such as detecting gammas from positron annihilation) and selecting the method that minimizes the width of the distribution (i.e. the timing resolution). Unfortunately, a common form of error (a nonlinear transfer function) leads to artifacts that artificially narrow this resolution, which can lead to erroneous selection of the 'optimal' method. In conclusion, the purpose of this note is to demonstrate the origin of this artifact and suggest that caution should be used when optimizing time digitization systems solely on timing resolution minimization.« less

  5. Sensitivity to coincidences and paranormal belief.

    PubMed

    Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Joakim

    2011-12-01

    Often it is difficult to find a natural explanation as to why a surprising coincidence occurs. In attempting to find one, people may be inclined to accept paranormal explanations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether people with a lower threshold for being surprised by coincidences have a greater propensity to become believers compared to those with a higher threshold. Participants were exposed to artificial coincidences, which were formally defined as less or more probable, and were asked to provide remarkability ratings. Paranormal belief was measured by the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale. An analysis of the remarkability ratings revealed a significant interaction effect between Sheep-Goat score and type of coincidence, suggesting that people with lower thresholds of surprise, when experiencing coincidences, harbor higher paranormal belief than those with a higher threshold. The theoretical aspects of these findings were discussed. PMID:22403933

  6. Velocity map photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging on a single detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, C. Stefan; Ram, N. Bhargava; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2012-09-15

    Here we report on a new simplified setup for velocity map photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging using only a single particle detector. We show that both photoelectrons and photoions can be extracted toward the same micro-channel-plate delay line detector by fast switching of the high voltages on the ion optics. This single detector setup retains essentially all the features of a standard two-detector coincidence imaging setup, viz., the high spatial resolution for electron and ion imaging, while only slightly decreasing the ion time-of-flight mass resolution. The new setup paves the way to a significant cost reduction in building a coincidence imaging setup for experiments aiming to obtain the complete correlated three-dimensional momentum distribution of electrons and ions.

  7. Imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy with velocity focusing electron optics

    SciTech Connect

    Bodi, Andras; Johnson, Melanie; Gerber, Thomas; Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Sztaray, Balint; Baer, Tomas

    2009-03-15

    An imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectrometer at the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline of the Swiss Light Source is presented and a few initial measurements are reported. Monochromatic synchrotron VUV radiation ionizes the cooled or thermal gas-phase sample. Photoelectrons are velocity focused, with better than 1 meV resolution for threshold electrons, and also act as start signal for the ion time-of-flight analysis. The ions are accelerated in a relatively low, 40-80 V cm{sup -1} field, which enables the direct measurement of rate constants in the 10{sup 3}-10{sup 7} s{sup -1} range. All electron and ion events are recorded in a triggerless multiple-start/multiple-stop setup, which makes it possible to carry out coincidence experiments at >100 kHz event frequencies. As examples, the threshold photoelectron spectrum of the argon dimer and the breakdown diagrams for hydrogen atom loss in room temperature methane and the chlorine atom loss in cold chlorobenzene are shown and discussed.

  8. Simulation of triple coincidences in PET.

    PubMed

    Cal-González, J; Lage, E; Herranz, E; Vicente, E; Udias, J M; Moore, S C; Park, M-A; Dave, S R; Parot, V; Herraiz, J L

    2015-01-01

    Although current PET scanners are designed and optimized to detect double coincidence events, there is a significant amount of triple coincidences in any PET acquisition. Triple coincidences may arise from causes such as: inter-detector scatter (IDS), random triple interactions (RT), or the detection of prompt gamma rays in coincidence with annihilation photons when non-pure positron-emitting radionuclides are used (β(+)γ events). Depending on the data acquisition settings of the PET scanner, these triple events are discarded or processed as a set of double coincidences if the energy of the three detected events is within the scanner's energy window. This latter option introduces noise in the data, as at most, only one of the possible lines-of-response defined by triple interactions corresponds to the line along which the decay occurred. Several novel works have pointed out the possibility of using triple events to increase the sensitivity of PET scanners or to expand PET imaging capabilities by allowing differentiation between radiotracers labeled with non-pure and pure positron-emitting radionuclides. In this work, we extended the Monte Carlo simulator PeneloPET to assess the proportion of triple coincidences in PET acquisitions and to evaluate their possible applications. We validated the results of the simulator against experimental data acquired with a modified version of a commercial preclinical PET/CT scanner, which was enabled to acquire and process triple-coincidence events. We used as figures of merit the energy spectra for double and triple coincidences and the triples-to-doubles ratio for different energy windows and radionuclides. After validation, the simulator was used to predict the relative quantity of triple-coincidence events in two clinical scanners assuming different acquisition settings. Good agreement between simulations and preclinical experiments was found, with differences below 10% for most of the observables considered. For clinical

  9. Coincidence lattices in the hyperbolic plane.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Andrade, M A; Aragón-González, G; Aragón, J L; Gómez-Rodríguez, A

    2011-01-01

    The problem of coincidences of lattices in the space R(p,q), with p + q = 2, is analyzed using Clifford algebra. We show that, as in R(n), any coincidence isometry can be decomposed as a product of at most two reflections by vectors of the lattice. Bases and coincidence indices are constructed explicitly for several interesting lattices. Our procedure is metric-independent and, in particular, the hyperbolic plane is obtained when p = q = 1. Additionally, we provide a proof of the Cartan-Dieudonné theorem for R(p,q), with p + q = 2, that includes an algorithm to decompose an orthogonal transformation into a product of reflections. PMID:21173471

  10. Highly charged ion secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hamza, Alex V.; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnes, Alan V.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2001-01-01

    A secondary ion mass spectrometer using slow, highly charged ions produced in an electron beam ion trap permits ultra-sensitive surface analysis and high spatial resolution simultaneously. The spectrometer comprises an ion source producing a primary ion beam of highly charged ions that are directed at a target surface, a mass analyzer, and a microchannel plate detector of secondary ions that are sputtered from the target surface after interaction with the primary beam. The unusually high secondary ion yield permits the use of coincidence counting, in which the secondary ion stops are detected in coincidence with a particular secondary ion. The association of specific molecular species can be correlated. The unique multiple secondary nature of the highly charged ion interaction enables this new analytical technique.

  11. Coincidence problem in f( T) gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudra, Prabir

    2015-06-01

    It is well known fact that almost all the recent models of universe are plagued by the cosmic coincidence problem. In this assignment we try to probe the role played by torsion in the current scenario of coincidence and devise a set-up for its realization. In order to model the scenario, the energy arising from the torsion component is considered analogous to dark energy. An interaction between dark energy and dark matter is considered, which is by far the best possible tool to realize the coincidence. A set-up is designed and a constraint equation is obtained which screens the models of f( T) gravity that can successfully accommodate the stationary scenario in its framework, from those which cannot. Due to the absence of a universally accepted interaction term introduced by a fundamental theory, the study is conducted over three different forms of chosen interaction terms. As an illustration two widely known models of f( T) gravity are taken into consideration and used in the designed setup. The study reveals that the realization of the coincidence scenario as well as the role played by torsion in the current universe is a model dependent phenomenon. It is found that the first model showed a considerable departure from the stationary scenario. On the contrary the other four models are perfectly consistent with our setup and generated a satisfactory stationary scenario, thus showing their cosmological viability and their superiority over their counterparts. For the third model (exponential model) it was seen that the cosmological coincidence is realized only in the phantom regime. For the fourth (logarithmic model) and the fifth models, we see that the stationary scenario is attained for negative interaction values. This shows that the direction of flow must be from dark energy to dark matter unlike the previous models. Under such circumstances the universe will return from the present energy dominated phase to a matter dominated phase.

  12. Toward a solution of the coincidence problem

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Pavon, Diego

    2008-07-15

    The coincidence problem of late cosmic acceleration constitutes a serious riddle with regard to our understanding of the evolution of the Universe. Here we argue that this problem may someday be solved - or better understood - by expressing the Hubble expansion rate as a function of the ratio of densities (dark matter/dark energy) and observationally determining the said rate in terms of the redshift.

  13. A method for coincidence timing resolution enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermis, E. E.; Celiktas, C.; Pilicer, E.

    2016-05-01

    A method including the coincidence time resolution improvement for a TOF/positron emission tomography system was suggested. The spectrometer for this aim was composed of two NaI(Tl) and two plastic scintillation detectors. Experimental results were supported by FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation program by constructing the detector setup in software medium. Present experimental results verified our previous results and conclusions obtained from the suggested method. It was concluded that better resolutions would help the improvement not only on the TOF gain but also on the spatial resolution, leading to better images and helping the Physician in his/her diagnosis and treatment.

  14. A search for strong-field direct two electron ionization using coincidence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Agostini, P.; Mevel, E.; Breger, P.; Walker, B.; Yang, B.; DiMauro, L.F.

    1993-05-01

    We report on our program in detecting two-electron ionization using electron-electron and electron-ion coincidence measurements. The coincidence techniques have been applied to the multiphoton ionization (MPI) of xenon atoms with 0.527 {mu}m excitation. The results show that direct two electron ionization is not occurring which is in variance with an earlier report. We also present a polarization study on the MPI of helium at 0.62 {mu}m and discuss these results in context of existing models.

  15. A search for strong-field direct two electron ionization using coincidence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Agostini, P.; Mevel, E.; Breger, P. . Service de Recherches sur les Surfaces et de l'Irradiation de la Matiere); Walker, B.; Yang, B.; DiMauro, L.F. )

    1993-01-01

    We report on our program in detecting two-electron ionization using electron-electron and electron-ion coincidence measurements. The coincidence techniques have been applied to the multiphoton ionization (MPI) of xenon atoms with 0.527 [mu]m excitation. The results show that direct two electron ionization is not occurring which is in variance with an earlier report. We also present a polarization study on the MPI of helium at 0.62 [mu]m and discuss these results in context of existing models.

  16. Photoion-photoelectron coincidence studies clusters and transient molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, K.

    1990-11-16

    Experimental photoion-photoelectron coincidence (PIPECO) spectra have been obtained at different nozzle stagnation pressures for Ar, Kr, Xe, and CO dimers and trimers in the wavelength regions corresponding to the respective ground states through all states accessible with a photon energy of 20 eV. Ionization energies for all ground states were measured and agree well with previously reported values. The formation of stable dimer ions from fragmentation of larger cluster ions initially produced by photoionization is efficient. For nozzle expansion conditions which minimize the formation of clusters larger than dimers, the intensities of the excited PIPECO bands for all clusters, except Ar{sub 2}{sup +} and Ar{sub 3}{sup +}, are found to be negligible with respect to the ground state PIPECO bands. The PIPECO technique has been used successfully to obtain the mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectra of the SO and S{sub 2}O transient molecules formed from a microwave discharge, effusive beam source. Analysis of the PIPECO spectra of all the clusters and transient molecules are presented. 177 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Mass Scales and the Cosmological Coincidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsberg, P. T.

    Theories involving the parameters h, c, G, H (in a usual notation) are considered. A huge ratio of 10120 of the mass of the universe (mu) to the smallest determinable mass m0 in the period since the big bang occurs in such theories. Five masses are here identified and interpreted between these two limits so that one has in all seven analytical expressions for masses. They form a geometrical progression m0, m0R, , m0R6 = mu with R 1020. It is shown that this formulation is easily adapted to explain existing cosmological coincidences and to generate new ones. Über die kosmische Bedingtheit einer Massenskala: Es werden kosmologische Theorien diskutiert, in denen neben der Planckschen Konstante h, der Lichtgeschwindigkeit c und der Gravitationskonstante G auch noch der Hubble-Parameter H eingeht. Für solche Kosmen wird eine Massen-Scala hergeleitet, die einer geometrischen Progression, mit dem Eddingtonschen Faktor 1020 entspricht.

  18. Multiphase monitoring by annihilation radiation coincidence mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, A.; Viesti, G.; Osorio, C.; Pino, F.; Horvath, A.; Barros, H.; Caldogno, M.; Greaves, E. D.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2012-02-01

    A multiphase monitoring system employing nuclear techniques is reported, which is aimed to provide a rapid - decision tool in oilfield applications. Liquid phase time variation is monitored employing two large volume BaF2 detectors. The radioisotope source of 22Na is a positron emitter, therefore two antiparallel gammas are produced per decay, and phase flow in pipes is related to the count rate of gamma pulses in coincidence providing information on transient liquid phase during transport. Oil, gas, water fraction measurements were performed at a specialized test station assembled in our laboratory to model a wide range of field operating conditions. The time dependence of the mixed substances is monitored with the two most relevant hydrodynamic parameters, the density (type of the fluid) and the flow rate, in a LabView® environment. Performance of the monitoring system; its limitations and the possibility for further improvements are also provided.

  19. Interacting cosmological fluids and the coincidence problem

    SciTech Connect

    Lip, Sean Z. W.

    2011-01-15

    We examine the evolution of a universe comprising two fluids which interact via a term proportional to the product of their densities. In the case of two matter fluids, it is shown that the ratio of the densities tends to a constant after an initial cooling-off period. We then obtain a complete solution for the cosmological constant (w=-1) scenario and show that periodic solutions can occur if w<-1. We further demonstrate that the ratio of the dark matter and dark energy densities is confined to a bounded interval and that this ratio can be O(1) at infinitely many times in the history of the universe, thus solving the coincidence problem. Finally, we show that, for a certain choice of parameters, the model is a viable fit to observational constraints, and we give a detailed discussion of the past and future evolution of the universe in this particular case.

  20. Alpha Coincidence Spectroscopy studied with GEANT4

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Tatishvili, Gocha; Warren, Glen A.

    2013-11-02

    Abstract The high-energy side of peaks in alpha spectra, e.g. 241Am, as measured with a silicon detector has structure caused mainly by alpha-conversion electron and to some extent alphagamma coincidences. We compare GEANT4 simulation results to 241Am alpha spectroscopy measurements with a passivated implanted planar silicon detector. A large discrepancy between the measurements and simulations suggest that the GEANT4 photon evaporation database for 237Np (daughter of 241Am decay) does not accurately describe the conversion electron spectrum and therefore was found to have large discrepancies with experimental measurements. We describe how to improve the agreement between GEANT4 and alpha spectroscopy for actinides of interest by including experimental measurements of conversion electron spectroscopy into the photon evaporation database.

  1. Positivity restrictions in polarized coincidence electronuclear scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitrasinovic, V. )

    1995-03-01

    We make a systematic examination of the role played by the restriction that the cross section in polarized coincidence electronuclear processes must be positive. The necessary formalism for unpolarized scattering structure functions is developed within two frameworks: (i) the response tensor method, and (ii) the Jacob-Wick method. Equivalence of the two methods is demonstrated for unpolarized scattering, and then the simpler Jacob-Wick method is applied to the polarized pseudoscalar electroproduction off a nucleon. We derive three known and eight new inequalities among the polarized target structure functions, as well as 11 new polarized ejectile structure function inequalitites. We also provide rules for this method to be used in the deuteron two-body electrodisintegration in conjunction with the results published in Phys. Rev. C 40, 2479 (1989).

  2. Advances in coincidence time resolution for PET.

    PubMed

    Cates, Joshua W; Levin, Craig S

    2016-03-21

    Coincidence time resolution (CTR), an important parameter for time-of-flight (TOF) PET performance, is determined mainly by properties of the scintillation crystal and photodetector used. Stable production techniques for LGSO:Ce (Lu1.8Gd0.2SiO5:Ce) with decay times varying from ∼ 30-40 ns have been established over the past decade, and the decay time can be accurately controlled with varying cerium concentration (0.025-0.075 mol%). This material is promising for TOF-PET, as it has similar light output and equivalent stopping power for 511 keV annihilation photons compared to industry standard LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce, and the decay time is improved by more than 30% with proper Ce concentration. This work investigates the achievable CTR with LGSO:Ce (0.025 mol%) when coupled to new silicon photomultipliers. Crystal element dimension is another important parameter for achieving fast timing. 20 mm length crystal elements achieve higher 511 keV photon detection efficiency, but also introduce higher scintillation photon transit time variance. 3 mm length crystals are not practical for PET, but have reduced scintillation transit time spread. The CTR between pairs of 2.9 × 2.9 × 3 mm(3) and 2.9 × 2.9 × 20 mm(3) LGSO:Ce crystals was measured to be 80 ± 4 and 122 ± 4 ps FWHM, respectively. Measurements of light yield and intrinsic decay time are also presented for a thorough investigation into the timing performance with LGSO:Ce (0.025 mol%). PMID:26914187

  3. Imaging photoelectron circular dichroism of chiral molecules by femtosecond multiphoton coincidence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, C. Stefan; Ram, N. Bhargava; Janssen, Maurice H. M.; Powis, Ivan

    2013-12-21

    Here, we provide a detailed account of novel experiments employing electron-ion coincidence imaging to discriminate chiral molecules. The full three-dimensional angular scattering distribution of electrons is measured after photoexcitation with either left or right circular polarized light. The experiment is performed using a simplified photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging setup employing only a single particle imaging detector. Results are reported applying this technique to enantiomers of the chiral molecule camphor after three-photon ionization by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and 380 nm. The electron-ion coincidence imaging provides the photoelectron spectrum of mass-selected ions that are observed in the time-of-flight mass spectra. The coincident photoelectron spectra of the parent camphor ion and the various fragment ions are the same, so it can be concluded that fragmentation of camphor happens after ionization. We discuss the forward-backward asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution which is expressed in Legendre polynomials with moments up to order six. Furthermore, we present a method, similar to one-photon electron circular dichroism, to quantify the strength of the chiral electron asymmetry in a single parameter. The circular dichroism in the photoelectron angular distribution of camphor is measured to be 8% at 400 nm. The electron circular dichroism using femtosecond multiphoton excitation is of opposite sign and about 60% larger than the electron dichroism observed before in near-threshold one-photon ionization with synchrotron excitation. We interpret our multiphoton ionization as being resonant at the two-photon level with the 3s and 3p Rydberg states of camphor. Theoretical calculations are presented that model the photoelectron angular distribution from a prealigned camphor molecule using density functional theory and continuum multiple scattering X alpha photoelectron scattering calculations

  4. Imaging photoelectron circular dichroism of chiral molecules by femtosecond multiphoton coincidence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, C. Stefan; Ram, N. Bhargava; Powis, Ivan; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Here, we provide a detailed account of novel experiments employing electron-ion coincidence imaging to discriminate chiral molecules. The full three-dimensional angular scattering distribution of electrons is measured after photoexcitation with either left or right circular polarized light. The experiment is performed using a simplified photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging setup employing only a single particle imaging detector. Results are reported applying this technique to enantiomers of the chiral molecule camphor after three-photon ionization by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and 380 nm. The electron-ion coincidence imaging provides the photoelectron spectrum of mass-selected ions that are observed in the time-of-flight mass spectra. The coincident photoelectron spectra of the parent camphor ion and the various fragment ions are the same, so it can be concluded that fragmentation of camphor happens after ionization. We discuss the forward-backward asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution which is expressed in Legendre polynomials with moments up to order six. Furthermore, we present a method, similar to one-photon electron circular dichroism, to quantify the strength of the chiral electron asymmetry in a single parameter. The circular dichroism in the photoelectron angular distribution of camphor is measured to be 8% at 400 nm. The electron circular dichroism using femtosecond multiphoton excitation is of opposite sign and about 60% larger than the electron dichroism observed before in near-threshold one-photon ionization with synchrotron excitation. We interpret our multiphoton ionization as being resonant at the two-photon level with the 3s and 3p Rydberg states of camphor. Theoretical calculations are presented that model the photoelectron angular distribution from a prealigned camphor molecule using density functional theory and continuum multiple scattering X alpha photoelectron scattering calculations

  5. Introduction to Neutron Coincidence Counter Design Based on Boron-10

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-01-22

    The Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Policy (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is ultimately to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report, providing background information for this project, is the deliverable under Task 1 of the project.

  6. Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Model Utilizing Boron-10 Lined Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Jeremy L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-09-18

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report, providing results for model development of Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) designs, is a deliverable under Task 2 of the project.

  7. Clifford algebra approach to the coincidence problem for planar lattices.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M A; Aragón, J L; Verde-Star, L

    2005-03-01

    The problem of coincidences of planar lattices is analyzed using Clifford algebra. It is shown that an arbitrary coincidence isometry can be decomposed as a product of coincidence reflections and this allows planar coincidence lattices to be characterized algebraically. The cases of square, rectangular and rhombic lattices are worked out in detail. One of the aims of this work is to show the potential usefulness of Clifford algebra in crystallography. The power of Clifford algebra for expressing geometric ideas is exploited here and the procedure presented can be generalized to higher dimensions. PMID:15724067

  8. Calculations of coincident ionization plus excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    For Li- and Be-like ions, K x-ray yields, together with detection that the ionic charge has increased, give the cross section for ionization plus excitation (IE), a process which can exhibit electron-electron correlations. Measurements of IE for /sub 14/Si/sup 11 +/ + He stimulated our coupled-channels calculations in the independent-Fermi-particle model (IFPM), which includes Pauli correlations. We discuss how the IFPM expressions, generalized here to include an open shell, differ from those for distinguishable electrons. The sensitivity of sigma/sub IE/ to correlations is shown. Recent additional measurements and future ones giving excitation functions for resolved configurations and complementary Auger data will provide even more sensitive tests of collisional correlation theory. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Coincidence Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. gandner; C.W. Mayo; W.A. Metwally; W. Zhang; W. Guo; A. Shehata

    2002-11-10

    The normal prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis for either bulk or small beam samples inherently has a small signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio due primarily to the neutron source being present while the sample signal is being obtained. Coincidence counting offers the possibility of greatly reducing or eliminating the noise generated by the neutron source. The present report presents our results to date on implementing the coincidence counting PGNAA approach. We conclude that coincidence PGNAA yields: (1) a larger signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, (2) more information (and therefore better accuracy) from essentially the same experiment when sophisticated coincidence electronics are used that can yield singles and coincidences simultaneously, and (3) a reduced (one or two orders of magnitude) signal from essentially the same experiment. In future work we will concentrate on: (1) modifying the existing CEARPGS Monte Carlo code to incorporate coincidence counting, (2) obtaining coincidence schemes for 18 or 20 of the common elements in coal and cement, and (3) optimizing the design of a PGNAA coincidence system for the bulk analysis of coal.

  10. Novel Beta-Gamma Coincidence Measurements Using Phoswich Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, James H.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.

    2003-09-30

    The PNNL has developed an Automated Radio-xenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) for the CTBT to measure four radio-xenon isotopes using a beta-gamma coincidence counting detector. A novel method to measure beta-gamma coincidences using a phoswich detector with state-of-the-art pulse shape discrimination techniqueses has been investigated.

  11. Coincidence technique to reduce geometry and matrix effects in assay

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.; Gozani, T.; Bernatowicz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Algebraic combinations of coincidence multiplicities can be formed which are relatively independent of detection efficiency, yet proportional to the amount of nuclear material being assayed. Considering these combinations, rather than the coincidence alone as signatures, has the demonstrable advantage that the assay results are comparatively independent of sample geometry or even matrix.

  12. Recovery and normalization of triple coincidences in PET

    SciTech Connect

    Lage, Eduardo Parot, Vicente; Dave, Shivang R.; Herraiz, Joaquin L.; Moore, Stephen C.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Park, Mi-Ae; Udías, Jose M.; Vaquero, Juan J.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Triple coincidences in positron emission tomography (PET) are events in which three γ-rays are detected simultaneously. These events, though potentially useful for enhancing the sensitivity of PET scanners, are discarded or processed without special consideration in current systems, because there is not a clear criterion for assigning them to a unique line-of-response (LOR). Methods proposed for recovering such events usually rely on the use of highly specialized detection systems, hampering general adoption, and/or are based on Compton-scatter kinematics and, consequently, are limited in accuracy by the energy resolution of standard PET detectors. In this work, the authors propose a simple and general solution for recovering triple coincidences, which does not require specialized detectors or additional energy resolution requirements. Methods: To recover triple coincidences, the authors’ method distributes such events among their possible LORs using the relative proportions of double coincidences in these LORs. The authors show analytically that this assignment scheme represents the maximum-likelihood solution for the triple-coincidence distribution problem. The PET component of a preclinical PET/CT scanner was adapted to enable the acquisition and processing of triple coincidences. Since the efficiencies for detecting double and triple events were found to be different throughout the scanner field-of-view, a normalization procedure specific for triple coincidences was also developed. The effect of including triple coincidences using their method was compared against the cases of equally weighting the triples among their possible LORs and discarding all the triple events. The authors used as figures of merit for this comparison sensitivity, noise-equivalent count (NEC) rates and image quality calculated as described in the NEMA NU-4 protocol for the assessment of preclinical PET scanners. Results: The addition of triple-coincidence events with the

  13. Roles for Coincidence Detection in Coding Amplitude-Modulated Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Ashida, Go; Kretzberg, Jutta; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Many sensory neurons encode temporal information by detecting coincident arrivals of synaptic inputs. In the mammalian auditory brainstem, binaural neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) are known to act as coincidence detectors, whereas in the lateral superior olive (LSO) roles of coincidence detection have remained unclear. LSO neurons receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs driven by ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic stimuli, respectively, and vary their output spike rates according to interaural level differences. In addition, LSO neurons are also sensitive to binaural phase differences of low-frequency tones and envelopes of amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds. Previous physiological recordings in vivo found considerable variations in monaural AM-tuning across neurons. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the observed temporal tuning properties of LSO and their sources of variability, we used a simple coincidence counting model and examined how specific parameters of coincidence detection affect monaural and binaural AM coding. Spike rates and phase-locking of evoked excitatory and spontaneous inhibitory inputs had only minor effects on LSO output to monaural AM inputs. In contrast, the coincidence threshold of the model neuron affected both the overall spike rates and the half-peak positions of the AM-tuning curve, whereas the width of the coincidence window merely influenced the output spike rates. The duration of the refractory period affected only the low-frequency portion of the monaural AM-tuning curve. Unlike monaural AM coding, temporal factors, such as the coincidence window and the effective duration of inhibition, played a major role in determining the trough positions of simulated binaural phase-response curves. In addition, empirically-observed level-dependence of binaural phase-coding was reproduced in the framework of our minimalistic coincidence counting model. These modeling results suggest that coincidence detection of excitatory

  14. A precise calculation of delayed coincidence selection efficiency and accidental coincidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing-Yi; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shao-Min

    2015-05-01

    A precise background evaluation model is proposed to address the complex data structure of the delayed coincidence method, which is widely used in reactor electron-antineutrino oscillation experiments. In this model, effects from the muon veto, uncorrelated random background, and background are all studied analytically, simplifying the estimation of the systematic uncertainties of signal efficiency and accidental background rate. The results of the calculations are validated numerically with a number of simulation studies and also applied and validated in the recent Daya Bay hydrogen-capture based oscillation measurement. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2013CB834302), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11235006, 11475093), Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (2012Z02161), and Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education.

  15. Quantifying radionuclide signatures from a γ-γ coincidence system.

    PubMed

    Britton, Richard; Jackson, Mark J; Davies, Ashley V

    2015-11-01

    A method for quantifying gamma coincidence signatures has been developed, and tested in conjunction with a high-efficiency multi-detector system to quickly identify trace amounts of radioactive material. The γ-γ system utilises fully digital electronics and list-mode acquisition to time-stamp each event, allowing coincidence matrices to be easily produced alongside typical 'singles' spectra. To quantify the coincidence signatures a software package has been developed to calculate efficiency and cascade summing corrected branching ratios. This utilises ENSDF records as an input, and can be fully automated, allowing the user to quickly and easily create/update a coincidence library that contains all possible γ and conversion electron cascades, associated cascade emission probabilities, and true-coincidence summing corrected γ cascade detection probabilities. It is also fully searchable by energy, nuclide, coincidence pair, γ multiplicity, cascade probability and half-life of the cascade. The probabilities calculated were tested using measurements performed on the γ-γ system, and found to provide accurate results for the nuclides investigated. Given the flexibility of the method, (it only relies on evaluated nuclear data, and accurate efficiency characterisations), the software can now be utilised for a variety of systems, quickly and easily calculating coincidence signature probabilities. PMID:26254208

  16. Spatial and Time Coincidence Detection of the Decay Chain of Short-Lived Radioactive Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Granja, Carlos; Jakubek, Jan; Platkevic, Michal; Pospisil, Stanislav

    2010-08-04

    The quantum counting position sensitive pixel detector Timepix with per-pixel energy and time resolution enables to detect radioactive ions and register the consecutive decay chain by simultaneous position-and time-correlation. This spatial and timing coincidence technique in the same sensor is demonstrated by the registration of the decay chain {sup 8}He{yields}{sup {beta} 8}Li and {sup 8}Li{yields}{sup {beta}-} {sup 8}Be{yields}{alpha}+{alpha} and by the measurement of the {beta} decay half-lives. Radioactive ions, selectively obtained from the Lohengrin fission fragment spectrometer installed at the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble, are delivered to the Timepix silicon sensor where decays of the implanted ions and daughter nuclei are registered and visualized. We measure decay lifetimes in the range {>=}{mu}s with precision limited just by counting statistics.

  17. Passive Time Coincidence Measurements with HEU Oxide Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect

    McConchie, Seth M; Hausladen, Paul; Mihalczo, John T

    2008-01-01

    Passive time coincidence measurements have been performed on highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins at the Idaho National Laboratory Power Burst Facility. These experiments evaluate HEU detection capability using passive coincidence counting when utilizing moderated 3He tubes. Data acquisition was performed with the Nuclear Material Identification System (NMIS) to calculate the neutron coincidence time distributions. The amounts of HEU measured were 1 kg, 4 kg, and 8 kg in sealed 55-gallon drums. Data collected with the 3He tubes also include passive measurement of 31 kg of depleted uranium (DU) in order to determine the ability to distinguish HEU from DU. This paper presents results from the measurements.

  18. Some target assay uncertainties for passive neutron coincidence counting

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Langner, D.G.; Menlove, H.O.; Miller, M.C.; Russo, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides some target assay uncertainties for passive neutron coincidence counting of plutonium metal, oxide, mixed oxide, and scrap and waste. The target values are based in part on past user experience and in part on the estimated results from new coincidence counting techniques that are under development. The paper summarizes assay error sources and the new coincidence techniques, and recommends the technique that is likely to yield the lowest assay uncertainty for a given material type. These target assay uncertainties are intended to be useful for NDA instrument selection and assay variance propagation studies for both new and existing facilities. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Glycinergic inhibition tunes coincidence detection in the auditory brainstem.

    PubMed

    Myoga, Michael H; Lehnert, Simon; Leibold, Christian; Felmy, Felix; Grothe, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) detect microsecond differences in the arrival time of sounds between the ears (interaural time differences or ITDs), a crucial binaural cue for sound localization. Synaptic inhibition has been implicated in tuning ITD sensitivity, but the cellular mechanisms underlying its influence on coincidence detection are debated. Here we determine the impact of inhibition on coincidence detection in adult Mongolian gerbil MSO brain slices by testing precise temporal integration of measured synaptic responses using conductance-clamp. We find that inhibition dynamically shifts the peak timing of excitation, depending on its relative arrival time, which in turn modulates the timing of best coincidence detection. Inhibitory control of coincidence detection timing is consistent with the diversity of ITD functions observed in vivo and is robust under physiologically relevant conditions. Our results provide strong evidence that temporal interactions between excitation and inhibition on microsecond timescales are critical for binaural processing. PMID:24804642

  20. Glycinergic inhibition tunes coincidence detection in the auditory brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Myoga, Michael H.; Lehnert, Simon; Leibold, Christian; Felmy, Felix; Grothe, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) detect microsecond differences in the arrival time of sounds between the ears (interaural time differences or ITDs), a crucial binaural cue for sound localization. Synaptic inhibition has been implicated in tuning ITD sensitivity, but the cellular mechanisms underlying its influence on coincidence detection are debated. Here we determine the impact of inhibition on coincidence detection in adult Mongolian gerbil MSO brain slices by testing precise temporal integration of measured synaptic responses using conductance-clamp. We find that inhibition dynamically shifts the peak timing of excitation, depending on its relative arrival time, which in turn modulates the timing of best coincidence detection. Inhibitory control of coincidence detection timing is consistent with the diversity of ITD functions observed in vivo and is robust under physiologically relevant conditions. Our results provide strong evidence that temporal interactions between excitation and inhibition on microsecond timescales are critical for binaural processing. PMID:24804642

  1. Coincidence Efficiency of Sodium Iodide Detectors for Positron Annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Thomas; Vincett, Laurel; Yuly, Mark; Padalino, Stephen; Russ, Megan; Bienstock, Mollie; Simone, Angela; Ellison, Drew; Desmitt, Holly; Sangster, Craig; Regan, Sean

    2014-10-01

    One possible diagnostic technique for characterizing inertial confinement fusion reactions uses tertiary neutron activation of 12C via the 12C(n, 2n)11C reaction. A recent experiment to measure this cross section involved counting the positron annihilation gamma rays from the 11C decay by using sodium iodide detectors in coincidence. To determine the number of 11C decays requires an accurate value for the full-peak coincidence efficiency for the detector system. A new technique has been developed to measure this coincidence efficiency by detecting the positron prior to its annihilation, and vetoing events in which decay gamma rays other than the 511 keV annihilation gamma rays could enter the detectors. Measurements and simulation results for the absolute coincidence total and full-peak efficiencies are presented. Funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  2. Computed neutron coincidence counting applied to passive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Bruggeman, M.; Baeten, P.; De Boeck, W.; Carchon, R.

    1997-11-01

    Neutron coincidence counting applied for the passive assay of fissile material is generally realised with dedicated electronic circuits. This paper presents a software based neutron coincidence counting method with data acquisition via a commercial PC-based Time Interval Analyser (TIA). The TIA is used to measure and record all time intervals between successive pulses in the pulse train up to count-rates of 2 Mpulses/s. Software modules are then used to compute the coincidence count-rates and multiplicity related data. This computed neutron coincidence counting (CNCC) offers full access to all the time information contained in the pulse train. This paper will mainly concentrate on the application and advantages of CNCC for the non-destructive assay of waste. An advanced multiplicity selective Rossi-alpha method is presented and its implementation via CNCC demonstrated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Electron-Photon Coincidence Calibration Of Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Santosh K.

    1988-01-01

    Absolute and relative detector efficiencies measured. Apparatus uses coincidence-counting techniques to measure efficiency of ultraviolet or vacuum ultraviolet detector at very low radiation intensity. Crossed electron and atomic beams generate photons used to calibrate photon detector. Pulses from electron counter and photon detector(s) processed by standard coincidence-counting techniques. Used to calibrate other detectors or make absolute measurements of incident photon fluxes.

  4. Neutron coincidence imaging for active and passive neutron assays

    SciTech Connect

    Estep, R. J.; Brunson, G. S.; Melton, S. G.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron multiplicity assay algorithms for {sup 240}Pu assume a point source of fission neutrons that are detected in a single detector channel. The {sup 240}Pu in real waste, however, is more likely to be distributed throughout the container in some random way. For different reasons, this leads to significant errors when using either multiplicity or simpler coincidence analyses. Reduction of these errors can be achieved using tomographic imaging. In this talk we report on our results from using neutron singles and coincidence data between tagged detector pairs to provide enhanced tomographic imaging capabilities to a crate nondestructive assay system. Only simulated passive coincidence data is examined here, although the higher signal rates from active coincidence counting hold more promise for waste management. The active coincidence approach has significantly better sensitivity than the passive and is not significantly perturbed by (alpha,n) contributions. Our study was based primarily on simulated neutron pulse trains derived from the Los Alamos SIM3D software, which were subjected to analysis using the Los Alamos CTEN-FIT and TGS-FIT software. We found significantly improved imaging capability using the coincidence and singles rate data than could be obtained using the singles rate alone.

  5. Note: An improved 3D imaging system for electron-electron coincidence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yun Fei; Lee, Suk Kyoung; Adhikari, Pradip; Herath, Thushani; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Li, Wen

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate an improved imaging system that can achieve highly efficient 3D detection of two electrons in coincidence. The imaging system is based on a fast frame complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera and a high-speed waveform digitizer. We have shown previously that this detection system is capable of 3D detection of ions and electrons with good temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we show that with a new timing analysis algorithm, this system can achieve an unprecedented dead-time (<0.7 ns) and dead-space (<1 mm) when detecting two electrons. A true zero dead-time detection is also demonstrated.

  6. A new double imaging velocity focusing coincidence experiment: i{sup 2}PEPICO

    SciTech Connect

    Bodi, Andras; Hemberger, Patrick; Gerber, Thomas; Sztaray, Balint

    2012-08-15

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline of the Swiss Light Source has been upgraded after two years of operation. A new, turntable-type monochromator was constructed at the Paul Scherrer Institut, which allows for fast yaw-alignment as well as quick grating change and exchange. In addition to the original imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence endstation (iPEPICO), a second, complementary double imaging setup (i{sup 2}PEPICO) has been built. Volatile samples can be introduced at room temperature or in a molecular beam, a pyrolysis source allows for radical production, and non-volatile solids can be evaporated in a heated cell. Monochromatic VUV radiation ionizes the sample and both photoelectrons and photoions are velocity map imaged onto two fast position sensitive detectors and detected in delayed coincidence. High intensity synchrotron radiation leads to ionization rates above 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}. New data acquisition and processing approaches are discussed for recording coincidence processes at high rates. The setup is capable of resolving pulsed molecular beam profiles and the synchrotron time structure temporally. The latter is shown by photoelectron autocorrelation, which displays both the 1.04 MHz ring clock frequency as well as resolving the micro-pulses with a separation of 2 ns. Kinetic energy release analysis on the dissociative photoionization of CF{sub 4} indicates a dissociation mechanism change in the Franck-Condon allowed energy range of the first ion state.

  7. A GSO tweezers-type coincidence detector for tumor detection.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Higashi, Tatsuya; Senda, Michio

    2013-07-01

    A Gd2SiO5 (GSO) tweezers-type coincidence detector was developed and tested for tumor detection in procedures such as (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-guided surgery. The detector consists of a pair of GSO scintillators, a pair of metal-packaged small-sized photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), and a coincidence circuit. Because the GSO scintillators are located on the tips of tweezers, a target organ such as a lymph node or the colon can be easily positioned between them. The size of a single GSO was 8 × 14 × 14 mm. The results show that the energy resolution was 30 % full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and the timing resolution was 6 ns FWHM for 511-keV gamma photons. The point-spread function perpendicular to the detector was 4.5 mm FWHM, and the point-spread function parallel to the detector was 7.5 mm FWHM. The absolute sensitivity of the coincidence detector was 0.6% at the center of the detector when the two GSOs were 5 mm apart. Background counts due to the accidental and scatter coincidence were 2 cps up to 48 MBq from the positron source contained in a 20-cm-diameter, 20-cm-high cylindrical phantom. From these results, we conclude that the proposed tweezers-type coincidence detector is useful for tumor detection by the use of FDG, such as that in radio-guided surgery. PMID:23283753

  8. Multiple-Coincidence Active Neutron Interrogation of Fissionable Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsley, J.R., Hurley, J.P., Trainham, R., Keegan, R.P.

    2008-11-14

    In an extension of the Associated Particle Imaging technique that is used for the detection and imaging of hidden explosives, the present measurements use a beam of tagged 14.1 MeV neutrons in coincidence with two or more gammas to probe for the presence of fissionable materials. We have measured neutron-gamma-gamma coincidences with targets of depleted uranium, tungsten, lead, iron, and carbon and will present results that show the multiple-coincidence counting rate for the depleted uranium is substantially higher than any of the non-fissionable materials. In addition, the presence of coincidences involving delayed particle spectra provides a signature for fissionable materials that is distinct from that for non-fissionable ones. Information from the tagged neutron involved in the coincidence event is used to compute the position of the fissionable material in all three dimensions. The result is an imaging probe for fissionable materials that is compact and portable, and produces relatively low levels of background radiation. Simultaneous measurements on packages of interest for both explosives and fissionable materials are now feasible.

  9. Collisions of 5 keV H+, H0, H- with Copper: Secondary Electron-Reflected Particle Coincidence Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilagyi, Zoltan; McGrath, Caith; Shah, Mansukh; McCullough, Robert; Woolsey, Jack

    2000-06-01

    The emission of secondary electrons during ion impact on a metal surface may be characterised by the secondary electron emission statistics (ES) and the mean yield g. The ES due to 5 keV H+, H0 and H- projectiles incident at 10 degrees on clean polycrystalline Copper, have been measured. Coincidence counting of electrons with reflected positive ions, neutrals and negative ions allow the ES due to specific scattering events to be recorded. The dependence of g on the incident and scattered projectile charge states has been determined. New information on the formation of negative ions from incident positive ions has been collected from this study. A time of flight technique has been employed to determine the energies of the reflected particles.

  10. Boron-10 Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-10-01

    The shortage of 3He has triggered the search for effective alternative neutron detection technologies for national security applications, including international nuclear safeguards. Any alternative neutron detection technology must satisfy two basic criteria: it must meet a neutron detection efficiency requirement, and it must be insensitive to gamma-ray interference at a prescribed level while still meeting the neutron detection requirement. For nuclear safeguards, a system must perform measurements in the field with a prescribed precision in a specified time. This paper describes an effort to design, model and test an alternatives-based neutron coincidence counter for nuclear safeguards applications. The technology chosen for use in an alternatives-based uranium neutron coincidence collar was boron-lined proportional counters. Extensive modeling was performed of various system configurations and comparisons were made to measurements on a commercial prototype boron-10 based uranium neutron coincidence collar.

  11. A Coincidence Signature Library for Multicoincidence Radionuclide Analysis Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Ellis, J E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Miley, Harry S.

    2003-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is currently developing multicoincidence systems to perform trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point, for applications that include emergency response, nuclear forensics, and environmental monitoring. Quantifying radionuclide concentrations with these systems requires a library of accurate emission intensities for each detected signature, for all candidate radionuclides. To meet this need, a Coincidence Lookup Library (CLL) is being developed to calculate the emission intensities of coincident signatures from a user-specified radionuclide, or conversely, to determine the radionuclides that may be responsible for a specific detected coincident signature. The algorithms used to generate absolute emission intensities and various query modes for our developmental CLL are described.

  12. Coincidence anticipation and dynamic visual acuity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane

    2004-12-01

    Research involving college-age students and women fast pitch softball players indicated that coincidence anticipation and dynamic visual acuity are different visual abilities. This study used an alternative procedure to measure dynamic visual acuity to re-examine their relationship. Coincidence anticipation and dynamic visual acuity were measured in 24 young adolescents (12 boys, 12 girls) 11 to 14 years of age. During the dynamic visual acuity procedure, the subject tracked an object of a constant size while the researcher manipulated the object's velocity. Analysis indicated that they are different visual abilities. Findings indicated that the dynamic visual acuity of boys was significantly better than that of girls, and coincidence anticipation between boys and girls did not differ. PMID:15739838

  13. Anthropic versus cosmological solutions to the coincidence problem

    SciTech Connect

    Barreira, A.; Avelino, P. P.

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, we investigate possible solutions to the coincidence problem in flat phantom dark-energy models with a constant dark-energy equation of state and quintessence models with a linear scalar field potential. These models are representative of a broader class of cosmological scenarios in which the universe has a finite lifetime. We show that, in the absence of anthropic constraints, including a prior probability for the models inversely proportional to the total lifetime of the universe excludes models very close to the {Lambda} cold dark matter model. This relates a cosmological solution to the coincidence problem with a dynamical dark-energy component having an equation-of-state parameter not too close to -1 at the present time. We further show that anthropic constraints, if they are sufficiently stringent, may solve the coincidence problem without the need for dynamical dark energy.

  14. DELICIOUS III: A multipurpose double imaging particle coincidence spectrometer for gas phase vacuum ultraviolet photodynamics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G. A.; Cunha de Miranda, B. K.; Tia, M.; Daly, S.; Nahon, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present a versatile double imaging particle coincidence spectrometer operating in fully continuous mode, named DELICIOUS III, which combines a velocity map imaging device and a modified Wiley-McLaren time of flight momentum imaging analyzer for photoelectrons and photoions, respectively. The spectrometer is installed in a permanent endstation on the DESIRS vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline at the French National Synchrotron Radiation Facility SOLEIL, and is dedicated to gas phase VUV spectroscopy, photoionization, and molecular dynamics studies. DELICIOUS III is capable of recording mass-selected threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence spectra with a sub-meV resolution, and the addition of a magnifying lens inside the electron drift tube provides a sizeable improvement of the electron threshold/ion mass resolution compromise. In fast electron mode the ultimate kinetic energy resolution has been measured at ΔE/E = 4%. The ion spectrometer offers a mass resolution—full separation of adjacent masses—of 250 amu for moderate extraction fields and the addition of an electrostatic lens in the second acceleration region allows measuring the full 3D velocity vector for a given mass with an ultimate energy resolution of ΔE/E = 15%, without sacrificing the mass resolution. Hence, photoelectron images are correlated both to the mass and to the ion kinetic energy and recoil direction, to access the electron spectroscopy of size-selected species, to study the photodissociation processes of state-selected cations in detail, or to measure in certain cases photoelectron angular distributions in the ion recoil frame. The performances of DELICIOUS III are explored through several examples including the photoionization of N2, NO, and CF3.

  15. Disentangling Multichannel Photodissociation Dynamics in Acetone by Time-Resolved Photoelectron-Photoion Coincidence Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maierhofer, Paul; Bainschab, Markus; Thaler, Bernhard; Heim, Pascal; Ernst, Wolfgang E; Koch, Markus

    2016-08-18

    For the investigation of photoinduced dynamics in molecules with time-resolved pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy, it is essential to obtain unequivocal information about the fragmentation behavior induced by the laser pulses. We present time-resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence (PEPICO) experiments to investigate the excited-state dynamics of isolated acetone molecules triggered by two-photon (269 nm) excitation. In the complex situation of different relaxation pathways, we unambiguously identify three distinct pump-probe ionization channels. The high selectivity of PEPICO detection allows us to observe the fragmentation behavior and to follow the time evolution of each channel separately. For channels leading to fragment ions, we quantitatively obtain the fragment-to-parent branching ratio and are able to determine experimentally whether dissociation occurs in the neutral molecule or in the parent ion. These results highlight the importance of coincidence detection for the interpretation of time-resolved photochemical relaxation and dissociation studies if multiple pathways are present. PMID:27459051

  16. Note: Geiger tube coincidence counter for lower atmosphere radiosonde measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K. A.; Lomas, A. G.

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric profiles of cosmic rays and radioactivity can be obtained using adapted meteorological radiosondes, for which Geiger tubes remain widely used detectors. Simultaneous triggering of two tubes provides an indication of energetic events. As, however, only small volume detectors can be carried, the event rate is small, which, due to the rapid balloon ascent, cannot be circumvented using long averaging periods. To derive count rates at low altitudes, a microcontroller is used to determine the inter-event time. This yields estimates of the coincidence rate below 5 km, where the coincidence rate is too small to determine solely by event counting.

  17. Optical coupling system for photon-photon coincidence experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masterson, K. D.

    1973-01-01

    An efficient optical coupling system is presented that promises to be useful in experiments where it is necessary to collect a large fraction of emitted photons, as in photon-photon coincidence experiments. Narrow bandpass interference filters are an integral part of the proposed system.

  18. Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Model Utilizing 3He

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Rogers, Jeremy L.; Schweppe, John E.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-07-30

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in a configuration typically used for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. The specific application selected for boron-lined tube replacement in this project was one of the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL) designs. This report, providing results for model development of a UNCL, is a deliverable under Task 2 of the project. The current UNCL instruments utilize 3He tubes. As the first step in developing and optimizing a boron-lined proportional counter based version of the UNCL, models of eight different 3He-based UNCL detectors currently in use were developed and evaluated. A comparison was made between the simulated results and measured efficiencies for those systems with values reported in the literature. The reported experimental measurements for efficiencies and die-away times agree to within 10%.

  19. Wigner-Thomas spin precession in polarized coincidence electronuclear scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitrasinovic, V. )

    1993-05-01

    The role of the Wigner-Thomas precession in nucleon recoil polarization measurements in coincidence electron scattering processes is examined. The necessary formalism is developed within the framework of the Jacob-Wick method, and then applied to two processes: the pseudoscalar electroproduction off a nucleon and the deuteron two-body electrodisintegration.

  20. Real-time algorithm for robust coincidence search

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, T.; Vencelj, M.; Lipoglavsek, M.; Gajevic, J.; Pelicon, P.

    2012-10-20

    In in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy experiments, we often look for coincident detection events. Among every N events detected, coincidence search is naively of principal complexity O(N{sup 2}). When we limit the approximate width of the coincidence search window, the complexity can be reduced to O(N), permitting the implementation of the algorithm into real-time measurements, carried out indefinitely. We have built an algorithm to find simultaneous events between two detection channels. The algorithm was tested in an experiment where coincidences between X and {gamma} rays detected in two HPGe detectors were observed in the decay of {sup 61}Cu. Functioning of the algorithm was validated by comparing calculated experimental branching ratio for EC decay and theoretical calculation for 3 selected {gamma}-ray energies for {sup 61}Cu decay. Our research opened a question on the validity of the adopted value of total angular momentum of the 656 keV state (J{sup {pi}} = 1/2{sup -}) in {sup 61}Ni.

  1. Multiple channel coincidence detector and controller for microseismic data analysis

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1976-11-16

    A multiple channel coincidence detector circuit is provided for analyzing data either in real time or recorded data on a magnetic tape during an experiment for determining location and progression of fractures in an oil field or the like while water is being injected at high pressure in wells located in the field. The circuit is based upon the utilization of a set of parity generator trees combined with monostable multivibrators to detect the occurrence of two events at any pair of channel input terminals that are within a preselected time frame and have an amplitude above a preselected magnitude. The parity generators perform an exclusive OR function in a timing circuit composed of monostable multivibrators that serve to yield an output when two events are present in the preselected time frame. Any coincidences falling outside this time frame are considered either noise or not otherwise useful in the analysis of the recorded data. Input pulses of absolute magnitude below the low-level threshold setting of a bipolar low-level threshold detector are unwanted and therefore rejected. A control output is provided for a utilization device from a coincidence hold circuit that may be used to halt a tape search unit at the time of coincidence or perform other useful control functions.

  2. Study of inner-shell vacancy cascades by coincidence techniques

    SciTech Connect

    LeBrun, T.; Arp, U.; MacDonald, M.; Southworth, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    An inner-shell vacancy in an atom decays by an intricate combination of Auger and fluorescence processes. The interrelation between these processes is not well understood because traditional studies of core-excited atoms focus on only one of the many particles that participate in the relaxation - largely ignoring the other components and the correlations between them. To understand these correlations we developed a coincidence technique that uses coincident detection of X-rays and electrons to select decay pathways that involve emission of both an X-ray photon and electrons. In the first application of this technique, the Ar 1s photoelectron spectrum was recorded selectively in coincidence with X-ray fluorescence to eliminate the asymmetric broadening and shifting of the energy distribution which results due to post-collision interaction with K-Auger electrons. This allowed the direct observation of the interaction between the photoelectron and the decay of core holes created after the initial photoionization event. We have also applied this technique to the much more complex problem of understanding Auger-electron spectra produced by vacancy cascades following inner-shell excitation. For example, we previously recorded non-coincident electron spectra of L{sub 2,3}MM Auger transitions following K-shell excitation of argon. Interpretation of these spectra is difficult because they are complicated and consist of many overlapping or unresolved Auger transitions between different ionic states.

  3. Fission measurements with PPAC detectors using a coincidence technique

    SciTech Connect

    Paradela, C.; Duran, I.; Tarrio, D.; Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Stephan, C.

    2011-07-01

    A fission detection setup based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) has been constructed and used at the CERN n-TOF facility. The setup takes advantage of the coincidence detection of both fission fragments to discriminate the background reactions produced by high energy neutrons and it allows obtaining neutron-induced fission cross section up to 1 GeV. (authors)

  4. The Galileo/Mars Observer/Ulysses Coincidence Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    From March 21 to April 11, 1993 the Galileo, Mars Observer and Ulysses spacecraft were tracked in a coincidence experiment, searching for low-frequency (millihertz) gravitational radiation. In the spacecraft Doppler technique, the earth and a distant spacecraft act as separated test masses.

  5. Preliminary simulation study of a coincidence Avalanche Pixel Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignetti, M. M.; Calmon, F.; Cellier, R.; Pittet, P.; Quiquerez, L.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a preliminary study of coincidence Avalanche Pixel Sensors (APiX) for High Energy Physics (HEP) applications is presented. In this preliminary work, some PEB prevention techniques found in literature have been studied by TCAD simulations adopting 2D Cylindrical geometrical models and 130nm CMOS process technological data.

  6. Threshold Photoelectron Photoion Coincidence (TPEPICO) Studies. The Road to ± 0.1 kJ/mol Thermochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Tomas

    2013-10-14

    The threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) technique is utilized to investigate the dissociation dynamics and thermochemistry of energy selected medium to large organic molecular ions. The reactions include parallel and consecutive steps that are modeled with the statistical theory in order to extract dissociation onsets for multiple dissociation paths. These studies are carried out with the aid of molecular orbital calculations of both ions and the transition states connecting the ion structure to their products. The results of these investigations yield accurate heats of formation of ions, free radicals, and stable molecules. In addition, they provide information about the potential energy surface that governs the dissociation process. Isomerization reactions prior to dissociation are readily inferred from the TPEPICO data.

  7. Momentum spectrometer for electron-electron coincidence studies on superconductors.

    PubMed

    Wallauer, Robert; Voss, Stefan; Foucar, Lutz; Bauer, Tobias; Schneider, Deborah; Titze, Jasmin; Ulrich, Birte; Kreidi, Katharina; Neumann, Nadine; Havermeier, Tilo; Schöffler, Markus; Jahnke, Till; Czasch, Achim; Schmidt, Lothar; Kanigel, Amit; Campuzano, Juan Carlos; Jeschke, Harald; Valenti, Roser; Müller, Andreas; Berner, Götz; Sing, Michael; Claessen, Ralph; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst; Dörner, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    We present a new experimental setup to study electron-electron coincidences from superconducting surfaces. In our approach, electrons emitted from a surface are projected onto a time- and position-sensitive microchannel plate detector with delayline position readout. Electrons that are emitted within 2 π solid angle with respect to the surface are detected in coincidence. The detector used is a hexagonal delayline detector with enhanced multiple hit capabilities. It is read out with a Flash analog-to-digital converter. The three-dimensional momentum vector is obtained for each electron. The intrinsic dead time of the detector has been greatly reduced by implementing a new algorithm for pulse analysis. The sample holder has been matched to fit the spectrometer while being capable of cooling down the sample to 4.5 K during the measurement and heating it up to 420 K for the cleaning procedure. PMID:23126780

  8. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems.

    PubMed

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2008-08-01

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples. PMID:18222698

  9. Search for gamma ray bursts with coincident balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Teegarden, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    A search was conducted for cosmic gamma ray bursts of small size and of sufficient frequency of occurrence to be detected during a one day observation program. Two similar detectors, successfully balloon-borne from launch sites in South Dakota and Texas, achieved about 20 hours of simultaneous operation at several millibars atmospheric depth, with continuous separation of over 1,500 km. Fluctuations of the counting rates of less than 150 keV photons with temporal structures from microseconds to several minutes were compared in order to detect coincident or associated responses from the two instruments. No coincident gamma-ray burst events were detected. The resulting integral size spectrum of small bursts, from this and from all other searches, remains a spectrum of upper limits, consistent with an extrapolation of the size spectrum of the largest known bursts, fitting a power low of index -1.5.

  10. Momentum spectrometer for electron-electron coincidence studies on superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Wallauer, Robert; Voss, Stefan; Bauer, Tobias; Schneider, Deborah; Titze, Jasmin; Ulrich, Birte; Kreidi, Katharina; Neumann, Nadine; Havermeier, Tilo; Schoeffler, Markus; Jahnke, Till; Czasch, Achim; Schmidt, Lothar; Schmidt-Boecking, Horst; Doerner, Reinhard; Kanigel, Amit; Campuzano, Juan Carlos; Jeschke, Harald; Valenti, Roser [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt and others

    2012-10-15

    We present a new experimental setup to study electron-electron coincidences from superconducting surfaces. In our approach, electrons emitted from a surface are projected onto a time- and position-sensitive microchannel plate detector with delayline position readout. Electrons that are emitted within 2 {pi} solid angle with respect to the surface are detected in coincidence. The detector used is a hexagonal delayline detector with enhanced multiple hit capabilities. It is read out with a Flash analog-to-digital converter. The three-dimensional momentum vector is obtained for each electron. The intrinsic dead time of the detector has been greatly reduced by implementing a new algorithm for pulse analysis. The sample holder has been matched to fit the spectrometer while being capable of cooling down the sample to 4.5 K during the measurement and heating it up to 420 K for the cleaning procedure.

  11. Anti-anthropic solutions to the cosmic coincidence problem

    SciTech Connect

    Fedrow, Joseph M.; Griest, Kim E-mail: kgriest@ucsd.edu

    2014-01-01

    A cosmological constant fits all current dark energy data, but requires two extreme fine tunings, both of which are currently explained by anthropic arguments. Here we discuss anti-anthropic solutions to one of these problems: the cosmic coincidence problem- that today the dark energy density is nearly equal to the matter density. We replace the ensemble of Universes used in the anthropic solution with an ensemble of tracking scalar fields that do not require fine-tuning. This not only does away with the coincidence problem, but also allows for a Universe that has a very different future than the one currently predicted by a cosmological constant. These models also allow for transient periods of significant scalar field energy (SSFE) over the history of the Universe that can give very different observational signatures as compared with a cosmological constant, and so can be confirmed or disproved in current and upcoming experiments.

  12. Coincidence Doppler Broadening of Positron Annihilation Radiation in Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, E.; Vanin, V. R.; Maidana, N. L.; Helene, O.

    2013-06-01

    We measured the Doppler broadening annihilation radiation spectrum in Fe, using 22NaCl as a positron source, and two Ge detectors in coincidence arrangement. The two-dimensional coincidence energy spectrum was fitted using a model function that included positron annihilation with the conduction band and 3d electrons, 3s and 3p electrons, and in-flight positron annihilation. Detectors response functions included backscattering and a combination of Compton and pulse pileup, ballistic deficit and shaping effects. The core electrons annihilation intensity was measured as 16.4(3) %, with almost all the remainder assigned to the less bound electrons. The obtained results are in agreement with published theoretical values.

  13. Using CHIMERA detector at LNS for gamma-particle coincidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardella, G.; Acosta, L.; Auditore, L.; Chatterjiee, M. B.; Castoldi, A.; De Filippo, E.; Dell'Aquila, D.; De Luca, S.; Gnoffo, B.; Guazzoni, C.; Francalanza, L.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Martorana, N.; Norella, S.; Pagano, A.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.

    2016-05-01

    We have recently evaluated the quality of γ-ray angular distributions that can be extracted in particle-gamma coincidence measurements using the CHIMERA detector at LNS. γ-rays have been detected using the CsI(Tl) detectors of the spherical part of the CHIMERA array. Very clean γ-rays angular distributions were extracted in reactions induced by different stable beams impinging on 12C thin targets. The results evidenced an effect of projectile spin flip on the γ-rays angular distributions. γ-particle coincidence measurements were also performed in reactions induced by neutron rich exotic beams produced through in-flight fragmentation at LNS. In recent experiments also the Farcos array was used to improve energy and angular resolution measurements of the detected charged particles. Results obtained with both stable and radioactive beams are reported.

  14. System for monitoring non-coincident, nonstationary process signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.

    2005-01-04

    An improved system for monitoring non-coincident, non-stationary, process signals. The mean, variance, and length of a reference signal is defined by an automated system, followed by the identification of the leading and falling edges of a monitored signal and the length of the monitored signal. The monitored signal is compared to the reference signal, and the monitored signal is resampled in accordance with the reference signal. The reference signal is then correlated with the resampled monitored signal such that the reference signal and the resampled monitored signal are coincident in time with each other. The resampled monitored signal is then compared to the reference signal to determine whether the resampled monitored signal is within a set of predesignated operating conditions.

  15. The 8 Coincidences of Galaxy Photometry - Selection Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disney, M. J.; Phillipps, S.

    When the photometric properties of significant numbers of galaxies are compared, eight remarkable coincidences turn up. No convincing explanation for these have appeared so far. However, it may be that they can all be explained through a single powerful selection effect which brings into prominence only galaxies of certain favourable surface brightnesses. If that is the case, then our current understanding of galaxy populations is a delusion, and there must be many more galaxies about than we presently assume.

  16. A coincidence of addiction to "Kratom" and severe primary hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sheleg, Sergey V; Collins, Gregory B

    2011-12-01

    Here we present a case of a coincidence of addiction to "Kratom" (botanically known as Mitragyna speciosa Korth) and developed severe primary hypothyroidism. We are discussing a possibility that high dose of indole alkaloid mitragynine (the major alkaloid identified from "Kratom") might reduce the normal response of the thyroid gland to thyroid-stimulating hormone resulting in primary hypothyroidism. Further experimental investigations of mitragynine as a possible suppressor of thyroid gland function would be a matter of interest. PMID:21817918

  17. Neutron depth profiling by large angle coincidence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Vacik, J.; Cervena, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Havranek, V.; Fink, D.

    1995-12-31

    Extremely low concentrations of several technologically important elements (mainly lithium and boron) have been studied by a modified neutron depth profiling technique. Large angle coincidence spectroscopy using neutrons to probe solids with a thickness not exceeding several micrometers has proved to be a powerful analytical method with an excellent detection sensitivity. Depth profiles in the ppb atomic range are accessible for any solid material. A depth resolution of about 20 nanometers can be achieved.

  18. Neural mechanisms of timing control in a coincident timing task.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Hiroaki; Sommer, Werner; Takasawa, Noriyoshi; Yamazaki, Katuo

    2012-04-01

    Many ball sports such as tennis or baseball require precise temporal anticipation of both sensory input and motor output (i.e., receptor anticipation and effector anticipation, respectively) and close performance monitoring. We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying timing control and performance monitoring in a coincident timing task involving both types of anticipations. Peak force for two time-to-peak force (TTP) conditions-recorded with a force-sensitive key-was required to coincide with a specific position of a stimulus rotating either slow or fast on a clock face while the contingent negative variation (CNV) and the motor-elicited negativity were recorded. Absolute timing error was generally smaller for short TTP (high velocity) conditions. CNV amplitudes increased with both faster stimulus velocity and longer TTPs possibly reflecting increased motor programming efforts. In addition, the motor-elicited negativity was largest in the slow stimulus/short TTP condition, probably representing some forms of performance monitoring as well as shorter response duration. Our findings indicate that the coincident timing task is a good model for real-life situations of tool use. PMID:22415201

  19. High spatial resolution two-dimensional position sensitive detector for the performance of coincidence experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ceolin, D.; Chaplier, G.; Lemonnier, M.; Garcia, G.A.; Miron, C.; Nahon, L.; Simon, M.; Leclercq, N.; Morin, P.

    2005-04-01

    A position sensitive detector (PSD) adapted to the technical and mechanical specifications of our angle and energy resolved electron-ion(s) coincidence experiments is described in this article. The device, whose principle is very similar to the one detailed by J. H. D. Eland [Meas. Sci. Technol. 5, 1501 (1994)], is composed by a set of microchannel plates and a delay line anode. The originality comes from the addition in front of the encoding surface of a ceramic disk covered by a resistive surface. The capacitive coupling between the anode and the resistive plane has the double advantage of eliminating the spatial modulations due to the lattice of the anode and also of sensitizing a greater number of electrodes, increasing thus considerably the accuracy of the position measurements. The tests carried out with a time to digital conversion module of 250 ps resolution showed that a spatial resolution better than 50 {mu}m and a dead time of 160 ns can be achieved. Typical images obtained with the help of the EPICEA and DELICIOUS coincidence setups are also shown.

  20. Coincident site lattice bi-crystals growth-Impurity segregation towards grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autruffe, Antoine; Vines, Lasse; Arnberg, Lars; Di Sabatino, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Bi-crystal silicon ingots with coincident site lattice (CSL) grain boundaries (GB), namely Σ3, Σ9, Σ27a, have been grown in a small scale Bridgman type furnace at 3 μm/s. Melts have been intentionally polluted with 25 ppma of copper and indium. Segregation of these impurities towards the central grain boundaries has been assessed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Influence of topological imperfections and grain boundary nature has been investigated. While copper segregation towards Σ3 GB has not been detected, copper has been found to diffuse towards Σ9 and Σ27a GB, especially at steps and GB junctions. Indium segregation has not been detected at any GB. This indicates that slow-diffusing element segregation towards GB depends on the boundary nature, and/or the grains orientation.

  1. Design and Performance of the Astro-E/XRS Microcalorimeter Array and Anti-Coincidence Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, C. K.; Audley, M. D.; Boyce, K. R.; Brekosky, R. P.; Fujimoto, R.; Gendreau, K. C.; Gygax, J. D.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; McClanahan, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    The XRS instrument has an array of 32 micro-calorimeters at the focal plane. These calorimeters consist of ion-implanted silicon thermistors and HgTe thermalizing x-ray absorbers. These devices have demonstrated a resolution of 9 eV at 3 keV and 11 eV at 6 keV. We will discuss the basic physical parameters of this array, including the array layout, thermal conductance of the link to the heat sink, operating temperature, thermistor size, absorber choice, and means of attaching the absorber to the thermistor bearing element. We will present representative performance data, though a more detailed presentation of the results of the instrument calibration is presented elsewhere in these proceedings. A silicon ionization detector is located behind the calorimeter array and serves to reject events due to cosmic rays. We will briefly describe this anti-coincidence detector and its performance in conjunction with the array.

  2. Synchrotron-based double imaging photoelectron/photoion coincidence spectroscopy of radicals produced in a flow tube: OH and OD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Gustavo A.; Tang, Xiaofeng; Gil, Jean-François; Nahon, Laurent; Ward, Michael; Batut, Sebastien; Fittschen, Christa; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Loison, Jean-Christophe

    2015-04-01

    We present a microwave discharge flow tube coupled with a double imaging electron/ion coincidence device and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. The system has been applied to the study of the photoelectron spectroscopy of the well-known radicals OH and OD. The coincidence imaging scheme provides a high selectivity and yields the spectra of the pure radicals, removing the ever-present contributions from excess reactants, background, or secondary products, and therefore obviating the need for a prior knowledge of all possible byproducts. The photoelectron spectra encompassing the X3Σ- ground state of the OH+ and OD+ cations have been extracted and the vibrational constants compared satisfactorily to existing literature values. Future advantages of this approach include measurement of high resolution VUV spectroscopy of radicals, their absolute photoionization cross section, and species/isomer identification in chemical reactions as a function of time.

  3. Synchrotron-based double imaging photoelectron/photoion coincidence spectroscopy of radicals produced in a flow tube: OH and OD

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Garcia, Gustavo A.; Tang, Xiaofeng; Gil, Jean -Francois; Nahon, Laurent; Ward, Michael; Batut, Sebastien; Fittschen, Christa; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Loison, Jean -Christophe

    2015-04-23

    In this study, we present a microwave discharge flow tube coupled with a double imaging electron/ion coincidence device and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. The system has been applied to the study of the photoelectron spectroscopy of the well-known radicals OH and OD. The coincidence imaging scheme provides a high selectivity and yields the spectra of the pure radicals, removing the ever-present contributions from excess reactants, background, or secondary products, and therefore obviating the need for a prior knowledge of all possible byproducts. The photoelectron spectra encompassing the X3Σ– ground state of the OH+ and OD+ cations have been extractedmore » and the vibrational constants compared satisfactorily to existing literature values. Future advantages of this approach include measurement of high resolution VUV spectroscopy of radicals, their absolute photoionization cross section, and species/isomer identification in chemical reactions as a function of time.« less

  4. Synchrotron-based double imaging photoelectron/photoion coincidence spectroscopy of radicals produced in a flow tube: OH and OD

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Gustavo A.; Tang, Xiaofeng; Gil, Jean-François; Nahon, Laurent; Ward, Michael; Batut, Sebastien; Fittschen, Christa; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Loison, Jean-Christophe

    2015-04-28

    We present a microwave discharge flow tube coupled with a double imaging electron/ion coincidence device and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. The system has been applied to the study of the photoelectron spectroscopy of the well-known radicals OH and OD. The coincidence imaging scheme provides a high selectivity and yields the spectra of the pure radicals, removing the ever-present contributions from excess reactants, background, or secondary products, and therefore obviating the need for a prior knowledge of all possible byproducts. The photoelectron spectra encompassing the X{sup 3}Σ{sup −} ground state of the OH{sup +} and OD{sup +} cations have been extracted and the vibrational constants compared satisfactorily to existing literature values. Future advantages of this approach include measurement of high resolution VUV spectroscopy of radicals, their absolute photoionization cross section, and species/isomer identification in chemical reactions as a function of time.

  5. Synchrotron-based double imaging photoelectron/photoion coincidence spectroscopy of radicals produced in a flow tube: OH and OD

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Gustavo A.; Tang, Xiaofeng; Gil, Jean -Francois; Nahon, Laurent; Ward, Michael; Batut, Sebastien; Fittschen, Christa; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Loison, Jean -Christophe

    2015-04-23

    In this study, we present a microwave discharge flow tube coupled with a double imaging electron/ion coincidence device and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. The system has been applied to the study of the photoelectron spectroscopy of the well-known radicals OH and OD. The coincidence imaging scheme provides a high selectivity and yields the spectra of the pure radicals, removing the ever-present contributions from excess reactants, background, or secondary products, and therefore obviating the need for a prior knowledge of all possible byproducts. The photoelectron spectra encompassing the X3Σ ground state of the OH+ and OD+ cations have been extracted and the vibrational constants compared satisfactorily to existing literature values. Future advantages of this approach include measurement of high resolution VUV spectroscopy of radicals, their absolute photoionization cross section, and species/isomer identification in chemical reactions as a function of time.

  6. Luminosity Coincident with Initial Breakdown Pulses in Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolzenburg, M.; Marshall, T.; Karunarathne, S.; Karunarathna, N.; Vickers, L.; Warner, T. A.; Orville, R. E.; Betz, H.

    2012-12-01

    Time correlated high-speed video and electromagnetic data for 15 cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning flashes reveal bursts of light, bright enough to be seen through intervening cloud, during the initial breakdown (IB) stage and within the first 3 ms after flash initiation. Each sudden increase in luminosity is coincident with a CG-type (12 cases) or IC-type (3 cases) IB pulse in fast electric field change records. Some of these IB pulses have a coincident VLF/LF (LINET) or a VHF (LDAR2) radiation source. The luminosity bursts of 14 CG flashes occur 11-340 ms before the first return stroke, at altitudes of 4-8 km, and at 4-41 km range from the camera. In seven cases, streamer-type linear segments visibly advance away from the first light burst for 55-200 μs, then the entire length dims, then the luminosity sequence repeats along the same path. These visible initial streamers lengthen intermittently to about 300-1500 m. Their estimated 2-D speeds are 4 to 18 x 10^5 m/s over the first few hundred microseconds and decrease by about 50% over the first 2 ms. In other cases, only a bright spot or a broad area of diffuse light, presumably scattered by intervening cloud, is visible. The bright area grows larger over 20-60 μs before the luminosity fades in about 100 μs, then this sequence may repeat several times. In several of the flashes a 1-2 ms period of little or no luminosity and small E-change is observed following the IB stage prior to stepped leader development. In this presentation we will show examples of the IB luminosity and coincident electromagnetic data.

  7. Slow earthquakes coincident with episodic tremors and slow slip events.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshihiro; Obara, Kazushige; Shiomi, Katsuhiko; Sekine, Shutaro; Hirose, Hitoshi

    2007-01-26

    We report on the very-low-frequency earthquakes occurring in the transition zone of the subducting plate interface along the Nankai subduction zone in southwest Japan. Seismic waves generated by very-low-frequency earthquakes with seismic moment magnitudes of 3.1 to 3.5 predominantly show a long period of about 20 seconds. The seismicity of very-low-frequency earthquakes accompanies and migrates with the activity of deep low-frequency tremors and slow slip events. The coincidence of these three phenomena improves the detection and characterization of slow earthquakes, which are thought to increase the stress on updip megathrust earthquake rupture zones. PMID:17138867

  8. Enhanced PET resolution by combining pinhole collimation and coincidence detection.

    PubMed

    DiFilippo, Frank P

    2015-10-21

    Spatial resolution of clinical PET scanners is limited by detector design and photon non-colinearity. Although dedicated small animal PET scanners using specialized high-resolution detectors have been developed, enhancing the spatial resolution of clinical PET scanners is of interest as a more available alternative. Multi-pinhole 511 keV SPECT is capable of high spatial resolution but requires heavily shielded collimators to avoid significant background counts. A practical approach with clinical PET detectors is to combine multi-pinhole collimation with coincidence detection. In this new hybrid modality, there are three locations associated with each event, namely those of the two detected photons and the pinhole aperture. These three locations over-determine the line of response and provide redundant information that is superior to coincidence detection or pinhole collimation alone. Multi-pinhole collimation provides high resolution and avoids non-colinearity error but is subject to collimator penetration and artifacts from overlapping projections. However the coincidence information, though at lower resolution, is valuable for determining whether the photon passed near a pinhole within the cone acceptance angle and for identifying through which pinhole the photon passed. This information allows most photons penetrating through the collimator to be rejected and avoids overlapping projections. With much improved event rejection, a collimator with minimal shielding may be used, and a lightweight add-on collimator for high resolution imaging is feasible for use with a clinical PET scanner. Monte Carlo simulations were performed of a (18)F hot rods phantom and a 54-pinhole unfocused whole-body mouse collimator with a clinical PET scanner. Based on coincidence information and pinhole geometry, events were accepted or rejected, and pinhole-specific crystal-map projections were generated. Tomographic images then were reconstructed using a conventional pinhole SPECT

  9. Coincidence studies of diffraction structures in binary encounter electron spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.; Hagmann, S.; Richard, P.

    1994-12-31

    The authors have measured binary encounter electron (BEe) production in collisions of 0.3 MeV/u Cu{sup q+} (q=4,12) projectiles on H{sub 2} targets from 0 to 70 degrees with respect to the beam direction. Prominent features are the appearance of the BEe peak splitting and a very strong forward peaked angular distribution which are attributed to the diffractive scattering of the quasifree target electrons in the short range potential of the projectile. Using electron-projectile final charge state coincidence techniques, different collision reaction channels can be separated. Measurements of this type are being pursued.

  10. Triple coincidence PALS setup based on fast pulse digitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosnar, D.; Đurđević, B.; Pavelić, L.; Bosnar, S.

    2015-06-01

    We have assembled positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy system that consists of three BaF2 detectors with XP2020URQ PMTs which are directly coupled to DRS4 evaluation board. Both time and energy information of the detected gamma rays are reconstructed. In the off-line analysis, by using selected cuts on energies of gamma rays, double, as well as triple coincidence events can be extracted. The setup is very suitable for the determination of contributions of positronium three gamma annihilations which can be of interest in the investigations of various porous materials.

  11. Coincidence corrected efficiency calibration of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aucott, T.

    2015-04-20

    The authors present a reliable method to calibrate the full-energy efficiency and the coincidence correction factors using a commonly-available mixed source gamma standard. This is accomplished by measuring the peak areas from both summing and non-summing decay schemes and simultaneously fitting both the full-energy efficiency, as well as the total efficiency, as functions of energy. By using known decay schemes, these functions can then be used to provide correction factors for other nuclides not included in the calibration standard.

  12. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  13. Enhanced Photofission-based, Coincidence/Multiplicity Inspection Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    J.L. Jones; D.R. Norman; K.J. Haskell; M.T. Swinhoe; S.J. Tobin; W.H. Geist; R.B. Rothrock; C.R. Freeman

    2010-07-01

    An enhanced active interrogation system has been developed that integrates a transportable Idaho National Laboratory (INL) photonuclear inspection system, using a pulsed bremsstrahlung source and a reconfigurable neutron detection system, with a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) list-mode data acquisition system. A series of active interrogation experiments have shown enhanced nuclear material detection and identification utilizing pulsed photofission-induced, neutron coincidence/multiplicity counting between pulses of an up-to-10-MeV electron accelerator. This paper describes the integrated inspection system and presents some key shielded and unshielded nuclear material inspection results. The enhanced inspection methodology has applicability to homeland security and possible nuclear weapon dismantlement treaties.

  14. Enhanced PET resolution by combining pinhole collimation and coincidence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiFilippo, Frank P.

    2015-10-01

    Spatial resolution of clinical PET scanners is limited by detector design and photon non-colinearity. Although dedicated small animal PET scanners using specialized high-resolution detectors have been developed, enhancing the spatial resolution of clinical PET scanners is of interest as a more available alternative. Multi-pinhole 511 keV SPECT is capable of high spatial resolution but requires heavily shielded collimators to avoid significant background counts. A practical approach with clinical PET detectors is to combine multi-pinhole collimation with coincidence detection. In this new hybrid modality, there are three locations associated with each event, namely those of the two detected photons and the pinhole aperture. These three locations over-determine the line of response and provide redundant information that is superior to coincidence detection or pinhole collimation alone. Multi-pinhole collimation provides high resolution and avoids non-colinearity error but is subject to collimator penetration and artifacts from overlapping projections. However the coincidence information, though at lower resolution, is valuable for determining whether the photon passed near a pinhole within the cone acceptance angle and for identifying through which pinhole the photon passed. This information allows most photons penetrating through the collimator to be rejected and avoids overlapping projections. With much improved event rejection, a collimator with minimal shielding may be used, and a lightweight add-on collimator for high resolution imaging is feasible for use with a clinical PET scanner. Monte Carlo simulations were performed of a 18F hot rods phantom and a 54-pinhole unfocused whole-body mouse collimator with a clinical PET scanner. Based on coincidence information and pinhole geometry, events were accepted or rejected, and pinhole-specific crystal-map projections were generated. Tomographic images then were reconstructed using a conventional pinhole SPECT

  15. Cross-correlation in the auditory coincidence detectors of owls.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Brian J; Christianson, G Björn; Peña, José Luis

    2008-08-01

    Interaural time difference (ITD) plays a central role in many auditory functions, most importantly in sound localization. The classic model for how ITD is computed was put forth by Jeffress (1948). One of the predictions of the Jeffress model is that the neurons that compute ITD should behave as cross-correlators. Whereas cross-correlation-like properties of the ITD-computing neurons have been reported, attempts to show that the shape of the ITD response function is determined by the spectral tuning of the neuron, a core prediction of cross-correlation, have been unsuccessful. Using reverse correlation analysis, we demonstrate in the barn owl that the relationship between the spectral tuning and the ITD response of the ITD-computing neurons is that predicted by cross-correlation. Moreover, we show that a model of coincidence detector responses derived from responses to binaurally uncorrelated noise is consistent with binaural interaction based on cross-correlation. These results are thus consistent with one of the key tenets of the Jeffress model. Our work sets forth both the methodology to answer whether cross-correlation describes coincidence detector responses and a demonstration that in the barn owl, the result is that expected by theory. PMID:18685035

  16. TYPE III EXCITABILITY, SLOPE SENSITIVITY AND COINCIDENCE DETECTION.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangying; Huguet, Gemma; Rinzel, John

    2012-08-01

    Some neurons in the nervous system do not show repetitive firing for steady currents. For time-varying inputs, they fire once if the input rise is fast enough. This property of phasic firing is known as Type III excitability. Type III excitability has been observed in neurons in the auditory brainstem (MSO), which show strong phase-locking and accurate coincidence detection. In this paper, we consider a Hodgkin-Huxley type model (RM03) that is widely-used for phasic MSO neurons and we compare it with a modification of it, showing tonic behavior. We provide insight into the temporal processing of these neuron models by means of developing and analyzing two reduced models that reproduce qualitatively the properties of the exemplar ones. The geometric and mathematical analysis of the reduced models allows us to detect and quantify relevant features for the temporal computation such as nearness to threshold and a temporal integration window. Our results underscore the importance of Type III excitability for precise coincidence detection. PMID:23667306

  17. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

  18. An underwater neutron coincidence counter for measurement of spent fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, P.; Halbig, J.; Lestone, J.; Sprinkle, J.

    1999-07-01

    An underwater neutron coincident counter has been designed and constructed for the measurement of spent nuclear fuel--the spent-fuel coincident counter (SFCC). The SFCC is a medium-detection-efficiency design that incorporates an ionization chamber (IC) for gamma-ray dose evaluation from the spent nuclear fuel. The absolute neutron detection efficiency is 14.5% for {sup 252}Cf sources. The SFCC is hermetically sealed, as it is installed {approximately}5 m below water level in a spent-fuel storage pond. There are 20 {sup 3}He tubes arranged within a polyethylene ring in a single band. There is an inner ring of 6.8 cm of lead to provide shielding from the fission product gamma rays. A single IC is primarily used to determine the dose impinging upon the {sup 3}He tubes and to determine the appropriate operational parameters to avoid gamma-ray pile effects in the {sup 3}He tubes. To further minimize gamma-ray pileup effects, each {sup 3}He tube is connected to a PDT110A preamplifier. The single and double neutron count rates, in addition to the IC measurement information from the SFCC, are used to determine the Pu mass of the spent-fuel assemblies and the decay heat and for classification of the assembly type. This information is required such that safety criteria are met for the safe packaging of the spent-fuel assemblies.

  19. Improved β-γ Coincidence Detector For Radioxenon Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Matthew W; Carman, April J; Hayes, James C; Heimbigner, Tom R; Hubbard, Charles W; Litke, Kevin E; McIntyre, Justin I; Morris, Scott J; Ripplinger, Michael D; Suarez, Reynold

    2005-08-31

    The Automated Radio-xenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA), built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), can collect and detect several radioxenon isotopes. ARSA is very sensitive to 133Xe, 131mXe, 133mXe and 135Xe due to the compact high efficiency coincidence detector it uses. For this reason it is an excellent treaty monitoring and environmental sampling device. Although the system is shown to be both robust and reliable, based on several field tests, it is also complex due to a detailed photomultiplier tube gain matching regime. This complexity is a problem from a maintenance and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) standpoint. To reduce these issues a simplified coincident detector has been developed. A comparison of three different well detectors has been completed. In addition, a new plastic scintillator gas cell was constructed. The new simplified detector system has been demonstrated to equal or better performance compared with the original ARSA design in spectral resolution and efficiency and significantly easier to setup and calibrate.

  20. Coincidently Searching for Gravitational Waves and Low Frequency Radio Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavic, Michael; Yancey, C.; Shawhan, P. S.; Cutchin, S.; Simonetti, J. H.; Bear, B.; Tsai, J.

    2014-01-01

    The transient sky has become an important area of astrophysical study, especially with the appearance of recent fast transients, but little is known about the sources of these transients. One possible approach which can shed light on this area is multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves and prompt emission meter-wavelength radio to observe fast transients. This is made possible with gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO (IndIGO and KAGRA proposed or under construction) and phased-array radio-telescopes such LWA, LOFAR, LoFASM, and MWA. This talk presents a method for coincidence of gravitational wave and meter-wavelength radio observations to enable multi-messenger astronomy and discusses the optimization of gravitational-wave and radio sensitivities to attain effective combined observational sensitivities. It is shown that coincidence provides a 52.9% increase to the sensitivity distance for LIGO and a 200% increase to the SNR of radio arrays for particular cases.

  1. Performance of a coincidence based blood activity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.

    1989-12-01

    A new device has been constructed that measures the positron emitting radio-tracer concentration in arterial blood by extracting blood with a peristaltic pump, then measuring the activity concentration by detecting coincident pairs of 511 keV photons with a pair of heavy inorganic scintillators attached to photomultiplier tubes. The sensitivity of this device is experimentally determined to be 610 counts/second per {mu}Ci/ml, and has a paralyzing dead time of 1.2 {mu}s, so is capable of measuring blood activity concentration as high as 1 mCi/ml. Its performance is compared to two other blood monitoring methods: discrete blood samples counted with a well counter and device that uses a plastic scintillator to directly detect positrons. The positron detection efficiency of this device for {sup 18}F is greater than the plastic scintillation counter, and also eliminates the radioisotope dependent correction factors necessary to convert count rate to absolute concentration. Coincident photon detection also has the potential of reducing the background compared to direct positron detection, thereby increasing the minimum detectable isotope concentration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  2. The IFIN-HH triple coincidence liquid scintillation counter.

    PubMed

    Razdolescu, A C; Broda, R; Cassette, P; Simpson, B R S; Van Wyngaardt, W M

    2006-01-01

    The paper summarizes the IFIN-HH triple coincidence liquid scintillation counter used for the implementation of the TDCR method. The electronic unit was recently extended to record the three individual double coincidence ratios to take into account the differences in the quantum efficiencies of the three-photomultiplier tubes. Some details of the electronic system and the data processing are given. The critical point of a TDCR counter is to adjust correctly the discriminator levels on the three channels under the single electron peak. The paper describes the method of adjustment based on the evolution of the dark counting rate versus the discriminator level. Also indicated is the influence of the discrimination level on the activity results as measured at IFIN-HH using a 3H standard. The performances of the IFIN-HH TDCR counter was checked against the measurement results of the TDCR counters of CSIR NML (South Africa), RC (Poland) and LNHB (France). A set of ready-to-measure 63Ni sources in liquid scintillator, in sealed counting vials, was prepared and dispatched for measurement to all these laboratories. The paper describes designs of the TDCR counters used. An analysis and discussion of the measurement results is given. PMID:16563781

  3. 2012 DA14 and Chelyabinsk: Same Day Coincidence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2013-10-01

    A long anticipated near-miss by near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2012 DA14 on 15 February 2013 was upstaged 16 hours earlier by the impact and atmospheric explosion of a ~20 m NEA over Chelyabinsk, Russia. DA14 was earlier estimated to be 45 m across and passage at a distance under geosynchronous satellites was considered to be a record close approach by an object of that size, a once-in-40-years event. Actual Earth impact by a 20 m NEA had been estimated to be a once-in-200-years event. A simplistic calculation gives a probability of these happening on the same day of 1-in-a-billion. Within hours of the Chelyabinsk impact, it was recognized and widely reported that the two asteroids were in very different orbits and could not, at least in any readily understandable way, be physically related to each other (e.g. fragments of the same precursor body). Also, some early reports suggested that the two asteroids had very different compositions, further undermining the possibility they were pieces of the same body. (It seems unlikely, though certainly conceivable, that the two NEAs could have different compositions yet have some kind of causal connection resulting in the same-day events.) Nevertheless, incredibly tiny probabilities beg for an explanation. Here, with the benefit of hindsight, I re-examine issues that affect the probabilities, such as size, albedo, probable composition, and numbers of NEAs of these sizes. I also consider difficult issues of framing the apparent coincidence, which dominate other uncertainties. Updated information about the physical nature of the two asteroids somewhat modifies the original estimates of probabilities. Moreover, more proper ways of framing elements of the coincidence considerably reduce the improbability of the same-day events, but not nearly to the level (e.g. 1-in-1000 or perhaps 1-in-10,000) where we could rationalize dismissing the events as “just a coincidence.” The events of 15 February 2013 deserve more sophisticated

  4. IXO-XMS LVSID Anti-Coincidence Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Scott F.; Kilbourne, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This document describes a high-TRL backup implementation of the anti-coincidence detector for the IXO/XMS instrument. The backup detector, hereafter referred to as the low-voltage silicon ionization detector (LVSID), has been successfully flown on Astro-E2 (Suzaku)/XRS and is currently being implemented, without significant changes, on the Astro-H/SXS instrument. The LVSID anti-coincidence detector on Astro-E2/XRS operated successfully for almost 2 years, and was not affected by the loss of liquid helium in that instrument. The LVSID continues to operate after almost 5 years on-orbit (LEO, 550 km) but with slightly increased noise following the expected depletion of solid Neon after 22 months. The noise of the device is increased after the loss of sNe due to thermally induced bias and readout noise. No radiation damage, or off-nominal affects have been observed with the LVSID on-orbit during the Astro-E2/XRS program. A detector die from the same fabrication run will be used on the Astro-H/SXS mission. The LVSID technology and cryogenic JFET readout system is thus TRL 9. The technology is described in detail in section 2. The IXO/XMS "backup-up" anti-coincidence detector is a small array of LVSID detectors that are almost identical to those employed for Astro -E2/XRS as described in this document. The readout system is identical and, infact would use the same design as the Astro -E2/XRS JFET amplifier module (19 channels) essentially without changes except for its mechanical mount. The changes required for the IXO/XMS LVSID array are limited to the mounting of the LVSID detectors, and the mechanical mounting of the JFET amplifier sub-assembly. There is no technical development needed for the IXO/XMS implementation and the technology is ready for detailed design-work leading to PDR. The TRL level is thus at least 6, and possibly higher. Characteristics of an IXO/XMS LVSID anti-co detector are given in Table 1 and described in detail in section 3.

  5. Coincident-site lattice matching during van der Waals epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Boschker, Jos E.; Galves, Lauren A.; Flissikowski, Timur; Lopes, Joao Marcelo J.; Riechert, Henning; Calarco, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy is an attractive method for the fabrication of vdW heterostructures. Here Sb2Te3 films grown on three different kind of graphene substrates (monolayer epitaxial graphene, quasi freestanding bilayer graphene and the SiC (6√3 × 6√3)R30° buffer layer) are used to study the vdW epitaxy between two 2-dimensionally (2D) bonded materials. It is shown that the Sb2Te3 /graphene interface is stable and that coincidence lattices are formed between the epilayers and substrate that depend on the size of the surface unit cell. This demonstrates that there is a significant, although relatively weak, interfacial interaction between the two materials. Lattice matching is thus relevant for vdW epitaxy with two 2D bonded materials and a fundamental design parameter for vdW heterostructures. PMID:26658715

  6. Venous thromboembolism and sarcoidosis: co-incidence or coexistence?

    PubMed Central

    Geremek, Marcin; Puscinska, Elzbieta; Sliwinski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The association between venous thromboembolism (VTE) and sarcoidosis has been reported recently, nevertheless the true incidence of co-incident sarcoidosis and VTE is unknown. Sarcoidosis as a chronic disease of immune dysregulation might be associated with an increased risk of VTE. The mechanisms responsible for VTE development are not clear and may be influenced by several factors: activity of inflammation, clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis and comorbidities. Pulmonary embolism (PE) as a potentially fatal condition should be considered in all of the patients with sarcoidosis in whom worsening of the respiratory status is diagnosed. A high plasma D-dimers (DD) level may be suggestive of VTE, nevertheless elevated plasma DD should be interpreted with caution, in the context of the active inflammatory process. If sarcoidosis appears to be one of risk factors for VTE development, further investigations are needed to define the pro-thrombotic phenotype of this disease. PMID:26862313

  7. Serendipity in Cancer Drug Discovery: Rational or Coincidence?

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Gupta, Subash C; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2016-06-01

    Novel drug development leading to final approval by the US FDA can cost as much as two billion dollars. Why the cost of novel drug discovery is so expensive is unclear, but high failure rates at the preclinical and clinical stages are major reasons. Although therapies targeting a given cell signaling pathway or a protein have become prominent in drug discovery, such treatments have done little in preventing or treating any disease alone because most chronic diseases have been found to be multigenic. A review of the discovery of numerous drugs currently being used for various diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and autoimmune diseases indicates that serendipity has played a major role in the discovery. In this review we provide evidence that rational drug discovery and targeted therapies have minimal roles in drug discovery, and that serendipity and coincidence have played and continue to play major roles. The primary focus in this review is on cancer-related drug discovery. PMID:27083322

  8. Membranous nephropathy, leiomyoma and autoimmune myasthenia: more than a coincidence?

    PubMed

    Calviño, Jesus; Adeva, Magdalena; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus

    2012-12-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) has been associated with several infectious, immunological and malignant conditions, but had only rarely been reported with malignant and other immune disorders in the same patient. We describe the case of a 56-year-old male with MN who was also diagnosed with a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), myasthenia gravis (MG) and thymic hyperplasia. Thus, we report here for the first time the coincidence of these conditions in the same patient. There was a recurrence of nephrotic syndrome without impairment of renal function 5 years after removal of the GIST (3 years after thymectomy). The possible basis for the relationship between these diseases is discussed, and some common genetic and immune physiopathological pathways are hypothesized. PMID:26069802

  9. Membranous nephropathy, leiomyoma and autoimmune myasthenia: more than a coincidence?

    PubMed Central

    Calviño, Jesus; Adeva, Magdalena; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) has been associated with several infectious, immunological and malignant conditions, but had only rarely been reported with malignant and other immune disorders in the same patient. We describe the case of a 56-year-old male with MN who was also diagnosed with a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), myasthenia gravis (MG) and thymic hyperplasia. Thus, we report here for the first time the coincidence of these conditions in the same patient. There was a recurrence of nephrotic syndrome without impairment of renal function 5 years after removal of the GIST (3 years after thymectomy). The possible basis for the relationship between these diseases is discussed, and some common genetic and immune physiopathological pathways are hypothesized. PMID:26069802

  10. Coincidence-Summing Corrections for Close Geometry Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gueray, R. Taygun

    2008-11-11

    For a given stellar temperature, nuclear reactions take place in the energy range of the Gamow window with the relatively low energies of the astrophysical interest for charged particle induced reactions. In order to measure the nuclear reaction cross sections with the activation method at projectile energies as low as possible, a gamma counting system that consists of Ge detectors and the irradiated target in close geometry is required. The presence of cascade transitions requires coincidence summing corrections that can not be ignored because of the very large solid angle. In this study, the determination of the summing correction factor and photopeak efficiency for a gamma spectrometer, as an example, composed of two Ge clover detectors in close geometry is briefly described.

  11. Geometric origin of coincidences and hierarchies in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan; Rosenhaus, Vladimir; Freivogel, Ben

    2011-10-15

    We show that the geometry of cutoffs on eternal inflation strongly constrains predictions for the time scales of vacuum domination, curvature domination, and observation. We consider three measure proposals: the causal patch, the fat geodesic, and the apparent horizon cutoff, which is introduced here for the first time. We impose neither anthropic requirements nor restrictions on landscape vacua. For vacua with positive cosmological constant, all three measures predict the double coincidence that most observers live at the onset of vacuum domination and just before the onset of curvature domination. The hierarchy between the Planck scale and the cosmological constant is related to the number of vacua in the landscape. These results require only mild assumptions about the distribution of vacua (somewhat stronger assumptions are required by the fat geodesic measure). At this level of generality, none of the three measures are successful for vacua with negative cosmological constant. Their applicability in this regime is ruled out unless much stronger anthropic requirements are imposed.

  12. Analysis of 125Xe electron–photon coincidence decay

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Klingberg, Franziska J.; Biegalski, Steven R.; Prinke, Amanda; Haas, Derek A.; Lowrey, Justin D.

    2015-10-26

    In this study, as part of the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), environmental gas samples originating from nuclear fission are analyzed for the presence of 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. In this work, the non-traditional radioxenon isotope 125Xe was investigated. The isotope was produced as an isotopically pure sample via neutron activation of 124Xe at the University of Texas at Austin Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab’s TRIGA MARK II Reactor. The sample was then measured using a HPGe detector as well as an ARSA-style β–γ coincidence detector. Potential sources and sensitivities for production of 125Xe are also consideredmore » for relevance to the CTBT verification mission.« less

  13. Coincidence landscapes for three-channel linear optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Guise, Hubert; Tan, Si-Hui; Poulin, Isaac P.; Sanders, Barry C.

    2014-06-01

    We use permutation-group methods plus SU(3) group-theoretic methods to determine the action of a three-channel passive optical interferometer on controllably delayed single-photon pulse inputs to each channel. Permutation-group techniques allow us to relate directly expressions for rates and, in particular, investigate symmetries in the coincidence landscape. These techniques extend the traditional Hong-Ou-Mandel effect analysis for two-channel interferometry to valleys and plateaus in three-channel interferometry. Our group-theoretic approach is intuitively appealing because the calculus of Wigner D functions partially accounts for permutational symmetries and directly reveals the connections among D functions, partial distinguishability, and immanants.

  14. Imaging of spatiotemporal coincident states by DC optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Graber, Harry L; Pei, Yaling; Barbour, Randall L

    2002-08-01

    The utility of optical tomography as a practical imaging modality has, thus far, been limited by its intrinsically low spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy. Recently, we have argued that a broad range of physiological phenomena might be accurately studied by adopting this technology to investigate dynamic states (Schmitz et al., 2000; Barbour et al., 2000; Graber et al., 2000; Barbour et aL, 2001; and Barbour et aL, 1999). One such phenomenon holding considerable significance is the dynamics of the vasculature, which has been well characterized as being both spatially and temporally heterogeneous. In this paper, we have modeled such heterogeneity in the limiting case of spatiotemporal coincident behavior involving optical contrast features, in an effort to define the expected limits with which dynamic states can be characterized using two newly described reconstruction methods that evaluate normalized detector data: the normalized difference method (NDM) and the normalized constraint method (NCM). Influencing the design of these studies is the expectation that spatially coincident temporal variations in both the absorption and scattering properties of tissue can occur in vivo. We have also chosen to model dc illumination techniques, in recognition of their favorable performance and cost for practical systems. This choice was made with full knowledge of theoretical findings arguing that separation of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients under these conditions is not possible. Results obtained show that the NDM algorithm provides for good spatial resolution and excellent characterization of the temporal behavior of optical properties but is subject to interparameter crosstalk. The NCM algorithm, while also providing excellent characterization of temporal behavior, provides for improved spatial resolution, as well as for improved separation of absorption and scattering coefficients. A discussion is provided to reconcile these findings with

  15. Testable solution of the cosmological constant and coincidence problems

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Douglas J.; Barrow, John D.

    2011-02-15

    We present a new solution to the cosmological constant (CC) and coincidence problems in which the observed value of the CC, {Lambda}, is linked to other observable properties of the Universe. This is achieved by promoting the CC from a parameter that must be specified, to a field that can take many possible values. The observed value of {Lambda}{approx_equal}(9.3 Gyrs){sup -2}[{approx_equal}10{sup -120} in Planck units] is determined by a new constraint equation which follows from the application of a causally restricted variation principle. When applied to our visible Universe, the model makes a testable prediction for the dimensionless spatial curvature of {Omega}{sub k0}=-0.0056({zeta}{sub b}/0.5), where {zeta}{sub b}{approx}1/2 is a QCD parameter. Requiring that a classical history exist, our model determines the probability of observing a given {Lambda}. The observed CC value, which we successfully predict, is typical within our model even before the effects of anthropic selection are included. When anthropic selection effects are accounted for, we find that the observed coincidence between t{sub {Lambda}={Lambda}}{sup -1/2} and the age of the Universe, t{sub U}, is a typical occurrence in our model. In contrast to multiverse explanations of the CC problems, our solution is independent of the choice of a prior weighting of different {Lambda} values and does not rely on anthropic selection effects. Our model includes no unnatural small parameters and does not require the introduction of new dynamical scalar fields or modifications to general relativity, and it can be tested by astronomical observations in the near future.

  16. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of 238,239Pu and 241Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-01

    A technique to determine the isotopic constituents of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by a coincident alpha-conversion electron measurement. This presents a unique signature to allow the unfolding of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy and reduce backgrounds of an unseparated sample. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm2 silicon drift detector and alpha spectroscopy with a passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20-55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information and calibration to aid in the coincident measurement approach. Furthermore, an alpha-conversion electron spectrometer was assembled using the silicon based detectors described and results of a coincident spectrum analysis is reported for 241Am.

  17. Reduction method for intrinsic random coincidence events from (176)Lu in low activity PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-07-01

    For clinical studies, the effects of the intrinsic radioactivity of lutetium-based scintillators such as LSO used in PET imaging can be ignored within a narrow energy window. However, the intrinsic radioactivity becomes problematic when used in low-count-rate situations such as gene expression imaging or in-beam PET imaging. Time-of-flight (TOF) measurement capability promises not only to improve PET image quality, but also to reduce intrinsic random coincidences. On the other hand, we have developed a new reduction method for intrinsic random coincidence events based on multiple-coincidence information. Without the energy window, an intrinsic random coincidence is detected simultaneously with an intrinsic true coincidence as a multiple coincidence. The multiple-coincidence events can serve as a guide to identification of the intrinsic coincidences. After rejection of multiple-coincidence events detected with a wide energy window, data obtained included a few intrinsic random and many intrinsic true coincidence events. We analyzed the effect of intrinsic radioactivity and used Monte Carlo simulation to test both the TOF-based method and the developed multiple-coincidence-based (MC-based) method for a whole-body LSO-PET scanner. Using the TOF- and MC-based reduction methods separately, we could reduce the intrinsic random coincidence rates by 77 and 30 %, respectively. Also, the intrinsic random coincidence rate could be reduced by 84 % when the TOF+MC reduction methods were applied. The developed MC-based method showed reduced number of the intrinsic random coincidence events, but the reduction performance was limited compared to that of the TOF-based reduction method. PMID:24496884

  18. A high-efficiency HPGe coincidence system for environmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Britton, R; Davies, A V; Burnett, J L; Jackson, M J

    2015-08-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a network of certified laboratories which must meet certain sensitivity requirements for CTBT relevant radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a high-efficiency, dual-detector gamma spectroscopy system has been developed to improve the sensitivity of measurements for treaty compliance, greatly reducing the time required for each sample. Utilising list-mode acquisition, each sample can be counted once, and processed multiple times to further improve sensitivity. For the 8 key radionuclides considered, Minimum Detectable Activities (MDA's) were improved by up to 37% in standard mode (when compared to a typical CTBT detector system), with the acquisition time required to achieve the CTBT sensitivity requirements reduced from 6 days to only 3. When utilising the system in coincidence mode, the MDA for (60) Co in a high-activity source was improved by a factor of 34 when compared to a standard CTBT detector, and a factor of 17 when compared to the dual-detector system operating in standard mode. These MDA improvements will allow the accurate and timely quantification of radionuclides that decay via both singular and cascade γ emission, greatly enhancing the effectiveness of CTBT laboratories. PMID:25875083

  19. Nonlinear Dynamics of Neuronal Excitability, Oscillations, and Coincidence Detection

    PubMed Central

    RINZEL, JOHN; HUGUET, GEMMA

    2014-01-01

    We review some widely studied models and firing dynamics for neuronal systems, both at the single cell and network level, and dynamical systems techniques to study them. In particular, we focus on two topics in mathematical neuroscience that have attracted the attention of mathematicians for decades: single-cell excitability and bursting. We review the mathematical framework for three types of excitability and onset of repetitive firing behavior in single-neuron models and their relation with Hodgkin’s classification in 1948 of repetitive firing properties. We discuss the mathematical dissection of bursting oscillations using fast/slow analysis and demonstrate the approach using single-cell and mean-field network models. Finally, we illustrate the properties of Type III excitability in which case repetitive firing for constant or slow inputs is absent. Rather, firing is in response only to rapid enough changes in the stimulus. Our case study involves neuronal computations for sound localization for which neurons in the auditory brain stem perform extraordinarily precise coincidence detection with submillisecond temporal resolution. PMID:25392560

  20. Analytical model of coincidence resolving time in TOF-PET.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, H; Thon, A; Dey, T; Khanin, V; Rodnyi, P

    2016-06-21

    The coincidence resolving time (CRT) of scintillation detectors is the parameter determining noise reduction in time-of-flight PET. We derive an analytical CRT model based on the statistical distribution of photons for two different prototype scintillators. For the first one, characterized by single exponential decay, CRT is proportional to the decay time and inversely proportional to the number of photons, with a square root dependence on the trigger level. For the second scintillator prototype, characterized by exponential rise and decay, CRT is proportional to the square root of the product of rise time and decay time divided by the doubled number of photons, and it is nearly independent of the trigger level. This theory is verified by measurements of scintillation time constants, light yield and CRT on scintillator sticks. Trapping effects are taken into account by defining an effective decay time. We show that in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, CRT is as important as patient dose, imaging time or PET system sensitivity. The noise reduction effect of better timing resolution is verified and visualized by Monte Carlo simulation of a NEMA image quality phantom. PMID:27245232

  1. Super sub-wavelength patterns in photon coincidence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Pei; Zhou, Yu; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli

    2014-02-01

    High-precision measurements implemented with light are desired in all fields of science. However, light acts as a wave, and the Rayleigh criterion in classical optics yields a diffraction limit that prevents obtaining a resolution smaller than the wavelength. Sub-wavelength interference has potential application in lithography because it beats the classical Rayleigh resolution limit. Here, we carefully study second-order correlation theory to establish the physics behind sub-wavelength interference in photon coincidence detection. A Young's double slit experiment with pseudo-thermal light is performed to test the second-order correlation pattern. The results show that when two point detectors are scanned in different ways, super sub-wavelength interference patterns can be obtained. We then provide a theoretical explanation for this surprising result, and demonstrate that this explanation is also suitable for the results found for entangled light. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations of these types of super sub-wavelength interference patterns in quantum lithography.

  2. Analytical model of coincidence resolving time in TOF-PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, H.; Thon, A.; Dey, T.; Khanin, V.; Rodnyi, P.

    2016-06-01

    The coincidence resolving time (CRT) of scintillation detectors is the parameter determining noise reduction in time-of-flight PET. We derive an analytical CRT model based on the statistical distribution of photons for two different prototype scintillators. For the first one, characterized by single exponential decay, CRT is proportional to the decay time and inversely proportional to the number of photons, with a square root dependence on the trigger level. For the second scintillator prototype, characterized by exponential rise and decay, CRT is proportional to the square root of the product of rise time and decay time divided by the doubled number of photons, and it is nearly independent of the trigger level. This theory is verified by measurements of scintillation time constants, light yield and CRT on scintillator sticks. Trapping effects are taken into account by defining an effective decay time. We show that in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, CRT is as important as patient dose, imaging time or PET system sensitivity. The noise reduction effect of better timing resolution is verified and visualized by Monte Carlo simulation of a NEMA image quality phantom.

  3. Line identification studies using traditional techniques and wavelength coincidence statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, Charles R.; Adelman, Saul J.

    1990-01-01

    Traditional line identification techniques result in the assignment of individual lines to an atomic or ionic species. These methods may be supplemented by wavelength coincidence statistics (WCS). The strength and weakness of these methods are discussed using spectra of a number of normal and peculiar B and A stars that have been studied independently by both methods. The present results support the overall findings of some earlier studies. WCS would be most useful in a first survey, before traditional methods have been applied. WCS can quickly make a global search for all species and in this way may enable identifications of an unexpected spectrum that could easily be omitted entirely from a traditional study. This is illustrated by O I. WCS is a subject to well known weakness of any statistical technique, for example, a predictable number of spurious results are to be expected. The danger of small number statistics are illustrated. WCS is at its best relative to traditional methods in finding a line-rich atomic species that is only weakly present in a complicated stellar spectrum.

  4. A gap junction circuit enhances processing of coincident mechanosensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitch, Ithai; Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Schafer, William R

    2013-06-01

    Electrical synapses have been shown to be important for enabling and detecting neuronal synchrony in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Hub-and-spoke circuits, in which a central hub neuron is electrically coupled to several input neurons, are an overrepresented motif in the C. elegans nervous system and may represent a conserved functional unit. The functional relevance of this configuration has been demonstrated for circuits mediating aggregation behavior and nose touch perception. Modeling approaches have been useful for understanding structurally and dynamically more complex electrical circuits. Therefore, we formulated a simple analytical model with minimal assumptions to obtain insight into the properties of the hub-and-spoke microcircuit motif. A key prediction of the model is that an active input neuron should facilitate activity throughout the network, whereas an inactive input should suppress network activity through shunting; this prediction was supported by cell ablation and in vivo neuroimaging experiments in the C. elegans nose touch circuit. Thus, the hub-and-spoke architecture may implement an analog coincidence detector enabling distinct responses to distributed and localized patterns of sensory input. PMID:23707432

  5. Timing of coincidence anticipation by NCAA division I softball athletes.

    PubMed

    Molstad, S M; Kluka, D A; Love, P A; Baylor, K A; Covington, N K; Cook, T L

    1994-12-01

    After visual screening, 44 NCAA Division I softball athletes qualified to participate in this study conducted at the 1993 National Invitational Championship Tournament to assess anticipation of coincidence of these athletes. A full-swing batting motion was used to intercept a stimulus apparently moving at 45 or 70 mph, using the Bassin Anticipation Timer. Scores were recorded as early or late after each subject swung a standardized bat which interrupted a photoelectric beam when each of 20 randomly administered slow or fast simulated pitches was presented. Analyses of variance of AE, CE, and VE showed athletes swung significantly early on the 45-mph and late on the 70-mph simulated pitch speed. More specifically, less AE and CE error was recorded at the slow speed; athletes were more consistent (VE) in response to the fast speed. Results supported prior findings in which simulated-pitch speeds were similar to the present ones. Runway length, simulated-pitch speed, and the degree of swing simulation were suggested as variables to consider in similar investigations. PMID:7870534

  6. Performance of Down syndrome subjects during a coincident timing task

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The time synchronization is a very important ability for the acquisition and performance of motor skills that generate the need to adapt the actions of body segments to external events of the environment that are changing their position in space. Down Syndrome (DS) individuals may present some deficits to perform tasks with synchronization demand. We aimed to investigate the performance of individuals with DS in a simple Coincident Timing task. Method 32 individuals were divided into 2 groups: the Down syndrome group (DSG) comprised of 16 individuals with average age of 20 (+/− 5 years old), and a control group (CG) comprised of 16 individuals of the same age. All individuals performed the Simple Timing (ST) task and their performance was measured in milliseconds. The study was conducted in a single phase with the execution of 20 consecutive trials for each participant. Results There was a significant difference in the intergroup analysis for the accuracy adjustment - Absolute Error (Z = 3.656, p = 0.001); and for the performance consistence - Variable Error (Z = 2.939, p = 0.003). Conclusion DS individuals have more difficulty in integrating the motor action to an external stimulus and they also present more inconsistence in performance. Both groups presented the same tendency to delay their motor responses. PMID:23618314

  7. Minimal Conductance-Based Model of Auditory Coincidence Detector Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ashida, Go; Funabiki, Kazuo; Kretzberg, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    Sound localization is a fundamental sensory function of a wide variety of animals. The interaural time difference (ITD), an important cue for sound localization, is computed in the auditory brainstem. In our previous modeling study, we introduced a two-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley type model to investigate how cellular and synaptic specializations may contribute to precise ITD computation of the barn owl's auditory coincidence detector neuron. Although our model successfully reproduced fundamental physiological properties observed in vivo, it was unsuitable for mathematical analyses and large scale simulations because of a number of nonlinear variables. In the present study, we reduce our former model into three types of conductance-based integrate-and-fire (IF) models. We test their electrophysiological properties using data from published in vivo and in vitro studies. Their robustness to parameter changes and computational efficiencies are also examined. Our numerical results suggest that the single-compartment active IF model is superior to other reduced models in terms of physiological reproducibility and computational performance. This model will allow future theoretical studies that use more rigorous mathematical analysis and network simulations. PMID:25844803

  8. Potential Mars 2001 Sites Coincident with Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M. S.

    1999-06-01

    Of the areas that meet the engineering criteria for MSP 01, only two are coincident with magnetic anomalies measured by the MAG/ER instrument on MGS. Area A is centered on about 10 deg S, 202 deg W and extends from about 7.5 deg S to 15 S. This area is associated with three bands of magnetic anomalies, two with positive values surrounding an area with negative values. Area B corresponds with a circular high positive magnetic anomaly and is centered at 13.5 deg S, 166 deg W. In addition to magnetic anomalies, the proposed sites have other attributes that make then attractive from of standpoint of meeting the objectives of the Mars Program. The landing site candidates meet the engineering requirements outlined on the Mars '01 landing site page htip://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/2001/landingsite. These are (source of data in parentheses): latitude between 3 deg N and 12 deg S, rock abundance between 5-10% (IRTM), fine-component thermal inertia > 4 cgs units (IRTM), topography < 2.5 km (MOLA). There are three exceptions: 1) Area B contains sites that lie up to about 15 deg S, 2) some sites are considered that have rock abundance values of 3-13%. 3) High resolution Viking coverage may not be available. These exceptions will be noted.

  9. Potential Mars 2001 Sites Coincident with Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Of the areas that meet the engineering criteria for MSP 01, only two are coincident with magnetic anomalies measured by the MAG/ER instrument on MGS. Area A is centered on about 10 deg S, 202 deg W and extends from about 7.5 deg S to 15 S. This area is associated with three bands of magnetic anomalies, two with positive values surrounding an area with negative values. Area B corresponds with a circular high positive magnetic anomaly and is centered at 13.5 deg S, 166 deg W. In addition to magnetic anomalies, the proposed sites have other attributes that make then attractive from of standpoint of meeting the objectives of the Mars Program. The landing site candidates meet the engineering requirements outlined on the Mars '01 landing site page htip://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/2001/landingsite. These are (source of data in parentheses): latitude between 3 deg N and 12 deg S, rock abundance between 5-10% (IRTM), fine-component thermal inertia > 4 cgs units (IRTM), topography < 2.5 km (MOLA). There are three exceptions: 1) Area B contains sites that lie up to about 15 deg S, 2) some sites are considered that have rock abundance values of 3-13%. 3) High resolution Viking coverage may not be available. These exceptions will be noted.

  10. Uncertainties in 4πβ-γ coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R.; Bailat, C.; Bobin, C.; Keightley, J. D.

    2015-06-01

    The 4πβ-γ coincidence counting method and its close relatives are widely used for the primary standardization of radioactivity. Both the general formalism and specific implementation of these methods have been well-documented. In particular, previous papers contain the extrapolation equations used for various decay schemes, methods for determining model parameters and, in some cases, tabulated uncertainty budgets. Two things often lacking from experimental reports are both the rationale for estimating uncertainties in a specific way and the details of exactly how a specific component of uncertainty was estimated. Furthermore, correlations among the components of uncertainty are rarely mentioned. To fill in these gaps, the present article shares the best-practices from a few practitioners of this craft. We explain and demonstrate with examples of how these approaches can be used to estimate the uncertainty of the reported massic activity. We describe uncertainties due to measurement variability, extrapolation functions, dead-time and resolving-time effects, gravimetric links, and nuclear and atomic data. Most importantly, a thorough understanding of the measurement system and its response to the decay under study can be used to derive a robust estimate of the measurement uncertainty.

  11. Measurement of the low energy spectral contribution in coincidence with valence band (VB) energy levels of Ag(100) using VB-VB coincidence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladen, R. W.; Joglekar, P. V.; Lim, Z. H.; Shastry, K.; Hulbert, S. L.; Weiss, A. H.

    A set of coincidence measurements were obtained for the study and measurement of the electron contribution arising from the inter-valence band (VB) transitions along with the inelastically scattered VB electron contribution. These Auger-unrelated contributions arise in the Auger spectrum (Ag 4p NVV) obtained using Auger Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS). The measured Auger-unrelated contribution can be eliminated from Auger spectrum to obtain the spectrum related to Auger. In our VB-VB coincidence measurement, a photon beam of energy 180eV was used to probe the Ag(100) sample. The coincidence spectrum was obtained using two Cylindrical Mirror Analyzers (CMA's). The scan CMA measured the low energy electron contribution in the energy range 0-70eV in coincidence with VB electrons measured by the fixed CMA. In this talk, we present the data obtained for VB-VB coincidence at the valence band energy of 171eV along with the coincidence measurements in the energy range of 4p core and valence band. NSF DMR 0907679, NSF Award Number: 1213727. Use of the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DEAC02-98CH10886.

  12. Gravitational wave and high energy neutrino coincidences : Results of the first Antares - Virgo/LIGO coincident search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradier, T.

    2012-12-01

    Sources of gravitational waves (GW) and emitters of high energy neutrinos (HEN) both involve compact objects and matter moving at relativistic speeds. GW emission requires a departure from spherical symmetry, which is the case if clumps of matter are accreted around black holes or neutron stars, and ejected in relativistic jets, where neutrinos are believed to be produced. Both messengers interact weakly with the surrounding matter, hence point directly to the heart of the engines that power these emissions. Coincidences between GW and HEN detectors would then give a unique insight on the physics of the most powerful objects in the Universe. This contribution describes the results of the first joint GW+HEN search using concomitant data taken with the ant, ǒand lo detectors in 2007, when ant was operating with 5 of its 12 lines, and ǒ/lo joint runs VSR1/S5 were underway. This search allowed to put the first constraints on the density of possible GW+HEN astrophysical sources.

  13. Near coincidence site lattice misorientations in monoclinic zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Gertsman, V.Y.; Zhilyaev, A.P.; Szpunar, J.

    1996-12-01

    Zirconium dioxide, ZrO{sub 2}, exists in three crystalline phases: monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic. Calculations of the coincidence site lattice (CSL) misorientations for the last two lattices and for hexagonal ones using the methods developed represent little difficulty. However, no procedure for the determination of the CSL misorientations in the monoclinic system has been reported so far. Monoclinic zirconia has the crystallographic space group P2{sub 1}/c and the following parameters of the unit cell (e.g., 5, 6): a = 5.1490 {angstrom}, b = 5.2133 {angstrom}, c = 5.3161 {angstrom}, and {beta} = 99.228{degree}. Before discussing possible CSL misorientations in zirconia, consider a simple example based on geometric considerations. In any monoclinic crystal (with any lattice parameters) the two symmetrical boundaries along the (001) and (100) planes must have highly ordered atomic structure. The misorientation of the first boundary is descried as a rotation of either 180{degree} around the [100] direction or 180{degree} around the normal to the (001) plane. The misorientation of the second boundary is 180{degree} [001] or 180{degree} around the normal to the (100) plane. It can be shown that three-dimensional CSLs will exist in both cases if (c/a)cos{beta} is a rational number. This example justifies the following approximation of the unit cell in the monoclinic zirconia: a = b = c and cos{beta} = {minus}1/6 (i.e., {beta} = 99.594{degree}). Consider the following prismatic cell in the monoclinic crystal structure: ([1 0 1], [{bar 1} 0 1], [0 1 0]). With the above approximation, this cell is orthogonal with the ratios of the squares of the edge lengths expressed as 5:7:3. Therefore, one can apply the algorithm for calculations of the CSL misorientations in orthorhombic lattices with rational ratios of squares of the lattice periods, which is based on the general vector-quaternion method of misorientation representation.

  14. The optimum choice of gate width for neutron coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, S.; Henzlova, D.; Favalli, A.; Hauck, D. K.; Santi, P. A.

    2014-11-01

    In the measurement field of international nuclear safeguards, passive neutron coincidence counting is used to quantify the spontaneous fission rate of certain special nuclear materials. The shift register autocorrelation analysis method is the most commonly used approach. However, the Feynman-Y technique, which is more commonly applied in reactor noise analysis, provides an alternative means to extract the correlation information from a pulse train. In this work we consider how to select the optimum gate width for each of these two time-correlation analysis techniques. The optimum is considered to be that which gives the lowest fractional precision on the net doublets rate. Our theoretical approach is approximate but is instructional in terms of revealing the key functional dependence. We show that in both cases the same performance figure of merit applies so that common design criteria apply to the neutron detector head. Our prediction is that near optimal results, suitable for most practical applications, can be obtained from both techniques using a common gate width setting. The estimated precision is also comparable in the two cases. The theoretical expressions are tested experimentally using 252Cf spontaneous fission sources measured in two thermal well counters representative of the type in common use by international inspectorates. Fast accidental sampling was the favored method of acquiring the Feynman-Y data. Our experimental study confirmed the basic functional dependences predicted although experimental results when available are preferred. With an appropriate gate setting Feynman-Y analysis provides an alternative to shift register analysis for safeguards applications which is opening up new avenues of data collection and data reduction to explore.

  15. Systematic effects in neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Favorite, Jeffrey A; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2010-01-01

    Correlated neutron counting, including neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting, is an important tool in nuclear material accountancy verification. The accuracy of such measurements is of interest to the safeguards community because as the accuracy of NDA improves, the number of samples that are required to undergo destructive analysis (DA) decreases. The accuracy of a neutron mUltiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables. Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations with MCNPX have been performed to understand how the properties of the sample affect the count rate. These resultant count rates have been analyzed with the 'point model' in order to determine the effect on the deduced plutonium mass. The sample properties that have been investigated are density, sample position within the detector cavity, moisture content, isotopic composition, plutonium to total actinide ratio and heavy metal fraction. These parameters affect the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates in different ways. In addition, different analysis methods use these measured quantities in different combinations, so that the final sensitivity of the {sup 240}Pu mass to each parameter also depends on the analysis method used. For example, the passive calibration curve method only used the Doubles rate to produce the {sup 240}Pu mass and so is not sensitive to changes in the Singles rate (to first order). The analysis methods considered here were passive calibration curve (non-multiplication corrected), known alpha (multiplication corrected) and multiplicity with known efficiency. The effects were studied on both a small mass MOX sample (1 g Pu) and a large MOX sample (6000 g Pu) both measured in high efficiency neutron multiplicity counters. In order to determine the final effect of each parameter it is necessary to know not only the sensitivity of the plutonium mass to that parameter, but also the range over which the parameter can realistically vary. Some estimates are

  16. [Horton's disease and aortic aneurysm: coincidence or causality? 5 cases].

    PubMed

    Cormier, J M; Cormier, F; Laridon, D; Vuong, P N

    2000-04-01

    Five inflammatory aortopathies were disclosed 3 to 16 years after inaugural giant cell arteritis. Three patients were symptomatic: one aneurysm of the subrenal abdominal aorta discovered at work-up for an inferior arteriopathy, one thoraco-abdominal aneurysm with a "fissuration" episode, one calcified thoraco-abdominal aortopathy suggesting dissection. In these three cases, there was a severe inflammatory syndrome with asthenia, fever, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and a large inflammatory crown around the aortopathy. In the two asymptomatic cases, the diagnosis was made during the follow-up of Horton's disease, in one patient with active disease, the other late after the initial episode. Two aneurysms required surgical cure, with resection-prosthesis of the thoraco-abdominal aneurysm and revascularization of the digestive and renal arteries. In the 4 active cases, corticosteroid therapy cured the inflammatory process both on the basis of laboratory results and the involution of the periaortic crown and, in one case, the total regression of ureteral compression causing pyeloureteral dilatation on the left. The diagnosis of giant cell arteritis was confirmed histologically in the two operated cases. Extra-cervical localizations of aortic aneurysm of dissection in patients with giant cell arteritis is not a fortuitous coincidence but an association as demonstrated by the Mayo Clinic epidemiology. On the basis of these reported cases and data in the literature, the practical conclusions are: in case of aorta involvement, particularly with inflammation in subjects under 50, giant cell arteritis should be entertained as a possible diagnosis; in patients with giant cell arteritis, follow-up should include yearly thoracic radiograms to search for thoracic aorta involvement and Doppler and ultrasound explorations to identify any abdomino-iliac lesions. This protocol is required to avoid the life-threatening complications of dissection or rupture of an aortic

  17. Coincident Observations of Surface Ozone and NMVOCs over Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Naveed; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Tarasick, David; Davies, Jonathan; Riemer, Daniel; Apel, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The vertical profiles of ozone are measured coincidently with non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) at the meteorological site located at the Abu Dhabi international airport (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E) during the years 2012 - 2014. Some of the profiles show elevated surface ozone >95 ppbv during the winter months (December, January and February). The ground-level NMVOCs obtained from the gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry system also show elevated values of acetylene, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, benzene, and toluene. NMVOCs and ozone abundances in other seasons are much lower than the values in winter season. NMVOCs are emitted from an extensive number of sources in urban environments including fuel production, distribution, and consumption, and serve as precursor of ozone. Transport sources contribute a substantial portion of the NMVOC burden to the urban atmosphere in developed regions. Abu Dhabi is located at the edge of the Arabian Gulf and is highly affected by emissions from petrochemical industries in the neighboring Gulf region. The preliminary results indicate that wintertime enhancement in ozone is associated with large values of NMVOCs at Abu Dhabi. The domestic production of surface ozone is estimated from the combination of oxygen recombination and NMVOCs and compared with the data. It is estimated that about 40-50% of ozone in Abu Dhabi is transported from the neighbouring petrochemical industries. We will present ozone sounding and NMVOCs data and our model estimates of surface ozone, including a discussion on the high levels of the tropospheric ozone responsible for contaminating the air quality in the UAE. This work is supported by National Research Foundation, UAE.

  18. High-performance reconfigurable coincidence counting unit based on a field programmable gate array.

    PubMed

    Park, Byung Kwon; Kim, Yong-Su; Kwon, Osung; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung

    2015-05-20

    We present a high-performance reconfigurable coincidence counting unit (CCU) using a low-end field programmable gate array (FPGA) and peripheral circuits. Because of the flexibility guaranteed by the FPGA program, we can easily change system parameters, such as internal input delays, coincidence configurations, and the coincidence time window. In spite of a low-cost implementation, the proposed CCU architecture outperforms previous ones in many aspects: it has 8 logic inputs and 4 coincidence outputs that can measure up to eight-fold coincidences. The minimum coincidence time window and the maximum input frequency are 0.47 ns and 163 MHz, respectively. The CCU will be useful in various experimental research areas, including the field of quantum optics and quantum information. PMID:26192507

  19. Characterization of Alpha Contamination in Lanthanum Trichloride Scintillators Using Coincidence Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrath, Brian D.; Runkle, Robert C.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Kaye, William R.; Lepel, Elwood A.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Smith, Leon E.

    2005-08-01

    The commercial availability of LaCl3:Ce scintillators has been much anticipated due to their significantly lower resolution relative to NaI(Tl). Our investigation of these scintillators in regards to the effect of their improved resolution for coincidence gamma-ray measurement applications revealed that the scintillators had a large, internal alpha contamination affecting the gamma-ray energy range from 1700-3000 keV. One passive method of identifying contaminants relies on exploiting coincident signatures. Aided by a coincidence lookup library developed at PNNL, we determined that the parent contaminant is Ac-227 via an alpha-gamma coincidence measurement. In this paper, we characterize the level of contamination and describe our coincidence measurement technique. The Ac-227 concentration was approximately 0.13 ppt. We demonstrate that this coincidence technique measures minimum detectable activities much lower than singles gamma-ray spectroscopy. We also discuss gamma- and beta-contamination in these scintillators.

  20. Elemental PGNAA analysis using gamma-gamma coincidence counting with the library least-squares approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwally, Walid A.; Gardner, Robin P.; Mayo, Charles W.

    2004-01-01

    An accurate method for determining elemental analysis using gamma-gamma coincidence counting is presented. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method for PGNAA, a system of three radioisotopes (Na-24, Co-60 and Cs-134) that emit coincident gamma rays was used. Two HPGe detectors were connected to a system that allowed both singles and coincidences to be collected simultaneously. A known mixture of the three radioisotopes was used and data was deliberately collected at relatively high counting rates to determine the effect of pulse pile-up distortion. The results obtained, with the library least-squares analysis, of both the normal and coincidence counting are presented and compared to the known amounts. The coincidence results are shown to give much better accuracy. It appears that in addition to the expected advantage of reduced background, the coincidence approach is considerably more resistant to pulse pile-up distortion.

  1. Measurements of Separate Neutron and Gamma-Ray Coincidences with Liquid Scintillators and Digital PSD Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A

    2007-10-01

    A new technique is presented for the measurement of neutron and/or gamma-ray coincidences. Separate neutron neutron, neutron gamma-ray, gamma-ray neutron, and gamma-ray gamma-ray coincidences are acquired with liquid scintillation detectors and a digital pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique based on standard charge integration method. The measurement technique allows for the collection of fast coincidences in a time window of the order of a few tens of nanoseconds between the coincident particles. The PSD allows for the acquisition of the coincidences in all particle combinations. The measurements are compared to results obtained with the MCNP-PoliMi code, which simulates neutron and gamma-ray coincidences from from a source on an event-by-event basis. This comparison leads to good qualitative agreement.

  2. Solar Wind Compression Generation of Coincident EMIC and Whistler Mode Chorus and Hiss Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halford, Alexa; Mann, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Electron radiation belt dynamics are controlled by the competition of multiple acceleration and loss mechanisms. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC), chorus, and hiss waves have all been implicated as potential loss mechanisms of radiation belt electrons along with Chorus waves proposed as a mechanism for accelerating the lower energy source population to MeV energies. Understanding the relative importance of these waves as well as where and under what conditions they are generated is vital to predicting radiation belt dynamics. Although the size of the solar wind compression on 9 January 2014 event discussed here was modest, it has given us an opportunity to observe clearly how a magnetospheric compression can lead to the generation of EMIC, chorus, and hiss waves. The ICME generated shock encountered the Earth's magnetosphere on 9 January 2014 at ~20:11 UT, and the Van Allen Probes observe the coincident excitation of EMIC and Chorus waves outside the plasmasphere, and hiss weaves inside the plasmasphere. As the shock encountered the magnetosphere, an electric field impulse was observed to generate an increase in temperature anisotropy for both ions and electrons. This increased temperature anisotropy led to increased wave growth on both the ion and electron cyclotron branches. The simultaneous generation of multiple types of waves may lead to significant impacts on the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons, especially during geomagnetic compressions observed during the substorms, and the storm sudden commencement and main phases of geomagnetic storms, as well as during quiet time sudden impulse events. For example, the excitation of both EMIC and chorus waves at the same place, and at the same time, may complicate studies seeking a causal connection between specific individual plasma wave bursts and observations of particle precipitation into the atmosphere. During this relatively small event BARREL had three payloads in conjunction with the Van

  3. Genetic Influence on the Variance in Coincidence Timing and Its Covariance with IQ: A Twin Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Margaret J.; Smith, Glen A.; Geffen, Gina M.; Geffen, Laurie B.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2000-01-01

    Studied whether genetic variability explained some of the variance in coincidence timing and whether common genetic factors accounted for the association with intellectual functioning using 55 pairs of 16-year-old twins. Results suggest that the genetic influence operating on coincidence timing skills was of similar magnitude to that of response…

  4. Manganese-56 coincidence-counting facility precisely measures neutron-source strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Volpi, A.; Larsen, R. N.; Porges, K. G. A.

    1969-01-01

    Precise measurement of neutron-source strength is provided by a manganese 56 coincidence-counting facility using the manganese-bath technique. This facility combines nuclear instrumentation with coincidence-counting techniques to handle a wide variety of radioisotope-counting requirements.

  5. It takes two—coincidence coding within the dual olfactory pathway of the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Martin F.; Meyer, Anneke; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    To rapidly process biologically relevant stimuli, sensory systems have developed a broad variety of coding mechanisms like parallel processing and coincidence detection. Parallel processing (e.g., in the visual system), increases both computational capacity and processing speed by simultaneously coding different aspects of the same stimulus. Coincidence detection is an efficient way to integrate information from different sources. Coincidence has been shown to promote associative learning and memory or stimulus feature detection (e.g., in auditory delay lines). Within the dual olfactory pathway of the honeybee both of these mechanisms might be implemented by uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs) that transfer information from the primary olfactory centers, the antennal lobe (AL), to a multimodal integration center, the mushroom body (MB). PNs from anatomically distinct tracts respond to the same stimulus space, but have different physiological properties, characteristics that are prerequisites for parallel processing of different stimulus aspects. However, the PN pathways also display mirror-imaged like anatomical trajectories that resemble neuronal coincidence detectors as known from auditory delay lines. To investigate temporal processing of olfactory information, we recorded PN odor responses simultaneously from both tracts and measured coincident activity of PNs within and between tracts. Our results show that coincidence levels are different within each of the two tracts. Coincidence also occurs between tracts, but to a minor extent compared to coincidence within tracts. Taken together our findings support the relevance of spike timing in coding of olfactory information (temporal code). PMID:26283968

  6. Multiple-coincidence of flood waves on the main river and its tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prohaska, S.; Ilic, A.; Majkic, B.

    2008-11-01

    This paper addresses the definition of multiple coincidences of flood waves on the main river and its tributaries. Contrary to previous studies of partial coincidences of various flood parameters (Prohaska 1999) for the main river and one of its tributaries, this procedure allows for the definition of complex (multiple) coincidences of a single parameter for the main river and several of its tributaries. In particular, coincidence is defined for the major parameter which characterizes a flood (i.e., the flood wave volume). The paper gives a practical example of the analysis of simultaneous flood waves on the Danube and its main tributaries in Serbia: the Tisa and the Sava rivers. The procedure for potential use of the established coincidence functions in applied water management and forecasting is also described in the paper.

  7. Anomalous coincidences between valley split Landau levels in a Si/SiGe heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, H. W.; Nauen, A.; Zeitler, U.; Haug, R. J.; Weitz, P.; Jansen, A. G. M.; Schäffler, F.

    1998-12-01

    We have performed magneto-transport experiments on a high mobility 2DEG in a Si/SiGe heterojunction in tilted magnetic fields up to 26 T at temperatures down to 450 mK. When tilting the sample in the magnetic field the value of the spin splitting increases with respect to the Landau level splitting leading to an overlap of spin-split sub-levels of different Landau levels, the so-called coincidences. Coincidences between up to five neighbouring Landau levels are found. From their positions we deduce a Landé factor g ∗≈3.4 . Coincidences between the lowest Landau levels with fully resolved individual valley states show extremely high SdH peaks compared to the individual SdH maxima outside the coincidence suggesting strong exchange enhancement effects in the occurrence of the coincidence.

  8. Development and Testing of the Positron Identification By Coincident Annihilation Photons (PICAP) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, D.; Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; Bickford, B.

    2014-12-01

    Moderate energy positrons (~few to 10 MeV) have seldom been observed in the Heliosphere, due primarily to there not having been dedicated instruments for such measurements. Their detection would have implications in the study of Solar energetic particle events and the transport and modulation of the Solar wind and Galactic cosmic rays. The Positron Identification by Coincident Annihilation Photons (PICAP) system is designed specifically to measure these moderate energy positrons by simultaneously detecting the two 511-keV γ-ray photons that result from a positron stopping in the instrument and the subsequent electron-positron annihilation. This method is also expected to effectively discriminate positrons from protons by measuring the amount of energy deposited in the detectors (dE/dx versus residual energy). PICAP offers a low-mass, low-power option for measuring positrons, electrons, and ions in space. Following Monte Carlo modeling, a PICAP laboratory prototype, adaptable to a space-flight design, was designed, built, and tested. This instrument is comprised of (Si) solid-state detectors, plastic scintillation detectors, and high-Z BGO crystal scintillator suitable for detecting the 511-keV γ rays. The prototype underwent preliminary laboratory testing and calibration using radioactive sources for the purpose of establishing functionality. It has since been exposed to beams of energetic protons (up to ~200 MeV) at Massachusetts General Hospital's Francis H. Burr Proton Beam Therapy Center and positrons and electrons (up to ~10 MeV) at Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center. The goal is to validate modeling and determine the performance of the instrument concept. We will present a summary of modeling calculations and analysis of data taken at the accelerator tests. This work is 95% supported by NASA Grant NNX10AC10G.

  9. Stabilized Hollow Ions Extracted in Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Azuma, T.; Komaki, K.; Koike, F.; Masuda, H.; Kuroki, K.; Sekiguchi, M.

    1997-06-01

    K x rays emitted from 2.1 keV/uN{sup 6+} ions passed through a thin Ni microcapillary foil were measured in coincidence with the exit charge states. Ions with a K hole but with several electrons in outershells, i.e., hollow ions formed above a surface (in the first generation), were successfully extracted in vacuum. It was found that a considerable fraction of extracted hollow ions had extremely long lifetimes of the order of ns. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  11. A data acquisition system for coincidence imaging using a conventional dual head gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, T.K.; Miyaoka, R.S.; Kaplan, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    A low cost data acquisition system (DAS) was developed to acquire coincidence data from an unmodified General Electric Maxxus dual head scintillation camera. A high impedance pick-off circuit provides position and energy signals to the DAS without interfering with normal camera operation. The signals are pulse-clipped to reduce pileup effects. Coincidence is determined with fast timing signals derived from constant fraction discriminators. A charge-integrating FERA 16 channel ADC feeds position and energy data to two CAMAC FERA memories operated as ping-pong buffers. A Macintosh PowerPC running Labview controls the system and reads the CAMAC memories. A CAMAC 12-channel scaler records singles and coincidence rate data. The system dead-time is approximately 10% at a coincidence rate of 4.0 kHz.

  12. X-ray fluorescence/Auger-electron coincidence spectroscopy of vacancy cascades in atomic argon

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, U.; LeBrun, T.; Southworth, S.H.; Jung, M.; MacDonald, M.A.

    1996-12-01

    Argon L{sub 2.3}-M{sub 2.3}M{sub 2.3} Auger-electron spectra were measured in coincidence with K{alpha} fluorescent x-rays in studies of Ar K-shell vacancy decays at several photon energies above the K-threshold and on the 1s-4p resonance in atomic argon. The complex spectra recorded by conventional electron spectroscopy are greatly simplified when recorded in coincidence with fluorescent x-rays, allowing a more detailed analysis of the vacancy cascade process. The resulting coincidence spectra are compared with Hartree-Fock calculations which include shake-up transitions in the resonant case. Small energy shifts of the coincidence electron spectra are attributed to post-collision interaction with 1s photoelectrons.

  13. The coincidence-summing correction of the Compton-suppression spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuan-qing; Wang, Jun; Wang, Shi-lian; Zhang, Xin-jun; Li, Qi

    2012-09-01

    The compton-suppression Spectrometer can suppress the Compton baseline and make weak full energy peaks prominent in low-level activity gamma spectra, so it is used to measure environmental radioactive samples. In order to quantify the activities of the radionuclides in the sample coincidence-summing corrections should be applied. In this article the expressions of coincidence-summing correction of Compton-Suppression Spectrometer were deduced and the validity of the expressions was verified. PMID:22405959

  14. Low level measurement of (60)Co by gamma ray spectrometry using γ-γ coincidence.

    PubMed

    Paradis, H; de Vismes Ott, A; Luo, M; Cagnat, X; Piquemal, F; Gurriaran, R

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the latest development of the laboratory to measure the natural and artificial massic activities in environmental samples. The measurement method of coincident emitters by gamma-gamma coincidence using an anti-Compton device and its digital electronics is described. Results obtained with environmental samples are shown. Despite its low efficiency, this method decreases detection limits of (60)Co for certain samples compared to conventional gamma-ray spectrometry due to its very low background. PMID:26682892

  15. Few-photon-level two-dimensional infrared imaging by coincidence frequency upconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kun; Gu, Xiaorong; Pan, Haifeng; E Wu, Zeng, Heping

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate few-photon-level infrared imaging at 1040 nm by coincidence frequency upconversion with a high conversion efficiency of 33.5%. By synchronous pulse pumping at 1549 nm, the infrared object image was spectrally upconverted into the visible regime. The upconverted image was captured by a silicon electron multiplying charged coupled device without any scanning devices, thus gaining in simplicity and speed. The imaging sensitivity was improved by reducing the background noise with coincidence pulsed pumping at long wavelength.

  16. Shift Register Clock Rate Effects on Coincidence Collection 50MHz versus 4MHz Comparison Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, Matthew R.; Bourret, Steven C.; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas

    2015-11-03

    The following report identifies and quantifies the timing differences between the older slower Shift Register Coincidence/Multiplicity modules and today’s modern higher speed devices. Modern high speed Shift Register Coincidence/Multiplicity instruments employ high speed internal clocks that run at frequencies more than ten times the older units, typically 50MHz. These higher speed clocks allow for a finer time resolution when recording input pulses.

  17. A photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging apparatus for femtosecond time-resolved molecular dynamics with electron time-of-flight resolution of {sigma}=18 ps and energy resolution {delta}E/E=3.5%

    SciTech Connect

    Vredenborg, Arno; Roeterdink, Wim G.; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2008-06-15

    We report on the construction and performance of a novel photoelectron-photoion coincidence machine in our laboratory in Amsterdam to measure the full three-dimensional momentum distribution of correlated electrons and ions in femtosecond time-resolved molecular beam experiments. We implemented sets of open electron and ion lenses to time stretch and velocity map the charged particles. Time switched voltages are operated on the particle lenses to enable optimal electric field strengths for velocity map focusing conditions of electrons and ions separately. The position and time sensitive detectors employ microchannel plates (MCPs) in front of delay line detectors. A special effort was made to obtain the time-of-flight (TOF) of the electrons at high temporal resolution using small pore (5 {mu}m) MCPs and implementing fast timing electronics. We measured the TOF distribution of the electrons under our typical coincidence field strengths with a temporal resolution down to {sigma}=18 ps. We observed that our electron coincidence detector has a timing resolution better than {sigma}=16 ps, which is mainly determined by the residual transit time spread of the MCPs. The typical electron energy resolution appears to be nearly laser bandwidth limited with a relative resolution of {delta}E{sub FWHM}/E=3.5% for electrons with kinetic energy near 2 eV. The mass resolution of the ion detector for ions measured in coincidence with electrons is about {delta}m{sub FWHM}/m=1/4150. The velocity map focusing of our extended source volume of particles, due to the overlap of the molecular beam with the laser beams, results in a parent ion spot on our detector focused down to {sigma}=115 {mu}m.

  18. Fragmentation of doubly charged ammonia cations NH{3/++} studied by the photoion-photoion coincidence (PIPICO) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkoun, D.; Dujardin, G.

    1986-03-01

    Doubly charged NH{3/++} cations were produced by double photoionization of neutral ammonia molecules by using the synchrotron radiation from ACO as a photon source of variable energy in the 35 49 eV energy range. The fragmentation of NH{3/++} was studied by the photoion-photoion coincidence (PIPICO) method. NH{3/++} cations were produced in thetilde X^1 A 1 andtilde B^1 electronic states of which the onset energies were measured at, respectively, 35.4±0.5 eV and 44.5±0.5 eV. It was shown that the NH{3/++} ions, initially produced in theirtilde X^1 A 1 state, rapidly dissociate (in less than 50 ns), into NH{2/+} + H+. Furthermore, the comparison with results obtained by other methods indicates that NH{3/++} ions can either be long-lived (τ>10 µs) or slowly dissociating (1 µs<τ<10 µs) or rapidly dissociating (τ<50 ns), depending on their geometry and/or internal energy in theirtilde X^1 E A 1 electronic state.

  19. A threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence study of the N2O+ dissociation between 15 and 20.5 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenner, Irene; Guyon, Paul-Marie; Baer, Tomas; Govers, Thomas R.

    1980-06-01

    Branching ratios and the kinetic energy released in the various fragmentation channels of energy selected N2O+ (15-20.5 eV) were investigated by the technique of threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence. Pulsed synchrotron radiation from ACO, Orsay's storage ring, dispersed by a monochromator, was used as a photon source. Threshold electrons were energy selected on the basis of angular and temporal discrimination against energetic electrons. The energy region below 16.388 eV and the ? state were investigated in detail. Below the ? state the most abundant fragment ion is O+, while above the ? state NO+ dominates. Results for the ? and ? states are also reported.

  20. Relative dissociation fractions of CF4 under 15–30 keV H‑, C‑ and O‑ negative ion impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dedong; Fan, Yikui; Zhao, Zilong; Min, Guangxin; Zhang, Xuemei

    2016-08-01

    The relative dissociation fractions to produce the fragments of CF4 molecule are studied under the impact of 15 keV to 30 keV H‑, C‑ and O‑ negative ions. By using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the recoil ions and ion pairs originating from the target molecule CF4 are detected and identified in coincidence with scattered ions in q = 0 and q = +1 charge states. The fractions for the production of the fragment ions are obtained relative to the {\\text{CF} }3+ yield, while that of the ion pairs relative to the (C+, F+) coincidence yield.

  1. An (e, 2e + ion) investigation of fragmentation of methane induced by low energy electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Ma, X.; Ren, X.; Senftleben, A.; Pflüger, T.; Ullrich, J.; Yan, S.; Zhang, P.; Yang, J.; Dorn, A.

    2014-04-01

    An (e, 2e+ion) investigation of the ionization and dissociation of methane by 54 eV electron impact is performed using the advanced reaction microscope. By measuring two electrons and the ion in the final state in triple coincidence, the species of the ions are identified, and the energies deposited into the target are determined. The species and the kinetic energies of the fragmented ion show strong dependence on the intermediate states of the parent ion.

  2. Clonal Integration of Fragaria orientalis in Reciprocal and Coincident Patchiness Resources: Cost-Benefit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying

    2013-01-01

    Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to experience different levels of resources. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clonal plants can reciprocally translocate resources between ramets in heterogeneous environments. But little is known about the interaction between benefits of clonal integration and patterns of resource heterogeneity in different patches, i.e., coincident patchiness or reciprocal patchiness. We hypothesized that clonal integration will show different effects on ramets in different patches and more benefit to ramets under reciprocal patchiness than to those under coincident patchiness, as well as that the benefit from clonal integration is affected by the position of proximal and distal ramets under reciprocal or coincident patchiness. A pot experiment was conducted with clonal fragments consisting of two interconnected ramets (proximal and distal ramet) of Fragaria orientalis. In the experiment, proximal and distal ramets were grown in high or low availability of resources, i.e., light and water. Resource limitation was applied either simultaneously to both ramets of a clonal fragment (coincident resource limitation) or separately to different ramets of the same clonal fragment (reciprocal resource limitation). Half of the clonal fragments were connected while the other half were severed. From the experiment, clonal fragments growing under coincident resource limitation accumulated more biomass than those under reciprocal resource limitation. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, the support from proximal ramets to distal ramets was stronger than that from distal ramets to proximal ramets. Through division of labour, clonal fragments of F. orientalis benefited more in reciprocal patchiness than in coincident patchiness. While considering biomass accumulation and ramets production, coincident patchiness were more favourable to clonal plant F. orientalis. PMID:24265832

  3. Anomalous positrons from heavy ion collisions: Past results and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    The current status of the experimental study of anomalous lines observed in the spectra of positrons produced in heavy ion collisions is reviewed. A new experiment to measure positron-electron coincidences is discussed. 26 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Analysis of calibration data for the uranium active neutron coincidence counting collar with attention to errors in the measured neutron coincidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Stephen; Burr, Tom; Favalli, Andrea; Nicholson, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The declared linear density of 238U and 235U in fresh low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel assemblies can be verified for nuclear safeguards purposes using a neutron coincidence counter collar in passive and active mode, respectively. The active mode calibration of the Uranium Neutron Collar - Light water reactor fuel (UNCL) instrument is normally performed using a non-linear fitting technique. The fitting technique relates the measured neutron coincidence rate (the predictor) to the linear density of 235U (the response) in order to estimate model parameters of the nonlinear Padé equation, which traditionally is used to model the calibration data. Alternatively, following a simple data transformation, the fitting can also be performed using standard linear fitting methods. This paper compares performance of the nonlinear technique to the linear technique, using a range of possible error variance magnitudes in the measured neutron coincidence rate. We develop the required formalism and then apply the traditional (nonlinear) and alternative approaches (linear) to the same experimental and corresponding simulated representative datasets. We find that, in this context, because of the magnitude of the errors in the predictor, it is preferable not to transform to a linear model, and it is preferable not to adjust for the errors in the predictor when inferring the model parameters.

  5. Digital Pulse Shape Analysis with Phoswich Detectors to Simplify Coincidence Measurements of Radioactive Xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, Wolfgang; Tan, Hui; Warburton, William K.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2005-08-31

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty establishes a network of monitoring stations to detect radioactive Xenon in the atmosphere from nuclear weapons testing. One such monitoring system is the Automated Radio-xenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which uses a complex arrangement of separate beta and gamma detectors to detect beta-gamma coincidences from the Xe isotopes of interest. The coincidence measurement is very sensitive, but the large number of detectors and photomultiplier tubes require careful calibration which makes the system hard to use. It has been suggested that beta-gamma coincidences could be detected with only a single photomultiplier tube and electronics channel by using a phoswich detector consisting of optically coupled beta and gamma detectors (Ely, 2003). In that work, rise time analysis of signals from a phoswich detector was explored as a method to determine if interactions occurred in either the beta or the gamma detector or in both simultaneously. However, this approach was not able to detect coincidences with the required sensitivity or to measure the beta and gamma energies with sufficient precision for Xenon monitoring. In this paper, we present a new algorithm to detect coincidences by pulse shape analysis of the signals from a BC-404/CsI(Tl) phoswich detector. Implemented on fast digital readout electronics, the algorithm achieves clear separation of beta only, gamma only and coincidence events, accurate measurement of both beta and gamma energies, and has an error rate for detecting coincidences of less than 0.1%. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and light collection were performed to optimize design parameters for a replacement detector module for the ARSA system, obtaining an estimated coincidence detection efficiency of 82-92% and a background rejection rate better than 99%. The new phoswich/pulse shape analysis method is thus suitable to simplify the existing ARSA

  6. Recovering the triple coincidence of non-pure positron emitters in preclinical PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Chen, Szu-Yu; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Non-pure positron emitters, with their long half-lives, allow for the tracing of slow biochemical processes which cannot be adequately examined by the commonly used short-lived positron emitters. Most of these isotopes emit high-energy cascade gamma rays in addition to positron decay that can be detected and create a triple coincidence with annihilation photons. Triple coincidence is discarded in most scanners, however, the majority of the triple coincidence contains true photon pairs that can be recovered. In this study, we propose a strategy for recovering triple coincidence events to raise the sensitivity of PET imaging for non-pure positron emitters. To identify the true line of response (LOR) from a triple coincidence, a framework utilizing geometrical, energy and temporal information is proposed. The geometrical criterion is based on the assumption that the LOR with the largest radial offset among the three sub pairs of triple coincidences is least likely to be a true LOR. Then, a confidence time window is used to test the valid LOR among those within triple coincidence. Finally, a likelihood ratio discriminant rule based on the energy probability density distribution of cascade and annihilation gammas is established to identify the true LOR. An Inveon preclinical PET scanner was modeled with GATE (GEANT4 application for tomographic emission) Monte Carlo software. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in terms of identification fraction, noise equivalent count rates (NECR), and image quality on various phantoms. With the inclusion of triple coincidence events using the proposed method, the NECR was found to increase from 11% to 26% and 19% to 29% for I-124 and Br-76, respectively, when 7.4-185 MBq of activity was used. Compared to the reconstructed images using double coincidence, this technique increased the SNR by 5.1-7.3% for I-124 and 9.3-10.3% for Br-76 within the activity range of 9.25-74 MBq, without compromising the spatial resolution or

  7. Recovering the triple coincidence of non-pure positron emitters in preclinical PET.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Chen, Szu-Yu; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Non-pure positron emitters, with their long half-lives, allow for the tracing of slow biochemical processes which cannot be adequately examined by the commonly used short-lived positron emitters. Most of these isotopes emit high-energy cascade gamma rays in addition to positron decay that can be detected and create a triple coincidence with annihilation photons. Triple coincidence is discarded in most scanners, however, the majority of the triple coincidence contains true photon pairs that can be recovered. In this study, we propose a strategy for recovering triple coincidence events to raise the sensitivity of PET imaging for non-pure positron emitters. To identify the true line of response (LOR) from a triple coincidence, a framework utilizing geometrical, energy and temporal information is proposed. The geometrical criterion is based on the assumption that the LOR with the largest radial offset among the three sub pairs of triple coincidences is least likely to be a true LOR. Then, a confidence time window is used to test the valid LOR among those within triple coincidence. Finally, a likelihood ratio discriminant rule based on the energy probability density distribution of cascade and annihilation gammas is established to identify the true LOR. An Inveon preclinical PET scanner was modeled with GATE (GEANT4 application for tomographic emission) Monte Carlo software. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in terms of identification fraction, noise equivalent count rates (NECR), and image quality on various phantoms. With the inclusion of triple coincidence events using the proposed method, the NECR was found to increase from 11% to 26% and 19% to 29% for I-124 and Br-76, respectively, when 7.4-185 MBq of activity was used. Compared to the reconstructed images using double coincidence, this technique increased the SNR by 5.1-7.3% for I-124 and 9.3-10.3% for Br-76 within the activity range of 9.25-74 MBq, without compromising the spatial resolution or

  8. The effect of deadtime and electronic transients on the predelay bias in neutron coincidence counting

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Goddard, Braden; Stewart, Scott

    2016-01-13

    In neutron coincidence counting using the shift register autocorrelation technique, a predelay is inserted before the opening of the (R+A)-gate. Operationally the purpose of the predelay is to ensure that the (R+A)- and A-gates have matched effectiveness, otherwise a bias will result when the difference between the gates is used to calculate the accidentals corrected net reals coincidence rate. The necessity for the predelay was established experimentally in the early practical development and deployment of the coincidence counting method. The choice of predelay for a given detection system is usually made experimentally, but even today long standing traditional values (e.g.,more » 4.5 µs) are often used. This, at least in part, reflects the fact that a deep understanding of why a finite predelay setting is needed and how to control the underlying influences has not been fully worked out. We attempt, in this paper, to gain some insight into the problem. One aspect we consider is the slowing down, thermalization, and diffusion of neutrons in the detector moderator. The other is the influence of deadtime and electronic transients. These may be classified as non-ideal detector behaviors because they are not included in the conventional model used to interpret measurement data. From improved understanding of the effect of deadtime and electronic transients on the predelay bias in neutron coincidence counting, the performance of both future and current coincidence counters may be improved.« less

  9. Uranium mass and neutron multiplication factor estimates from time-correlation coincidence counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wenxiong; Li, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    Time-correlation coincidence counts of neutrons are an important means to measure attributes of nuclear material. The main deficiency in the analysis is that an attribute of an unknown component can only be assessed by comparing it with similar known components. There is a lack of a universal method of measurement suitable for the different attributes of the components. This paper presents a new method that uses universal relations to estimate the mass and neutron multiplication factor of any uranium component with known enrichment. Based on numerical simulations and analyses of 64 highly enriched uranium components with different thicknesses and average radii, the relations between mass, multiplication and coincidence spectral features have been obtained by linear regression analysis. To examine the validity of the method in estimating the mass of uranium components with different sizes, shapes, enrichment, and shielding, the features of time-correlation coincidence-count spectra for other objects with similar attributes are simulated. Most of the masses and multiplications for these objects could also be derived by the formulation. Experimental measurements of highly enriched uranium castings have also been used to verify the formulation. The results show that for a well-designed time-dependent coincidence-count measuring system of a uranium attribute, there are a set of relations dependent on the uranium enrichment by which the mass and multiplication of the measured uranium components of any shape and size can be estimated from the features of the source-detector coincidence-count spectrum.

  10. Use of beam stoppers to correct random and scatter coincidence in PET: A Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Lu, Cheng-Chang; Ni, Yu-Ching; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2013-05-01

    3D acquisition of positron emission tomography (PET) produce data with improved signal-to-noise ratios compared with conventional 2D PET. However, the sensitivity increase is accompanied by an increase in the number of scattered photons and random coincidences detected. Scatter and random coincidence lead to a loss in image contrast and degrade the accuracy of quantitative analysis. This work examines the feasibility of using beam stoppers (BS) for correcting scatter and random coincidence simultaneously. The origins of the photons are not on the path of non-true event. Therefore, a BS placed on the line of response (LOR) that passes through the source position absorbs a particular fraction of the true events but has little effect on the scatter and random events. The subtraction of the two scanned data, with and without BS, can be employed to estimate the non-true events at the LOR. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of 3D PET on an EEC phantom and a Zubal Phantom are conducted to validate the proposed approach. Both scattered and random coincidences can be estimated and corrected using the proposed method. The mean squared errors measured on the random+scatter sinogram of the phantom obtained by the proposed method are much less than those obtained using the conventional correction method (the delayed coincidence subtraction for random correction combined with single scatter simulation for scatter correction). Preliminary results indicate that the proposed method is feasible for clinical application.

  11. The coincidence theory of consonance: A re-evaluation based on modern scientific evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, Benjamin Dwight

    The coincidence theory was a theory of consonance advocated by many of the scientists of the period 1550-1800, including Galileo, Mersenne, Descartes, and Euler. It was the first truly scientific explanation of consonance, addressing the way that sound waves interact with each other either constructively or destructively. Within the present century, historians of music and science have turned their attention to the coincidence theory and the important role it played in both fields in the 17th century. Many of these same authors have charged the theory with having had serious faults. However, an investigation of modern scientific evidence reveals that these alleged problems are either answerable or irrelevant to the coincidence theory. Furthermore, a survey of the major theories of consonance since the 18th century shows that the premises of the coincidence theory pervade and underlie many of these more recent theories. Examples of such theories include those of Helmholtz, Lipps, Boomsliter and Creel, and Terhardt. In the process of establishing these theses, many relevant secondary issues are addressed. For example, this dissertation contains a discussion of the different meanings of the word consonance, the relationship between integer ratios and musical intervals, and the similarities between pitch perception and rhythmic perception. Also, several different versions of the coincidence theory are identified and evaluated.

  12. The effect of deadtime and electronic transients on the predelay bias in neutron coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Goddard, Braden; Stewart, Scott

    2016-04-01

    In neutron coincidence counting using the shift register autocorrelation technique, a predelay is inserted before the opening of the (R+A)-gate. Operationally the purpose of the predelay is to ensure that the (R+A)- and A-gates have matched effectiveness, otherwise a bias will result when the difference between the gates is used to calculate the accidentals corrected net reals coincidence rate. The necessity for the predelay was established experimentally in the early practical development and deployment of the coincidence counting method. The choice of predelay for a given detection system is usually made experimentally, but even today long standing traditional values (e.g., 4.5 μs) are often used. This, at least in part, reflects the fact that a deep understanding of why a finite predelay setting is needed and how to control the underlying influences has not been fully worked out. In this paper we attempt to gain some insight into the problem. One aspect we consider is the slowing down, thermalization, and diffusion of neutrons in the detector moderator. The other is the influence of deadtime and electronic transients. These may be classified as non-ideal detector behaviors because they are not included in the conventional model used to interpret measurement data. From improved understanding of the effect of deadtime and electronic transients on the predelay bias in neutron coincidence counting, the performance of both future and current coincidence counters may be improved.

  13. Performance demonstration of 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, D B; Anuradha, R; Joseph, Leena; Kulkarni, M S; Tomar, B S

    2016-02-01

    A standardization of (134)Cs and (131)I was carried out in order to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme. The coincidence analyzer, capable of analyzing coincidence between beta and two gamma windows simultaneously, was developed and used for the standardization. The use of this dual coincidence analyzer has reduced the total experimental time by half. The activity concentrations obtained using the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system, a 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system, and the CIEMAT/NIST method are in excellent agreement with each other within uncertainty limits and hence demonstrates its performance for standardization of radionuclides decaying with complex decay scheme. Hence use of this 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system can be an alternative method suitable to standardize radionuclides with complex decay scheme with acceptable precision. PMID:26678524

  14. Robust Level Coincidences in the Subband Structure of Quasi 2D Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, R.; Wang, L. Y.; Lin, Y. H.; Chu, C. S.

    2011-03-01

    Recently, level crossings in the energy bands of crystals have been identified as a key signature for topological phase transitions. In general, three independent parameters must be tuned appropriately to bring two quantum levels into degeneracy. Using realistic models we show that for Bloch electrons in a crystal the parameter space controlling the occurrence of level coincidences has a much richer structure than anticipated previously. In particular, we identify cases where level coincidences depend on only two independent parameters thus making the level coincidences robust, i.e., they cannot be removed by a small perturbation of the Hamiltonian compatible with the crystal symmetry. We consider HgTe/CdTe quantum wells as a specific example. (See arXiv:1011.xxxx) Work supported by Taiwan NSC (Contract No. 99-2112-M-009-006) and a MOE-ATU grant. Work at Argonne supported by DOE BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  15. In vivo coincidence detection in mammalian sound localization generates phase delays.

    PubMed

    Franken, Tom P; Roberts, Michael T; Wei, Liting; Golding, Nace L; Joris, Philip X

    2015-03-01

    Sound localization critically depends on detection of differences in arrival time of sounds at the two ears (acoustic delay). The fundamental mechanisms are debated, but all proposals include a process of coincidence detection and a separate source of internal delay that offsets the acoustic delay and determines neural tuning. We used in vivo patch-clamp recordings of binaural neurons in the Mongolian gerbil and pharmacological manipulations to directly compare neuronal input to output and to separate excitation from inhibition. Our results cannot be accounted for by existing models and reveal that coincidence detection is not an instantaneous process, but is instead shaped by the interaction of intrinsic conductances with preceding synaptic activity. This interaction generates an internal delay as an intrinsic part of the process of coincidence detection. The multiplication and time-shifting stages thought to extract synchronous activity in many brain areas can therefore be combined in a single operation. PMID:25664914

  16. Exploring simultaneous single and coincident gamma-ray measurements for U/Pu assay in safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T. F.; Horne, S. M.; Henderson, R. A.; Roberts, K. E.; Vogt, D. K.

    2011-07-01

    Using a broad range of gamma-ray uranium standards and two plutonium samples of known isotopic content, list mode gamma ray information from two Compton suppressed and one planar HPGe detectors were analyzed according to the time information of the signals. Interferences from Cs-137 were introduced. In this study, we extended singles measurements by exploring the potential of simultaneously using both singles and coincidence data for U/Pu assay. The main goals of this exploratory study are: 1) whether one will be able to use coincidence information in addition to the complicated 100-keV unfolding to obtain extra information of uranium and plutonium isotopic ratios, and 2) with higher energy interference gamma-rays from isotopes such as Cs-137, can the coincidence information help to provide the isotopic information. (authors)

  17. Two-dimensional diagonal summing of coincidence spectra for bulk PGNAA applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwally, W. A.; Gardner, R. P.; Mayo, C. W.

    2004-06-01

    In the past 10 years, new electronic devices have been developed that allow fast coincidence measurements to be performed that are capable of simultaneously recording the individual spectra as well as the coincidence spectra of multiple detectors. Utilizing these devices with computer software allows multiparameter data acquisition which adds much more flexibility in data analysis. One of the capabilities that is enabled is that of obtaining two-dimensional spectra. In this work, the use of this equipment and the two-dimensional spectra obtained with it are used to allow two-dimensional diagonal summing. The main advantages of this approach are improved peak resolution and very low background (Compton continuum). Possible uses of the two-dimensional diagonal summing are identifying coincidence schemes, performing elemental analysis, and identifying trace elements in bulk samples. The spectra obtained are very promising for these applications.

  18. Moisture corrections in neutron coincidence counting of PuO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.; Menlove, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    Passive neutron coincidence counting is capable of 1% assay accuracy for pure, well-characterized PuO/sub 2/ samples that contain plutonium masses from a few tens of grams to several kilograms. Moisture in the sample can significantly bias the assay high by changing the (..cap alpha..,n) neutron production, the sample multiplication, and the detection efficiency. Monte Carlo calculations and an analytical model of coincidence counting have been used to quantify the individual and cumulative effects of moisture biases for two PuO/sub 2/ sample sizes and a range of moisture levels from 0 to 9 wt %. Results of the calculations suggest a simple correction procedure for moisture bias that is effective from 0 to 3 wt % H/sub 2/O. The procedure requires that the moisture level in the sample be known before the coincidence measurement.

  19. Application of a simple asynchronous mechanical light chopper to multielectron coincidence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kenji; Suzuki, Isao H.; Penent, Francis; Lablanquie, Pascal; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Shigemasa, Eiji; Eland, John H. D.

    2009-12-15

    A simple asynchronous mechanical light chopper, based on modification of a turbo-molecular pump, has been developed to extend the interval between light pulses in single bunch operation at the Photon Factory storage ring. A pulse repetition rate of 80 kHz was achieved using a cylinder rotating at 48000 rpm, with 100 slits of 80 {mu}m width. This allows absolute timing of particles up to 12.48 {mu}s instead of the single-bunch period of 624 ns. We have applied the chopper together with a light pulse monitor to measure multielectron coincidence spectra using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer. With such a system, the electron energies are determined without any ambiguity, the folding of coincidence spectra disappears and the effect of false coincidences is drastically reduced.

  20. Simulations of Lithium-Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Gd-Loaded Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cowles, Christian C.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-10-31

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Lithium-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology Coincidence Counting for Gd-loaded Fuels at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the development of a lithium-based neutron coincidence counter for nondestructively assaying Gd loaded nuclear fuel. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of a lithium-based coincidence counter for the possible measurement of Gd-loaded nuclear fuel. A comparison of lithium-based simulations and UNCL-II simulations with and without Gd loaded fuel is provided. A lithium-based model, referred to as PLNS3A-R1, showed strong promise for assaying Gd loaded fuel.

  1. Application of a simple asynchronous mechanical light chopper to multielectron coincidence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenji; Penent, Francis; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Shigemasa, Eiji; Suzuki, Isao H; Eland, John H D; Lablanquie, Pascal

    2009-12-01

    A simple asynchronous mechanical light chopper, based on modification of a turbo-molecular pump, has been developed to extend the interval between light pulses in single bunch operation at the Photon Factory storage ring. A pulse repetition rate of 80 kHz was achieved using a cylinder rotating at 48000 rpm, with 100 slits of 80 microm width. This allows absolute timing of particles up to 12.48 micros instead of the single-bunch period of 624 ns. We have applied the chopper together with a light pulse monitor to measure multielectron coincidence spectra using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer. With such a system, the electron energies are determined without any ambiguity, the folding of coincidence spectra disappears and the effect of false coincidences is drastically reduced. PMID:20059125

  2. A new coincidence model for single particle counters, Part I: Theory and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Knapp, J Z; Abramson, L R

    1994-01-01

    The prerequisites for estimating the effect of signal coincidence on both particle undercounting and the injection of false counts in the implementation of U.S.P. 788 contaminating particle assays by light extinction particle counters are defined. These include a particle concentration measure that varies with particle size and a new model of the counting process. Both prerequisites have been verified empirically: a single normalized equation describes the coincidence effect in all single particle counters. The single parameter of the normalized equation is the number of effective detector volumes per milliliter. A maximum undercount limit of 5% is proposed based on adequately suspended particles. Using the SVP U.S.P. XXII acceptance limits of 10,000 particles per container or the PMA propose 6,000 particles per container maximum for particles > 10 microns in U.S.P. XXIII, undercount errors are estimated for the smallest container sizes. The large concentration of particles below the controlled 10 microns particle size, that has been documented in injectable solutions, can pose an additional 788 measurement hazard. A Poisson model is used to estimate and control the injection of false particle counts into the mandated measurement through particle coincidence. Acceptable counting accuracy limits with present particle counting systems can be achieved by understanding the capabilities of the particle counter measurement system and using a dilution technique when appropriate. The new model of the counting process and the new particle concentration measures can result in standard, conservative, instrument specifications for use in Pharmacopeial contamination testing and in GLP user evaluation tests. Part I of this paper includes the theory of the coincidence effect on particle counting and the particle size distribution measured. A summary of the experimental verification employed to determine coincidence count loss as a function of particle concentration for single

  3. Distinct coincidence detectors govern the corticostriatal spike timing-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Fino, Elodie; Paille, Vincent; Cui, Yihui; Morera-Herreras, Teresa; Deniau, Jean-Michel; Venance, Laurent

    2010-08-15

    Corticostriatal projections constitute the main input to the basal ganglia, an ensemble of interconnected subcortical nuclei involved in procedural learning. Thus, long-term plasticity at corticostriatal synapses would provide a basic mechanism for the function of basal ganglia in learning and memory. We had previously reported the existence of a corticostriatal anti-Hebbian spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) at synapses onto striatal output neurons, the medium-sized spiny neurons. Here, we show that the blockade of GABAergic transmission reversed the time dependence of corticostriatal STDP. We explored the receptors and signalling mechanisms involved in the corticostriatal STDP. Although classical models for STDP propose NMDA receptors as the unique coincidence detector, the involvement of multiple coincidence detectors has also been demonstrated. Here, we show that corticostriatal STDP depends on distinct coincidence detectors. Specifically, long-term potentiation is dependent on NMDA receptor activation, while long-term depression requires distinct coincidence detectors: the phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta) and the inositol-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-gated calcium stores. Furthermore, we found that PLCbeta activation is controlled by group-I metabotropic glutamate receptors, type-1 muscarinic receptors and voltage-sensitive calcium channel activities. Activation of PLCbeta and IP3Rs leads to robust retrograde endocannabinoid signalling mediated by 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Interestingly, the same coincidence detectors govern the corticostriatal anti-Hebbian STDP and the Hebbian STDP reported at cortical synapses. Therefore, LTP and LTD induced by STDP at corticostriatal synapses are mediated by independent signalling mechanisms, each one being controlled by distinct coincidence detectors. PMID:20603333

  4. LIGO Triggered Search for Coincidence with High Energy Photon Survey Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    LIGO is about to begin a new, higher sensitivity science run, where gravitational detection is plausible. A possible candidate for detection is a compact binary merger, which would also be likely to emit a high energy electromagnetic signal. Coincident observation of the gw signal from a compact merger with an x-ray or gamma-ray signal would add considerable weight to the claim for gw detection. In this talk I will consider the possibility of using LIGO triggers with time and sky position to perform a coincident analysis of EM signals from the RXTE, SWIFT, and FERMI missions.

  5. Line-on-Line Coincidence: A New Type of Epitaxy Found in Organic-Organic Heterolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannsfeld, Stefan C.; Leo, Karl; Fritz, Torsten

    2005-02-01

    We propose a new type of epitaxy, line-on-line coincidence (LOL), which explains the ordering in the organic-organic heterolayer system PTCDA on HBC on graphite. LOL epitaxy is similar to point-on-line coincidence (POL) in the sense that all overlayer molecules lie on parallel, equally spaced lines. The key difference to POL is that these lines are not restricted to primitive lattice lines of the substrate lattice. Potential energy calculations demonstrate that this new type of epitaxy is indeed characterized by a minimum in the overlayer-substrate interaction potential.

  6. Optical optimization for anti-coincidence detectors of a Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun-Long; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Zhao; Fu, Min-Xue; Chen, Yi-Bao; Zhao, Dong-Hua; Deng, Jing-Kang; Shang, Ren-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The anti-coincidence detectors of Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) are designed to suppress the X-ray background induced by incident charged cosmic-ray particles. The main components of anti-coincidence detectors are thin flat plastic scintillators. In this work we apply the TracePro program to study the light transfer features in the scintillators, and we propose several optimized reflector configurations to significantly improve the light transfer efficiency. The simulation results are verified by measurements of the detector prototypes. We chose a particular optimized reflector configuration.

  7. Coincidence summing corrections for point and volume ¹⁵²Eu sources.

    PubMed

    Novković, Dušan; Đurašević, Mirjana; Kandić, Aleksandar; Vukanac, Ivana; Šešlak, Bojan; Milošević, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the X-ray and gamma-ray coincidence summing effect in (152)Eu is studied. Coincidence summing corrections and peak and total efficiencies of point and volume sources were determined using the direct matrices multiplication (DMM) method. The theoretically evaluated peak count rates were found to be in good agreement with the experimentally obtained values. Validation was performed by comparing the calculated efficiency curves and the corresponding correction factors with the results obtained using GESPECOR 4.2 software. PMID:26496693

  8. Standardization of (59)Fe by 4π(PC)β-γ software coincidence system.

    PubMed

    Koskinas, M F; Polillo, G; Brancaccio, F; Yamazaki, I M; Dias, M S

    2016-03-01

    The procedure for the standardization of (59)Fe using a 4π(PC)β-γ software coincidence system is described. The standardization was performed with an experimental setup consisting of a thin window gas-flow proportional counter (PC) in 4π geometry coupled to a NaI(Tl) scintillator and to a HPGe detector. The data acquisition was carried out by means of a Software Coincidence System (SCS). The beta efficiency was changed by using Collodion films and aluminum foils as external absorbers. PMID:26688361

  9. Monte Carlo simulations of the response of a plastic scintillator and an HPGe spectrometer in coincidence.

    PubMed

    Joković, D R; Dragić, A; Udovicić, V; Banjanac, R; Puzović, J; Anicin, I

    2009-05-01

    A simulation programme based on the Geant4 toolkit has been developed to simulate the coincident responses of a plastic scintillator and an HPGe detector to the cosmic-ray muons. The detectors are situated in a low-level underground laboratory (25 m.w.e). Primary positions, momentum directions and energies of the muons are sampled from the angular and energy distributions of the cosmic-ray muons at the shallow underground level. Obtained coincident spectra of both detectors are presented and discussed. PMID:19231223

  10. Coincidence of Homophone Spelling Errors and Attention Problems in Schoolchildren: A Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Li-Hui; Meng, Ling-Fu; Hung, Li-Yu; Chen, Hsin-Yu; Lu, Chiu-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between writing and attention problems and hypothesizes that homophone spelling errors coincide with attention deficits. We analyze specific types of attention deficits, which may contribute to Attention Deficits Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); rather than studying ADHD, however, we focus on the inattention…

  11. Mass measurement of 80Y by beta-gamma coincidence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, C.J.; Brenner, D.S.; Zamfir, N.V.; Caprio, M.A.; Aprahamian, A.; Wiescher, M.C.; Beausang, C.W.; Berant, Z.; Casten, R.F.; Cooper, J.R.; Gill, R.L.; Kruecken, R.; Novak, J.R.; Pietralla, N.; Shawcross, M.; Teymurazyan, A.; Wolf, A.

    2003-03-24

    The Qec value for 80Y has been measured by beta-gamma coincidence spectroscopy. Combining this result with the adopted mass excess of the daughter 80Sr gives a mass excess of >-61376(83) keV. Results are compared with other measurements and predictions of mass formulas. Implications of this measurement are considered for the rp-process.

  12. Calculation of coincidence summing corrections for a specific small soil sample geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Helmer, R.G.; Gehrke, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Previously, a system was developed at the INEL for measuring the {gamma}-ray emitting nuclides in small soil samples for the purpose of environmental monitoring. These samples were counted close to a {approx}20% Ge detector and, therefore, it was necessary to take into account the coincidence summing that occurs for some nuclides. In order to improve the technical basis for the coincidence summing corrections, the authors have carried out a study of the variation in the coincidence summing probability with position within the sample volume. A Monte Carlo electron and photon transport code (CYLTRAN) was used to compute peak and total efficiencies for various photon energies from 30 to 2,000 keV at 30 points throughout the sample volume. The geometry for these calculations included the various components of the detector and source along with the shielding. The associated coincidence summing corrections were computed at these 30 positions in the sample volume and then averaged for the whole source. The influence of the soil and the detector shielding on the efficiencies was investigated.

  13. Reanalysis of nuclear level widths from particle--x-ray coincidence experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Amund Amundsen, P.; Dost, M.

    1986-03-01

    Using new theoretical values for the ionization probabilities during the incoming part of a collision, we have reanalyzed the mean nuclear level widths obtained by the particle-x-ray coincidence method. We find that the deduced level widths are substantially reduced.

  14. Towards a possible solution for the coincidence problem: f(G) gravity as background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudra, Prabir

    2016-07-01

    In this article we address the well-known cosmic coincidence problem in the framework of the f(G) gravity. In order to achieve this, an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is considered. A set-up is designed and a constraint equation is obtained which generates the f(G) models that do not suffer from the coincidence problem. Due to the absence of a universally accepted interaction term introduced by a fundamental theory, the study is conducted over three different forms of logically chosen interaction terms. To illustrate the set-up three widely known models of f(G) gravity are taken into consideration and the problem is studied under the designed set-up. The study reveals that the popular f(G) gravity models does not approve of a satisfactory solution of the long standing coincidence problem, thus proving to be a major setback for them as successful models of universe. Finally, two non-conventional models of f(G) gravity have been proposed and studied in the framework of the designed set-up. It is seen that a complete solution of the coincidence problem is achieved for these models. The study also reveals that the 'b-interaction' term is much more preferable compared to the other interactions, due to its greater compliance with the recent observational data.

  15. Towards a possible solution for the coincidence problem: f(G) gravity as background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudra, Prabir

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we address the well-known cosmic coincidence problem in the framework of the f(G) gravity. In order to achieve this, an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is considered. A set-up is designed and a constraint equation is obtained, which generates the f(G) models that do not suffer from the coincidence problem. Due to the absence of a universally accepted interaction term introduced by a fundamental theory, the study is conducted over three different forms of logically chosen interaction terms. To illustrate the set-up three widely known models of f(G) gravity are taken into consideration and the problem is studied under the designed set-up. The study reveals that the popular f(G) gravity models do not approve of a satisfactory solution of the long standing coincidence problem, thus proving to be a major setback for them as successful models of universe. Finally, two nonconventional models of f(G) gravity have been proposed and studied in the framework of the designed set-up. It is seen that a complete solution of the coincidence problem is achieved for these models. The study also reveals that the b-interaction term is much more preferable compared to the other interactions, due to its greater compliance with the recent observational data.

  16. Data acquisition schemes for continuous two-particle time-of-flight coincidence experiments.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Andras; Sztáray, Bálint; Baer, Tomas; Johnson, Melanie; Gerber, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Three data acquisition schemes for two-particle coincidence experiments with a continuous source are discussed. The single-start/single-stop technique, implemented with a time-to-pulse-height converter, results in a complicated spectrum and breaks down severely at high count rates. The single-start/multiple-stop setup, based on a time-to-digital converter and the first choice in today's similar coincidence experiments, performs significantly better at high count rates, but its performance is still hampered if the time-of-flight range is large, and the false coincidence background is variable if the event frequency and the collection efficiency of the starts are both high. A straightforward, multistart/multistop setup is proposed for coincidence experiments. By collecting all detector data, it ensures the highest signal-to-noise ratio, constant background, and fast data acquisition and can now be easily constructed with commercially available time-to-digital converters. Analytical and numerically evaluated formulas are derived to characterize the performance of each setup in a variety of environments. Computer simulated spectra are presented to illustrate the analytically predicted features of the various raw time-of-flight distributions obtained with each technique. PMID:17764338

  17. Changes in Sensory Evoked Responses Coincide with Rapid Improvement in Speech Identification Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alain, Claude; Campeanu, Sandra; Tremblay, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual learning is sometimes characterized by rapid improvements in performance within the first hour of training (fast perceptual learning), which may be accompanied by changes in sensory and/or response pathways. Here, we report rapid physiological changes in the human auditory system that coincide with learning during a 1-hour test session…

  18. New 1-k PROM for the coincidence-counter electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A new programmable read-only memory (PROM) for the Los Alamos-designed neutron coincidence electronics package is described. The new 1-k PROM allows remote control of the electronics by a computer or a remote terminal through an RS-232 serial data port. No modifications of the existing unit are required.

  19. Field test and calibration of neutron coincidence counters for high-mass plutonium samples

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Dickinson, R.J.; Douglas, I.; Orr, C.; Rogers, F.J.G.; Wells, G.; Schenkel, R.; Smith, G.; Fattgh, A.; Ramalho, A.

    1987-02-01

    Five different neutron coincidence systems were evaluated and calibrated for high-mass PuO/sub 2/ samples. The samples were from 2 to 7.2 kg of PuO/sub 2/ in mass, with a large range of burnup. This report compares the equipment and the results, with an evaluation of deadtime and multiplication corrections.

  20. Fluvoxamine Treatment of Coincident Autistic Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougle, Christopher J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Psychological, neuroanatomical, and neurochemical parallels are drawn between autistic disorder (AD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on a case report of fluvoxamine treatment.The implications of this case of coincident AD and OCD are discussed with respect to nosology, pathophysiology, and treatment. (Author/JDD)

  1. Multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy: double photoionization from molecular inner-shell orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikosaka, Y.; Lablanquie, P.; Penent, F.; Nakano, M.; Ito, K.

    2014-04-01

    We have studied double photoionization from molecular inner-shell orbitals and investigated the properties of the resultant double core-hole states in molecules, by multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy with a magnetic bottle electron spectrometer. A brief summary of our previous studies is presented.

  2. MCNP-POLIMI Evaluation of Time Dependent Coincidence Between Detectors for Fissile Metal Vs. Oxide Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, S. A.; Mihalczo, J. T.

    2002-06-03

    In the past, passive Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) measurements on plutonium metal shells at VNIIEF have shown the sensitivity of the acquired covariance functions to shell mass and thickness for a variety of shell thicknesses from 6 to 30 mm and masses varying from 1829 to 4468g. The technique acquires the time-dependent coincidence distribution between plastic scintillators detecting radiation from the Pu. The measurements showed the sensitivity of the acquired signature to the different spontaneous emission, attenuation, and multiplication properties of the shells. In this work, the MCNP-POLIMI neutron and photon transport code was used to simulate passive measurements on plutonium metal and oxide. The code is a modified version of MCNP, which attempts to calculate more correctly quantities that depend on the second moment of the neutron and gamma distributions, and attempts to model detector pulses as closely as possible. MCNP-POLIMI, together with a post-processing code, can simulate all the time-dependent coincidence distributions measured by NMIS. In particular, the simulations evaluate the time-dependent coincidence distributions between detectors for plutonium samples having mass 2 and 4 kg, in metal and oxide form. This work shows that the time-dependent coincidence distributions between two scintillators measured by NMIS can be used to distinguish metal from oxide.

  3. The Design, Implementation, and Performance of the Astro-H SXS Calorimeter Array and Anti-Coincidence Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Brekosky, Regis P.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chervenak, James A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Galeazzi, Masimilliano; Grein, Christoph; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kelley, Richard L.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Dan; Porter, F. Scott; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Watanabe, Tomomi; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The calorimeter array of the JAXA Astro-H (renamed Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was designed to provide unprecedented spectral resolution of spatially extended cosmic x-ray sources and of all cosmic x-ray sources in the Fe-K band around 6 keV, enabling essential plasma diagnostics. The SXS has a square array of 36 microcalorimeters at the focal plane. These calorimeters consist of ion-implanted silicon thermistors and HgTe thermalizing x-ray absorbers. These devices have demonstrated a resolution of better than 4.5 eV at 6 keV when operated at a heat-sink temperature of 50 mK. We will discuss the basic physical parameters of this array, including the array layout, thermal conductance of the link to the heat sink, resistance function, absorber details, and means of attaching the absorber to the thermistor-bearing element. We will also present the thermal characterization of the whole array, including thermal conductance and crosstalk measurements and the results of pulsing the frame temperature via alpha particles, heat pulses, and the environmental background. A silicon ionization detector is located behind the calorimeter array and serves to reject events due to cosmic rays. We will briefly describe this anti-coincidence detector and its performance.

  4. Molecular Isomer Identification of Titan's Tholins Organic Aerosols by Photoelectron/Photoion Coincidence Spectroscopy Coupled to VUV Synchrotron Radiation.

    PubMed

    Cunha de Miranda, Barbara; Garcia, Gustavo A; Gaie-Levrel, François; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Gautier, Thomas; Fleury, Benjamin; Nahon, Laurent; Pernot, Pascal; Carrasco, Nathalie

    2016-08-25

    The chemical composition of Titan organic haze is poorly known. To address this issue, laboratory analogues named tholins are synthesized and analyzed by methods often requiring an extraction process in a carrier solvent. These methods exclude the analysis of the insoluble tholins' fraction and assume a hypothetical chemical equivalence between soluble and insoluble fractions. In this work, we present a powerful complementary analysis method recently developed on the DESIRS VUV synchrotron beamline at SOLEIL. It involves soft pyrolysis of tholins at ∼230 °C and electron/ion coincidence analysis of the emitted volatile compounds photoionized by tunable synchrotron radiation. By comparison with reference photoelectron spectra (PES), the spectral information collected on the detected molecules yields their isomeric structure. The method is more readily applied to light species (m/z ≤ 69), while for heavier ones, the number of possibilities and the lack of PES reference spectra in the literature limit its analysis. A notable pattern in the analyzed tholins is the presence of species containing adjacent doubly bonded N atoms, which might be a signature of heterogeneous incorporation of N2 in tholins. PMID:27471793

  5. Coinciding development of winter wheat and leaf beetles along an Alpine transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechini, Luca; Morlacchi, Pablo; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2013-02-01

    The degree of temporal coincidence in the development of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the cereal leaf beetles Oulema melanopus (L.) and Oulema duftschmidi (Redtenbacher, 1874) was studied by means of explanatory phenology models. Temperature and photoperiod control crop development, whereas oviposition and development of eggs and larvae of the two beetles depend on temperature and crop phases. The models parametrized with literature data satisfactorily represented crop and prepupal insect development at several Swiss and Italian locations. The successfully validated models were used for representing multiannual crop and insect development at seven locations on a European transect between the Danube river in the North and the Po River in the South. Depending on temperature and photoperiod, the crop phases occurred at different time periods but were generally of similar durations. The shifting of the crop phases exposed the cereal leaf beetles to environmental conditions which were similar during oviposition and slightly different as the growing season progressed. The simulated oviposition and prepupal survivorship was much higher for O. melanopus than for O. duftschmidi but did not differ between the locations. The crop phase-dependent mortality (Mc) was consistently higher for O. duftschmidi than for O. melanopus, whose Mc increased with increasing altitude. The extent of coinciding development was investigated by means of the summed larval development rates divided by the summed wheat development rate. During the oviposition period the insect development was coincident with wheat development. With time progression, however, the temperature difference between the locations increased causing an incomplete coincidence in the development of wheat and cereal leaf beetles. These results support the hypothesis that the extent of coinciding development of the three species is largely controlled by temperature and photoperiodic conditions.

  6. Development of a method for activity measurements of 232Th daughters with a multidetector gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Antovic, N; Svrkota, N

    2009-06-01

    The method for activity measurements of the (232)Th daughters, developed at the six-crystal gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M and based on coincidence counting of the 583 and 2615 keV photons from cascade transitions which follow beta(-)-decay of (208)Tl, as well as on counting the 911 keV photons which follow beta(-)-decay of (228)Ac in the integral and non-coincidence mode of counting, is presented. PMID:19299155

  7. Detection of coincident radiations in a single transducer by pulse shape analysis

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, William K.; Tan, Hui; Hennig, Wolfgang

    2008-03-11

    Pulse shape analysis determines if two radiations are in coincidence. A transducer is provided that, when it absorbs the first radiation produces an output pulse that is characterized by a shorter time constant and whose area is nominally proportional to the energy of the absorbed first radiation and, when it absorbs the second radiation produces an output pulse that is characterized by a longer time constant and whose area is nominally proportional to the energy of the absorbed second radiation. When radiation is absorbed, the output pulse is detected and two integrals are formed, the first over a time period representative of the first time constant and the second over a time period representative of the second time constant. The values of the two integrals are examined to determine whether the first radiation, the second radiation, or both were absorbed in the transducer, the latter condition defining a coincident event.

  8. Low-level gamma spectrometry using beta coincidence and Compton suppression.

    PubMed

    Grigorescu, E L; De Felice, P; Razdolescu, Anamaria-Cristina; Luca, A

    2004-01-01

    A low-level gamma-ray spectrometry system was developed using a Ge(Li) detector with 6% relative efficiency coupled to a 2pi beta plastic detector for coincidence selection and a massive NaI(Tl) detector for Compton suppression. The integral background count rate for (50-1500)keV was 0.5 s(-1)kg(-1) (Ge), using only beta coincidences. With Compton suppression, a value of 0.25 s(-1)kg(-1) (Ge) was obtained. Spectra with and without Compton suppression were studied for 60Co, 137Cs and 152Eu point sources. Considerations are made concerning the Compton suppression advantages in different situations. PMID:15177343

  9. A Coincident Search for Radio and Gravitational Waves from Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardena, Brett

    2011-05-01

    The merger of neutron star-neutron star binary pairs may be accompanied by the prompt emission of a coherent low-frequency radio pulse. This radio transient is produced as synchrotron radiation caused by the spin and rotation of the surface charge density of a pulsar through the magnetosphere of a larger neutron star, usually referred to as a Magnetar . This type of merger event would also result in the release of a gravitational coalescence wave-form. We will discuss a coincident radio transient and gravitational wave search. This search is being conducted by two radio telescope arrays: The Long Wave Array (LWA) and the Eight-meter-wavelength Transient Array (ETA) in coordination with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). We will outline this ongoing coincident search and discuss some preliminary results.

  10. Development of a coincidence system for the measurement of X-ray emission atomic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Filiberto; Miranda, Javier

    2013-07-03

    Preliminary results obtained in experiments carried out with an x-ray spectrometer built at the Instituto de Fisica for Atomic Physics and environmental sciences studies are presented. The experiments are based on a coincidence method for signals produced by LEGe and Si(Li) detectors. The x-ray fluorescence yields ({omega}{sub Li}) and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities (f{sub ij}) for elements with 55 {<=} Z {<=} 60 are among the quantities of interest. The method is based on the simultaneous detection of K x-rays with the LEGe detector and the L x-rays with the Si(Li) detector. The primary radiation source is an x-ray tube with Rh anode. The system was tested with the coincidence of the L x-rays from Ce with its K line, demonstrating the feasibility of the experiments.