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1

Mutual diffusion coefficients in systems containing the nickel ion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual diffusion coefficients of nickel chloride in water have been measured at 293.15 K and 303.15 K and at concentrations between 0.020 mol dm-3 and 0.100 mol dm-3, using a conductimetric cell. The experimental mutual diffusion coefficients are discussed on the basis of the Onsager-Fuoss model. The equivalent conductances at infinitesimal concentration of the nickel ion in these solutions at those temperatures have been estimated using these results. In addition, from these data, we have estimated some transport and structural parameters, such as limiting diffusion coefficient, ionic conductance at infinitesimal concentration, hydrodynamic radii and activation energy, contributing this way to a better understanding of the structure of these systems and of their thermodynamic behavior in aqueous solution at different concentrations.

Ribeiro, Ana C. F.; Veríssimo, Luis V. M. M.; Gomes, Joselaine C. S.; Santos, Cecilia I. A. V.; Barros, Marisa C. F.; Lobo, Victor M. M.; Sobral, Abílio J. F. N.; Esteso, Miguel A.; Leaist, Derek G.

2013-04-01

2

Donnan dialysis with ion-exchange membranes was studied under various kinds of experimental conditions using ions of different valences. The diffusion coefficients (D{sub d}) of various kinds of ions in the ion-exchange membrane were obtained by curve fitting an equation derived from the mass balance to three kinds of Donnan dialytic experiments. It was found that the value of D{sub d}/D{sub s} using D{sub d} of monovalent ions in Donnan dialysis with a set of monovalent feed ions and bivalent driving ions was 1/175, where D{sub s} represents a diffusion coefficient in solution. D{sub s} was calculated from the Nernst-Einstein equation substituted by the ionic conductance of ions at infinite dilution in water. Using D{sub d} of bivalent ions in Donnan dialysis with the same set led to a D{sub d}/D{sub s} value of 1/438. Moreover, using D{sub d} in Donnan dialysis with the same set, the value of D{sub d}/D{sub e} was kept constant at 0.4 (D{sub e} expresses the diffusion coefficient in the membrane when the valences of the feed and driving ions are equal). On the other hand, both D{sub d}/D{sub s} and D{sub d}/D{sub e} using D{sub d} in Donnan dialysis with a set of bivalent feed ions and monovalent driving ions were not constant.

Miyoshi, Hirofumi [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology] [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology

1999-01-01

3

Ion diffusion coefficients model and molar conductivities of ionic salts in aprotic solvents.

In the study of the electric properties of electrolytes, the determination of the diffusion coefficients of the species that intervene in the charge transport process is of great importance, particularly that of the free ions (D(+) and D(-)), the only species that contribute to the conductivity. In this work we propose a model that allows, with reasonable assumptions, determination of D(+) and D(-), and the degree of dissociation of the salt, ?, at different concentrations, using the diffusion coefficients experimentally obtained with NMR. Also, it is shown that the NMR data suffice to estimate the conductivity of the electrolytes. The model was checked by means of experimental results of conductivity and NMR diffusion coefficients obtained with solutions of lithium triflate in ethylene and propylene carbonates, as well as with other results taken from the literature. PMID:25603311

Garrido, Leoncio; Mejía, Alberto; García, Nuria; Tiemblo, Pilar; Guzmán, Julio

2015-02-19

4

Diffusion coefficients of energetic water group ions near Comet Giacobini-Zinner

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from the ultralow-energy charge analyzer and energetic particle anisotropy spectrometer sensors, acquired when the ICE spacecraft flew past Comet Giacobini-Zinner on September 11, 1985, are combined, and a single, self-consistent analysis technique is applied to derive a single-particle spectrum from about 200 to 1600 km/s. This information, together with the deduced bulk flow speed of the ions, is used to calculate a parallel diffusion coefficient in the transition region downstream of the bow wave (2.3 +/- 0.5) x 10 exp 17 sq cm/s; the corresponding scattering mean free path is (6 +/- 1) x 10 exp 4 km. The parallel diffusion coefficient is found to depend on the collision frequency of water group ions with Alfven waves, which are assumed to be propagating parallel (antiparallel) to the magnetic field.

Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Richardson, I. G.; Ipavich, F. M.

1993-03-01

5

Dynamic properties and third order diffusion coefficients of ions in electrostatic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Velocity correlation functions and third order diffusion coefficients of ions moving in a buffer gas under the influence of an electrostatic field are determined via molecular dynamics simulation. For the closed shell system of K+ in Ar using a universal interaction model potential, the general form of the third order correlation functions is found to be monotonically decaying in time except in the cases of , , and , with ?v(t)=v(t) -

Koutselos, Andreas D.

1997-05-01

6

The role of surface energy coefficients and nuclear surface diffuseness in the fusion of heavy-ions

We discuss the effect of surface energy coefficients as well as nuclear surface diffuseness in the proximity potential and ultimately in the fusion of heavy-ions. Here we employ different versions of surface energy coefficients. Our analysis reveals that these technical parameters can influence the fusion barriers by a significant amount. A best set of these parameters is also given that explains the experimental data nicely.

Ishwar Dutt; Rajeev K. Puri

2010-05-06

7

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT), C60 and activated carbon (AC) by mechanical attachment method and solution evaporation technique to preparation CNT/GCE, C60/GCE and AC/GCE, these electrodes were modified in Li+ solution via cyclic voltammetry (CV) potential cycling to preparing CNT/Li+/GCE, C60/Li+/GCE and AC/Li+/GCE. The sensing characteristics of the modified film electrodes, demonstrated in the application study for different heavy metal ions such as Hg2+, Cd2+, and Mn2+. Cyclic voltammetric effect by chronoamperometry (CA) technique was investigated to determination the diffusion coefficient (Df) values from Cottrell equation at these ions. Based on Cottrell equation (diffusion coefficient) of the redox current peaks of different heavy metal ions at different modified electrodes were studied to evaluate the sensing of these electrodes by the diffusion coefficient values. The modification of GCE with nano materials and Li+ act an enhancement for the redox current peaks to observe that the diffusion process are high at CNT/Li+/GCE, C60/Li+/GCE and AC/Li+/GCE, but it has low values at unmodified GCE.

Radhi, M. M.; Amir, Y. K. A.; Alwan, S. H.; Tee, T. W.

2013-04-01

8

Diffusion coefficients of actinide and lanthanide ions in molten Li[sub 2]BeF[sub 4

In the conceptual design of molten salt breeder reactors (MSBR) developed at ORNL, molten fluoride mixtures are used as the fuel carrier and coolant. The fuel salt must be reprocessed continuously in order to meet a high breeding ratio. The main function of the reprocessing are to isolate [sup 233]Pa from the neutron flux and to remove the fission product lanthanides having high neutron absorption cross sections. The processing method involves the reductive extraction of these components from the fuel salt into liquid bismuth solutions in a two phase contacting system. Diffusion coefficients of actinide and lanthanide ions in molten Li[sub 2]BeF[sub 4] were measured in the temperature range from 813 to 1,023 K by a capillary method. The diffusion coefficients of both ions are unusually high, considering the high viscosity of the liquids. The dependence of the diffusion coefficients on temperature and ionic charge are discussed in terms of the theories of Stokes and Einstein.

Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu; Ito, Yasuhiko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

1994-01-01

9

Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-12

10

Recombination coefficients for iron ions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiative recombination coefficients for all Fe ions are calculated by use of the Milne relation of detailed balance. Analytic fits are made to the dielectronic recombination rates computed by Jacobs (1977) and the Burgess general formula (1965). Higher level rates are treated hydrogenically by a quantum defect method based on the energies of the levels. Recombination coefficients for Fe I to Fe 26 are listed.

Woods, D. T.; Shull, J. M.; Sarazin, C. L.

1981-01-01

11

Radon diffusion coefficients for residential concretes

Radon gas diffusion through concrete can be a significant mechanism for radon entry into dwellings. Measurements of radon diffusion coefficients in the pores of residential concretes ranged from 2.1 x 10{sup {minus}8} m{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1} to 5.2 x 10{sup {minus}7} m{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1}. The pore diffusion coefficients generally increased with the water-cement ratio of the concrete and decreased with its density. A least-squares regression of the diffusion coefficients on concrete density gave an r value of -0.73. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Rogers, V.C.; Nielson, K.K.; Holt, R.B. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Snoddy, R. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1994-09-01

12

Search for selective ion diffusion through membranes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffusion rates of several ions through some membranes developed as battery separators were measured. The ions investigated were Li(+), Rb(+), Cl(-), and So4. The members were crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol, crosslinked polyacrylic acid, a copolymer of the two, crosslinked calcium polyacrylate, cellulose, and several microporous polyphenylene oxide based films. No true specificity for diffusion of any of these ions was found for any of the membranes. But the calcium polyacrylate membrane was found to exhibit ion exchange with the diffusing ions giving rise to the leaching of the calcium ion and low reproducibility. These findings contrast earlier work where the calcium polyacrylate membrane did show specificity to the diffusion of the copper ion. In general, Fick's law appeared to be obeyed. Except for the microporous membranes, the coefficients for ion diffusion through the membranes were comparable with their values in water. For the microporous membranes, the values found for the coefficients were much less, due to the tortuosity of the micropores.

May, C. E.; Philipp, W. H.

1983-01-01

13

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion coefficients of two mobile ions are computed from the conductivity variation with time of three In-rich chalcopyrite single crystals of the ABn-3Inn+1VI2n system (AB=Cu and Ag and VI=Se or Te). The coefficients have similar values in the three compounds, higher than in chalcopyrite compounds (ABInSe2) due to a higher number of (2VCu+InCu) defect pairs in the lattice. In each compound, the potential across the sample or the current intensity, Vm and I, can increase or decrease within time due to a change in the interface potential by the ion arrival, where the decrease could be explained by a charge decrease. Mobile ions arrive while others, with higher charge, should leave related to the formation or disappearance of (2VCu+InCu) defect pairs. Compositional measurements confirm the motion of Cu ions and In antisites, InCu, in the Cu sublattice. Therefore, these compounds are mixed ionic and electronic conductors, MIECs, with two mobile ions, where the electronic and ionic conductions are non-blocked and blocked in the metal/semiconductor interface respectively. An equivalent electrical circuit is proposed, extensible at MIECs with j mobile ions, where the interface potential is similar to the potential drop in the charge or discharge in the capacitor. The analysis of the total flux of ions due to diffusion, jdiff, and to the action of electrical field, jdrift, permits compute the number of ions, their diffusion coefficients and the change of the potential drop within time in the interface in compounds with several mobile ions. This electrical model is checked using the experimental data in the three single crystals in a computer program. To know different mobile ions in In-rich chalcopyrites and their diffusion coefficients will permit to understand and have mechanisms of control in solar cell fabrication based in chalcopyrite thin films.

Díaz, R.

2012-06-01

14

The effective diffusion coefficient for porous rubble

Each waste package in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is to be separated from surrounded unsaturated rock by a 2-cm air gap annulus. However, if the annulus becomes filled with rock and rubble, there can exist pathways for diffusive release of radionuclides through pore liquid, even if the repository remains unsaturated. The effective diffusion coefficient for radionuclide release through pore liquid in a rubble bed depends on the porosity and moisture content of rubble material and on the geometry and contact area of individual pieces of rubble. Here we present a theoretical analysis of the effective diffusion coefficient for a bed of rubble spheres. The results give a rough indication of the magnitude of the effective diffusion coefficient, and the analysis identifies the parameters that will affect experimental measurements of mass transfer through unsaturated rubble. 3 refs., 1 fig.

Sadeghi, M.M.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.

1990-01-01

15

Accurate values of diffusion coefficients for aqueous species are a requisite for predicting mass transfer in many geochemical processes. Tracer diffusion coefficients can be calculated from the limiting equivalent conductances of ions using the Nernst-Einstein equation. A corresponding states approach yields an isothermal/isobaric correlation between the limiting equivalent conductances and the standard partial molal entropies of aqueous species and electrolytes. These correlations, together with an equation of state for the standard partial molal entropies of aqueous species and a modified Arrhenius representation of the limiting equivalent conductances of aqueous electrolytes, can be used to predict as a function of temperature and pressure the limiting equivalent conductances of many electrolytes of geologic interest for which no high pressure/temperature experimental data are available. Combining these estimates with the linear dependence of the logarithm of the ratio of the anion to cation transference number for NaCl on reciprocal temperature observed by Smith and Dismukes permits prediction of the limiting equivalent conductances of ions, and therefore tracer diffusion coefficients at temperatures and pressures to 1000/sup 0/C and 5 kb. Values of these coefficients are given in tables for 30 monovalent anions, monovalent cations, and divalent cations of geologic interest at high temperatures and pressures. The diffusion coefficients increase with increasing temperature by approx. two orders of magnitude from 0/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/C. In contrast, they decrease slightly with increasing pressure.

Oelkers, E.H.; Helgeson, H.C.

1988-01-01

16

Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions

Dynamical zeta functions provide a powerful method to analyze low dimensional dynamical systems when the underlying symbolic dynamics is under control. On the other hand even simple one dimensional maps can show an intricate structure of the grammar rules that may lead to a non smooth dependence of global observable on parameters changes. A paradigmatic example is the fractal diffusion coefficient arising in a simple piecewise linear one dimensional map of the real line. Using the Baladi-Ruelle generalization of the Milnor-Thurnston kneading determinant we provide the exact dynamical zeta function for such a map and compute the diffusion coefficient from its smallest zero.

G. Cristadoro

2005-09-28

17

In the present paper, diffusive mass-transfer phenomena occurring in partially ionized multicomponent gas mixtures are analyzed in the case where the action of the electric field predominates in the electromagnetic effect on the medium. The temperatures of the gas mixture components are assumed to differ. The analysis is based on kinetic equations for independent-particle distribution functions of the components with

Iu. N. Beliaev; V. A. Polianskii; E. G. Shapiro

1979-01-01

18

Intrinsic Diffusion Coefficient of Interstitial Copper in Silicon

Transient ion drift experiments designed to obtain reliable values for the intrinsic copper diffusivity in silicon are reported. From these measurements, the diffusion barrier of Cu in Si is determined to be 0.18{plus_minus}0.01 eV . It is shown that the commonly used expression of Hall and Racette [J.thinspthinspAppl.thinspthinspPhys.thinspthinsp{bold 35}, 379 (1964)] actually gives an effective diffusion coefficient for heavily boron-doped silicon and can neither be used for other doping levels nor extrapolated to lower temperatures. A model is developed which predicts the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature, doping level, and the type of dopant. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Istratov, A.A.; Flink, C.; Hieslmair, H.; Weber, E.R. [Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, University of California, 577 Evans Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-1760 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, University of California, 577 Evans Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-1760 (United States); Heiser, T. [Laboratoire de Physique et Applications des Semiconducteurs, CNRS, Universite Louis Pasteur, BP 20, F67037 Strasbourg Cedex 02 (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique et Applications des Semiconducteurs, CNRS, Universite Louis Pasteur, BP 20, F67037 Strasbourg Cedex 02 (France)

1998-08-01

19

Radon diffusion coefficients for aged residential concretes

This note reports radon gas pore diffusion coefficient measurements for residential concretes from Florida, ranging in age from 12 y to 45 y. The coefficients ranged from 1.5 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2} s{sup -1} to 5.5 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2} s{sup -1}. On the average, these values are about a factor of 1.6 higher than average values previously reported for new residential concretes in Florida. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Rogers, V.C.; Nielson, K.K.; Holt, R.B. [Rogers & Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-06-01

20

Micro-Fluidic Diffusion Coefficient Measurement

A new method for diffusion coefficient measurement applicable to micro-fluidics is pre- sented. The method Iltilizes an analytical model describing laminar dispersion in rect- anglllar ~llicro_channe]s. The Illethod ~vas verified throllgh measllremen~ of fllloresceill diffusivity in water and aqueolls polymer solutions of differing concentration. The diffll- sivity of flllorescein was measlmed as 0.64 x 10-gm2/s in water, 0.49 x 10-gm2/s in the 4 gm/dl dextran solution and 0.38 x 10-9n12/s in the 8 gnl/dl dextran solution.

Forster, F.K.; Galambos, P.

1998-10-06

21

Binary mass diffusion coefficients and thermal diffusivities for hydrothermal sodium nitrate solutions as a function of pressure (270 < P < 1000 bar), temperature (400 < T < 500{degree}C), and concentration (0.25 < C < 3.0 m) were measured by the laser-induced grating technique. In concentrated hydrothermal NaNO{sub 3} systems, the critical slowing down was significant as far as 300 bar from the phase-separation pressure, resulting in binary diffusion coefficients near the critical point that are comparable to values at ambient conditions. Further from the critical point the mass diffusion coefficients plateaued at their ordinary values. Ordinary binary mass diffusion was about 15 times faster than at 25{degree}C and atmospheric pressure. The Wilke-Chang correlation also yielded good predictions when the solute molar volume was defined as the volume of the hydrated contact ion pair. Predictions can be improved by about 10% if the degree of association can be calculated. Thermal diffusion coefficients (Soret effect) at 450{degree}C were also measured and are about 250 times faster than at ambient conditions. The laser-induced grating technique was found to be highly complementary to the Taylor dispersion technique for diffusion measurements in hydrothermal systems. 88 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Butenhoff, T.J.; Goemans, M.G.E.; Buelow, S.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-04-04

22

Purpose To compare apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) with distributed diffusion coefficients (DDCs) in high-grade gliomas. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with high-grade gliomas prospectively underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Traditional ADC maps were created using b-values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2. In addition, DDC maps were created by applying the stretched-exponential model using b-values of 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 s/mm2. Whole-tumor ADCs and DDCs (in 10-3 mm2/s) were measured and analyzed with a paired t test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the Bland-Altman method. Results Tumor ADCs (1.14 ± 0.26) were significantly lower (P = 0.0001) than DDCs (1.64 ± 0.71). Tumor ADCs and DDCs were strongly correlated (R = 0.9716; P < 0.0001), but mean bias ± limits of agreement between tumor ADCs and DDCs was -0.50 ± 0.90. There was a clear trend toward greater discordance between ADC and DDC at high ADC values. Conclusion Under the assumption that the stretched-exponential model provides a more accurate estimate of the average diffusion rate than the mono-exponential model, our results suggest that for a little diffusion attenuation the mono-exponential fit works rather well for quantifying diffusion in high-grade gliomas, whereas it works less well for a greater degree of diffusion attenuation. PMID:20187193

Kwee, Thomas C.; Galbán, Craig J.; Tsien, Christina; Junck, Larry; Sundgren, Pia C.; Ivancevic, Marko K.; Johnson, Timothy D.; Meyer, Charles R.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D.; Chenevert, Thomas L.

2010-01-01

23

Determination of effective water vapor diffusion coefficient in pemfc gas diffusion layers

Determination of effective water vapor diffusion coefficient in pemfc gas diffusion layers Jacob M: Water vapor diffusion PEMFC Water management GDL Diffusivity MPL a b s t r a c t The primary removal, Determination of effective water vapor diffusion coefficient in pemfc gas diffusion layers, International

Kandlikar, Satish

24

Continuum estimate of the heavy quark momentum diffusion coefficient ?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among quantities playing a central role in the theoretical interpretation of heavy ion collision experiments at RHIC and LHC are so-called transport coefficients. Out of those heavy quark diffusion coefficients play an important role e.g. for the analysis of the quenching of jets containing c or b quarks (D or B mesons) as observed at RHIC and LHC [1]. We report on a lattice investigation of heavy quark momentum diffusion within pure SU(3) plasma above the deconfinement transition with the quarks treated to leading order in the heavy mass expansion. We measure the relevant 'colour-electric' Euclidean correlator and based on several lattice spacings perform the continuum extrapolation. This extends our previous studies [2,3] progressing towards a removal of lattice artifacts and a physical interpretation of the results. We find that the correlation function clearly exceeds its perturbative counterpart which suggests that at temperatures just above the critical one, non-perturbative interactions felt by the heavy quarks are stronger than within the weak-coupling expansion. Using an Ansatz for the spectral function which includes NNLO perturbative contributions we were able to determine, for the first time, a continuum estimate for the heavy quark momentum diffusion coefficient.

Kaczmarek, O.

2014-11-01

25

Continuum estimate of the heavy quark momentum diffusion coefficient $?$

Among quantities playing a central role in the theoretical interpretation of heavy ion collision experiments at RHIC and LHC are so-called transport coefficients. Out of those heavy quark diffusion coefficients play an important role e.g. for the analysis of the quenching of jets containing c or b quarks (D or B mesons) as observed at RHIC and LHC. We report on a lattice investigation of heavy quark momentum diffusion within pure SU(3) plasma above the deconfinement transition with the quarks treated to leading order in the heavy mass expansion. We measure the relevant colour-electric Euclidean correlator and based on several lattice spacings perform the continuum extrapolation. This extends our previous studies progressing towards a removal of lattice artifacts and a physical interpretation of the results. We find that the correlation function clearly exceeds its perturbative counterpart which suggests that at temperatures just above the critical one, non-perturbative interactions felt by the heavy quarks are stronger than within the weak-coupling expansion. Using an Ansatz for the spectral function which includes NNLO perturbative contributions we were able to determine, for the first time, a continuum estimate for the heavy quark momentum diffusion coefficient.

Olaf Kaczmarek

2014-09-12

26

Ion concentration diffusion in inertially confined plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimizing fusion yield in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments requires number densities of the reactants to be equal throughout the fuel assembly. This condition can be easily satisfied during target fabrication. However, dynamical process of implosion gives rise to the inter-ion-species transport, resulting in these species' concentrations being perturbed from their initial values. In particular, classical, baro-, electro- and thermo-diffusive mechanisms of such a transport should be distinguished. Baro- and electro-diffusion ratios are obtained from ion fluid equations without invoking a kinetic calculation. Interestingly, plasma baro-diffusion is found to be identical to its neutral counterpart. On the other hand, thermo-diffusion ratios appearing in front of the ion and electron temperature gradients, as well as the classical diffusion coefficient, are intrinsically non-thermodynamic quantities. Their evaluation therefore does require a kinetic approach. By employing such an approach explicit dependence of the diffusion coefficients on the species' concentrations is found numerically for selected pairs of ion species. Initial implications of these newly obtained results are discussed.

Kagan, Grigory; Tang, Xian-Zhu

2012-10-01

27

Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas

The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457

Murphy, Anthony B.

2014-01-01

28

Analytic Forms of the Perpendicular Diffusion Coefficient in NRMHD Turbulence

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past different analytic limits for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient of energetic particles interacting with magnetic turbulence were discussed. These different limits or cases correspond to different transport modes describing how the particles are diffusing across the large-scale magnetic field. In the current paper we describe a new transport regime by considering the model of noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We derive different analytic forms of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, and while we do this, we focus on the aforementioned new transport mode. We show that for this turbulence model a small perpendicular diffusion coefficient can be obtained so that the latter diffusion coefficient is more than hundred times smaller than the parallel diffusion coefficient. This result is relevant to explain observations in the solar system where such small perpendicular diffusion coefficients have been reported.

Shalchi, A.

2015-02-01

29

An investigation of the eddy heat-diffusion coefficient

Major Subjects Meteorology AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EDDY HEAT-DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT A Thesis by LARRY KENNETH GILCHRIST Approved as to style and content by& / Chairman of Cossaittee) Head of Doper 't Ilmsber Member 2" August 1973 ABSTRACT... An Investigation of the Eddy Heat-Diffusion Coefficient. (August 1973) Larry Kenneth Gilchrist, B. A. , Knox College Directed by& Dr. Kenneth C. Brundidge An investigation of the eddy heat-diffusion coefficient, Kh, was conducted that included the effects...

Gilchrist, Larry Kenneth

1973-01-01

30

Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids

The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green–Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.

Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U. [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 71, al Farabi ave., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)] [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 71, al Farabi ave., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)

2013-11-15

31

We report the measurement of the diffusion coefficients of francium and rubidium ions implanted in a yttrium foil. We developed a methodology, based on laser spectroscopy, which can be applied to radioactive and stable species, and allows us to directly take record of the diffusion time. Francium isotopes are produced via fusion-evaporation nuclear reaction of a O18 beam on a

C. de Mauro; R. Calabrese; L. Corradi; A. Dainelli; A. Khanbekyan; E. Mariotti; P. Minguzzi; L. Moi; S. Sanguinetti; G. Stancari; L. Tomassetti; S. Veronesi

2008-01-01

32

Determination of the zincate diffusion coefficient and its application to alkaline battery problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffusion coefficient for the zincate ion at 24 C was found to be 9.9 X 10 to the minus 7th power squared cm per sec + or - 30 percent in 45 percent potassium hydroxide and 1.4 x 10 to the minus 7 squared cm per sec + or - 25 percent in 40 percent sodium hydroxide. Comparison of these values with literature values at different potassium hydroxide concentrations show that the Stokes-Einstein equation is obeyed. The diffusion coefficient is characteristic of the zincate ion (not the cation) and independent of its concentration. Calculations with the measured value of the diffusion coefficient show that the zinc concentration in an alkaline zincate half cell becomes uniform throughout in tens of hours by diffusion alone. Diffusion equations are derived which are applicable to finite size chambers. Details and discussion of the experimental method are also given.

May, C. E.; Kautz, Harold E.

1978-01-01

33

Determination of the zincate diffusion coefficient and its application to alkaline battery problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffusion coefficient for the zincate ion at 24 C was found to be 9.9 x 10 to the -7th power sq cm/sec + or - 30% in 45% potassium hydroxide and 1.4 x 10 to the -7th power sq cm/sec + or - 25% in 40% sodium hydroxide. Comparison of these values with literature values at different potassium hydroxide concentrations show that the Stokes-Einstein equation is obeyed. The diffusion coefficient is characteristic of the zincate ion (not the cation) and independent of its concentration. Calculations with the measured value of the diffusion coefficient show that the zinc concentration in an alkaline zincate half-cell becomes uniform throughout in tens of hours by diffusion alone. Diffusion equations are derived which are applicable to finite-size chambers. Details and discussion of the experimental method are also given.

May, C. E.; Kautz, H. E.

1978-01-01

34

Diffusion coefficient in hydrogel under high-frequency ultrasound

Modulating hydrogel properties by external stimuli can be applied for drug delivery system. For example, ultrasound can enhance drug release from hydrogel by the mechanism which is not fully understood. We measured diffusion coefficient in hydrogel under high-frequency ultrasound to understand mass transport property. To estimate diffusion coefficient, FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) technique was applied with time-lapse fluorescence microscopy

Akira Tsukamoto; Kei Tanaka; Tatsuya Kumata; Yoshiaki Watanabe; Shogo Miyata; Katsuko Furukawa; Takashi Ushida

2007-01-01

35

Effect of the formation of EDTA complexes on the diffusion of metal ions in water

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion coefficients of aquo metal ions (M z+ ) and their EDTA complexes (M-EDTA ( z-4)+ ) were compared to understand the effect of EDTA complexation on the diffusion of metal ions by the diffusion cell method for Co 2+, Ga 3+, Rb +, Sr 2+, Ag +, Cd 2+, Cs +, Th 4+, UO22+, and trivalent lanthanides. Most studies about ionic diffusion in water have dealt with free ion (hydrated ion). In many cases, however, polyvalent ions are dissolved as complexed species in natural waters. Hence, we need to study the diffusion behavior of complexes in order to understand the diffusion phenomenon in natural aquifer and to measure speciation by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT), which requires the diffusion coefficients of the species examined. For many ions, the diffusion coefficients of M-EDTA ( z-4)+ are smaller than those of hydrated ions, but the diffusion coefficients of M-EDTA ( z-4)+ are larger than those of hydrated ions for ions with high ionic potentials (Ga 3+ and Th 4+). As a result, the diffusion coefficients of EDTA complexes are similar among various metal ions. In other words, the diffusion of each ion loses its characteristics by the complexation with EDTA. Although the difference is subtle, it was also found that the diffusion coefficients of EDTA complexes increase as the ionic potential increases, which can be explained by the size of the EDTA complex of each metal ion.

Furukawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Yoshio; Sato, Haruo

2007-09-01

36

Improved diffusion coefficients generated from Monte Carlo codes

Monte Carlo codes are becoming more widely used for reactor analysis. Some of these applications involve the generation of diffusion theory parameters including macroscopic cross sections and diffusion coefficients. Two approximations used to generate diffusion coefficients are assessed using the Monte Carlo code MC21. The first is the method of homogenization; whether to weight either fine-group transport cross sections or fine-group diffusion coefficients when collapsing to few-group diffusion coefficients. The second is a fundamental approximation made to the energy-dependent P1 equations to derive the energy-dependent diffusion equations. Standard Monte Carlo codes usually generate a flux-weighted transport cross section with no correction to the diffusion approximation. Results indicate that this causes noticeable tilting in reconstructed pin powers in simple test lattices with L2 norm error of 3.6%. This error is reduced significantly to 0.27% when weighting fine-group diffusion coefficients by the flux and applying a correction to the diffusion approximation. Noticeable tilting in reconstructed fluxes and pin powers was reduced when applying these corrections. (authors)

Herman, B. R.; Forget, B.; Smith, K. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Aviles, B. N. [Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, Bechtel Marine Propulsion Corporation, P.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, NY 12301-1072 (United States)

2013-07-01

37

Apparent Diffusion Coefficients from High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging: Estimation and

Apparent Diffusion Coefficients from High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging: Estimation resolution diffusion imaging has recently been of great interest in characterizing non-Gaussian diffusion pro- cesses. One important goal is to obtain more accurate fits of the apparent diffusion processes

Chen, Yiling

38

Determination of diffusion coefficient for unsaturated soils

. The laboratory procedure followed involves measuring the soil suction along the length of the sample and at different times using thermocouple psychrometers. The evaluation of the evaporation coefficient (he) has been made an integral part of the procedure...

Sood, Eeshani

2005-08-29

39

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic transport in conventional ionic solids is generally considered to proceed via independent diffusion events or "hops." This assumption leads to well-known Arrhenius expressions for transport coefficients, and is equivalent to assuming diffusion is a Poisson process. Using molecular dynamics simulations of the low-temperature B1, B3, and B4 AgI polymorphs, we have compared rates of ion hopping with corresponding Poisson distributions to test the assumption of independent hopping in these common structure types. In all cases diffusion is a non-Poisson process, and hopping is strongly correlated in time. In B1 the diffusion coefficient can be approximated by an Arrhenius expression, though the physical significance of the parameters differs from that commonly assumed. In low temperature B3 and B4, diffusion is characterized by concerted motion of multiple ions in short closed loops. Diffusion coefficients cannot be expressed in a simple Arrhenius form dependent on single-ion free energies, and intrinsic diffusion must be considered a many-body process.

Morgan, Benjamin J.; Madden, Paul A.

2014-04-01

40

Ionic transport in conventional ionic solids is generally considered to proceed via independent diffusion events or "hops." This assumption leads to well-known Arrhenius expressions for transport coefficients, and is equivalent to assuming diffusion is a Poisson process. Using molecular dynamics simulations of the low-temperature B1, B3, and B4 AgI polymorphs, we have compared rates of ion hopping with corresponding Poisson distributions to test the assumption of independent hopping in these common structure types. In all cases diffusion is a non-Poisson process, and hopping is strongly correlated in time. In B1 the diffusion coefficient can be approximated by an Arrhenius expression, though the physical significance of the parameters differs from that commonly assumed. In low temperature B3 and B4, diffusion is characterized by concerted motion of multiple ions in short closed loops. Diffusion coefficients cannot be expressed in a simple Arrhenius form dependent on single-ion free energies, and intrinsic diffusion must be considered a many-body process. PMID:24765989

Morgan, Benjamin J; Madden, Paul A

2014-04-11

41

Exploring non-linear cosmological matter diffusion coefficients

Since microscopic velocity diffusion can be incorporated into general relativity in a consistent way, we study cosmological background solutions when the diffusion phenomena takes place in an expanding universe. Our focus here relies on the nature of the diffusion coefficient $\\sigma$ which measures the magnitude of such transport phenomena. We test dynamics where $\\sigma$ has a phenomenological dependence on the scale factor, the matter density, the dark energy and the expansion rate.

Hermano Velten; Simone Calogero

2014-07-16

42

Calculation of self-diffusion coefficients in iron

On the basis of available P-V-T equation of state of iron, the temperature and pressure dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in iron polymorphs (?, ?, ? and ? phases) have been successfully reproduced in terms of the bulk elastic and expansivity data by means of a thermodynamical model that interconnects point defects parameters with bulk properties. The calculated diffusion parameters, such as self-diffusion coefficient, activation energy and activation volume over a broad temperature range (500-2500 K) and pressure range (0-100 GPa), compare favorably well with experimental or theoretical ones when the uncertainties are considered.

Zhang, Baohua, E-mail: zhangbh148@qq.com [Laboratory for High Temperature and High Pressure Study of the Earth's Interior, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002, China and Institute for Study of the Earth's Interior, Okayama University, Misasa, Tottori-ken 682-0193 (Japan)] [Laboratory for High Temperature and High Pressure Study of the Earth's Interior, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou 550002, China and Institute for Study of the Earth's Interior, Okayama University, Misasa, Tottori-ken 682-0193 (Japan)

2014-01-15

43

Diffusion coefficients of tetrazolium blue in homogeneous and micellar solutions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion coefficients of the electron acceptor dye tetrazolium blue were measured by the Taylor dispersion method, with an accuracy better than 4%, in two solvents: (i) a homogeneous one-aqueous phosphate buffer, 0.1 M, pH=7.0 (medium I); and (ii) a heterogeneous one-nonionic micelles of Triton X-100, 2.0 mM (where M stands for mol·dm-3), in the same aqueous phosphate buffer (medium II). The values obtained were D {12/I}=3.64×10-10m2·s-1 and D {12/II}=3.01×10-10m2·s-1· D {12/II}has the meaning of a “macroscopird or “average” diffusion coefficient, in which the partition coefficient of tetrazolium blue between micelles and water, as well as the diffusion coefficients of this dye and of the micelles in the aqueous phase, are involved.

Viseu, M. I.; de Castro, C. A. Nieto; Costa, S. M. B.

1991-03-01

44

Diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity of rigid water models.

We report the diffusion coefficient and viscosity of popular rigid water models: two non-polarizable ones (SPC/E with three sites, and TIP4P/2005 with four sites) and a polarizable one (Dang-Chang, four sites). We exploit the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the system size (Yeh and Hummer 2004 J. Phys. Chem. B 108 15873) to obtain the size-independent value. This also provides an estimate of the viscosity of all water models, which we compare to the Green-Kubo result. In all cases, a good agreement is found. The TIP4P/2005 model is in better agreement with the experimental data for both diffusion and viscosity. The SPC/E and Dang-Chang models overestimate the diffusion coefficient and underestimate the viscosity. PMID:22739097

Tazi, Sami; Bo?an, Alexandru; Salanne, Mathieu; Marry, Virginie; Turq, Pierre; Rotenberg, Benjamin

2012-07-18

45

Diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity of rigid water models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the diffusion coefficient and viscosity of popular rigid water models: two non-polarizable ones (SPC/E with three sites, and TIP4P/2005 with four sites) and a polarizable one (Dang-Chang, four sites). We exploit the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the system size (Yeh and Hummer 2004 J. Phys. Chem. B 108 15873) to obtain the size-independent value. This also provides an estimate of the viscosity of all water models, which we compare to the Green-Kubo result. In all cases, a good agreement is found. The TIP4P/2005 model is in better agreement with the experimental data for both diffusion and viscosity. The SPC/E and Dang-Chang models overestimate the diffusion coefficient and underestimate the viscosity.

Tazi, Sami; Bo?an, Alexandru; Salanne, Mathieu; Marry, Virginie; Turq, Pierre; Rotenberg, Benjamin

2012-07-01

46

Short-circuiting of the electrodes and failure of the cells may occur during charging of storage batteries. This undesirable effect is caused by growth of filamentary dendrites within the separator channels and not by mechanical puncture. Dendrite growth is proportional to the solubility and rate of ion diffusion within the separators. The purpose of the present work was to study these processes. The diffusion coefficients of potassium hydroxide and zincate in separators made of polyethylene with grafted acrylic acid were measured.

Vybornov, O. Yu.; Snegirev, N.N.; Statsenko, I.V.; Dovbysh, N.G.

1986-10-10

47

Lateral diffusion in an archipelago. Distance dependence of the diffusion coefficient.

An understanding of the distance dependence of the lateral diffusion coefficient is useful in comparing the results of diffusion measurements made over different length scales, and in analyzing the kinetics of mobile redox carriers in organelles. A distance-dependent, concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient is defined, and it is evaluated by Monte Carlo calculations of a random walk by mobile point tracers in the presence of immobile obstacles on a triangular lattice, representing the diffusion of a lipid or a small protein in the presence of immobile membrane proteins. This work confirms and extends the milling crowd model of Eisinger, J., J. Flores, and W. P. Petersen (1986. Biophys J. 49:987-1001). Similar calculations for diffusion of mobile particles interacting by a hard-core repulsion yield the distance dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient. An expression for the range of short-range diffusion is obtained, and the distance scales for various diffusion measurements are summarized. PMID:2790141

Saxton, M J

1989-01-01

48

Diffusion of ions in sea water and in deep-sea sediments

The tracer-diffusion coefficient of ions in water, D j 0 , and in sea water, D j * , differ by no more than zero to 8 per cent. When sea water diffuses into a dilute solution of water, in order to maintain the electro-neutrality, the average diffusion coefficients of major cations become greater but of major anions smaller than

Yuan-Hui Li; Sandra Gregory

1974-01-01

49

Diffusion coefficients and particle transport in synthetic membrane channels

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion in constrained geometries is paramount to transport across biological membranes and in mesoporous materials. Although the transported species vary from system to system, the underlying physical mechanisms are universal. However, there is an imbalance between theory and quantitative experimental model systems. We have recently introduced a new synthetic approach to mimic molecular diffusion based on colloidal particles, digital video microscopy, particle tracking, microfluidics and holographic optical tweezers. In this paper we report useful guidelines for the fabrication, handling and characterisation of the microfluidic chips and a study of diffusion coefficients, particle attempt and translocation rates through microfluidic channels with cross sections of different dimensions.

Pagliara, S.; Dettmer, S. L.; Misiunas, K.; Lea, L.; Tan, Y.; Keyser, U. F.

2014-12-01

50

The diffusion of ions in unconsolidated sediments

Diffusion in unconsolidated sediments generally proceeds at rates ranging from half to one twentieth of those applying to diffusion of ions and molecules in free solution. Diffusion rates are predictable with respect to porosity and path tortuosity in host sediments, and can be conveniently measured by determinations of electrical resistivity on bulk sediment samples. Net ion flux is further influenced by reactions of diffusing species with enclosing sediments, but such influences should not be confused with or lumped with diffusion processes. ?? 1970.

Manheim, F. T.

1970-01-01

51

Measurement of the local particle diffusion coefficient in a magnetized plasma

Local impurity particle diffusion coefficients have been measured in a low temperature plasma by the injection of test particles at the center of the plasma. The injection is accomplished by a high voltage discharge between two small graphite electrodes on a probe. The probe can be located anywhere in the plasma. The diffusion is observed spectroscopically. An analysis of the spatial and temporal evolution of the CII radiation from the carbon discharge can determine the parallel and perpendicular diffusion of the impurity ions. Results with the diagnostic have been obtained in the Proto S-1/C spheromak. The measured value of the diffusion coefficient in the afterglow plasma is in good agreement with classical predictions.

Meyerhofer, D.D.; Levinton, F.M.

1987-02-01

52

Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption?

Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption? T. Durduran and A. G. Yodh Department independent of absorption, i.e., D0 v/3 s . After presentation of the general theoretical arguments underlying this assertion, Monte Carlo simulations are performed and explicitly reveal that the absorption- independent

Boas, David

53

values for the diffusion coefficients in supercritical fluids results in nonreliable correlations. Diffusion coefficients are also needed for modeling of effective This thesis follows the style and format of the A. l. Ch. E. Journal. diffusivities... coefficient at infinite dilution can be written as lD?, sash usss =~?( ) us ( iz s Du, s ~ (2. 7) Enskog diffusion coefficient for dense gases is scaled from the hard sphere gas (HSG) diffusion coefficient for low density gases by Chapman and Cowling (1970...

Orejuela, Mauricio

1994-01-01

54

Optimal estimation of diffusion coefficients from single-particle trajectories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How does one optimally determine the diffusion coefficient of a diffusing particle from a single-time-lapse recorded trajectory of the particle? We answer this question with an explicit, unbiased, and practically optimal covariance-based estimator (CVE). This estimator is regression-free and is far superior to commonly used methods based on measured mean squared displacements. In experimentally relevant parameter ranges, it also outperforms the analytically intractable and computationally more demanding maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). For the case of diffusion on a flexible and fluctuating substrate, the CVE is biased by substrate motion. However, given some long time series and a substrate under some tension, an extended MLE can separate particle diffusion on the substrate from substrate motion in the laboratory frame. This provides benchmarks that allow removal of bias caused by substrate fluctuations in CVE. The resulting unbiased CVE is optimal also for short time series on a fluctuating substrate. We have applied our estimators to human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycolase proteins diffusing on flow-stretched DNA, a fluctuating substrate, and found that diffusion coefficients are severely overestimated if substrate fluctuations are not accounted for.

Vestergaard, Christian L.; Blainey, Paul C.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

2014-02-01

55

The effects of deionization processes on meteor radar diffusion coefficients below 90 km

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decay times of VHF radar echoes from underdense meteor trails are reduced in the lower portions of the meteor region. This is a result of plasma neutralization initiated by the attachment of positive trail ions to neutral atmospheric molecules. Decreased echo decay times cause meteor radars to produce erroneously high estimates of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient at heights below 90 km, which affects temperature estimation techniques. Comparisons between colocated radars and satellite observations show that meteor radar estimates of diffusion coefficients are not consistent with estimates from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder satellite instrument and that colocated radars operating at different frequencies estimate different values of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient for simultaneous detections of the same meteors. Loss of free electrons from meteor trails due to attachment to aerosols and chemical processes were numerically simulated and compared with observations to determine the specific mechanism responsible for low-altitude meteor trail plasma neutralization. It is shown that three-body attachment of positive metal ions significantly reduces meteor radar echo decay times at low altitudes compared to the case of diffusion only that atmospheric ozone plays little part in the evolution of low-altitude underdense meteor trails and that the effect of three-body attachment begins to exceed diffusion in echo decay times at a constant density surface.

Younger, J. P.; Lee, C. S.; Reid, I. M.; Vincent, R. A.; Kim, Y. H.; Murphy, D. J.

2014-08-01

56

Radial diffusion and ion partitioning in the Io torus

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is presented for radial diffusion and charge state partitioning of sulfur and oxygen ions in the Io torus, including effects of electron impact and charge exchange. When applied to Voyager 1 radial profiles of total ion flux tube content, the model shows that the ion residence time in the torus, tau(D), as defined in spectroscopic studies of ion partitioning, is related to the radial diffusion coefficient, D(LL), at L = 7 by tau(D) approximately 8/D(LL)(7). This result appears to bring spectroscopic estimates of the ion residence time (tau/D/ greater than about 60 to 100 days) into reasonable agreement with estimates of D(LL) from magnetospheric diffusion studies, D(LL) equals approximately 10 to the -6th/s.

Cheng, A. F.

1986-01-01

57

Vertical eddy diffusion coefficient from the LANDSAT imagery

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of five stable cases of the smoke plumes that originated in eastern Cabo Frio (22 deg 59'S; 42 deg 02'W), Brazil using LANDSAT imagery is presented for different months and years. From these images the lateral standard deviation (sigma sub y) and the lateral eddy diffusion coefficient (K sub y) are obtained from the formula based on Taylor's theory of diffusion by continuous moment. The rate of kinetic energy dissipation (e) is evaluated from the diffusion parameters sigma sub y and K sub y. Then, the vertical diffusion coefficient (K sub z) is estimated using Weinstock's formulation. These results agree well with the previous experimental values obtained over water surfaces by various workers. Values of e and K sub z show the weaker mixing processes in the marine stable boundary layer. The data sample is apparently to small to include representative active turbulent regions because such regions are so intermittent in time and in space. These results form a data base for use in the development and validation of mesoscale atmospheric diffusion models.

Viswanadham, Y. (principal investigator); Torsani, J. A.

1982-01-01

58

Generalized method calculating the effective diffusion coefficient in periodic channels

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method calculating the effective diffusion coefficient in an arbitrary periodic two-dimensional channel, presented in our previous paper [P. Kalinay, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 144101 (2014)], is generalized to 3D channels of cylindrical symmetry, as well as to 2D or 3D channels with particles driven by a constant longitudinal external driving force. The next possible extensions are also indicated. The former calculation was based on calculus in the complex plane, suitable for the stationary diffusion in 2D domains. The method is reformulated here using standard tools of functional analysis, enabling the generalization.

Kalinay, Pavol

2015-01-01

59

Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks.

Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

2011-02-01

60

Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks. PMID:21288593

Takeda, M; Hiratsuka, T; Ito, K; Finsterle, S

2011-04-25

61

Diffusion coefficients of fluorescent organic molecules in inert gases

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use arrested-flow pulse broadening to measure the diffusion coefficients of four archetype organic semiconductors in two carrier gases, N2 and Ar, with a precision of 5%. The measurements are realized by the injection and transport of pulses of organic molecules in an organic vapor phase deposition chamber, followed by their detection using laser induced fluorescence that dynamically measures the organic concentration in the gas phase. Measurements show that the diffusivity of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) in N2 and Ar varies as the square of the temperature and inversely with pressure over a large range of gas conditions. We show that classical Chapman-Enskog theory can be used to approximate the diffusivity with an accuracy that depends on the physical dimensions of the organic molecular species, with the most accurate predictions for spherical and rigid molecules such as Alq3.

Rolin, Cedric; Forrest, Stephen R.

2013-07-01

62

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diffusion calculations were performed to establish the conditions under which concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient was important in single, two, and three phase binary alloy systems. Finite-difference solutions were obtained for each type of system using diffusion coefficient variations typical of those observed in real alloy systems. Solutions were also obtained using average diffusion coefficients determined by taking a logarithmic average of each diffusion coefficient variation considered. The constant diffusion coefficient solutions were used as reference in assessing diffusion coefficient variation effects. Calculations were performed for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries in order to compare the effect of diffusion coefficient variations with the effect of interface geometries. In most of the cases considered, the diffusion coefficient of the major-alloy phase was the key parameter that controlled the kinetics of interdiffusion.

Tenney, D. R.; Unnam, J.

1978-01-01

63

Response of radiation belt simulations to different radial diffusion coefficients

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant interactions between Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves and relativistic electrons may violate the third adiabatic invariant of motion, which produces radial diffusion in the electron radiation belts. This process plays an important role in the formation and structure of the outer electron radiation belt and is important for electron acceleration and losses in that region. Two parameterizations of the resonant wave-particle interaction of electrons with ULF waves in the magnetosphere by Brautigam and Albert [2000] and Ozeke et al. [2012] are evaluated using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) diffusion code to estimate their relative effect on the radiation belt simulation. The period of investigation includes quiet time and storm time geomagnetic activity and is compared to data based on satellite observations. Our calculations take into account wave-particle interactions represented by radial diffusion transport, local acceleration, losses due to pitch-angle diffusion, and mixed diffusion. We show that the results of the 3D diffusion simulations depend on the assumed parametrization of waves. The differences between the simulations and potential missing physical mechanisms are discussed. References Brautigam, D. H., and J. M. Albert (2000), Radial diffusion analysis of outer radiation belt electrons during the October 9, 1990, magnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 105(A1), 291-309, doi:10.1029/1999JA900344 Ozeke, L. G., I. R. Mann, K. R. Murphy, I. J. Rae, D. K. Milling, S. R. Elkington, A. A. Chan, and H. J. Singer (2012), ULF wave derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A04222, doi:10.1029/2011JA017463.

Drozdov, A.; Shprits, Y.; Subbotin, D.; Kellerman, A. C.

2013-12-01

64

Diffusion of ion implanted aluminum in silicon carbide

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of aluminum in silicon carbide was studied by Al implantation into single crystal SiC and subsequent profile analyses by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The bulk diffusion coefficient of Al at temperatures between 1350 and 1800 °C was determined to be D(cm2/s) = 1.3×10-8 exp (-231 kJ/mol/RT). The results were characterized by a low activation energy and a low pre-exponential constant compared with previously reported results. Dislocation enhanced diffusion was suggested from the appearance of the tails observed in the annealed concentration profiles.

Tajima, Yo; Kijima, Kazunori; Kingery, W. D.

1982-09-01

65

The lithium ion diffusion coefficient of a 93% Li ?-alumina single crystal was measured for the first time using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR spectroscopy with two different crystal orientations. The diffusion coefficient was found to be 1.2 × 10{sup ?11} m{sup 2}/s in the direction perpendicular to the c axis at room temperature. The Li ion diffusion coefficient along the c axis direction was found to be very small (6.4 × 10{sup ?13} m{sup 2}/s at 333 K), which suggests that the macroscopic diffusion of the Li ion in the ?-alumina crystal is mainly two-dimensional. The diffusion coefficient for the same sample was also estimated using NMR line narrowing data and impedance measurements. The impedance data show reasonable agreement with PFG-NMR data, while the line narrowing measurements provided a lower value for the diffusion coefficient. Line narrowing measurements also provided a relatively low value for the activation energy and pre-exponential factor. The temperature dependent diffusion coefficient was obtained in the temperature range 297–333 K by PFG-NMR, from which the activation energy for diffusion of the Li ion was estimated. The activation energy obtained by PFG-NMR was smaller than that obtained by impedance measurements, which suggests that thermally activated defect formation energy exists for 93% Li ?-alumina single crystals. The diffusion time dependence of the diffusion coefficient was observed for the Li ion in the 93% Li ?-alumina single crystal by means of PFG-NMR experiments. Motion of Li ion in fractal dimension might be a possible explanation for the observed diffusion time dependence of the diffusion coefficient in the 93% Li ?–alumina system.

Chowdhury, Mohammed Tareque, E-mail: mtareque@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Takekawa, Reiji; Iwai, Yoshiki; Kuwata, Naoaki; Kawamura, Junichi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)] [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2014-03-28

66

Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water

Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water J. Wambui infinite dilution diffusion coefficients for carbon dioxide and water mixtures. The model takes, carbon dioxide, classical thermodynamics Introduction The increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2

Firoozabadi, Abbas

67

Calculation of combined diffusion coefficients in SF{sub 6}-Cu mixtures

Diffusion coefficients play an important role in the description of the transport of metal vapours in gas mixtures. This paper is devoted to the calculation of four combined diffusion coefficients, namely, the combined ordinary diffusion coefficient, combined electric field diffusion coefficient, combined temperature diffusion coefficient, and combined pressure diffusion coefficient in SF{sub 6}-Cu mixtures at temperatures up to 30?000?K. These four coefficients describe diffusion due to composition gradients, applied electric fields, temperature gradients, and pressure gradients, respectively. The influence of copper fluoride and sulfide species on the diffusion coefficients is shown to be negligible. The effect of copper proportion and gas pressures on these diffusion coefficients is investigated. It is shown that increasing the proportion of copper generally increases the magnitude of the four diffusion coefficients, except for copper mole fractions of 90% or more. It is further found that increasing the pressure reduces the magnitude of the coefficients, except for the combined temperature diffusion coefficient, and shifts the maximum of all four coefficients towards higher temperatures. The results presented in this paper can be applied to the simulation of high-voltage circuit breaker arcs.

Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Rong, Mingzhe, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wu, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Murphy, Anthony B. [CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

2014-10-15

68

A pumping system for measuring coastal diffusion coefficients

) Tsung om Su, Eng. Sc. D. , P. E, (Member) Thomas N. Spen e, P'n. D. ( Mer. . b e r) Donald McDonald, Ph. D. , P. E. (Head of Department) May 19SO ASST. RACT A Pumping System for Neasuring Coastal Diffusion Coefficients. (Nay 1980) Zane Kevin... Bolen B. S. , Texas A&N University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert E. Randall The design of a pumping system to deliver a continuous water sample onboard Texas A&N University's R/V EXCELLENCE and subsequent application to measure surface...

Bolen, Zane Kevin

1980-01-01

69

Conservation Laws of Variable Coefficient Diffusion-Convection Equations

We study local conservation laws of variable coefficient diffusion-convection\\u000aequations of the form $f(x)u_t=(g(x)A(u)u_x)_x+h(x)B(u)u_x$. The main tool of\\u000aour investigation is the notion of equivalence of conservation laws with\\u000arespect to the equivalence groups. That is why, for the class under\\u000aconsideration we first construct the usual equivalence group $G^{\\\\sim}$ and the\\u000aextended one $\\\\hat G^{\\\\sim}$ including transformations which are

N. M. Ivanova; R. O. Popovych; C. Sophocleous

2005-01-01

70

With the aim of providing reliable benchmark values, we have measured the Soret, diffusion and thermal diffusion coefficients of the three binary mixtures of dodecane, isobutylbenzene and 1,2,3,4 tetrahydronaphthalene for a concentration of 50 wt% at a temperature of 25°C. The experimental techniques applied by the five participating laboratories are transient holographic gratings, annular and parallelepipedic thermogravitational columns, and vertical

J. K. Platten; M. M. Bou-Ali; P. Costesèque; J. F. Dutrieux; W. Köhler; C. Leppla; S. Wiegand; G. Wittko

2003-01-01

71

Ca–Mg diffusion in diopside: tracer and chemical inter-diffusion coefficients

We have experimentally determined the tracer diffusion coefficients (D*) of 44Ca and 26Mg in a natural diopside (~Di96) as function of crystallographic direction and temperature in the range of 950–1,150 °C at 1 bar and f(O2) corresponding to those of the WI buffer. The experimental data parallel to the a*, b, and c crystallographic directions show significant diffusion anisotropy in the

Xiaoyu Zhang; Jibamitra Ganguly; Motoo Ito

2010-01-01

72

Chemical oxygen diffusion coefficient measurement by conductivity relaxation--correlation between J. P., Grenier J. C., Loup J. P. ABSTRACT Chemical oxygen diusion coecient Â¯(D)was measured the oxygen partial pressure in the surrounding atmosphere of the sample. The consequent evolution

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

73

Position-dependent stochastic diffusion model of ion channel gating

A position-dependent stochastic diffusion model of gating in ion channels is developed by considering the spatial variation of the diffusion coefficient between the closed and open states. It is assumed that a sensor which regulates the opening of the ion channel experiences Brownian motion in a closed region $R_{c}$ and a transition region $R_{m}$, where the dynamics is described by probability densities $p_{c}(x,t)$ and $p_{m}(x,t)$ which satisfy interacting Fokker-Planck equations with diffusion coefficient $D_{c}(x)=D_{c}\\exp(\\gamma_{c}x)$ and $D_{m}(x)=D_{m} \\exp(-\\gamma_{m}x)$. The analytical solution of the coupled equations may be approximated by the lowest frequency relaxation, a short time after the application of a depolarizing voltage clamp, when $D_{m} \\ll D_{c}$ or the diffusion parameter $\\gamma_{m}$ is sufficiently large. Thus, an empirical rate equation that describes gating transitions may be derived from a stochastic diffusion model if there is a large diffusion (or potential) barrier between open and closed states.

Samuel Robert Vaccaro

2014-06-30

74

We report the first measurement of the diffusion coefficients of francium and rubidium ions implanted in a yttrium foil. We developed a methodology, based on laser spectroscopy, which can be applied to radioactive and stable species, and allows us to directly take record of the diffusion time. Francium isotopes are produced via fusion-evaporation nuclear reaction of a 100 MeV 18-O beam on a Au target at the Tandem XTU accelerator facility in Legnaro, Italy. Francium is ionized at the gold-vacuum interface and Fr+ ions are then transported with a 3 keV electrostatic beamline to a cell for neutralization and capture in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). A Rb+ beam is also available, which follows the same path as Fr+ ions. The accelerated ions are focused and implanted in a 25 um thick yttrium foil for neutralization: after diffusion to the surface, they are released as neutrals, since the Y work function is lower than the alkali ionization energies. The time evolution of the MOT and the vapor fluorescence signals a...

de Mauro, C; Corradi, L; Dainelli, A; Khanbekyan, A; Mariotti, E; Minguzzi, P; Moi, L; Sanguinetti, S; Stancari, G; Tomassetti, L; Veronesi, S

2008-01-01

75

The gradient of Bicoid (Bcd) is key for the establishment of the anterior-posterior axis in Drosophila embryos. The gradient properties are compatible with the SDD model in which Bcd is synthesized at the anterior pole and then diffuses into the embryo and is degraded with a characteristic time. Within this model, the Bcd diffusion coefficient is critical to set the timescale of gradient formation. This coefficient has been measured using two optical techniques, Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), obtaining estimates in which the FCS value is an order of magnitude larger than the FRAP one. This discrepancy raises the following questions: which estimate is "correct''; what is the reason for the disparity; and can the SDD model explain Bcd gradient formation within the experimentally observed times? In this paper, we use a simple biophysical model in which Bcd diffuses and interacts with binding sites to show that both the FRAP and the FCS estimates may be correct and compatible with the observed timescale of gradient formation. The discrepancy arises from the fact that FCS and FRAP report on different effective (concentration dependent) diffusion coefficients, one of which describes the spreading rate of the individual Bcd molecules (the messengers) and the other one that of their concentration (the message). The latter is the one that is more relevant for the gradient establishment and is compatible with its formation within the experimentally observed times. PMID:24901638

Sigaut, Lorena; Pearson, John E.; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

2014-01-01

76

Diffusion coefficient and radial gradient of galactic cosmic rays

We present the temporal changes of the diffusion coefficient K of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) at the Earth orbit calculated based on the experimental data using two different methods. The first approach is based on the Parker convection-diffusion approximation of GCR modulation [1]: i.e. K~Vr=dI where dI is the variation of the GCR intensity measured by neutron monitors (NM),V is the solar wind velocity and r is the radial distance. The second approach is based on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data. It was suggested that parallel mean free path can be expressed in terms of B as in [2]-[4]. Using data of the product of the parallel mean free path and radial gradient of GCR calculated based on the GCR anisotropy data (Ahluwalia et al., this conference ICRC 2013, poster ID: 487 [5]), we estimate the temporal changes of the radial gradient of GCR at the Earth orbit. We show that the radial gradient exhibits a strong solar cycle dependence (11-year variation) and a weak solar magnetic cycle dependence (2...

Modzelewska, Renata

2015-01-01

77

Diffusion coefficient of vegetation: measurements and simulation Y. Smyrnova, J. Kang, C. Blackford reports the initial results of an investigation of the diffuse sound reflection from two typical bedding at reducing noise from urban traffic. Directional diffusion coefficients of the plants have been measured

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

The solid-phase diffusion coefficient (Dm) and material-air partition coefficient (Kma) are key parameters for characterizing the sources and transport of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment. In this work, a new experimental method was developed to es...

79

Film-pore diffusion modeling for the sorption of metal ions from aqueous effluents onto peat.

The sorption of three metal ions, namely, copper, nickel and lead onto sphagnum peat moss has been studied using an agitated batch sorber system. The equilibrium isotherms were determined and kinetic runs were performed over a range of concentrations for each metal ion. A film-pore diffusion mass transfer model has been developed based on a single effective diffusion coefficient for each system. Error analysis of the experimental and theoretical data indicated relatively large errors at low initial metal ion concentrations. Therefore the model was modified to introduce a surface coverage concentration dependent effective diffusivity to account for a contribution from surface diffusion. PMID:11547855

Chen, B; Hui, C W; McKay, G

2001-10-01

80

Ion radial diffusion in an electrostatic impulse model for stormtime ring current formation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two refinements to the quasi-linear theory of ion radial diffusion are proposed and examined analytically with simulations of particle trajectories. The resonance-broadening correction by Dungey (1965) is applied to the quasi-linear diffusion theory by Faelthammar (1965) for an individual model storm. Quasi-linear theory is then applied to the mean diffusion coefficients resulting from simulations of particle trajectories in 20 model storms. The correction for drift-resonance broadening results in quasi-linear diffusion coefficients with discrepancies from the corresponding simulated values that are reduced by a factor of about 3. Further reductions in the discrepancies are noted following the averaging of the quasi-linear diffusion coefficients, the simulated coefficients, and the resonance-broadened coefficients for the 20 storms. Quasi-linear theory provides good descriptions of particle transport for a single storm but performs even better in conjunction with the present ensemble-averaging.

Chen, Margaret W.; Schulz, Michael; Lyons, Larry R.; Gorney, David J.

1992-01-01

81

Sodium ion diffusion in Al2O3: a distinct perspective compared with lithium ion diffusion.

Surface coating of active materials has been one of the most effective strategies to mitigate undesirable side reactions and thereby improve the overall battery performance. In this direction, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is one of the most widely adopted coating materials due to its easy synthesis and low material cost. Nevertheless, the effect of Al2O3 coating on carrier ion diffusion has been investigated mainly for Li ion batteries, and the corresponding understanding for emerging Na ion batteries is currently missing. Using ab initio molecular dynamics calculations, herein, we first find that, unlike lithiation, sodiation of Al2O3 is thermodynamically unfavorable. Nonetheless, there can still exist a threshold in the Na ion content in Al2O3 before further diffusion into the adjacent active material, delivering a new insight that both thermodynamics and kinetics should be taken into account to describe ionic diffusion in any material media. Furthermore, Na ion diffusivity in NaxAl2O3 turns out to be much higher than Li ion diffusivity in LixAl2O3, a result opposite to the conventional stereotype based on the atomic radius consideration. While hopping between the O-rich trapping sites via an Na-O bond breaking/making process is identified as the main Na ion diffusion mechanism, the weaker Na-O bond strength than the Li-O counterpart turns out to be the origin of the superior diffusivity of Na ions. PMID:25286155

Jung, Sung Chul; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Choi, Jang Wook; Han, Young-Kyu

2014-11-12

82

Chronoamperometry was carried out at liquid/liquid interfaces supported at the tip of micropipet electrodes for direct determination of the diffusion coefficient of a species in the outer solution. The diffusion coefficient was used for subsequent determination of the transferred charges per species from the diffusion-limited steady-state current. A large tip resistance of the micropipets causes prolonged charging current so that the faradic current can be measured accurately only at a long-time regime (typically t > 5 ms). At the same time, the long-time current response at the interfaces surrounded by a thin glass wall of the pipets is enhanced by diffusion of the species from behind the pipet tip. Therefore, numerical simulations of the long-time chronoamperometric response were carried out using the finite element method for accurate determination of diffusion coefficients. Validity of the simulation results was confirmed by studying simple transfer of tetraethylammonium ion. The technique was applied for transfer/adsorption reactions of the natural polypeptide protamine and also for Ca2+ and Mg2+ transfers facilitated by ionophore ETH 129. With the diffusion coefficient of protamine determined to be (1.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(-6) cm(2)/s, the ionic charge transferred by each protamine molecule was obtained as +20 +/- 1, which is close to the excess positive charge of protamine. Also, the diffusion coefficient of ETH 129 was determined to demonstrate that each ionophore molecule transfers +0.67 and +1 charge per Ca2+ and Mg2+ transfer, respectively, which corresponds to formation of 1:3 and 1:2 complexes with the respective ions. PMID:15362923

Yuan, Yi; Wang, Lei; Amemiya, Shigeru

2004-09-15

83

We explore perpendicular diffusion based on the unified nonlinear transport theory. We derive simple analytical forms for the perpendicular mean free path and investigate the influence of different model spectra. We show that for cases where the field line random walk is normal diffusive, the perpendicular diffusion coefficient consists of only two transport regimes. Details of the spectral shape are less important, especially those of the inertial range. Only the macroscopic properties of the turbulence spectrum control the perpendicular diffusion coefficient. Simple formulae for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient are derived which can easily be implemented in solar modulation or shock acceleration codes.

Shalchi, A., E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2013-09-01

84

Diffusion of Water and Ions in Water-Saturated Bentonite

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bentonite (a strongly-swelling, smectite-rich clay) is commonly used in engineered barriers and geosynthetic liners for the isolation of landfills and contaminated sites. Bentonite barriers are under consideration in several countries as potential components of deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste. Because of the low hydraulic conductivity of water-saturated bentonite, molecular diffusive processes contribute significantly to the transport of solutes through such barriers. In the present study, we discuss the results of numerous studies of the diffusion of water and cations (Na+, Sr2+) in water-saturated bentonite carried out during the last decade. We note that the pore space of compacted, water-saturated Na-bentonite contains a significant fraction of nanopores, the nanometer-thin smectite interlayers. We develop a new conceptual model of the apparent diffusion coefficient (Da) of water and ions in water-saturated bentonite that accounts for diffusion in two compartments: the interlayer nanopores and larger macropores. We show that our model can explain all available experimental data of the apparent diffusion coefficient of water and cations (Na+, Sr2+) with a single fitted parameter, a geometric factor G = 4.0 ± 1.6, for all bentonites studied (with montmorillonite contents between 35 and 100 %), in a broad range of partial montmorillonite dry density (0.2 to 1.7 kg dm-3, the mass of montmorillonite per combined volume of montmorillonite and pore space).

Bourg, I. C.; Sposito, G.; Bourg, A. C.

2005-12-01

85

Measurements of molecular and thermal diffusion coefficients in ternary mixtures

coefficients in ternary nonelec- trolytes and higher mixtures; Leaist and Hui1 have measured the Soret technique, Gans et al.2 have measured the Soret coefficients of a polymer and a colloid in ternary mixtures al.3 and Kita et al.4 have measured the polymer Soret coefficient in ternary mixtures of the same

Firoozabadi, Abbas

86

Chemical diffusion coefficient of lithium in carbon fiber

In order to obtain safer and more reversible negative electrodes for lithium secondary batteries, intensive research on various carbon materials, such as pyrolytic carbon, polyacrylonitrile- (PAN) based carbon, petroleum coke-based carbon, pitch-based carbon, etc., has been carried out in recent years. Electrochemical investigations on coal pitch-based carbon fiber (heat-treated at 2,800 C) were carried out. The open-circuit voltages of the Li{vert_bar}Li{sub x}C{sub 6} cell were lower than 0.15 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} in the range of 0.15 < x < 0.65. The open-circuit voltage profile vs x showed no distinct two-phase region in the present Li-carbon system in 0 < x < 0.65. Almost constant capacity of 220 mAh/g was observed until the 140th cycle in the cycling tests of the Li{vert_bar}carbon fiber cell (current density 25 mA/g). The compositional variation of the chemical diffusion coefficient of lithium {tilde D}{sub Li} at ambient temperature was measured by two different methods, i.e., the current pulse relaxation method and the potential step chronoamperometric method. Excellent agreement within one order of magnitude was observed between the two sets of {tilde D}{sub Li} values obtained from these two methods. The values were around 10{sup {minus}9.5} cm{sup 2}/s at x = 0 and decreased with increasing x. The {tilde D}{sub Li} values lay between 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}12} c/{sup 2}/s in x > 0.2.

Uchida, Takashi; Morikawa, Yasuyuki; Ikuta, Hiromasa; Wakihara, Masataka [Tokyo Inst. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Suzuki, Kimihito [Nippon Steel Corp., Kawasaki (Japan). Advanced Materials and Technology Research Labs.

1996-08-01

87

The transient behaviour of the longitudinal and transverse diffusion coefficients of electrons in rare-gas moderators is studied with solutions of the Boltzmann equation. The method of solution employed is the discrete ordinate method employed in an earlier study of the transient behaviour of the energy, transverse diffusion coefficient and mobility for both zero electric field and finite field conditions. The

D. R. A. McMahon; K. Ness; B. Shizgal

1986-01-01

88

Form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix J. Wambui Mutoru, Abbas Firoozabadi

Form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix J. Wambui Mutoru, Abbas Firoozabadi University, New Haven, CT, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 22 December 2010 Received diffusion Phenomenological coefficients Thermodynamic factors a b s t r a c t The form of multicomponent

Firoozabadi, Abbas

89

Abstract In this study, we measure effective diffusion coefficients for trichloroethene in undisturbed soil samples taken from Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. The measured effective diffusion coefficients ranged from 0.0053 to 0.0609 cm2/s over a range of air...

90

Diffusion-weighted, echo-planar imaging (EPI) was used to map regional changes in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) during experimental focal ischemia in the rat brain following permanent middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO). Sixteen 64 x 64 diffusion-weighted EPIs were acquired in 32 s with successively increasing amplitudes of the diffusion-sensitive gradient pulses. A linear least-squares regression algorithm was used to fit

Bernard J. Dardzinski; Christopher H. Sotak; Marc Fisher; Yasuhiro Hasegawa; Lirnin Li; Kazuo Minematsu

1993-01-01

91

Controlling chloride ions diffusion in concrete

The corrosion of steel in concrete is mainly due to the chemical reaction between the chloride ions and iron ions. Indeed, this is a serious threaten for reinforced concrete structure, especially for the reinforced concrete structure in the sea. So it is urgent and important to protect concrete against chloride ions corrosion. In this work, we report multilayer concrete can cloak chloride ions. We formulated five kinds of concrete A, B, C, D and E, which are made of different proportion of cement, sand and glue, and fabricated six-layer (ABACAD) cylinder diffusion cloak and background media E. The simulation results show that the six-layer mass diffusion cloak can protect concrete against chloride ions penetration, while the experiment results show that the concentration gradients are parallel and equal outside the outer circle in the diffusion flux lines, the iso-concentration lines are parallel outside the outer circle, and the concentration gradients in the inner circle are smaller than those outside the outer circle. PMID:24285220

Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia

2013-01-01

92

The diffusion coefficient of a circular shaped inclusion in a liquid membrane is investigated by taking into account the interaction between membranes and bulk solvents of arbitrary thickness. As illustrative examples, the diffusion coefficients of two types of inclusions - a circular domain composed of fluid with the same viscosity as the host membrane and that of a polymer chain embedded in the membrane are studied.The diffusion coefficients are expressed in terms of the hydrodynamic screening lengths which vary according to the solvent thickness. When the membrane fluid is dragged by the solvent of finite thickness, via stick boundary conditions, multiple hydrodynamic screening lengths together with the weight factors to the diffusion coefficients are obtained from the dispersion relation. The condition for which the diffusion coefficients can be approximated by the expression including only a single hydrodynamic screening length are also shown.

Kazuhiko Seki; Sanoop Ramachandran; Shigeyuki Komura

2011-07-22

93

PITCH-ANGLE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS OF CHARGED PARTICLES FROM COMPUTER SIMULATIONS

Pitch-angle diffusion is a key process in the theory of charged particle scattering by turbulent magnetic plasmas. This process is usually assumed to be diffusive and can, therefore, be described by a pitch-angle diffusion or Fokker-Planck coefficient. This parameter controls the parallel spatial diffusion coefficient as well as the parallel mean free path of charged particles. In the present paper, we determine pitch-angle diffusion coefficients from numerical computer simulations. These results are then compared with results from analytical theories. Especially, we compare the simulations with quasilinear, second-order, and weakly nonlinear diffusion coefficients. Such a comparison allows the test of previous theories and will lead to an improved understanding of the mechanism of particle scattering.

Qin, G. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shalchi, A. [Permanent Address: Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany. (Germany)

2009-12-10

94

The purpose of this study was to analyze and evaluate a model of restricted water diffusion between equidistant permeable membranes for cell-size and permeability measurements in biological tissue. Based on the known probability distribution of diffusion distances after the diffusion time ? in a system of permeable membranes characterized by three parameters (membrane permeability P, membrane distance L, and free diffusivity D0), an equivalent dimensionless model was derived with a probability distribution characterized by only a single (dimensionless) tissue parameter [Formula: see text]. Evaluating this proposed model function, the dimensionless diffusion coefficient [Formula: see text] was numerically calculated for 60 values of the dimensionless diffusion time [Formula: see text] and 35 values of [Formula: see text]. Diffusion coefficients were measured in a carrot by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 18 diffusion times between 9.9 and 1022.7 ms and fitted to the simulation results [Formula: see text] to determine L, P, and D0. The measured diffusivities followed the simulated dependence of [Formula: see text]. Determined cell sizes varied from 21 to 76 ?m, permeabilities from 0.007 to 0.039 ?m(-1), and the free diffusivities from 1354 to 1713 ?m(2)?s(-1). In conclusion, the proposed dimensionless tissue model can be used to determine tissue parameters (D0, L, P) based on diffusion MRI with multiple diffusion times. Measurements in a carrot showed a good agreement of the cell diameter, L, determined by diffusion MRI and by light microscopy. PMID:24839979

Dietrich, Olaf; Hubert, Alexander; Heiland, Sabine

2014-06-21

95

Diffusion in mixed solvents. III - The heat of mixing parameter and the Soret coefficient

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New evidence is presented that for aqueous glycerol solutions, the Soret coefficient of glycerol, sigma sub 1 = D sub 1 T/D sub 1 (where D sub 1 T and D sub 1 are the thermal and self-diffusion coefficients, respectively, of glycerol in aqueous solutions), is an integral part of the heat of mixing parameter. Expressions are presented indicating the importance of the Soret coefficients to correlations for diffusion processes in glycerol water solvents.

Carapellucci, P. A.

1976-01-01

96

Low coefficient of thermal expansion polyimides containing metal ion additives

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimides have become widely used as high performance polymers as a result of their excellent thermal stability and toughness. However, lowering their coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) would increase their usefulness for aerospace and electronic applications where dimensional stability is a requirement. The incorporation of metal ion-containing additives into polyimides, resulting in significantly lowered CTE's, has been studied. Various metal ion additives have been added to both polyamic acid resins and soluble polyimide solutions in the concentration range of 4-23 weight percent. The incorporation of these metal ions has resulted in reductions in the CTE's of the control polyimides of 12 percent to over 100 percent depending on the choice of additive and its concentration.

Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

1992-01-01

97

The diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) is critical to understand the vertical distribution of underwater downwelling irradiance (Ed). Theoretically Ed is composed of the direct solar beam and the diffuse sky irradiance. Applying the statistical results from Hydrolight radiative transfer simulations, Kd is expressed into a mathematical equation (named as PZ06) integrated from the contribution of direct solar beam and diffuse

Xiaoju Pan; Richard C. Zimmerman

2010-01-01

98

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diffusion coefficient of water in biobased hydrogels were measured utilizing a simple NMR method. This method tracks the migration of deuterium oxide through imaging data that is fit to a diffusion equation. The results show that a 5 wt% soybean oil based hydrogel gives aqueous diffusion of 1.37...

99

A comparison of ambipolar diffusion coefficients in meteor trains using VHF radar and UV lidar

In this paper we present the first comparative estimations of ionic diffusion rates for sporadic meteor trains near the mesopause made using VHF radar and UV Rayleigh lidar observations. In both cases we initially assumed that the meteor trains dissipate primarily through ambipolar diffusion. For the radar data, the diffusion coefficient within the meteor train was determined from the decay

Phillip B. Chilson; Peter Czechowsky; Gerhard Schmidt

1996-01-01

100

Directional diffusion coefficients of solar protons inside and outside the bow shock.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The directional diffusion coefficients of low-energy (greater than or equal to 0.3 MeV) solar protons inside and outside the bow shock are examined during the solar flare event of Jan. 24, 1969. The data are derived from simultaneous observations obtained by Explorer 33 inside the magnetosheath and by Explorer 35 in the interplanetary medium. Although the gross properties of the spin-averaged intensities on a diffusion-type plot appear to be the same in both media, the directional intensities show significant variations. It is shown that directional intensities of low-energy protons can be described reasonably well by anisotropic diffusion with an associated diffusion coefficient. Directional diffusion coefficients are found to differ by a factor of as much as three among different directions in space, and from the spin-averaged diffusion coefficient. This suggests that anisotropic diffusion does indeed take place and that so called 'isotropic' diffusion coefficients derived in the past from spin-averaged intensities may actually be directional diffusion coefficients in cases where substantial anisotropies (greater than 50%) exist.

Verzariu, P.; Krimigis, S. M.

1973-01-01

101

Impurity Diffusion Coefficients of Al and Zn in Mg Determined from Solid-to-Solid Diffusion Couples

Increasing use and development of lightweight Mgalloys have led to the desire for more fundamental research in and understanding of Mg-based systems. As property enhancing components, Al and Zn are two of the most important and common alloying elements for Mg-alloys. We have investigated the concentration dependent interdiffusion of Al and Zn in Mg using diffusion couples of pure polycrystalline Mg mated to Mg solid solutions containing either <9 at.% Al or <3 at.% Zn. Concentration profiles were determined by electron micro-probe microanalysis of the diffusion zone. The interdiffusion coefficients were determined by the classical Boltzmann-Matano method within the Mg solid solution. As the concentration of Al or Zn approaches the dilute ends, we employ an analytical approach based on the Hall method to estimate the impurity diffusion coefficients. Results of Al and Zn impurity diffusion in Mg are reported and compared to published impurity diffusion coefficients typically determined by thin film techniques.

Kammerer, Catherine [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Warmack, Robert J Bruce [ORNL; Perry, Kelly A [ORNL; Belova, Irina [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia; Murch, Prof. Graeme [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia; Sohn, Yong Ho [University of Central Florida

2013-08-01

102

Nonlinearity Effects of Lateral Density Diffusion Coefficient on Gain-Guided VCSEL Performance

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electron and hole diffusions in the plane of semiconductor quantum wells play an important part in the static and dynamic operations of semiconductor lasers. In this paper, we apply a hydrodynamic model developed from the semiconductor Bloch equations to numerically study the effects of nonlinearity in the diffusion coefficient on single mode operation and direct modulation of a gain-guided InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well laser, operating not too far from threshold. We found that a small diffusion coefficient is advantageous for lowering the threshold current and increasing the modulation bandwidth. Most importantly, the effects of nonlinearity in the coefficient can be approximately reproduced by replacing the coefficient with an effective constant diffusion coefficient, which corresponds roughly to the half height density of the density distribution.

Li, Jian-Zhong; Cheung, Samson H.; Ning, C. Z.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

103

Scale Dependence of Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient Evidence and Preliminary Interpertation

The exchange of solute mass (through molecular diffusion) between fluid in fractures and fluid in the rock matrix is called matrix diffusion. Owing to the orders-of-magnitude slower flow velocity in the matrix compared to fractures, matrix diffusion can significantly retard solute transport in fractured rock, and therefore is an important process for a variety of problems, including remediation of subsurface contamination and geological disposal of nuclear waste. The effective matrix diffusion coefficient (molecular diffusion coefficient in free water multiplied by matrix tortuosity) is an important parameter for describing matrix diffusion, and in many cases largely determines overall solute transport behavior. While matrix diffusion coefficient values measured from small rock samples in the laboratory are generally used for modeling field-scale solute transport in fractured rock (Boving and Grathwohl, 2001), several research groups recently have independently found that effective matrix diffusion coefficients much larger than laboratory measurements are needed to match field-scale tracer-test data (Neretnieks, 2002; Becker and Shapiro, 2000; Shapiro, 2001; Liu et al., 2003,2004a). In addition to the observed enhancement, Liu et al. (2004b), based on a relatively small number of field-test results, reported that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient might be scale dependent, and, like permeability and dispersivity, it seems to increases with test scale. This scale-dependence has important implications for large-scale solute transport in fractured rock. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the enhancement of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, the potential scale dependence and its mechanisms are not fully investigated at this stage. The major objective of this study is to again demonstrate (based on more data published in the literature than those used in Liu et al. [2004b]) the potential scale dependence of the effective matrix-diffusion coefficient, and to -develop a preliminary explanation for this scale-dependent behavior.

H.H. Liu; Y. Zhang

2006-06-20

104

Estimation of effective diffusion coefficients in porous catalysts

diffusion of n- hexane in a type II crystalline titanate, and the intracrystalline diffusivities were found to be independent of the adsorbate concentration. sv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to acknowledge my research advisor, Dr. R. G. Anthony... Concentration Results Obtained for LaZSM-5, FeZSM-5 and BZSM-5 . Results Obtained for Zeolite HY . Analysis of the Two Phase Model . Results Obtained for Type II Crystalline Titanate. . . . . 40 53 53 61 63 63 70 83 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION . 89...

Kulkarni, Shrikant Ulhas

1991-01-01

105

A novel technique has been used to determine the effective diffusion coefficients for 1,1,2-trichloroethane (TCE), a nonreacting tracer, in biofilms growing on the external surface of a silicone rubber membrane tube during degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) by Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 and monochlorobenzene (MCB) by Pseudomonas JS150. Experiments were carried out in a single tube extractive membrane bioreactor (STEMB), whose configuration makes it possible to measure the transmembrane flux of substrates. A video imaging technique (VIT) was employed for in situ biofilm thickness measurement and recording. Diffusion coefficients of TCE in the biofilms and TCE mass transfer coefficients in the liquid films adjacent to the biofilms were determined simultaneously using a resistances-in-series diffusion model. It was found that the flux and overall mass transfer coefficient of TCE decrease with increasing biofilm thickness, showing the importance of biofilm diffusion on the mass transfer process. Similar fluxes were observed for the nonreacting tracer (TCE) and the reactive substrates (MCB or DCE), suggesting that membrane-attached biofilm systems can be rate controlled primarily by substrate diffusion. The TCE diffusion coefficient in the JS150 biofilm appeared to be dependent on biofilm thickness, decreasing markedly for biofilm thicknesses of >1 mm. The values of the TCE diffusion coefficients in the JS150 biofilms <1-mm thick are approximately twice those in water and fall to around 30% of the water value for biofilms >1-mm thick.

Zhang, S.F.; Splendiani, A.; Freitas dos Santos, L.M.; Livingston, A.G. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology] [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

1998-07-05

106

The diffusion of water into dentin adhesive polymers and leaching of unpolymerized monomer from the adhesive are linked to their mechanical softening and hydrolytic degradation. Therefore, diffusion coefficient data are critical for the mechanical design of these polymeric adhesives. In this study, diffusion coefficients of water and leachables were obtained for sixteen methacrylate-based crosslinked polymers using absorption experiments. The experimental mass change data was interpreted using numerical solution of the two-dimensional diffusion equations. The calculated diffusion coefficients varied from 1.05 × 10?8 cm2/sec (co-monomer TMTMA) to 3.15 × 10?8 cm2/sec (co-monomer T4EGDMA). Correlation of the diffusion coefficients with crosslink density and hydrophilicity showed an inverse trend (R2 = 0.41). The correlation of diffusion coefficient with crosslink density and hydrophilicity are closer for molecules differing by simple repeat units (R2 = 0.95). These differences in the trends reveal mechanisms of interaction of the diffusing water with the polymer structure. PMID:22430592

Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Misra, Anil; Park, Jonggu; Ye, Qiang; Spencer, Paulette

2012-01-01

107

Molecular diffusion coefficients of ethyl acetate, toluene, phenol, and caffeine in supercritical carbon dioxide were measured by a chromatographic peak broadening technique in a coated capillary column at temperatures of 308, 318, and 328 K and pressures up to 145 bar. A linear adsorption in the polymer layer coated on the inner wall of the capillary column was observed. The experimentally determined diffusion coefficients showed substantial agreement with those reported in the literature. The diffusion coefficients were in the order of 10[sup [minus]4] cm[sup 2]/s and decreased with increasing carbon dioxide density. Based on the molecular diffusion coefficient data reported here and those published elsewhere, an empirically modified Wilke-Chang equation was proposed which was found to be more quantitative than some existing equations such as the Stokes-Einstein and Wilke-Chang equations.

Lai, C.C.; Tan, C.S. (National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1995-02-01

108

Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Methane or Ethane Mixtures with Hydrocarbons at High Pressure by NMR

-diffusion coefficients were compared to the Sigmund correlation, which was found not to fit the experimental data hundred percent. The Sigmund correlation (Sigmund, 1976) has been used with some success in reservoir

Dysthe, Dag Kristian

109

On the determinatino of high-pressure mass-diffusion coefficients for binary mixtures

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for high-pressure binary diffusion coefficient calculation is proposed based on considerations originating from recasting both the low pressure kinetic theory and the Stokes-Einstein infinite dilution expressions into forms consistent with corresponding states theory.

Bellan, J.; Harstad, K.

2003-01-01

110

A model of cefoperazone tissue penetration: diffusion coefficient and protein binding.

The apparent diffusion coefficient of a bound drug, cefoperazone, was studied. The protein binding of cefoperazone was studied by voltammetry, a technique which permitted instant measurements. The apparent diffusion coefficients were similar in agar and fibrin and lower in rat brain tissue. The influence of protein on the value of the apparent diffusion coefficient was negligible. The hypothesis that only the free drug diffuses was supported. The percentage of binding determined by voltammetry corresponded to the true concentration of drug which diffuses and is much lower than the percentage of binding determined by the ultrafiltration centrifugation method. This discrepancy could be explained by the rate of dissociation of the protein-drug complex. PMID:1605594

Meulemans, A

1992-01-01

111

Self-Diffusion Coefficients and Rotational Correlation Times in Polar Liquids. II

Self-diffusion coefficients and rotational correlation times have been measured in several polar liquids by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Self-diffusion coefficients are reported for CH3OH, CH3NO2, (CH3)2CO, C6H5NO2, and C6H5Cl; proton, deuterium, and chlorine-35 relaxation times are given for these liquids. Deuteron quadrupolar coupling constants for the deuterated molecules were measured directly for the solids at low temperature. Methyl groups

D. E. O'Reilly; E. M. Peterson

1971-01-01

112

Diffusion, Deexcitation, and Three-Body Collision Coefficients for Excited Neon Atoms

Diffusion coefficients, de-excitation cross sections, and three-body collision coefficients for neon atoms of the 1s22s22p53s configuration are obtained from optical absorption measurements of relative decay rates and relative densities of excited atoms following a pulsed discharge. Atoms in the lower metastable (3P2) and the lower radiating (3P1) states are destroyed by diffusion to the wall, three-body collisions involving two ground

A. V. Phelps

1959-01-01

113

A chronopotentiometric method is proposed for the determination of the diffusion coefficients of free ionophores in solvent\\u000a polymeric membranes. For the pH sensitive chromoionophore ETH 5294, the method was shown to give diffusion coefficients that\\u000a correlate well with those assessed by both optical and chronoamperometric methods. The limit of applicability of the chronoamperometric\\u000a and chronopotentiometric methods in terms of membrane

Sándor Bodor; Justin M. Zook; Ern? Lindner; Klára Tóth; Róbert E. Gyurcsányi

2009-01-01

114

Diffusion coefficient measurements are required in a number of engineering applications and also in testing transport property theories. The diffusion coefficients of benzene, toluene, p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, and mesitylene at infinite dilution in octane and in 2,2,4-trimethylpentane in the temperature range 303.2--333.2 K were determined by the Taylor dispersion technique. A correlation based on a free-volume-type expression represented the results to within experimental uncertainty.

Fan, Y.; Qian, R.; Shi, M.; Shi, J. [Nanjing Institute of Chemical Technology (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-09-01

115

We measure diffusion coefficients in the lamellar phase of the nonionic binary system C$_{12}$EO$_6$/H$_2$O using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. The diffusion coefficient across the lamellae shows an abrupt increase upon approaching the lamellar-isotropic phase transition. We interpret this feature in terms of defects connecting the surfactant structure. An estimation of the defect density and of the variation in defect energy close to the transition is given in terms of a simple model.

Doru Constantin; Patrick Oswald

2015-04-09

116

Statistical description of slope-dependent soil transport and the diffusion-like coefficient

For hillslopes undergoing ``diffusive'' soil transport, it is often assumed that the soil flux is proportional to the local land-surface gradient, where the coefficient of proportionality is like a diffusion coefficient. Inasmuch as transport involves quasi-random soil particle motions related to biomechanical mixing and similar dilational processes, a slope-dependent relation arises from a balance between particle fluxes that tend to

David Jon Furbish; Peter K. Haff; William E. Dietrich; Arjun M. Heimsath

2009-01-01

117

Statistical description of slope-dependent soil transport and the diffusion-like coefficient

For hillslopes undergoing “diffusive” soil transport, it is often assumed that the soil flux is proportional to the local land-surface gradient, where the coefficient of proportionality is like a diffusion coefficient. Inasmuch as transport involves quasi-random soil particle motions related to biomechanical mixing and similar dilational processes, a slope-dependent relation arises from a balance between particle fluxes that tend to

David Jon Furbish; Peter K. Haff; William E. Dietrich; Arjun M. Heimsath

2009-01-01

118

Foreign-ion and self-ion diffusion in a crosslinked salt-in-polyether electrolyte.

We present an extensive study of ionic transport in PolyG(30)LiPF(6), which is a crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide(PEO-PPO) random copolymer complexed with LiPF(6) to an oxygen-to-cation ratio of 30 : 1. Self-diffusion coefficients of the constituent ions were measured by pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) as a function of temperature using the signals of (7)Li and (19)F. These data were compared with the charge diffusivity as derived with the Nernst-Einstein equation from the ion conductivity obtained by impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the diffusion behaviour of a foreign cation (sodium) and that of a foreign anion (iodine) in PolyG(30)LiPF(6) were investigated by means of the radiotracers (22)Na and (125)I. All different types of diffusivities were evaluated in a comprehensive ion transport model which allows for the occurrence of charged single ions and neutral ion pairs. Simultaneous fitting of all data within this model yields best values of the model parameters which include Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher parameters and enthalpies/entropies of pair formation. Two distinct variants of the same general model reproduce the experimental data equally well, i.e., with closely similar results for the pair contribution to the migration of each ionic species. In the first variant, this pair contribution is due to a small fraction of ion pairs with a high mobility. By contrast, the second variant results in a very large fraction of pairs characterized by a relatively low mobility. The assumptions and implications connected with both model variants are discussed in detail. PMID:20480092

Fögeling, J; Kunze, M; Schönhoff, M; Stolwijk, N A

2010-07-14

119

EVALUATION OF SATELLITE DERIVED SPECTRAL DIFFUSE ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS

Spectral diffuse attenuation Kd(?) is an important apparent optical property that provide information about the attenuation of the spectral downwelling solar irradiance with depth in water. Here we have compared the spectral Kd(?) at ?= 412, 443, 490, 510, 555 and 670 nm derived from the ocean color satellite sensor, SeaWiFS with the in-situ measured values from the Arabian Sea.

T. Suresh; Madhubala Talaulikar; Elgar Desa; Antonio Mascaranhas; S. G. Prabhu

2007-01-01

120

HARDI Denoising: Variational Regularization of the Spherical Apparent Diffusion Coefficient

for voxels in which fiber pathways cross or mix together, and these are ubiquitous in the brain which of water diffusion at each point. This can be used to reconstruct fiber directions and pathways in the living brain, providing detailed maps of fiber in- tegrity and connectivity. HARDI is a powerful new

Vese, Luminita A.

121

Diffusion properties of ion-implanted species in selected target materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments designed to select the most appropriate target material for generating a particular radioactive ion beam (RIB) are in progress at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. They are important to the future success of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). The 25-MV HHIRF tandem accelerator is used to implant stable complements of interesting radioactive elements into refractory targets mounted in a high-temperature FEBIAD ion source which is `on-line' at the UNISOR facility. The intensity versus time of implanted species, which diffuse from the high-temperature target material (approximately equals 1700 degree(s)C) and are ionized in the FEBIAD ion source, is used to determine release times for a particular projectile/target material combination. From such release data, diffusion coefficients can be derived by fitting the theoretical results obtained by computational solution of Fick's second equation to experimental data. The diffusion coefficient can be used subsequently to predict the release properties of the particular element from the same material in other target geometries and at other temperatures, provided that the activation energy is also known. Diffusion coefficients for Cl implanted into and diffused from CeS and Zr5Si3 and As, Br, and Se implanted into and diffused from Zr5Ge3 have been derived from the resulting intensity versus time profiles. Brief descriptions of the experimental apparatus and procedures utilized in the present experiments and plans for future related experiments are also presented.

Alton, G. D.; Dellwo, J.; Carter, H. K.; Kormicki, J.; di Bartolo, G.; Batchelder, J. C.; Breitenbach, J.; Chediak, J. Alexander; Jentoff-Nilsen, K.; Ichikawa, S.

1995-03-01

122

We present new experimental data on diffusion of divalent cations in almandine-spessartine diffusion couples in graphite capsules in the P-T range of 14–35 kb, 1100–1200° C. The tracer diffusion coefficients of the major divalent cations, viz. Fe, Mg and Mn, retrieved from the multicomponent diffusion profiles, have been combined with earlier data from our laboratory at 29–43 kb, 1300–1480° C

Sumit Chakraborty; Jibamitra Ganguly

1992-01-01

123

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to analyze and evaluate a model of restricted water diffusion between equidistant permeable membranes for cell-size and permeability measurements in biological tissue. Based on the known probability distribution of diffusion distances after the diffusion time ? in a system of permeable membranes characterized by three parameters (membrane permeability P, membrane distance L, and free diffusivity D0), an equivalent dimensionless model was derived with a probability distribution characterized by only a single (dimensionless) tissue parameter \\tilde{P}. Evaluating this proposed model function, the dimensionless diffusion coefficient \\tilde{D}_{eff}(\\tilde{\\tau };\\,\\tilde{P}) was numerically calculated for 60 values of the dimensionless diffusion time \\tilde{\\tau } and 35 values of \\tilde{P}. Diffusion coefficients were measured in a carrot by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 18 diffusion times between 9.9 and 1022.7 ms and fitted to the simulation results \\tilde{D}_{eff}(\\tilde{\\tau };\\,\\tilde{P}) to determine L, P, and D0. The measured diffusivities followed the simulated dependence of \\tilde{D}_{eff}(\\tilde{\\tau };\\tilde{P}). Determined cell sizes varied from 21 to 76 ?m, permeabilities from 0.007 to 0.039 ?m-1, and the free diffusivities from 1354 to 1713 ?m2?s-1. In conclusion, the proposed dimensionless tissue model can be used to determine tissue parameters (D0, L, P) based on diffusion MRI with multiple diffusion times. Measurements in a carrot showed a good agreement of the cell diameter, L, determined by diffusion MRI and by light microscopy.

Dietrich, Olaf; Hubert, Alexander; Heiland, Sabine

2014-06-01

124

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study, the averaging technique of diffusion coefficients in the two-dimensional nonlinear diffusive wave equation applied to the floodplain inundation is presented. As a method of solution, the splitting technique and the modified finite element method with linear shape functions are used. On the stage of spatial integration, it is often assumed that diffusion coefficient is constant over element and equal to its average value. However, the numerical experiments indicate that in the case of the flow over the dry floodplain with sudden changes in depths an inadequate averaging of these coefficients can lead to a non-physical solution or even to its instability. In the paper, the averaging techniques for estimation of diffusion coefficients were examined using the arithmetic, geometric, harmonic and the direction dependent means. The numerical tests were carried out for the flows over initially dry floodplain with varied elevation of bottom. It was shown that the averaging method based on the arithmetic mean with respect to the diffusion coefficients provides the satisfactory results in comparison to other techniques.

G?siorowski, Dariusz

2014-09-01

125

Effective Diffusion Coefficients for Methanol in Sulfuric Acid Solutions Measured by Raman % sulfuric acid solutions was followed using Raman spectroscopy. Because methanol reacts to form protonated that the speciation of both methanol and sulfuric acid may be important in determining these transport coefficients

126

Modeling spectral diffuse attenuation, absorption, and scattering coefficients in a turbid estuary

Spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients were measured in the Rhode River and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, on 28 occasions in 1988 and 1989. The model of Kirk was used to extract scattering and absorption coefficients from the measurements in waters considerably more turbid than those in which the model was previously applied. Estimated scattering coefftcients were linearly related to mineral suspended solids.

CHARLES L. GALLEGOS; DAVID L. CORRELL; J. W. PIERCE

1990-01-01

127

Relativistic diffusion and heavy-ion collisions

We study first- and second-order theories of relativistic diffusion coupled to hydrodynamics under the approximation, valid at midrapidity in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), that conserved number densities are much smaller than the entropy density. We identify experimentally accessible quantities of interest and show that the first- and second-order theories may lead to radically different evolutions of these quantities. In the first-order theory the memory of the initial state is almost completely washed out, whereas in the second-order theory it is possible that freeze-out occurs at a time when transient dynamics is still on and the memory of the initial state remains. There are observational consequences that we touch upon. In the first-order theory, and for initial conditions when the second-order theory mimics the first-order theory, one may be able to put a bound on the diffusion constant.

Bhalerao, Rajeev S.; Gupta, Sourendu [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

2009-06-15

128

Diffusion coefficient in a semi-dilute solution measured by concentration gradient technique

L-435 Diffusion coefficient in a semi-dilute solution measured by concentration gradient technique greater than TR [3]. However, when the constraint is a concentration gradient we find that the relaxation as the ratio of the rate of transfer of a diffusion substance, per unit area, to the concentration gradient

Boyer, Edmond

129

Dispersion of passive tracers in closed basins: Beyond the diffusion coefficient

of diffusion and transport of passive tracers in a given velocity field has both theoretical and prac- ticalDispersion of passive tracers in closed basins: Beyond the diffusion coefficient V. Artale ENEA, 00185 Roma, Italy Received 25 April 1997; accepted 10 July 1997 We investigate the spreading of passive

Cencini, Massimo

130

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion coefficients of several alloying elements (Al, Mo, Co, Ta, Ru, W, Cr, Re) in Ni are directly calculated using the five-frequency model and the first principles density functional theory. The correlation factors provided by the five-frequency model are explicitly calculated. The calculated diffusion coefficients show their excellent agreement with the available experimental data. Both the diffusion pre-factor (D0) and the activation energy (Q) of impurity diffusion are obtained. The diffusion coefficients above 700 K are sorted in the following order: DAl > DCr > DCo > DTa > DMo > DRu > DW > DRe. It is found that there is a positive correlation between the atomic radius of the solute and the jump energy of Ni that results in the rotation of the solute-vacancy pair (E1). The value of E2-E1 (E2 is the solute diffusion energy) and the correlation factor each also show a positive correlation. The larger atoms in the same series have lower diffusion activation energies and faster diffusion coefficients.

Wu, Qiong; Li, Shu-Suo; Ma, Yue; Gong, Sheng-Kai

2012-10-01

131

Statistical description of slope-dependent soil transport and the diffusion-like coefficient

. The analysis is consistent with published profiles of soil creep displacement and with published estimatesStatistical description of slope-dependent soil transport and the diffusion-like coefficient David ``diffusive'' soil transport, it is often assumed that the soil flux is proportional to the local land

Heimsath, Arjun M.

132

We consider the variable coefficient inhomogeneous nonlinear diffusion equations of the form xput=[xqunux]x. We present further transformation properties for this nonlinear class of equations that do not appear in the literature. In particular, we map this class of variable-coefficient into constant-coefficient evolution equations. We also introduce hodograph and generalised hodograph transformation. For a specific form of this class we derive

Christodoulos Sophocleous

2005-01-01

133

NITRIC ACID-AIR DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT: EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION

Trace gaseous HNO3 in air is removed in a laminar flow nylon tube. The HNO3 deposition pattern was obtained by sectioning the tube, extracting with an aqueous solution, and measuring the concentration by ion chromatography. Mass transport analysis of the deposition pattern demons...

134

Temperature-Dependent Diffusion Coefficients from ab initio Computations: Hydrogen in Nickel

The temperature-dependent mass diffusion coefficient is computed using transition state theory. Ab initio supercell phonon calculations of the entire system provide the attempt frequency, the activation enthalpy, and the activation entropy as a function of temperature. Effects due to thermal lattice expansion are included and found to be significant. Numerical results for the case of hydrogen in nickel demonstrate a strong temperature dependence of the migration enthalpy and entropy. Trapping in local minima along the diffusion path has a pronounced effect especially at low temperatures. The computed diffusion coefficients with and without trapping bracket the available experimental values over the entire temperature range between 0 and 1400 K.

E Wimmer; W Wolf; J Sticht; P Saxe; C Geller; R Najafabadi; G Young

2006-03-16

135

A methodology for computing Fick diffusivities directly from equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is presented and validated for acetone-methanol and acetone-tetrachloromethane liquid mixtures. Fick diffusivities are obtained from Maxwell-Stefan (MS) diffusivities and the so-called thermodynamic factor. MS diffusivities describe the friction between different components, while the thermodynamic factor is the concentration derivative of the activity describing the deviation from ideal mixing behavior. It is important to note that all mutual diffusion experiments measure Fick diffusion coefficients, while molecular simulation provides MS diffusivities. The required thermodynamic factor to convert MS into Fick diffusivities and vice versa, however, is usually difficult to extract from both simulations and experiments leaving a gap between theory and application. Here, we employ our novel method to compute the thermodynamic factor from small-scale density fluctuations in equilibrium MD simulations [Chem. Phys. Lett.2011, 504, 199-201]. Previously, this method was developed and validated for molecules with single interaction sites only. In this work, we applied this method to acetone-methanol and acetone-tetrachloromethane liquid mixtures and show that the method also works well in these more complex systems. This provides the missing step to extract Fick diffusion coefficients directly from equilibrium MD simulations. The computed Fick diffusivities of acetone-methanol and acetone-tetrachloromethane mixtures are in excellent agreement with experimental values. The suggested framework thus provides an efficient route to model diffusion in liquids on the basis of a consistent molecular picture. PMID:21954841

Liu, Xin; Schnell, Sondre K; Simon, Jean-Marc; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Bardow, André; Vlugt, Thijs J H

2011-11-10

136

Temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient of nitrogen gas in water: A molecular dynamics study

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to study the structural properties and to estimate the diffusivity of molecular nitrogen (N2) gas (solute) in extended simple point charge model (SPC/E) water (solvent) with N2 mole fraction of 0.018 at different temperatures. For the structural properties of the system, we have determined radial distribution function (RDF). The solute-solute, solute-solvent and solvent-solvent RDF have been evaluated. Self-diffusion coefficient of N2 was estimated by evaluating mean-squared displacement (MSD) and velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) separately. The diffusion coefficients obtained from the two methods agree within 3%. The results are in agreement with the experimentally determined values within 10%. The self-diffusion coefficient of water (H2O) was also estimated by evaluating MSD. Mutual diffusion coefficient of the system have also been estimated invoking Darken's relation. The temperature dependance of the diffusion coefficients were found to follow Arrhenius relation.

Sharma, Keshav; Adhikari, Narayan P.

2014-04-01

137

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storage and disposal of CO2 as the main component of greenhouse gases in saline aquifers require careful measurement of diffusivity for predicting rate of transfer and cumulative amount of trapped gas. Little information is available on diffusion of CO2 in highly concentrated saline aquifers at reservoir conditions. In this study, diffusivity of CO2 was measured into different solutions, including saline aquifer taken from oil field, distilled water and synthetic solutions prepared from four most common ions, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, Na+. The roles of salvation effect and hydration phenomenon were studied on diffusivity of dissolved CO2. Synthetic solutions were prepared at concentration ranges of 83-200 g/l. Experimental measurements were reported at temperature and pressure ranges of 30-40 °C and 5,880-6,265 kPa, respectively. Results show that both type and concentration of ion affect CO2 diffusivity. Diffusion coefficient was found dependent on effective radius of hydrated ions. Also, CO2 diffusivity increase by increasing strength of bonds between ion and neighbor water molecules. Also, presence of ions in water solution creates hydration competition between solution metal ions and aqua ions from diffusive gas. The Mg2+ cation, which has strongest hydration competition among other ions, has an increasing effect on gas diffusivity into saline aquifer. However, increasing ion concentration in solution decreases diffusivity of CO2 due to growth in fraction of contact ion pairs. Results of this study provide unique measures of CO2 diffusion coefficient in saline aquifer at high pressure and temperature conditions and conceptual information about effect of each common saline formation ion on gas diffusivity.

Jafari Raad, Seyed Mostafa; Azin, Reza; Osfouri, Shahriar

2015-03-01

138

The geochemistry of salt marshes: Sedimentary ion diffusion, sulfate reduction, and pyritization

Abstract-A series of seasonal cores was taken in a high marsh near the terminus of Delaware Bay, U.S.A. A seasonal harmonic,diffusion model was successfully fit to the concentration,profiles of chloride ion in the salt marsh,pore waters yielding a calculated sedimentary,diffusion coefficient. Virtually all other chemical,reactions within salt marsh,sediments,are directly linked to the rate and stoichiometry,of organic decomposition.,The rich organic input

C LORDIII; THOMAS M. CHURCH

1983-01-01

139

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for measuring effective diffusion coefficient of porous materials is developed. The oxygen concentration gradient is established by an air-breathing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The porous sample is set in a sample holder located in the cathode plate of the PEMFC. At a given oxygen flux, the effective diffusion coefficients are related to the difference of oxygen concentration across the samples, which can be correlated with the differences of the output voltage of the PEMFC with and without inserting the sample in the cathode plate. Compared to the conventional electrical conductivity method, this method is more reliable for measuring non-wetting samples.

Yang, Linlin; Sun, Hai; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Suli; Jiang, Luhua; Sun, Gongquan

2014-07-01

140

A method is described for obtaining the activity coefficients of individual ions from experimental titration data. For this purpose, a general polyprotic acid-base-titration-curve equation is derived. The equation allows obtaining the dissociation equilibrium constants of the acid and the ratio of the activity coefficient of each ion to the activity coefficient of the undissociated acid directly from the titration data.

I. Jano; J. E. Hardcastle

1998-01-01

141

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Serial study of such MR parameters as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), ADC with fluid-attenuated inversion re- covery (ADCFLAIR), and T2-weighted imaging may provide information on the pathophysio- logical mechanisms of acute ischemic stroke. Our goals were to establish the natural evolution of MR signal intensity characteristics of acute ischemic lesions and to assess the potential

Maarten G. Lansberg; Vincent N. Thijs; Michael W. O'Brien; Juan O. Ali; Alex J. de Crespigny; David C. Tong; Michael E. Moseley; Gregory W. Albers

2001-01-01

142

The diffusion coefficient of tubulin has been measured in the cytoplasm of eggs and embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. We have used brain tubulin, conjugated to dichlorotriazinyl-aminofluorescein, to inject eggs and embryos. The resulting distributions of fluorescence were perturbed by bleaching with a microbeam of light from the 488-nm line of an argon ion laser. Fluorescence redistribution after

E. D. Salmon; W. M. SAXTON; R. J. LESLIE; M. L. KAROW; J. R. MclNTOSH

1984-01-01

143

In situ measurements of labile metal species using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) passive samplers are based on the diffusion rates of individual species. Although most studies have dealt with chemically isolated humic substances, the diffusion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) across the hydrogel is not well understood. In this study, the diffusion coefficient (D) and molecular weight (MW) of 11 aquatic DOM and 4 humic substances (HS) were determined. Natural, unaltered aquatic DOM was capable of diffusing across the diffusive gel membrane with D values ranging from 2.48×10(-6) to 5.31×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). Humic substances had diffusion coefficient values ranging from 3.48×10(-6) to 6.05×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1), congruent with previous studies. Molecular weight of aquatic DOM and HS samples (?500-1750 Da) measured using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) strongly influenced D, with larger molecular weight DOM having lower D values. No noticeable changes in DOM size properties were observed during the diffusion process, suggesting that DOM remains intact following diffusion across the diffusive gel. The influence of molecular weight on DOM mobility will assist in further understanding and development of the DGT technique and the uptake and mobility of contaminants associated with DOM in aquatic environments. PMID:25112575

Balch, J; Guéguen, C

2015-01-01

144

The nitrogen diffusivity in single-crystalline AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel (ASS) during ion nitriding has been investigated at different crystal orientations ((001), (110), (111)) under variations of ion flux (0.3-0.7 mA cm{sup -2}), ion energy (0.5-1.2 keV), and temperature (370-430 deg. C). The nitrogen depth profiles obtained from nuclear reaction analysis are in excellent agreement with fits using the model of diffusion under the influence of traps, from which diffusion coefficients were extracted. At fixed ion energy and flux, the diffusivity varies by a factor up to 2.5 at different crystal orientations. At (100) orientation, it increases linearly with increasing ion flux or energy. The findings are discussed on the basis of atomistic mechanisms of interstitial diffusion, potential lattice distortions, local decomposition, and ion-induced lattice vibrational excitations.

Martinavicius, A.; Abrasonis, G.; Moeller, W. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), P.O. Box 510119, Dresden 01314 (Germany)

2011-10-01

145

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nitrogen diffusivity in single-crystalline AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel (ASS) during ion nitriding has been investigated at different crystal orientations ((001), (110), (111)) under variations of ion flux (0.3-0.7 mA cm-2), ion energy (0.5-1.2 keV), and temperature (370-430 °C). The nitrogen depth profiles obtained from nuclear reaction analysis are in excellent agreement with fits using the model of diffusion under the influence of traps, from which diffusion coefficients were extracted. At fixed ion energy and flux, the diffusivity varies by a factor up to 2.5 at different crystal orientations. At (100) orientation, it increases linearly with increasing ion flux or energy. The findings are discussed on the basis of atomistic mechanisms of interstitial diffusion, potential lattice distortions, local decomposition, and ion-induced lattice vibrational excitations.

Martinavi?ius, A.; Abrasonis, G.; Möller, W.

2011-10-01

146

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the dual-chamber pressure decay method and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to dynamically visualize the gas diffusion process in liquid-saturated porous media, and the relationship of concentration-distance for gas diffusing into liquid-saturated porous media at different times were obtained by MR images quantitative analysis. A non-iterative finite volume method was successfully applied to calculate the local gas diffusion coefficient in liquid-saturated porous media. The results agreed very well with the conventional pressure decay method, thus it demonstrates that the method was feasible of determining the local diffusion coefficient of gas in liquid-saturated porous media at different times during diffusion process.

Song, Yongchen; Hao, Min; Zhao, Yuechao; Zhang, Liang

2014-12-01

147

Radon diffusion coefficients in 360 waterproof materials of different chemical composition.

This paper summarises the results of radon diffusion coefficient measurements in 360 common waterproof materials available throughout Europe. The materials were grouped into 26 categories according to their chemical composition. It was found that the diffusion coefficients of materials used for protecting houses against radon vary within eight orders from 10(-15) to 10(-8) m(2) s(-1). The lowest values were obtained for bitumen membranes with an Al carrier film and for ethylene vinyl acetate membranes. The highest radon diffusion coefficient values were discovered for sodium bentonite membranes, rubber membranes made of ethylene propylene diene monomer and polymer cement coatings. The radon diffusion coefficients for waterproofings widely used for protecting houses, i.e. flexible polyvinyl chloride, high-, low-density polyethylene, polypropylene and bitumen membranes, vary in the range from 3 × 10(-12) to 3 × 10(-11) m(2) s(-1). Tests were performed which confirmed that the radon diffusion coefficient is also an effective tool for verifying the air-tightness of joints. PMID:21450700

Jiránek, M; Kotrbatá, M

2011-05-01

148

Background Support vector regression (SVR) and Gaussian process regression (GPR) were used for the analysis of electroanalytical experimental data to estimate diffusion coefficients. Results For simulated cyclic voltammograms based on the EC, Eqr, and EqrC mechanisms these regression algorithms in combination with nonlinear kernel/covariance functions yielded diffusion coefficients with higher accuracy as compared to the standard approach of calculating diffusion coefficients relying on the Nicholson-Shain equation. The level of accuracy achieved by SVR and GPR is virtually independent of the rate constants governing the respective reaction steps. Further, the reduction of high-dimensional voltammetric signals by manual selection of typical voltammetric peak features decreased the performance of both regression algorithms compared to a reduction by downsampling or principal component analysis. After training on simulated data sets, diffusion coefficients were estimated by the regression algorithms for experimental data comprising voltammetric signals for three organometallic complexes. Conclusions Estimated diffusion coefficients closely matched the values determined by the parameter fitting method, but reduced the required computational time considerably for one of the reaction mechanisms. The automated processing of voltammograms according to the regression algorithms yields better results than the conventional analysis of peak-related data. PMID:24987463

2014-01-01

149

Diffusion and Coulomb separation of ions in dense matter.

We analyze diffusion equations in strongly coupled Coulomb mixtures of ions in dense stellar matter. Strong coupling of ions in the presence of gravitational forces and electric fields (induced by plasma polarization in the presence of gravity) produces a specific diffusion current which can separate ions with the same A/Z (mass to charge number) ratios but different Z. This Coulomb separation of ions can be important for the evolution of white dwarfs and neutron stars. PMID:24182248

Beznogov, M V; Yakovlev, D G

2013-10-18

150

To evaluate the potential of Na-ion batteries, we contrast in this work the difference between Na-ion and Li-ion based intercalation chemistries in terms of three key battery properties—voltage, phase stability and diffusion ...

Ong, Shyue Ping

151

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the estimation of the thermal diffusivity from perturbative experiments in fusion plasmas is discussed. The measurements used to estimate the thermal diffusivity suffer from stochastic noise. Accurate estimation of the thermal diffusivity should take this into account. It will be shown that formulas found in the literature often result in a thermal diffusivity that has a bias (a difference between the estimated value and the actual value that remains even if more measurements are added) or have an unnecessarily large uncertainty. This will be shown by modeling a plasma using only diffusion as heat transport mechanism and measurement noise based on ASDEX Upgrade measurements. The Fourier coefficients of a temperature perturbation will exhibit noise from the circular complex normal distribution (CCND). Based on Fourier coefficients distributed according to a CCND, it is shown that the resulting probability density function of the thermal diffusivity is an inverse non-central chi-squared distribution. The thermal diffusivity that is found by sampling this distribution will always be biased, and averaging of multiple estimated diffusivities will not necessarily improve the estimation. Confidence bounds are constructed to illustrate the uncertainty in the diffusivity using several formulas that are equivalent in the noiseless case. Finally, a different method of averaging, that reduces the uncertainty significantly, is suggested. The methodology is also extended to the case where damping is included, and it is explained how to include the cylindrical geometry.

van Berkel, M.; Zwart, H. J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Vandersteen, G.; van den Brand, H.; de Baar, M. R.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

2014-10-01

152

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion along interface and grain boundaries provides an efficient pathway and may control chemical transport in rocks as well as their mechanical strength. Besides the significant relevance of these diffusion processes for various geologic processes, experimental data are still very limited (e.g., Dohmen & Milke, 2010). Most of these data were measured using polycrystalline materials and the formalism of LeClaire (1951) to fit integrated concentration depth profiles. To correctly apply this formalism, certain boundary conditions of the diffusion problem need to be fulfilled, e.g., surface diffusion is ignored, and furthermore the lattice diffusion coefficient has to be known from other studies or is an additional fitting parameter, which produces some ambiguity in the derived grain boundary diffusion coefficients. We developed an experimental setup where we can measure the lattice and grain boundary diffusion coefficients simultaneously but independent and demonstrate the relevance of surface diffusion for typical grain boundary diffusion experiments. We performed Mg2SiO4 bicrystal diffusion experiments, where a single grain boundary is covered by a thin-film of pure Ni2SiO4 acting as diffusant source, produced by pulsed laser deposition. The investigated grain boundary is a 60° (011)/[100]. This specific grain boundary configuration was modeled using molecular dynamics for comparison with the experimental observations in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both, experiment and model are in good agreement regarding the misorientation, whereas there are still some disagreements regarding the strain fields along the grain boundary that are of outmost importance for the strengths of the material. The subsequent diffusion experiments were carried out in the temperature range between 800° and 1450° C. The inter diffusion profiles were measured using the TEMs energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer standardized using the Cliff-Lorimer equation and EMPA measurements. To evaluate the obtained diffusion profiles we adapted the isolated grain boundary model, first proposed by Fisher (1951) to match several observations: (i) Anisotropic diffusion in forsterite, (ii) fast diffusion along the grain boundary, (iii) fast diffusion on the surface of the sample. The latter process is needed to explain an additional flux of material from the surface into the grain boundary. Surface and grain boundary diffusion coefficients are on the order of 10000 times faster than diffusion in the lattice. Another observation was that in some regions the diffusion profiles in the lattice were greatly extended. TEM observations suggest here that surface defects (nano-cracks, ect.) have been present, which apparently enhanced the diffusion through the bulk lattice. Dohmen, R., & Milke, R. (2010). Diffusion in Polycrystalline Materials: Grain Boundaries, Mathematical Models, and Experimental Data. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 72(1), 921-970. Fisher, J. C. (1951). Calculations of Diffusion Penetration Curves for Surface and Grain Boundary Diffusion. Journal of Applied Physics, 22(1), 74-77. Le Claire, A. D. (1951). Grain boundary diffusion in metals. Philosophical Magazine A, 42(328), 468-474.

Marquardt, Katharina; Dohmen, Ralf; Wagner, Johannes

2014-05-01

153

Crack diffusion coefficient - A candidate fracture toughness parameter for short fiber composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In brittle matrix composites, crack propagation occurs along random trajectories reflecting the heterogeneous nature of the strength field. Considering the crack trajectory as a diffusive process, the 'crack diffusion coefficient' is introduced. From fatigue crack propagation experiments on a set of identical SEN polyester composite specimens, the variance of the crack tip position along the loading axis is found to be a linear function of the effective 'time'. The latter is taken as the effective crack length. The coefficient of proportionality between variance of the crack trajectory and the effective crack length defines the crack diffusion coefficient D which is found in the present study to be 0.165 mm. This parameter reflects the ability of the composite to deviate the crack from the energetically most efficient path and thus links fracture toughness to the microstructure.

Mull, M. A.; Chudnovsky, A.; Moet, A.

1987-01-01

154

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The translational diffusion coefficient of a perylenediimide (PDI) derivative in a dextrin-based photo-curable material was evaluated by single molecule tracking. Irradiation by UV light for 1.0 s led to a sudden decrease in the diffusion coefficients of ca. 70% of dye molecules, while that of the remaining 30% diffused as fast as in the uncured sample. The number of fast diffusing molecules decreased with increasing UV irradiation time. The diffusion coefficient decreased due to photoinduced network formation and reached a steady value after UV irradiation >8.0 s. This slow diffusion did not cease even after UV irradiation for 32 s.

Ito, Syoji; Itoh, Kou; Pramanik, Smritimoy; Kusumi, Takatsugu; Takei, Satoshi; Miyasaka, Hiroshi

2009-07-01

155

Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for FracturedRock: Results From Literature Survey

Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solutetransport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey onthe effective matrix diffusion coefficient, Dem, a key parameter fordescribing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty fieldtracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selectedfor study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale Dem valueswere calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature orby reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed dataindicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor FD(defined as the ratio of Dem to the lab-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient [Dem]of the same tracer) is generally larger than one,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the fieldis comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at therock-core scale. This larger value could be attributed to the manymass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous,fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend towardsystematic increase in the emDFmDDF value with observation scale,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely tobe statistically scale dependent. The FD value ranges from 1 to 10,000for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the FD valuevaries by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differingdegrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition,the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivitygenerally increases with observation scale, which is consistent withprevious studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications forassessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transportevents in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminantremediation.

Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui Hai; Molz, Fred J.; Zhang, Yingqi; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

2005-03-28

156

Electronic/ionic conductivity and oxygen diffusion coefficient of Sr-Fe-Co-O system

Oxides in the system Sr-Fe-Co-O exhibit both electronic and ionic conductivities. Recently, Sr-Fe-Co-O system attracted great attention because of the potential to be used for oxygen permeable membranes that can operate without the electrodes or external electrical circuitry. Electronic and ionic conductivities at various temperatures have been measured on two compositions in Sr-Fe-Co-O system named SFC-1 and SFC-2. The electronic transference number is much greater than the ionic transference number in SFC-1 sample, while the electronic and ionic transference numbers are very close in SFC-2 sample. At 800{degrees}C, the electronic conductivity and ionic conductivity are {approx}76 S{center_dot}cm-1 and =4 S-cm-1, respectively, for SFC-1. While, for SFC-2, the electronic and ionic conductivities are =10 S-cm-1 and {approx}7 S-cm-1, respectively. By a local fitting to {sigma}{center_dot}T = A exp(-E{sub {alpha}}/{kappa}{Tau}), we found that the oxide ion activation energies are 0.92 eV and 0.37 eV respectively for SFC-1 and SFC-2 samples. Oxygen diffusion coefficient of SFC-2 is {approx}{times}10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}/sec at 900C.

Ma, B.; Park, J.H.; Balachandran, U. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Segre, C.U. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics

1995-03-01

157

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient of moisture through a barrier coating to develop an encapsulation technology for the thin-film electronics industry. This investigation targeted a silicon oxide (SiOx) film that was deposited on a plastic substrate by a large-process-area web coater. Using the finite difference method based on diffusion theory, our estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient of a SiOx film corresponded to that of bulk glass that was previously reported. This result suggested that the low diffusivities of barrier films can be obtained on a mass-production level in the factory. In this investigation, experimental observations and mathematical confirmation revealed the limit of the water vapor transmission rate on the single barrier coating.

Nagai, Shingo

2013-11-01

158

Oxidation-enhanced diffusion of ion-implanted boron in heavily phosphorus-doped silicon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED) of ion-implanted boron in heavily phosphorus-doped silicon is studied by measuring boron depth profiles using secondary ion mass spectroscopy for phosphorus concentration from intrinsic conditions to 1.2×1020 cm-3. OED is observed for the whole phosphorus concentration range investigated in the present work. However, both the diffusion coefficient in N2 ambient DN and that in dry O2 ambient DO decrease with an increase in substrate phosphorus concentration in extrinsic conditions, i.e., for phosphorus concentration larger than the intrinsic carrier concentration. Diffusion coefficient increment due to OED ?D(=DO-DN) decreases with an increase in phosphorus concentration. The decrease in ?D with an increase in phosphorus concentration is attributed to a decrease in excess silicon interstitials due to recombination with acceptor-type vacancies.

Miyake, Masayasu

1985-07-01

159

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current pulse E sub oc relaxation method and its application to the determination of diffusion coefficients in electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole thin films is described. Diffusion coefficients for such films in Et4NBF4 and MeCN are determined for a series of submicron film thicknesses. Measurement of the double-layer capacitance, C sub dl, and the resistance, R sub u, of polypyrrole thin films as a function of potential obtained with the galvanostatic pulse method is reported. Measurements of the electrolyte concentration in reduced polypyrrole films are also presented to aid in the interpretation of the data.

Penner, Reginald M.; Vandyke, Leon S.; Martin, Charles R.

1987-01-01

160

LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical zeta functions provide a powerful method to analyse low-dimensional dynamical systems when the underlying symbolic dynamics is under control. On the other hand, even simple one-dimensional maps can show an intricate structure of the grammar rules that may lead to a non-smooth dependence of global observables on parameters changes. A paradigmatic example is the fractal diffusion coefficient arising in a simple piecewise linear one-dimensional map of the real line. Using the Baladi-Ruelle generalization of the Milnor-Thurnston kneading determinant, we provide the exact dynamical zeta function for such a map and compute the diffusion coefficient from its smallest zero.

Cristadoro, Giampaolo

2006-03-01

161

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of determining surface diffusion coefficients of molecules from signal fluctuations of a locally fixed probe are revisited and refined. Particular emphasis is put on the influence of the molecule's extent. In addition to the formerly introduced autocorrelation method and residence time method, we develop a further method based on the distribution of intervals between successive peaks in the signal. The theoretical findings are applied to scanning tunneling microscopy measurements of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules on the Ag(100) surface. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of each method and suggest a combination to obtain accurate results for diffusion coefficients.

Hahne, Susanne; Ikonomov, Julian; Sokolowski, Moritz; Maass, Philipp

2013-02-01

162

On the group classification of variable-coefficient nonlinear diffusion–convection equations

We consider the variable coefficient diffusion–convection equation of the form f(x)ut=[g(x)D(u)ux]x+h(x)K(u)ux which has considerable interest in mathematical physics, biology and chemistry. We present a complete group classification for this class of equations. Also we derive equivalence transformations between equations that admit Lie symmetries. Furthermore, we obtain mappings that connect variable and constant coefficient equations. Exact solutions of special forms of

N. M. Ivanova; C. Sophocleous

2006-01-01

163

Non-Fermi liquid behavior of the drag and diffusion coefficients in QED plasma

We calculate the drag and diffusion coefficients in low temperature QED plasma and go beyond the leading order approximation. The non-Fermi-liquid behavior of these coefficients are clearly revealed. We observe that the subleading contributions due to the exchange of soft transverse photon in both cases are larger than the leading order terms coming from the longitudinal sector. The results are presented in closed form at zero and low temperature.

Sarkar, Sreemoyee; Dutt-Mazumder, Abhee K. [High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)

2011-11-01

164

Diffusion and virial coefficient in a mercury-argon gas mixture

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and experimental data on molecular beams and the mutual diffusion coefficient (MDC) and second virial coefficient (SVC) for an Hg-Ar gas mixture as a representative of the mercuryinert gas family are matched on basis of the Morse potential and the relations of the molecular kinetic theory of rarefied gases. Tables of the MDC and SVC values in the temperature range of 200-2000 K are calculated, and estimates of their accuracy are presented.

Popov, V. N.; Fokin, L. R.

2013-04-01

165

Field Cycling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FC NMR) relaxation studies are reported for three ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMIM-SCN, 220-258 K), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF4, 243-318 K), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6, 258-323 K). The dispersion of (1)H spin-lattice relaxation rate R1(?) is measured in the frequency range of 10 kHz-20 MHz, and the studies are complemented by (19)F spin-lattice relaxation measurements on BMIM-PF6 in the corresponding frequency range. From the (1)H relaxation results self-diffusion coefficients for the cation in EMIM-SCN, BMIM-BF4, and BMIM-PF6 are determined. This is done by performing an analysis considering all relevant intra- and intermolecular relaxation contributions to the (1)H spin-lattice relaxation as well as by benefiting from the universal low-frequency dispersion law characteristic of Fickian diffusion which yields, at low frequencies, a linear dependence of R1 on square root of frequency. From the (19)F relaxation both anion and cation diffusion coefficients are determined for BMIM-PF6. The diffusion coefficients obtained from FC NMR relaxometry are in good agreement with results reported from pulsed- field-gradient NMR. This shows that NMR relaxometry can be considered as an alternative route of determining diffusion coefficients of both cations and anions in ionic liquids. PMID:24985656

Kruk, D; Meier, R; Rachocki, A; Korpa?a, A; Singh, R K; Rössler, E A

2014-06-28

166

The Stern-Volmer theory, in which the quantum yield ratio (Io/I) depends linearly on the quencher concentration, will typically be inapplicable to fluorescence quenching in membranes. Numerical analysis shows that diffusion-controlled quenching results in a nonlinear concentration dependence for diffusion coefficients less than or of the order of 10(-6) cm2 s-1 and probe fluorescence lifetimes in the region of 10-100 ns. Lateral diffusion coefficients in membranes are typically overestimated an order of magnitude or more by the Stern-Volmer theory. An alternative empirical method is presented, which represents nonlinear concentration curves by a single parameter linear approximation determined by a least-squares analysis. The fitting parameter, P, depends on the interaction distance, the membrane thickness, the maximum extent of quenching and, in the case of biexponential probe fluorescence decay, the fluorescence kinetic parameters. P is presented in tabular form for a useful range of these parameters. The method is used to estimate diffusion coefficients for plastoquinone and plastoquinol from pyrene fluorescence quenching in soya bean phosphatidylcholine liposomes. It is found that the diffusion coefficients are nearly equal and in the region of 1.3-3.5 X 10(-7) cm2 s-1 for interaction radii of 1.5-0.5 nm, respectively. PMID:3593871

Blackwell, M F; Gounaris, K; Zara, S J; Barber, J

1987-01-01

167

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simultaneously measured the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity of a rectangular parallelepiped bulk thermoelectric material. We used one-dimensional heat conduction equation to show that a periodic heat cycle produces not only the thermoelectromotive force but also a certain phase shift angle between the edge and intermediate points of a sample along the length of the material. Based on the equation of the modified Angström method, an experiment at 300 K was performed using NIST standard material (SRM 3451, Bi2Te3 material) to measure the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity. The measured Seebeck coefficient was ?231 ± 3 µV/K, which corresponds to the published value. Using the same experimental setup as that for the thermal diffusivity measurement, the dependence of the phase shift angle on frequency was measured from 5 mHz to 10 Hz for the phase shift angle from ?8.2 to ?450°. The estimated thermal diffusivity was (1.53 ± 0.05) × 10?6 m2/s. We conclude that the modified Angström method can be used to measure the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity simultaneously.

Homma, Ryoei; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Terakado, Hiroki; Morita, Hiroyuki; Komine, Takashi

2015-02-01

168

FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK:RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY

Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D{sub m}{sup e}, a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D{sub m}{sup e} values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F{sub D} (defined as the ratio of D{sub m}{sup e} to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D{sub m}] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F{sub D} value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F{sub D} value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F{sub D} value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminant remediation.

Q. Zhou; Hui-Hai Liu; F.J. Molz; Y. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson

2005-04-08

169

Small effect of water on upper mantle rheology based on silicon self-diffusion coefficients

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water has been considered to significantly affect the mantle dynamics. In particular, experimental deformation studies [1-4] claimed that even small amount of water enhanced the creep in olivine by orders of magnitude. However, we note that their results are experimental artifact due to a number of limitations: e.g., unavoidable grain boundary sliding when polycrystalline samples were used; limited ranges of water contents due to the limited pressures; several orders higher stress and strain rate than those in nature. High temperature creep of silicate minerals is controlled by silicon self-diffusion. Therefore, measurement of silicon self-diffusion coefficients (DSi) in minerals, which can be performed without these limitations, is an independent way to study the mantle rheology. In this study, we measured DSi in Mg end-member of olivine, namely, forsterite, as a function of water content (CH2O) across a wide range, and concluded that effect of water on upper mantle rheology is very small. Forsterite single crystals were doped with <1 to ~800 ?g/g of water at 1600 K, 8 GPa using talc+brucite water sources and graphite buffer. The CH2O in the samples were controlled by the ratio of water sources to graphite. The water doped samples were polished, deposited with 500 nm 29Si enriched Mg2SiO4 thin films, and annealed at 8 GPa, 1600 or 1800 K for diffusion with the same proportion of water sources, which successfully made constant values of CH2O during diffusion annealing. The diffusion profiles were obtained by SIMS. CH2O in the samples were determined by FT-IR before and after diffusion, and also examined by SIMS. Our results yield a relationship: DSi ? (CH2O)1/3. This is explained by defect chemistry, where DSi?[VSi????]×[VO??]?(CH2O)2/3×(CH2O)-1/3=(CH2O)1/3 under the charge neutrality condition of [(OH)O?]=2[VMg??] because both Si and O vacancies are needed for Si ions to diffuse. The water contents exponent (1/3) determined in this study is much smaller than 1.2 [5], which was estimated based on deformation experiments. The small water content exponent demonstrates that effect of water on upper mantle rheology is very small in comparing with other factors like temperature, or shear stress. The difference in viscosity of olivine between dry (e.g., ~1 ?g/g of water) and 1000 ?g/g (maximum in upper mantle [6]) is only by a factor of 10. The softening of oceanic lithosphere, which is required to explain the plate motion, cannot be caused by hydration. [1] Karato et al. (1986), JGR 91, 8151-8176. [2] Mei and Kohlstedt (2000a), JGR 105(B9), 21471-21481. [3] Mei and Kohlstedt (2000b), JGR 105(B9), 21457-21469. [4] Jung and Karato (2001), Science 293, 1460-1463. [5] Hirth and Kohlstedt (2003), Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union. 138, 83-106. [6] Hirschmann (2006), An. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 34, 629-653.

Fei, H.; Wiedenbeck, M.; Yamazaki, D.; Katsura, T.

2012-12-01

170

Oxidation-enhanced diffusion of ion-implanted boron in silicon in extrinsic conditions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED) of ion-implanted boron has been studied in extrinsic conditions, i.e, in a high boron concentration range by a new isoconcentration method using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In the isoconcentration method, 10B has been used as a tracer and 11B as a base, considering the SIMS measurement sensitivity. For isoconcentration diffusion at 950 and 1000 °C, diffusion coefficients both in N2 ambient and in dry O2 ambient increase with boron concentration in extrinsic conditions. The diffusion coefficient in dry O2 is larger than that in N2, i.e., OED is observed for boron concentration from intrinsic conditions to 1020 cm-3. The increment in the diffusion coefficient due to OED is constant for the boron concentration range of 2×1019-1×1020 cm-3, and is 2-3.5 times larger than that in intrinsic conditions. On the other hand, for boron implantation into intrinsic substrates, i.e., nonisoconcentration diffusion at 950 and 1000 °C, OED decreases with the dose and disappears at a 1015 cm-2 dose which has a peak boron concentration of about 4×1019 cm-3. The OED disappearance at the 1015 cm-2 dose is attributed to the loss of silicon interstitials by the residual damage due to implantation.

Miyake, Masayasu

1985-03-01

171

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for interpreting diffusional transport in porous geological materials is developed. The model is based on a laboratory method described in a companion paper [van der Kamp et al., this issue] by which radial diffusion from or into a cylindrical reservoir in a core-sized sample is measured. The model accounts for radial diffusion, mass balance in the reservoir, linear adsorption, decay or transformation, and periodic abstraction of samples. The model is derived using the Laplace transform method for both finite and semi-infinite domains. For conditions where solute concentrations equilibrate (i.e., in finite diameter samples), a simple expression is derived that can be used to interpret the results for effective porosity and a retardation factor. It is demonstrated that the method can provide independent measures of the effective diffusion coefficient, adsorption, and effective porosity when the results are interpreted using the model. Several real and hypothetical diffusion experiments are presented to illustrate the use of the model.

Novakowski, K. S.; van der Kamp, G.

172

Electro-diffusion in a plasma with two ion species

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric field is a thermodynamic force that can drive collisional inter-ion-species transport in a multicomponent plasma. In an inertial confinement fusion capsule, such transport causes fuel ion separation even with a target initially prepared to have equal number densities for the two fuel ion species. Unlike the baro-diffusion driven by ion pressure gradient and the thermo-diffusion driven by ion and electron temperature gradients, electro-diffusion has a critical dependence on the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion species. Specifically, it is shown here that electro-diffusion vanishes if the ion species have the same charge-to-mass ratio. An explicit expression for the electro-diffusion ratio is obtained and used to investigate the relative importance of electro- and baro-diffusion mechanisms. In particular, it is found that electro-diffusion reinforces baro-diffusion in the deuterium and tritium mix, but tends to cancel it in the deuterium and helium-3 mix.

Kagan, Grigory; Tang, Xian-Zhu

2012-08-01

173

Electro-diffusion in a plasma with two ion species

Electric field is a thermodynamic force that can drive collisional inter-ion-species transport in a multicomponent plasma. In an inertial confinement fusion capsule, such transport causes fuel ion separation even with a target initially prepared to have equal number densities for the two fuel ion species. Unlike the baro-diffusion driven by ion pressure gradient and the thermo-diffusion driven by ion and electron temperature gradients, electro-diffusion has a critical dependence on the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion species. Specifically, it is shown here that electro-diffusion vanishes if the ion species have the same charge-to-mass ratio. An explicit expression for the electro-diffusion ratio is obtained and used to investigate the relative importance of electro- and baro-diffusion mechanisms. In particular, it is found that electro-diffusion reinforces baro-diffusion in the deuterium and tritium mix, but tends to cancel it in the deuterium and helium-3 mix.

Kagan, Grigory; Tang Xianzhu [Theoretical Division Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-08-15

174

On The Anomalous Fast Ion Energy Diffusion in Toroidal Plasmas Due to Cavity Modes

An enormous wave-particle diffusion coefficient along paths suitable for alpha channeling had been deduced in mode converted ion Bernstein wave experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) the only plausible explanation advanced for such a large diffusion coefficient was the excitation of internal cavity modes which induce particle diffusion along identical diffusion paths, but at much higher rates. Although such a mode was conjectured, it was never observed. However, recent detailed observations of high frequency compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAEs) on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) indirectly support the existence of the related conjectured modes on TFTR. The eigenmodes responsible for the high frequency magnetic activity can be identified as CAEs through the polarization of the observed magnetic field oscillations in NSTX and through a comparison with the theoretically derived freuency dispersion relation. Here, we show how these recent observations of high frequency CAEs lend support to this explanation of the long-standing puzzle of anomalous fast ion energy diffusion on TFTR. The support of the conjecure that these internal modes could have caused the remarkable ion energy diffusion on TFTR carries significant and favorable implications for the possibilities in achieving the alpha channeling effect with small injected power in a tokamak reactor.

N.N. Gorelenkov, N.J. Fisch and E. Fredrickson

2010-03-09

175

Measurement and modeling of CO2 diffusion coefficient in Saline Aquifer at reservoir conditions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is a promising techniques to mitigate global warming and reduce greenhouse gases (GHG). Correct measurement of diffusivity is essential for predicting rate of transfer and cumulative amount of trapped gas. Little information is available on diffusion of GHG in saline aquifers. In this study, diffusivity of CO2 into a saline aquifer taken from oil field was measured and modeled. Equilibrium concentration of CO2 at gas-liquid interface was determined using Henry's law. Experimental measurements were reported at temperature and pressure ranges of 32-50°C and 5900-6900 kPa, respectively. Results show that diffusivity of CO2 varies between 3.52-5.98×10-9 m2/s for 5900 kPa and 5.33-6.16×10-9 m2/s for 6900 kPa initial pressure. Also, it was found that both pressure and temperature have a positive impact on the measures of diffusion coefficient. Liquid swelling due to gas dissolution and variations in gas compressibility factor as a result of pressure decay was found negligible. Measured diffusivities were used model the physical model and develop concentration profile of dissolved gas in the liquid phase. Results of this study provide unique measures of CO2 diffusion coefficient in saline aquifer at high pressure and temperature conditions, which can be applied in full-field studies of carbon capture and sequestration projects.

Azin, Reza; Mahmoudy, Mohamad; Raad, Seyed Mostafa Jafari; Osfouri, Shahriar

2013-12-01

176

Self-diffusion coefficients of methane or ethane mixtures with hydrocarbons at high pressure by NMR

Self-diffusion coefficients have been measured in homogeneous mixtures of methane + hexane, ethane + hexane, methane + octane, ethane + octan, methane + decane, ethane + decane, and methane + hexane + benzene over the whole concentration range, at 303.2 K and 333.2 K and 30 MPa, 40 MPa, and 50 MPa. The experiments were performed in a glass cell by application of the NMR-PGSE technique. The estimated accuracy of the measurements is {+-}5%. Experimental self-diffusion coefficients were compared to the Sigmund correlation, which was found not to fit the experimental data. The main motivation for this work was the need for diffusion data in reservoir studies. Gas injection in heterogeneous or fractured reservoirs and gas diffusion through cap rock are processes where diffusion may play a significant role. Although these processes occur in porous oil- and water-saturated rock, diffusion data pertaining to bulk liquids are useful because the effect of the tortuosity of the rock can be represented by formation resistivity data. Moreover, a diffusion model at the molecular level can include rock-fluid interactions.

Helbaek, M. [Nord-Troendelag Coll., Levanger (Norway). Dept. of Engineering] [Nord-Troendelag Coll., Levanger (Norway). Dept. of Engineering; Hafskjold, B.; Dysthe, D.K.; Soerland, G.H. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Physical Chemistry] [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

1996-05-01

177

The paper presents an approach that extends the flexibility of the standard lattice Boltzmann single relaxation time scheme in terms of spatial variation of dissipative terms (e.g., diffusion coefficient) and stability for high Péclet mass transfer problems. Spatial variability of diffusion coefficient in SRT is typically accommodated through the variation of relaxation time during the collision step. This method is effective but cannot deal with large diffusion coefficient variations, which can span over several orders of magnitude in some natural systems. The approach explores an alternative way of dealing with large diffusion coefficient variations in advection-diffusion transport systems by introducing so-called diffusion velocity. The diffusion velocity is essentially an additional convective term that replaces variations in diffusion coefficients vis-à-vis a chosen reference diffusion coefficient which defines the simulation time step. Special attention is paid to the main idea behind the diffusion velocity formulation and its implementation into the lattice Boltzmann framework. Finally, the performance, stability, and accuracy of the diffusion velocity formulation are discussed via several advection-diffusion transport benchmark examples. These examples demonstrate improved stability and flexibility of the proposed scheme with marginal consequences on the numerical performance. PMID:25353916

Perko, Janez; Patel, Ravi A

2014-05-01

178

VARYING COEFFICIENT MODEL FOR MODELING DIFFUSION TENSORS ALONG WHITE MATTER TRACTS

Diffusion tensor imaging provides important information on tissue structure and orientation of fiber tracts in brain white matter in vivo. It results in diffusion tensors, which are 3×3 symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices, along fiber bundles. This paper develops a functional data analysis framework to model diffusion tensors along fiber tracts as functional data in a Riemannian manifold with a set of covariates of interest, such as age and gender. We propose a statistical model with varying coefficient functions to characterize the dynamic association between functional SPD matrix-valued responses and covariates. We calculate weighted least squares estimators of the varying coefficient functions for the Log-Euclidean metric in the space of SPD matrices. We also develop a global test statistic to test specific hypotheses about these coefficient functions and construct their simultaneous confidence bands. Simulated data are further used to examine the finite sample performance of the estimated varying co-efficient functions. We apply our model to study potential gender differences and find a statistically significant aspect of the development of diffusion tensors along the right internal capsule tract in a clinical study of neurodevelopment. PMID:24533040

Yuan, Ying; Zhu, Hongtu; Styner, Martin; Gilmore, John H.; Marron, J. S.

2012-01-01

179

-Diffusion-Coefficient and Blood-Oxygenation Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Allen W. Song, Marty G. Woldorff, StaceyMRI) can detect blood oxygen- ation level dependent (BOLD) hemodynamic re- sponses secondary to local based on the differences in the mobility of the blood within them, thereby revealing the contributions

180

dispersion technique to measure the limiting mutual diffusion coefficients of some FTS products, namely 1-octene and 1-tetradecene, in subcritical and supercritical ethane and propane in the temperature range 293.2-338.25 K and the pressure range 55...

Noel, James Michael

1994-01-01

181

Modeling the sequence-dependent diffusion coefficients of short DNA molecules

Modeling the sequence-dependent diffusion coefficients of short DNA molecules O. Gonzalez1,a and J of sequence-dependent hydrodynamic properties of short DNA molecules is introduced. The hydrated surface for families of random and periodic DNA sequences are computed and compared with theories for straight tubes

Gonzalez, Oscar

182

The preference of even approximations of the surface pseudo source method for calculation of the diffusion coefficient is substantiated. The homogenization limit for the G{sub 0} approximation in the case of the cell size tending to zero is analytically proved.

Kovalishin, A. A., E-mail: kaa@adis.vver.kiae.ru; Laletin, N. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15

183

Behaviour of the self-diffusion coefficient of Kr at low densities

We report high precision measurements of the self-diffusion coefficient of Kr performed along the isotherm T = 293 K, in the density range 0.03-0.12 g\\/cm3. The first correction term of the expansion of varrhoD in powers of density is obtained and compared with the result for a hard-sphere fluid.

P. Codastefano; M. A. Ricci; V. Zanza

1978-01-01

184

Although detailed thermodynamic analyses of the 2-pK diffuse layer surface complexation model generally specify bound site activity coefficients for the purpose of accounting for those non-ideal excess free energies contributing to bound site electrochemical potentials, in applic...

185

An analytic approximation to the Diffusion Coefficient for the periodic Lorentz Gas

An approximate stochastic model for the topological dynamics of the periodic triangular Lorentz gas is constructed. The model, together with an extremum principle, is used to find a closed form approximation to the diffusion coefficient as a function of the lattice spacing. This approximation is superior to the popular Machta and Zwanzig result and agrees well with a range of numerical estimates.

C. Angstmann; G. P. Morriss

2012-02-14

186

Solar wind bulk velocity fluctuations acting as velocity space diffusion on comoving ions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From most in-situ plasma observations made in the outer heliosphere it became evident that above the injection border of pick-up ions (?1 keV), an extended suprathermal ion tail is found which in most cases can be fitted by a power law with velocity power indices of (-6) ? ?v ? (-4). As has been shown by theory such energetic ion tails cannot be explained by Fermi-2 type velocity diffusion, since in the outer heliosphere both Alfvenic and magnetoacoustic turbulences become too weak. Here we come to a new solution of this unsolved problem by studying the action of solar wind bulk velocity fluctuations on ions co-moving with the wind. As we show the passage of such fluctuations results in energization of each individual ion and systematic evolution of the ion distribution function towards suprathermal tails. From the basic knowledge that we can obtain on this process we can calculate the velocity divergence of the ion phasespace flow and thus can derive a velocity diffusion operator. As we can show here this operator leads to a velocity diffusion coefficient proportional to the square of the ion velocity and, when employed in the phasespace transport equation, together with terms for convective changes, cooling processes and pick-up ion injection, interestingly enough, permits to find solutions for suprathermal power law tails with power indices of ?v ? -5 as very often observed.

Fahr, H.-J.; Chashei, I. V.; Siewert, M.

2012-01-01

187

In this paper, a new development of the classic Onsager phenomenological formalism is derived using relations based on linear response theory. The development concerns the correct description of the fluxes of the atomic isotopes. The resulting expressions in the laboratory frame are surprisingly simple and consist of terms coming from the standard interdiffusion expressions and from Fick s first law where the tracer diffusion coefficient is involved thus providing a better understanding of the relationship between the two approaches - Fick s first law and the Onsager phenomenological formalism. From an experimental application perspective, the new development is applied to the binary alloy case. The formalism provides the means to obtain the interdiffusion coefficient and tracer diffusion coefficients simultaneously from analysis of the interdiffusion concentration profiles in a single experiment.

Belova, Irina [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia; Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Sohn, Yong Ho [University of Central Florida; Murch, Prof. Graeme [University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia

2013-01-01

188

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of gas molecules to the surface is the first step for all gas-surface reactions. Gas phase diffusion can influence and sometimes even limit the overall rates of these reactions; however, there is no database of the gas phase diffusion coefficients of atmospheric reactive trace gases. Here we compile and evaluate, for the first time, the diffusivities (pressure-independent diffusion coefficients) of atmospheric inorganic reactive trace gases reported in the literature. The measured diffusivities are then compared with estimated values using a semi-empirical method developed by Fuller et al. (1966). The diffusivities estimated using Fuller's method are typically found to be in good agreement with the measured values within ±30%, and therefore Fuller's method can be used to estimate the diffusivities of trace gases for which experimental data are not available. The two experimental methods used in the atmospheric chemistry community to measure the gas phase diffusion coefficients are also discussed.

Tang, M. J.; Cox, R. A.; Kalberer, M.

2014-06-01

189

Effect of computed horizontal diffusion coefficients on two-dimensional N2O model distributions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of horizontal diffusion coefficients K(yy) and K(yz), computed directly from the residual circulation, on the N2O distribution in a photochemical model were investigated, using a modified version of the two-dimensional model of Guthrie et al. (1984). The residual circulation was computed using the NMC's temperature data and the heating rates reported by Rosenfield et al. (1987). As compared with the effect of the residual circulation alone, the use of horizontal diffusion coefficients produced substantial changes in the N2O distribution and increased the N2O's lifetime values by a few percent. It is suggested that trace gases, such as CH4, CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CH3Cl, and CCl4, which impact the NO(x), HO(x), and Cl(x) radical distributions and therefore ozone, will be influenced in a similar manner by the addition of more realistic diffusion fields.

Jackman, Charles H.; Guthrie, Paul D.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Newman, Paul A.

1988-01-01

190

The development of (31)P DOSY NMR with diffusion coefficient-formula weight (D-FW) analysis is reported. Commercially available trialkyl phosphine internal references were used in a model system to establish the molecular weight of a phosphorous containing organolithium compound. The feasibility of (31)P DOSY D-FW studies is established. This extension of DOSY D-FW analysis expands its applicability to solution structure studies of a wide variety of compounds. PMID:19788266

Kagan, Gerald; Li, Weibin; Hopson, Russell; Williard, Paul G

2009-11-01

191

Estimating diffusion coefficients in low-permeability porous media using a macropore column

Diffusion coefficients in an aquitard material were measured by conducting miscible solute transport experiments through a specially constructed macropore column. Stainless steel HPLC columns were prepared in a manner that created an annular region of repacked aquitard material and a central core of medium-grained quartz sand. The column transport approach minimizes volatilization and sorption losses that can be problematic when measuring hydrophobic organic chemical diffusion with diffusion-cell methods or column-sectioning techniques. In the transport experiments, solutes (triated water, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethene) were transported through the central core by convection and hydrodynamic dispersion and through the low-permeability annulus by radial diffusion. All transport parameters were independently measured except for the effective diffusion coefficient in the aquitard material, which was obtained by model fitting. Batch-determined retardation factors agreed very closely with moment-derived retardation factors determined from the column experiments, and no evidence of pore exclusion was found. A model with retarded diffusion was found to apply, and the effective tortuosity factor of the aquitard material was estimated at an average value of 5.1.

Young, D.F.; Ball, W.P. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Geography and Environmental Engineering] [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Geography and Environmental Engineering

1998-09-01

192

Substrate concentration influences effective radial diffusion coefficient in canine cortical bone.

Transport of nutrients and waste across osseous tissue is dependent on the dynamic micro and macrostructure of the tissue; however little quantitative data exists examining how this transport occurs across the entire tissue. Here we investigate in vitro radial diffusion across a section of canine tissue, at dimensions of several hundred microns to millimeters, specifically between several osteons connected through a porous microstructure of Volkmann's canals and canaliculi. The effective diffusion coefficient is measured by a "sample immersion" technique presented here, in which the tissue sample was immersed in solution for 18-30 h, image analysis software was used to quantify the solute concentration profile in the tissue, and the data were fit to a mathematical model of diffusion in the tissue. Measurements of the effective diffusivity of sodium fluorescein using this technique were confirmed using a standard two-chamber diffusion system. As the solute concentration increased, the effective diffusivity decreased, ranging from 1.6 × 10(-7) ± 3.2 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s at 0.3 ?M to 1.4 × 10(-8) ± 1.9 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s at 300 ?M. The results show that there is no significant difference in mean diffusivity obtained using the two measurement techniques on the same sample, 3.3 × 10(-8) ± 3.3 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s (sample immersion), compared to 4.4 × 10(-8) ± 1.1 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s (diffusion chamber). PMID:25234132

Farrell, Kurt; O'Conor, Daniel; Gonzalez, Mariela; Androjna, Caroline; Midura, Ronald J; Tewari, Surendra N; Belovich, Joanne

2014-12-01

193

Pitch-angle diffusion coefficients have been calculated for resonant interaction with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves using quasilinear diffusion theory. Unlike previous calculations, the parallel group velocity has been included in this study. Further, ECH wave intensity is expressed as a function of wave frequency and wave normal angle with respect to ambient magnetic field. It is found that observed wave electric field amplitudes in Earth's magnetosphere are sufficient to set electrons on strong diffusion in the energy ranges of a few hundred eV. However, the required amplitudes are larger than the observed values for keV electrons and higher by about a factor of 3 compared to past calculations. Required electric field amplitudes are smaller at larger radial distances. It is concluded that ECH waves are responsible for diffuse auroral precipitation of electrons with energies less than about 500 eV.

Tripathi, A. K.; Singhal, R. P. [Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi U.P. 221005 (India)

2009-11-15

194

The diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in some gamma based titanium aluminide alloys was determined at room temperature using an electrochemical techniques. A cast Ti-48Al-2Cr alloy as well as Ti-46.5Al-4(Cr,Nb,Ta,B) sheet material with primary annealed and designed fully lamellar microstructures were subjected to cathodic hydrogen charging at room temperature in the galvanostatic mode. The potential variation with time was monitored form which data the values of the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen, D were calculated form well known error function/infinite series solutions to Fick's second law. Very good correlation was obtained with respect to theoretical calculations. The diffusion coefficients appear to be in close agreement with those for the cast alloy calculated from microhardness measurements. The value of D can be overestimated for thick specimens. Results show that neither the microstructure in terms of grain/lamellar colony size, nor the charging current density, appear to have a significant effect on the value of D. Lattice diffusion appears to be rate controlling.

Sundaram, P.A.; Wessel, E.; Clemens, H.; Kestler, H.; Ennis, P.J.; Quadakkers, W.J.; Singheiser, L.

2000-03-14

195

Measurement and correlation of diffusion coefficients for CO/sub 2/ and rich-gas applications

A novel in-situ method for measuring molecular diffusion coefficients of CO/sub 2/ and other solvent gases in consolidated porous media at high pressure has been developed and is described. This technique is unique because visual observations and measurements of composition are not required. Experimental diffusion coefficients are reported for CO/sub 2/ in decane up to 850 psia (5.86 MPa), for CO/sub 2/ in 0.25 N NaCl brine up to 850 psia (5.86 MPa), and for ethane in decane up to 600 psia (4.14 MPa). All tests were conducted in Berea cores saturated with liquid phase at 100/sup 0/F (311 K). Cores were oriented both vertically and horizontally to assess the effects of gravity-induced convection on the observed mass transfer. The experimental diffusion coefficients obtained from this study have also been correlated, together with literature data for methane, ethane, and propane, as a function of liquid viscosity and thermophysical properties of the diffusing gases.

Renner, T.A.

1988-05-01

196

Field Cycling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FC NMR) relaxation studies are reported for three ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMIM-SCN, 220–258 K), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF{sub 4}, 243–318 K), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF{sub 6}, 258–323 K). The dispersion of {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate R{sub 1}(?) is measured in the frequency range of 10 kHz–20 MHz, and the studies are complemented by {sup 19}F spin-lattice relaxation measurements on BMIM-PF{sub 6} in the corresponding frequency range. From the {sup 1}H relaxation results self-diffusion coefficients for the cation in EMIM-SCN, BMIM-BF{sub 4}, and BMIM-PF{sub 6} are determined. This is done by performing an analysis considering all relevant intra- and intermolecular relaxation contributions to the {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation as well as by benefiting from the universal low-frequency dispersion law characteristic of Fickian diffusion which yields, at low frequencies, a linear dependence of R{sub 1} on square root of frequency. From the {sup 19}F relaxation both anion and cation diffusion coefficients are determined for BMIM-PF{sub 6}. The diffusion coefficients obtained from FC NMR relaxometry are in good agreement with results reported from pulsed- field-gradient NMR. This shows that NMR relaxometry can be considered as an alternative route of determining diffusion coefficients of both cations and anions in ionic liquids.

Kruk, D. [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, S?oneczna 54, PL-10710 Olsztyn (Poland); Universität Bayreuth, Experimentalphysik II, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Meier, R.; Rössler, E. A. [Universität Bayreuth, Experimentalphysik II, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Rachocki, A. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Pozna? (Poland); Korpa?a, A. [Department of Biophysics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, ?azarza 16, 31-530 Kraków, Poland and Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Singh, R. K. [Ionic Liquid and Solid State Ionics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)

2014-06-28

197

Determination of aqueous phase diffusion coefficients of solutes through porous media is essential for understanding and modeling contaminant transport. Prediction of diffusion coefficients in both saturated and unsaturated zones requires knowledge of tortuosity and constrictivity factors. No methods are available for the direct measurement of these factors, which are empirical in their definition. In this paper, a new definition for the tortuosity factor is proposed, as the real to ideal interfacial area ratio. We define the tortuosity factor for saturated porous media (tau5) as the ratio S/S(o) (specific surface of real porous medium to that of an idealized capillary bundle). For unsaturated media, tortuosity factor (tau(a)) is defined as a(aw)/a(aw),o (ratio of the specific air-water interfacial area of real and the corresponding idealized porous medium). This tortuosity factor is suitably measured using sorptive tracers (e.g., nitrogen adsorption method) for saturated media and interfacial tracers for unsaturated media. A model based on this new definition of tortuosity factors, termed the interfacial area ratio (IAR) model, is presented for the prediction of diffusion coefficients as a function of the degree of water saturation. Diffusion coefficients and diffusive resistances measured in a number of saturated and unsaturated granular porous media, for solutes in dilute aqueous solutions, agree well with the predictions of the IAR model. A comparison of permeability of saturated sands estimated based on tau(s) and the same based on the Kozeny-Carman equation confirm the usefulness of the tau(s) parameter as a measure of tortuosity. PMID:12113352

Saripall, K Prasad; Serne, R Jeffery; Meyer, Philip D; McGrail, B Peter

2002-01-01

198

Effective conductivity, dielectric constant, and diffusion coefficient of digitized composite media, dielectric constant and diffusion coefficient of digitized composite media. This is accomplished by first then develop the appropriate first-passage-time equations for digitized media: first-passage squares in two

Torquato, Salvatore

199

Search for a logarithmic term in the density expansion of the diffusion coefficient of Kr in Xe

Measurements of the diffusion coefficient of Kr in Xe at T = 298 K and in the density range 0-200 amagat are reported. The data are analyzed in order to investigate whether a logarithmic divergence appears in the density expansion of the diffusion coefficient. This analysis shows that a power series expansion is more consistent with our data though the

P. Codastefano; D. Rocca; V. Zanza

1979-01-01

200

ELECTRON-ION RECOMBINATION RATE COEFFICIENTS AND PHOTOIONIZATION CROSS SECTIONS FOR ASTROPHYSICALLY September 15 ABSTRACT Ar xiii is found to be unique with new features in electron-ion recombination not seen-ion recombination. Unified method subsumes both the radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination (DR

Nahar, Sultana Nurun

201

Short-circuiting of the electrodes and failure of the cells may occur during charging of storage batteries. This undesirable effect is caused by growth of filamentary dendrites within the separator channels and not by mechanical puncture. Dendrite growth is proportional to the solubility and rate of ion diffusion within the separators. The purpose of the present work was to study these

O. Yu. Vybornov; N. N. Snegirev; I. V. Statsenko; N. G. Dovbysh

1986-01-01

202

3D DOSY-TROSY to determine the translational diffusion coefficient of large protein complexes.

The translational diffusion coefficient is a sensitive parameter to probe conformational changes in proteins and protein-protein interactions. Pulsed-field gradient NMR spectroscopy allows one to measure the translational diffusion with high accuracy. Two-dimensional (2D) heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy combined with diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) provides improved resolution and therefore selectivity when compared with a conventional 1D readout. Here, we show that a combination of selective isotope labelling, 2D ¹H-¹³C methyl-TROSY (transverse relaxation-optimised spectroscopy) and DOSY allows one to study diffusion properties of large protein complexes. We propose that a 3D DOSY-heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) pulse sequence, that uses the TROSY effect of the HMQC sequence for ¹³C methyl-labelled proteins, is highly suitable for measuring the diffusion coefficient of large proteins. We used the 20 kDa co-chaperone p23 as model system to test this 3D DOSY-TROSY technique under various conditions. We determined the diffusion coefficient of p23 in viscous solutions, mimicking large complexes of up to 200 kDa. We found the experimental data to be in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. To demonstrate the use for complex formation, we applied this technique to record the formation of a complex of p23 with the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which is around 200 kDa. We anticipate that 3D DOSY-TROSY will be a useful tool to study conformational changes in large protein complexes. PMID:21062757

Didenko, Tatiana; Boelens, Rolf; Rüdiger, Stefan G D

2011-01-01

203

This letter proposes an experimental method to estimate the absorption coefficient of sound absorbing materials under a synthesized diffuse acoustic field in free-field conditions. Comparisons are made between experiments conducted with this approach, the standard reverberant room method, and numerical simulations using the transfer matrix method. With a simple experimental setup and smaller samples than those required by standards, the results obtained with the proposed approach do not exhibit non-physical trends of the reverberant room method and provide absorption coefficients in good agreement with those obtained by simulations for a laterally infinite material. PMID:24993232

Robin, Olivier; Berry, Alain; Doutres, Olivier; Atalla, Noureddine

2014-07-01

204

Microwave power absorption coefficient of an ECR xenon ion thruster

A 20-cm diameter xenon ion thruster with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge generates 30 mN of thrust at a total electric power consumption of 1 kW for spacecraft propulsion by ejecting 1.1 keV ion beam. By optimizing the discharge chamber length, magnetic field and propellant flow injection, ion beam currents of 500 mA at a microwave power of 100 W had been obtained at a

Kazutaka Nishiyama; Hitoshi Kuninaka

2008-01-01

205

Thermal Expansion and Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Brenner potential for intra-nanotube interactions and van der Waals forces for polymer-nanotube interface have been used to investigate thermal expansion and diffusion characteristics of carbon nanotube-polyethylene composites. Addition of carbon nanotubes to polymer matrix is found to significantly increase the glass transition temperature Tg, and thermal expansion and diffusion coefficients in the composite above Tg. The increase has been attributed to the temperature dependent increase of the excluded volume for the polymer chains, and the findings could have implications in the composite processing, coating and painting applications.

Wei, Chengyu; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

206

Helium3 MRI diffusion coefficient: correlation to morphometry in a model of mild emphysema

ABSTRACT: Hyperpolarised,gases,have,been,most,recently,used,in magnetic resonance,imaging,to demonstrate,new,image-derived,pulmonary,function,para- meters. One of these parameters is the apparent diffusion coefficient, which reflects the sizes of the structures that compartmentalise,gas within the lung (i.e. alveolar space). In the present study, noninvasive parameters were compared to microscopic measurements,(mean linear intercept and mean,alveolar internal area). Nonselective helium-3 gas density coronal ex vivo images,and apparent,diffusion maps,were acquired in control

G. Peces-Barba; J. Ruiz-Cabello; Y. Cremillieux; I. Rodriguez; D. Dupuich; V. Callot; M. Ortega; M. L. Rubio Arbo; M. Cortijo; N. Gonzalez-Mangado

2003-01-01

207

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex variable reproducing kernel particle method (CVRKPM) of solving two-dimensional variable coefficient advection—diffusion problems is presented in this paper. The advantage of the CVRKPM is that the shape function of a two-dimensional problem is formed with a one-dimensional basis function. The Galerkin weak form is employed to obtain the discretized system equation, and the penalty method is used to apply the essential boundary conditions. Then the corresponding formulae of the CVRKPM for two-dimensional variable coefficient advection—diffusion problems are obtained. Two numerical examples are given to show that the method in this paper has greater accuracy and computational efficiency than the conventional meshless method such as reproducing the kernel particle method (RKPM) and the elementfree Galerkin (EFG) method.

Weng, Yun-Jie; Cheng, Yu-Min

2013-09-01

208

Oxygen diffusion coefficient and solubility in a new proton exchange membrane

The electrochemical monitoring technique is used to measure the solubility and the diffusion coefficient of oxygen in a new proton exchange membrane that is being developed by Cape Cod Research, Inc., Using the method of least squares, the data were fit to an analytical solution of Fick's second law to determine D and c{sub 0}. Values of 0.40 x 10{sup {minus}6}cm{sup 2}/s and 4.98 x 10{sup {minus}6} mol/cm{sup 3} were obtained for the diffusion coefficient and solubility, respectively, of the Cape Cod membrane. These values are significantly less than those of Nafion 117 tested under identical conditions.

Haug, A.T.; White, R.E.

2000-03-01

209

Thermal diffusivity coefficient of glycerin determined on an acoustically levitated drop.

We present a technique that can be used to determine the thermal diffusivity coefficient of undercooled liquids that exist at temperatures below their freezing points. The technique involves levitation of a small amount of liquid in the shape of a flattened drop using an acoustic levitator and heating it with a CO2 laser. The heated drop is then allowed to cool naturally by heat loss from the surface. Due to acoustic streaming, heat loss is highly non-uniform and appears to mainly occur at the drop circumference (equatorial region). This fact allows us to relate the heat loss rate with a heat transfer model to determine the thermal diffusion coefficient. We demonstrate the feasibility of the technique using glycerin drops as a model liquid. PMID:12446319

Ohsaka, K; Rednikov, A; Sadhal, S S

2002-10-01

210

A Monte Carlo model for determination of binary diffusion coefficients in gases

A Monte Carlo method has been developed for the calculation of binary diffusion coefficients in gas mixtures. The method is based on the stochastic solution of the linear Boltzmann equation obtained for the transport of one component in a thermal bath of the second one. Anisotropic scattering is included by calculating the classical deflection angle in binary collisions under isotropic potential. Model results are compared to accurate solutions of the Chapman-Enskog equation in the first and higher orders. We have selected two different cases, H{sub 2} in H{sub 2} and O in O{sub 2}, assuming rigid spheres or using a model phenomenological potential. Diffusion coefficients, calculated in the proposed approach, are found in close agreement with Chapman-Enskog results in all the cases considered, the deviations being reduced using higher order approximations.

Panarese, A. [Department Physics, University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Bruno, D.; Colonna, G. [CNR IMIP Bari (Italy); Diomede, P. [Department Chemistry, University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Laricchiuta, A. [CNR IMIP Bari (Italy); Longo, S., E-mail: savino.longo@ba.imip.cnr.i [Department Chemistry, University of Bari, Bari (Italy); CNR IMIP Bari (Italy); Capitelli, M. [Department Chemistry, University of Bari, Bari (Italy); CNR IMIP Bari (Italy)

2011-06-20

211

We report on the measurement of diffusion (D), thermodiffusion (D(T)), and Soret (S(T)) coefficients in water-isopropanol mixtures by three different instrumental techniques: thermogravitational column in combination with sliding symmetric tubes, optical beam deflection, and optical digital interferometry. All the coefficients have been measured over the full concentration range. Results from different instruments are in excellent agreement over a broad overlapping composition (water mass fraction) range 0.2 < c < 0.7, providing new reliable benchmark data. Comparison with microgravity measurements (SODI/IVIDIL (Selected Optical Diagnostic Instrument/Influence of VIbration on DIffusion in Liquids)) onboard the International Space Station and with literature data (where available) generally gives a good agreement. Contrary to theoretical predictions and previous experimental expectations we have not observed a second sign change of S(T) at low water concentrations. PMID:22755592

Mialdun, A; Yasnou, V; Shevtsova, V; Königer, A; Köhler, W; Alonso de Mezquia, D; Bou-Ali, M M

2012-06-28

212

Isospin Diffusion Observables in heavy ion reactions

Collisions of 112Sn and 124Sn nuclei, which differ in their isospin asymmetry, provide information about the rate of isospin diffusion and equilibration. While several different probes can provide accurate diffusion measurements, the ratios of the mirror nuclei may be the simplest and most promising one. Ratios of the mass seven mirror nuclei yields are analyzed to show the rapidity, transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of isospin diffusion.

T. X. Liu; W. G. Lynch; M. B. Tsang; X. D. Liu; R. Shomin; W. P. Tan; G. Verde; A. Wagner; H. F. Xi; H. S. Xu; B. Davin; Y. Larochelle; R. T. de Souza; R. J. Charity; L. G. Sobotka

2006-10-06

213

The radial diffusivity of fast ions was evaluated from vertical neutral particle measurements in experiments where a short pulse of neutral deuterium beams was injected into a TFTR ohmic deuterium plasma. A comparison between the temporal evolution of the measured neutral particle flux and theoretical calculations showed that the spatially-averaged diffusion coefficient of fast ions is {le} 0.1 m{sup 2}/sec. This value is approximately an order of magnitude less than the diffusion coefficient for thermal ions and is consistent with results obtained previously on TFTR from other diagnostics.

Kusama, Y. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Heidbrink, W.W. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States)); Barnes, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Beer, M.; Hammett, G.W.; McCune, D.C.; Medley, S.S.; Scott, S.D.; Zarnstorff, M.C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.)

1992-01-01

214

We present here the results of our study comparing the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients Kd(?) measured in the Arabian Sea with those derived from the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) using three algorithms, of which two are empirical-data-driven and one is semi-analytical. The measurements were carried out in all water types and the mean values of the measured spectral Kd(?)

Suresh Thayapurath; Madhubala Talaulikar; Elgar Desa; S. G. P. Matondkar; Antonio Mascarenhas

2011-01-01

215

THE PARALLEL DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT AND ADIABATIC FOCUSING OF COSMIC-RAY PARTICLES

In this paper, the problem of focused particle transport is revisited. A description in terms of a system of stochastic differential equations, completely equivalent to the Fokker-Planck equation, is suggested. The coefficient for spatial diffusion parallel to the mean magnetic field is calculated. The case of isotropic pitch angle scattering and weak focusing is analyzed in detail. The disagreement between a recent analysis by Shalchi and other treatments of the same problem is discussed.

Litvinenko, Yuri E. [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, P.B. 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

2012-01-20

216

Coefficients of Diffusion of Certain Alkali Salt Vapors in the Bunsen Flame

The method used is a modification of one suggested by H. A. Wilson. The ellipsoidal streak of luminous vapor from a salt bead held in the flame, was photographed; then the coefficient of diffusion K was obtained from the equation Ke12rv(dxdr-1), where r is the radial distance from the bead to a point on the boundary of the streak, x

George E. Davis

1924-01-01

217

The ionic liquid l-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate is used as electrolyte in the electrochemical determination of the diffusion coefficient of ferrocene as a function of concentration by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. An improved synthesis of the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate is described, which yields a product of high purity suitable for electrochemical purposes. A qualitative color test is discussed which

Sandra Eisele; Markus Schwarz; Bernd Speiser; Carsten Tittel

2006-01-01

218

Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods

The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength ? from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?). There are two standard methods for the derivation of $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive $\\\\bar{K}_{d}$(?) from

Zhong-Ping Lee; Miroslaw Darecki; Kendall L. Carder; Curtiss O. Davis; Dariusz Stramski; W. Joseph Rhea

2005-01-01

219

A class of variable coefficient (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear reaction–diffusion equations of the general form f(x)ut=(g(x)unux)x+h(x)um is investigated. Different kinds of equivalence groups are constructed including ones with transformations which are nonlocal with respect to arbitrary elements. For the class under consideration the complete group classification is performed with respect to convenient equivalence groups (generalized extended and conditional ones) and with respect

O. O. Vaneeva; A. G. Johnpillai; R. O. Popovych; C. Sophocleous

2007-01-01

220

Influence of ion induced amorphicity on the diffusion of gold into silicon

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is experimentally demonstrated that, after ion irradiating 60nm thick Au films on Si substrates with 230keV Ar+ ions, annealing conditions can be found leading to strong diffusional contrasts between bombarded and unbombarded areas. While Au readily diffuses into the bombarded part of the sample at 310°C, its diffusion is still completely blocked under identical conditions in the unbombarded parts. Clear evidence is provided that this diffusional contrast is due to bombardment induced amorphization of the underlying Si substrate. The amorphous Silicon (a-Si), however, has to extend right to the Au /Si interface, since any intermediate crystalline layer will suppress the diffusional contrast. An example for this latter situation is realized by performing the ion bombardment prior to the evaporation of the top Au layer leading to a still crystalline Si surface layer, which is found to act as a barrier against Au diffusion at 310°C. In accordance with the idea that a-Si, independent of its specific preparation, causes the observed Au diffusion enhancement, the effect is also found for a-Si prepared by evaporation at ambient temperature. In that case an even higher Au diffusion coefficient is obtained than for Si amorphized by ion bombardment pointing to subtle structural differences between both types of amorphous Si.

Ehrhardt, J.; Klimmer, A.; Eisenmenger, J.; Müller, Th.; Boyen, H.-G.; Ziemann, P.; Biskupek, J.; Kaiser, U.

2006-09-01

221

An individualised laser skin treatment may enhance the treatment and reduces risks and side-effects. The optical properties (absorption and scattering coefficients) are important parameters in the propagation of laser light in skin tissue. The differences in the melanin content of different skin phototypes influence the absorption of the light. The absorption coefficient at the treatment wavelength for an individual can be determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, using a probe containing seven fibres. Six of the fibres deliver the light to the measurement site and the central fibre collects the diffused reflected light. This is an in vivo technique, offering benefits for near-real-time results. Such a probe, with an effective wavelength band from 450 to 800 nm, was used to calibrate skin-simulating phantoms consisting of intralipid and ink. The calibration constants were used to calculate the absorption coefficients from the diffuse reflectance measurements of three volunteers (skin phototypes, II, IV and V) for sun-exposed and non-exposed areas on the arm. PMID:22410734

Karsten, A E; Singh, A; Karsten, P A; Braun, M W H

2013-02-01

222

Diffusion coefficients in CO2/n-alkane binary liquid mixtures by molecular simulation.

The objective of this work was to determine Fick diffusion coefficients in CO2/n-alkane binary mixtures without experimental test. For doing so, Maxwell-Stefan (MS) diffusivity was calculated by molecular simulation. Simultaneously, a thermodynamic factor was estimated using the PC-SAFT (perturbed chain statistical associating fluid theory) equation of state (eos). The binary Fick diffusivities are calculated as the product of both quantities. The binary mixtures investigated contain CO2 and various n-alkanes (nC10, nC16, nC22, nC28, nC44), at their bubble pressure at varying temperatures between 298 and 373 K. The calculated values of Fick diffusivities were compared against the experimental ones for the systems where literature data exist. An average deviation of 26% was found for the CO2/n-decane and 15% for CO2/n-hexadecane mixtures. These results support that molecular simulation can be employed as a tool for the determination of Fick diffusivities in high pressure systems, like in oil reservoirs, without the need to construct a complicated and expensive experimental setup. This method only requires the phase behavior of the desired system, and it can be used for multicomponent mixtures. As an example, predictions of Fick diffusivities were done for CO2 binary mixtures with heavy n-alkanes (nC22, nC28, nC44). PMID:19367942

Zabala, Damelys; Nieto-Draghi, Carlos; de Hemptinne, Jean Charles; López de Ramos, Aura L

2008-12-25

223

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The difference between the inter-diffusion kinetics of K+-Na+ in the air and tin sides of an ion-exchanged float aluminosilicate glass was investigated as a function of the exchange temperature and time. The potassium concentration profiles of the ion-exchanged glass surface were experimentally measured by electron microprobe analysis, and the diffusion coefficient was calculated by the Boltzmann-Montano approach. On the tin side of the ion-exchanged glass, the diffusion of K+-Na+ ions is hindered by tin. The diffusion coefficient is also more sensitive to temperature and time on the tin than on the air sides. The results would be useful in guiding the strengthening process of float glass by one step ion-exchange or two step ion-exchange to obtain engineered stress profile (ESP) glasses.

Jiang, Liangbao; Guo, Xintao; Li, Xiaoyu; Li, Lei; Zhang, Guanli; Yan, Yue

2013-01-01

224

Influence Of Scattering On The Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient In The Asymptotic Region

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a homogeneous ocean that both scatters and absorbs the radiance decreases with depth and the angular dependence of the radiance becomes independent of depth and of the incident distribution at the surface. In the diffusion region the asymptotic radiance distribution is only dependent on the inherent properties of the medium including the scattering phase function. Under these conditions an exact integral equation can be derived for the asymptotic radiance. A numerical calculation of the asymptotic radiance was made with Lobatto quadrature resulting in a precise estimate of the diffuse attenuation coefficient for selected values of the single scattering albedo. Calculations were made using estimated single scattering phase functions derived from scattering measurements made for a wide variety of marine and freshwater water types. A two parameter empirical expression was derived from these model calculations relating the diffuse attenuation coefficient and the single scattering albedo. Predictions are made over the entire range of single scattering albedos and are compared to those given by other investigators. The predictability of this relationship and the influence of the scattering phase function are evaluated for each of the scattering phase functions examined. Individual derived relationships are able to predict the diffusion exponent with RMS errors of less than one percent. The overall variation in determining the two parameters is approximately 3 and 18 percent using samples which varied optically from very clear waters of Sargasso Sea to the turbid waters of Lake Erie.

Tanis, Fred J.; Kattawar, George W.; Hickman, G. Daniel

1986-08-01

225

Mass dependence of the Soret coefficient for atomic diffusion in condensed matter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle diffusion in condensed matters driven by thermal gradient, the so-called Ludwig-Soret effect, has been investigated for about 160 years, but up to the present, seldom do theories on atomic level understand a series of puzzles in relevant experiments. In this work, we derived an expression of Soret coefficient for atomic diffusion in condensed matter from a single atom statistic model with relevant parameters expressed in terms of atomic mass and the potential profile felt by the guest atom without empirical parameters. The reality of the model was strictly tested by molecular dynamics simulations, especially the result for He atom diffusing on graphene sheet, which suggests the Soret effect may be used to separate 3He from 4He.

Yu, Wei-Feng; Lin, Zheng-Zhe; Ning, Xi-Jing

2013-06-01

226

Diffusion mechanism and the thermal stability of fluorine ions in GaN after ion implantation

The diffusion mechanisms of fluorine ions in GaN are investigated by means of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Instead of incorporating fluorine ions close to the sample surface by fluorine plasma treatment, fluorine ion implantation with an energy of 180 keV is utilized to implant fluorine ions deep into the GaN bulk, preventing the surface effects from affecting the data analysis. It is found that the diffusion of fluorine ions in GaN is a dynamic process featuring an initial out-diffusion followed by in- diffusion and the final stabilization. A vacancy-assisted diffusion model is proposed to account for the experimental observations, which is also consistent with results on molecular dynamic simulation. Fluorine ions tend to occupy Ga vacancies induced by ion implantation and diffuse to vacancy rich regions. The number of continuous vacancy chains can be significantly reduced by a dynamic thermal annealing process. As a result, strong local confinement and stabilization of fluorine ions can be obtained in GaN crystal, suggesting excellent thermal stability of fluorine ions for device applications.

Wang, M. J.; Yuan, L.; Chen, K. J. [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Xu, F. J.; Shen, B. [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2009-04-15

227

1. The validity of the macroscopic laws of ion diffusion was critically examined within the microenvironment of the extracellular space in the rat cerebellum using ion-selective micropipettes and ionophoretic point sources. 2. The concepts of volume averaging, volume fraction (alpha) and tortuosity (lambda) were defined and shown to be theoretically appropriate for quantifying diffusion in a complex medium such as the brain. 3. Diffusion studies were made with the cations tetramethylammonium and tetraethylammonium and the anions alpha-naphthalene sulphonate and hexafluoro-arsenate, all of which remained essentially extracellular during the measurements. Diffusion parameters were measured for a period of 50s and over distances of the order of 0.1 mm. 4. Measurements of the diffusion coefficients of the ions in agar gel gave values that were very close to those derivable from the literature, thus confirming the validity of the method. 5. Measurements in the cerebellum did not reveal any systematic influences of ionophoretic current strength, electrode separation, anisotropy, inhomogeneity, charge discrimination or uptake, within the limits tested. 6. The pooled data from measurements with all the ions gave alpha = 0.21 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- S.E. of mean) and lambda = 1.55 +/- 0.05 (mean +/- S.E. of mean). 7. These results show that the extracellular space occupies about 20% of the rat cerebellum and that the diffusion coefficient for small monovalent extracellular ions is reduced by a factor of 2.4 (i.e. lambda 2) without regard to charge sign. The over-all effect of this is to increase the apparent strength of any ionic source in the cerebellum by a factor of lambda 2/alpha, about 12-fold in the present case, and to modify the time course of diffusion. 8. These conclusions confirm that the laws of macroscopic diffusion are closely obeyed in the cerebellum for small ions in the extracellular space, provided that volume fraction and tortuosity are explicitly taken into account. It is likely that these conclusions are generally applicable to other brain regions and other diffusing substances. PMID:7338810

Nicholson, C; Phillips, J M

1981-01-01

228

Self-consistent pitch angle diffusion of newborn ions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self-consistent analysis of pitch angle diffusion of newborn ions by low-frequency hydromagnetic waves predominantly propagating in one direction has been carried out. It is found that in the wave frame defined in velocity space the time evolution of an ion distribution can be described as undergoing purely pitch angle diffusion. The role of the resonant versus nonresonant diffusion is discussed in detail, and it is shown that a time-asymptotic distribution of a particular form develops. It is analytically and numerically shown that the self-consistent diffusion process leads to a time-asymptotic partial shell distributions. The relevance of this finding to observations that the ion distributions in the far upstream of cometary bow shocks have a partial shell structure rather than a complete shell is pointed out.

Yoon, P. H.; Ziebell, L. F.; Wu, C. S.

1991-04-01

229

Simulations of Ion Acceleration at Non-relativistic Shocks. III. Particle Diffusion

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use large hybrid (kinetic-protons-fluid-electrons) simulations to investigate the transport of energetic particles in self-consistent electromagnetic configurations of collisionless shocks. In previous papers of this series, we showed that ion acceleration may be very efficient (up to 10%-20% in energy), and outlined how the streaming of energetic particles amplifies the upstream magnetic field. Here, we measure particle diffusion around shocks with different strengths, finding that the mean free path for pitch-angle scattering of energetic ions is comparable with their gyroradii calculated in the self-generated turbulence. For moderately strong shocks, magnetic field amplification proceeds in the quasi-linear regime, and particles diffuse according to the self-generated diffusion coefficient, i.e., the scattering rate depends only on the amount of energy in modes with wavelengths comparable with the particle gyroradius. For very strong shocks, instead, the magnetic field is amplified up to non-linear levels, with most of the energy in modes with wavelengths comparable to the gyroradii of highest-energy ions, and energetic particles experience Bohm-like diffusion in the amplified field. We also show how enhanced diffusion facilitates the return of energetic particles to the shock, thereby determining the maximum energy that can be achieved in a given time via diffusive shock acceleration. The parameterization of the diffusion coefficient that we derive can be used to introduce self-consistent microphysics into large-scale models of cosmic ray acceleration in astrophysical sources, such as supernova remnants and clusters of galaxies.

Caprioli, D.; Spitkovsky, A.

2014-10-01

230

Mechanisms of Stochastic Diffusion of Energetic Ions in Spherical Tori

Stochastic diffusion of the energetic ions in spherical tori is considered. The following issues are addressed: (I) Goldston-White-Boozer diffusion in a rippled field; (ii) cyclotron-resonance-induced diffusion caused by the ripple; (iii) effects of non-conservation of the magnetic moment in an axisymmetric field. It is found that the stochastic diffusion in spherical tori with a weak magnetic field has a number of peculiarities in comparison with conventional tokamaks; in particular, it is characterized by an increased role of mechanisms associated with non-conservation of the particle magnetic moment. It is concluded that in current experiments on National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) the stochastic diffusion does not have a considerable influence on the confinement of energetic ions.

Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; R.B. White; Yu.V. Yakovenko

2001-01-18

231

Ion beam microtexturing and enhanced surface diffusion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion beam interactions with solid surfaces are discussed with particular emphasis on microtexturing induced by the deliberate deposition of controllable amounts of an impurity material onto a solid surface while simultaneously sputtering the surface with an ion beam. Experimental study of the optical properties of microtextured surfaces is described. Measurements of both absorptance as a function of wavelength and emissivity are presented. A computer code is described that models the sputtering and ion reflection processes involved in microtexture formation.

Robinson, R. S.

1982-01-01

232

The transport of lithium ions in cation-exchange membranes based on sulfonated copolyimide membranes is reported. Diffusion coefficients of lithium are estimated as a function of the water content in membranes by using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR and electrical conductivity techniques. It is found that the lithium transport slightly decreases with the diminution of water for membranes with water content lying in the range 14 < ? < 26.5, where ? is the number of molecules of water per fixed sulfonate group. For ? < 14, the value of the diffusion coefficient of lithium experiences a sharp decay with the reduction of water in the membranes. The dependence of the diffusion of lithium on the humidity of the membranes calculated from conductivity data using Nernst-Planck type equations follows a trend similar to that observed by NMR. The possible explanation of the fact that the Haven ratio is higher than the unit is discussed. The diffusion of water estimated by (1)H PFG-NMR in membranes neutralized with lithium decreases as ? decreases, but the drop is sharper in the region where the decrease of the diffusion of protons of water also undergoes considerable reduction. The diffusion of lithium ions computed by full molecular dynamics is similar to that estimated by NMR. However, for membranes with medium and low concentration of water, steady state conditions are not reached in the computations and the diffusion coefficients obtained by MD simulation techniques are overestimated. The curves depicting the variation of the diffusion coefficient of water estimated by NMR and full dynamics follow parallel trends, though the values of the diffusion coefficient in the latter case are somewhat higher. The WAXS diffractograms of fully hydrated membranes exhibit the ionomer peak at q = 2.8 nm(-1), the peak being shifted to higher q as the water content of the membranes decreases. The diffractograms present additional peaks at higher q, common to wet and dry membranes, but the peaks are better resolved in the wet membranes. The ionomer peak is not detected in the diffractograms of dry membranes. PMID:22957828

Garrido, Leoncio; Pozuelo, Javier; López-González, Mar; Yan, Gengwei; Fang, Jianhua; Riande, Evaristo

2012-09-27

233

Stress enhanced diffusion of krypton ions in polycrystalline titanium

An experimental investigation on the mutual influence of pre-existing residual stress and point defect following ion implantation is presented. The study has been carried out using polycrystalline titanium samples energetically implanted with krypton ions at different fluences. Ion beam analysis was used to determine the concentration profile of the injected krypton ions, while synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used for stress determination. Ion beam analysis and synchrotron X-ray diffraction stress profile measurements of the implanted titanium samples show a clear evidence of stress-enhanced diffusion of krypton ions in titanium. It is further observed that for the titanium samples implanted at low fluence, ion implantation modifies the pre-existing residual stress through the introduction of point and open volume defects. The stress fields resulting from the ion implantation act to drift the krypton inclusions towards the surface of titanium.

Nsengiyumva, S., E-mail: s.nsengiyumva@ru.ac.za [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Raji, A. T. [School of Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Mucklenuek Campus, P O Box 392, UNISA 0003, Pretoria (South Africa); Rivière, J. P. [Laboratoire de Métallurgie Physique, UMR 6630 CNRS- Université de Poitiers, Bd M. et P. Curie, BP30179, 86962 Chasseneuil Futuroscope, Cedex (France); Britton, D. T.; Härting, M. [NanoSciences Innovation Center, Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

2014-07-14

234

The screening and stopping coefficients of slow light ions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theoretical approach to study the screening charge density ns(r) and the respective stopping coefficient Q for hydrogen and helium at the low velocity limit. An electron gas, with electronic density ne, is used to represent the conduction or valence electrons of the target material. Solving numerically the Schrödinger radial equation, for a given potential V (r), the phase shifts ?l and the corresponding stopping coefficient Q are calculated as a function of ne. The cusp condition and the Friedel sum rule are imposed on the charge density n(r) = ns(r)+ne at the origin and to the phase shifts, respectively. The results are compared with density functional calculations and with available experimental results.

Figueroa, E. A.; Arista, N. R.

2010-01-01

235

The screening and stopping coefficients of slow light ions.

We present a theoretical approach to study the screening charge density n(s)(r) and the respective stopping coefficient Q for hydrogen and helium at the low velocity limit. An electron gas, with electronic density n(e), is used to represent the conduction or valence electrons of the target material. Solving numerically the Schrödinger radial equation, for a given potential V (r), the phase shifts ?(l) and the corresponding stopping coefficient Q are calculated as a function of n(e). The cusp condition and the Friedel sum rule are imposed on the charge density n(r) = n(s)(r)+n(e) at the origin and to the phase shifts, respectively. The results are compared with density functional calculations and with available experimental results. PMID:21386231

Figueroa, E A; Arista, N R

2010-01-13

236

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs) lubricants on a hard disk surface is an important self healing characteristic to replenish PFPEs lubricants on their uncovered surface. In the present paper, we study the diffusion coefficients of non-functional PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol with functional end groups as a function of lubricant film thickness on a thin DLC (diamond-like) film. Diffusion coefficients of PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol molecules on a DLC film are calculated using the equation of Einstein's law of diffusion (Guo et al. J. Appl. Phys 93:8707, 2003; Guo Ph.D. thesis, 2006; Chung et al. IEEE Trans. Magn. 45:3644, 2009) considering the movement of their center of mass to reach their equilibrium positions from their original configurations. And it is averaged with the film thickness to show the thickness dependence on the diffusion of PFPEs lubricants on a DLC substrate. Firstly diffusion coefficients of sub-monolayer of partially coverage PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol on a DLC substrate are studied briefly and secondly the diffusion coefficient of monolayer PFPE Zdol on a DLC substrate is also studied elaborately. To support our results, we compare our thickness-dependent diffusion coefficients of PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol with those of published theoretical (Guo Ph.D. thesis, 2006; Chung et al. IEEE Trans. Magn. 45:3644, 2009) and experimental results (Chung et al. Tribol. Lett. 32:35, 2008; Ma et al. Tribol. Lett. 10:203, 2001). Here we study how lubricant film thickness plays an important role on its diffusion. Effects of polar end bead functionality, lubricant film thickness enhance the anisotropic behavior of diffusion coefficients of PFPE Zdol on the DLC substrate. But in the present analysis we consider hard disk carbon overcoat as a thin DLC film and we include all of their atoms within the force cut-off distance with PFPEs lubricant molecules for the interactions to study the thickness dependence on their diffusion coefficients.

Deb Nath, S. K.

2014-05-01

237

In vivo imaging studies in animal models are hindered by variables that contribute to poor image quality and measurement reliability. As such we sought to improve the diffusion coefficient (ADC) of an orthotopic mouse model of gastric cancer in diffusion-weighted images (DWI) using alginate moulding and Ultrasonic coupling medium. BGC-823 human gastric cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into the abdomen of nude mice and 1?mm3 primary tumour was orthotopically transplanted. Alginate and coupling medium were applied to the mice and MRI (T2 and DWI) was performed for 6 weeks. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn and liver and tumour ADC were evaluated. Using alginate moulding, the mean quality total score of DW imaging was 8.53; however, in control animals this value was 5.20 (p < 0.001). The coefficient of variation of ADC of liver in experimental and control groups were 0.071 and 0.270 (p < 0.001), respectively, suggesting this method may be helpful for DWI studies of important human diseases such as gastric cancer. PMID:25123166

Sun, Jia; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Li, Xiao-Ting; Tang, Lei; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Ying-Shi

2014-01-01

238

Observations of the vertical structure of the diffuse attenuation coefficient spectrum

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Profiles of the diffuse attenuation coefficient spectrum for downwelling spectral irradiance ( Kd( z, ?)) were determined using data taken during the autumn of 1982 in the eastern North Pacific Ocean as part of the Optical Dynamics Experiment (ODEX). The near-surface Kd(5 m, ?) was consistent with Jerlov water types IA or IB and did not show any significant variations with sun altitude angle or cloud amount, supporting the notion that Kd( z, ?) is a "quasi-inherent" optical property. Vertical profiles of Kd( z, ?) showed significant structures with amplitudes that decrease with increasing wavelength. The observed depth-wavelength distribution may be divided into a blue-green group (400-500 nm) with a vertical structure similar to the vertical distribution of chlorophyll pigments and a green-yellow group (500-575 nm) with little vertical variation. For wavelengths >575 nm, the values of Kd( z, ?) decreased with depth apparently because of limitations of the irradiance sensors. The mean vertical distribution of Kd( z, ?) for the blue-green group was well-correlated with the mean in situ fluorescence (correlation coefficient r ˜ 0.94-0.99) and with the mean total pigment concentration ( r ˜ 0.90-0.95). The correlation coefficients relating Kd( z, ?) with the phaeopigment concentration ( r ˜ 0.84-0.92) were higher than those relating the chlorophyll a concentration ( r ˜ 0.63-0.90), indicating the contributions of detrital materials. The mean beam attenuation coefficient at 660 nm was not significantly correlated with Kd( z, ?). The total pigment specific diffuse attenuation coefficient spectrum was similar to spectra determined from previous studies, with departures only in the blue region of the spectrum ( ? < 440 nm). The differences may be attributed to detrital effects.

Siegel, D. A.; Dickey, T. D.

1987-04-01

239

ELECTRON-ION RECOMBINATION RATE COEFFICIENTS AND PHOTOIONIZATION CROSS SECTIONS FOR ASTROPHYSICALLY-ion recombination of (h Ã¾ Ni xxvi $ Ni xxvii Ã¾ e) and (h Ã¾ Ni xxvii $ Ni xxviii Ã¾ e) are studied using the unified method for the total recombination. The method subsumes both the radiative and dielectronic recombination

Nahar, Sultana Nurun

240

ELECTRON-ION RECOMBINATION RATE COEFFICIENTS AND PHOTOIONIZATION CROSS SECTIONS FOR ASTROPHYSICALLY processes of photoionizationand electron-ion recombination of (h Ã¾ Ne viii $ Ne ix Ã¾ e) and (h Ã¾ Ne ix $ Ne expansion for both photoionization and recombination, and it includes both radiative and dielectronic

Nahar, Sultana Nurun

241

The diffusion equation model was used for room acoustic simulations to predict the sound pressure level and the reverberation time. The technical literature states that the diffusion equation method accurately models the late portion of the room impulse response if the energy is sufficiently scattered. This work provides conclusions on the validity of the diffusion equation model for rooms with homogeneous dimensions in relation to the scattering coefficients of the boundaries. A systematic evaluation was conducted out to determine the ranges of the absorption and scattering coefficient values that result in low noticeable differences between the predictions from a geometrical acoustic model and those from the diffusion equation model. PMID:23463993

Navarro, Juan M; Escolano, José; Cobos, Maximo; López, José J

2013-03-01

242

The measurement of self-diffusion coefficients in liquid metals with quasielastic neutron scattering

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasielastic incoherent neutron scattering (QENS) has proven to be a versatile tool to study self diffusion of atoms in liquid metals. Here it is shown, that coherent contributions to the signal in the small q limit appear as a flat and energy independent constant to the QENS signal in single-component liquid metals even for systems with a small incoherent scattering cross section, like aluminum. Container-less processing via electromagnetic or electrostatic levitation devices, especially designed for QENS, enables the in-situ measurement on liquid metallic droplets of sizes between 5 mm to 10 mm in diameter. This gives access to the study of chemically reactive, refractory metallic melts and extends the accessible temperature range to undercoolings of several hundred Kelvin below the respective melting point. Compared to experiments using a thin-walled crucible giving hollow-cylindrical sample geometry it is shown that multiple scattering on levitated droplets is negligible for the analysis of the self-diffusion coefficient. QENS results of liquid germanium and 73germanium isotope mixtures, titanium, nickel, copper and aluminum are reviewed. The self-diffusion coefficients of these systems are best described by an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence around their respective melting points.

Meyer, Andreas

2015-01-01

243

Measurement of Retinalamin diffusion coefficient in human sclera by optical spectroscopy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of cytomedines (such as Retinalamin) in clinical practice has shown high effectiveness of the medicaments in ophthalmology. The study of diffusion of Retinalamin in scleral tissue is important for estimation of a drug dose delivered into inner tissue of eye, time of drug action, etc. In vitro measurements of spectral reflectance of sclera interacting with aqueous solution of Retinalamin have been carried out. Ten human sclera samples were included in the study. The results of the experiments have shown that penetration of Retinalamin into scleral tissue leads to the decrease of scleral reflectance due to optical immersion. Estimation of diffusion coefficient of studied solution has been made on the basis of analysis of optical reflectance dynamics of the sclera samples. The diffusion coefficient of Retinalamin in human scleral tissue was evaluated as (1.82±0.14)×10 -6 cm 2/s. The results are important for treatment of partial optic atrophy observed at primary open-angle glaucoma and others eye diseases.

Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Zubkova, Elena A.; Kamenskikh, Tatiana G.; Tuchin, Valery V.

2008-12-01

244

Measuring diffusion coefficients via two-photon fluorescence recovery after photobleaching.

Multi-fluorescence recovery after photobleaching is a microscopy technique used to measure the diffusion coefficient (or analogous transport parameters) of macromolecules, and can be applied to both in vitro and in vivo biological systems. Multi-fluorescence recovery after photobleaching is performed by photobleaching a region of interest within a fluorescent sample using an intense laser flash, then attenuating the beam and monitoring the fluorescence as still-fluorescent molecules from outside the region of interest diffuse in to replace the photobleached molecules. We will begin our demonstration by aligning the laser beam through the Pockels Cell (laser modulator) and along the optical path through the laser scan box and objective lens to the sample. For simplicity, we will use a sample of aqueous fluorescent dye. We will then determine the proper experimental parameters for our sample including, monitor and bleaching powers, bleach duration, bin widths (for photon counting), and fluorescence recovery time. Next, we will describe the procedure for taking recovery curves, a process that can be largely automated via LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX) for enhanced throughput. Finally, the diffusion coefficient is determined by fitting the recovery data to the appropriate mathematical model using a least-squares fitting algorithm, readily programmable using software such as MATLAB (The Mathworks, Natick, MA). PMID:20190730

Sullivan, Kelley D; Brown, Edward B

2010-01-01

245

Geological examples of binary diffusion are numerous. They are potential indicators of the duration and rates of geological processes. Analytical solutions to the diffusion equations generally do not allow for variable diffusion coefficients, changing boundary conditions, and impingement of diffusion fields. The three programs presented here are based on Crank-Nicholson finite-difference approximations, which can take into account these complicating factors. Program 1 describes the diffusion of a component into an initially homogeneous phase that has a constant surface composition. Specifically it is written for Fe-Mg exchange in olivine at oxygen fugacities appropriate for the lunar crust, but other components, phases, or fugacities may be substituted by changing the values of the diffusion coefficient. Program 2 simulates the growth of exsolution lamellae. Program 3 describes the growth of reaction rims. These two programs are written for pseudobinary Ca-(Mg, Fe) exchange in pyroxenes. In all three programs, the diffusion coefficients and boundary conditions can be varied systematically with time. To enable users to employ widely different numerical values for diffusion coefficients and diffusion distance, the grid spacing in the space dimension and the increment by which the grid spacing in the time dimension is increased at each time step are input constants that can be varied each time the programs are run to yield a solution of the desired accuracy. ?? 1982.

Sanford, R.F.

1982-01-01

246

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of gas molecules to the surface is the first step for all gas-surface reactions. Gas phase diffusion can influence and sometimes even limit the overall rates of these reactions; however, there is no database of the gas phase diffusion coefficients of atmospheric reactive trace gases. Here we compile and evaluate, for the first time, the diffusivities (pressure-independent diffusion coefficients) of atmospheric inorganic reactive trace gases reported in the literature. The measured diffusivities are then compared with estimated values using a semi-empirical method developed by Fuller et al. (1966). The diffusivities estimated using Fuller's method are typically found to be in good agreement with the measured values within ±30%, and therefore Fuller's method can be used to estimate the diffusivities of trace gases for which experimental data are not available. The two experimental methods used in the atmospheric chemistry community to measure the gas phase diffusion coefficients are also discussed. A different version of this compilation/evaluation, which will be updated when new data become available, is uploaded online (diffusion"target="_blank">https://sites.google.com/site/mingjintang/home/diffusion).

Tang, M. J.; Cox, R. A.; Kalberer, M.

2014-09-01

247

In this study, the thermodiffusion, molecular diffusion, and Soret coefficients of 12 binary mixtures composed of toluene, n-hexane and n-dodecane in the whole range of concentrations at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 298.15 K and 308.15 K have been determined. The experimental measurements have been carried out using the Thermogravitational Column, the Sliding Symmetric Tubes and the Thermal Diffusion Forced Rayleigh Scattering techniques. The results obtained using the different techniques show a maximum deviation of 9% for the thermodiffusion coefficient, 8% for the molecular diffusion coefficient and 2% for the Soret coefficient. For the first time we report a decrease of the thermodiffusion coefficient with increasing ratio of the thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity for a binary mixture of an organic ring compound with a short n-alkane. This observation is discussed in terms of interactions between the different components. Additionally, the thermogravitational technique has been used to measure the thermodiffusion coefficients of four ternary mixtures consisting of toluene, n-hexane and n-dodecane at 298.15 K. In order to complete the study, the values obtained for the molecular diffusion coefficient in binary mixtures, and the thermodiffusion coefficient of binary and ternary mixtures have been compared with recently derived correlations. PMID:25376978

Alonso de Mezquia, David; Wang, Zilin; Lapeira, Estela; Klein, Michael; Wiegand, Simone; Mounir Bou-Ali, M

2014-11-01

248

The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

249

250

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have found that the diffusion coefficient of a polymer in a disordered array of obstacles is much lower when compared to polymers in an ordered array of obstacles. We present simulation results based on the Bond-Fluctuation Monte Carlo algorithm where we determine the layout of the obstacles using a local harmonic potential well. When the potential is very strong the obstacles take on a periodic structure and the resulting dynamics obey the scaling laws of reptation. As we reduce the strength of the potential the obstacles are able to move small distances and we see an increase in their diffusion coefficient. Eventually, as the strength of the potential goes to zero and the array becomes completely disordered, strong entropic traps form trapping the polymers for long periods of time which dramatically reduces the diffusion coefficient. The surprising increase of the diffusion coefficient for intermediate amounts of disorder appears to be related to reptation inside wider channels

Hickey, Owen; Slater, Gary

2007-03-01

251

Background Diffusion tensor cardiac magnetic resonance (DT-CMR) enables probing of the microarchitecture of the myocardium, but the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) reported in healthy volunteers have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to validate a stimulated-echo diffusion sequence using phantoms, and to assess the intercentre reproducibility of in-vivo diffusion measures using the sequence. Methods and results A stimulated-echo, cardiac-gated DT-CMR sequence with a reduced-field-of-view, single-shot EPI readout was used at two centres with 3 T MRI scanners. Four alkane phantoms with known diffusivities were scanned at a single centre using a stimulated echo sequence and a spin-echo Stejskal-Tanner diffusion sequence. The median (maximum, minimum) difference between the DT-CMR sequence and Stejskal-Tanner sequence was 0.01 (0.04, 0.0006) × 10-3 mm2/s (2%), and between the DT-CMR sequence and literature diffusivities was 0.02 (0.05, 0.006) × 10-3 mm2/s (4%). The same ten healthy volunteers were scanned using the DT-CMR sequence at the two centres less than seven days apart. Average ADC and FA were calculated in a single mid-ventricular, short axis slice. Intercentre differences were tested for statistical significance at the p??0.05), and only the diastolic ADC showed a statistically significant, but numerically small, difference of 0.07 × 10-3 mm2/s (p?=?0.047). The intercentre, intrasubject coefficients of variance were: systolic ADC 7%, FA 6%; diastolic ADC 7%, FA 3%. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the accuracy of a stimulated-echo DT-CMR sequence in phantoms, and demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining reproducible ADC and FA in healthy volunteers at separate centres with well-matched sequences and processing. PMID:24886285

2014-01-01

252

Calculating diffusion and permeability coefficients with the oscillating forward-reverse method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forward-reverse or FR method is an efficient bidirectional work method for determining the potential of mean force w(z) and also supposedly gives in principle the position-dependent diffusion coefficient D(z). Results from a variation called the OFR (oscillating FR) method suggest inconsistencies in the D(z) values when calculated as prescribed by the FR method. A new steering protocol has thus been developed and applied to the OFR method for the accurate determination of D(z) and also provides greater convergence for w(z) in molecular dynamics simulations. The bulk diffusion coefficient for water was found to be (6.03±0.16)×10-5 cm2/s at 350 K with system size dependence within the statistical error bars. Using this steering protocol, D(z) and w(z) for water permeating a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were determined. The potential of mean force is shown to have a barrier of peak height, wmax/(kBT)=8.4, with a width of about 10 Å on either side from the membrane center. The diffusion constant is shown to be highest in the core region of the membrane [peak value ˜(8.0±0.8)×10-5 cm2/s], lowest in the head-group region [minimum value ˜(2.0±0.3)×10-5 cm2/s], and to tend toward the bulk value as the water molecule leaves the membrane. The permeability coefficient P for H2O in DPPC was determined using the simulated D(z) and w(z) to give values of (0.129±0.075) cm/s at 323 K and (0.141±0.043) cm/s at 350 K. The results show more spatial detail than results presented in previous work while reducing the computational and user effort.

Holland, Bryan W.; Gray, Chris G.; Tomberli, Bruno

2012-09-01

253

Longitudinal diffusion of K+ ions in He, Ne, Ar, H2, NO, O2, CO2, N2, and CO

Longitudinal diffusion coefficients, measured with a drift tube mass spectrometer, are reported for potassium ions in helium, neon, hydrogen, nitric oxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide for E\\/N in the range 1?700 Td (E is the electric field strength, N the neutral gas number density, and 1 Td = 10?17 V?cm2). These results, together with those previously reported for potassium ions

D. R. James; E. Graham; G. R. Akridge; I. R. Gatland; E. W. McDaniel

1975-01-01

254

Evaluation of the diffusion coefficient of fluorine during the electropolishing of niobium

Future accelerators require unprecedented cavity performance, which is strongly influenced by interior surface nano-smoothness. Electropolishing (EP) is the technique of choice being developed for high–field SRF cavities. Previous study has shown that the mechanism of Nb electropolishing proceeds by formation and dissolution of a compact salt film under fluorine diffusion-limited mass transport control. We pursue an improved understanding of the microscopic conditions required for optimum surface finishing. The viscosity of the standard electrolyte has been measured using a commercial viscometer, and the diffusion coefficient of fluorine was derived at a variety of temperatures from 0ºC to 50ºC using an Nb rotating disk electrode. In addition, data indicate that electrode kinetics becomes competitive with the mass transfer current limitation and increases dramatically with temperature. These findings are expected to guide the optimization of EP process parameters for achieving controlled, reproducible and uniform nano-smooth surface finishing of SRF cavities.

Hui Tian, Charles E. Reece

2010-08-01

255

Evaluation of the diffusion coefficient of fluorine during the electropolishing of niobium

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future accelerators require unprecedented cavity performance, which is strongly influenced by interior surface nanosmoothness. Electropolishing (EP) is the technique of choice being developed for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Previous study has shown that the mechanism of Nb electropolishing proceeds by formation and dissolution of a compact salt film under fluorine diffusion-limited mass transport control. We pursue an improved understanding of the microscopic conditions required for optimum surface finishing. The viscosity of the standard electrolyte has been measured using a commercial viscometer, and the diffusion coefficient of fluorine was derived at a variety of temperatures from 0 to 50°C using a Nb rotating disk electrode. In addition, data indicate that electrode kinetics becomes competitive with the mass transfer current limitation and increases dramatically with temperature. These findings are expected to guide the optimization of EP process parameters for achieving controlled, reproducible, and uniform nanosmooth surface finishing of SRF cavities.

Tian, Hui; Reece, Charles E.

2010-08-01

256

Causal Baryon Diffusion and Colored Noise for Heavy Ion Collisions

We construct a model for baryon diffusion which has the desired properties of analyticity and causality. The model also has the desired property that the noise correlation function is not a Dirac delta function in space and time. The model depends on three time constants in addition to the diffusion constant. This description can be incorporated into 2nd order viscous hydrodynamical models of heavy ion collisions.

J. I. Kapusta; C. Young

2014-09-05

257

There are several empirical and semianalytical models for the satellite-based estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient for the downwelling spectral irradiance at the wavelength 490 nm, Kd(490), or the diffuse attenuation coefficient for the downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), Kd(PAR). An empirical algorithm has been used to routinely produce NASA standard Kd(490) product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS).

Menghua Wang; SeungHyun Son; Lawrence W. Harding Jr

2009-01-01

258

A spatially varying mean magnetic field gives rise to so-called adiabatic focusing of energetic particles propagating through the universe. In the past, different analytical approaches have been proposed to calculate the particle diffusion coefficient along the mean field with focusing. In the present paper, we show how these different results are related to each other. New results for the parallel diffusion coefficient that are more general than previous results are also presented.

Shalchi, A.; Danos, R. J., E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2013-03-10

259

Model cellular membranes enable the study of biological processes in a controlled environment and reduce the traditional challenges associated with live or fixed cell studies. However, model membrane systems based on the air/water or oil/solution interface do not allow for incorporation of transmembrane proteins, or for the study of protein transport mechanisms. Conversely, a phospholipid bilayer deposited via the Langmuir-Blodgett/Langmuir Schaefer method on a hydrogel layer is potentially an effective mimic of the cross-section of a biological membrane, and facilitates both protein incorporation and transport studies. Prior to application, however, such membranes must be fully characterized, particularly with respect to the phospholipid bilayer phase transition temperature. Here we present a detailed characterization of the phase transition temperature of the inner and outer leaflets of a chitosan supported model membrane system. Specifically, the lateral diffusion coefficient of each individual leaflet has been determined as a function of temperature. Measurements were performed utilizing z-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), a technique that yields calibration-free diffusion information. Analysis via the method of Wawrezinieck and coworkers, revealed that phospholipid diffusion changes from raft-like to free diffusion as the temperature is increased; an insight into the dynamic behavior of hydrogel supported membranes not previously reported. PMID:23705855

Sterling, Sarah M.; Allgeyer, Edward S.; Fick, Jörg; Prudovsky, Igor; Mason, Michael D.; Neivandt, David J.

2013-01-01

260

Ion self-diffusion coefficients have been measured for ionic liquids based on the cations N-acetoxyethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-ethylammonium ([N(112,2OCO1)](+)) and its non-functionalised analogue, N,N-dimethyl-N-ethyl-N-pentylammonium ([N1125](+)), and N,N-dimethyl-N-ethyl-N-methoxyethoxyethylammonium ([N(112,2O2O1)](+)), and its analogue, N,N-dimethyl-N-ethyl-N-heptylammonium ([N1127](+)) and the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide anion. The functionalised chain on an ammonium cation has the same length, in terms of the number of atoms, as the non-functionalised chain of the corresponding analogue. For [N(112,2OCO1)][Tf2N] and [N1127][Tf2N], the cation and anion self-diffusion coefficients are equal, within experimental error, whereas for [N1125][Tf2N], the cation diffuses more quickly, and for [N(112,2O2O1)][Tf2N], it is the anion that diffuses more quickly than the ether-functionalised cation. But these differences are relatively small, just beyond experimental error. The data are used to calculate velocity cross-correlation coefficients (VCC or f(ij)) and distinct diffusion coefficients (D(ij)(d)). Both the self-diffusion and distinct diffusion coefficients are analysed in terms of (fractional) Stokes-Einstein-Sutherland equations. Though the self-diffusion coefficients, as with the conductivity and viscosity, show marked differences in absolute terms between the functionalised and non-functionalised forms, being higher for the ethoxy-substituted IL and lower for the acetoxy-substituted IL, these are largely removed by scaling with the viscosity. Thus the transport properties are better understood as functions of the viscosity rather than the temperature and density, per se. The presence of the alkoxy-substituted side chains is known to change the local mesoscopic liquid structure, but it appears once this is done, the transport properties scale correspondingly. In the case of the acetoxy-substituted IL, this is also largely the case, but the Nernst-Einstein deviation parameter, ?, which depends on the difference between the anion-cation VCC and the mean of the cation-cation and anion-anion VCCs, is smaller than that of its analogue salt, and also temperature dependent. PMID:24709921

Harris, Kenneth R; Makino, Takashi; Kanakubo, Mitsuhiro

2014-05-21

261

Relativistic diffusion and heavy-ion collisions

We study first and second order theories of relativistic diffusion coupled to hydrodynamics under the approximation, valid at mid-rapidity in the RHIC and LHC, that conserved number densities are much smaller than the entropy density. We identify experimentally accessible quantities of interest, and show that the first and second order theories may lead to radically different evolutions of these quantities. In the first order theory the memory of the initial state is almost completely washed out, whereas in the second order theory it is possible that freezeout occurs at a time when transient dynamics is still on, and the memory of the initial state remains. There are observational consequences which we touch upon. In the first order theory, and for initial conditions when the second order theory mimics the first order, one may be able to put a bound on the diffusion constant.

Rajeev S. Bhalerao; Sourendu Gupta

2009-02-24

262

Colloids electrophoresis for strong and weak ion diffusivity

We study the electrophoretic flow of suspensions of charged colloids with a mesoscopic method that allows to model generic experimental conditions. We show that for highly charged colloids their electrophoretic mobility increases significantly and displays a mobility maximum on increasing the colloidal charge for all salt concentrations. The electrophoretic mobility of highly charged colloids is also enhanced significantly when ion advection is dominant, leading to a strong heterogeneity in the local electrophoretic response especially at low salt concentration, when ion diffuse layers overlap.

Giovanni Giupponi; Ignacio Pagonabarraga

2011-05-30

263

Drag and diffusion coefficients of a spherical particle attached to a fluid interface

Explicit analytical expressions for the drag and diffusion coefficients of a spherical particle attached to the interface between two immiscible fluids are constructed for the case of a small viscosity ratio between the fluid phases. The model is designed to explicitly account for the dependence on the contact angle between the two fluids and the solid surface. The Lorentz reciprocal theorem is applied in the context of a geometric perturbation approach, which is based on the deviation of the contact angle from a 90{\\deg}-value. By testing the model against experimental and numerical data from the literature, good agreement is found within the entire range of contact angles below 90{\\deg}. As an advantage of the method reported, the drag and diffusion coefficients can be calculated up to second order in the perturbation parameter, while it is sufficient to know the velocity and pressure fields only up to first order. Extensions to other particle shapes with known velocity and pressure fields are straightforwa...

Dörr, Aaron

2015-01-01

264

Effect of cation on diffusion coefficient of ionic liquids at onion-like carbon electrodes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While most supercapacitors are limited in their performance by the stability of the electrolyte, using neat ionic liquids (ILs) as the electrolyte can expand the voltage window and temperature range of operation. In this study, ILs with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N) as the anion were investigated as the electrolyte in onion-like carbon-based electrochemical capacitors. To probe the influence of cations on the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors, three different cations were used: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1,6-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl). A series of electrochemical characterization tests was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Diffusion coefficients were measured using EIS and correlated with quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation. These three techniques were used in parallel to confirm a consistent trend between the three ILs. It was found that the IL with the smaller sized cation had a larger diffusion coefficient, leading to a higher capacitance at faster charge-discharge rates. Furthermore, the IL electrolyte performance was correlated with increasing temperature, which limited the voltage stability window and led to the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase on the carbon electrode surface, evident in both the CV and EIS experiments.

Van Aken, Katherine L.; McDonough, John K.; Li, Song; Feng, Guang; Chathoth, Suresh M.; Mamontov, Eugene; Fulvio, Pasquale F.; Cummings, Peter T.; Dai, Sheng; Gogotsi, Yury

2014-07-01

265

Effect of cation on diffusion coefficient of ionic liquids at onion-like carbon electrodes.

While most supercapacitors are limited in their performance by the stability of the electrolyte, using neat ionic liquids (ILs) as the electrolyte can expand the voltage window and temperature range of operation. In this study, ILs with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N) as the anion were investigated as the electrolyte in onion-like carbon-based electrochemical capacitors. To probe the influence of cations on the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors, three different cations were used: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1,6-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl). A series of electrochemical characterization tests was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Diffusion coefficients were measured using EIS and correlated with quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation. These three techniques were used in parallel to confirm a consistent trend between the three ILs. It was found that the IL with the smaller sized cation had a larger diffusion coefficient, leading to a higher capacitance at faster charge-discharge rates. Furthermore, the IL electrolyte performance was correlated with increasing temperature, which limited the voltage stability window and led to the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase on the carbon electrode surface, evident in both the CV and EIS experiments. PMID:24920163

Van Aken, Katherine L; McDonough, John K; Li, Song; Feng, Guang; Chathoth, Suresh M; Mamontov, Eugene; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Cummings, Peter T; Dai, Sheng; Gogotsi, Yury

2014-07-16

266

The aim of this study was to develop a fast method for estimating whether a brain volume loss is within the normal range for the respective age of the patient. A readout-segmented diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging sequence was performed as part of the routine examination at a 3-T scanner. Data without (b0-image) and with diffusion weighting (1000?s/mm(2)) from 492 patients were examined (in the age from 3 to 89?years). One hundred and seventy-three data-sets had to be excluded due to brain lesions or to pathological enlarged cerebrospinal fluid spaces. In the remaining 319 data-sets, apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) values were calculated for all pixels exceeding a combined threshold in the diffusion-weighted data and in the non-diffusion-weighted data. The first part of the histogram represents pixels containing mostly brain tissue. The percentage of number of pixels in this part of the ADC histograms was evaluated for all patients and was correlated with the age of the patients. In all the areas examined, a monotone change of relative pixel numbers with the age of the patients was found. The reduction of the contribution of pixels containing mostly brain tissue accelerated with age and was found to be 0.18%/year in the age of 20, 0.34%/year in the age of 50, and 0.50%/year in the age of 80. The observed decrease of the relative number of pixels from the brain tissue with increasing age corresponds to previously published results based on more time-consuming 3-D measurements. The presented technique uses a conventional clinical sequence and might be helpful in deciding whether an observed brain volume loss in a patient is within the normal range for the age of the patient. PMID:24312050

Klose, Uwe; Batra, Marion; Nägele, Thomas

2013-01-01

267

Charge collected by diffusion from an ion track under mixed boundary conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charge-carrier diffusion from an ion track in a silicon substrate at least a few hundred microns thick is analyzed. The substrate upper surface is treated as reflective except for a small section, intended to represent a reverse-biased junction, which is treated as a sink. Total charge collected by the sink is calculated by assuming transport to be governed by an ambipolar diffusion equation with temporally constant and spatially uniform carrier lifetime and diffusion coefficient. Present results apply to a normally incident track but could easily be generalized to arbitrary track direction. The collected charge is found to depend on track length and on the electrostatic capacitance, rather than the area, of the sink. Theoretical predictions are compared to the results of a numerical simulation called the Poisson and Continuity Equation Solver (PISCES) for three cases and are found to agree within a factor of two in the worst case.

Edmonds, Larry D.

1991-01-01

268

In-situ estimate of submesoscale horizontal eddy diffusion coefficients across a front

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fronts, jets and eddies are ubiquitous features of the world oceans, and play a key role in regulating energy budget, heat transfer, horizontal and vertical transport, and biogeochemical processes. Although recent advances in computational power have favored the analysis of mesoscale and submesoscale dynamics from high-resolution numerical simulations, studies from in-situ observations are still relatively scarce. The small dimensions and short duration of such structures still pose major challenges for fine-scale dedicated field experiments. As a consequence, in-situ quantitative estimates of key physical parameters for high-resolution numerical models, such as horizontal eddy diffusion coefficients, are still lacking. The Latex10 campaign (September 1-24, 2010), within the LAgrangian Transport EXperiment (LATEX), adopted an adaptive sampling strategy that included satellite data, ship-based current measurements, and iterative Lagrangian drifter releases to successfully map coherent transport structures in the western Gulf of Lion. Comparisons with AVHRR imagery evidenced that the detected structures were associated with an intense frontal feature, originated by the convergence and subsequent stirring of colder coastal waters with warmer open-sea waters. We present a method for computing horizontal eddy diffusion coefficients by combining the stirring rates estimated from the Lagrangian drifter trajectories with the shapes of the surface temperature and salinity gradient (assumed to be at the equilibrium) from the ship thermosalinograph. The average value we obtained from various sections across the front is 2.5 m2s-1, with horizontal scales (width of the front) ranging between 0.5 and 2.5 km. This is in line with the values commonly used for high-resolution numerical simulations. Further field experiment will be required to extend the results to different ocean regions and regimes, and to thoroughly test the robustness of the equilibrium hypothesis. Remote sensed measurements of sea surface temperature and elevation could also be used to compute fine-scale horizontal eddy diffusion coefficients over larger areas and for different ocean regions. However, the coarse resolution of current sea surface topography observations, and their unreliability over coastal regions, represent important limitations for this type of application. The velocity fields provided by the SWOT mission will allow to retrieve accurate high-resolution stirring rates across the ocean. Combining these rates with remote-sensed SST gradients will make possible to extend our analysis and investigate patterns and variability of submesoscale horizontal eddy diffusion at the global scale.

Nencioli, Francesco; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Doglioli, Andrea; Petrenko, Anne

2013-04-01

269

Background The purpose of this study was to determine a new method for the early diagnosis and assessment of mild cognitive impairment in elderly individuals with hypertension. Elderly hypertensive patients with cognitive impairment were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Clinical Dementia Rating Assessment (CDR). Cognitive results were compared to apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging. Methods A total of 191 patients were categorized into four groups: a control group (normal cognition and no hypertension; n=20); a normal group (hypertension and normal cognition; n=33); an mild cognitive impairment group (n=80); and a vascular dementia group (n=58). The MoCA and CDR tests were used to determine cognition. ADC values in eight brain regions were calculated with magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging. Other characteristics were evaluated, eg, blood pressure, MoCA, and CDR scores, and the comparisons of the four groups were made. Results The MoCA and CDR scores differed among the four groups (P<0.001). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values increased as cognitive function declined (P<0.001). Cognitive function declined as ADC values increased, and they differed between elderly people with and without hypertension (P<0.001). Among elderly hypertensive participants, ADC values were significantly increased in the cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion The MoCA and CDR tests were sufficiently sensitive to evaluate cognition. Blood pressure was closely related to cognition, as well as to functional and structural changes in the brain. These alterations were evidenced through changes in the ADC values and were most obvious in the cortex and hippocampus. Greater cognitive decline was observed in elderly participants with hypertension compared to those without. As hypertensive stage increased, greater ADC values were observed. PMID:25114516

Zhao, Yanwei; Wu, Gang; Shi, Haiming; Xia, Zhijie; Sun, Tao

2014-01-01

270

Method qualification and application of diffusion interaction parameter and virial coefficient.

This research focused on evaluation and application of two methods in studying weak protein-protein interactions, i.e. diffusion interaction parameter (KD) and second virial coefficient (B22), both of which are first-order coefficients of protein interactions. Although the plate-based KD method successfully distinguished KD values with relatively large difference in a pH ranging study, it failed to make a consistent statistical decision to determine close interactions as shown by the comprehensive ANOVA analysis. We also validated the DLS-based B22 method by using a model protein lysozyme. The dramatic change of solution appearance for lysozyme as a function of NaCl concentration highlighted the importance of B22 in understanding protein interactions. Moreover, B22 measurement for a MAb fragment suggested a more repulsive protein interaction in histidine buffer than in citrate buffer. The coefficient of variation was <10% when B22 was on an order of magnitude of 10(-4) L mmol/g(2) in contrast to >30% when it approached 10(-5) L mmol/g(2). In this research, we also made an attempt to study protein-protein interactions in concentrated MAb fragment solutions (e.g. >50 mg/mL). Our data suggested that such interactions could be empirically modeled by high-order virial expansions. PMID:24095715

Shi, Shuai; Uchida, Makiko; Cheung, Jason; Antochshuk, Valentyn; Shameem, Mohammed

2013-11-01

271

Molecular diffusion coefficients of lithium-, sodium-, potassium-, cesium-, calcium-, and strontium nitrate in subcritical water were determined by analysis of Taylor dispersion profiles. Pressures ranged from 300 to 500 bar at temperatures ranging from 25{degrees}C to 300{degrees}C. The reported diffusion values were determined at infinite dilution. Molecular diffusion coefficients were 10 to 20 times faster in near-critical subcritical water than in water at ambient temperature and pressure (ATP). These findings implied that the diffusion rates were more liquid like than they were gas like, hence experimental results were correlated with diffusion models for liquids. The subcritical diffusion data presented in this work, and supercritical diffusion results published elsewhere were correlated with hydrodynamic diffusion equations. Both the Wilke-Chang correlation and the Stokes-Einstein equation yielded predictions within 10% of the experimental results if the structure of the diffusing species could be estimated. The effect of the increased diffusion rates on mass transfer rates in supercritical water oxidation applications was quantified, with emphasis on heterogeneous oxidation processes. This study and results published elsewhere showed that diffusion limited conditions are much more likely to be encountered in SCWO processes than commonly acknowledged.

Goemans, M.G.E.; Gloyna, E.F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Buelow, S.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-04-01

272

Bombardment-diffused coatings and ion beam mixing

It has been known for some years that ion bombardment of a material will bring about a redistribution of its constituents. This can take place by a direct recoil process or as a result of collisional relocation within the collision cascade, known as cascade mixing. Alternatively, there are several mechanisms of radiation enhanced diffusion which may occur if the temperature

G. Dearnaley

1982-01-01

273

Ab initio transport coefficients of Ar+ ions in Ar for cold plasma jet modeling

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collision cross sections and transport coefficients are calculated for Ar+ ions, in the ground state 2P3/2 and in the metastable state 2P1/2, colliding with their parent gas. Differential and integral collision cross sections are obtained using a numerical integration of the nuclear Schrödinger equation for several published interaction potentials. The Cohen-Schneider semi-empirical model is used for the inclusion of the spin-orbit interaction. The corresponding differential collision cross sections are then used in an optimized Monte Carlo code to calculate the ion transport coefficients for each initial ion state over a wide range of reduced electric field. Ion swarm data results are then compared with available experimental data for different proportions of ions in each state. This allows us to identify the most reliable interaction potential which reproduces ion transport coefficients falling within the experimental error bars. Such ion transport data will be used in electrohydrodynamic and chemical kinetic models of the low temperature plasma jet to quantify and to tune the active species production for a better use in biomedical applications.

Chicheportiche, A.; Lepetit, B.; Gadéa, F. X.; Benhenni, M.; Yousfi, M.; Kalus, R.

2014-06-01

274

Ab initio transport coefficients of Ar? ions in Ar for cold plasma jet modeling.

Collision cross sections and transport coefficients are calculated for Ar{+} ions, in the ground state {2}P_{3/2} and in the metastable state {2}P_{1/2}, colliding with their parent gas. Differential and integral collision cross sections are obtained using a numerical integration of the nuclear Schrödinger equation for several published interaction potentials. The Cohen-Schneider semi-empirical model is used for the inclusion of the spin-orbit interaction. The corresponding differential collision cross sections are then used in an optimized Monte Carlo code to calculate the ion transport coefficients for each initial ion state over a wide range of reduced electric field. Ion swarm data results are then compared with available experimental data for different proportions of ions in each state. This allows us to identify the most reliable interaction potential which reproduces ion transport coefficients falling within the experimental error bars. Such ion transport data will be used in electrohydrodynamic and chemical kinetic models of the low temperature plasma jet to quantify and to tune the active species production for a better use in biomedical applications. PMID:25019899

Chicheportiche, A; Lepetit, B; Gadéa, F X; Benhenni, M; Yousfi, M; Kalus, R

2014-06-01

275

Diffusion Coefficients of Endogenous Cytosolic Proteins from Rabbit Skinned Muscle Fibers

Efflux time courses of endogenous cytosolic proteins were obtained from rabbit psoas muscle fibers skinned in oil and transferred to physiological salt solution. Proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis and compared to load-matched standards for quantitative analysis. A radial diffusion model incorporating the dissociation and dissipation of supramolecular complexes accounts for an initial lag and subsequent efflux of glycolytic and glycogenolytic enzymes. The model includes terms representing protein crowding, myofilament lattice hindrance, and binding to the cytomatrix. Optimization algorithms returned estimates of the apparent diffusion coefficients, D(r,t), that were very low at the onset of diffusion (?10?10 cm2 s?1) but increased with time as cytosolic protein density, which was initially high, decreased. D(r,t) at later times ranged from 2.11 × 10?7 cm2 s?1 (parvalbumin) to 0.20 × 10?7 cm2 s?1 (phosphofructose kinase), values that are 3.6- to 12.3-fold lower than those predicted in bulk water. The low initial values are consistent with the presence of complexes in situ; the higher later values are consistent with molecular sieving and transient binding of dissociated proteins. Channeling of metabolic intermediates via enzyme complexes may enhance production of adenosine triphosphate at rates beyond that possible with randomly and/or sparsely distributed enzymes, thereby matching supply with demand. PMID:24559981

Carlson, Brian E.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.; Maughan, David W.

2014-01-01

276

Blackness coefficients, effective diffusion parameters, and control rod worths for thermal reactors

Simple diffusion theory cannot be used to evaluate control rod worths in thermal reactors because of the strongly absorbing character of the control material. However, good results can be obtained from a diffusion calculation by representing the absorber slab by means of a suitable pair of internal boundary conditions, ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.., which are ratios of neutron flux to neutron current. Methods for calculating ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. in the P/sub 1/, P/sub 3/, and P/sub 5/ approximations, with and without scattering, are presented. By appropriately weighting the fine-group blackness coefficients, broad group values, <..cap alpha..> and <..beta..>, are obtained. The technique is applied to the calculation of control rod worths of Cd, Ag-In-Cd, and Hf control elements. Results are found to compare very favorably with detailed Monte Carlo calculations. For control elements whose geometry does not permit a thin slab treatment, other methods are needed for determining the effective diffusion parameters. One such method is briefly discussed and applied to the calculation of control rod worths in the Ford Nuclear Reactor at the University of Michigan. Calculated and measured worths are found to be in good agreement.

Bretscher, M.M.

1984-09-01

277

The ability to estimate the diffusion coefficient of a solute within hydrogels has important application in the design and analysis of hydrogels used in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. A number of mathematical models have been derived for this purpose; however, they often rely on fitted parameters and so have limited predictive capability. Herein we assess the ability of the obstruction-scaling model to provide reasonable estimates of solute diffusion coefficients within hydrogels, as well as the assumption that a hydrogel can be represented as an entangled polymer solution of an equivalent concentration. Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran solutes were loaded into sodium alginate solutions as well as hydrogels of different polymer volume fractions formed from photoinitiated cross-linking of methacrylate sodium alginate. The tracer diffusion coefficients of these solutes were measured using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The measured diffusion coefficients were then compared to the values predicted by the obstruction-scaling model. The model predictions were within ±15% of the measured values, suggesting that the model can provide useful estimates of solute diffusion coefficients within hydrogels and solutions. Moreover, solutes diffusing in both sodium alginate solutions and hydrogels were demonstrated to experience the same degree of solute mobility restriction given the same effective polymer concentration, supporting the assumption that a hydrogel can be represented as an entangled polymer solution of equivalent concentration. PMID:25499554

Hadjiev, Nicholas A; Amsden, Brian G

2015-02-10

278

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the monatomic Lennard-Jones liquid in a periodic boundary system were performed in order to elucidate the effect of the computational domain size and shape on the self-diffusion coefficient measured by the system. So far, the system size dependence in cubic computational domains has been intensively investigated and these studies showed that the diffusion coefficient depends linearly on the inverse of the system size, which is theoretically predicted based on the hydrodynamic interaction. We examined the system size effect not only in the cubic cell systems but also in rectangular cell systems which were created by changing one side length of the cubic cell with the system density kept constant. As a result, the diffusion coefficient in the direction perpendicular to the long side of the rectangular cell significantly increases more or less linearly with the side length. On the other hand, the diffusion coefficient in the direction along the long side is almost constant or slightly decreases. Consequently, anisotropy of the diffusion coefficient emerges in a rectangular cell with periodic boundary conditions even in a bulk liquid simulation. This unexpected result is of critical importance because rectangular fluid systems confined in nanospace, which are present in realistic nanoscale technologies, have been widely studied in recent MD simulations. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanism for this serious system shape effect on the diffusion property, the correlation structures of particle velocities were examined.

Kikugawa, Gota; Ando, Shotaro; Suzuki, Jo; Naruke, Yoichi; Nakano, Takeo; Ohara, Taku

2015-01-01

279

Radon (222Rn) in ground water of fractured rocks: A diffusion/ion exchange model

Ground waters from fractured igneous and high-grade sialic metamorphic rocks frequently have elevated activity of dissolved radon (222Rn). A chemically based model is proposed whereby radium (226Ra) from the decay of uranium (238U) diffuses through the primary porosity of the rock to the water-transmitting fracture where it is sorbed on weathering products. Sorption of 226Ra on the fracture surface maintains an activity gradient in the rock matrix, ensuring a continuous supply of 226Ra to fracture surfaces. As a result of the relatively long half-life of 226Ra (1601 years), significant activity can accumulate on fracture surfaces. The proximity of this sorbed 226Ra to the active ground water flow system allows its decay progeny 222Rn to enter directly into the water. Laboratory analyses of primary porosity and diffusion coefficients of the rock matrix, radon emanation, and ion exchange at fracture surfaces are consistent with the requirements of a diffusion/ion- exchange model. A dipole-brine injection/withdrawal experiment conducted between bedrock boreholes in the high-grade metamorphic and granite rocks at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States (42??56???N, 71??43???W) shows a large activity of 226Ra exchanged from fracture surfaces by a magnesium brine. The 226Ra activity removed by the exchange process is 34 times greater than that of 238U activity. These observations are consistent with the diffusion/ion-exchange model. Elutriate isotopic ratios of 223Ra/226Ra and 238U/226Ra are also consistent with the proposed chemically based diffusion/ion-exchange model.

Wood, W.W.; Kraemer, T.F.; Shapiro, A.

2004-01-01

280

Radon (222Rn) in ground water of fractured rocks: a diffusion/ion exchange model.

Ground waters from fractured igneous and high-grade sialic metamorphic rocks frequently have elevated activity of dissolved radon (222Rn). A chemically based model is proposed whereby radium (226Ra) from the decay of uranium (238U) diffuses through the primary porosity of the rock to the water-transmitting fracture where it is sorbed on weathering products. Sorption of 226Ra on the fracture surface maintains an activity gradient in the rock matrix, ensuring a continuous supply of 226Ra to fracture surfaces. As a result of the relatively long half-life of 226Ra (1601 years), significant activity can accumulate on fracture surfaces. The proximity of this sorbed 226Ra to the active ground water flow system allows its decay progeny 222Rn to enter directly into the water. Laboratory analyses of primary porosity and diffusion coefficients of the rock matrix, radon emanation, and ion exchange at fracture surfaces are consistent with the requirements of a diffusion/ion-exchange model. A dipole-brine injection/withdrawal experiment conducted between bedrock boreholes in the high-grade metamorphic and granite rocks at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States (42 degrees 56'N, 71 degrees 43'W) shows a large activity of 226Ra exchanged from fracture surfaces by a magnesium brine. The 226Ra activity removed by the exchange process is 34 times greater than that of 238U activity. These observations are consistent with the diffusion/ion-exchange model. Elutriate isotopic ratios of 223Ra/226Ra and 238U/226Ra are also consistent with the proposed chemically based diffusion/ion-exchange model. PMID:15318778

Wood, Warren W; Kraemer, Thomas F; Shapiro, Allen

2004-01-01

281

Biomolecules have been widely investigated as potential therapeutics for various diseases. However their use is limited due to rapid degradation and poor cellular uptake in vitro and in vivo. To address this issue, we synthesized a new nano-carrier system comprising of cholic acid-polyethylenimine (CA-PEI) copolymer micelles, via carbodiimide-mediated coupling for the efficient delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as model protein. The mean particle size of siRNA- or BSA-loaded CA-PEI micelles ranged from 100–150 nm, with zeta potentials of +3-+11 mV, respectively. Atomic force, transmission electron and field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the micelles exhibited excellent spherical morphology. No significant morphology or size changes were observed in the CA-PEI micelles after siRNA and BSA loading. CA-PEI micelles exhibited sustained release profile, the effective diffusion coefficients were successfully estimated using a mathematically-derived cylindrical diffusion model and the release data of siRNA and BSA closely fitted into this model. High siRNA and BSA binding and loading efficiencies (95% and 70%, respectively) were observed for CA-PEI micelles. Stability studies demonstrated that siRNA and BSA integrity was maintained after loading and release. The CA-PEI micelles were non cytotoxic to V79 and DLD-1 cells, as shown by alamarBlue and LIVE/DEAD cell viability assays. RT-PCR study revealed that siRNA-loaded CA-PEI micelles suppressed the mRNA for ABCB1 gene. These results revealed the promising potential of CA-PEI micelles as a stable, safe, and versatile nano-carrier for siRNA and the model protein delivery. PMID:25133390

Amjad, M. Wahab; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul I.; Mahali, Shalela M.; Katas, Haliza; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, M. Naeem ul; Chuang, Victor T. Giam

2014-01-01

282

The nature of brain edema in dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) was investigated by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). DWI was performed on normal or bilaterally nephrectomized rats before, and immediately after, hemodialysis. Hemodialysis was performed with a custom-made dialyzer (surface area 150 cm2) against a bicarbonate-buffered bath for 90 min with or without 70 mM urea. Hemodialysis with non-urea bath decreased plasma urea by 21 mM, and plasma osmolality by 22 mosmol/kg H2O, and increased brain water content by 8.0% (all < 0.05), while hemodialysis with urea bath did not affect plasma urea, osmolality, or brain water content. Three sets of axial DWI images of the brain were obtained at different gradient weighing factors with an in-plane resolution of 0.39 mm2. The apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) of the brain water was not affected by bilateral nephrectomy, or by hemodialysis in normal rats. In nephrectomized rats, brain Dapp was significantly increased after dialysis with non-urea bath (1.15 +/- 0.08 vs 0.89 +/- 0.07 x 10(-9)m2/sec, P < 0.01). No significant changes of brain water Dapp could be observed after dialysis with urea bath. The increased Dapp associated with DDS indicates that brain extracellular water increases and/or intracellular water decreases after hemodialysis. Our results strongly suggest that the brain edema induced by hemodialysis in uremic rats is due to interstitial edema rather than cytotoxic edema. Furthermore, our results support a primary role for the "reverse urea effect" in the pathogenesis of brain edema in DDS.DWI may be a useful diagnostic tool for DDS in patients with end-stage renal disease. PMID:8698867

Galons, J P; Trouard, T; Gmitro, A F; Lien, Y H

1996-01-01

283

The axillary staging in newly diagnosed breast cancer is under major evolution. The aims of this study were to define the diagnostic performance of 3.0-T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the detection of axillary metastases in newly diagnosed breast cancer, to assess apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for histopathologically confirmed metastatic lymph nodes in a clinical setting. Altogether 52 consecutive breast cancer patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging and DWI in addition to axillary ultrasound. ADCs of axillary lymph nodes were analysed by two breast radiologists and ultrasound-guided core biopsies were taken. In a separate reading by one radiologist two types of region of interests were used for a smaller group of patients. Altogether 56 axillae (121 lymph nodes) were included in the statistical analysis. Metastatic axillae (51.8%) had significantly lower ADCs (p<0.001). Mean ADCs were 0.663–0.676 x 10-3 mm2/s for the histologically confirmed metastatic LNs and 1.100–1.225 x 10-3 mm2/s for the benign. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of DWI were 72.4%, 79.6%, and 75.9%, respectively with threshold ADC 0.812 x 10-3 mm2/s. Region of interest with information on the minimum value increased the diagnostic performance (area under the curve 0.794 vs. 0.619). Even though ADCs are significantly associated with histopathologically confirmed axillary metastases the diagnostic performance of axillary DWI remains moderate and ultrasound-guided core biopsies or sentinel lymph node biopsies cannot be omitted. PMID:25823016

Rautiainen, Suvi; Könönen, Mervi; Sironen, Reijo; Masarwah, Amro; Sudah, Mazen; Hakumäki, Juhana; Vanninen, Ritva; Sutela, Anna

2015-01-01

284

A comparative study on temperature dependent diffusion coefficient of liquid Fe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-diffusion coefficients, D, of liquid Fe at different temperatures have been investigated using hard sphere (HS) theory and universal scaling laws (USLs). Inter-ionic interaction is derived from both pseudopotential proposed by Brettonet-Silbert (BS) and many body potential obtained from embedded atom method (EAM). Temperature dependent effective HS diameter, ?(T), and excess entropy, Sex, are the premier ingredients of the study. The former ingredient is calculated using both variational modified hypernetted chain, VMHNC, integral equation theory and Linearized Weeks-Chandler-Andersen, LWCA, thermodynamic perturbation theory together with an empirical relation of Protopapas et al. (1973) [2] whereas the later one is calculated using VMHNC theory alone, with BS and EAM potentials. We observe that D increases with increasing temperatures. The obtained results are compared with those predicted by Protopapas et al. The comparison suggests that USL of Dzugutov and HS theory with BS potential are better choices to predict D(T) of liquid Fe.

Gosh, R. C.; Syed, Ishtiaque M.; Amin, Zahurul; Bhuiyan, G. M.

2013-10-01

285

Surface diffusion coefficient of Au atoms on single layer graphene grown on Cu

A 5?nm thick Au film was deposited on single layer graphene sheets grown on Cu. By thermal processes, the dewetting phenomenon of the Au film on the graphene was induced so to form Au nanoparticles. The mean radius, surface-to-surface distance, and surface density evolution of the nanoparticles on the graphene sheets as a function of the annealing temperature were quantified by scanning electron microscopy analyses. These quantitative data were analyzed within the classical mean-field nucleation theory so to obtain the temperature-dependent Au atoms surface diffusion coefficient on graphene: D{sub S}(T)=[(8.2±0.6)×10{sup ?8}]exp[?(0.31±0.02(eV)/(at) )/kT]?cm{sup 2}/s.

Ruffino, F., E-mail: francesco.ruffino@ct.infn.it; Cacciato, G.; Grimaldi, M. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia-Universitá di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy and MATIS IMM-CNR, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

2014-02-28

286

Lateral diffusion and compartmentalization of plasma membrane proteins are tightly regulated in cells and thus, studying these processes will reveal new insights to plasma membrane protein function and regulation. Recently, k-Space Image Correlation Spectroscopy (kICS)(1) was developed to enable routine measurements of diffusion coefficients directly from images of fluorescently tagged plasma membrane proteins, that avoided systematic biases introduced by probe photophysics. Although the theoretical basis for the analysis is complex, the method can be implemented by nonexperts using a freely available code to measure diffusion coefficients of proteins. kICS calculates a time correlation function from a fluorescence microscopy image stack after Fourier transformation of each image to reciprocal (k-) space. Subsequently, circular averaging, natural logarithm transform and linear fits to the correlation function yields the diffusion coefficient. This paper provides a step-by-step guide to the image analysis and measurement of diffusion coefficients via kICS. First, a high frame rate image sequence of a fluorescently labeled plasma membrane protein is acquired using a fluorescence microscope. Then, a region of interest (ROI) avoiding intracellular organelles, moving vesicles or protruding membrane regions is selected. The ROI stack is imported into a freely available code and several defined parameters (see Method section) are set for kICS analysis. The program then generates a "slope of slopes" plot from the k-space time correlation functions, and the diffusion coefficient is calculated from the slope of the plot. Below is a step-by-step kICS procedure to measure the diffusion coefficient of a membrane protein using the renal water channel aquaporin-3 tagged with EGFP as a canonical example. PMID:24893770

Arnspang, Eva C; Koffman, Jennifer S; Marlar, Saw; Wiseman, Paul W; Nejsum, Lene N

2014-01-01

287

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The immobilization of fission products and minor actinides by vitrification is the reference process for industrial management of high-level radioactive wastes generated by spent fuel reprocessing. Radiation damage and radiogenic helium accumulation must be specifically studied to evaluate the effects of minor actinide alpha decay on the glass long-term behavior under repository conditions. A specific experimental study was conducted for a comprehensive evaluation of the behavior of helium and its diffusion mechanisms in borosilicate nuclear waste glass. Helium production was simulated by external implantation with 3He ions at a concentration (?1 at.%) 30 times higher than obtained after 10,000 years of storage. Helium diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature were extracted from the depth profiles after annealing. The 3He(d,?) 1H nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) technique was successfully adopted for low-temperature in situ measurements of depth profiles. Its high depth resolution revealed helium mobility at temperatures as low as 253 K and the presence of a trapped helium fraction. The diffusion coefficients of un-trapped helium atoms follow an Arrhenius law between 253 K and 323 K. An activation energy of 0.55 ± 0.03 eV was determined, which is consistent with a process controlled by diffusion in the glass free volume.

Chamssedine, F.; Sauvage, T.; Peuget, S.; Fares, T.; Martin, G.

2010-05-01

288

A uniqueness result for the identification of a time-dependent diffusion coefficient

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the problem of determining the time-dependent thermal diffusivity coefficient of a medium, when the evolution of the temperature in a part of it is known. Such situations arise in the context of food technology, when thermal processes at high pressures are used for extending the shelf life of the food, in order to preserve its nutritional and organoleptic properties (Infante et al 2009 On the Modelling and Simulation of High Pressure Processes and Inactivation of Enzymes in Food Engineering pp 2203-29 and Otero et al 2007 J. Food Eng. 78 1463-70). The phenomenon is modeled by the heat equation involving a term which depends on the source temperature and pressure increase, and appropriate initial and boundary conditions. We study the inverse problem of determining time-dependent thermal diffusivities k, when some temperature measurements at the border and inside the medium are known. We prove the uniqueness of the inverse problem solution under suitable a priori assumptions on regularity, size and growth of k.

Fraguela, A.; Infante, J. A.; Ramos, A. M.; Rey, J. M.

2013-12-01

289

On the parametrization of the energetic-particle pitch-angle diffusion coefficient

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are one of the key ingredients of the near-Earth radiation environment. Pitch-angle scattering by fluctuations imposed on the large-scale magnetic field is assumed to be the basic physical process behind diffusive propagation of SEPs in the heliosphere. Various pitch-angle diffusion models have been suggested to parametrize the wave-particle interactions, based on the original results of the classical quasi-linear theory of particle scattering and improved new approaches. Aims: We investigate under which circumstances the different functional forms of the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient can lead to equivalent results. In particular, we use two forms that are commonly used in two types of numerical methods to solve the particle transport equation, i.e., finite difference methods and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: We estimate the corresponding values of the parameters of the two scattering models by performing a least-square fitting of the functional form of one of the scattering-frequency models to the other. We also perform Monte Carlo simulations of near-relativistic solar electrons to investigate the similarity of the models in terms of observables at 1 AU. Results: Our study shows that the two forms of pitch-angle scattering frequency lead to nearly equivalent results for electron transport from the Sun to 1 AU. We give the equivalent scattering parameters of the two models as curves that can be easily used when comparing the results of the two models. Conclusions: By providing the equivalent parametrizations of two commonly used scattering models, we provide key information on how to relate the results from the two parametrizations to each other and to the theory of particle transport.

Agueda, Neus; Vainio, Rami

2013-03-01

290

The Course of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values following Perinatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke

Background Diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI) plays an important role in the diagnosis of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS) during the acute phase. Its derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) can be used to quantify the diffusion restriction. Aim of the current study was to identify the changes in ADC values in the acute phase following PAIS. Methods A cohort of 36 infants with a confirmed PAIS who were examined once during the first ten days of life was studied. ADC values in the core of the ischemic tissue (iADC) were determined and correlated with postnatal age. ADC ratios (rADC) were calculated by dividing the iADC value by the ADC value of the corresponding area in the contralateral ‘healthy’ hemisphere. Results Infants were scanned between days two and ten. A non-linear increase in iADC and rADC values was observed over time and large middle cerebral artery strokes resulted in lower iADC and rADC values. Normalisation of rADC values was observed after day seven. rADC values were lower when compared to previously published rADC values of infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, suggesting more severe injury. Conclusions Following PAIS, DWI showed decreased ADC values with a non-linear increase during the first week, and pseudonormalization after day 7, which limits the use of DWI to assess PAIS to the first week. Compared to previous studies, ADC values were lower when compared to infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, most likely due to more severe injury. PMID:23457613

van der Aa, Niek E.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Vincken, Koen L.; Groenendaal, Floris; de Vries, Linda S.

2013-01-01

291

Small effect of water on upper-mantle rheology based on silicon self-diffusion coefficients.

Water has been thought to affect the dynamical processes in the Earth's interior to a great extent. In particular, experimental deformation results suggest that even only a few tens of parts per million of water by weight enhances the creep rates in olivine by orders of magnitude. However, those deformation studies have limitations, such as considering only a limited range of water concentrations and very high stresses, which might affect the results. Rock deformation can also be understood as an effect of silicon self-diffusion, because the creep rates of minerals at temperatures as high as those in the Earth's interior are limited by self-diffusion of the slowest species. Here we experimentally determine the silicon self-diffusion coefficient DSi in forsterite at 8?GPa and 1,600?K to 1,800?K as a function of water content CH2O from less than 1 to about 800 parts per million of water by weight, yielding the relationship, DSi???(CH2O)(1/3). This exponent is strikingly lower than that obtained by deformation experiments (1.2; ref. 7). The high nominal creep rates in the deformation studies under wet conditions may be caused by excess grain boundary water. We conclude that the effect of water on upper-mantle rheology is very small. Hence, the smooth motion of the Earth's tectonic plates cannot be caused by mineral hydration in the asthenosphere. Also, water cannot cause the viscosity minimum zone in the upper mantle. And finally, the dominant mechanism responsible for hotspot immobility cannot be water content differences between their source and surrounding regions. PMID:23765497

Fei, Hongzhan; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Katsura, Tomoo

2013-06-13

292

A new coarse-grained model of the E. coli cytoplasm is developed by describing the proteins of the cytoplasm as flexible units consisting of one or more spheres that follow Brownian dynamics (BD), with hydrodynamic interactions (HI) accounted for by a mean-field approach. Extensive BD simulations were performed to calculate the diffusion coefficients of three different proteins in the cellular environment. The results are in close agreement with experimental or previously simulated values, where available. Control simulations without HI showed that use of HI is essential to obtain accurate diffusion coefficients. Anomalous diffusion inside the crowded cellular medium was investigated with Fractional Brownian motion analysis, and found to be present in this model. By running a series of control simulations in which various forces were removed systematically, it was found that repulsive interactions (volume exclusion) are the main cause for anomalous diffusion, with a secondary contribution from HI. PMID:25180859

Hasnain, Sabeeha; McClendon, Christopher L.; Hsu, Monica T.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

2014-01-01

293

First-principles binary diffusion coefficients for H, H2, and four normal alkanes + N2

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collision integrals related to binary (dilute gas) diffusion are calculated classically for six species colliding with N2. The most detailed calculations make no assumptions regarding the complexity of the potential energy surface, and the resulting classical collision integrals are in excellent agreement with previous semiclassical results for H + N2 and H2 + N2 and with recent experimental results for CnH2n+2 + N2, n = 2-4. The detailed classical results are used to test the accuracy of three simplifying assumptions typically made when calculating collision integrals: (1) approximating the intermolecular potential as isotropic, (2) neglecting the internal structure of the colliders (i.e., neglecting inelasticity), and (3) employing unphysical R-12 repulsive interactions. The effect of anisotropy is found to be negligible for H + N2 and H2 + N2 (in agreement with previous quantum mechanical and semiclassical results for systems involving atomic and diatomic species) but is more significant for larger species at low temperatures. For example, the neglect of anisotropy decreases the diffusion coefficient for butane + N2 by 15% at 300 K. The neglect of inelasticity, in contrast, introduces only very small errors. Approximating the repulsive wall as an unphysical R-12 interaction is a significant source of error at all temperatures for the weakly interacting systems H + N2 and H2 + N2, with errors as large as 40%. For the normal alkanes in N2, which feature stronger interactions, the 12/6 Lennard-Jones approximation is found to be accurate, particularly at temperatures above ˜700 K where it predicts the full-dimensional result to within 5% (although with somewhat different temperature dependence). Overall, the typical practical approach of assuming isotropic 12/6 Lennard-Jones interactions is confirmed to be suitable for combustion applications except for weakly interacting systems, such as H + N2. For these systems, anisotropy and inelasticity can safely be neglected but a more detailed description of the repulsive wall is required for quantitative predictions. A straightforward approach for calculating effective isotropic potentials with realistic repulsive walls is described. An analytic expression for the calculated diffusion coefficient for H + N2 is presented and is estimated to have a 2-sigma error bar of only 0.7%.

Jasper, Ahren W.; Kamarchik, Eugene; Miller, James A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

2014-09-01

294

First-principles binary diffusion coefficients for H, H?, and four normal alkanes + N?.

Collision integrals related to binary (dilute gas) diffusion are calculated classically for six species colliding with N2. The most detailed calculations make no assumptions regarding the complexity of the potential energy surface, and the resulting classical collision integrals are in excellent agreement with previous semiclassical results for H + N2 and H2 + N2 and with recent experimental results for CnH(2n+2) + N2, n = 2-4. The detailed classical results are used to test the accuracy of three simplifying assumptions typically made when calculating collision integrals: (1) approximating the intermolecular potential as isotropic, (2) neglecting the internal structure of the colliders (i.e., neglecting inelasticity), and (3) employing unphysical R(-12) repulsive interactions. The effect of anisotropy is found to be negligible for H + N2 and H2 + N2 (in agreement with previous quantum mechanical and semiclassical results for systems involving atomic and diatomic species) but is more significant for larger species at low temperatures. For example, the neglect of anisotropy decreases the diffusion coefficient for butane + N2 by 15% at 300 K. The neglect of inelasticity, in contrast, introduces only very small errors. Approximating the repulsive wall as an unphysical R(-12) interaction is a significant source of error at all temperatures for the weakly interacting systems H + N2 and H2 + N2, with errors as large as 40%. For the normal alkanes in N2, which feature stronger interactions, the 12/6 Lennard-Jones approximation is found to be accurate, particularly at temperatures above ?700 K where it predicts the full-dimensional result to within 5% (although with somewhat different temperature dependence). Overall, the typical practical approach of assuming isotropic 12/6 Lennard-Jones interactions is confirmed to be suitable for combustion applications except for weakly interacting systems, such as H + N2. For these systems, anisotropy and inelasticity can safely be neglected but a more detailed description of the repulsive wall is required for quantitative predictions. A straightforward approach for calculating effective isotropic potentials with realistic repulsive walls is described. An analytic expression for the calculated diffusion coefficient for H + N2 is presented and is estimated to have a 2-sigma error bar of only 0.7%. PMID:25273443

Jasper, Ahren W; Kamarchik, Eugene; Miller, James A; Klippenstein, Stephen J

2014-09-28

295

Colloid Electrophoresis for Strong and Weak Ion Diffusivity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the electrophoretic flow of suspensions of charged colloids with a mesoscopic method that allows us to model generic experimental conditions. We show that for highly charged colloids their electrophoretic mobility increases significantly and displays a mobility maximum on increasing the colloidal charge for all salt concentrations. The electrophoretic mobility of highly charged colloids is also enhanced significantly when ion advection is dominant, leading to a strong heterogeneity in the local electrophoretic response especially at low-salt concentration, when ion diffuse layers overlap.

Giupponi, Giovanni; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

2011-06-01

296

Computations of the self-diffusion coefficient and viscosity in warm dense matter are presented with an emphasis on obtaining numerical convergence and a careful evaluation of the standard deviation. The transport coefficients are computed with the Green-Kubo relation and orbital-free molecular dynamics at the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac level. The numerical parameters are varied until the Green-Kubo integral is equal to a constant in the t?+? limit; the transport coefficients are deduced from this constant and not by extrapolation of the Green-Kubo integral. The latter method, which gives rise to an unknown error, is tested for the computation of viscosity; it appears that it should be used with caution. In the large domain of coupling constant considered, both the self-diffusion coefficient and viscosity turn out to be well approximated by simple analytical laws using a single effective atomic number calculated in the average-atom model. PMID:23005237

Danel, J-F; Kazandjian, L; Zérah, G

2012-06-01

297

Diffusion of Mn in GaAs studied by quantitative time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

Diffusion coefficients and the activation energy for Mn diffusion in ion-implanted and layered epitaxial structures of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As/GaAs are reported from quantitative time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Samples are annealed between the growth temperature (as low as 200 deg. C) and approximately 400 deg. C. This temperature range is reported to improve the Curie temperature, which is important for the spintronic applications of these materials. Quantitative diffusion information is obtained by calibrating the Mn concentration to ion-implanted standards and the depth scale to profilometry measurements. Depth profiles obtained for ion-implanted Mn in GaAs at a dose of 1.35x10{sup 15} atoms/cm{sup 2} show increased Mn concentration within the top 5 nm of the sample but otherwise reveal no significant differences in the implantation shape after annealing up to 350 deg. C. For a higher implantation dose of 8.10x10{sup 15} Mn atoms/cm{sup 2}, diffusion is initiated after annealing at 300 deg. C with more significant diffusion at higher temperatures. The analysis of annealed epitaxial films of even higher concentration (Ga{sub 0.89}Mn{sub 0.11}As) exhibits diffusion at all temperatures measured (200-400 deg. C) and an activation energy of 0.67+-0.09 eV is calculated by fitting the profiles to an error function.

Goacher, Robyn E.; Gardella, Joseph A. Jr. [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Hegde, Shridhar; Luo Hong [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

2009-08-15

298

FDM study of ion exchange diffusion equation in glass

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion-exchange technique in glass was developed to fabricate gradient refractive index optical devices. In this paper, the Finite Difference Method(FDM), which is used for the solution of ion-diffusion equation, is reported. This method transforms continual diffusion equation to separate difference equation. It unitizes the matrix of MATLAB program to solve the iteration process. The collation results under square boundary condition show that it gets a more accurate numerical solution. Compared to experiment data, the relative error is less than 0.2%. Furthermore, it has simply operation and kinds of output solutions. This method can provide better results for border-proliferation of the hexagonal and the channel devices too.

Zhou, Zigang; Yang, Yongjia; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Guangchun

2009-05-01

299

Acid gases such as H[sub 2]S and CO[sub 2] are generally removed from natural gas, biogas, synthetic natural gas, and other process gas streams by means of absorption into aqueous alkanolamine solutions. A key parameter needed to model this diffusion with chemical reaction process in the liquid phase is the diffusion coefficient. A wetted-sphere absorption apparatus was used to measure the liquid-phase diffusion coefficients for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide over the temperature range 293--368 K. The experimental results obtained in this work are compared with values in the literature and with predictions from the Wilke-Chang equation. The data presented here extend the temperature range of reported diffusivities for these gases in water.

Tamimi, A.; Rinker, E.B.; Sandall, O.C. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept.)

1994-04-01

300

Paper presents the principles for unified test methods for determining the radon diffusion coefficient in waterproof materials in order to increase the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the results. We consider this very important, because an assessment of the radon diffusion coefficient is required by several national technical standards when waterproofing acts as a radon-proof membrane. The requirements for key parameters for one test method performed under non-stationary conditions and for two methods performed under stationary conditions are described in this paper. PMID:22245288

Jiránek, Martin; Rovenská, Kate?ina

2012-04-01

301

Two binary mixed solvent systems typically used for lithium batteries were studied by measuring the self-diffusion coefficients of the solvent, lithium ion and anion, independently by using the multi-nuclear pulsed field-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) 1H, 7Li and 19F NMR method. One system was propylene carbonate (PC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) system and the other binary system was PC and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME),

Kikuko Hayamizu; Yuichi Aihara

2004-01-01

302

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that is equipped with two lasers of different wavelengths was used to conduct high resolution measurements of concentration profiles of a ternary mixture inside a diffusion cell. Windowed Fourier transform along with an advanced unwrapping procedure was employed to extract the phase image from fringe images. Then the phase difference was obtained for a spatial resolution of 1920×1240. According to the measured refractive index profile, concentration contours of two components (out of three) were measured. Consequently, the concentration profile of the third components was calculated. Previously, the analytical solution for binary mixtures was used to estimate only the pure diffusion coefficients. In this study, for the first time, the refractive indices measured by two lasers along with the analytical solution for the ternary system, based on Fick's law, and an evolutionary algorithm (EA) known as a genetic algorithm (GA) were employed to measure the pure and cross diffusion coefficients of a transparent ternary mixture simultaneously. The optimization method to estimate diffusion coefficients was tested against various objective functions, and the best approach was that which was proposed herein. In order to validate the proposed measurement method, the experimental results of the Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument-Diffusion Coefficients in Mixtures (SODI-DCMIX1 project) on board the International Space Station (ISS) were analyzed using this technique and the obtained results were compared with previous techniques.

Ahadi, Amirhossein; Saghir, M. Ziad

2014-08-01

303

communication of biological information within cells inside a living body [1]. Passive transport and active transport are two main manners of the ion transport. The driving forces of the passive transport and the active transport are diffusion and ion- pumping, respectively. Diffusion property allows ions to travel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

Acid gases such as H[sub 2]S and CO[sub 2] are generally removed from natural gas, biogas, synthetic natural gas, and other process gas streams by means of absorption into aqueous alkanolamine solutions. A key parameter needed to model this diffusion with chemical reaction process in the liquid phase is the diffusion coefficient. A wetted-sphere absorption apparatus was used to measure

A. Tamimi; Edward B. Rinker; Orville C. Sandall

1994-01-01

305

Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) as an early and reproducible change indicator in patients receiving radiotherapy for prostate cancer (PC). Methods and Materials: Eight consecutive patients with biopsy-proven PC underwent DWI at 3T. All patients who received external-beam radiotherapy had four serial MR scans, as follows: before therapy (PreTx); after 1 week of therapy (PostT1); after 3 weeks of therapy (PostT2); and 1 month after the completion of therapy (PostT3). At each time, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in tumors and normal tissues. For reproducibility of the ADC measurement, five patients also had two separate pretreatment DWI scans at an interval of <2 weeks. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were evaluated at the same time as MR scans. Results: Thirteen tumors (peripheral zone = 10; transition zone = 3) were found. The mean ADC values for the tumors from PreTx to PostT3 were 0.86, 1.03, 1.15, and 1.26 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in sequence, respectively. Compared with PreTx, PostT1 (p = 0.005), PostT2 (p = 0.003), and PostT3 (p < 0.001) showed a significant increase in ADC values. The mean ADC values of the benign tissues from PreTx to PostT3 were 1.60, 1.58, 1.47, and 1.46 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in sequence, respectively. Reproducibility of ADC measurements was confirmed with a mean difference in ADC of -0.04 in peripheral zone and -0.017 in transition zone between two separate pretreatment MR scans. The mean PSA levels from PreTx to PostT3 were 9.05, 9.18, 9.25, and 4.11 ng/mL in sequence, respectively. Conclusions: DWI, as a reproducible biomarker, has the potential to evaluate the early therapeutic changes of PC to radiotherapy.

Park, Sung Yoon [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Kyo, E-mail: chankyokim@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Kwan [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won; Park, Hee Chul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Deok Hyun [Department of Urology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bohyun [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States)

2012-06-01

306

Preferential interaction coefficient for nucleic acids and other cylindrical poly-ions

The thermodynamics of nucleic acid processes is heavily affected by the electric double-layer of micro-ions around the polyions. We focus here on the Coulombic contribution to the salt-polyelectrolyte preferential interaction (Donnan) coefficient and we report extremely accurate analytical expressions valid in the range of low salt concentration (when polyion radius is smaller than the Debye length). The analysis is performed at Poisson-Boltzmann level, in cylindrical geometry, with emphasis on highly charged poly-ions (beyond ``counter-ion condensation''). The results hold for any electrolyte of the form $z_-$:$z_+$. We also obtain a remarkably accurate expression for the electric potential in the vicinity of the poly-ion.

E. Trizac; G. Tellez

2007-04-04

307

This study aims to compare the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in the first 24 h of acute hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in piglets. Twenty-five 7-day-old piglets were subjected to transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion followed by ventilation with 4% oxygen for 1 h. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and (1)H-MRS were performed on cessation of the insult or at 3, 6, 12 or 24 h after resuscitation (all n=5). ADCs, N-acetylaspartate/choline (NAA/Cho), NAA/creatine (NAA/Cr), lactate/NAA (Lac/NAA), Lac/Cho and Lac/Cr were calculated. Cerebral injury was evaluated by pathological study and Hsp70 immunohistochemical analysis. On cessation of the insult, ADCs, NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr reduced, Lac/NAA, Lac/Cho and Lac/Cr increased. From 3 to 12 h after resuscitation, ADCs, Lac/NAA, Lac/Cho and Lac/Cr recovered, NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr reduced. Twenty-four hours after resuscitation, ADCs reduced once more, Lac/NAA, Lac/Cho and Lac/Cr increased again, whereas NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr decreased continuously. Pathological study revealed mild cerebral edema on cessation of the insult and more and more severe cerebral injury after resuscitation. No Hsp70-positive cells were detected on cessation of the insult. From 3 to 12 hours after resuscitation, Hsp70-positive cells gradually increased. Twenty-four hours after resuscitation, Hsp70-positive cells decreased. Throughout the experiment, changes in NAA/Cho and pathology had the best correlation (R=-0.729). In conclusion, NAA/Cho is the most precise ratio to reflect the pathological changes of early HIBD. Transient ADCs and Lac ratios recovery do not predict the reversal of histological damage of early HIBD. Reducing astrocytic swelling is of great clinical significance. PMID:20071123

Li, Yang-Kang; Liu, Guo-Rui; Zhou, Xiu-Guo; Cai, Ai-Qun

2010-05-01

308

Diffusion length damage coefficient and annealing studies in proton-irradiated InP

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the measurement of the diffusion length damage coefficient (K(sub L)) and the annealing characteristics of the minority carrier diffusion length (L(sub n)) in Czochralski-grown zinc-doped indium phosphide (InP), with a carrier concentration of 1 x 10(exp l8) cm(exp -3). In measuring K(sub L) irradiations were made with 0.5 MeV protons with fluences ranging from 1 x 10(exp 11) to 3 x 10(exp 13) cm(exp -2). Pre- and post-irradiation electron-beam induced current (EBIC) measurements allowed for the extraction of L(sub n) from which K(sub L) was determined. In studying the annealing characteristics of L(sub n) irradiations were made with 2 MeV protons with fluence of 5 x 10(exp 13) cm(exp -2). Post-irradiation studies of L(sub n) with time at room temperature, and with minority carrier photoinjection and forward-bias injection were carried out. The results showed that recovery under Air Mass Zero (AMO) photoinjection was complete. L(sub n) was also found to recover under forward-bias injection, where recovery was found to depend on the value of the injection current. However, no recovery of L(sub n) after proton irradiation was observed with time at room temperature, in contrast to the behavior of 1 MeV electron-irradiated InP solar cells reported previously.

Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Bailey, Sheila G.; Williams, Wendell

1993-01-01

309

Purpose: To assess the relation between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and degenerative disc disease emerging in association with various intrinsic and extrinsic factors and to evaluate the correlation between degree of degeneration in intervertebral discs and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Methods: Thirty-five patients with AS and a control group of 35 patients were included in the study. Three hundred fifty intervertebral discs were assessed in terms of degeneration by analyzing signal intensities and morphologies on T2 weighted series of a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. ADC values were determined in diffusion weighted images (DWI) using a “b value of 500 s/mm2”. Patients in the AS and control groups were compared in terms of intervertebral disc degeneration, and association between degree of degeneration and ADC values was analyzed. Results: The mean of total degeneration degrees for five lumbar intervertebral discs was significantly higher in the patients with AS compared to the control group (16.77±4.67 vs 13.00±4.08, respectively; P=0.001). When intervertebral discs were analyzed separately, disc degeneration was again significantly higher in patients with AS compared to the control group, with the exception of L5-S1. Age, cholesterol level, triglyceride level, duration of disease and BASFI index were significantly associated with degree of degeneration in patients with AS. A negative correlation was determined between disc degeneration and ADC value. Conclusion: AS is a risk factor for degenerative disc disease due to its systemic effects, the fact it leads to posture impairment and its inflammatory effects on the vertebrae. A decrease in ADC values is observed as degeneration worsens in degenerative disc disease. PMID:25785119

Resorlu, Mustafa; Gokmen, Ferhat; Resorlu, Hatice; Adam, Gurhan; Akbal, Ayla; Cevizci, Sibel; Sariyildirim, Abdullah; Savas, Yilmaz; Guven, Mustafa; Aras, Adem Bozkurt

2015-01-01

310

Ion radial diffusion in an electrostatic impulse model for stormtime ring current formation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Guiding-center simulations of stormtime transport of ring-current and radiation-belt ions having first adiabatic invariants mu is approximately greater than 15 MeV/G (E is approximately greater than 165 keV at L is approximately 3) are surprisingly well described (typically within a factor of approximately less than 4) by the quasilinear theory of radial diffusion. This holds even for the case of an individual model storm characterized by substorm-associated impulses in the convection electric field, provided that the actual spectrum of the electric field is incorporated in the quasilinear theory. Correction of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient D(sub LL)(sup ql) for drift-resonance broadening (so as to define D(sub LL)(sup ql)) reduced the typical discrepancy with the diffusion coefficients D(sub LL)(sup sim) deduced from guiding-center simulations of representative-particle trajectories to a factor of approximately 3. The typical discrepancy was reduced to a factor of approximately 1.4 by averaging D(sub LL)(sup sim), D(sub LL)(sup ql), and D(sub LL)(sup rb) over an ensemble of model storms characterized by different (but statistically equivalent) sets of substorm-onset times.

Chen, Margaret W.; Schulz, Michael; Lyons, Larry R.; Gorney, David J.

1992-01-01

311

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rates of recombination of NO('+) and O(,2)('+)(.)O(,2) dimer ions with electrons as a function of electron temperature have been deter- mined using a microwave-afterglow/mass -spectrometer apparatus employing microwave heating of electrons. The recombination rates for these ions are of importance for modeling the upper atmosphere. The electron temperature T(,e) was found to vary spatially throughout the plasma and an improved data analysis method had to be developed. This data analysis method was used in the present studies to determine the recombination rate coefficient (alpha). The results of the recombination studies of NO('+) ions with. electrons as a function of electron temperature can be represented by the simple power law dependence. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). over the electron temperature range 295 K (LESSTHEQ) T(,e) (LESSTHEQ) 4500 K. This measurement is in agreement with other experimental determinations of (alpha)(NO('+)). The results of the recombination studies of O(,2)('+)(.)O(,2) dimer ions with electrons can be expressed by the power law. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). over the range 143 K (LESSTHEQ) T(,e) (LESSTHEQ) 5500 K. This is the first measurement of the O(,2)('+)(.)O(,2) dimer ion recombination rate coefficient at elevated electron temperatures. The room temperature value of the recombination coefficient is consistent with room temperature values for other dimer ions, i.e. (TURN)10('-6) cm('3)/sec. Also, a comprehensive review of previous microwave afterflow studies was made to determine the possible effect of the non-uniformity of the electron temperature on the data analysis of those experiments. It is found that the essential conclusions of most (but not all) of the previous afterglow studies are still valid, but that the interpretation of the data should be modified.

Dulaney, Jeff L.

312

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two parameterizations of the resonant wave-particle interactions of electrons with ULF waves in the magnetosphere by Brautigam and Albert [2000] and Ozeke et al. [2012] are evaluated using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) diffusion code to estimate the effect of changing a diffusion coefficient on the radiation belt simulation. The period of investigation includes geomagnetically quiet and active time. The simulations take into account wave-particle interactions represented by radial diffusion transport, local acceleration, losses due to pitch-angle diffusion, and mixed diffusion. 1. Brautigam, D. H., and J. M. Albert (2000), Radial diffusion analysis of outer radiation belt electrons during the October 9, 1990, magnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 105(A1), 291-309, doi:10.1029/1999JA900344 2. Ozeke, L. G., I. R. Mann, K. R. Murphy, I. J. Rae, D. K. Milling, S. R. Elkington, A. A. Chan, and H. J. Singer (2012), ULF wave derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A04222, doi:10.1029/2011JA017463.

Drozdov, Alexander; Mann, Ian; Baker, Daniel N.; Subbotin, Dmitriy; Ozeke, Louis; Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam

313

Planar, buried, ion-exchanged glass waveguides - Diffusion characteristics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of Ag(+)-Na(+) exchange in soda-lime silicate glasses in a molten bath containing a mixture of NaNO3 and Ag(+) is performed. Concentration profiles obtained using backscattered electrons in an SEM indicate that with no applied field the profile is given by the complementary error function. The estimated 0.133 sq micron/min self-diffusion coefficient value for low concentrations monotonically increases with surface concentration, C(0), until it saturates at about 0.3 sq microns/min for C(0) greater than 0.001 MF, though square root dependence of diffusion depth with time is independent of C(0). The effective depth of diffusion increases with an external field. Experimental results confirmed theoretical predictions, and a 15.55 sq micron/V mobility-of-Ag(+)-in-glass value was obtained. Finally, a two-step process is modified by performing a second diffusion in pure sodium nitrate to produce a buried symmetrical fiber-like profile.

Ramaswamy, R. V.; Najafi, S. I.

1986-06-01

314

). In this technique, the hydrogen fugac- ity (fH2) in the vapour phase of an H2O-containing sample system (ss), and (b) the container of the sample needs to be a good osmotic mem- brane for hydrogen (Chou, 1986Determination of diffusion coefficients of hydrogen in fused silica between 296 and 523 K by Raman

Zhang, Youxue

315

The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is an attractive method for measuring the minority carrier diffusion length of solar cells. It has the advantage of not requiring permanent sample contacts. It does require, however, an accurate knowledge of the absorption coefficient-wavelength (?-?) relationship. This relationship is well known for single-crystal silicon and SPV plots are linear for such materials. However, for

I. G. Hwang; D. K. Schroder; J. H. Wohlgemuth

1993-01-01

316

Author's personal copy Quaternary diffusion coefficients for the sucroseNaClKClwater system at 25 C

precision. Â© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Carbohydrates are essential components of biological systems. They are not only the main energy source for living organisms but they are essential of component i. We write the volume-fixed diffusion coefficients as: (Dij)V [5]. It is common practice

Annunziata, Onofrio

317

This paper concerns an analysis of the behavior of ionic conducting oxides brought into a chemical potential gradient, and the development of an experimental procedure for the determination of the diffusion coefficients of the most mobile species, in these materials as well as in mixed conducting compounds. The principle of the method is to place the sample between short-circuited reversible

G Petot-Ervas; C Petot

1999-01-01

318

Electron-Ion Recombination Rate Coefficient Measurements in a Flowing Afterglow Plasma

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flowing-afterglow technique in conjunction with computer modeling of the flowing plasma has been used to determine accurate dissociative-recombination rate coefficients alpha for the ions O2(+), HCO(+), CH5(+), C2H5(+), H3O(+), CO2(+), HCO2(+), HN2O(+), and N2O(+) at 295 K. We find that the simple form of data analysis that was employed in earlier experiments was adequate and we largely confirm earlier results. In the case of HCO(+) ions, published coefficients range from 1.1 X 10(exp -7) to 2.8 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S, while our measurements give a value of 1.9 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S.

Gougousi, Theodosia; Golde, Michael F.; Johnsen, Rainer

1996-01-01

319

Determination of dendrigraft poly-L-lysine diffusion coefficients by taylor dispersion analysis.

This work focuses on the physicochemical characterization of dendrigraft poly-L-lysines (DGLs) obtained by polymerization of N-carboxyanhydride in buffered water (pH 6.5). Diffusion coefficients (D) and hydrodynamic radii (Rh) of five successive DGL generations were determined by Taylor dispersion analysis (TDA). To our knowledge, this is the first experimental work using TDA for the characterization of dendrimer-like structures. Experimental Rh values obtained by TDA were compared to those derived from dynamic light scattering and size exclusion chromatography coupled to a triple detection (refractive index, viscosimetry, and static light scattering). Significant differences were obtained, especially for the highest generations, as a result of the inherent contribution of aggregates to the light scattering intensity. For that reason, TDA was found to be the most appropriate technique for determining the D values of these hyperbranched macromolecules. Regarding their physicochemical behavior, the experimental results confirm that DGLs are very similar to trifunctional dendrimers (exponential growth of the molar mass, almost linear variation of the hydrodynamic radius, high branching density, and maximum of the intrinsic viscosity or of the free volume fraction for generation 4). PMID:17803275

Cottet, Hervé; Martin, Michel; Papillaud, Alain; Souaïd, Eddy; Collet, Hélène; Commeyras, Auguste

2007-10-01

320

Isotopic mass-dependence of metal cation diffusion coefficients in liquid water

Isotope distributions in natural systems can be highly sensitive to the mass (m) dependence of solute diffusion coefficients (D) in liquid water. Isotope geochemistry studies routinely have assumed that this mass dependence either is negligible (as predicted by hydrodynamic theories) or follows a kinetic-theory-like inverse square root relationship (D {proportional_to} m{sup -0.5}). However, our recent experimental results and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the mass dependence of D is intermediate between hydrodynamic and kinetic theory predictions (D {proportional_to} m{sup -{beta}} with 0 {<=} {beta} < 0.2 for Li{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, Mg{sup 2+}, and the noble gases). In this paper, we present new MD simulations and experimental results for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, and Ca{sup 2+} that confirm the generality of the inverse power-law relation D {proportional_to} m{sup -{beta}}. Our new findings allow us to develop a general description of the influence of solute valence and radius on the mass dependence of D for monatomic solutes in liquid water. This mass dependence decreases with solute radius and with the magnitude of solute valence. Molecular-scale analysis of our MD simulation results reveals that these trends derive from the exponent {beta} being smallest for those solutes whose motions are most strongly coupled to solvent hydrodynamic modes.

Bourg, I.C.; Richter, F.M.; Christensen, J.N.; Sposito, G.

2009-01-11

321

An in situ method of estimating the effective diffusion coefficient for a chemical constituent that diffuses into the primary porosity of a rock is developed by abruptly changing the concentration of the dissolved constituent in a borehole in contact with the rock matrix and monitoring the time-varying concentration. The experiment was conducted in a borehole completed in mudstone on the campus of the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Numerous tracer tests were conducted at this site, which left a residual concentration of sodium chloride in boreholes that diffused into the rock matrix over a period of years. Fresh water was introduced into a borehole in contact with the mudstone, and the time-varying increase of chloride was observed by monitoring the electrical conductivity (EC) at various depths in the borehole. Estimates of the effective diffusion coefficient were obtained by interpreting measurements of EC over 34 d. The effective diffusion coefficient at a depth of 36 m was approximately 7.8??10-6 m2/d, but was sensitive to the assumed matrix porosity. The formation factor and mass flux for the mudstone were also estimated from the experiment. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

Gebrekristos, R.A.; Shapiro, A.M.; Usher, B.H.

2008-01-01

322

Precise diffusion measurements of rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) dissolved in D{sub 2}O at concentrations between 50 and 200 ?M were carried out in the temperature range from 280 to 320 K using pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR). The obtained diffusion coefficients can be used as a calibration reference in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Besides measuring the diffusivity of Rh6G, the diffusion coefficient of the solvent in the same system could be determined in parallel by PFG-NMR as the resonances of water and Rh6G are well separated in the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum. To analyze the differences due to the isotope effect of the solvent (D{sub 2}O vs. H{sub 2}O), the correlation time ?{sub D} of Rh6G was measured by FCS in both D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O. The obtained isotopic correction factor, ?{sub D}(D{sub 2}O)/?{sub D}(H{sub 2}O) = 1.24, reflects the isotope effect of the solvent´s self-diffusion coefficients as determined previously by PFG-NMR.

Majer, G., E-mail: majer@is.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Melchior, J. P. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2014-03-07

323

Sensitivity coefficients to $\\\\alpha$-variation for fine-structure transitions in Carbon-like ions

We calculate sensitivity coefficients to $\\\\alpha$-variation for the fine-structure transitions (1,0) and (2,1) within $^3P_J[2s^2 2p^2]$ multiplet of the Carbon-like ions C I, N II, O III, Na VI, Mg VII, and Si IX. These transitions lie in the far infrared region and are in principle observable in astrophysics for high redshifts z~10. This makes them very promising candidates for

M. G. Kozlov; I. I. Tupitsyn; D. Reimers

2008-01-01

324

Lithium-ion diffusion mechanisms in the battery anode material Li(1+x)V(1-x)O?.

Layered Li(1+x)V(1-x)O2 has attracted recent interest as a potential low voltage and high energy density anode material for lithium-ion batteries. A greater understanding of the lithium-ion transport mechanisms is important in optimising such oxide anodes. Here, stoichiometric LiVO2 and Li-rich Li1.07V0.93O2 are investigated using atomistic modelling techniques. Lithium-ion migration is not found in LiVO2, which has also previously shown to be resistant to lithium intercalation. Molecular dynamics simulations of lithiated non-stoichiometric Li(1.07+y)V0.93O2 suggest cooperative interstitial Li(+) diffusion with favourable migration barriers and diffusion coefficients (D(Li)), which are facilitated by the presence of lithium in the transition metal layers; such transport behaviour is important for high rate performance as a battery anode. PMID:25008057

Panchmatia, Pooja M; Armstrong, A Robert; Bruce, Peter G; Islam, M Saiful

2014-10-21

325

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented to obtain ion chamber calibration coefficients relative to secondary standard reference chambers in electron beams using depth-ionization measurements. Results are obtained as a function of depth and average electron energy at depth in 4, 8, 12 and 18 MeV electron beams from the NRC Elekta Precise linac. The PTW Roos, Scanditronix NACP-02, PTW Advanced Markus and NE 2571 ion chambers are investigated. The challenges and limitations of the method are discussed. The proposed method produces useful data at shallow depths. At depths past the reference depth, small shifts in positioning or drifts in the incident beam energy affect the results, thereby providing a built-in test of incident electron energy drifts and/or chamber set-up. Polarity corrections for ion chambers as a function of average electron energy at depth agree with literature data. The proposed method produces results consistent with those obtained using the conventional calibration procedure while gaining much more information about the behavior of the ion chamber with similar data acquisition time. Measurement uncertainties in calibration coefficients obtained with this method are estimated to be less than 0.5%. These results open up the possibility of using depth-ionization measurements to yield chamber ratios which may be suitable for primary standards-level dissemination.

Muir, B. R.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

2014-10-01

326

Pyroxene-high silica rhyolite trace element partition coefficients measured by ion microprobe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyroxene-liquid trace element partition coefficients have been measured in situ by ion microprobe in high silica rhyolites. Partition coefficients are reported for La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Dy, Er, Yb, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Sr, Y, and Zr. The in situ analyses avoid the problem of contamination of the pyroxene phase by trace element-rich accessory mineral inclusions encountered in traditional bulk phenocryst-glass partitioning studies. Pyroxenes and glasses which have been analyzed are typical of high silica rhyolites worldwide. The samples analyzed are Bishop Tuff, California (augite, hypersthene); Sierra La Primavera, Mexico (ferrohedenbergite); and two samples of the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, Wyoming (ferroaugite). Rare earth element (REE) partition coefficient patterns are convex-upward and resemble patterns determined in less silicic bulk compositions. Partition coefficients for the REEs Sr, Zr, and Cr show correlations with the Mg# of clinopyroxene, suggesting that crystal composition influences the fine structure of partitioning patterns. The overall similarity of partitioning patterns between samples indicates that the partition coefficients determined in this study can be generally applied in the geochemical modeling of high silica rhyolites.

Sisson, T. W.

1991-06-01

327

Pyroxene-high silica rhyolite trace element partition coefficients measured by ion microprobe

Pyroxene-liquid trace element partition coefficients have been measured in situ by ion microprobe in high silica rhyolites. Partition coefficients are reported for La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Dy, Er, Yb, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Sr, Y, and Zr. The in situ analyses avoid the problem of contamination of the pyroxene phase by trace element-rich accessory mineral inclusions encountered in traditional bulk phenocryst-glass partitioning studies. Pyroxenes and glasses which have been analyzed are typical of high silica rhyolites worldwide. The samples analyzed are Bishop Tuff, California (augite, hypersthene): Sierra La Primavera, Mexico (ferrohedenbergite); and two samples of the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, Wyoming (ferroaugite). Rare earth element (REE) partition coefficient patterns are convex-upward and resemble patterns determined in less silicic bulk compositions. Partition coefficients for the REEs Sr, Zr, and Cr show correlations with the Mg{number sign} of clinopyroxene, suggesting that crystal composition influences the fine structure of partitioning patterns. The overall similarity of partitioning patterns between samples indicates that the partition coefficients determined in this study can be generally applied in the geochemical modeling of high silica rhyolites.

Sisson, T.W. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States))

1991-06-01

328

Fusion product measurements of the local ion thermal diffusivity in the PLT tokamak

Measurement of the gradient of the d-d fusion rate profile in an ohmic PLT plasma is used to deduce the gradient of the ion temperature and, thus, the local ion thermal diffusivity through an energy balance analysis. The inferred ion diffusivity is consistent with neoclassical theory.

Heidbrink, W.W.; Lovberg, J.; Strachan, J.D.; Bell, R.E.

1986-03-01

329

We investigate the individual activity coefficients of pure 1:1 and 2:1 electrolytes using our theory that is based on the competition of ion-ion (II) and ion-water (IW) interactions (Vincze et al., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 154507, 2010). The II term is computed from Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations on the basis of the implicit solvent model of electrolytes using hard sphere ions with Pauling radii. The IW term is computed on the basis of Born's treatment of solvation using experimental hydration free energies. The two terms are coupled through the concentration-dependent dielectric constant of the electrolyte. With this approach we are able to reproduce the nonmonotonic concentration dependence of the mean activity coefficient of pure electrolytes qualitatively without using adjustable parameters. In this paper, we show that the theory can provide valuable insight into the behavior of individual activity coefficients too. We compare our theoretical predictions against experimental data measured by electrochemical cells containing ion-specific electrodes. As in the case of the mean activity coefficients, we find good agreement for 2:1 electrolytes, while the accuracy of our model is worse for 1:1 systems. This deviation in accuracy is explained by the fact that the two competing terms (II and IW) are much larger in the 2:1 case so errors in the two separate terms have less effects. The difference of the excess chemical potentials of cations and anions (the ratio of activity coefficients) is determined by asymmetries in the properties of the two ions: charge, radius, and hydration free energies.

Mónika Valiskó; Dezs? Boda

2014-09-15

330

The accuracy and precision of isotopic analysis in Time-of-Flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) relies on the appropriate reduction of the dead-time and detector saturation effects, especially when analyzing species with high ion yields or present in high concentrations. Conventional approaches to avoid these problems are based on Poisson dead-time correction and/or an overall decrease of the total secondary ion intensity by reducing the target current. This ultimately leads to poor detection limits for the minor isotopes and high uncertainties of the measured isotopic ratios. An alternative strategy consists of the attenuation of those specific secondary ions that saturate the detector, providing an effective extension of the linear dynamic range. In this work, the selective attenuation of secondary ion signals (SASI) approach is applied to the study of oxygen transport properties in electroceramic materials by isotopic labeling with stable (18)O tracer and ToF-SIMS depth profiling. The better analytical performance in terms of accuracy and precision allowed a more reliable determination of the oxygen surface exchange and diffusion coefficients while maintaining good mass resolution and limits of detection for other minor secondary ion species. This improvement is especially relevant to understand the ionic transport mechanisms and properties of solid materials, such as the parallel diffusion pathways (e.g., oxygen diffusion through bulk, grain boundary, or dislocations) in electroceramic materials with relevant applications in energy storage and conversion devices. PMID:25647357

Téllez, Helena; Druce, John; Hong, Jong-Eun; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Kilner, John A

2015-03-01

331

This study investigated several knowledge gaps with respect to the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique for measurement of oxyanions (As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), PO4(3-), and V(V)) using the ferrihydrite and Metsorb™ binding layers. Elution efficiencies for each binding layer were higher with 1:20 dilutions, as analytical interferences for ICP-MS were minimised. Diffusion coefficients measured by diffusion cell and by DGT time-series experiments were found to agree well and generally agreed with previously reported values, although a range of diffusion coefficients have been reported for inorganic As and Se species. The relative binding affinity for both ferrihydrite and Metsorb™ was PO4(3-) ? As(V)>V(V) ? As(III)>Se(IV) > Se(VI) and effective binding capacities were measured in single ion solutions, and spiked synthetic freshwater and seawater, advising practical decisions about DGT monitoring. Under the conditions tested the performance of both ferrihydrite and Metsorb™ binding layers was directly comparable for As(V), As(III) Se(IV), V(V) and PO4(3-) over a deployment spanning ? 2 days for both freshwater and seawater. In order to return quantitative data for several analytes we recommend that the DGT method using either ferrihydrite or Metsorb™ be deployed for a maximum of 2 days in marine waters likely to contain high levels of the most strongly adsorbing oxyanions contaminants. The high pH, the competitive ions present in seawater and the identity of co-adsorbing ions affect the capacity of each binding layer for the analytes of interest. In freshwaters, longer deployment times can be considered but the concentration and identity of co-adsorbing ions may impact on quantitative uptake of Se(IV). This study found ferrihydrite-DGT outperformed Metsorb-DGT while previous studies have found the opposite, with variation in binding materials masses used being a likely reason. Clearly, preparation of both binding layers should always be optimised to produce the highest capacity possible, especially for seawater deployments. PMID:24216197

Price, Helen L; Teasdale, Peter R; Jolley, Dianne F

2013-11-25

332

In this study, time-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning images of the process of water diffusion in the skin that illustrate the enhancement in the backscattered intensities due to the increased water concentration are presented. In our experiments, the water concentration in the skin was increased by soaking the hand in water, and the same region of the skin was scanned and measured with the OCT system and a commercial moisture monitor every three minutes. To quantitatively analyze the moisture-related optical properties and the velocity of water diffusion in human skin, the attenuation coefficients of the skin, including the epidermis and dermis layers, were evaluated. Furthermore, the evaluated attenuation coefficients were compared with the measurements made using the commercial moisture monitor. The results demonstrate that the attenuation coefficient increases as the water concentration increases. Furthermore, by evaluating the positions of center-of mass of the backscattered intensities from OCT images, the diffusion velocity can be estimated. In contrast to the commercial moisture monitor, OCT can provide three-dimensional structural images of the skin and characterize its optical property, which together can be used to observe morphological changes and quantitatively evaluate the moisture-related attenuation coefficients in different skin layers. PMID:23529149

Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chang, Feng-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Shen, Su-Chin; Yuan, Ouyang; Yang, Chih-He

2013-01-01

333

A Green's function approach is developed from first principles to evaluate the power spectral density of conductance fluctuations caused by ion concentration fluctuations via diffusion in an electrolyte system. This is applied to simple geometric models of transmembrane ion channels to obtain an estimate of the magnitude of ion concentration fluctuation noise in the channel current. Pure polypeptide alamethicin forms stable ion channels with multiple conductance states in artificial phospholipid bilayers isolated onto tips of micropipettes with gigaohm seals. In the single-channel current recorded by voltage-clamp techniques, excess noise was found after the background instrumental noise and the intrinsic Johnson and shot noises were removed. The noise que to ion concentration fluctuations via diffusion was isolated by the dependence of the excess current noise on buffer ion concentration. The magnitude of the concentration fluctuation noise derived from experimental data lies within limits estimated using our simple geometric channel models. Variation of the noise magnitude for alamethicin channels in various conductance states agrees with theoretical prediction. PMID:9138563

Mak, D O; Webb, W W

1997-01-01

334

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASICON-type Na3V2(PO4)2F3 is employed as a promising cathode for sodium-ion batteries in order to explore the ion-migration mechanism and diffusion capability. Two kinds of Na sites, namely Na(1) site and Na(2) site exist in the crystal structure per formula unit to accommodate a total of three sodium ions. The ion at Na(2) site with half occupation extracts first and inserts the last due to its high chemical potential, while the whole extraction/insertion of two ions between 1.6 and 4.6 V vs. Na+/Na can produce three plateaus in charge/discharge processes because of the reorganization of ions. The first discharge capacity of 111.6 mAh g-1 with retention of 97.6% after 50 cycles could be obtained by electrochemical testing at 0.091C. Electrochemical activation and/or structural reorganization of the system by cycling could improve the diffusion coefficient of sodium with a comparatively large magnitude of 10-12 cm2 s-1, though many influences on the resistance factors also can be attributed to the cycling process. Such work is of fundamental importance to the progression of sodium-based batteries to be fully realized and be implemented over existing Li-ion based batteries.

Song, Weixin; Ji, Xiaobo; Wu, Zhengping; Yang, Yingchang; Zhou, Zhou; Li, Fangqian; Chen, Qiyuan; Banks, Craig E.

2014-06-01

335

Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient of Downwelling Irradiance: An Evaluation of Remote Sensing Methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength lambda from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda). There are two standard methods for the derivation of K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) from reflectance has also been developed. In this study, using K(sup -)(sub d)(490) and K(sup -)(sub d)(443) as examples, we compare the K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) values derived from the three methods using data collected in three different regions that cover oceanic and coastal waters, with K(sup -)(sub d)(490) ranging from approximately 0.04 to 4.0 per meter. The derived values are compared with the data calculated from in situ measurements of the vertical profiles of downwelling irradiance. The comparisons show that the two standard methods produced satisfactory estimates of K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) in oceanic waters where attenuation is relatively low but resulted in significant errors in coastal waters. The newly developed semianalytical method appears to have no such limitation as it performed well for both oceanic and coastal waters. For all data in this study the average of absolute percentage difference between the in situ measured and the semianalytically derived K(sup -)(sub d) is approximately 14% for lambda = 490 nm and approximately 11% for lambda = 443 nm.

Lee, Zhong-Ping; Darecki, Miroslaw; Carder, Kendall L.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Stramski, Dariusz; Rhea, W. Joseph

2005-01-01

336

SUMMARY This paper defines parameters which can be used to predict worst case migration from recycled PET bottles, with and without a functional barrier. Starting with a set of diffusion coefficients determined in well defined experimental conditions (temperature, presence or not of a solvent, with and without swelling effect), empirical equations for the diffusion coefficient of a migrant or a

P. Y. Pennarun; P. Dole; A. Feigenbaum

2004-01-01

337

A screening metric for diffusion limitations in lithium ion battery cathodes is derived using transition state theory and common materials properties. The metric relies on net activation barrier for lithium diffusion. ...

Moore, Charles J. (Charles Jacob)

2012-01-01

338

Matrix diffusion is an important transport process in geologic materials of low hydraulic conductivity. For predicting the fate and transport of contaminants, a detailed understanding of the diffusion processes in natural porous media is essential. In this study, diffusive tracer transport (iodide) was investigated in a variety of geologically different limestone and sandstone rocks. Porosity, structural and mineralogical composition, hydraulic

Thomas B Boving; Peter Grathwohl

2001-01-01

339

A direct field comparison was conducted to determine the dependency of gas exchange coefficient (k/sub x/) on the diffusion coefficient (D/sub x/). The study also sought to confirm the enhanced vertical exchange properties of limnocorrals and similar enclosures. Gas exchange coefficients for /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He were determined in a small northern Ontario lake, using a /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H spike to gain the necessary precision. The results indicate that the gas exchange coefficient is functionally dependent on the diffusion coefficient raised to the 1.22/sub -35//sup + > 12/ power (k/sub x/ = f(D/sub x//sup 1.22)), clearly supporting the stagnant film model of gas exchange. Limnocorrals were found to have gas exchange rates up to 1.7 times higher than the whole lake in spite of the observation of more calm surface conditions in the corral than in the open lake. 33 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

Torgersen, T.; Mathieu, G.; Hesslein, R.H.; Broecker, W.S.

1982-01-20

340

The ratio of the radial diffusion coefficient to mobility Dr\\/ mu exp has been measured for the first time in five gases at high E\\/N (ratio of electric field to gas number density). The range of E\\/N was as follows: helium 3

C. S. Lakshminarasimha; J. Lucas

1977-01-01

341

The diffusion coefficient of tubulin has been measured in the cytoplasm of eggs and embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. We have used brain tubulin, conjugated to dichlorotriazinyl-aminofluorescein, to inject eggs and embryos. The resulting distributions of fluorescence were perturbed by bleaching with a microbeam of light from the 488-nm line of an argon ion laser. Fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching was monitored with a sensitive video camera and photography of the television-generated image. With standard photometric methods, we have calibrated this recording system and measured the rates of fluorescence redistribution for tubulin, conjugated to dichlorotriazinyl-aminofluorescein, not incorporated into the mitotic spindle. The diffusion coefficient (D) was calculated from these data using Fick's second law of diffusion and a digital method for analysis of the photometric curves. We have tested our method by determining D for bovine serum albumin (BSA) under conditions where the value is already known and by measuring D for fluorescein-labeled BSA in sea urchin eggs with a standard apparatus for monitoring fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching. The values agree to within experimental error. Dcytoplasmtubulin = 5.9 +/- 2.2 X 10(-8) cm2/s; DcytoplasmBSA = 8.6 +/- 2.0 X 10(-8) cm2/s. Because DH2OBSA = 68 X 10(-8) cm2/s, these data suggest that the viscosity of sea urchin cytoplasm for protein is about eight times that of water and that most of the tubulin of the sea urchin cytoplasm exists as a dimer or small oligomer, which is unbound to structures that would impede its diffusion. Values and limitations of our method are discussed, and we draw attention to both the variations in D for single proteins in different cells and the importance of D for the upper limit to the rates of polymerization reactions. PMID:6501417

1984-01-01

342

Behavior of rate coefficients for ion-ion mutual neutralization, 300-550 K

Rate coefficients k{sub MN} have been measured for a number of anion neutralization reactions with Ar{sup +} and Kr{sup +} over the temperature range 300-550 K. For the first time, the data set includes anions of radicals and other short-lived species. In the present paper, we review these results and make note of correlations with reduced mass, electron binding energy of the anion (equivalent to the electron affinity of the corresponding neutral), and temperature, and compare with expectations from absorbing sphere models. An intriguing result is that the data for diatomic anions neutralized by Ar{sup +} and Kr{sup +} have k{sub MN} values close to 3 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 300 K, a figure which is lower than those for all of the polyatomic anions at 300 K except for SF{sub 5}{sup -}+ Kr{sup +}. For the polyatomic anions studied here, neutralized by Ar{sup +} and Kr{sup +}, the reduced mass dependence agrees with theory, on average, but we find a stronger temperature dependence of T{sup -0.9} than expected from the theoretical E{sup -0.5} energy dependence of the rate coefficient at thermal energies. The k{sub MN} show a weak dependence on the electron binding energy of the anion for the polyatomic species studied.

Miller, Thomas M.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Viggiano, A. A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117-5776 (United States)

2012-05-28

343

Plasma rate coefficients for electron-impact ionization of Xeq+ ions (q = 8, …, 17)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma rate coefficients (PRCs) for electron-impact single ionization of ground-state Xeq+ ions (q=8,\\ldots ,17) in the temperature range 2 × 105 ? 2 × 107 K have been derived from a combination of experimental cross-section data and results of distorted-wave calculations. For Xe8+ and Xe9+ new measurements were performed and thoroughly analyzed with respect to the contributions from different ionization mechanisms and the effects of long-lived excited states in the parent ion beams that had been employed in the experiments. In the same manner, previously published experimental data for the higher charge states were analyzed to extract the ground-configuration ionization cross sections and to derive the associated PRCs. The resulting temperature-dependent PRC functions were parameterized and the associated parameters are provided in tabular form. With the exception of Xe8+ the absolute uncertainties of the inferred rate coefficients are estimated to be +/- 10%. For Xe8+ the uncertainties are +/- 25% due to the necessary correction for strong metastable-ion contributions to the measured cross sections.

Borovik, A., Jr.; Gharaibeh, M. F.; Schippers, S.; Müller, A.

2015-02-01

344

Garnet/high-silica rhyolite trace element partition coefficients measured by ion microprobe

Garnet/liquid trace element partition coefficients have been measured in situ by ion microprobe in a rhyolite from Monache Mountain, California. Partition coefficients are reported for La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Dy, Er, Yb, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Sr, Y, and Zr. The in situ analyses avoid the problem of contamination of the garnet phase by trace element-rich accessory minerals encountered in traditional bulk phenocryst/matrix partitioning studies. The partitioning pattern for the rare earth elements (REEs, excluding Eu) is smooth and rises steeply from the light to the heavy REEs with no sharp kinks or changes in slope, unlike patterns for garnet /silicic liquid REE partitioning determined by bulk methods. This difference suggests that the previous determinations by bulk methods are in error, having suffered from contamination of the phenocryst separates. ?? 1992.

Sisson, T.W.; Bacon, C.R.

1992-01-01

345

Mutual Diffusion Coefficients and Densities at 298.15 K of Aqueous Mixtures of NaCl and Na2SO4 of California, Livermore, California 94550 Isothermal mutual diffusion coefficients (interdiffusion coefficients coefficients of systems of mutual interest. Felmy and Weare2 have described a method of estimat- ing diffusion

Annunziata, Onofrio

346

In this paper, a high pressure setup is presented for performing simultaneous measurements of Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity in multianvil apparatus for the purpose of enhancing the study of transport phenomena. Procedures for the derivation of Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity/conductivity, as well as their associated sources of errors, are presented in detail, using results obtained on the filled skutterudite, Ce(0.8)Fe(3)CoSb(12,) up to 12 GPa at ambient temperature. Together with recent resistivity and sound velocity measurements in the same apparatus, these developments not only provide the necessary data for a self-consistent and complete characterization of the figure of merit of thermoelectric materials under pressure, but also serve as an important tool for furthering our knowledge of the dynamics and interplay between these transport phenomena. PMID:23020390

Jacobsen, M K; Liu, W; Li, B

2012-09-01

347

Waterproofing, usually made of bitumen or polymers with various additives, is used to protect buildings mainly against dampness, but also against radon transported from the soil beneath the building. The radon diffusion coefficient is a material property which is considered to be strongly influenced by the inner structure (chemical composition, crystallinity) of a measured sample. We have used this parameter together with measurements of mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, etc.) and FTIR spectroscopy has been used in order to describe the changes in material properties induced by long-term degradation. This paper summarizes the results of radon diffusion coefficient measurements of waterproof materials exposed to radon, soil bacteria, high temperature and combinations of these factors. We have discovered changes as high as 83 % have been discovered compared to virgin samples. PMID:24748486

Navrátilová Rovenská, Katerina

2014-07-01

348

Heavy quark diffusion in pre-equilibrium stage of heavy ion collisions

The drag and diffusion coefficients of the heavy quarks have been evaluated in the pre-equilibrium phase which is expected to be formed in the early stages of the evolving fire ball produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. The interaction of the probe with the gluon in the pre-equilibrium phase has been treated within the framework of perturbative QCD. For the pre-equilibrium gluon distribution function we have used the KLN and Classical Yang Mills(CYM) models. It is observed that the magnitude of both the transport coefficients have significant values in the pre-equilibrium phase and comparable to the magnitudes obtained for kinetically equilibrated gluonic system. However, these values are larger than the value estimated for a chemically equilibrated quark gluon plasma. The results may have significant impact on the experimental observable like the suppression and elliptic flow of single electron spectra originating from the decays of heavy mesons produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies.

Santosh K. Das; Marco Ruggieri; Surasree Mazumder; Vincenzo Greco; Jan-e Alam

2015-01-29

349

Heavy quark diffusion in pre-equilibrium stage of heavy ion collisions

The drag and diffusion coefficients of the heavy quarks have been evaluated in the pre-equilibrium phase which is expected to be formed in the early stages of the evolving fire ball produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. The interaction of the probe with the gluon in the pre-equilibrium phase has been treated within the framework of perturbative QCD. For the pre-equilibrium gluon distribution function we have used the KLN and Classical Yang Mills(CYM) models. It is observed that the magnitude of both the transport coefficients have significant values in the pre-equilibrium phase and comparable to the magnitudes obtained for kinetically equilibrated gluonic system. However, these values are larger than the value estimated for a chemically equilibrated quark gluon plasma. The results may have significant impact on the experimental observable like the suppression and elliptic flow of single electron spectra originating from the decays of heavy mesons produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC a...

Das, Santosh K; Mazumder, Surasree; Greco, Vincenzo; Alam, Jan-e

2015-01-01

350

We report the results of experimental studies of the short-time-long-wavelength behavior of collective particle displacements in quasi-one-dimensional (q1D) and quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) colloid suspensions. Our results are reported via the q ? 0 behavior of the hydrodynamic function H(q) that relates the effective collective diffusion coefficient D(e)(q), with the static structure factor S(q) and the self-diffusion coefficient of isolated particles D(0): H(q) ? D(e)(q)S(q)/D(0). We find an apparent divergence of H(q) as q ? 0 with the form H(q) ? q(-?) (1.7 < ? < 1.9) for both q1D and q2D colloid suspensions. Given that S(q) does not diverge as q ? 0 we infer that D(e)(q) does. This behavior is qualitatively different from that of the three-dimensional H(q) and D(e)(q) as q ? 0, and the divergence is of a different functional form from that predicted for the diffusion coefficient in one-component one-dimensional and two-dimensional fluids not subject to boundary conditions that define the dimensionality of the system. We provide support for the contention that the boundary conditions that define a confined system play a very important role in determining the long-wavelength behavior of the collective diffusion coefficient from two sources: (i) the results of simulations of H(q) and D(e)(q) in quasi-1D and quasi-2D systems and (ii) verification, using data from the work of Lin, Rice and Weitz [Phys. Rev. E 51, 423 (1995)], of the prediction by Bleibel et al., arXiv:1305.3715, that D(e)(q) for a monolayer of colloid particles constrained to lie in the interface between two fluids diverges as q(-1) as q ? 0. PMID:25353468

Lin, Binhua; Cui, Bianxiao; Xu, Xinliang; Zangi, Ronen; Diamant, Haim; Rice, Stuart A

2014-02-01

351

The total diffuse attenuation coefficient of Photosynthetically Available Radiation (Kd(PAR)) is derived by optimising the solution of a surface layer model to match temperature profiles measured with a precision thermistor chain; a non?linear least?squares Levenberg?Marquardt scheme is applied to optimize Kd(PAR). The method was validated in Lake Kinneret (Israel) over 10 days in summer to early winter 2001, Valle de

Sri Adiyanti; Jörg Imberger

2007-01-01

352

We report the results of experimental studies of the short time-long wavelength behavior of collective particle displacements in quasi-one-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional colloid suspensions. Our results are represented by the behavior of the hydrodynamic function H(q) that relates the effective collective diffusion coefficient, D_e(q) with the static structure factor S(q) and the self-diffusion coefficient of isolated particles D_0: H(q)=D_e(q)S(q)/D_0. We find an apparent divergence of H(q) as q->0 with the form H(q) proportional to q^-gamma, 1.70 we infer that D_e(q) does. We provide evidence that this divergence arises from the interplay of boundary conditions on the flow of the carrier liquid and many-body hydrodynamic interactions between colloid particles that affect the long wavelength behavior of the particle collective diffusion coefficient in the suspension. We speculate that in the q1D and q2D systems studied the divergence of H(q) might be associated with a q-dependent partial slip boundary condition, specifically an effective slip length that increases with decreasing q. We also verify, using data from the work of Lin, Rice and Weitz (J. Chem. Phys. 99, 9585 (1993)), the prediction by Bleibel et al (arXiv:1305.3715), that D_e(q) for a monolayer of colloid particles constrained to lie in the interface between two fluids diverges as 1/q as q->0. The verification of that prediction, which is based on an analysis that allows two-dimensional colloid motion embedded in three-dimensional suspending fluid motion, supports the contention that the boundary conditions that define a q2D system play a very important role in determining the long wavelength behavior of the collective diffusion coefficient.

Binhua Lin; Bianxiao Cui; Xinliang Xu; Ronen Zangi; Haim Diamant; Stuart A. Rice

2013-08-29

353

Nd3+ ion diffusion during sintering of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics

Using an electron microprobe, we measured and characterized the Nd{sup 3+} ion diffusion across a boundary between Nd doped and undoped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) for different temperature ramps and hold times and temperatures. The results show significant Nd ion diffusion on the order of micrometers to tens of micrometers depending on the time and temperature of sintering. The data fit well a model including bulk diffusion, grain boundary diffusion and grain growth. Grain boundary diffusion dominates and grain growth limits grain boundary diffusion by reducing the total cross sectional area of grain boundaries.

Hollingsworth, J P; Kuntz, J D; Soules, T F

2008-10-24

354

An evaluation of energy-independent heavy ion transport coefficient approximations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilizing a one-dimensional transport theory for heavy ion propagation, evaluations of typical energy-dependent transport coefficient approximations are made by comparing theoretical depth-dose predictions to published experimental values for incident 670 MeV/nucleon Ne-20 beams in water. Results are presented for cases where the input nuclear absorption cross sections, or input fragmentation parameters, or both, are fixed. The lack of fragment charge and mass concentration resulting from the use of Silberberg-Tsao fragmentation parameters continues to be the main source of disagreement between theory and experiment.

Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

1988-01-01

355

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar wind is observed to display high speeds in high heliolatitude coronal holes and low speeds near the ecliptic plane. The heliospheric magnetic field associated with the solar wind plays a very important role in the transport and modulation of charged energetic particles, including galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs), in the three-dimensional heliosphere. In previous studies, a constant solar wind speed, which is independent of heliolatitude, was assumed and commonly used in modulation modeling of cosmic rays. In this work, we investigate the realistic latitudinally dependent solar wind speed and utilize the theoretical models in hyperbolic and piecewise polynomial forms to explore the important effects on the heliospheric magnetic field and the diffusion coefficients (parallel, perpendicular, and drift scale) of cosmic rays in the presence of adiabatic focusing. Comparisons of the diffusion coefficients derived from standard Parker field and modified magnetic fields are presented. Since the structures and properties of different solar wind sources (coronal streamer belt, polar coronal hole, and transition region between them) differ from each other in essence, we suggest that the latitudinally dependent solar wind speed and the corresponding heliospheric magnetic field and diffusion coefficients with adiabatic focusing should be employed in the global modeling studies of GCRs and SEPs in the heliosphere.

He, H.-Q.; Schlickeiser, R.

2015-02-01

356

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived fission gas release from fuel pellets during irradiation was investigated based on the experimental results of the gas-flow rigs irradiated in the Halden Heavy Water Reactor (HBWR). The release-to-birth ( R/ B) rates of short-lived fission gas were measured by means of gas-flow measurement during the irradiation experiments. Surface-to-volume ( S/ V) ratios of fuel pellets and diffusion coefficients of short-lived fission gas release were evaluated from the obtained ( R/ B) values. The increase of ( S/ V) ratio agreed well with the point where the fuel temperature exceeded the threshold of 1% fission gas release. This indicates that the interlinkage of fission gas bubbles occurred there. The evaluated diffusion coefficients scattered in the range between 10 -23 and 10 -17 m 2/s, and the effects of fuel type (UO 2 or MOX) were not clearly observed. In addition, it is likely that the restructuring effect of fuel pellet on the diffusion coefficients of short-lived fission gas at least in the fuel pellet matrix is negligible in high burnup region where the rim structure forms in the fuel pellet.

Amaya, Masaki; Grismanovs, Viktors; Tverberg, Terje

2010-07-01

357

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photochemical processes driven by high-energy ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in inshore, estuarine, and coastal waters play an important role in global bio geochemical cycles and biological systems. A key to modeling photochemical processes in these optically complex waters is an accurate description of the vertical distribution of UVR in the water column which can be obtained using the diffuse attenuation coefficients of down welling irradiance (Kd()). The Sea UV Sea UVc algorithms (Fichot et al., 2008) can accurately retrieve Kd ( 320, 340, 380,412, 443 and 490 nm) in oceanic and coastal waters using multispectral remote sensing reflectances (Rrs(), Sea WiFS bands). However, SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms are currently not optimized for use in optically complex, inshore waters, where they tend to severely underestimate Kd(). Here, a new training data set of optical properties collected in optically complex, inshore waters was used to re-parameterize the published SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, resulting in improved Kd() retrievals for turbid, estuarine waters. Although the updated SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms perform best in optically complex waters, the published SeaUVSeaUVc models still perform well in most coastal and oceanic waters. Therefore, we propose a composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, optimized for Kd() retrieval in almost all marine systems, ranging from oceanic to inshore waters. The composite algorithm set can retrieve Kd from ocean color with good accuracy across this wide range of water types (e.g., within 13 mean relative error for Kd(340)). A validation step using three independent, in situ data sets indicates that the composite SeaUVSeaUVc can generate accurate Kd values from 320 490 nm using satellite imagery on a global scale. Taking advantage of the inherent benefits of our statistical methods, we pooled the validation data with the training set, obtaining an optimized composite model for estimating Kd() in UV wavelengths for almost all marine waters. This optimized composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms will provide the optical community with improved ability to quantify the role of solar UV radiation in photochemical and photobiological processes in the ocean.

Cao, Fang; Fichot, Cedric G.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Miller, William L.

2014-01-01

358

ELECTRON-ION RECOMBINATION RATE COEFFICIENTS AND PHOTOIONIZATION CROSS SECTIONS FOR ASTROPHYSICALLY cross sections, recombination cross sections, and rate coefficients for photoionization of, and recombination to, Li-like O vi and He-like O vii. Relativistic fine structure is considered through the Breit

Nahar, Sultana Nurun

359

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform first-principles investigations of thermally activated phase transitions and diffusion in solids. The atomic scale energy landscapes are evaluated with first-principles total energy calculations for different structural and configurational microstates. Effective Hamiltonians constructed from the total energies are subjected to Monte Carlo simulations to study thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the solids at finite temperatures. Cubic to tetragonal martensitic phase transitions are investigated beyond the harmonic approximation. As an example, stoichiometric TiH2 is studied where a cubic phase becomes stable at high temperature while ab-initio energy calculations predict the cubic phase to be mechanically unstable with respect to tetragonal distortions at zero Kelvin. An anharmonic Hamiltonian is used to explain the stability of the cubic phase at higher temperature. The importance of anharmonic terms is emphasized and the true nature of the high temperature phase is elucidated beyond the traditional Landau-like explanation. In Li-ion battery electrodes, phase transitions due to atomic redistribution with changes in Li concentration occur with insertion (removal) of Li-ions during discharge (charge). A comprehensive study of the thermodynamics and the non-dilute Li-diffusion mechanisms in spinel-Li1+xTi2 O4 is performed. Two distinct phases are predicted at different lithium compositions. The predicted voltage curve qualitatively matches with experimental observation. The predicted fast diffusion arises from crystallographic features unique to the spinel crystal structure elucidating the crucial role of crystal structure on Li diffusion in intercalation compounds. Effects of anion and guest species on diffusion are elucidated with Li- and Cu-diffusion in spinel-LixTiS2. We predict strong composition dependence of the diffusion coefficients. A unique feature about spinel-LixTiS2 is that the intermediate site of a Li-hop is coordinated by four Li-sites. This results in di- and triple-vacancy mechanisms at non-dilute concentrations with very different migration barriers. The strong dependence of hop mechanisms on local Li-arrangement is at the origin of large concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficients. This contrasts with spinel-Li xTiO2 where the transition states are coordinated only by the end states of the hop, thereby restricting hops to a single vacancy mechanism. Cu ions are predicted to have much slower diffusion rate in TiS 2 host compared to Li ions.

Bhattacharya, Jishnu

360

A moments equation formalism for the interpretation of the experimental ion thermal diffusivity from experimental data is used to determine the radial ion thermal conduction flux that must be used to interpret the measured data. It is shown that the total ion energy flux must be corrected for thermal and rotational energy convection, for the work done by the flowing plasma against the pressure and viscosity, and for ion orbit loss of particles and energy, and expressions are presented for these corrections. Each of these factors is shown to have a significant effect on the interpreted ion thermal diffusivity in a representative DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] discharge.

Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Tech Fusion Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)] [Georgia Tech Fusion Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

2014-04-15

361

Molecular translational self-diffusion, a measure of diffusive motion, provides information on the effective molecular hydrodynamic radius, as well as information on the properties of media or solution through which the molecule diffuses. Protein translational diffusion measured by pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) has seen increased application in structure and interaction studies, as structural changes or protein-protein interactions are often accompanied by alteration of their effective hydrodynamic radii. Unlike the analysis of complex mixtures by PFG-NMR, for monitoring changes of protein translational diffusion under various conditions, such as different stages of folding/unfolding, a partial region of the spectrum or even a single resonance is sufficient. We report translational diffusion coefficients measured by PFG-NMR with a modified stimulated echo (STE) sequence where band-selective pulses are employed for all three (1)H RF pulses. Compared with conventional non-selective sequence, e.g. the BPP-LED sequence, the advantage of this modified band-selective excitation short transient (BEST) version of STE (BEST-STE) sequence is multi-fold, namely: (1) potential sensitivity gain as in generalized BEST-based sequences, (2) water suppression is no longer required as the magnetization of solvent water is not perturbed during the measurement, and (3) dynamic range problems due to the presence of intense resonances from molecules other than the protein or peptide of interest, such as non-deuterated detergent micelles, are avoided. PMID:24824112

Yao, Shenggen; Weber, Daniel K; Separovic, Frances; Keizer, David W

2014-07-01

362

Estimation of Diffusion Coefficient of Lithium in Carbon Using AC Impedance Technique

in a lithium-ion battery from ac impedance measurement is of great interest to us.1-6 Basically, the impedance are used to esti- mate this parameter. Among the methods developed to estimate Ds of a lithium-ion such as the steady-state lithium-ion concentration, c0 , surface con- centration, cs , of intercalation species

363

Purpose Quantitative quality control procedures were sought to evaluate technical variability in multi-center measurements of the diffusion coefficient of water as a prerequisite to use of the biomarker apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in multi-center clinical trials. Materials and Methods A uniform data acquisition protocol was developed and shared with 18 participating test sites along with a temperature-controlled diffusion phantom delivered to each site. Usable diffusion weighted imaging data of ice water at 5 b-values were collected on 35 clinical MRI systems from 3 vendors at 2 field strengths (1.5 and 3T) and analyzed at a central processing site. Results Standard deviation of bore-center ADCs measured across 35 scanners was <2%; error range: ?2% to +5% from literature value. Day-to-day repeatability of the measurements was within 4.5%. Intra-exam repeatability at the phantom center was within 1%. Excluding one outlier, inter-site reproducibility of ADC at magnet isocenter was within 3%, though variability increased for off-center measurements. Significant (>10%) vendor-specific and system-specific spatial non-uniformity ADC bias was detected for the off-center measurement that was consistent with gradient non-linearity. Conclusion Standardization of DWI protocol has improved reproducibility of ADC measurements and allowed identifying spatial ADC non-uniformity as a source of error in multi-site clinical studies. PMID:23023785

Malyarenko, Dariya; Galbán, Craig J.; Londy, Frank J.; Meyer, Charles R.; Johnson, Timothy D.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D.; Chenevert, Thomas L.

2012-01-01

364

that a protein concentration gradient induces salt diffusion from high to low protein concentration. This effect concentration gradients occur.7,8 Furthermore, applications in which convection is minimized with respect, Dii, links the flux of solute i to its own concentration gradient, while each cross-term diffusion

Annunziata, Onofrio

365

Use of NMR Imaging to Determine the Diffusion Coefficient of Water in Bio-based Hydrogels

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diffusion of liquid in a hydrogel material is a fundamental property which must be controlled in order to create effective delivery systems for the agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. NMR spectroscopy has been used to determine the diffusion of water and deuterium oxide in a bio-based h...

366

One- and two-dimensional simulations have been carried out to study electrostatic ion cyclotron instabilities for a hydrogen plasma in a strong magnetic field. It is found that strong ion heating and anomalous cross-field diffusion comparable to Bohm diffusion take place associated with the instability. Implications of the instability to the recent observations in fusion devices and space plasmas are discussed.

Okuda, H.; Cheng, C.Z.; Lee, W.W.

1980-11-01

367

Protein Diffusion Coefficients Determined by Macroscopic-Gradient Rayleigh Interferometry and

coefficients. Contrary to classical techniques based on macroscopic concentration gradients, DLS probes microscopic fluctuations in concentration. DLS accuracy and its concordance with macroscopic-gradient of concentration gradients. Forabinarysolution,thediffusioncoefficient, D,isdefined by Fick's first law where J

Annunziata, Onofrio

368

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ions and the diffuse interstellar bands

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neutral naphthalene (C10H8), phenanthrene (C14H10), and pyrene (C16H10) absorb strongly in the ultraviolet and may contribute to the extinction curve. High abundances are required to produce detectable structures. The cations of these Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb in the visible. C10H8(+) has 12 discrete absorption bands which fall between 6800 and 5000 A. The strongest band at 6741 A falls close to the weak 6742 A diffuse interstellar band (DIB). Five other weaker bands also match DIBs. The possibility that C10H8(+) is responsible for some of the DIBs can be tested by searching for new DIBS at 6520, 6151, and 5965 A, other moderately strong naphthalene cation band positions. If C10H8(+) is indeed responsible for the 6742 A feature, it accounts for 0.3% of the cosmic carbon. The spectrum of C16H10(+) is dominated by a strong band at 4435 A in an Ar matrix and 4395 A in a Ne matrix, a position which falls very close to the strongest DIB, that at 4430 A. If C16H10(+), or a closely related pyrene-like ion is indeed responsible for the 4430 A feature, it accounts for 0.2% of the cosmic carbon. We also report an intense, very broad UV-to-visible continuum which is associated with both ions and could explain how PAHs convert interstellar UV and visible radiation into IR.

Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.

1995-01-01

369

Molecular diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism for contaminants in many saturated clay-rich aquitards. The effective coefficient of diffusion (Da) is traditionally determined by conducting laboratory tests on cm-scale core samples that may not be representative of the bulk geologic formation. Here we conducted the first long-term field based in situ diffusion experimentto compare the effect of experimental scale (5 x 10(-5) m3 in the diffusion cells and (5-20) x 10(-2) m3 in the in situ experiments) on De values for clay-rich aquitards. Using a conservative tracer (deuterium), our testing shows De values estimated from in situ testing ((2.5-3.5) x 10(-10) m2 s(-1)) are similar but lower than the average De values measured in the laboratory (4 x 10(-10) m2 s(-1)). The difference was attributed to greater porosity values in the laboratory samples resulting from core barrel extrusion and sample swelling. With representative core sampling and care, laboratory-based diffusion testing remains a viable method to assess solute transport mechanisms in clay aquitards. PMID:19764242

Hendry, M Jim; Barbour, S Lee; Boldt-Leppin, Brigitte E J; Reifferscheid, Laura J; Wassenaar, Leonard I

2009-09-01

370

A generalized theory of the steady-state voltammetric response of a microelectrode in the absence of supporting electrolyte and for any values of diffusion coefficients of the substrate and the product of an electrode process is presented. The treatment applies to any reasonable combination of the charge numbers of the substrate, its counterion, and the product. A way to incorporate the activation polarization into the model is also demonstrated. It has been shown that the height, position, and shape of the migrational voltammogram are affected by the ratio of the product to substrate diffusivity (theta). In particular, for the electrode processes with sign retention, unequal diffusivities of electroactive species influence both characteristic points of the voltammogram (the limiting current and the half-wave potential). For charge neutralization processes (uncharged product), the changes in theta parameter are accompanied only by a shift in the half-wave potential. The most dramatic changes in the I-E relation can be observed for the charge reversal processes. In this case, a consecutive increase in theta results in the transition of the voltammogram shape from rapid exponential growth (theta < 1), through ramp shape (theta = 1), to common wave shape (theta > 1). On the basis of the expressions derived for the limiting current (exact and linearized), a possibility of the determination of the diffusion coefficient of the electrode reaction product is demonstrated. In addition, the ranges of theta where the assumption of equal diffusivities of the substrate and the product is obeyed within an insignificant error have been determined quantitatively. The theory has been experimentally verified using voltammetric oxidation of hexacyanoferrate(II). PMID:12349987

Hyk, Wojciech; Stojek, Zbigniew

2002-09-15

371

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method to measure thermodiffusion and Fickian diffusion in transparent binary solutions. The measuring instrument consists of two orthogonally aligned phase-shifting interferometers coupled with a single rotating polarizer. This high-resolution interferometer, initially developed to measure isothermal diffusion coefficients in liquid systems [J. F. Torres, A. Komiya, E. Shoji, J. Okajima, and S. Maruyama, Opt. Lasers Eng. 50, 1287 (2012)], was modified to measure transient concentration profiles in binary solutions subject to a linear temperature gradient. A convectionless thermodiffusion field was created in a binary solution sample that is placed inside a Soret cell. This cell consists of a parallelepiped cavity with a horizontal cross-section area of 10 × 20 mm2, a variable height of 1-2 mm, and transparent lateral walls. The small height of the cell reduces the volume of the sample, shortens the measurement time, and increases the hydrodynamic stability of the system. An additional free diffusion experiment with the same optical apparatus provides the so-called contrast factors that relate the unwrapped phase and concentration gradients, i.e., the measurement technique is independent and robust. The Soret coefficient is determined from the concentration and temperature differences between the upper and lower boundaries measured by the interferometer and thermocouples, respectively. The Fickian diffusion coefficient is obtained by fitting a numerical solution to the experimental concentration profile. The method is validated through the measurement of thermodiffusion in the well-known liquid pairs of ethanol-water (ethanol 39.12 wt.%) and isobutylbenzene-dodecane (50.0 wt.%). The obtained coefficients agree with the literature values within 5.0%. Finally, the developed technique is applied to visualize biomolecular thermophoresis. Two protein aqueous solutions at 3 mg/ml were used as samples: aprotinin (6.5 kDa)-water and lysozyme (14.3 kDa)-water. It was found that the former protein molecules are thermophilic and the latter thermophobic. In contrast to previously reported methods, this technique is suitable for both short time and negative Soret coefficient measurements.

Torres, Juan F.; Komiya, Atsuki; Henry, Daniel; Maruyama, Shigenao

2013-08-01

372

We have developed a method to measure thermodiffusion and Fickian diffusion in transparent binary solutions. The measuring instrument consists of two orthogonally aligned phase-shifting interferometers coupled with a single rotating polarizer. This high-resolution interferometer, initially developed to measure isothermal diffusion coefficients in liquid systems [J. F. Torres, A. Komiya, E. Shoji, J. Okajima, and S. Maruyama, Opt. Lasers Eng. 50, 1287 (2012)], was modified to measure transient concentration profiles in binary solutions subject to a linear temperature gradient. A convectionless thermodiffusion field was created in a binary solution sample that is placed inside a Soret cell. This cell consists of a parallelepiped cavity with a horizontal cross-section area of 10 × 20 mm(2), a variable height of 1-2 mm, and transparent lateral walls. The small height of the cell reduces the volume of the sample, shortens the measurement time, and increases the hydrodynamic stability of the system. An additional free diffusion experiment with the same optical apparatus provides the so-called contrast factors that relate the unwrapped phase and concentration gradients, i.e., the measurement technique is independent and robust. The Soret coefficient is determined from the concentration and temperature differences between the upper and lower boundaries measured by the interferometer and thermocouples, respectively. The Fickian diffusion coefficient is obtained by fitting a numerical solution to the experimental concentration profile. The method is validated through the measurement of thermodiffusion in the well-known liquid pairs of ethanol-water (ethanol 39.12 wt.%) and isobutylbenzene-dodecane (50.0 wt.%). The obtained coefficients agree with the literature values within 5.0%. Finally, the developed technique is applied to visualize biomolecular thermophoresis. Two protein aqueous solutions at 3 mg?ml were used as samples: aprotinin (6.5 kDa)-water and lysozyme (14.3 kDa)-water. It was found that the former protein molecules are thermophilic and the latter thermophobic. In contrast to previously reported methods, this technique is suitable for both short time and negative Soret coefficient measurements. PMID:23968083

Torres, Juan F; Komiya, Atsuki; Henry, Daniel; Maruyama, Shigenao

2013-08-21

373

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion compounds between iron II lactate and three different cyclodextrins (CDs) were studied by means of experimental and theoretical data. The importance of iron II in the human metabolism effort the necessity of a minimum concentration to the human life. Malnutrition is one great problem in social politics of many countries on the world. The possibility to the development of novel medicines with the iron II species stable look for an increase on the efficiency for this kind of aid. Kinetics measurements confirm the possibility to stop the oxidation reaction. It was the first indication of efficient molecular encapsulation. Diffusion coefficient measurements were carried out by Taylor-Aris diffusion technique. The decrease of diffusion coefficients measured for iron II lactate when alone and forming the inclusion complexes was obtained for all hosts molecules used. Molecular Mechanics calculations were performed to elucidate the perfect arrange of iron II lactate inside CDs cavity. No great differences were obtained to the binding energy for the different hosts. Using the software HyperChem6.03v MM+, AMBER94 and OPLS Forced Fields for iron atom in two chemical environments (a) vacuum and (b) with addition of 250 water molecules (MM+). The solvent treatment was decisive to the order of stability. This order was ?-CD>?-CD>?-CD, the same order of solubility in water. The results contained in this work confirm the possibility to protect iron II lactate against oxidation.

Leite, Rosiley A.; Lino, Antonio C. S.; Takahata, Yuji

2003-01-01

374

The radon exhalation rate at the earth's surface from soil or rock with radium as its source is the main mechanism behind the radon activity concentrations observed in both indoor and outdoor environments. During the last two decades, many subsurface radon transport models have used Rogers and Nielson's formula for modeling the unsaturated soil bulk radon diffusion coefficient. This formula uses an "air-filled effective porosity" to account for radon adsorption and radon dissolution in the groundwater. This formula is reviewed here, and its hypotheses are examined for accuracy in dealing with subsurface radon transport problems. The author shows its limitations by comparing one dimensional steady-state analytical solutions of the two-phase (air/water) transport equation (Fick's law) with Rogers and Nielson's formula. For radon diffusion-dominated transport, the calculated Rogers and Nielson's radon exhalation rate is shown to be unrealistic as it is independent of the values of the radon adsorption and groundwater dissolution coefficients. For convective and diffusive transport, radon exhalation rates calculated using Fick's law and this formula agree only for high values of gas-phase velocity and groundwater saturation. However, these conditions are not usually met in most shallow subsurface environments where radon migration takes place under low gas phase velocities and low water saturation. PMID:24670909

Saâdi, Zakaria

2014-05-01

375

Solute diffusion in liquid metals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas model of diffusion in liquid metals is presented. In this model, ions of liquid metals are assumed to behave like the molecules in a dense gas. Diffusion coefficient of solute is discussed with reference to its mass, ionic size, and pair potential. The model is applied to the case of solute diffusion in liquid silver. An attempt was made to predict diffusion coefficients of solutes with reasonable accuracy.

Bhat, B. N.

1973-01-01

376

Mass loading and velocity diffusion models for heavy pickup ions at comet Grigg-Skjellerup

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compare model predictions of cometary water group ion densities and the solar wind slow down with measurements made by the Giotto Johnstone plasma analyzer implanted ion sensor at the encounter with comet Grigg-Skjellerup (G-S) on July 10, 1992. The observed slope of the ion density profile on approach to the comet is unexpectedly steep. Possible explanations for this are discussed. We present also a preliminary investigation of the quasilinear velocity-space diffusion of the implanted heavy ion population at G-S using a transport equation including souce, convection, adiabatic compression, and velocity diffusion terms. Resulting distributions are anisotropic, in agreement with observations. We consider theoretically the waves that may be generated by the diffusion process for the observed solar wind conditions. At initial ion injections, waves are generated at omega approximately Omega(sub i) the ion gyrofrequency, and lower frequencies are predicted for diffusion toward a bispherical shell.

Huddleston, D. E.; Coates, A. J.; Johnstone, A. D.; Neubauer, Fritz M.

1993-01-01

377

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rate coefficients for photorecombination (PR) and cross sections for electron-impact ionization (EII) of Fe14+, forming Fe13+ and Fe15+, respectively, have been measured by employing the electron-ion merged-beams technique at a heavy-ion storage ring. Rate coefficients for PR and EII of Fe14+ ions in a plasma are derived from the experimental measurements. Simple parametrizations of the experimentally derived plasma rate coefficients are provided for use in the modeling of photoionized and collisionally ionized plasmas. In the temperature ranges where Fe14+ is expected to form in such plasmas, the latest theoretical rate coefficients of Altun et al. [Astron. Astrophys. 474, 1051 (2007), 10.1051/0004-6361:20078238] for PR and of Dere [Astron. Astrophys. 466, 771 (2007), 10.1051/0004-6361:20066728] for EII agree with the experimental results to within the experimental uncertainties. Common features in the PR and EII resonance structures are identified and discussed.

Bernhardt, D.; Becker, A.; Grieser, M.; Hahn, M.; Krantz, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Novotný, O.; Repnow, R.; Savin, D. W.; Spruck, K.; Wolf, A.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.

2014-07-01

378

Determination of the volumes of acute cerebral infarct in the magnetic resonance imaging harbors prognostic values. However, semiautomatic method of segmentation is time-consuming and with high interrater variability. Using diffusion weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient map from patients with acute infarction in 10 days, we aimed to develop a fully automatic algorithm to measure infarct volume. It includes an unsupervised classification with fuzzy C-means clustering determination of the histographic distribution, defining self-adjusted intensity thresholds. The proposed method attained high agreement with the semiautomatic method, with similarity index 89.9 ± 6.5%, in detecting cerebral infarct lesions from 22 acute stroke patients. We demonstrated the accuracy of the proposed computer-assisted prompt segmentation method, which appeared promising to replace the laborious, time-consuming, and operator-dependent semiautomatic segmentation. PMID:24738080

Tsai, Jang-Zern; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Hsiao-Kuang; Lin, Yun-Yu; Lee, Ying-Ying; Chen, Chi-Jen; Lin, Huey-Juan; Smith, Eric Edward; Hsin, Yue-Loong

2014-01-01

379

Strong Pitch-Angle Diffusion of Ring Current Ions in Geomagnetic Storm-Associated Conditions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Do electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves cause strong pitch-angle diffusion of RC ions? This question is the primary motivation of this paper and has been affirmatively answered from the theoretical point of view. The materials that are presented in the Results section show clear evidence that strong pitch-angle diffusion takes place in the inner magnetosphere indicating an important role for the wave-particle interaction mechanism in the formation of RC ions and EMIC waves.

Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K. V.; Gallagher, D. L.; Spann, J. F.

2005-01-01

380

Development and application of physically separated references for aqueous (1)H DOSY diffusion coefficient-formula weight (D-FW) correlation analysis is reported. Commercially available biological buffers (Tris and HEPES) and a water-soluble alcohol (tert-butanol) were used as physically separated references for a Ru and a Mn complex in D(2)O. This extension of DOSY D-FW analysis expands its applicability to a wide variety of water-soluble molecules or metal complexes, with particular application to green chemistry. PMID:20481557

Li, Weibin; Kagan, Gerald; Yang, Huan; Cai, Chen; Hopson, Russell; Sweigart, Dwight A; Williard, Paul G

2010-06-18

381

A novel method for the determination of the diffusion coefficient (D) of methanol in water and olive oil has been developed. Based on multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC), the methanol released from the liquid sample of interest in a closed sample vial was determined in a stepwise fashion. A theoretical model was derived to establish the relationship between the diffusion coefficient and the GC signals from MHE-GC measurements. The results showed that the present method has an excellent precision (RSD<1%) in the linear fitting procedure and good accuracy for the diffusion coefficients of methanol in both water and olive oil, when compared with data reported in the literature. The present method is simple and practical and can be a valuable tool for the determination of the diffusion coefficient of volatile analyte(s) into food simulants from food and beverage packaging material, both in research studies and in actual applications. PMID:25678320

Zhang, Chun-Yun; Chai, Xin-Sheng

2015-03-13

382

Sensitivity coefficients to $\\alpha$-variation for fine-structure transitions in Carbon-like ions

We calculate sensitivity coefficients to $\\alpha$-variation for the fine-structure transitions (1,0) and (2,1) within $^3P_J[2s^2 2p^2]$ multiplet of the Carbon-like ions C I, N II, O III, Na VI, Mg VII, and Si IX. These transitions lie in the far infrared region and are in principle observable in astrophysics for high redshifts z~10. This makes them very promising candidates for the search for possible $\\alpha$-variation on a cosmological timescale. In such studies one of the most dangerous sources of systematic errors is associated with isotope shifts. We calculate isotope shifts with the help of relativistic mass shift operator and show that it may be significant for C I, but rapidly decreases along the isoelectronic sequence and becomes very small for Mg VII and Si IX.

Kozlov, M G; Reimers, D

2008-01-01

383

We firstly measured the swelling of single trabeculae from human femur heads during water imbibition. Since the swelling is caused by water diffusing from external surfaces to the core of the sample, by measuring the sample swelling over time, we obtained direct information about the transport of fluids through the intimate constituents of bone, where the mineralization process takes place. We developed an apparatus to measure the free expansion of the tissue during the imbibition. In particular, we measured the swelling along three natural axes (length L, width W, and thickness T) of plate-like trabeculae. For this aim, we developed a 3D analytical model of the water uptake by the sample that was performed according to Fickian transport mechanism. The results were then utilized to predict the swelling over time along the three sample directions (L, W, T) and the apparent diffusion coefficients DT, DW, and DL. PMID:24967405

Bini, Fabiano; Marinozzi, Andrea

2014-01-01

384

Mutual diffusion coefficients in the one-phase water-rich region of the phase diagram of the phenol/water system (0-10 wt% phenol) were measured using the Taylor dispersion technique, at several temperatures and mole fractions. The values range from 0.71 to 1.88 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s. In order to obtain evidence about the formation of aggregates of pseudomicelles in this system, as it is invoked in the interpretation of bulk and surface properties, correlation lengths of the concentration fluctuations have been calculated at 328 K using the diffusion data and measured viscosities. They agree with the assumption of aggregate formation in the bulk of the solution at a phenol weight fraction about 7-8 wt%. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Castillo, R.; Garza, C.; Orozco, J. [Instituto de Fisica (Mexico)

1992-02-06

385

Mathematical modelling was used to study the effect of process temperature on moisture and salt mass transfer during osmotic\\u000a dehydration (OD) of jumbo squid with 6% (w v\\u000a ?1) NaCl at 75, 85 and 95?°C. The diffusion coefficients for moisture and salt increased with temperature. Based on an Arrhenius-type\\u000a equation, activation energy values of 62.45 kJ mol?1 and 52.14 kJ mol?1 for moisture and

Elsa Uribe; Margarita Miranda; Antonio Vega-Gálvez; Issis Quispe; Rodrigo Clavería; Karina Di Scala

2011-01-01

386

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address mathematical modeling and computer simulations of phase decomposition in a multicomponent system. As opposed to binary alloys with one common diffusion parameter, our main concern is phase decomposition in real geological systems under influence of strongly different interdiffusion coefficients, as it is frequently encountered in mineral solid solutions with coupled diffusion on different sub-lattices. Our goal is to explain deviations from equilibrium element partitioning which are often observed in nature, e.g., in a cooled ternary feldspar. To this end we first adopt the standard Cahn-Hilliard model to the multicomponent diffusion problem and account for arbitrary diffusion coefficients. This is done by using Onsager's approach such that flux of each component results from the combined action of chemical potentials of all components. In a second step the generalized Cahn-Hilliard equation is solved numerically using finite-elements approach. We introduce and investigate several decomposition scenarios that may produce systematic deviations from the equilibrium element partitioning. Both ideal solutions and ternary feldspar are considered. Typically, the slowest component is initially "frozen" and the decomposition effectively takes place only for two "fast" components. At this stage the deviations from the equilibrium element partitioning are indeed observed. These deviations may became "frozen" under conditions of cooling. The final equilibration of the system occurs on a considerably slower time scale. Therefore the system may indeed remain unaccomplished at the observation point. Our approach reveals the intrinsic reasons for the specific phase separation path and rigorously describes it by direct numerical solution of the generalized Cahn-Hilliard equation.

Petrishcheva, E.; Abart, R.

2012-04-01

387

Efficient Reformulation of Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models

Efficient Reformulation of Solid-Phase Diffusion in Physics-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models, Berkeley, California 94720-8168, USA Lithium-ion batteries are typically modeled using porous electrode the active materials of porous electrodes for a pseudo-two- dimensional model for lithium-ion batteries

Subramanian, Venkat

388

Varying Coefficient Models for Modeling Diffusion Tensors Along White Matter Bundles

disorders, and the joint effects of environmental and genetic factors on white matter fiber bundles the finite sample performance of VCTF . We apply our VCTF to study potential gender differences and find the effective diffusion of water in the human brain in vivo, has been widely used to map the microstructure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimentally measured and theoretically calculated rate coefficients for the electron-ion recombination of W18+([Kr ]4d104f10) forming W17+. At low electron-ion collision energies, the merged-beam rate coefficient is dominated by strong, mutually overlapping recombination resonances. In the temperature range where the fractional abundance of W18+ is expected to peak in a fusion plasma, the experimentally derived Maxwellian recombination rate coefficient is 5 to 10 times larger than that which is currently recommended for plasma modeling. The complexity of the atomic structure of the open-4f system under study makes the theoretical calculations extremely demanding. Nevertheless, the results of the present Breit-Wigner partitioned dielectronic recombination calculations agree reasonably well with the experimental findings. This also gives confidence in the ability of the theory to generate sufficiently accurate atomic data for the plasma modeling of other complex ions.

Spruck, K.; Badnell, N. R.; Krantz, C.; Novotný, O.; Becker, A.; Bernhardt, D.; Grieser, M.; Hahn, M.; Repnow, R.; Savin, D. W.; Wolf, A.; Müller, A.; Schippers, S.

2014-09-01

390

EFFECT OF GRAIN BOUNDARIES ON DIFFUSION-CONTROLLED PROCESSES IN ALUMINUM OXIDE

Oxygen ion diffusion coefficients in single-crystal AlâOâ ; are several orders of magnitude less than aluminum ion diffusion coefficients in ; polycrystalline AlâOâ. In polycrystalline AlâOâ, oxygen ; ion diffusion is enhanced by the presence of grain boundaries as in the chloride ; ion diffusion in the alkali halides. Creep and sintering of polycrystalline Al\\/; sub 2\\/Oâ occur at a

A. E. Paladino; R. L. Coble

1963-01-01

391

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion cell experiments were conducted to measure nonsorbing solute matrix diffusion coefficients in forty-seven different volcanic rock matrix samples from eight different locations (with multiple depth intervals represented at several locations) at the Nevada Test Site. The solutes used in the experiments included bromide, iodide, pentafluorobenzoate (PFBA), and tritiated water ( 3HHO). The porosity and saturated permeability of most of the diffusion cell samples were measured to evaluate the correlation of these two variables with tracer matrix diffusion coefficients divided by the free-water diffusion coefficient ( Dm/ D*). To investigate the influence of fracture coating minerals on matrix diffusion, ten of the diffusion cells represented paired samples from the same depth interval in which one sample contained a fracture surface with mineral coatings and the other sample consisted of only pure matrix. The log of ( Dm/ D*) was found to be positively correlated with both the matrix porosity and the log of matrix permeability. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both parameters contributed significantly to the regression at the 95% confidence level. However, the log of the matrix diffusion coefficient was more highly-correlated with the log of matrix permeability than with matrix porosity, which suggests that matrix diffusion coefficients, like matrix permeabilities, have a greater dependence on the interconnectedness of matrix porosity than on the matrix porosity itself. The regression equation for the volcanic rocks was found to provide satisfactory predictions of log( Dm/ D*) for other types of rocks with similar ranges of matrix porosity and permeability as the volcanic rocks, but it did a poorer job predicting log( Dm/ D*) for rocks with lower porosities and/or permeabilities. The presence of mineral coatings on fracture walls did not appear to have a significant effect on matrix diffusion in the ten paired diffusion cell experiments.

Reimus, Paul W.; Callahan, Timothy J.; Ware, S. Doug; Haga, Marc J.; Counce, Dale A.

2007-08-01

392

Background: New imaging techniques allow a detailed visualization of the brain and the findings possibly correlate with neurophysiologic measurements and neurosensory and motor outcomes. Postnatal clinical factors known to associate with neurologic disabilities may contribute to brain abnormalities not visible to the naked eye. Objectives: We evaluated whether quantitative measurement of organized water diffusion on MR imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient

Tuula Kaukola; Marja Perhomaa; Leena Vainionpää; Uolevi Tolonen; Jukka Jauhiainen; Eija Pääkkö; Mikko Hallman

2010-01-01

393

Optimal estimates of the diffusion coefficient of a single Brownian trajectory

Modern developments in microscopy and image processing are revolutionizing areas of physics, chemistry and biology as nanoscale objects can be tracked with unprecedented accuracy. The goal of single particle tracking is to determine the interaction between the particle and its environment. The price paid for having a direct visualization of a single particle is a consequent lack of statistics. Here we address the optimal way of extracting diffusion constants from single trajectories for pure Brownian motion. It is shown that the maximum likelihood estimator is much more efficient than the commonly used least squares estimate. Furthermore we investigate the effect of disorder on the distribution of estimated diffusion constants and show that it increases the probability of observing estimates much smaller than the true (average) value.

Denis Boyer; David S. Dean; Carlos Mejía-Monasterio; Gleb Oshanin

2012-03-22

394

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite performs its radiometric calibration in the reflective solar bands (RSB) wavelength region primarily through observing the sunlight scattered from the onboard Solar Diffuser (SD). The degradation (over time) of the SD reflectance is determined by the onboard Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM). The SDSM detector relative spectral response (RSR) over the out-ofband (OOB) wavelength region leads to a non-negligible bias to the originally determined SD degradation coefficient over wavelengths from 412 nm to 488 nm. In this Proceeding, we consider the out-of-band contribution to determine the bias. Our computation shows that the bias to the degradation coefficient is larger at a shorter wavelength and increases with time. On the 564th day after launch (~ orbit 8000), at a wavelength of 412 nm, the bias (OOB-corrected - not-OOB-corrected) has a mean of -0.021, and at a wavelength of 445 nm, the bias has a mean of -0.009.

Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Fulbright, Jon; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

2013-09-01

395

In label-free biomolecular interaction analysis, a standard injection provides an injection of uniform analyte concentration. An alternative approach exploiting Taylor dispersion produces a continuous analyte titration allowing a full analyte dose response to be recorded in a single injection. The enhanced biophysical characterization that is possible with this new technique is demonstrated using a commercially available surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor. A kinetic interaction model was fitted locally to Taylor dispersion curves for estimation of the analyte diffusion coefficient in addition to affinity/kinetic constants. Statistical confidence in the measured parameters from a single Taylor dispersion injection was comparable to that obtained for global analysis of multiple standard injections. The affinity constants for multisite interactions were resolved with acceptable confidence limits. Importantly, a single analyte injection could be treated as a high-resolution real-time affinity isotherm and was demonstrated using the complex two-site interaction of warfarin with human serum albumin. In all three model interactions tested, the kinetic/affinity constants compared favorably with those obtained from standard kinetic analysis and the estimates of analyte diffusion coefficients were in good agreement with the expected values. PMID:22197422

Quinn, John G

2012-02-15

396

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive investigation is conducted to study the thermodynamics, structure, and mean free volume of rigid two-center Lennard-Jones fluids through Monte Carlo simulations. For a large number of states, the self-diffusion coefficient is computed using the following two different approaches: the equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation method and the modified Cohen-Turnbull theory. The effects of the bond elongation on different thermophysical properties are studied. The generic van der Waals theory, which has recently been extended to rigid polyatomic fluids [A. Eskandari Nasrabad and R. Laghaei, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 154505 (2006)], is used to compute the mean free volume needed in the modified Cohen-Turnbull theory. The effective site diameter is computed using the virial minimization method and the results are applied within the generic van der Waals theory. The Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulation technique is applied to determine the location of the fluid phase envelope. The NVT Monte Carlo simulation method is then utilized to compute the equation of state and the correlation functions appearing in the generic van der Waals theory. It appears that the logarithm of the mean free volume versus density is almost linear at ? >?c independent of the bond length, which suggests a universal behavior. The self diffusion coefficient results of the modified Cohen-Turnbull theory are analyzed in detail.

Nasrabad, Afshin Eskandari

2009-01-01

397

The comparison of theoretical approaches describing the collection of analyte in the cylindrical wet effluent diffusion denuder (CWEDD) with experimental data is presented. Various absorption liquids were tested for the collection of formaldehyde (distilled-deionized water, H2SO4 solution), acetaldehyde (distilled-deionized water) and nitrous acid (distilled-deionized water, sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions of various concentrations and sodium phosphate pH 6–8) in

Kamil Motyka; Pavel Mikuška; Zbyn?k Ve?e?a

2011-01-01

398

Entropy-driven phase transitions with influence of the field-dependent diffusion coefficient

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive study of phase transitions in a single-field reaction-diffusion stochastic systems with a field-dependent mobility of a power-law form and internal fluctuations. Using variational principles and mean-field theory we have shown that the noise can sustain spatial patterns and leads to phase transitions type of “order-disorder”. These phase transitions can be critical and non-critical in character. Our theoretical results are verified by computer simulations.

Kharchenko, V. O.

2009-02-01

399

Background and Purpose—The pathophysiology of hypoglycemia shares a common mechanism with cerebral ischemia, but so far, little is known regarding MRI of humans with hypoglycemia. Methods—We report a patient with left hemiparesis and dysarthria associated with a blood glucose level of 1.7 mmol\\/L. The patient recovered completely after glucose infusion. Results—The initial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) showed increased signal intensities and

J. Bottcher; A. Kunze; C. Kurrat; P. Schmidt; G. Hagemann; O. W. Witte; W. A. Kaiser

2005-01-01

400

The binary infinite dilute diffusion coefficients, D{sub 12}{sup ?}, of some alkylbenzenes (Ph-C{sub n}, from Ph-H to Ph-C{sub 12}) from 313 K to 333 K at 15 MPa in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The MD values agree well with the experimental ones, which indicate MD simulation technique is a powerful way to predict and obtain diffusion coefficients of solutes in supercritical fluids. Besides, the local structures of Ph-C{sub n}/CO{sub 2} fluids are further investigated by calculating radial distribution functions and coordination numbers. It qualitatively convinces that the first solvation shell of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2} is significantly influenced by the structure of Ph-C{sub n} solute. Meanwhile, the mean end-to-end distance, the mean radius of gyration and dihedral angle distribution are calculated to gain an insight into the structural properties of Ph-C{sub n} in scCO{sub 2}. The abnormal trends of radial distribution functions and coordination numbers can be reasonably explained in term of molecular flexibility. Moreover, the computed results of dihedral angle clarify that flexibility of long-chain Ph-C{sub n} is the result of internal rotation of C-C single bond (?{sub c-c}) in alkyl chain. It is interesting that compared with n-alkane, because of the existence of benzene ring, the flexibility of alkyl chain in Ph-C{sub n} with same carbon atom number is significantly reduced, as a result, the carbon chain dependence of diffusion behaviors for long-chain n-alkane (n ? 5) and long-chain Ph-C{sub n} (n ? 4) in scCO{sub 2} are different.

Wang, Jinyang; Zhong, Haimin; Qiu, Wenda; Chen, Liuping, E-mail: cesclp@mail.sysu.edu.cn [KLGHEI of Environment and Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)] [KLGHEI of Environment and Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Feng, Huajie [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)

2014-03-14

401

The diffusion coefficient (Dm) and material/air partition coefficient (K) are two key parameters characterizing the formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC) sorption behavior in building materials. By virtue of the sorption process in airtight chamber, this paper proposes a novel method to measure the two key parameters, as well as the convective mass transfer coefficient (hm). Compared to traditional methods, it has the following merits: (1) the K, Dm and hm can be simultaneously obtained, thus is convenient to use; (2) it is time-saving, just one sorption process in airtight chamber is required; (3) the determination of hm is based on the formaldehyde and VOC concentration data in the test chamber rather than the generally used empirical correlations obtained from the heat and mass transfer analogy, thus is more accurate and can be regarded as a significant improvement. The present method is applied to measure the three parameters by treating the experimental data in the literature, and good results are obtained, which validates the effectiveness of the method. Our new method also provides a potential pathway for measuring hm of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) by using that of VOC. PMID:23145156

Xiong, Jianyin; Huang, Shaodan; Zhang, Yinping

2012-01-01

402

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a new method to derive the Fokker-Planck coefficients defined by a non-Maxwellian velocity distribution function for the field particles is presented. The threefold integral and the new Debye cutoff parameter, which were introduced by CHANG and LI, are applied. Therefore, divergence difficulties and the customary replacement of relative velocity g by thermal velocity vth are naturally avoided. The probability function P(v,?v) for non-Maxwellian scattering is derived by the method of choosing velocity transfer ?v, which is a true measure of collision intensity, as an independent variable. The method enables the difference between small-angle scattering and small-momentum-transfer collisions of the inverse-square force to be well clarified. With the help of the probability function, the Fokker-Planck coefficients are obtained by a normal original Fokker-Planck approach. The friction and diffusion coefficients of the Fokker-Planck equation are modified for non-Maxwellian scattering and are used to investigate the relaxation processes for the weakly coupled plasma. The profiles of the relaxation rates show that the slowing down and deflection processes are weakened in the conditions of non-Maxwellian scattering.

Xiang, Jiang; Li, Ding; Cai, Huishan

2008-12-01

403

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we consider the identifiability of two coefficients a(u) and c(x) in a quasilinear elliptic partial differential equation from the observation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map. We use a linearization procedure due to Isakov (1993 Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 124 1-12) and special singular solutions to first determine a(0) and c(x) for x ? ?. Based on this partial result, we are then able to determine a(u) for u \\in {R} by an adjoint approach.

Egger, Herbert; Pietschmann, Jan-Frederik; Schlottbom, Matthias

2014-03-01

404

The primary goal of this paper is to describe a combined MR relaxation (T(2) and T(1?)), diffusion (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]), and elastography (shear stiffness) method of fully characterizing the development of tissue-engineered cartilage in terms of the changes in its composition, structure, and mechanical properties during tissue growth. Then, we may better use MR-based methodologies to noninvasively monitor and optimize the cartilage tissue engineering process without sacrificing the constructs. This process begins by demonstrating the potential capability of T(2), T(1?), ADC, and shear stiffness in characterizing a scaffold-free engineered cartilage. The results show that, in addition to the conventional T(2) and ADC, T(1?) and MRE can be used as potential biomarkers to assess the specific changes in proteoglycan content and mechanical properties of engineered cartilage during culture. Moreover, to increase the efficiency of MR characterization, two new methodologies for simultaneous acquisition of diffusion and MRE (dMRE), and T(1?) and MRE (T(1?)-MRE) are introduced that allow the simultaneous characterization of both biochemical and mechanical properties of engineered cartilage tissue. The feasibilities of dMRE and T(1?)-MRE approaches are validated on tissue-mimicking phantoms. The results show good correspondence between simultaneous acquisitions and conventional separate acquisition methods. PMID:25403876

Yin, Ziying

2014-01-01

405

Accurate values of diffusion coefficients for carbon dioxide in water and brine at reservoir conditions are essential to our understanding of transport behavior of carbon dioxide in subsurface pore space. However, the experimental data are limited to conditions at low temperatures and pressures. In this study, diffusive transfer of carbon dioxide in water at pressures up to 45 MPa and temperatures from 268 to 473 K was observed within an optical capillary cell via time-dependent Raman spectroscopy. Diffusion coefficients were estimated by the least-squares method for the measured variations in carbon dioxide concentration in the cell at various sample positions and time. At the constant pressure of 20 MPa, the measured diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide in water increase with increasing temperature from 268 to 473 K. The relationship between diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide in water [D(CO2) in m2/s] and temperature (T in K) was derived with Speedy–Angell power-law approach as: D(CO2)=D0[T/Ts-1]m where D0 = 13.942 × 10?9 m2/s, Ts = 227.0 K, and m = 1.7094. At constant temperature, diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide in water decrease with pressure increase. However, this pressure effect is rather small (within a few percent).

Lu, Wanjun; Guo, Huirong; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.; Li, Lanlan

2013-01-01

406

Combined energy and pitch angle diffusion of pickup ions at Comet Halley

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is well known that cometary pickup ions, e.g., H2O(+), OH(+), O(+), CO(+), H(+), initially form a ring-beam distribution in the solar wind reference frame, which is highly unstable to the growth of MHD waves (such as ion-cyclotron waves). The low-frequency magnetic fluctuations (or waves), which were observed upstream of Comet Halley, cannot only pitch-angle-scatter the pickup ions so that the distribution becomes at least partially isotropized, but also stochastically accelerate the ions, resulting in the energetic ion populations observed in the vicinity of Comet Halley. Here, numerical solutions of the quasi-linear diffusion equation were used to investigate the cometary ion pickup process at Comet Halley. Both pitch angle and energy diffusion are taken into account. Many quasi-linear models of cometary pickup ions exist which involve one type of diffusion or the other but not both types at once. It is found that the pitch angle scattering occurs faster than the energy diffusion, as expected. Moreover, the results demonstrate that the distribution of accelerated energetic ions is more isotropic than that of ions which have just been picked up. In fact, the ion distribution function on the initial pickup shell is quite anisotropic, even close to the Comet-Halley bow shock.

Ye, Gang; Cravens, T. E.

1991-01-01

407

OAK-B135 The gyrokinetic equations predict that various drift type waves or modes can be unstable in a tokamak. For some of these modes, such as the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the electron temperature gradient mode, there exists a critical gradient, above which the mode is unstable. Since the existence of unstable modes can cause increased transport, plasmas which are centrally heated tend to increase in temperature gradient until the modes become unstable. Under some conditions the increased transport can fix the gradient at the critical value. here they present a comparison between the measured ion temperature gradients and the critical gradient as calculated by a gyrokinetic linear stability (GKS) code. They also present the maximum linear growth rate as calculated by this code for comparison to experimentally derived transport coefficients. The results show that for low confinement mode (L-mode) discharges, the measured ion temperature gradient is significantly greater than the GKS calculated critical gradient over a large region of the plasma. This is the same region of the plasma where the ion thermal diffusivity is large. For high confinement mode (H-mode) discharges the ion temperature gradient is closer to the critical gradient, but often still greater than the critical gradient over some region. For the best H-mode discharges, the ion temperature is less than or equal to the critical gradient over the whole plasma. In general they find that the position in the plasma where the ion thermal diffusivity starts to increase rapidly is where the maximum linear growth rate is greater than the E x B shearing rate.

BAKER,DR; STAEBLER,GM; PETTY,CC; GREENFIELD,CM; LUCE,TC

2003-04-01

408

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self-consistent mode coupling theory (MCT) with microscopic inputs of equilibrium pair correlation functions is developed to analyze electrolyte dynamics. We apply the theory to calculate concentration dependence of (i) time dependent ion diffusion, (ii) intermediate scattering function of the constituent ions, and (iii) ion solvation dynamics in electrolyte solution. Brownian dynamics with implicit water molecules and molecular dynamics method with explicit water are used to check the theoretical predictions. The time dependence of ionic self-diffusion coefficient and the corresponding intermediate scattering function evaluated from our MCT approach show quantitative agreement with early experimental and present Brownian dynamic simulation results. With increasing concentration, the dispersion of electrolyte friction is found to occur at increasingly higher frequency, due to the faster relaxation of the ion atmosphere. The wave number dependence of intermediate scattering function, F(k, t), exhibits markedly different relaxation dynamics at different length scales. At small wave numbers, we find the emergence of a step-like relaxation, indicating the presence of both fast and slow time scales in the system. Such behavior allows an intriguing analogy with temperature dependent relaxation dynamics of supercooled liquids. We find that solvation dynamics of a tagged ion exhibits a power law decay at long times—the decay can also be fitted to a stretched exponential form. The emergence of the power law in solvation dynamics has been tested by carrying out long Brownian dynamics simulations with varying ionic concentrations. The solvation time correlation and ion-ion intermediate scattering function indeed exhibit highly interesting, non-trivial dynamical behavior at intermediate to longer times that require further experimental and theoretical studies.

Roy, Susmita; Yashonath, Subramanian; Bagchi, Biman

2015-03-01

409

A self-consistent mode coupling theory (MCT) with microscopic inputs of equilibrium pair correlation functions is developed to analyze electrolyte dynamics. We apply the theory to calculate concentration dependence of (i) time dependent ion diffusion, (ii) intermediate scattering function of the constituent ions, and (iii) ion solvation dynamics in electrolyte solution. Brownian dynamics with implicit water molecules and molecular dynamics method with explicit water are used to check the theoretical predictions. The time dependence of ionic self-diffusion coefficient and the corresponding intermediate scattering function evaluated from our MCT approach show quantitative agreement with early experimental and present Brownian dynamic simulation results. With increasing concentration, the dispersion of electrolyte friction is found to occur at increasingly higher frequency, due to the faster relaxation of the ion atmosphere. The wave number dependence of intermediate scattering function, F(k, t), exhibits markedly different relaxation dynamics at different length scales. At small wave numbers, we find the emergence of a step-like relaxation, indicating the presence of both fast and slow time scales in the system. Such behavior allows an intriguing analogy with temperature dependent relaxation dynamics of supercooled liquids. We find that solvation dynamics of a tagged ion exhibits a power law decay at long times-the decay can also be fitted to a stretched exponential form. The emergence of the power law in solvation dynamics has been tested by carrying out long Brownian dynamics simulations with varying ionic concentrations. The solvation time correlation and ion-ion intermediate scattering function indeed exhibit highly interesting, non-trivial dynamical behavior at intermediate to longer times that require further experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:25833591

Roy, Susmita; Yashonath, Subramanian; Bagchi, Biman

2015-03-28

410

Kubelka–Munk (K-M) theory is a phenomenological light transport theory that provides analytical expressions for reflectance and transmittance of diffusive substrates such as tissues. Many authors have derived relations between coefficients of K-M theory and that of the more fundamental radiative transfer equations. These relations are valid only in diffusive light transport regime where scattering dominates over absorption. They also fail near boundaries where incident beams are not diffusive. By measuring total transmittance and total reflectance of tissue phantoms with varying optical parameters, we have obtained empirical relations between K-M coefficients and the radiative transport coefficients for integrating sphere-based spectrophotometers that use uniform, nondiffusive incident beams. Our empirical relations show that the K-M scattering coefficients depend only on reduced scattering coefficient (?'s), whereas the K-M absorption coefficient depends on both absorption (?a ) and reduced scattering (?s' ) coefficients of radiative transfer theory. We have shown that these empirical relations are valid in both the diffusive and nondiffusive regimes and can predict total reflectance within an error of 10%. They also can be used to solve the inverse problem of obtaining multiple optical parameters such as chromophore concentration and tissue thickness from the measured reflectance spectra with a maximum accuracy of 90% to 95%. PMID:23214177

Roy, Arindam; Ramasubramaniam, Rajagopal; Gaonkar, Harshavardhan A

2012-11-01

411

Origin of diffuse superthermal ions at quasi-parallel supercritical collisionless shocks

The acceleration of upstream energetic ions is studied via self-consistent large-scale 1D hybrid simulations of quasi-parallel shocks. A certain part of the incident ions is accelerated and constitute diffuse upstream particles, which are subject to further scattering in upstream magnetosonic waves of their own making. The ratio of diffuse upstream particles to solar wind particles decreases slightly with increasing shock

H. Kucharek; M. Scholer

1991-01-01

412

MOLECULARPHYSICS,1986, VoL. 57, No. 6, 1105-1137 Ion diffusion at charged interfaces

-Poisson-Boltzmann (SPB) approximation for describ- ing ion diffusion in non-uniform electrolytes. The many diffusion in non- uniform electrolytes. 1. INTRODUCTION The electric double layer, consisting of an ionic and Torrie [3]. Although of considerable importance, the dynamic properties of the double layer have received

Chan, Derek Y C

413

Effect of fluorine on the diffusion of boron in ion implanted Si Daniel F. Downeya)

Effect of fluorine on the diffusion of boron in ion implanted Si Daniel F. Downeya) and Judy W to investigate the effects of the fluorine in BF2 implants on transient enhanced diffusion TED . By using the chemical effect of the fluorine on the TED of the B in the regrown Si to be studied independent

Florida, University of

414

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified procedure is presented for determining water current velocities and diffusion coefficients. Dye drops which form dye patches in the receiving water are made from an aircraft. The changes in position and size of the patches are recorded from two flights over the area. The simplified data processing procedure requires only that the ground coordinates about the dye patches be determined at the time of each flight. With an automatic recording coordinatograph for measuring coordinates and a computer for processing the data, this technique provides a practical method of determining circulation patterns and mixing characteristics of large aquatic systems. This information is useful in assessing the environmental impact of waste water discharges and for industrial plant siting.

James, W. P.

1971-01-01

415

A new approach to group classification problems and more general investigations on transformational properties of classes\\u000a of differential equations is proposed. It is based on mappings between classes of differential equations, generated by families\\u000a of point transformations. A class of variable coefficient (1+1)-dimensional semilinear reaction–diffusion equations of the\\u000a general form f(x)u\\u000a \\u000a t\\u000a =(g(x)u\\u000a \\u000a x\\u000a )\\u000a x\\u000a +h(x)u\\u000a \\u000a m\\u000a (m?0,1) is studied

O. O. Vaneeva; R. O. Popovych; C. Sophocleous

2009-01-01

416

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the Soret (ST), diffusion (D), and thermal diffusion (DT) coefficients of the three binary benchmark mixtures of dodecane (C12), isobutylbenzene, and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene at T = 25°C for at least five different concentrations each, covering the entire binary composition range. The two different optical techniques employed, optical beam deflection and optical digital interferometry, are in good to excellent agreement. Additionally, we have carefully measured the optical contrast factors (?n/?c)p, T and (?n/?T)p, c. If the temperature and composition dependence of the mixture density is taken into account, both the Lorentz-Lorenz (LL) and the Looyenga (LO) equations give reasonable predictions of (?n/?c)p, T. In case of (?n/?T)p, c, only the LO equation yields good predictions in case of constant molecular polarizabilities ?i of the pure compounds. If the apparent temperature dependence of ?i is explicitly taken into account, excellent predictions are obtained both from the LL and the LO equations.

Gebhardt, M.; Köhler, W.; Mialdun, A.; Yasnou, V.; Shevtsova, V.

2013-03-01

417

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative transfer modelling in atmosphere, water, and on the air-water surface was used to create an algorithm and computer code for satellite monitoring Chinese estuarine and coastal waters. The atmospheric part of the algorithm is based on the Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance (REST) model for calculation of optical properties of the atmosphere from the top of the atmosphere to the target; for modelling optical properties from target towards satellite's sensor, an optical reciprocity principle has been used. An algorithm uses estimates derived from three different sources: 1) the MODIS-based software; 2) radiative transfer equations, and 3) well-known empirical relationships between measured parameters and optical depths and transmittances for such atmospheric components as molecules, aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, precipitable water vapor and uniformly mixed gases. Using this model allowed us to derive a reliable relationship relating an important parameter, the diffuse-to-global solar incoming irradiance ratio, to the aerosol optical thickness, solar zenith angle and wavelength. The surface and underwater parts of the algorithm contained theoretical and semi-empirical relationships between inherent (such as absorption, scattering and backscattering coefficients) and apparent (remote-sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd) optical properties, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measured in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal area. The first false colour maps of SSC and Kd demonstrated a well accordance with the multi-year field observations in the region, and suggest promise for use of this algorithm for the regular monitoring of Chinese and worldwide natural waters.

Sokoletsky, Leonid; Yang, Xianping; Shen, Fang

2014-11-01

418

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the fluxgate magnetometer data from Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) of the compressional component of the geomagnetic field in the ˜1 mHz to ˜8 mHz range. We conclude that magnetic wave power is generally higher in the noon sector for quiet times with no significant difference between the dawn, dusk, and the midnight sectors. However, during high Kp activity, the noon sector is not necessarily dominant anymore. The magnetic PSDs have a very distinct dependence on Kp. In addition, the PSDs appear to have a weak dependence on McIlwain parameter L with power slightly increasing as L increases. The magnetic wave PSDs are used along with the Fei et al. (2006) formulation to compute DLLB[CRRES] as a function of L and Kp. The L dependence of DLLB[CRRES] is systematically studied and is shown to depend on Kp. More significantly, we conclude that DLLEis the dominant term driving radial diffusion, typically exceeding DLLB by 1-2 orders of magnitude.

Ali, Ashar F.; Elkington, Scot R.; Tu, Weichao; Ozeke, Louis G.; Chan, Anthony A.; Friedel, Reiner H. W.

2015-02-01

419

The time course of changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and signal intensity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW MR) imaging in acute ischemic stroke is a very dynamic event. There is an initial reduction in ADCs with no change on T2-W imaging but signal intensity increase on T2-weighted takes place about 6-12 hours after onset of stroke. As necrosis begins to set in, there is a gradual reversal of ADC change, and around 3-10 days post-onset, ADC pseudonormalizes. Twenty-four patients of acute stroke underwent diffusion MR imaging in addition to conventional T1W, T2W, and Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) sequence performed within 12 hours, at 30 days, and at 90 days. The mean signal intensity at b = 0 s/mm2 and at b = 1000 s/mm2 were significantly higher than control values for all time periods. The ratio of signal intensity at b = 0 (rSI b=0) significantly increased from 1.63 +/- 0.20 in the acute stage to 2.19 +/- 0.24 in the chronic stage (P < 0.001). The ratio of signal intensity on DWI (r SIDWI) decreased from 2.54 +/- 0.46 to 1.54 +/- 0.22. The mean ADC in the lesion was found to be 41% lower than the mean ADC in the contralateral hemisphere .Linear regression analysis between rADC and log hours showed that pseudonormalization occurred at 6.61 days (P < 0.001). We conclude that the above information could be useful in the management of very early stroke. PMID:19893711

Srivastava, Ajai K; Mehrotra, Gopesh; Bhargava, Satish K; Agarwal, Sunil; Tripathi, Rajendra P

2008-10-01

420

ANALYSIS OF NITRITE IN NO2 DIFFUSION TUBES USING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

An analytical method was developed for the analysis of the NO2 collected by a passive diffusion controlled atmospheric sampling device. The method measured the total amount of nitrite ion using ion chromatography. The precision obtained under field conditions, defined as twice th...